WorldWideScience

Sample records for onsite energy yield

  1. On-site energy consumption at softwood sawmills in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Total on-site energy requirements for wood product manufacturing are generally not well understood or publicly available, particularly at subregional scales, such as the state level. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in Montana to develop a profile of all on-site energy consumption. Energy use is delineated by fuel type on a production basis...

  2. Onsite assessments for the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    For Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, compliance with DOE Order 5480.11 became a requirement in January 1989. One of the requirements of this Order is that personal external dosimetry programs be accredited under the Department of Energy's Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) in Personnel Dosimetry. The accreditation process, from the facility's perspective, is two-fold: dosimeters must meet performance criteria in radiation categories appropriate for each facility, and personnel administering and carrying out the program must demonstrate good operating practices. The DOELAP onsite assessment is designed to provide an independent evaluation of the latter

  3. Economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1983-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems (OS/IES) in residential and commercial buildings is examined. The analysis is carried out for three different buildings with each building assumed to be at three geographic locations spanning a range of climatic conditions. Numerous design options and operating strategies are evaluated and two economic criteria are used to measure economic performance. In general the results show that fuel cell OS/IES's are competitive in most regions of the country if the OS/IES is properly designed. The preferred design is grid connected, makes effective use of the fuel cell's thermal output, and has a fuel cell powerplant sized for the building's base electrical load.

  4. On-site energy consumption and selected emissions at softwood sawmills in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Presently there is a lack of information describing US southwestern energy consumption and emissions generated from the sawmilling industry. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in the states of Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico to develop a profile of on-site energy consumption and selected emissions for the industry. Energy consumption is...

  5. On-Site Renewable Energy and Green Buildings: A System-Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Sami G; Bilec, Melissa M

    2016-05-03

    Adopting a green building rating system (GBRSs) that strongly considers use of renewable energy can have important environmental consequences, particularly in developing countries. In this paper, we studied on-site renewable energy and GBRSs at the system level to explore potential benefits and challenges. While we have focused on GBRSs, the findings can offer additional insight for renewable incentives across sectors. An energy model was built for 25 sites to compute the potential solar and wind power production on-site and available within the building footprint and regional climate. A life-cycle approach and cost analysis were then completed to analyze the environmental and economic impacts. Environmental impacts of renewable energy varied dramatically between sites, in some cases, the environmental benefits were limited despite the significant economic burden of those renewable systems on-site and vice versa. Our recommendation for GBRSs, and broader policies and regulations, is to require buildings with higher environmental impacts to achieve higher levels of energy performance and on-site renewable energy utilization, instead of fixed percentages.

  6. Emissions, energy return and economics from utilizing forest residues for thermal energy compared to onsite pile burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Jones; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; Woodam Chung; Susan Hummel

    2010-01-01

    The emissions from delivering and burning forest treatment residue biomass in a boiler for thermal energy were compared with onsite disposal by pile-burning and using fossil fuels for the equivalent energy. Using biomass for thermal energy reduced carbon dioxide emissions on average by 39 percent and particulate matter emissions by 89 percent for boilers with emission...

  7. On-Site or Off-Site Renewable Energy Supply Options?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a Net Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) encompasses two options of supplying renewable energy, which can offset energy use of a building, in particular on-site or off-site renewable energy supply. Currently, the on-site options are much more popular than the off-site; however, taking...... into consideration the limited area of roof and/or façade, primarily in the dense city areas, the Danish weather conditions, the growing interest and number of wind turbine co-ops, the off-site renewable energy supply options could become a meaningful solution for reaching ‘zero’ energy goal in the Danish context...... five technologies, i.e., two on-site options: (1) photovoltaic, (2) micro combined heat and power, and three off-site options: (1) off-site windmill, (2) share of a windmill farm and (3) purchase of green energy from the 100% renewable utility grid. The results indicate that in case of the on...

  8. Will energy crop yields meet expectations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, Stephanie Y.; Malins, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Expectations are high for energy crops. Government policies in the United States and Europe are increasingly supporting biofuel and heat and power from cellulose, and biomass is touted as a partial solution to energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation. Here, we review the literature for yields of 5 major potential energy crops: Miscanthus spp., Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Populus spp. (poplar), Salix spp. (willow), and Eucalyptus spp. Very high yields have been achieved for each of these types of energy crops, up to 40 t ha −1  y −1 in small, intensively managed trials. But yields are significantly lower in semi-commercial scale trials, due to biomass losses with drying, harvesting inefficiency under real world conditions, and edge effects in small plots. To avoid competition with food, energy crops should be grown on non-agricultural land, which also lowers yields. While there is potential for yield improvement for each of these crops through further research and breeding programs, for several reasons the rate of yield increase is likely to be slower than historically has been achieved for cereals; these include relatively low investment, long breeding periods, low yield response of perennial grasses to fertilizer, and inapplicability of manipulating the harvest index. Miscanthus × giganteus faces particular challenges as it is a sterile hybrid. Moderate and realistic expectations for the current and future performance of energy crops are vital to understanding the likely cost and the potential of large-scale production. - Highlights: • This review covers Miscanthus, switchgrass, poplar, willow, and Eucalyptus. • High yields of energy crops are typically from small experimental plots. • Field scale yields are lower due to real world harvesting losses and edge effects. • The potential for yield improvement of energy crops is relatively limited. • Expectations must be realistic for successful policies and commercial production

  9. The energy yield of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Ph.B.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, a comparison is made between the energy produced in a nuclear cycle in a light-water reactor without recycling of plutonium or uranium on the one hand and the energy stored into the system to realize this energy production on the other. Only empirical data are used, which means that some energy costs are omitted because no empirical data were available (e.g. energy needed to waste processing and waste disposal). The following steps are taken into account: production and processing of ores, conversion and enrichment of fuels, construction and shutdown of the reactor itself. (Auth.)

  10. Reducing Demand Charges and Onsite Generation Variability Using Behind-the-Meter Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu P.; Myers, Kurt S.; Bush, Jason W.

    2017-04-01

    Electric utilities in the United States are increasingly employing demand charges and/or real-time pricing. This directive is bringing potential opportunities in deploying behindthe-meter energy storage (BMES) systems for various grid functionalities. This study quantifies techno-economic benefits of BMES in reducing demand charge and smoothing load/generation intermittencies, and determines how those benefits vary with onsite distributed photovoltaic. We proposed a two-stage control algorithm, whereby the first stage proactively determines costoptimal BMES configuration for reducing peak-demands and demand charges, and the second stage adaptively compensates intermittent generations and short load spikes that may otherwise increase the demand charges. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated through a 24 hours time sweep simulation performed using data from smart microgrid testbed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The simulation results demonstrated that this research provides a simple but effective solution for peak shaving, demand charge reductions, and smoothing onsite PV variability.

  11. Analysis of a fuel cell on-site integrated energy system for a residential complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, S. N.; Maag, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    The energy use and costs of the on-site integrated energy system (OS/IES) which provides electric power from an on-site power plant and recovers heat that would normally be rejected to the environment is compared to a conventional system purchasing electricity from a utility and a phosphoric acid fuel cell powered system. The analysis showed that for a 500-unit apartment complex a fuel OS/IES would be about 10% more energy conservative in terms of total coal consumption than a diesel OS/IES system or a conventional system. The fuel cell OS/IES capital costs could be 30 to 55% greater than the diesel OS/IES capital costs for the same life cycle costs. The life cycle cost of a fuel cell OS/IES would be lower than that for a conventional system as long as the cost of electricity is greater than $0.05 to $0.065/kWh. An analysis of several parametric combinations of fuel cell power plant and state-of-art energy recovery systems and annual fuel requirement calculations for four locations were made. It was shown that OS/IES component choices are a major factor in fuel consumption, with the least efficient system using 25% more fuel than the most efficient. Central air conditioning and heat pumps result in minimum fuel consumption while individual air conditioning units increase it, and in general the fuel cell of highest electrical efficiency has the lowest fuel consumption.

  12. Onsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the onsite transportation of hazardous material at the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A and provides the technical basis for the emergency classification and response procedures. A distinction is made between onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness and onsite for the purpose of applying US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness is considered to be within the physical boundary of the entire Hanford Site. Onsite for the purpose of applying DOT regulations is north of the Wye Barricade

  13. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Stadler, Michael; Aki, Hirohisa; Firestone, Ryan; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-01-01

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies

  14. Local sharing of cogeneration energy through individually prioritized controls for increased on-site energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Janne; Kayo, Genku; Hasan, Ala; Sirén, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sharing of surplus heat and electricity produced by CHP plants in different types of buildings. • Individually prioritized control of CHP plants with direct local sharing and minimal storage capacity. • Energy sharing reduced primary energy consumption by 1–9% with biogas. • Excess energy minimized by thermal tracking. - Abstract: All over the world, including Japan, there are targets to decrease building energy consumption and increase renewable energy utilization. Combined heat and power (CHP) plants increase energy efficiency and are becoming popular in Japan. CHP plants produce both heat and power simultaneously, but there is not always a need for both. A cluster of several different buildings can increase total efficiency and reduce primary energy (PE) consumption by sharing excess heat and electricity between neighboring buildings. If the generated energy comes from renewable sources, energy sharing makes it easier to reach the net zero energy balance. By adjusting CHP sizes and operation patterns, the wasted heat and primary energy consumption can be minimized. Energy sharing has been explored in situations with identical buildings and centrally administered energy systems before, but not with different building types with separate systems. In this study, a cluster of Japanese office and residential buildings were combined to allow heat and electricity sharing based on cogeneration, using individually prioritized control (IPC) systems. TRNSYS simulation was used to match energy generation with pregenerated demand profiles. Absorption cooling was utilized to increase the benefits of local heat generation. Different CHP operation modes and plant sizes were tested. The benefit of surplus energy sharing depends on the CHP capacities and the fuel type. When using biogas, larger CHP plants provided lower total primary energy consumption, in the most extreme case lowering it by 71%, compared to the conventional case. Using natural gas

  15. Forest treatment residues for thermal energy compared with disposal by onsite burning: Emissions and energy return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Jones; Dan Loeffler; David Calkin; Woodam Chung

    2010-01-01

    Mill residues from forest industries are the source for most of the current wood-based energy in the US, approximately 2.1% of the nation's energy use in 2007. Forest residues from silvicultural treatments, which include limbs, tops, and small non-commercial trees removed for various forest management objectives, represent an additional source of woody biomass for...

  16. Lessons learned -- a comparison of the proposed on-site waste management facilities at the various Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocco, J.; Singh, D.; Survochak, S.; Elo, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy Sites (DOE) are faced with the challenge of managing several categories of waste generated from past or future cleanup activities, such as 11(e)2 byproduct material, low-level radioactive (LL), low-level radioactive mixed (LLM), transuranic (TRU), high level radioactive (HL), and hazardous waste (HW). DOE must ensure safe and efficient management of these wastes while complying with all applicable federal and state laws. Proposed waste management strategies for the EM-40 Environmental Restoration (ER) program at these sites indicate that on-site disposal is becoming a viable option. For purposes of this paper, on-site disposal cells managed by the EM-40 program at Hanford, Weldon Spring, Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) and Rocky Flats were compared. Programmatic aspects and design features were evaluated to determine what comparisons can be made, and to identify benefits lessons learned that may be applicable to other sites. Based on comparative analysis, it can be concluded that the DOE EM-40 disposal cells are very unique. Stakeholders played a major role in the decision to locate the various DOE on-site disposal facilities. The disposal cells will be used to manage 11(e)2 by-product materials, LL, LLM, and/or HLW. The analysis further suggests that the design criteria are comparable. Lessons learned relative to the public involvement activities at Weldon Spring, and the design approach at Hanford should be considered when planning future on-site disposal facilities at DOE sites. Further, a detailed analysis of progress made at Hanford should be evaluated for application at sites such as Rocky Flats that are currently planning on-site disposal facilities

  17. PV (photovoltaics) performance evaluation and simulation-based energy yield prediction for tropical buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, Esmail M.; Lee, Siew Eang; Manthapuri, Sumanth; Yi, Wang; Deb, Chirag

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution and climate change increased the importance of renewable energy resources like solar energy in the last decades. Rack-mounted PhotoVoltaics (PV) and Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics (BIPV) are the most common photovoltaic systems which convert incident solar radiation on façade or surrounding area to electricity. In this paper the performance of different solar cell types is evaluated for the tropical weather of Singapore. As a case study, on-site measured data of PV systems implemented in a zero energy building in Singapore, is analyzed. Different types of PV systems (silicon wafer and thin film) have been installed on rooftop, façade, car park shelter, railing and etc. The impact of different solar cell generations, arrays environmental conditions (no shading, dappled shading, full shading), orientation (South, North, East or West facing) and inclination (between PV module and horizontal direction) is investigated on performance of modules. In the second stage of research, the whole PV systems in the case study are simulated in EnergyPlus energy simulation software with several PV performance models including Simple, Equivalent one-diode and Sandia. The predicted results by different models are compared with measured data and the validated model is used to provide simulation-based energy yield predictions for wide ranges of scenarios. It has been concluded that orientation of low-slope rooftop PV has negligible impact on annual energy yield but in case of PV external sunshade, east façade and panel slope of 30–40° are the most suitable location and inclination. - Highlights: • Characteristics of PV systems in tropics are analyzed in depth. • The ambiguity toward amorphous panel energy yield in tropics is discussed. • Equivalent-one diode and Sandia models can fairly predict the energy yield. • A general guideline is provided to estimate the energy yield of PV systems in tropics

  18. Hybrid model predictive control of a residential HVAC system with on-site thermal energy generation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentini, Massimo; Wall, Josh; Ma, Zhenjun; Braslavsky, Julio H.; Cooper, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive approach to managing thermal energy in residential buildings. • Solar-assisted HVAC system with on-site energy generation and storage. • Mixed logic-dynamical building model identified using experimental data. • Design and implementation of a logic-dynamical model predictive control strategy. • MPC applied to the Net-Zero Energy house winner of the Solar Decathlon China 2013. - Abstract: This paper describes the development, implementation and experimental investigation of a Hybrid Model Predictive Control (HMPC) strategy to control solar-assisted heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with on-site thermal energy generation and storage. A comprehensive approach to the thermal energy management of a residential building is presented to optimise the scheduling of the available thermal energy resources to meet a comfort objective. The system has a hybrid nature with both continuous variables and discrete, logic-driven operating modes. The proposed control strategy is organized in two hierarchical levels. At the high-level, an HMPC controller with a 24-h prediction horizon and a 1-h control step is used to select the operating mode of the HVAC system. At the low-level, each operating mode is optimised using a 1-h rolling prediction horizon with a 5-min control step. The proposed control strategy has been practically implemented on the Building Management and Control System (BMCS) of a Net Zero-Energy Solar Decathlon house. This house features a sophisticated HVAC system comprising of an air-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector and a phase change material (PCM) thermal storage integrated with the air-handling unit (AHU) of a ducted reverse-cycle heat pump system. The simulation and experimental results demonstrated the high performance achievable using an HMPC approach to optimising complex multimode HVAC systems in residential buildings, illustrating efficient selection of the appropriate operating modes

  19. Impact of Rapid On-Site Cytological Evaluation (ROSE) on the Diagnostic Yield of Transbronchial Needle Aspiration During Mediastinal Lymph Node Sampling: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Dhooria, Sahajal; Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2018-04-01

    Whether the use of rapid on-site cytologic evaluation (ROSE) increases the diagnostic yield of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) remains unclear. This article is a systematic review of studies describing the utility of ROSE in subjects undergoing TBNA. The study included a systematic review of the PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases for randomized controlled trials investigating the diagnostic yield of conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (c-TBNA) or endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-TBNA, with or without ROSE, in subjects with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Five studies (618 subjects; two EBUS-TBNA, two c-TBNA, and one both) were identified. Overall, the studies were of good quality. The pooled risk difference (95% CI) of the diagnostic yield of EBUS-TBNA and c-TBNA was 0.04 (-0.01 to 0.09) and 0.12 (-0.08 to 0.33), respectively, suggesting no added benefit with ROSE. The use of ROSE during EBUS-TBNA (but not c-TBNA) resulted in significantly fewer needle passes (mean difference [95% CI], -1.1 [-2.2 to -0.005]; P < .001). There was no difference in the procedure time during EBUS-TBNA. The complication rate was significantly lower (OR [95% CI], 0.26 [0.10 to 0.71]; P = .009) when ROSE was used during c-TBNA due to fewer additional procedures required to make a diagnosis. There was evidence of heterogeneity in the studies involving c-TBNA but not EBUS-TBNA. There was no publication bias. The use of ROSE neither improved the diagnostic yield nor reduced the procedure time during TBNA. However, the use of ROSE was associated with fewer number of needle passes during EBUS-TBNA and overall lower requirement for additional bronchoscopy procedures during TBNA to make a final diagnosis. PROSPERO; No.: CRD42017058937; URL: www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The stochastic seasonal behavior of energy commodity convenience yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirantes, Andrés García; Población, Javier; Serna, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the commodity pricing literature by consistently modeling the convenience yield with its empirically observed properties. Specifically, in this paper, we show how a four-factor model for the stochastic behavior of commodity prices, with two long- and short-term factors and two additional seasonal factors, may accommodate some of the most important empirically observed characteristics of commodity convenience yields, such as the mean reversion and stochastic seasonality. Based on this evidence, a theoretical model is presented and estimated to characterize the commodity convenience yield dynamics that are consistent with previous findings. We also show that commodity price seasonality is better estimated through convenience yields than through futures prices. - Highlights: • Energy commodity convenience yields exhibit mean reversion and stochastic seasonality. • We present a model for convenience yields accounting for their observed characteristics. • Commodity price seasonality is better estimated through convenience yields

  1. Optimal balance between energy demand and onsite energy generation for robust net zero energy buildings considering future scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotireddy, R.R.; Hoes, P.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Net-zero energy buildings have usually very low energy demand, and consequently heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are designed and controlled to meet this low energy demand. However, a number of uncertainties in the building use, operation and external conditions such as

  2. An optimization methodology for the design of renewable energy systems for residential net zero energy buildings with on-site heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Bojesen, Carsten; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2011-01-01

    The concept of net zero energy buildings (NZEB) has received increased attention throughout the last years. A well adapted and optimized design of the energy supply system is crucial for the performance of such buildings. This paper aims at developing a method for the optimal sizing of renewable...... energy supply systems for residential NZEB involving on-site production of heat and electricity in combination with electricity exchanged with the public grid. The model is based on linear programming and determines the optimal capacities for each relevant supply technology in terms of the overall system...

  3. Measurements of sputtering yields for low-energy plasma ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, M.; Yamada, M.; Suckewer, S.; Rosengaus, E.

    1979-04-01

    Sputtering yields of various wall/limiter materials of fusion devices have been extensively measured in the relevant plasma environment for low-energy light ions (E 14 cm -3 and electron temperature up to 10eV. Target materials used were C (graphite), Ti, Mo, Ta, W, and Fe (stainless steel). In order to study the dependence of the sputtering yields on the incident energy of ions, the target samples were held at negative bias voltage up to 300V. The sputtering yields were determined by a weight-loss method and by spectral line intensity measurements. The data obtained in the present experiment agree well with those previously obtained at the higher energies (E greater than or equal to 200eV) by other authors using different schemes; the present data also extend to substantially lower energies (E approx. > 30eV) than hitherto

  4. Comparison of energy and yield parameters in maize crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, S.Q.; Mirjat, M.S.; Amjad, N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine direct and indirect input energy in maize production and to investigate the efficiency of energy consumption in maize crop. Result showed that emergence percent, plant height, number of grains per cob and grain yield were the highest in deep tillage as compared to conventional and zero tillage. Total energy input and output were the highest in deep tillage with NPK at the rate 150-75-75kg/ha. The net energy gain was found the highest in deep tillage followed by conventional tillage and the lowest net energy gain in zero tillage. (author)

  5. Net energy yield from production of conventional oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Michael; Krumdieck, Susan; Bodger, Pat

    2011-01-01

    Historic profitability of bringing oil to market was profound, but most easy oil has been developed. Higher cost resources, such as tar sands and deep off-shore, are considered the best prospects for the future. Economic modelling is currently used to explore future price scenarios commensurate with delivering fuel to market. Energy policy requires modelling scenarios capturing the complexity of resource and extraction aspects as well as the economic profitability of different resources. Energy-return-on-investment (EROI) expresses the profitability of bringing energy products to the market. Net energy yield (NEY) is related to the EROI. NEY is the amount of energy less expenditures necessary to deliver a fuel to the market. This paper proposes a pattern for EROI of oil production, based on historic oil development trends. Methodology and data for EROI is not agreed upon. The proposed EROI function is explored in relation to the available data and used to attenuate the International Energy Agency (IEA) world oil production scenarios to understand the implications of future declining EROI on net energy yield. The results suggest that strategies for management and mitigation of deleterious effects of a peak in oil production are more urgent than might be suggested by analyses focussing only on gross production. - Highlights: → Brief introduction to methodological issues concerning net energy analysis. → Description of EROI function over the whole production cycle of an energy resource. → Calibration of this function to EROI data from historic oil production. → Application to determine the net energy yield from current global oil production. → Calculation of net energy yield from IEA projections of future oil production.

  6. Matching indices taking the dynamic hybrid electrical and thermal grids information into account for the decision-making of nZEB on-site renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Sunliang; Sirén, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Use dynamic hourly-based grid information (PEF/CEF/tariffs) in nZEB control. • Hourly dynamic primary energy factor, CO 2 factor and tariffs for hybrid grids. • Methodology which links the on-site matching with dynamic grid information. • Multi-objective control indicators reflects both matching and grid information. • The influence of the dynamic grid information on the energy/environment/cost. - Abstract: Future nearly-zero energy buildings (nZEBs) will be involved with the twofold problem of on-site matching and hybrid–grid interactions. Theoretically, the hybrid grids’ information is dynamic, such as primary energy factors, equivalent CO 2 emission factors, and grid tariffs. Regarding primary energy consumption, equivalent CO 2 emissions or the grid cost of the nZEB, the significance of specific aspects of the matching capability, such as on-site energy faction (OEF) and on-site energy matching (OEM), will also become dynamic and variable with respect to the evolution of the grid information. Therefore, the primary goal is to develop a methodology as a multi-objective control criterion for the nZEB energy system, which can reflect both the on-site matching capability and dynamic grid information of environmental or economic impacts. The developed methodology is to quantitatively link the dynamic grid information with the weighting factors of the weighted matching index (WMI), following the monotone relationships between the extended matching indices and grid information. The methodology is implemented in this study to control an nZEB energy system with hybrid grid connections. The results show that the developed methodology can seek an optimised balance between the objectives of maximising the matching capability and minimising the environmental/economic load

  7. Neutron emission and fragment yield in high-energy fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grudzevich, O. T.; Klinov, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    The KRIS special library of spectra and emission probabilities in the decays of 1500 nuclei excited up to energies between 150 and 250 MeV was developed for correctly taking into account the decay of highly excited nuclei appearing as fission fragments. The emission of neutrons, protons, and photons was taken into account. Neutron emission fromprimary fragments was found to have a substantial effect on the formation of yields of postneutron nuclei. The library was tested by comparing the calculated and measured yields of products originating from the fission of nuclei that was induced by high-energy protons. The method for calculating these yields was tested on the basis of experimental data on the thermal-neutroninduced fission of 235 U nuclei

  8. Economics and yields of energy plantations: Status and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenney, W.A.; Gambles, R.L.; Zsuffa, L.

    1992-01-01

    A study was carried out to: determine the factors affecting the cost of energy conversion feedstocks in short rotation intensive culture plantations of trees; determine the factors influencing biomass yield; identify interrelationships between the previous two objectives; present estimates of potential biomass yields and associated economics; and to identify gaps in the knowledge of the economics and yields of biomass production and their interrelationships. Reported costs for most aspects had a wide range. Currently, yields of 10-15 dry Mg/hectare/y are readily achievable. Using the cost and yield data, and assuming a biomass price of $40/dry Mg, a series of cash flow analyses were performed. For the low cost inputs, all scenarios were marginally profitable. For the high cost inputs, none of the scenarios were profitable. A current scenario, using figures for contract farming, was not profitable, however this system would break even with a yield of 23.3 dry Mg/hectare/y, within the range of some production clones. A future scenario using farm labour with increased productivity, product values, and machinery efficiencies yielded a profit-making situation. The addition of incentives increased profitability. There is great potential for the production of woody biomass in Canada as a feedstock for energy and other products. Continued and more intensive breeding and selection to develop high yielding stress tolerant clones, cost efficient harvesting systems, continued research into optimization of planting density, rotation length and cultural techniques, and characterization of promising clones with respect to nutrient-use efficiency, site requirements and pest/disease resistance are important areas for further work. 81 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs

  9. The Titan haze revisted: Magnetospheric energy sorces quantitative tholin yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Mcdonald, Gene D.; Sagan, Carl

    1994-01-01

    We present laboratory measurements of the radiation yields of complex organic solids produced from N2/CH4 gas mixtures containing 10 or 0.1% CH4. These tholins are thought to resemble organic aerosols produced in the atmospheres of Titan, Pluto, and Triton. The tholin yields are large compared to the total yield of gaseous products: nominally, 13 (C + N)/100 eV for Titan tholin and 2.1 (C + N)/100 eV for Triton tholin. High-energy magnetospheric electrons responsible for tholin production represents a class distinct from the plasma electrons considered in models of Titan's aiglow. Electrons with E greater than 20 keV provide an energy flux approximately 1 x 10(exp -2) erg/cm/sec, implying from our measured tholin yields a mass flux of 0.5 to 4.0 x 10(exp -14) g/sq cm/sec of tholin. (The corresponding thickness of the tholin sedimentary column accumulated over 4 Gyr on Titan's surface is 4 to 30 m). This figure is in agreement with required mass fluxes computed from recent radiative transfer and sedimentation models. If, however, theses results, derived from experiments at approximately 2 mb, are applied to lower pressure levels toward peak auroral electron energy deposition and scaled with pressure as the gas-phase organic yields, the derived tholin mass flux is at least an order of magnitude less. We attrribute this difference to the fact that tholin synthesis occurs well below the level of maximum electron energy depositon and to possible contributions to tholis from UV-derived C2-hydrocarbons. We conclude that Tita tholin, produced by magnetospheric electrons, is alone sufficient to supply at least a significant fraction of Titan's haze-a result consistent with the fact that the optical properties of Titan tholin, among all proposed material, are best at reproducing Titan's geometric albedo spectrum from near UV to mid-IR in light-scattering models.

  10. Pyramiding genes and alleles for improving energy cane biomass yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Ray [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Nagai, Chifumi [Hawaii Agriculture Research Center; Yu, Qingyi [Texas A & M AgriLife Research

    2018-03-23

    The overall goal of this project is to identify genes and gene interaction networks contributed to the extreme segregants with 30 folds biomass yield difference in sugarcane F2 populations. Towards achieving this goal, yield trials of 108 F2 extreme segregants from S. officinarum LA Purple and S. robustum MOL5829 (LM population) were carried out in two locations in three years. A yield trial of the second F2 population from S. officinarum LA Purple and S. spontaneum US56-14-4 (LU population) was installed in the summer of 2014 and the first set of yield component data was collected. For genotyping, transcriptomes from leaves and stalks of 70 extreme segregants of the LM F2 population and 119 individuals of the LU F2 populations were sequenced. The genomes of 91 F1 individuals from the LM populations are being sequenced to construct ultra-high density genetic maps for each of the two parents for both assisting the LA Purple genome assembling and for testing a hypothesis of female restitution. The genomes of 110 F2 individuals from single F1 in the LU population, a different set from the 119 F2 individuals used for transcriptome sequencing, are being sequenced for mapping genes and QTLs affecting biomass yield and for testing a hypothesis of female restitution. Gene expression analysis between extreme segregants of high and low biomass yield showed up-regulation of cellulose synthase, cellulose, and xylan synthase in high biomass yield segregants among 3,274 genes differentially expressed between the two extremes. Our transcriptome results revealed not only the increment of cell wall biosynthesis pathway is essential, but the rapid turnover of certain cell wall polymers as well as carbohydrate partitioning are also important for recycling and energy conservation during rapid cell growth in high biomass sugarcane. Seventeen differentially expressed genes in auxin, one in ethylene and one in gibberellin related signaling and biosynthesis pathways were identified, which

  11. Heat recovery subsystem and overall system integration of fuel cell on-site integrated energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The best HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) subsystem to interface with the Engelhard fuel cell system for application in commercial buildings was determined. To accomplish this objective, the effects of several system and site specific parameters on the economic feasibility of fuel cell/HVAC systems were investigated. An energy flow diagram of a fuel cell/HVAC system is shown. The fuel cell system provides electricity for an electric water chiller and for domestic electric needs. Supplemental electricity is purchased from the utility if needed. An excess of electricity generated by the fuel cell system can be sold to the utility. The fuel cell system also provides thermal energy which can be used for absorption cooling, space heating and domestic hot water. Thermal storage can be incorporated into the system. Thermal energy is also provided by an auxiliary boiler if needed to supplement the fuel cell system output. Fuel cell/HVAC systems were analyzed with the TRACE computer program.

  12. International codes and model intercomparison for intermediate energy activation yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolf, M.; Nagel, P.

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for this intercomparison came from data needs of accelerator-based waste transmutation, energy amplification and medical therapy. The aim of this exercise is to determine the degree of reliability of current nuclear reaction models and codes when calculating activation yields in the intermediate energy range up to 5000 MeV. Emphasis has been placed for a wide range of target elements ( O, Al, Fe, Co, Zr and Au). This work is mainly based on calculation of (P,xPyN) integral cross section for incident proton. A qualitative description of some of the nuclear models and code options employed is made. The systematics of graphical presentation of the results allows a quick quantitative measure of agreement or deviation. This code intercomparison highlights the fact that modeling calculations of energy activation yields may at best have uncertainties of a factor of two. The causes of such discrepancies are multi-factorial. Problems are encountered which are connected with the calculation of nuclear masses, binding energies, Q-values, shell effects, medium energy fission and Fermi break-up. (A.C.)

  13. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Guide to purchasing green power. Renewable electricity, renewable energy certificates and on-site renewable generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-09-30

    The Guide to Purchasing Green Power is intended for organizations that are considering the merits of buying green power as well as those that have decided to buy it and want help doing so. The Guide was written for a broad audience, including businesses, government agencies, universities, and all organizations wanting to diversify their energy supply and to reduce the environmental impact of their electricity use.The Guide provides an overview of green power markets and describes the necessary steps to buying green power. This section summarizes the Guide to help readers find the information they need.

  15. An on-site dosimetry audit for high-energy electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon de Prez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: External dosimetry audits are powerful quality assurance instruments for radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to implement an electron dosimetry audit based on a contemporary code of practice within the requirements for calibration laboratories performing proficiency tests. This involved the determination of suitable acceptance criteria based on thorough uncertainty analyses. Materials and methods: Subject of the audit was the determination of absorbed dose to water, Dw, and the beam quality specifier, R50,dos. Fifteen electron beams were measured in four institutes according to the Belgian-Dutch code of practice for high-energy electron beams. The expanded uncertainty (k = 2 for the Dw values was 3.6% for a Roos chamber calibrated in 60Co and 3.2% for a Roos chamber cross-calibrated against a Farmer chamber. The expanded uncertainty for the beam quality specifier, R50,dos, was 0.14 cm. The audit acceptance levels were based on the expanded uncertainties for the comparison results and estimated to be 2.4%. Results: The audit was implemented and validated successfully. All Dw audit results were satisfactory with differences in Dw values mostly smaller than 0.5% and always smaller than 1%. Except for one, differences in R50,dos were smaller than 0.2 cm and always smaller than 0.3 cm. Conclusions: An electron dosimetry audit based on absorbed dose to water and present-day requirements for calibration laboratories performing proficiency tests was successfully implemented. It proved international traceability of the participants value with an uncertainty better than 3.6% (k = 2. Keywords: Absorbed dose to water, Audit, Code of practice, Dosimetry, Electron beam, Radiation therapy

  16. Signal yields, energy resolution, and recombination fluctuations in liquid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Alsum, S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bramante, R.; Brás, P.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kamdin, K.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Palladino, K. J.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solmaz, M.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W. C.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Xu, J.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of monoenergetic electronic recoil peaks in the dark-matter-search and calibration data from the first underground science run of the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) detector. Liquid xenon charge and light yields for electronic recoil energies between 5.2 and 661.7 keV are measured, as well as the energy resolution for the LUX detector at those same energies. Additionally, there is an interpretation of existing measurements and descriptions of electron-ion recombination fluctuations in liquid xenon as limiting cases of a more general liquid xenon recombination fluctuation model. Measurements of the standard deviation of these fluctuations at monoenergetic electronic recoil peaks exhibit a linear dependence on the number of ions for energy deposits up to 661.7 keV, consistent with previous LUX measurements between 2 and 16 keV with 3H. We highlight similarities in liquid xenon recombination for electronic and nuclear recoils with a comparison of recombination fluctuations measured with low-energy calibration data.

  17. Risk assessment for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biwer, B.M.; Monette, F.A.; Chen, S.Y.

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the risk assessment performed for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Risks for the routine shipment of wastes and the impacts from potential accidental releases are analyzed for operations at the Hanford Site (Hanford) near Richland, Washington. Like other large DOE sites, Hanford conducts waste management operations for all wastes types; consequently, the impacts calculated for Hanford are expected to be greater than those for smaller sites. The risk assessment conducted for on-site transportation is intended to provide an estimate of the magnitude of the potential risk for comparison with off-site transportation risks assessed for the WM PEIS

  18. Risk assessment for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biwer, B.M.; Monette, F.A.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the risk assessment performed for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Risks for the routine shipment of wastes and the impacts from potential accidental releases are analyzed for operations at the Hanford Site (Hanford) near Richland, Washington. Like other large DOE sites, hanford conducts waste management operations for all wastes types; consequently, the impacts calculated for Hanford are expected to be greater than those for smaller sites. The risk assessment conducted for on-site transportation is intended to provide an estimate of the magnitude of the potential risk for comparison with off-site transportation risks assessed for the WM PEIS

  19. Enhanced biogas yield from energy crops with rumen anaerobic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, Jindrich; Zabranska, Jana; Dohanyos, Michal [Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Mrazek, Jakub; Strosova, Lenka; Fliegerova, Katerina [Laboratory of Anaerobic Microbiology, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, CAS, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-06-15

    Anaerobic fungi (AF) are able to degrade crop substrates with higher efficiency than commonly used anaerobic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate ways of use of rumen AF to improve biogas production from energy crops under laboratory conditions. In this study, strains of AF isolated from feces or rumen fluid of cows and deer were tested for their ability to integrate into the anaerobic bacterial ecosystem used for biogas production, in order to improve degradation of substrate polysaccharides and consequently the biogas yield. Batch culture, fed batch culture, and semicontinuous experiments have been performed using anaerobic sludge from pig slurry fermentation and different kinds of substrates (celluloses, maize, and grass silage) inoculated by different genera of AF. All experiments showed a positive effect of AF on the biogas yield and quality. AF improved the biogas production by 4-22%, depending on the substrate and AF species used. However, all the cultivation experiments indicated that rumen fungi do not show long-term survival in fermenters with digestate from pig slurry. The best results were achieved during fed batch experiment with fungal culture Anaeromyces (KF8), in which biogas production was enhanced during the whole experimental period of 140 days. This result has not been achieved in semicontinuous experiment, where increment in biogas production in fungal enriched reactor was only 4% after 42 days. (copyright 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. High yield of low-energy pions from a high-energy primary proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin, A.; Capponi, S.; De Castro, S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first measurement on the yield of pions with momentum smaller than 220 MeV/c, produced by a 300 GeV/c proton beam. The measurements, performed at the CERN super proton synchrotron using tungsten production targets of different lengths, are discussed referring to the possibility of extending to high-energy laboratories the access to fundamental research involving low-energy pions and muons

  1. Department of Energy's High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), September 15--19, 1980: An independent on-site safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The intent of this on-site safety review was to make a broad management assessment of HFBR operations, rather than conduct a detailed in-depth audit. The result of the review should only be considered as having identified trends or indications. The Team's observations and recommendations for the most part are based upon licensed reactor facility practices used to meet industry standards. These standards form the basis for many of the comments in this report. The Team believes that a uniform minimum standard of performance should be achieved in the operation of DOE reactors. In order to assure that this is accomplished, clear standards are necessary. Consistent with the past AEC and ERDA policy, the team has used the standards of the commercial nuclear power industry. It is recognized that this approach is conservative in that the HFBR reactor has a significantly greater degree of inherent safety (low pressure, temperature, power, etc.) than a licensed reactor

  2. Enhanced biogas yield from energy crops with rumen anaerobic fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, J.; Mrázek, Jakub; Štrosová, Lenka; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Zábranská, J.; Dohányos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2012), s. 343-351 ISSN 1618-0240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP503/10/P394; GA MZe QI92A286 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Anaerobic digestion * Anaerobic fungi * Biogas yield Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2012

  3. Effects of Genotype by Environment Interactions on Milk Yield, Energy Balance, and Protein Balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerda, B.; Ouweltjes, W.; Sebek, L.B.J.; Windig, J.J.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Increases in genetic merit for milk yield are associated with increases in mobilization of body reserves. This study assessed the effects of genotype by environment (GxE) interactions on milk yield and energy and protein balances. Heifers (n = 100) with high or low genetic merit for milk yield were

  4. Monte carlo calculation of energy deposition and ionization yield for high energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.E.; McDonald, J.C.; Coyne, J.J.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Recent calculations of event size spectra for neutrons use a continuous slowing down approximation model for the energy losses experienced by secondary charged particles (protons and alphas) and thus do not allow for straggling effects. Discrepancies between the calculations and experimental measurements are thought to be, in part, due to the neglect of straggling. A tractable way of including stochastics in radiation transport calculations is via the Monte Carlo method and a number of efforts directed toward simulating positive ion track structure have been initiated employing this technique. Recent results obtained with our updated and extended MOCA code for charged particle track structure are presented here. Major emphasis has been on calculating energy deposition and ionization yield spectra for recoil proton crossers since they are the most prevalent event type at high energies (>99% at 14 MeV) for small volumes. Neutron event-size spectra can be obtained from them by numerical summing and folding techniques. Data for ionization yield spectra are presented for simulated recoil protons up to 20 MeV in sites of diameters 2-1000 nm

  5. Energy yield for the production of ethanol from corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, X.; Frangi, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This article establishes the primary energy balance for making ethanol out of corn in the USA, calculated from the farm to the fuel station, following a methodology described in Chavanne and Frangi (C. R. Geoscience 339 (2007) 519-535). Raw data (direct energy and material consumption as well as their heat value and external costs) come from published papers related to this topic, technical textbooks, as well as reports from the US Departments of Agriculture and Energy. For the 2001 harvest, over the area producing more than 90% of ethanol and for the 2005 network of working refineries, 100 J of ethanol and recovery of by-products (the energy saved by the replacement of animal feed by these by-products is around 12% of the ethanol heat value) needed 86 ± 3 J of energy spending, of which more than 50 J is natural gas and 62 J is used in refineries. A third of the area of Nebraska corn must be irrigated with water pumped from underground, at an added cost of 26 ± 3 J. In 1996, the extra drying required, because of heavy rains, added 6 J. By comparison, 100 J of gasoline cost less than 25 J to be produced out of crude oil. Complementary studies of resource availability are not performed here. The largest possible reduction in energy costs can be achieved at the refinery stage, by fermenting by-products, gas residues, (from 62 J to around 12 J). The article gives also an expression for the expenditure to enable comparison between different energy systems, including everything from biomass to transport. For the ethanol case, the average cost is 130 J for 100 J of corn grain heat. (authors)

  6. Quantum yield and translational energy of hydrogen atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    erage kinetic energy of H atoms calculated from Doppler profiles was found to be ET(lab) = (50 ± 3) kJ/mol. The ... in this wavelength range H atoms are produced by ... tral hydrogen. 1,9 ... a spectral window of molecular oxygen, solar radia-.

  7. 6. Kassel symposium on energy system engineering. On-site energy generation using renewable energy sources. Proceedings 2001; 6. Kasseler Symposium: Energie-Systemtechnik. Erneuerbare Energien und rationelle Energieverwendung. Innovative Energiewandler. Tagungsband 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselitz, P. (comp.)

    2001-07-01

    The sixth Kassel symposium on energy system engineering. On-site energy generation using renewable energy sources focuses on the subject of innovative energy converter. The status and the development of generally known technologies is not only supposed to be reported on but also some conversion methods, which are currently not too well known. The changed frame conditions in the field of energy economy cause some systems, which have already been developed, to appear in a new light. The first talk of this symposium does not really discuss a method of energy conversion compared to the other talks. It rather describes a scenario that focuses on silicium as future energy carrier. Further contributions report on new, innovative concepts for electrical partial systems of wind and water power plants with variable revolution. Modern design methods for water turbines are presented with the example of hydraulic turbo-engines. Three contributions present the current status of technology and perspectives in the field of photovoltaics, thermal photovoltaics as well as new developments in the field of solarthermal systems. Talks about micro gas turbines and fuel cells discuss the use of these systems in dual purpose power plants and in the field of energy supply for houses. Information about modern steam engines and the use of Stirling engines in the field of biomass utilization complete the subject range of this symposium. (orig.) [German] Das 6. Kasseler Symposium zur Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien und rationellen Energieverwendung widmet sich dem Thema Innovative Energiewandler. Dabei soll nicht nur ueber den Stand und die Entwicklung weithin bekannter Technologien berichtet werden. Vorgestellt werden auch einige Konversionsverfahren, deren Bekanntheitsgrad heute noch gering ist. Auch lassen die veraenderten Rahmenbedingungen in der Energiewirtschaft einige im Prinzip entwickelte Systeme moeglicherweise in einem neuen Licht erscheinen. Der erste Beitrag des Symposiums setzt

  8. 78 FR 40508 - Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Mid Oregon Personnel and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... Solar Energy, Inc., Bend, Oregon; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... (AEI). AEI is engaged in activities related to the production of solar invert subcomponents. The... Solar Energy, Inc. At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the certification for...

  9. 77 FR 4368 - Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Mid Oregon Personnel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through PV Powered, Currently Known as AE Solar Energy, Inc... engaged in activities related to the production of solar invert subcomponents, including thin films processing power conversion and thermal instrumentation products and solar energy inverters. The notice was...

  10. A new energy-harvesting device system for wireless sensors, adaptable to on-site monitoring of MR damper motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Miao; Peng, Youxiang; Wang, Siqi; Fu, Jie; Choi, S B

    2014-01-01

    Under extreme service conditions in vehicle suspension systems, some defects exist in the hardening, bodying, and poor temperature stability of magnetorheological (MR) fluid. These defects can cause weak and even invalid performance in the MR fluid damper (MR damper for short). To ensure the effective validity of the practical applicability of the MR damper, one must implement an online state-monitoring sensor to monitor several performance factors, such as acceleration. In this empirical work, we propose a new energy-harvesting device system for the wireless sensor system of an MR damper. The monitoring sensor system consists of several components, such as an energy-harvesting device, energy-management circuit, and wireless sensor node. The electrical energy harvested from the kinetic energy of the MR fluid that flows within the MR damper can be automatically charged and discharged with the help of an energy-management circuit for the wireless sensor node. After verifying good performance from each component, an experimental apparatus is built to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed self-powered wireless sensor system. The measured results of pressure, temperature, and acceleration data within the MR damper clearly demonstrate the practical applicability of monitoring the operating work states of the MR damper when it is subjected to sinusoidal excitation. (technical note)

  11. The importance of on-site evaluation for placing renewable energy in the landscape: A case study of the Búrfell wind farm (Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantál Bohumil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a case study of the Búrfell wind farm project, a large wind farm proposed in the Central Highlands of Iceland, the authors attempt to provide new insights into the factors shaping subjective landscape perceptions and attitudes to renewable energy developments, and into alternative methods that may be used for their assessment. The research was based on an on-site visit and actual experience of the place, investigated using a combination of mental mapping, the technique of the semantic differential and a questionnaire survey. The results show that participants visiting a landscape and using all sensory organs in combination with mental mapping, can reveal more important information than using only ‘laboratory’ methods with static photographs. The results suggest that the perception of landscape is highly subjective. Those perceiving the landscape as more open, homogenous, industrial, unfamiliar and resilient also consider it more compatible with wind turbines. The perception of the landscape’s compatibility with wind turbines proved to be a dominant factor shaping attitudes towards the project. The acceptance of wind turbines is not, however, inconsistent with the perception of landscape as beautiful, wild and unique. Participants from more densely populated countries and countries with a developed wind energy industry were more tolerant of wind turbines in the Icelandic landscape.

  12. Determination of low-energy ion-induced electron yields from thin carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegrini, Frederic; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Wurz, Peter; Bochsler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Ion beams crossing thin carbon foils can cause electron emission from the entrance and exit surface. Thin carbon foils are used in various types of time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers to produce start pulses for TOF measurements. The yield of emitted electrons depends, among other parameters, on the energy of the incoming ion and its mass, and it has been experimentally determined for a few projectile elements. The electron emission yield is of great importance for deriving abundance ratios of elements and isotopes in space plasmas using TOF mass spectrometers. We have developed a detector for measuring ion-induced electron yields, and we have extended the electron yield measurements for oxygen to energies relevant for solar wind research. We also present first measurements of the carbon foil electron emission yield for argon and iron in the solar wind energy range

  13. Role of energy cost in the yield of cold ternary fission of Cf

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The energy costs in the cold ternary fission of 252Cf for various light charged particle emission are calculated by including Wong's correction for Coulomb potential. Energy cost is found to be higher in cold fission than in normal fission. It is found that energy cost always increases with decrease in experimental yield ...

  14. Anaerobic digestion of industrial hemp-effect of harvest time on methane energy yield per hectare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuger, E; Escobar, F; Bjoernsson, L [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Prade, T; Svensson, S -E; Englund, J -E [Department of Agriculture-Farming Systems, Technology and Product Quality, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 104, SE-230 53 Alnarp (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    There is a worldwide emphasis to increase the share of renewable transportation fuels. When using agricultural land for production of renewable transportation fuels, the energy output per hectare for different crops and transportation fuels is a crucial factor. In this study, the gross methane energy yield per hectare from anaerobic digestion of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), was determined at four different harvest times between July and October in Southern Sweden, a cold climate region. The biomass yield was determined for three years and the methane yield was determined for two years through the biochemical methane potential test. The highest biomass yield, 16 tonnes dry matter per hectare on an average, and the highest methane energy yield per hectare was achieved when the hemp was harvested in September or October, with an average gross methane energy yield of 136 {+-} 24 GJ per hectare. There was no significant difference in the specific methane yield between the harvest times; the average being 234 {+-} 35 m{sup 3} per tonne volatile solids. Biogas from hemp turned out to be a high yielding alternative to the currently dominating renewable transportation fuels produced from crops grown in Sweden: ethanol from wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. (author)

  15. Cost-benefit analysis of nZEB energy efficiency strategies with on-site photovoltaic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikas, Ergo; Kurnitski, Jarek; Thalfeldt, Martin; Koskela, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Many studies on the deployment of and investment in renewable energy (RE) technologies have focused on job creation associated with energy production at the macroeconomic level and across renewable energy technologies. We propose another perspective, the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology to attain a nearly zero-energy building (nZEB) class. The aim of this research is to investigate the costs and benefits for private and public entities when constructing nZEB or adopting nZEB policies. A quantitative research approach is taken when modelling required PV capacities, net present cash flows, subsidies, and job generation. Findings show that at current electricity tariffs and solar PV system capacities and production levels, single family houses, apartment buildings, and other building types require 0.044 €/kWh, 0.037 €/kWh, and 0.024 €/kWh, respectively, in government subsidies on energy sold back to the grid. Office buildings were profitable without the subsidy. In this study, we argue that investments in RE, specifically, PV technology, will bring in approximately 2.1 M€ of additional revenue to the Estonian government over a 20 years period as tax return overruns subsidies. However, nZEB investments are expected to become cost-optimal without subsidies, due to the increasing efficiency and decreasing costs of PV systems. - Highlights: • The paper provides a combination of approaches for PV cost-benefit analysis. • Investments in PV technology to obtain nZEB require government subsidies. • Work describes potential strategies for subsidizing or investing in PV technology. • Investments in PV technology benefit both private investors and public institutions.

  16. Isobaric yield ratios and the symmetry energy in heavy-ion reactions near the Fermi energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, M.; Chen, Z.; Kowalski, S.; Ma, Y. G.; Wada, R.; Hagel, K.; Barbui, M.; Bottosso, C.; Materna, T.; Natowitz, J. B.; Qin, L.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Sahu, P. K.; Keutgen, T.; Bonasera, A.; Wang, J.

    2010-01-01

    The relative isobaric yields of fragments produced in a series of heavy-ion-induced multifragmentation reactions have been analyzed in the framework of a modified Fisher model, primarily to determine the ratio of the symmetry energy coefficient to the temperature, a sym /T, as a function of fragment mass A. The extracted values increase from 5 to ∼16 as A increases from 9 to 37. These values have been compared to the results of calculations using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) model together with the statistical decay code gemini. The calculated ratios are in good agreement with those extracted from the experiment. In contrast, the values extracted from the ratios of the primary isobars from the AMD model calculation are ∼4 to 5 and show little variation with A. This observation indicates that the value of the symmetry energy coefficient derived from final fragment observables may be significantly different than the actual value at the time of fragment formation. The experimentally observed pairing effect is also studied within the same simulations. The Coulomb coefficient is also discussed.

  17. Comparison of biomolecule desorption yields for low and high energy primary ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamensky, I.; Hakansson, P.; Sundqvist, B.; McNeal, C.J.; MacFarlane, R.

    1982-01-01

    Ion induced desorption yields of molecular ions from samples of cesium iodide, glycylglycine, ergosterol, bleomycin and a trinucleoside diphosphate have been studied using primary beams of 54 MeV 63 Cu 9+ and 3 keV 133 Cs + . Mass analysis was performed with a time-of-flight technique. Each sample was studied with the same spectrometer for both low and high energy primary ions and without opening of the vacuum chamber in between the measurements. The results show that fast heavy ions give larger yields for all samples studied and that the yield ratios for high to low energy desorption increase with the mass of the sample molecule. (orig.)

  18. Contribution of on-site Coulomb repulsion energy to structural, electronic and magnetic properties of SrCoO3 for different space groups: first-principles study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammady Shibghatullah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of SrCoO3 in Pm3̅m and P4/mbm space groups, which are calculated by using generalized gradient approximation corrected with on-site Coulomb repulsion U and exchange energies J. The cubic lattice parameter a and local magnetic moments of Co (μCo are optimized by varying U at Co 3d site. Employing ultrasoft pseudopotential, the values of U = 8 eV and J = 0.75 eV are the best choice for Pm3̅m space group. We found the value of μCo = 2.56 μB, which is consistent with the previous results. It was also found that Co 3d, hybridized with O 2p, is the main contributor to ferromagnetic metallic properties. Besides, norm-conserving pseudopotential promotes a, which is in good agreement with experimental result. However, it is not suitable for P4/mbm space group. By using ultrasoft pseudopotential, the value of U = 3 eV (J = 0.75 is the most suitable for P4/mbm group. Ferromagnetic metallic properties, Jahn-Teller distortion, and reasonable lattice parameters have been obtained. This study shows that U has significant contribution to the calculated properties and also points out that P4/mbm space group with US-PP is suitable to describe experimental results.

  19. A comparison of various Gibbs energy dissipation correlations for predicting microbial growth yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.-S. [Laboratory of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Vojinovic, V. [Laboratory of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Patino, R. [Cinvestav-Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Km. 6 carretera antigua a Progreso, AP 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Maskow, Th. [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Microbiology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Stockar, U. von [Laboratory of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)]. E-mail: urs.vonStockar@epfl.ch

    2007-06-25

    Thermodynamic analysis may be applied in order to predict microbial growth yields roughly, based on an empirical correlation of the Gibbs energy of the overall growth reaction or Gibbs energy dissipation. Due to the well-known trade-off between high biomass yield and high Gibbs energy dissipation necessary for fast growth, an optimal range of Gibbs energy dissipation exists and it can be correlated to physical characteristics of the growth substrates. A database previously available in the literature has been extended significantly in order to test such correlations. An analysis of the relationship between biomass yield and Gibbs energy dissipation reveals that one does not need a very precise estimation of the latter to predict the former roughly. Approximating the Gibbs energy dissipation with a constant universal value of -500 kJ C-mol{sup -1} of dry biomass grown predicts many experimental growth yields nearly as well as a carefully designed, complex correlation available from the literature, even though a number of predictions are grossly out of range. A new correlation for Gibbs energy dissipation is proposed which is just as accurate as the complex literature correlation despite its dramatically simpler structure.

  20. A comparison of various Gibbs energy dissipation correlations for predicting microbial growth yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.-S.; Vojinovic, V.; Patino, R.; Maskow, Th.; Stockar, U. von

    2007-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis may be applied in order to predict microbial growth yields roughly, based on an empirical correlation of the Gibbs energy of the overall growth reaction or Gibbs energy dissipation. Due to the well-known trade-off between high biomass yield and high Gibbs energy dissipation necessary for fast growth, an optimal range of Gibbs energy dissipation exists and it can be correlated to physical characteristics of the growth substrates. A database previously available in the literature has been extended significantly in order to test such correlations. An analysis of the relationship between biomass yield and Gibbs energy dissipation reveals that one does not need a very precise estimation of the latter to predict the former roughly. Approximating the Gibbs energy dissipation with a constant universal value of -500 kJ C-mol -1 of dry biomass grown predicts many experimental growth yields nearly as well as a carefully designed, complex correlation available from the literature, even though a number of predictions are grossly out of range. A new correlation for Gibbs energy dissipation is proposed which is just as accurate as the complex literature correlation despite its dramatically simpler structure

  1. Sputtering yields of carbon based materials under high particle flux with low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K.; Nagase, A.; Dairaku, M.; Akiba, M.; Araki, M.; Okumura, Y.

    1995-04-01

    A new ion source which can produce high particle flux beams at low energies has been developed. This paper presents preliminary results on the sputtering yield of the carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFCs) measured with the new ion source. The sputtering yields of 1D and 2D CFCs, which are candidate materials for the divertor armour tiles, have been measured by the weight loss method under the hydrogen and deuterium particle fluxes of 2 ˜ 7 × 10 20/m 2 s at 50 ˜ 150 eV. Preferential sputtering of the matrix was observed on CFCs which included the matrix of 40 ˜ 60 w%. The energy dependence of the sputtering yields was weak. The sputtering yields of CFCs normally irradiated with deuterium beam were from 0.073 to 0.095, and were around three times larger than those with hydrogen beam.

  2. Sputtering yields of carbon based materials under high particle flux with low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, K.; Nagase, A.; Dairaku, M.; Akiba, M.; Araki, M.; Okumura, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A new ion source which can produce high particle flux beams at low energies has been developed. This paper presents preliminary results on the sputtering yield of the carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFCs) measured with the new ion source. The sputtering yields of 1D and 2D CFCs, which are candidate materials for the divertor armour tiles, have been measured by the weight loss method under the hydrogen and deuterium particle fluxes of 2 similar 7x10 20 /m 2 s at 50 similar 150 eV. Preferential sputtering of the matrix was observed on CFCs which included the matrix of 40 similar 60 w%. The energy dependence of the sputtering yields was weak. The sputtering yields of CFCs normally irradiated with deuterium beam were from 0.073 to 0.095, and were around three times larger than those with hydrogen beam. ((orig.))

  3. Biogas production from high-yielding energy crops in boreal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppala, M.

    2013-11-01

    In this thesis, the methane production potential of traditional and novel energy crops was evaluated in boreal conditions. The highest methane yield per hectare was achieved with maize (4 000-9 200 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}) and the second highest with brown knapweed (2 700-6 100 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}). Recently, the most feasible energy crop, grass, produced 1 200-3 600 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}. The specific methane yields of traditional and novel energy crops varied from 170-500 l kg{sup -1} volatile solid (VS). The highest specific methane yields were obtained with maize, while the novel energy crops were at a lower range. The specific methane yields decreased in the later harvest time with maize and brown knapweed, and the specific methane yield of the grasses decreased from the 1st to 2nd harvests. Maize and brown knapweed produced the highest total solid (TS) yields per hectare 13-23 tTS ha{sup -1}, which were high when compared with the TS yields of grasses (6-13 tTS ha{sup -1}). The feasibility of maize and brown knapweed in co-digestion with liquid cow manure, in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR), was evaluated. According to the CSTR runs, maize and brown knapweed are suitable feeds and have stable processes, producing the highest methane yields (organic loading rate 2 kgVS m{sup -3}d{sup -1}), with maize at 259 l kgVS{sup -1} and brown knapweed at 254 l kgVS{sup -1}. The energy balance (input/output) of the cultivation of the grasses, maize and brown knapweed was calculated in boreal conditions, and it was better when the digestate was used as a fertilizer (1.8-4.8 %) than using chemical fertilizers (3.7-16.2 %), whose production is the most energy demanding process in cultivation. In conclusion, the methane production of maize, grasses and novel energy crops can produce high methane yields and are suitable feeds for anaerobic digestion. The cultivation managements of maize and novel energy crops for

  4. Energy dependence of ion-induced sputtering yields from monoatomic solids at normal incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Yasunori; Tawara, Hiro.

    1995-03-01

    The yields of the ion-induced sputtering from monoatomic solids at normal incidence for various ion-target combinations are presented graphically as a function of the incident ion energy. In order to fill the lack of the experimental data, the sputtering yields are also calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT for some ion-target combinations. Each graph shows available experimental data points and the ACAT data, together with the sputtering yields calculated by the present empirical formula, whose parameters are determined by the best-fit to available data. (author)

  5. Systematic features of mass yield curves in low-energy fission of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagame, Yuichiro

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics of mass yield curves in fission of wide range of nuclides from pre-actinides through transactinides are reviewed and the following points are discussed. (1) Systematic trends of the mass yield distributions in low-energy proton-induced fission of actinides and in spontaneous fission of actinides are discussed in terms of weighted mean mass numbers of the light and heavy asymmetric mass yield peaks and widths of the heavy asymmetric mass yields. (2) Gross features of the two kinds of mass yield curves, symmetric and asymmetric ones, as a function of a fissioning nucleus. (3) Competition between the symmetric and asymmetric fission as a function of not only Z (proton number) but also N (neutron number) of a fissioning nucleus. (4) Experimental verification of the existence of two kinds of deformation paths in low energy fission of actinides; the first path is initiated at higher threshold energy and ends with elongated scission configuration, giving a final mass yield distribution centered around the symmetric mass division, 'symmetric fission path'. In the second path, a fissioning nucleus experiences lower threshold energy and results in more compact scission configuration, which gives a double humped mass distribution always centered around A=140 for the heavier fragment, 'asymmetric fission path'. (5) Interpretation of the 'bimodal fission' observed in the spontaneous fission of heavy actinides as the presence of the two fission paths of the ordinary asymmetric one and a strongly shell-affected symmetric path from the systematic analysis of scission configurations. (6) A dynamical fission process deduced from the analysis of the experimental mass yield curves and the correlation data of neutron multiplicity and fragment mass and total kinetic energy. (7) Prediction of the characteristics of gross properties of fission in superheavy nuclei around 280 114. (8) Characteristics of highly asymmetric fission: formation cross section as a function of

  6. Design guidelines for H-Darrieus wind turbines: Optimization of the annual energy yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchini, Alessandro; Ferrara, Giovanni; Ferrari, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposal for a new design criterion for H-Darrieus turbines based on the energy-yield maximization. • 21,600 design cases analyzed to identify the best solutions for each installation site (i.e. average wind speed). • Critical analysis of the best design choices in terms of turbine shape, dimensions, airfoils and constraints. • Notable energy increase provided by the new design approach. • Each site requires a specific turbine concept to optimize the energy yield. - Abstract: H-Darrieus wind turbines are gaining popularity in the wind energy market, particularly as they are thought to represent a suitable solution even in unconventional installation areas. To promote the diffusion of this technology, industrial manufacturers are continuously proposing new and appealing exterior solutions, coupled with tempting rated-power offers. The actual operating conditions of a rotor over a year can be, however, very different from the nominal one and strictly dependent on the features of the installation site. Based on these considerations, a turbine optimization oriented to maximize the annual energy yield, instead of the maximum power, is thought to represent a more interesting solution. With this goal in mind, 21,600 test cases of H-Darrieus rotors were compared on the basis of their energy-yield capabilities for different annual wind distributions in terms of average speed. The wind distributions were combined with the predicted performance maps of the rotors obtained with a specifically developed numerical code based on a Blade Element Momentum (BEM) approach. The influence on turbine performance of the cut-in speed was accounted for, as well as the limitations due to structural loads (i.e. maximum rotational speed and maximum wind velocity). The analysis, carried out in terms of dimensionless parameters, highlighted the aerodynamic configurations able to ensure the largest annual energy yield for each wind distribution and set of aerodynamic

  7. Neutron yield from thick lead target by the action of high-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noga, V.I.; Ranyuk, Yu.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Sorokin, P.V.

    1978-01-01

    The results are presented of studying the complete neutron yield from a lead target bombarded by high-energy electrons. Neutrons were recorded by the method of radio-active indicators. The dependence of the neutron yield on the target thickness varying from 0.2 to 8 cm was obtained at the energies of electrons of 230 and 1200 MeV. The neutron yield for the given energies with the target of 6 cm in thickness is in the range of saturation and is 0.1 +-0.03 and 0.65+-0.22 (neutr./MeV.el.), respectively. The neutron angular distributions were measured for different thicknesses of targets at the 201, 230 and 1200 MeV electrons. Within the error limits the angular distributions are isotropic. The dependence of neutron yield on the electron energy was examined for a 3 cm thick target. In the energy range of 100-1200 MeV these values are related by a linear dependence with the proportionality coefficient C=3x10 -4 (neutr./MeV.el.)

  8. Analysis of incident-energy dependence of delayed neutron yields in actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Mohamad Nasrun bin Mohd, E-mail: monasr211@gmail.com; Metorima, Kouhei, E-mail: kohei.m2420@hotmail.co.jp; Ohsawa, Takaaki, E-mail: ohsawa@mvg.biglobe.ne.jp; Hashimoto, Kengo, E-mail: kengoh@pp.iij4u.or.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kindai University, Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, 577-8502 (Japan)

    2015-04-29

    The changes of delayed neutron yields (ν{sub d}) of Actinides have been analyzed for incident energy up to 20MeV using realized data of precursor after prompt neutron emission, from semi-empirical model, and delayed neutron emission probability data (P{sub n}) to carry out a summation method. The evaluated nuclear data of the delayed neutron yields of actinide nuclides are still uncertain at the present and the cause of the energy dependence has not been fully understood. In this study, the fission yields of precursor were calculated considering the change of the fission fragment mass yield based on the superposition of fives Gaussian distribution; and the change of the prompt neutrons number associated with the incident energy dependence. Thus, the incident energy dependent behavior of delayed neutron was analyzed.The total number of delayed neutron is expressed as ν{sub d}=∑Y{sub i} • P{sub ni} in the summation method, where Y{sub i} is the mass yields of precursor i and P{sub ni} is the delayed neutron emission probability of precursor i. The value of Y{sub i} is derived from calculation of post neutron emission mass distribution using 5 Gaussian equations with the consideration of large distribution of the fission fragments. The prompt neutron emission ν{sub p} increases at higher incident-energy but there are two different models; one model says that the fission fragment mass dependence that prompt neutron emission increases uniformly regardless of the fission fragments mass; and the other says that the major increases occur at heavy fission fragments area. In this study, the changes of delayed neutron yields by the two models have been investigated.

  9. Onsite transportation of radioactive materials at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, R.

    2015-03-03

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Transportation Safety Document (TSD) defines the onsite packaging and transportation safety program at SRS and demonstrates its compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) transportation safety requirements, to include DOE Order 460.1C, DOE Order 461.2, Onsite Packaging and Transfer of Materials of National Security Interest, and 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management (Subpart B).

  10. Ethanol yield and energy potential of stems from a spectrum of sorghum biomass types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBee, G.G.; Creelman, R.A.; Miller, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    Sorghum biomass is a renewable resource that offers significant potential for energy utilization. Six sorghum cultivars, representing an array of stem types, were evaluated for ethanol yield. Ethanol production was individually obtained for both the total stem and the pith of each type by anaerobic yeast fermentation. Value of the energy contained in the rind was determined by calorimetry. The highest yield of ethanol from total stem fermentation was 3418.3 liters ha/sup -1/ produced from Rio. Fermentation of Rio pith to ethanol and combustion of the rind resulted in the highest total energy value of the cultivars. The least and greatest energy values were 6.3 and 44.3 x 10/sup 6/ kcal ha/sup -1/ for SC0056-14 and Rio, respectively. Conversion ratios of potentially fermentable carbohydrates (within the vegetative biomass) to ethanol produced, averaged 0.438 for the pith and 0.406 for total stems.

  11. Prediction of County-Level Corn Yields Using an Energy-Crop Growth Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Jeffrey A.; Dale, Robert F.; Fletcher, Jerald J.; Preckel, Paul V.

    1989-01-01

    Weather conditions significantly affect corn yields. while weather remains as the major uncontrolled variable in crop production, an understanding of the influence of weather on yields can aid in early and accurate assessment of the impact of weather and climate on crop yields and allow for timely agricultural extension advisories to help reduce farm management costs and improve marketing, decisions. Based on data for four representative countries in Indiana from 1960 to 1984 (excluding 1970 because of the disastrous southern corn leaf blight), a model was developed to estimate corn (Zea mays L.) yields as a function of several composite soil-crop-weather variables and a technology-trend marker, applied nitrogen fertilizer (N). The model was tested by predicting corn yields for 15 other counties. A daily energy-crop growth (ECG) variable in which different weights were used for the three crop-weather variables which make up the daily ECG-solar radiation intercepted by the canopy, a temperature function, and the ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration-performed better than when the ECG components were weighted equally. The summation of the weighted daily ECG over a relatively short period (36 days spanning silk) was found to provide the best index for predicting county average corn yield. Numerical estimation results indicate that the ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration (ET/PET) is much more important than the other two ECG factors in estimating county average corn yield in Indiana.

  12. Teaching the relation between solar cell efficiency and annual energy yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sark, Wilfried G J H M van

    2007-01-01

    To reach a sustainable world the use of renewable energy sources is imperative. Photovoltaics (PV) is but one of the technologies that use the power of the sun and its deployment is growing very fast. Several master programs have been developed over the world, including Utrecht University, that teach these technologies. Within the framework of a course on energy conversion technologies, we have developed a classroom problem that focuses on the difference between PV efficiency and annual yield for the two locations: the Utrecht University campus and the African Sahara desert. In spreadsheet format, students calculate annual yield, and they find a best method to do so. The exercise can be done in about three hours, and students will learn that the annual yield in the Sahara is only twice that at Utrecht University,

  13. Dependence of energy per molecule on sputtering yields with reactive gas cluster ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Noriaki; Yamada, Isao

    2010-01-01

    Gas cluster ions show dense energy deposition on a target surface, which result in the enhancement of chemical reactions. In reactive sputtering with gas cluster ions, the energy per atom or molecule plays an important role. In this study, the average cluster size (N, the number of atoms or molecules in a cluster ion) was controlled; thereby the dependences of the energy per molecule on the sputtering yields of carbon by CO 2 cluster ions and that of Si by SF 6 /Ar mixed gas cluster ions were investigated. Large CO 2 cluster ions with energy per molecule of 1 eV showed high reactive sputtering yield of an amorphous carbon film. However, these ions did not cause the formation of large craters on a graphite surface. It is possible to achieve very low damage etching by controlling the energy per molecule of reactive cluster ions. Further, in the case of SF 6 /Ar mixed cluster ions, it was found that reactive sputtering was enhanced when a small amount of SF 6 gas (∼10%) was mixed with Ar. The reactive sputtering yield of Si by one SF 6 molecule linearly increased with the energy per molecule.

  14. Biofuels from pyrolysis in perspective: trade-offs between energy yields and soil-carbon additions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Dominic; Lehmann, Johannes; Fisher, Elizabeth M; Angenent, Largus T

    2014-06-03

    Coproduction of biofuels with biochar (the carbon-rich solid formed during biomass pyrolysis) can provide carbon-negative bioenergy if the biochar is sequestered in soil, where it can improve fertility and thus simultaneously address issues of food security, soil degradation, energy production, and climate change. However, increasing biochar production entails a reduction in bioenergy obtainable per unit biomass feedstock. Quantification of this trade-off for specific biochar-biofuel pathways has been hampered by lack of an accurate-yet-simple model for predicting yields, product compositions, and energy balances from biomass slow pyrolysis. An empirical model of biomass slow pyrolysis was developed and applied to several pathways for biochar coproduction with gaseous and liquid biofuels. Here, we show that biochar production reduces liquid biofuel yield by at least 21 GJ Mg(-1) C (biofuel energy sacrificed per unit mass of biochar C), with methanol synthesis giving this lowest energy penalty. For gaseous-biofuel production, the minimum energy penalty for biochar production is 33 GJ Mg(-1) C. These substitution rates correspond to a wide range of Pareto-optimal system configurations, implying considerable latitude to choose pyrolysis conditions to optimize for desired biochar properties or to modulate energy versus biochar yields in response to fluctuating price differentials for the two commodities.

  15. A Novel Energy Yields Calculation Method for Irregular Wind Farm Layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing size of offshore wind farm, the impact of the wake effect on energy yields become more and more evident. The Seafloor topography would limit the layout of the wind farm so that irregular layout is usually adopted inlarge scale offshore wind farm. However, the calculation...

  16. Economics and yields of energy plantations: Status and potential, 1992-1993 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambles, R.L.; Kenney, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    An update is presented of a study carried out to: determine the factors affecting the cost of energy conversion feedstocks in short rotation intensive culture plantations of trees; determine the factors influencing biomass yield; identify interrelationships between the previous two objectives; present estimates of potential biomass yields and associated economics; and to identify gaps in the knowledge of the economics and yields of biomass production and their interrelationships. Developments in economics and yields in short rotation intensive silviculture for the production of biomass energy since 1991 are documented. The most substantial changes have been: the introduction of new clones in Sweden with a 20% increase in yield; illustrating the potential genetic gains achievable through selection and breeding; and halving of harvesting costs with new machinery. Harvesting costs with chipping incorporated have fallen to $51.21/dry tonne. The twin row ESM and Frobbester harvesters have lower estimated costs of $36.62 and $ 33.69 respectively. Agricultural based machines have further reduced costs to $19.42 and $26.12/dry tonne. Using these new data, three new scenarios were developed for cost of production analysis, using contract labour, farm labour or farm labour plus a subsidy. A contracted operation is now viable with an annual equivalent net value (AENV) of $35/ha. With the use of farm labour for most operations and omitting land rent, profitability increased to $127/ha. With a subsidy of $75/ha, the AENV increases to $205/ha. 25 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  17. Monte Carlo analysis of accelerator-driven systems studies on spallation neutron yield and energy gain

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemi-Nezhad, S R; Westmeier, W; Bamblevski, V P; Krivopustov, M I; Kulakov, B A; Sosnin, A N; Wan, J S; Odoj, R

    2001-01-01

    The neutron yield in the interaction of protons with lead and uranium targets has been studied using the LAHET code system. The dependence of the neutron multiplicity on target dimensions and proton energy has been calculated and the dependence of the energy amplification on the proton energy has been investigated in an accelerator-driven system of a given effective multiplication coefficient. Some of the results are compared with experimental findings and with similar calculations by the DCM/CEM code of Dubna and the FLUKA code system used in CERN. (14 refs).

  18. Potential design modifications for the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) reaction chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.R.; Monsler, M.J.; Powell, E.G.; Walker, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Generation of electric power from inertial confinement fusion requires a reaction chamber. One promising type, the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) chamber, includes a falling array of liquid lithium jets. These jets act as: (1) a renewable first wall and blanket to shield metal components from x-ray and neutron exposure, (2) a tritium breeder to replace tritium burned during the fusion process, and (3) an absorber and transfer medium for fusion energy. Over 90% of the energy produced in the reaction chamber is absorbed in the lithium jet fall. Design aspects are included

  19. Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

    2007-03-31

    Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

  20. Development of High Yield Feedstocks and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Andrew G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Crow, Susan [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); DeBeryshe, Barbara [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ha, Richard [Hamakua Springs County Farms, Hilo, HI (United States); Jakeway, Lee [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Khanal, Samir [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Nakahata, Mae [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Ogoshi, Richard [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shimizu, Erik [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stern, Ivette [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turano, Brian [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turn, Scott [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Yanagida, John [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project had two main goals. The first goal was to evaluate several high yielding tropical perennial grasses as feedstock for biofuel production, and to characterize the feedstock for compatible biofuel production systems. The second goal was to assess the integration of renewable energy systems for Hawaii. The project focused on high-yield grasses (napiergrass, energycane, sweet sorghum, and sugarcane). Field plots were established to evaluate the effects of elevation (30, 300 and 900 meters above sea level) and irrigation (50%, 75% and 100% of sugarcane plantation practice) on energy crop yields and input. The test plots were extensive monitored including: hydrologic studies to measure crop water use and losses through seepage and evapotranspiration; changes in soil carbon stock; greenhouse gas flux (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from the soil surface; and root morphology, biomass, and turnover. Results showed significant effects of environment on crop yields. In general, crop yields decrease as the elevation increased, being more pronounced for sweet sorghum and energycane than napiergrass. Also energy crop yields were higher with increased irrigation levels, being most pronounced with energycane and less so with sweet sorghum. Daylight length greatly affected sweet sorghum growth and yields. One of the energy crops (napiergrass) was harvested at different ages (2, 4, 6, and 8 months) to assess the changes in feedstock characteristics with age and potential to generate co-products. Although there was greater potential for co-products from younger feedstock, the increased production was not sufficient to offset the additional cost of harvesting multiple times per year. The feedstocks were also characterized to assess their compatibility with biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. The project objectives are being continued through additional support from the Office of Naval Research, and the Biomass Research and Development

  1. Economical analysis and relation between energy inputs and yield of greenhouse cucumber production in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Omid, Mahmoud [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran)

    2010-01-15

    This paper studies the energy balance between the input and the output per unit area for greenhouse cucumber production. For this purpose, the data on 43 cucumber production greenhouses in the Tehran province, Iran, were collected and analyzed. The results indicated that a total energy input of 148836.76 MJ ha{sup -1} was consumed for cucumber production. Diesel fuel (with 41.94%) and chemical fertilizers (with 19.69%) were amongst the highest energy inputs for cucumber production. The energy productivity was estimated as 0.80 kg MJ{sup -1}. The ratio of energy output to energy input was approximately 0.64. Results indicate 10.93% and 89.07% of total energy input was in renewable and non-renewable forms, respectively. The regression results revealed that the contribution of energy inputs on crop yield (except for fertilizers and seeds energies) was significant. The human labour energy had the highest impact (0.35) among the other inputs in greenhouse cucumber production. Econometric analysis indicated that the total cost of production for one hectare of cucumber production was around 33425.70$. Accordingly, the benefit-cost ratio was estimated as 2.58. (author)

  2. X-ray yields by low energy heavy ion excitation in alkali halide solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurup, M.B.; Prasad, K.G.; Sharma, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Solid targets of the alkali halides KCl, NaCl and KBr are bombarded with ion beams of 35 Cl + , 40 Ar + and 63 Cu + in the energy range 165 keV to 320 keV. The MO and characteristic K X-ray yields resulting from the ion-atom collision have been systematically studied. Both MO and Cl K X-ray yields are enhanced by factors 3.5 and 2 respectively in KCl targets as compared to that in NaCl when bombarded with either Cl + or Ar + projectiles. An intercomparison of MO and K X-ray yields for a given projectile-target combination has shown that the latter increases ten times faster than the former as the energy of the projectile is increased from 165 to 320 keV indicating a correspondingly stronger velocity dependence of the K X-ray production process. The X-ray yields observed in the symmetric Cl-Cl collision are identical to those observed in the asymmetric Ar-Cl collision for the same projectile velocities in both KCl and NaCl targets. It is inferred that the multiple ionization of the projectile resulting in an increase in the binding energy of its inner shells offsets the expected enhancement in the X-ray yields in a symmetric collision. The same projectiles, Ar or Cl, incident on KBr targets have produced only Br L X-rays. Using substantially heavier projectiles than the target atoms (Na, K and Cl), like 63 Cu + ions, the inner shell excitation by recoiling atoms is shown. (orig.)

  3. Dependence of Initial Oxygen Concentration on Ozone Yield Using Inductive Energy Storage System Pulsed Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Tomio; Tanaka, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Nobuyuki; Mukaigawa, Seiji; Takaki, Koichi; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    Dependence of initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield using streamer discharge reactor driven by an inductive energy storage system pulsed power generator is described in this paper. Fast recovery type diodes were employed as semiconductor opening switch to interrupt a circuit current within 100 ns. This rapid current change produced high-voltage short pulse between a secondary energy storage inductor. The repetitive high-voltage short pulse was applied to a 1 mm diameter center wire electrode placed in a cylindrical pulse corona reactor. The streamer discharge successfully occurred between the center wire electrode and an outer cylinder ground electrode of 2 cm inner diameter. The ozone was produced with the streamer discharge and increased with increasing pulse repetition rate. The ozone yield changed in proportion to initial oxygen concentration contained in the injected gas mixture at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. However, the decrease of the ozone yield by decreasing oxygen concentration in the gas mixture at 180 ns forward pumping time of the current was lower than the decrease at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. This dependence of the initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield at 180 ns forward pumping time is similar to that of dielectric barrier discharge reactor.

  4. High yield antibiotic producing mutants of Streptomyces erythreus induced by low energy ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Zhixin, Lin; Zuyao, Zou; Feng, Zhang; Duo, Liu; Xianghuai, Liu; Jianzhong, Tang; Weimin, Zhu; Bo, Huang

    1998-05-01

    Conidia of Streptomyces erythreus, an industrial microbe, were implanted by nitrogen ions with energy of 40-60 keV and fluence from 1 × 10 11 to 5 × 10 14 ions/cm 2. The logarithm value of survival fraction had good linear relationship with the logarithm value of fluence. Some mutants with a high yield of erythromycin were induced by ion implantation. The yield increment was correlated with the implantation fluence. Compared with the mutation results induced by ultraviolet rays, mutation effects of ion implantation were obvious having higher increasing erythromycin potency and wider mutation spectrum. The spores of Bacillus subtilis were implanted by arsenic ions with energy of 100 keV. The distribution of implanted ions was measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and calculated in theory. The mechanism of mutation induced by ion implantation was discussed.

  5. Model of yield response of corn to plant population and absorption of solar energy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen R Overman

    Full Text Available Biomass yield of agronomic crops is influenced by a number of factors, including crop species, soil type, applied nutrients, water availability, and plant population. This article is focused on dependence of biomass yield (Mg ha(-1 and g plant(-1 on plant population (plants m(-2. Analysis includes data from the literature for three independent studies with the warm-season annual corn (Zea mays L. grown in the United States. Data are analyzed with a simple exponential mathematical model which contains two parameters, viz. Y(m (Mg ha(-1 for maximum yield at high plant population and c (m(2 plant(-1 for the population response coefficient. This analysis leads to a new parameter called characteristic plant population, x(c = 1/c (plants m(-2. The model is shown to describe the data rather well for the three field studies. In one study measurements were made of solar radiation at different positions in the plant canopy. The coefficient of absorption of solar energy was assumed to be the same as c and provided a physical basis for the exponential model. The three studies showed no definitive peak in yield with plant population, but generally exhibited asymptotic approach to maximum yield with increased plant population. Values of x(c were very similar for the three field studies with the same crop species.

  6. Remote systems requirements of the high-yield lithium injection fusion energy converter concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, P.E.

    1978-01-01

    Remote systems will be required in the high-yield lithium injection fusion energy converter power plant proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. During inspection operations, viewing of the chamber interior and certain pumps, valve fittings, and welds must be done remotely. Ideas for remote maintenance of laser-beam blast baffles, optics, and target material traps are described. Radioisotope sources, their distributions, and exposure rates at various points in the reactor vicinity are presented

  7. Remote systems requirements of the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) converter concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, P.E.

    1978-10-01

    Remote systems will be required in the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy Converter power plant proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. During inspection operations, viewing of the chamber interior and certain pumps, valve fittings and welds must be done remotely. Ideas for remote maintenance of laser beam blast baffles, optics, and target material traps are described. Radioisotope sources and their distributions, and exposure rates at various points in the reactor vicinity are presented

  8. Optimal yield value of a collector in a vacuum thermoemission energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulyga, A.V.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical expression is formulated for determining the optimal height of a potential barrier which limits electron yield from a collector across the near-collector region of the inter-electrode interval of a vacuum thermoemission energy converter. The analysis is based on the concept that thermoemission properties of the emitter are independent of changes in load resistance in which case the resistance of the conducting wires was considered to be given.

  9. Fully stripped heavy ion yield vs energy for Xe and Au ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieberger, P.; Wegner, H.E.; Alonzo, J.; Gould, H.; Anholt, R.E.; Meyerhof, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Bevalac is now capable of accelerating U-238 ions to approximately 1 GeV/amu and measurements have shown that fully stripped U-238 ions are produced with good yield at these energies. However, knowing the stripping yields at different energies for U-238 does not allow an accurate prediction for other, lower Z projectiles. Consequently, extensive stripping yield measurements were made for Au-197 and Xe-139 ions. In addition to the stripping measurements from the direct Bevalac beam, pickup measurements were also made with specially prepared bare, one electron, and two electron ions. Since many research groups are considering heavy ion storage rings and/or synchrotrons, the pickup cross section for bare ions is important to estimate beam lifetime in terms of the average machine vacuum. Since the Mylar target provides a pickup probability similar to air, a preliminary analysis of the Xe 54+ and U 92+ data are presented along with predictions for other ions ranging down to Fe 26+ . 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Fully stripped heavy ion yield vs energy for Xe and Au ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieberger, P.; Wegner, H.E.; Alonzo, J.; Gould, H.; Anholt, R.E.; Meyerhof, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Bevalac is now capable of accelerating U-238 ions to approximately 1 GeV/amu and measurements have shown that fully stripped U-238 ions are produced with good yield at these energies. However, knowing the stripping yields at different energies for U-238 does not allow an accurate prediction for other, lower Z projectiles. Consequently, extensive stripping yield measurements were made for Au-197 and Xe-139 ions. In addition to the stripping measurements from the direct Bevalac beam, pickup measurements were also made with specially prepared bare, one electron, and two electron ions. Since many research groups are considering heavy ion storage rings and/or synchrotrons, the pickup cross section for bare ions is important to estimate beam lifetime in terms of the average machine vacuum. Since the Mylar target provides a pickup probability similar to air, a preliminary analysis of the Xe/sup 54 +/ and U/sup 92 +/ data are presented along with predictions for other ions ranging down to Fe/sup 26 +/. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion-Energy (HYLIFE) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blink, J.A.; Hogam, W.J.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, E.R.; Pitts, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) concept to convent inertial confinement fusion energy into electric power has undergone intensive research and refinement at LLNL since 1978. This paper reports on the final HYLIFE design, focusing on five major areas: the HYLIFE reaction chamber (which includes neutronics, liquid-metal jet-array hydrocynamics, and structural design), supporting systems, primary steam system and balance of plant, safety and environmental protection, and costs. An annotated bibliography of reports applicable to HYLIFE is also provided. We conclude that HYLIFE is a particularly viable concept for the safe, clean production of electrical energy. The liquid-metal jet array, HYLIFE's key design feature, protects the surrounding structural components from x-rays, fusion fuel-pellet debris, neutron damage and activation, and high temperatures and stresses, allowing the structure to last for the plant's entire 30-year lifetime without being replaced. 127 refs., 18 figs

  12. Determination of the shape factor of 90Sr by means of the cutoff energy yield method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Kossert, K.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2008-01-01

    Usually, Kurie plots are used to analyze beta-spectra shape-factor functions measured by means of semiconductor and magnetic spectrometers. A drawback of these techniques is the occurrence of self-absorption within the samples through which the emission spectrum is altered. In liquid-scintillation samples self-absorption does not occur, but the poor energy resolution makes the analysis of the spectra difficult. To overcome this problem, two resolution-invariant observables are used for determining the shape-factor function of 90 Sr: (1) the maximum point energy and (2) the cutoff energy yield. The measured shape-factor function of 90 Sr agrees with the one which is predicted by theory for the first-forbidden unique transition

  13. Characteristics of persistent spin current components in a quasi-periodic Fibonacci ring with spin–orbit interactions: Prediction of spin–orbit coupling and on-site energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, Moumita; Maiti, Santanu K.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we investigate the behavior of all three components of persistent spin current in a quasi-periodic Fibonacci ring subjected to Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interactions. Analogous to persistent charge current in a conducting ring where electrons gain a Berry phase in presence of magnetic flux, spin Berry phase is associated during the motion of electrons in presence of a spin–orbit field which is responsible for the generation of spin current. The interplay between two spin–orbit fields along with quasi-periodic Fibonacci sequence on persistent spin current is described elaborately, and from our analysis, we can estimate the strength of any one of two spin–orbit couplings together with on-site energy, provided the other is known. - Highlights: • Determination of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit fields is discussed. • Characteristics of all three components of spin current are explored. • Possibility of estimating on-site energy is given. • Results can be generalized to any lattice models.

  14. Characteristics of persistent spin current components in a quasi-periodic Fibonacci ring with spin–orbit interactions: Prediction of spin–orbit coupling and on-site energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Moumita; Maiti, Santanu K., E-mail: santanu.maiti@isical.ac.in

    2016-12-15

    In the present work we investigate the behavior of all three components of persistent spin current in a quasi-periodic Fibonacci ring subjected to Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interactions. Analogous to persistent charge current in a conducting ring where electrons gain a Berry phase in presence of magnetic flux, spin Berry phase is associated during the motion of electrons in presence of a spin–orbit field which is responsible for the generation of spin current. The interplay between two spin–orbit fields along with quasi-periodic Fibonacci sequence on persistent spin current is described elaborately, and from our analysis, we can estimate the strength of any one of two spin–orbit couplings together with on-site energy, provided the other is known. - Highlights: • Determination of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit fields is discussed. • Characteristics of all three components of spin current are explored. • Possibility of estimating on-site energy is given. • Results can be generalized to any lattice models.

  15. Economics of food intake in mice: energy yield of the reinforcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Neil E; Giddings, Ashley M; Minervini, Vanessa; Robertson, Kimberly L

    2014-09-01

    One of the Zeitgeists of the field for the study of ingestive behavior is that organisms are endowed with internal self-regulatory mechanisms that ensure optimal nutrition. However, the alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity challenges us to reconsider the extent to which internal regulatory mechanisms affect food intake, especially in a free market economy. Cued by the pioneering work of George Collier and his students, we have been examining food intake (demand) in mice when the effort or price of food is manipulated. We present two new experiments in mice that investigate the effect of energy yield per unit of food earned on working for food. The first experiment shows that when the nominal energy yield of each food pellet is halved by cellulose dilution, mice show relatively inelastic calorie-related demand despite the fact the cellulose diluted diet is unpalatable. The second experiment shows that the size of the pellet reinforcer does not have a major effect on food demand except in the extreme condition of small reward and high unit price. New analyses of distributions of responding are presented which suggest that mice work for "target" numbers of food rewards with only a small influence of price or energy gain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Inverse kinematics technique for the study of fission-fragment isotopic yields at GANIL energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaune, O.

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of the fission-products distributions result of dynamical and quantum properties of the deformation process of the fissioning nucleus. These distributions have also an interest for the conception of new nuclear power plants or for the transmutation of the nuclear wastes. Up to now, our understanding of the nuclear fission remains restricted because of experimental limitations. In particular, yields of the heavy fission products are difficult to get with precision. In this work, an innovative experimental technique is presented. It is based on the use of inverse kinematics coupled to the use of a spectrometer, in which a 238 U beam at 6 or 24 A MeV impinges on light targets. Several actinides, from 238 U to 250 Cf, are produced by transfer or fusion reactions, with an excitation energy ranges from ten to few hundreds MeV depending on the reaction and the beam energy. The fission fragments of these actinides are detected by the VAMOS spectrometer or the LISE separator. The isotopic yields of fission products are completely measured for different fissioning systems. The neutron excess of the fragments is used to characterise the isotopic distributions. Its evolution with excitation energy gives important insights on the mechanisms of the compound-nucleus formation and its deexcitation. Neutron excess is also used to determine the multiplicity of neutrons evaporated by the fragments. The role of the proton and neutron shell effects into the formation of fission fragments is also discussed. (author) [fr

  17. Spectrum sensitivity, energy yield, and revenue prediction of PV and CPV modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsey, Geoffrey S., E-mail: Geoffrey.kinsey@ee.doe.gov [U.S. Department of Energy, 950 L’Enfant Plaza, Washington, DC 20024 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Impact on module performance of spectral irradiance variation has been determined for III-V multijunctions compared against the four most common flat-plate module types (cadmium telluride, multicrystalline silicon, copper indium gallium selenide, and monocrystalline silicon. Hour-by-hour representative spectra were generated using atmospheric variables for Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Convolution with published values for external quantum efficiency gave the predicted current output. When combined with specifications of commercial PV modules, energy yield and revenue were predicted. This approach provides a means for optimizing PV module design based on various site-specific temporal variables.

  18. Energy Yield Potential Estimation Using Marine Current Turbine Simulations for the Bosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazicioglu, Hasan; Tunc, K. M. Murat; Ozbek, Muammer

    2017-01-01

    . The differences in elevation and salinity ratios between these two seas cause strong underwater currents. Depending on the morphology of the canal the speed of the flow varies and at some specific locations the energy intensity reaches to sufficient levels where electricity generation by marine current turbines...... becomes economically feasible. In this study, several simulations are performed for a 10 MW marine turbine farm/ cluster whose location is selected by taking into account several factors such as the canal morphology, current speed and passage of vessels. 360 different simulations are performed for 15...... within the selected region, the analyses are performed for three different flow speeds corresponding to 10 % increase and decrease in the average value. For each simulation the annual energy yield and cluster efficiency are calculated....

  19. Thermal and electrical energy yield analysis of a directly water cooled photovoltaic module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtunzi Busiso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy of photovoltaic modules drops by 0.5% for each degree increase in temperature. Direct water cooling of photovoltaic modules was found to give improved electrical and thermal yield. A prototype was put in place to analyse the field data for a period of a year. The results showed an initial high performance ratio and electrical power output. The monthly energy saving efficiency of the directly water cooled module was found to be approximately 61%. The solar utilisation of the naturally cooled photovoltaic module was found to be 8.79% and for the directly water cooled module its solar utilisation was 47.93%. Implementation of such systems on households may reduce the load from the utility company, bring about huge savings on electricity bills and help in reducing carbon emissions.

  20. 5. Kassel symposium on energy systems engineering: On-site energy generation using renewable energy sources. Proceedings 2000; 5. Kasseler Symposium: Energie-Systemtechnik. Erneuerbare Energien- und rationelle Energieverwendung. Dezentrale Energieversorgung mit hohem regenerativen Anteil. Tagungsband 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, R. (comp.)

    2000-07-01

    The focal topic of the 5th Kassel Symposium on Energy Systems Engineering was ''Decentralised energy supply with a high share of renewable energies''. The contributions covered a wide range of issues including the potential of renewable energies, supply and operating concepts, components, systems engineering and future perspectives. [German] Das 5. Kasseler Symposium Energie-Systemtechnik legt seinen Schwerpunkt auf das Thema: 'Dezentrale Energieversorgung mit hohem regenerativem Anteil'. Es spannt hierzu einen Bogen von den Potenzialen der Erneuerbaren Energien ueber Versorgungs- und Betriebsfuehrungskonzepte sowie Komponenten und Systemtechnik bis hin zu zukuenftigen Perspektiven. (orig.)

  1. 77 FR 32628 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Environmental Onsite Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PF12-6-000] Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Environmental Onsite Review On June 13 and 14, 2012, the Office of Energy Projects (OEP) staff will conduct site visits of the proposed Line MB Loop Extension Project. The purpose of the onsite review is to review...

  2. Update of neutron dose yields as a function of energy for protons and deuterons incident on beryllium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Haken, R.K.; Awschalom, M.; Rosenberg, I.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron absorbed dose yields (absorbed dose rates per unit incident current on targets at a given SAD or SSD) increase with incident charged particle energy for both protons and deuterons. Analyses of neutron dose yield versus incident particle energy have been performed for both deuterons and protons. It is the purpose of this report to update those analyses by pooling all of the more recent published results and to reanalyze the trend of yield, Y, versus incident energy, E, which in the past has been described by an expression of the form Y = aE/sup b/, where a and b are empirical constants. From the reanalyzed trend it is concluded that for a given size cyclotron (E/sub p/ = 2E/sub d/), the dose yields using protons are higher than those using deuterons up to a proton energy E/sub p/ of 64 MeV

  3. Novel Agricultural Conservation System with Sustained Yield and Decreased Water, Nutrient, Energy, and Carbon Footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.; Shukla, S.; Holt, N.; Hendricks, G.; Sishodia, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are conventionally grown in raised bed plasticulture (RBP), a high intensity, high input, and high output production system. In 2016, the fresh market plasticulture industry covered 680,000 ha in the US, producing crops (e.g. tomato, peppers, melons, and strawberries) valued at ten billion dollars. To meet the increasing future demand for fresh fruits and vegetables and sustain the production potential of croplands, a transformation of the conventional food-water-energy nexus is essential. A novel agricultural conservation system, compact bed geometry, has been proposed to shift the paradigm in RBP, sustaining yield and decreasing inputs (e.g. water, nutrients, energy, and carbon). Compact bed geometries fit the shape of the wetting front created when water is applied through drip irrigation on the production soil, creating a taller (23-30 cm) and thinner bed (66-41 cm). Two seasons of tomato (single row) and pepper (double row) production, in the environmentally fragile watershed of the Florida Everglades, highlight the potential impact of compact bed geometry on environmental sustainability in agricultural production. No difference in plant growth or yield was detected, with a reduction of 5-50% in irrigation water, up to 20% less N application, 12% less P, 20% less K, and 5-15% less carbon dioxide emissions. The hydrologic benefits of compact bed geometry include 26% less runoff generation, decreased need for active drainage pumping, and increased residence time for irrigation water within the bed, overall decreasing instances of nutrient leaching. A water related co-benefit observed was a reduction in the occurrences of Phytophthora capsici in pepper, which has the potential to reduce yield by as much as 70%. Non-water co-benefits include up to a 250/ ha reduction in production cost, with the potential to save the industry 200 million dollars annually. This economic benefit has led to rapid industry adoption, with more than 20

  4. Monte Carlo simulation for neutron yield produced by bombarding thick targets with high energy heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Oh, Joo Hee; Yoon, Moo Hyun; Lee, Hee Seock [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    One of radiation shielding issues at heavy-ion accelerator facilities is to estimate neutron production by primary heavy ions. A few Monte Carlo transport codes such as FLUKA and PHITS can work with primary heavy ions. Recently IBS/RISP((Rare Isotope Science Project) started to design a high-energy, high-power rare isotope accelerator complex for nuclear physics, medical and material science and applications. There is a lack of experimental and simulated data about the interaction of major beam, {sup 238}U with materials. For the shielding design of the end of first accelerating section section, we calculate a differential neutron yield using the FLUKA code for the interaction of 18.5 MeV/u uranium ion beam with thin carbon stripper of 1.3 μm). The benchmarking studies were also done to prove the yield calculation for 400 MeV/n {sup 131}Xe and other heavy ions. In this study, the benchmarking for Xe-C, Xe-Cu, Xe-Al, Xe-Pb and U-C, other interactions were performed using the FLUKA code. All of results show that the FLUKA can evaluate the heavy ion induced reaction with good uncertainty. For the evaluation of neutron source term, the calculated neutron yields are shown in Fig. 2. The energy of Uranium ion beam is only 18.5 MeV/u, but the energy of produced secondary neutrons was extended over 100 MeV. So the neutron shielding and the damage by those neutrons is expected to be serious. Because of thin stripper, the neutron intensity at forward direction was high. But the the intensity of produced secondary photons was relatively low and mostly the angular property was isotropic. For the detail shielding design of stripper section of RISP rare istope accelerator, the benchmarking study and preliminary evaluation of neutron source term from uranium beam have been carried out using the FLUKA code. This study is also compared with the evaluation results using the PHITS code performed coincidently. Both studies shows that two monte carlo codes can give a good results for

  5. Energy dependence of sputtering yields of Be, Be-C and Be-W films by Be{sup +}-ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korshunov, S.N.; Guseva, M.I.; Gureev, V.M.; Neumoin, V.E.; Stoljarova, V.G. [Russian Research Center Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    The energy dependence measurements of Be, Be-C and Be-W deposited layer sputtering yields by Be{sup +}-ions were performed. The ion energy was varied in the range (0.3-5.0) keV. The temperature in the process of irradiation was sustained at the level of 670 K. The mixed layers were prepared by simultaneous sputtering of pair targets, Be and C, Be and W, and Be-targets with Ar{sup +}- and Be{sup +}-ions and codeposition of the sputtered atoms on silicon collectors The codeposited layer thickness was changed in the range of (500-1000) nm. The content of oxigen in the Be, Be-C, Be-W deposited layers did not exceed 20 at.%. The mixed layer sputtering yields were compared with the experimental and calculated data, obtained for the self-sputtering yields of beryllium and carbon. It was found that the sputtering yields of the Be-C and Be deposited layers by Be{sup +}-ions in the energy range (0.3-5.0) keV are within the range between the corresponding self-sputtering yields for Be and C. The sputtering yields for the mixture Be-W are close to the corresponding self-sputtering yields of beryllium. (author)

  6. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop and implement advanced thin film process technology which would significantly improve the manufacturability of both static and dynamic high performance energy saving coatings for windows. The work done has been aimed at improvements to the process that will result in increases in yield, and this was divided into four main areas, dealing with improvements in substrate preparation methods, reductions in the incidence of problems caused by particulate contamination, use of in-situ optical monitoring to improve process control, and overall system integration to enable simplified, and therefore lower cost operation. Significant progress has been made in each of the areas. In the area of substrate preparation, the enhanced washing techniques which have been developed, in combination with a new inspection technique, have resulted in significant reductions in the number of EC devices which are rejected because of substrate problems. Microscopic inspection of different defects in electrochromic devices showed that many were centered on particles. As a result, process improvements aimed at reducing the incidence of particles throughout the entire process have been implemented. As a result, the average number of defects occurring per unit area has been significantly reduced over the period of this project. The in-situ monitoring techniques developed during this project have become an indispensable part of the processing for EC devices. The deposition of several key layers is controlled as a result of in-situ monitoring, and this has facilitated significant improvements in uniformity and repeatability. Overall system integration has progressed to the stage where the goal of a closed-loop monitoring and control system in within reach, and it is anticipated that this will be achieved during the scale-up phase. There has been a clear increase in the yield occurring over the period of this project (Sept 1999 to September 2003), which is

  7. Methods for measurement of electron emission yield under low energy electron-irradiation by collector method and Kelvin probe method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondu, Thomas; Belhaj, Mohamed; Inguimbert, Virginie [Onera, DESP, 2 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Onera, DESP, 2 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France and Fondation STAE, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 84234-31432, Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Onera, DESP, 2 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2010-09-15

    Secondary electron emission yield of gold under electron impact at normal incidence below 50 eV was investigated by the classical collector method and by the Kelvin probe method. The authors show that biasing a collector to ensure secondary electron collection while keeping the target grounded can lead to primary electron beam perturbations. Thus reliable secondary electron emission yield at low primary electron energy cannot be obtained with a biased collector. The authors present two collector-free methods based on current measurement and on electron pulse surface potential buildup (Kelvin probe method). These methods are consistent, but at very low energy, measurements become sensitive to the earth magnetic field (below 10 eV). For gold, the authors can extrapolate total emission yield at 0 eV to 0.5, while a total electron emission yield of 1 is obtained at 40{+-}1 eV.

  8. Methods for measurement of electron emission yield under low energy electron-irradiation by collector method and Kelvin probe method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondu, Thomas; Belhaj, Mohamed; Inguimbert, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    Secondary electron emission yield of gold under electron impact at normal incidence below 50 eV was investigated by the classical collector method and by the Kelvin probe method. The authors show that biasing a collector to ensure secondary electron collection while keeping the target grounded can lead to primary electron beam perturbations. Thus reliable secondary electron emission yield at low primary electron energy cannot be obtained with a biased collector. The authors present two collector-free methods based on current measurement and on electron pulse surface potential buildup (Kelvin probe method). These methods are consistent, but at very low energy, measurements become sensitive to the earth magnetic field (below 10 eV). For gold, the authors can extrapolate total emission yield at 0 eV to 0.5, while a total electron emission yield of 1 is obtained at 40±1 eV.

  9. Correlation of the neutron yield from the plasma focus upon variations in the magnetic field energy of the discharge circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablesimov, V. E.; Dolin, Yu. N.; Kalinychev, A. E.; Tsibikov, Z. S.

    2017-10-01

    The relation between neutron yield Y and magnetic field energy variations Δ W in the discharge circuit has been studied for a Mather-type plasma-focus camera. The activation technique (activation of silver isotopes) has been used to measure the integral yield of DD neutrons from the source. The time dependence of the neutron yield has been recorded by scintillation detectors. For the device used in the investigations, the neutron yield exhibits a linear dependence on variations in the magnetic field energy Δ W in the discharge circuit at the instant of neutron generation. It is also found that this dependence is related to the initial deuteron pressure in the discharge chamber.

  10. Comparison of calculated and experimental values of the yields of xenon isotopes in reactions with high-energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukolyukov, A.Yu.; Katargin, N.V.; Baishev, I.S.

    1989-01-01

    Calculations of the cumulative yields of isotopes of Xe have been carried out on the basis of the semi-empirical formula of Silverberg and Tsao for Ba- and Dy-targets and bombarding proton energies in the range 100-1050 MeV. Results are compared with experimental data for the yields of Xe isotopes, and domains of applicability of the semi-empirical formula are determined

  11. VT Data - Onsite Sewage Disposal Soil Ratings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ONSITE is a pre-selected subset of SSURGO certified soil data depicting onsite sewage disposal ratings of Vermont soils. The NRCS Top20 table was...

  12. Effluent Information System (EIS) / Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS): 1986 executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1987-09-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) data base systems aid DOE-Headquarters and Field Offices in managing the radioactive air and liquid effluents from DOE facilities. Data on effluents released offsite are entered into effluent information system (EIS) and data on effluents discharged onsite and retained onsite are entered into Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS). This document is a summary of information obtained from the CY 1986 effluent data received from all DOE and DOE contractor facilities and entered in the data bases. Data from previous years are also included. The summary consists of information for effluents released offsite, and information for effluents retained onsite

  13. Low-energy reaction yields for 18O(p,γ) and 18O(α,γ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelaar, R.B.; Wang, T.R.; Kellogg, S.E.; Kavanagh, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Resonance yields, γ-ray branching, and low-energy limits have been measured for 18 O(p,γ) and 18 O(α,γ), for E p α <0.78 MeV, using a 4π array of NaI detectors. The results confirm previous resonance strengths, and set additional constraints on possible low-energy contributions to stellar reaction rates

  14. 42 CFR 424.517 - Onsite review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Onsite review. 424.517 Section 424.517 Public... Billing Privileges § 424.517 Onsite review. (a) CMS reserves the right, when deemed necessary, to perform onsite review of a provider or supplier to verify that the enrollment information submitted to CMS or its...

  15. The importance of on-site evaluation for placing renewable energy in the landscape: A case study of the Búrfell wind farm (Iceland)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frantál, Bohumil; Bevk, T.; van Veelen, B.; Hărmănescu, M.; Benediktsson, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2017), s. 234-247 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-04483S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : wind energy * landscape perception * Iceland Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects) Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2016 http://www.geonika.cz/EN/research/ENMGRClanky/2017_4_FRANT%C3%81L.pdf

  16. Onsite LLW storage at Cook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacRae, W.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Donald C. Cook nuclear plant has gained much experience through the onsite storage of low-level radioactive waste. Owned and operated by the Indiana Michigan Power Company, which is owned by American Electric Power, the plant is located in Bridgman, Michigan, on the southeast side of Lake Michigan, about 50 miles from Chicago. In November 1990, waste generators in the state of Michigan were denied access to licensed low-level waste disposal sites because of a lack of progress by the state in developing its own disposal site. Because of this lack, wastes from the Cook plant have been stored onsite for three years. This article covers four issues related to the Cook nuclear plant's experience in the low-level waste storage: storage capacity and waste generation rates, waste form and packages, regulatory issues, and the monitoring of the waste

  17. Growth and energy yield when cultivating various energy crops on farming soil. Tillvaext och energiutbyte vid odling av olika energigroedor paa jordbruksmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerner, L.

    1988-03-01

    In four fields in the south of Sweden different energy crops were tested. In all trials sugar beet, barley, alfalfa, corn, sunflower and quickgrowing species of Salix (energy forest) were grown. In some of the trials broome-grass, potatoes and winter wheat were tested. One trial also included marrow-stem kale, Jerusalem artichoke and a hybride of J artichoke and sunflower. The purpose of the experiment was to illustrate the effect of increasing N-fertilizing and the effect of growing the crops in different climatic conditions. The yield varies between the crops. Some of the crops were harvested in different stages of development. The largest yields were noticed for sugar beet, corn, potatoes and energy forest. For these crops the yield was 11.5-14.5 tons of dry matter per hectare. The yield of potatoes was very large but it is figures for only one place with very good conditions. Barley, sunflower and alfalfa produced 8-10 tons of dry matter per hectare. The smaller yield depends on a short vegetation season for these crops. The year of establishment the energy forest produced about four tons of dry matter in the form of stem wood. When fully established the production has been 12-15 tons of dry matter per hectare and annum. The analysis of plant material indicates small divergences in the content of carbon and heat value.

  18. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) Castor GSF cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, E.P.

    1997-01-01

    The CASTOR GSF packaging was designed and fabricated to be a certified Type B(U) packaging and comply with the requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for transport of up to five sealed canisters of vitrified radioactive materials. This onsite Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analysis and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the casks, with the canister payload, meet the intent of the Type B packaging regulations set forth in 10 CFR 71 and therefore meet the onsite transportation safety requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping

  19. Risk management of onsite transportation of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.; Field, J.G.

    1992-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site has recently undergone a significant change in its mission. The focus of site-wide operations has been shifted from production to environmental restoration. As a result, there is a significant increase in quantities of the radioactive wastes and other hazardous materials to be packaged and transported onsite. In response to the elevated transportation activities, the operations and engineering contractor for the Hanford Site, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), is proposing an integrated risk assessment methodology and risk management strategy to further enhance the safe operations of the onsite packaging and transportation activities involving radioactive and other hazardous materials. This paper summarizes Westinghouse Hanford's proposed risk assessment and risk management methodology for onsite transportation of hazardous materials. The proposed Westinghouse Hanford risk assessment and management methodology for onsite packaging and transportation has three integral parts: risk assessment, risk acceptance criteria, and risk minimization process. The purposes are to ensure that the risk for each ongoing transportation activity is acceptable, and to further reduce the overall risk for current and future onsite transportation activities

  20. High-energy neutron yields in interactions of carbon ions with 114Sn and 124Sn nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.B.; Gavrilov, B.P.; Kovalenko, S.S.; Kozulin, Eh.M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.

    1984-01-01

    The measurements of the yields of neutrons (energy more than 5 MeV) emitted in the interactions of carbon-12 ions (9 MeV/nucl.) with nuclei of two tin isotopes are conducted. The results obtained prove the effect of nucleon composition of a nucleus on the process of formation of high-energy neutrons. To clarify the concrete interaction mechanism it is necessary to perform systematic research for a number of isotopes differing in the relation of the number of neutrons and protons and binding energies of the last neutron

  1. Annual energy yield of different photovoltaic technologies at different climatic conditions; Jahresenergieertraege unterschiedlicher Photovoltaik-Technologien bei verschiedenen klimatischen Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinsser, Bastian

    2010-10-04

    It is very important for engineers as well as for investors to know which amount of energy E [kWh] a photovoltaic (PV) system produces under real operating conditions. In most cases the costs [Euroct/kWh] for the solar electricity are the main question. Most data sheets contain the efficiency of the PV modules only for standard test conditions (STC) in the laboratory. In reality higher module temperatures, lower irradiation G and a modified spectrum of the irradiation G change the standard test conditions efficiency. However, standard test conditions never appear at real live in Germany. In southern countries, which have more sun, the operation conditions differ much more from standard test conditions. Therefore, the effects on the annual energy yield are even bigger. To answer the question which PV technology gives the highest energy yield at specific climate conditions, this thesis set up thirteen PV systems using different technologies in Stuttgart, Nicosia, and Cairo. An extensive data acquisition is added to monitor weather and system data. Mono- and multicrystalline silicon (Si) as well as several thin film technologies like amorphous silicon, Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2} (CIGS), and CdTe are investigated. First the thesis extracts the temperature and low light behavior from the measured field data. At the end it models the PV systems to forecast the annual energy yield EJahr and compares with the measured values. The analysis of the field data reconfirms the better temperature behavior of the thin film technologies reported in literature. The HIT technology exhibits a better low light behavior, than the crystalline Si technologies, which all show a similar low light behavior. In the field the CIGS technology shows a contrary low light behavior compared to the laboratory. Field data show, that amorphous Si and CdTe technologies have a much better low light behavior than the crystalline Si technologies. The tolerances of the nominal power PSTC have the biggest influence

  2. Risk management of onsite transportation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.G.; Wang, O.S.; Mercado, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site recently has undergone a significant change in mission. The focus of operations has shifted from plutonium production to environmental restoration. This transition has caused a substantial increase in quantities of nuclear waste and other hazardous materials packaged and transported onsite. In response to the escalating transportation activity, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), the Hanford Site operations and engineering contractor, is proposing an integrated risk assessment methodology and risk management strategy to enhance the safety of onsite packaging and transportation operations involving nuclear waste. The proposed methodology consists of three integral parts: risk assessment, risk acceptance criteria, and risk minimization. The purpose of the methodology is to ensure that the risk for each ongoing transportation activity is acceptable and to minimize the overall risk for current and future onsite operations. (authors). 2 figs., 6 refs

  3. Risk management of onsite transportation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.G.; Wang, O.S.; Mercado, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site recently has undergone a significant change in mission. The focus of operations has shifted from plutonium production to environmental restoration. This transition has caused a substantial increase in quantities of nuclear waste and other hazardous materials packaged and transported onsite. In response to the escalating transportation activity, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), the Hanford Site operations and engineering contractor, is proposing an integrated risk assessment methodology and risk management strategy to enhance the safety of onsite packaging and transportation operations involving nuclear waste. The proposed methodology consists of three integral parts: risk assessment, risk acceptance criteria, and risk minimization. The purpose of the methodology is to ensure that the risk for each ongoing transportation activity is acceptable and to minimize the overall risk for current and future onsite operations

  4. Example of garbage recycling. Pt. 1. On-site energy recovery by microbial treatment of garbage at a shopping mall; Namagomi recycle jirei. 1. Tenpo deno namagomi recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, M.; Tatara, M.; Togo, Y. [Kajima Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-08-05

    A total treatment and energy recovery system for garbage was developed, and has been installed at 2 large-scale shopping malls. The system consists of garbage separation-pretreatment process, thermophilic methane fermentation process, biogas utilization process and secondary treatment system for fermentation effluent. Operational data of the past 2.5 years indicate that the system produces ca. 210 {approx} 240 m{sup 3} of biogas (ca. 66 % methane content) per 1,000 kg garbage treated per day, which is used as a hotwater boiler fuel on the sites. A demonstration project on fuel cell power generation by using the biogas has also been successfully conducted in a pilot-scale garbage treatment system. (author)

  5. Optimization model of peach production relevant to input energiesYield function in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatrehsamani, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Rahim; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Badarudin Badry, Ahmad; Sadeghinezhad, Emad

    2016-01-01

    energy to optimize energy input for peach production. • Determining significant factors on yield. • Using new policies to optimize input and reducing the negative effects of energy inputs.

  6. Measure of the e+e-{yields}bb Cross Section at the LEP Energies; Medida de la seccion eficaz e''+e''-{yields}bb a las Energias de LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arce Dubois, P

    1992-07-01

    In the present work I analyse the data collected during 1990 by the L3 detector, situated in the electron-positron collider LEP. After selecting the events e''+e''-{yields} bb through their semileptonic decays into muons, I calculate the cross section for the process e''+e''- {yields} bb at different energy points around the mass of the vectorial boson Z, and I measure some parameters of the Standard Model, namely, the Br(b{yields}{mu} ),{gamma}{sub z}n-{yields}bb/{gamma}{sub z}n{yields}had and {gamma}{sub z}n{yields}bb{gamma}{sub z}n{yields}e''+e''-. (Author) 26 refs.

  7. Measure of the e+e-{yields}bb Cross Section at the LEP Energies; Medida de la seccion eficaz e''+e''-{yields}bb a las Energias de LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arce Dubois, P.

    1992-07-01

    In the present work I analyse the data collected during 1990 by the L3 detector, situated in the electron-positron collider LEP. After selecting the events e''+e''-{yields} bb through their semileptonic decays into muons, I calculate the cross section for the process e''+e''- {yields} bb at different energy points around the mass of the vectorial boson Z, and I measure some parameters of the Standard Model, namely, the Br(b{yields}{mu} ),{gamma}{sub z}n-{yields}bb/{gamma}{sub z}n{yields}had and {gamma}{sub z}n{yields}bb{gamma}{sub z}n{yields}e''+e''-. (Author) 26 refs.

  8. The effects of heating temperatures and time on deformation energy and oil yield of sunflower bulk seeds in compression loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabutey, A.; Herak, D.; Sigalingging, R.; Demirel, C.

    2018-02-01

    The deformation energy (J) and percentage oil yield (%) of sunflower bulk seeds under the influence of heat treatment temperatures and heating time were examined in compression test using the universal compression testing machine and vessel diameter of 60 mm with a plunger. The heat treatment temperatures were between 40 and 100 °C and the heating time at specific temperatures of 40 and 100 °C ranged from 15 to 75 minutes. The bulk sunflower seeds were measured at a pressing height of 60 mm and pressed at a maximum force of 100 kN and speed of 5 mm/min. Based on the compression results, the deformation energy and oil yield increased along with increasing heat treatment temperatures. The results were statistically significant (p 0.05).

  9. Homogeneity analysis of high yield manufacturing process of mems-based pzt thick film vibrational energy harvesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Pedersen, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a high yield wafer scale fabrication of MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvesters aimed towards vibration sources with peak frequencies in the range of a few hundred Hz. By combining KOH etching with mechanical front side protection, SOI wafer...... to accurately define the thickness of the silicon part of the harvester and a silicon compatible PZT thick film screen-printing technique, we are able to fabricate energy harvesters on wafer scale with a yield higher than 90%. The characterization of the fabricated harvesters is focused towards the full wafer....../mass-production aspect; hence the analysis of uniformity in harvested power and resonant frequency....

  10. Fusion reaction yield in focused discharges with variable energy and plasma fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolotti, A.; Brzosko, J.S.; Chiara, P. De; Kilic, H.; Mezzetti, F.; Nardi, V.; Powell, C.; Wang, J.

    1992-01-01

    The same linear correlation between the distribution parameters (ΔT and Max ΔV) of the radial current density J between electrodes and the fusion reaction yield per pulse, Y, in the plasma focus (PF) pinch was quantitatively determined from different PF machines. Contact prints of current-sheath fragments (CSF) ejected from the pinch are obtained from 2.5-MeV-D + ions. CSF's show the same submillimetric fine structure of the pinch. (author) 3 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Small Changes Yield Large Results at NIST's Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanney, A Hunter; Healy, William; Payne, Vance; Kneifel, Joshua; Ng, Lisa; Dougherty, Brian; Ullah, Tania; Omar, Farhad

    2017-12-01

    The Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) was designed to be approximately 60 % more energy efficient than homes meeting the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) requirements. The thermal envelope minimizes heat loss/gain through the use of advanced framing and enhanced insulation. A continuous air/moisture barrier resulted in an air exchange rate of 0.6 air changes per hour at 50 Pa. The home incorporates a vast array of extensively monitored renewable and energy efficient technologies including an air-to-air heat pump system with a dedicated dehumidification cycle; a ducted heat-recovery ventilation system; a whole house dehumidifier; a photovoltaic system; and a solar domestic hot water system. During its first year of operation the NZERTF produced an energy surplus of 1023 kWh. Based on observations during the first year, changes were made to determine if further improvements in energy performance could be obtained. The changes consisted of installing a thermostat that incorporated control logic to minimize the use of auxiliary heat, using a whole house dehumidifier in lieu of the heat pump's dedicated dehumidification cycle, and reducing the ventilation rate to a value that met but did not exceed code requirements. During the second year of operation the NZERTF produced an energy surplus of 2241 kWh. This paper describes the facility, compares the performance data for the two years, and quantifies the energy impact of the weather conditions and operational changes.

  12. Single atom spectroscopy: Decreased scattering delocalization at high energy losses, effects of atomic movement and X-ray fluorescence yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizei, Luiz H G; Iizumi, Yoko; Okazaki, Toshiya; Nakanishi, Ryo; Kitaura, Ryo; Shinohara, Hisanori; Suenaga, Kazu

    2016-01-01

    Single atom localization and identification is crucial in understanding effects which depend on the specific local environment of atoms. In advanced nanometer scale materials, the characteristics of individual atoms may play an important role. Here, we describe spectroscopic experiments (electron energy loss spectroscopy, EELS, and Energy Dispersed X-ray spectroscopy, EDX) using a low voltage transmission electron microscope designed towards single atom analysis. For EELS, we discuss the advantages of using lower primary electron energy (30 keV and 60 keV) and higher energy losses (above 800 eV). The effect of atomic movement is considered. Finally, we discuss the possibility of using atomically resolved EELS and EDX data to measure the fluorescence yield for X-ray emission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Single atom spectroscopy: Decreased scattering delocalization at high energy losses, effects of atomic movement and X-ray fluorescence yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tizei, Luiz H.G.; Iizumi, Yoko; Okazaki, Toshiya; Nakanishi, Ryo; Kitaura, Ryo; Shinohara, Hisanori; Suenaga, Kazu

    2016-01-01

    Single atom localization and identification is crucial in understanding effects which depend on the specific local environment of atoms. In advanced nanometer scale materials, the characteristics of individual atoms may play an important role. Here, we describe spectroscopic experiments (electron energy loss spectroscopy, EELS, and Energy Dispersed X-ray spectroscopy, EDX) using a low voltage transmission electron microscope designed towards single atom analysis. For EELS, we discuss the advantages of using lower primary electron energy (30 keV and 60 keV) and higher energy losses (above 800 eV). The effect of atomic movement is considered. Finally, we discuss the possibility of using atomically resolved EELS and EDX data to measure the fluorescence yield for X-ray emission.

  14. Models for the transport of low energy electrons in water and the yield of hydrated electrons at early times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.; Miller, J.H.; Ritchie, R.H.; Bichsel, H.

    1985-01-01

    An insulator model with four experimental energy bands was used to fit the optical properties of liquid water and to extend these data to non-zero momentum transfer. Inelastic mean free paths derived from this dielectric response function provided the basic information necessary to degrade high energy electrons to the subexcitation energy domain. Two approaches for the transport of subexcitation electrons were investigated. (i) Gas phase cross sections were used to degrade subexcitation electrons to thermal energy and the thermalization lengths were scaled to unit density. (ii) Thermalization lengths were estimated by age-diffusion theory with a stopping power deduced from the data on liquid water and transport cross sections derived from elastic scattering in water vapor. Theoretical ranges were compared to recent experimental results. A stochastic model was used to calculate the rapid diffusion and reaction of hydrated electrons with other radiolysis products. The sensitivity of the calculated yields to the model assumptions and comparison with experimental data are discussed

  15. Centralised electricity production from winter cereals biomass grown under central-northern Spain conditions: Global warming and energy yield assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastre, C.M.; Maletta, E.; González-Arechavala, Y.; Ciria, P.; Santos, A.M.; Val, A. del; Pérez, P.; Carrasco, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals biomass. • Productivity ranks are generated from different genotypes cultivated in real farms. • GHG and energy balances show better performance compared to natural gas electricity. • Cereals yields below 8 odt/ha do not accomplish objective 60% of GHG savings. • Marginal yields and sustainability criteria are discussed suggesting optimization. - Abstract: The goal of this paper is to assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals grown in one of the most important Spanish agricultural areas, Castilla y León Region, situated in central-northern Spain. This study analyses greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and energy balances of electricity production in a 25 MWe power plant that was powered using straw biomass from three annual winter cereals (rye, triticale and oat) grown as dedicated energy crops. The results of these analyses were compared with those of electricity produced from natural gas in Spanish power plants. Assessments were performed using a wide range of scenarios, mainly based on the biomass yield variability obtained in demonstration plots of twelve different winter cereal genotypes. Demonstration plots were established in two different locations (provinces of Soria and León) of the Castilla y León Region during two crop seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011) using common management practices and input rates for rain-fed agriculture in these regions. Our results suggest that production of electricity from winter cereals biomass combustion yielded considerable reductions in terms of GHG emissions when compared to electricity from natural gas. Nevertheless, the results show that low biomass yields that are relatively frequent for Spanish farmers on low productivity lands may produce no significant reductions in GHG in comparison with electricity from natural gas. Consequently, the agronomic management of winter cereals should be re

  16. Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Jorjong, S.; Fievez, V.; Kemp, B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period

  17. Mutation breeding and submerged fermentation of a Pleurotus polysaccharide high-yield strain with low-energy heavy ions implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Henglei; Wan Honggui; Lv Changwu; Zeng Xianxian

    2010-01-01

    Pleurotus polysaccharide high-yield strains were selected through a method of auxotrophic primary screening and Shake-flask fermentation re-screening after low-energy heavy ions (the fluence of 1.2 x 10 16 N + /cm 2 at the energy of 15 keV) stepwise implantation. Two Pleurotus polysaccharide high-yield strains, PFPH-1 and PFPH-2, were selected with stable mycelium polysaccharide yield. The mycelium polysaccharide yield of PFPH-1 and PFPH-2 increased by 46.55% and 75.14%, respectively, compared to the original strain. The accumulation of mycelium biomass and intracellular polysaccharides were monitored in the submerged fermentation of Pleurotus ferulae by supplementation of various carbon and nitrogen sources as well as inorganic salts and pH alteration. The optima1 submerged fermentation medium favoring the accumulation of mycelium biomass and intracellular polysaccharides of PFPH-2 consisted of 1.0% wheat flour, 2.0% sucrose, 2.0% soybean flour, 1.5% bran extract, 0.2% K 2 HPO 4 , and 0.15% MgSO 4 ·7H 2 O, with a fittest pH value of 5.64. The orthogonal combination of the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources with inorganic salts indicates a synergistic effect on the accumulation of mycelium biomass and intracellular polysaccharides in the submerged fermentation of PFPH-2. The yield of mycelium polysaccharides of PFPH-2 increased to 903.73 ± 1.23 mg·L -1 by the end of fermentation. (authors)

  18. Energy distribution and quantum yield for photoemission from air-contaminated gold surfaces under ultraviolet illumination close to the threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechenblaikner, Gerald; Ziegler, Tobias; Biswas, Indro; Seibel, Christoph; Schulze, Mathias; Brandt, Nico; Schöll, Achim; Bergner, Patrick; Reinert, Friedrich T.

    2012-06-01

    The kinetic energy distributions of photo-electrons emitted from gold surfaces under illumination by UV-light close to the threshold (photon energy in the order of the material work function) are measured and analyzed. Samples are prepared as chemically clean through Ar-ion sputtering and then exposed to atmosphere for variable durations before quantum yield measurements are performed after evacuation. During measurements, the bias voltage applied to the sample is varied and the resulting emission current measured. Taking the derivative of the current-voltage curve yields the energy distribution which is found to closely resemble the distribution of total energies derived by DuBridge for emission from a free electron gas. We investigate the dependence of distribution shape and width on electrode geometry and contaminant substances adsorbed from the atmosphere, in particular, to water and hydro-carbons. Emission efficiency increases initially during air exposure before diminishing to zero on a timescale of several hours, whilst subsequent annealing of the sample restores emissivity. A model fit function, in good quantitative agreement with the measured data, is introduced which accounts for the experiment-specific electrode geometry and an energy dependent transmission coefficient. The impact of large patch potential fields from contact potential drops between sample and sample holder is investigated. The total quantum yield is split into bulk and surface contributions which are tested for their sensitivity to light incidence angle and polarization. Our results are directly applicable to model parameters for the contact-free discharge system onboard the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Pathfinder spacecraft.

  19. Training Artisans On-Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoghogho Ogbeifun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The decline in apprenticeship in both the public and private sectors, the increasing use of sub-contractors as well as the uncoordinated approach in the informal sector are contributing factors to the shortage of skilled artisans in the construction industry. Artisans training can be introduced and implemented through the adoption of progressive implementation of construction processes commencing work from areas requiring low skill demands to areas of high skill demand. The success of this principle hinges on the collaborative effort of the key project stakeholders. The client should be willing to absorb extra cost and delays in the project; the design and contract documentation should facilitate on-site training, and  the consultant actively guide the contractor and the construction processes to achieve the training objectives. The exploratory research method was adopted in this study and research revealed that this principle was used in a project in the UK and in the development of infrastructure in the tourism industry of South Africa .It is being recommended that the principle be adapted by the public sector for the development of small size infrastructures that can be repeated in many places. This will boost the quality and quantity of artisans, enhance employability, reduce rural urban migration and alleviate poverty.Keywords: Skilled artisans, on-site training, progressive construction processes, project stakeholders, contract documentation. 

  20. The Role of Bio-productivity on Bio-energy Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J. J. Janssens

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The principal photosynthetic pathways convert solar energy differently depending on the environmental conditions and the plant morphotype. Partitioning of energy storage within crops will vary according to environmental and seasonal conditions as well. Highest energy concentration is found in terpens like latex and, to a lesser extent, in lipids. Ideally, we want plant ingredients with high energy content easily amenable to ready-to-use bio-fuel. Generally, these crops are adapted to drier areas and tend to save on eco-volume space. Competition with food crops could be avoided by fetching energy from cheap agricultural by-products or waste products such as bagasse in the sugar cane. This would in fact mean that reducing power of agricultural residues should be extracted from the biomass through non-photosynthetic processes like animal ingestion or industrial bio-fermentation. Conversion and transformation efficiencies in the production chain are illustrated for some relevant crops in the light of the maximum power theorem.

  1. Hydroxyl radical yields in the tracks of high energy 13C6+ and 36Ar18+ ions in liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldacchino, G.; Vigneron, G.; Renault, J.P.; Le Caer, S.; Pin, S.; Mialocq, J.-C.; Balanzat, E.; Bouffard, S.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the determination of the OH · radiolytic yields in water irradiated by high energy C 6+ and Ar 18+ ions with LET values of 32 ± 2 and 280 ± 10 eV nm -1 . The time evolution of the yields between 9 x 10 -11 and 9 x 10 -8 s was deduced using the scavenging method with SCN - and Br - and pulse radiolysis with pulses of 5 and 10 μs. The thiocyanate chemical system is less affected with the local high dose rates specific to the high LET particles than the bromide system. At 32 eV nm -1 with C 6+ ions, G(OH · ) reaches a maximum of 1.5 x 10 -7 mol J -1 at 1 ns and decreases at earlier times. With Ar 18+ ions of 280 eV nm -1 G(OH · ) is always increasing at early times up to 1.6 x 10 -7 mol J -1 at 9 x 10 -11 s. In this case the evolution of the hydroxyl radical yields agrees with the high local concentrations obtained with Ar 18+ and C 6+ ions and depicted in recent literature with the yields of the hydrated electron in the ns range

  2. Maximum Energy Yield Oriented Turbine Control in PMSG based Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi

    2017-01-01

    : In the modern power systems, with the fast integration of the wind power into the grid, it turns to develop large-scale offshore wind farms equipped with the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbine. In large-scale offshore wind farms, the wind turbine operating reliability...... and the wake effect in the wind farm became important issues. The pitch angle and tip speed ratio are the two degrees of freedom for the PMSG wind turbine active power control, which are also the determining factors of the wind turbine lifetime. As the energy production of the wind turbine is the product...... of its active power and lifetime, the energy production can be maximised by optimising its pitch angle and tip speed ratio. In this study, the energy production of a 2 MW PMSG wind turbine is maximised by optimising its pitch angle and tip speed ratio. Moreover, taking into account the wake effect...

  3. Energy Yield Determination of Concentrator Solar Cells using Laboratory Measurements: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisz, John F.; Garcia, Ivan; McMahon, William E.; Steiner, Myles A.; Ochoa, Mario; France, Ryan M.; Habte, Aron; Friedman, Daniel J.

    2015-09-14

    The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated for a four junction inverted metamorphic solar cell that has been completely characterized in the laboratory at room temperature using measurements fit to a comprehensive optoelectronic model of the multijunction solar cells. A simple model of the temperature dependence is used to predict the performance of the solar cell under varying temperature and spectra characteristic of Golden, CO for an entire year. The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated by integrating the predicted cell performance over the entire year. The effects of geometric concentration, CPV system thermal characteristics, and luminescent coupling are highlighted. temperature and spectra characteristic of Golden, CO for an entire year. The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated by integrating the predicted cell performance over the entire year. The effects of geometric concentration, CPV system thermal characteristics, and luminescent coupling are highlighted.

  4. Secondary electron emission yield in the limit of low electron energy

    CERN Document Server

    Andronov, A.N.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Startsev, E.A.; Raitses, Y.; Demidov, V.I.

    2013-04-22

    Secondary electron emission (SEE) from solids plays an important role in many areas of science and technology.1 In recent years, there has been renewed interest in the experimental and theoretical studies of SEE. A recent study proposed that the reflectivity of very low energy electrons from solid surface approaches unity in the limit of zero electron energy2,3,4, If this was indeed the case, this effect would have profound implications on the formation of electron clouds in particle accelerators,2-4 plasma measurements with electrostatic Langmuir probes, and operation of Hall plasma thrusters for spacecraft propulsion5,6. It appears that, the proposed high electron reflectivity at low electron energies contradicts to numerous previous experimental studies of the secondary electron emission7. The goal of this note is to discuss possible causes of these contradictions.

  5. High energy resolution measurement of the sup 238 U neutron capture yield from 1 to 100 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macklin, R.L. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Perez, R.B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); De Saussure, G.; Ingle, R.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the precise determination of the {sup 238}U neutron capture yield (i.e. the probability of neutron capture) as a function of neutron energy with the highest available neutron energy resolution. The motivation for this undertaking arises from the central role played by the {sup 238}U neutron capture process in the neutron balance of both thermal reactors and fast breeder reactors. The present measurement was performed using the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) facility. The pulsed beam of neutrons from the ORELA facility is collimated on a sample of {sup 238}U. The neutron capture rate in the sample is measured, as a function of neutron time-of-flight (TOF) by detecting the {gamma}-rays from the {sup 238}U(n, {gamma}){sup 239}U reaction with a large {gamma}-ray detector surrounding the {sup 238}U sample. At each energy, the capture yield is proportional to the observed capture rate divided by the measured intensity of the neutron beam. The constant of proportionality (the normalization constant) is obtained from the ratio of theoretical to experimentally measured areas under small {sup 238}U resonances where the resonance parameters have been determined from high-resolution {sup 238}U transmission measurements. The cross section for the reaction {sup 238}U(n,{gamma}){sup 239}U can be derived from the measured capture yield if one applies appropriate corrections for multiple scattering and resonance self-shielding. Some 200 {sup 238}U neutron resonances in the energy range from 250 eV to 10 keV have been observed which had not been detected in previous measurements. (author).

  6. Determination of the shape factor of {sup 90}Sr by means of the cutoff energy yield method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A. [Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental (CSIC), Dcho. 211, C/Serrano 113b, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: agrau@imaff.cfmac.csic.es; Kossert, K. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Department 6.1, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Grau Malonda, A. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Proyectos Estrategicos, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    Usually, Kurie plots are used to analyze beta-spectra shape-factor functions measured by means of semiconductor and magnetic spectrometers. A drawback of these techniques is the occurrence of self-absorption within the samples through which the emission spectrum is altered. In liquid-scintillation samples self-absorption does not occur, but the poor energy resolution makes the analysis of the spectra difficult. To overcome this problem, two resolution-invariant observables are used for determining the shape-factor function of {sup 90}Sr: (1) the maximum point energy and (2) the cutoff energy yield. The measured shape-factor function of {sup 90}Sr agrees with the one which is predicted by theory for the first-forbidden unique transition.

  7. The impact of the hot tap water load pattern in the industrial hall on the energy yield from solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidorów-Kaprawyl, Natalia; Dudkiewicz, Edyta

    2017-11-01

    The systems using solar energy, popular in Poland, can be used to supply hot water for the installation used by employees of industrial halls. In manufacturing plants, employing a large number of people, the demand for hot water is practically constant throughout the year and is characterized by periodic use at the end of each work shift. Dynamics of the hot water consumption depends on the number of shifts as well as working days and holidays. Additionally the maximum hot tap water demand occurs in the whole period of installation operation. In polish climatic conditions the solar collectors' systems have the largest capacity in the summer, while in winter they need to be assisted. Beside that the supply of renewable energy is uneven and depends on weather conditions. In the paper the one-hour step analysis concerning the dependence of the load pattern of the hot tap water preparation system on the energy yield from solar collectors had been performed.

  8. Excitation energy transfer in ruthenium (II)-porphyrin conjugates led to enhanced emission quantum yield and 1O2 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Jie; Jiang, Lijun; Chan, Chi-Fai; Tsoi, Tik-Hung; Shiu, Kwok-Keung; Kwong, Daniel W.J.; Wong, Wing-Tak; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Wong, Ka-Leung

    2017-01-01

    Porphyrins are good photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents due to its flexibility for modifications to achieve tumor localization and photo-cytotoxicity against cancer. Yet they are not perfect. In a Ru(polypyridyl)-porphyrin system, the Ru(polypyridyl) moiety improves the water solubility and cell permeability. Consider the similar excited state energies between Ru(polypyridyl) and porphyrin moieties; a small perturbation (e.g. Zn(II) metalation) would lead to a marked change in the energy migration process. In this work, we have synthesized a series of porphyrins conjugated with Ru(polypyridyl) complexes using different linkers and investigated their photophysical properties, which included singlet oxygen quantum yield and their in vitro biological properties, resulting from linker variation and porphyrin modification by Zn(II) metalation. - Graphical abstract: Four amphiphilic ruthenium(II)-porphyrin complexes were prepared that display energy transfer conversion with zinc coordination, lysosome specific target, low dark toxicity and efficient photodynamic therapy.

  9. Teaching the relation between solar cell efficiency and annual energy yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    To reach a sustainable world the use of renewable energy sources is imperative. Photovoltaics (PV) is but one of the technologies that use the power of the sun and its deployment is growing very fast. Several master programs have been developed over the world, including Utrecht University, that

  10. Four-terminal organic solar cell modules with increased annual energy yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehlhaar, R.; Cheyns, D.; Willigenburg, L. van; Hadipour, A.; Gilot, J.; Radbeh, R.; Aernouts, T.

    2013-01-01

    The authors present experimental results on mechanically stacked organic solar modules and their advantage over standard tandem architectures. A four-terminal configuration of two single junction modules with complementary absorbing active layers uses the more efficient energy conversion of a tandem

  11. Neutron Energy Spectra and Yields from the 7Li(p,n) Reaction for Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, M.; Friedman, M.; Schmidt, S.; Shor, A.; Berkovits, D.; Cohen, D.; Feinberg, G.; Fiebiger, S.; Krása, A.; Paul, M.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Reifarth, R.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrons produced by the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction close to threshold are widely used to measure the cross section of s-process nucleosynthesis reactions. While experiments have been performed so far with Van de Graaff accelerators, the use of RF accelerators with higher intensities is planned to enable investigations on radioactive isotopes. In parallel, high-power Li targets for the production of high-intensity neutrons at stellar energies are developed at Goethe University (Frankfurt, Germany) and SARAF (Soreq NRC, Israel). However, such setups pose severe challenges for the measurement of the proton beam intensity or the neutron fluence. In order to develop appropriate methods, we studied in detail the neutron energy distribution and intensity produced by the thick-target 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction and compared them to state-of- the-art simulation codes. Measurements were performed with the bunched and chopped proton beam at the Van de Graaff facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) using the time-of-flight (TOF) technique with thin (1/8") and thick (1") detectors. The importance of detailed simulations of the detector structure and geometry for the conversion of TOF to a neutron energy is stressed. The measured neutron spectra are consistent with those previously reported and agree well with Monte Carlo simulations that include experimentally determined 7Li(p,n) cross sections, two-body kinematics and proton energy loss in the Li-target.

  12. Energy-Based Yield Criteria for Orthotropic Materials, Exhibiting Strength-Differential Effect. Specification for Sheets under Plane Stress State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeptyński P.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A general proposition of an energy-based limit condition for anisotropic materials exhibiting strength-differential effect (SDE based on spectral decomposition of elasticity tensors and the use of scaling pressure-dependent functions is specified for the case of orthotropic materials. A detailed algorithm (based on classical solutions of cubic equations for the determination of elastic eigenstates and eigenvalues of the orthotropic stiffness tensor is presented. A yield condition is formulated for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases. Explicit formulas based on simple strength tests are derived for parameters of criterion in the plane case. The application of both criteria for the description of yielding and plastic deformation of metal sheets is discussed in detail. The plane case criterion is verified with experimental results from the literature.

  13. Isobaric yield curves at A=72 from the spallation of medium mass isotopes by intermediate energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, M.J.; Karol, P.J.; Department of Chemistry, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213)

    1989-01-01

    Cross sections of radionuclides in the A∼72 mass region produced by the interaction 800 MeV protons with 89 Y, /sup 92,96,100/Mo, and 130 Te were measured. Particular emphasis was paid to the measurement of short-lived products far from β stability. The cross sections were used to generate isobaric yield curves at A=72. Precise characterization of these curves showed that the distribution parameters (mean, standard deviation, skewness) vary in a regular fashion with target N/Z. For 89 Y, relative isobaric curves produced by 500 and 800 MeV protons were found to be identical within experimental error. The yield distributions for the /sup 92,96,100/Mo targets also scaled with those from an earlier alpha-induced spallation study. These findings lend strong support to the argument that the spallation mechanism is independent of projectile energy and target composition

  14. Energy Balance for a Sonoluminescence Bubble Yields a Measure of Ionization Potential Lowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, B.; Bataller, A.; Putterman, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Application of energy conservation between input sound and the microplasma which forms at the moment of sonoluminescence places bounds on the process, whereby the gas is ionized. Detailed pulsed Mie scattering measurements of the radius versus time for a xenon bubble in sulfuric acid provide a complete characterization of the hydrodynamics and minimum radius. For a range of emission intensities, the blackbody spectrum emitted during collapse matches the minimum bubble radius, implying opaque conditions are attained. This requires a degree of ionization >36%. Analysis reveals only 2.1±0.6eV/atom of energy available during light emission. In order to unbind enough charge, collective processes must therefore reduce the ionization potential by at least 75%. We interpret this as evidence that a phase transition to a highly ionized plasma is occurring during sonoluminescence.

  15. High energy resolution measurement of the 238U neutron capture yield in the energy region between 1 and 100 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machlin, R.L.; Perez, R.B.; de Saussure, G.; Ingle, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    A measurement of the 238 U neutron capture yield was performed at the 150 meter flight-path of the ORELA facility on two 238 U samples (0.01224 and 0.0031 atomsbarn). The capture yeild data were normalized by Moxon's small resonance method. The energy resolution achieved in this measurement frequently resulted in doublet and triplet splittings of what appeared to be single resonance in previous measurements. This resolution should allow extension of the resolved resonance energy region in 238 U from the present 4-keV limit up to 15 or 20 keV incident neutron energy. Some 200 small resonances of the ( 238 U /plus/ n) compound nucleus have been observed which had not been detected in transmission measurement, in the energy range from 250 eV to 10 keV

  16. Algal Pretreatment Improves Biofuels Yield and Value; Highlights in Science, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-15

    One of the major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting is improving biomass utilization in its entirety, increasing the process energetic yields and providing economically viable and scalable co-product concepts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel, integrated technology based on moderate temperatures and low pH to convert the carbohydrates in wet algal biomass to soluble sugars for fermentation, while making lipids more accessible for downstream extraction and leaving a protein-enriched fraction behind. This research has been highlighted in the Green Chemistry journal article mentioned above and a milestone report, and is based on the work the researchers are doing for the AOP projects Algal Biomass Conversion and Algal Biofuels Techno-economic Analysis. That work has demonstrated an advanced process for algal biofuel production that captures the value of both the algal lipids and carbohydrates for conversion to biofuels.  With this process, as much as 150 GGE/ton of biomass can be produced, 2-3X more than can be produced by terrestrial feedstocks.  This can also reduce the cost of biofuel production by as much as 40%. This also represents the first ever design case for the algal lipid upgrading pathway.

  17. Light yield of a CsI(Tl) crystal under irradiation by protons with the energy from 3 to 15 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorchoman, D.; Konstantin, M.; Lazarovich, D.; Muntyanu, I.; Oganesyan, K.O.; Porokhovoj, S.Yu.

    1976-01-01

    Measurement results are presented of light yield in CsI(Tl) crystals at the irradiation by protons with the energy from 3 to 15 MeV. Plates of 100x100x2 mm size are used as CsI(Tl) scintillator samples. A brief analysis of possible sistematic errors is given which allows to estimate the total error upon the light yield valve determination equal to 0,5%. Measurement results of crystal light yield show that the dependence of CsI(Tl) light yield on proton energy is described by the straight line passing through the origin

  18. Nanocrystalline TiAl powders synthesized by high-energy ball milling: effects of milling parameters on yield and contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Prajina; Bellon, Pascal; Averback, Robert S.; Hales, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    High-energy ball milling was employed to produce nanocrystalline Ti-Al powders. As sticking of the powders can be sufficiently severe to result in a near zero yield, emphasis was placed on varying milling conditions so as to increase the yield, while avoiding contamination of the powders. The effects of milling parameters such as milling tools, initial state of the powders and addition of process control agents (PCA's) were investigated. Cyclohexane, stearic acid and titanium hydride were used as PCA's. Milling was conducted either in a Cr-steel vial with C-steel balls, or in a tungsten carbide (WC) vial with WC balls, using either elemental or pre-alloyed powders. Powder samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In the absence of PCA's mechanical alloying in a WC vial and attrition milling in a Cr-steel vial were shown to lead to satisfactory yields, about 65-80%, without inducing any significant contamination of the powders. The results suggest that sticking of the powders on to the milling tools is correlated with the phase evolution occurring in these powders during milling

  19. Born order study of {gamma}{sup *}{gamma}{sup *} {yields} {rho}{rho} at very high energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pire, B. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique; Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Liege Univ. (Belgium); Wallon, S. [Paris-11 Univ., Lab. de Physique Theorique, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    We calculate the cross-section for the diffractive exclusive process {gamma}{sub L}{sup *}(Q{sub 1}{sup 2}){gamma}{sub L}{sup *}(Q{sub 2}{sup 2}) {yields} {rho}{sub L}{sup 0}{rho}{sub L}{sup 0}, in view of its study in the future high energy e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider. The Born order approximation of the amplitude is completely calculable in the hard region Q{sub 1}{sup 2},Q{sub 2}{sup 2} >> {lambda}{sup 2}(QCD). The resulting cross-section is large enough for this process to be measurable with foreseen luminosity and energy, for Q{sub 1}{sup 2} and Q{sub 2}{sup 2} in the range of a few GeV{sup 2}. (authors)

  20. Increasing quantum yield of sodium salicylate above 80 eV photon energy: Implications for photoemission cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindle, D.W.; Ferrett, T.A.; Heimann, P.A.; Shirley, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The quantum yield of the visible scintillator sodium salicylate is found to increase in the incident photon-energy range 80--270 eV. Because of its use as a photon-flux monitor in recent gas-phase photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, previously reported partial cross sections for Hg (4f, 5p, and 5d subshells) and CH 3 I (I 4d subshell) in this energy range are corrected, and new values are reported. For Hg, the correction brings the experimental data into better overall agreement with theory. However, considerable uncertainty remains in the absolute scale derived from previous Hg photoabsorption measurements, and no single rescaling of the subshell cross sections could simultaneously bring all three into agreement with available theoretical calculations

  1. Analysis of Wind Data, Calculation of Energy Yield Potential, and Micrositing Application with WAsP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Topaloğlu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The parameters required for building a wind power plant have been calculated using the fuzzy logic method by means of Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP in this study. Overall objectives of the program include analysis of raw data, evaluation of wind and climate, construction of a wind atlas, and estimation of wind power potential. With the analysis performed in the application, the average wind velocity, average power density, energy potential from micrositing, capacity factor, unit cost price, and period of redemption have been calculated, which are needed by the project developer during the decision-making stage and intended to be used as the input unit in the fuzzy logic-based system designed. It is aimed at processing the parameters calculated by the designed fuzzy logic-based decision-making system at the rule base and generating a compatibility factor that will allow for making the final decision in building wind power plants.

  2. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document

  3. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  4. Study of the yield of the Fricke dosimetry for electron energies from 2 to 90 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkvens, I.P.

    1988-01-01

    The chemical yield for the ferrous sulphate dosimeters was determined for 60 Co-γ radiation and for electron beams of mean energies in the points of measurements, between 2.7 and about 9 MeV. As references, absolute determinations of absorbed dose based on calorimetric measurements, were used. The irradiation geometry for the ferrous sulphate dosimeter differ always due to technical reasons somewhat from that for the absorber of the calorimeter. The investigators took this difference into account. Perturbation correction factors that correct for the difference in electron scattering in the air gaps around the absorber of the calorimeter and in the graphite, were computed with the Monte Carlo method. Also the ''reference volume method'' recently introduced by the ICRU (report No.35), was applied to correct for the introduction of a ferrous sulphate dosimeter in a graphite phantom. This correction is necessary as the electrons are stopped and scattered in a different way in graphite and water. The results indicated that there is no energy dependence of the chemical yield (G-value) of the dosimeter in the energy range 2.7 to about 9 MeV. A mean G-value of 1,584 (± 0.006) μ mol/J was obtained. For 60 Co-γ a G-value of 1.601 μ mol/J was determined. However, this difference might not be real but due to the present uncertainty in the stopping-power ratios graphite to water. These ratios are thus made use of to determine the G-value from measurements of the absorbed dose to graphite. Previous investigations, by the group from Gent, indicated a small increase of the G-value with the electron energy. These more accurate determinations thus instead indicate a constant G-value. Refs, figs, tabs

  5. Energy production from agricultural residues: High methane yields in pilot-scale two-stage anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parawira, W.; Read, J.S.; Mattiasson, B.; Bjoernsson, L.

    2008-01-01

    There is a large, unutilised energy potential in agricultural waste fractions. In this pilot-scale study, the efficiency of a simple two-stage anaerobic digestion process was investigated for stabilisation and biomethanation of solid potato waste and sugar beet leaves, both separately and in co-digestion. A good phase separation between hydrolysis/acidification and methanogenesis was achieved, as indicated by the high carbon dioxide production, high volatile fatty acid concentration and low pH in the acidogenic reactors. Digestion of the individual substrates gave gross energy yields of 2.1-3.4 kWh/kg VS in the form of methane. Co-digestion, however, gave up to 60% higher methane yield, indicating that co-digestion resulted in improved methane production due to the positive synergism established in the digestion liquor. The integrity of the methane filters (MFs) was maintained throughout the period of operation, producing biogas with 60-78% methane content. A stable effluent pH showed that the methanogenic reactors had good ability to withstand the variations in load and volatile fatty acid concentrations that occurred in the two-stage process. The results of this pilot-scale study show that the two-stage anaerobic digestion system is suitable for effective conversion of semi-solid agricultural residues as potato waste and sugar beet leaves

  6. MENDL2 and IEAF-2001 nuclide production yields data bases verification at intermediate energies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titarenko, Y. E. (Yury E.); Batyaev, V. F. (Vyacheslav F.); Zhivun, V. M. (Valery M.); Mulambetov, R. D. (Ruslan D.); Mulambetova, S. V.; Zaitsev, S. L.; Lipatov, K. A.; Mashnik, S. G. (Stepan G.); Prael, R. E. (Richard E.)

    2004-01-01

    The work presents the results of computer simulation of two experiments which aim was measuring the threshold activation reaction rates in {sup 12}C, {sup 19}F, {sup 27}Al, {sup 59}Co, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 93}Nb, {sup 115}In, {sup 169}Tm, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 197}Au, and {sup 209}Bi thin samples placed inside and outside the 0.8-GeV proton-irradiated 4-cm thick W target and 92-cm thick W-Na composite target of 15-cm diameter both. In total, more than 1000 values of activation reaction were determined in the both experiments. The measured reaction rates were compared with the rates simulated by the LAHET code with the use of several nuclear databases for the respective excitation functions, namely, MENDL2/2P for neutron/proton cross sections up to 100 MeV, and recently developed IEAF-2001 that provides neutron cross sections up to 150 MeV. The comparison between the simulation-to-experiment agreements obtained via the MENDL2 and IEAF-2001 is presented. The agreement between simulation and experiment has been found generally satisfactory for both of the databases. The high-energy threshold excitation functions to be used in the activation-based unfolding of neutron spectra inside the Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), particularly with Na-cooled W targets, can be inferred from the results.

  7. Quantifying the decrease of the photovoltaic panels' energy yield due to phenomena of natural air pollution disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Kokala, A. [Lab of Soft Energy Applications and Environmental Protection, TEI of Piraeus, P.O. Box 41046, Athens 12201 (Greece)

    2010-12-15

    Photovoltaic (PV) applications, gaining worldwide interest during the last years, comprise a promising renewable energy based solution, able to considerably contribute to the constantly increasing energy demand of our planet. Currently, residential applications possess a considerable share of the global PV market since fiscal and practical incentives have reinforced their promotion. On the other hand, high population concentration, rapid industrialisation and economic development of urban areas all over the world have caused significant degradation of the urban air quality. In this context, the actual performance of five identical pairs of roof-top PV-panels, operating in the aggravated urban environment of Athens (from the atmospheric air pollution point of view), is currently evaluated. For this purpose, a series of systematic experimental measurements is conducted within a certain time period and the influence of different dust deposition densities on the energy yield and the economic performance of the small power station is estimated. According to the results obtained, the presence of dust considerably affects the PV-panels' performance since even a relatively small dust deposition density ({approx}1 g/m{sup 2}) may result in remarkable energy losses corresponding almost to 40 EUR/kW{sub p} on an annual basis. (author)

  8. Quantifying the decrease of the photovoltaic panels' energy yield due to phenomena of natural air pollution disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Kokala, A.

    2010-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) applications, gaining worldwide interest during the last years, comprise a promising renewable energy based solution, able to considerably contribute to the constantly increasing energy demand of our planet. Currently, residential applications possess a considerable share of the global PV market since fiscal and practical incentives have reinforced their promotion. On the other hand, high population concentration, rapid industrialisation and economic development of urban areas all over the world have caused significant degradation of the urban air quality. In this context, the actual performance of five identical pairs of roof-top PV-panels, operating in the aggravated urban environment of Athens (from the atmospheric air pollution point of view), is currently evaluated. For this purpose, a series of systematic experimental measurements is conducted within a certain time period and the influence of different dust deposition densities on the energy yield and the economic performance of the small power station is estimated. According to the results obtained, the presence of dust considerably affects the PV-panels' performance since even a relatively small dust deposition density (∼1 g/m 2 ) may result in remarkable energy losses corresponding almost to 40 EUR/kW p on an annual basis. (author)

  9. Wekiva Basin onsite sewage treatment and disposal system study

    OpenAIRE

    Booher, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Existing onsite systems and aquifer vulnerability in the Wekiva Basin. Recommendations from the Bureau of Onsite Sewage Programs, Division of Environmental Health, Florida Department of Health. (11 slides)

  10. Survey report on the status of new energy in the U.S. On-site research centering on fuel cell, hydrogen energy, and wind energy (4th World Energy Engineering Congress); Beikoku shin energy jijo chosa hokokusho. Nenryo denchi, suiso furyoku energy wo chushin to suru jicchi chosa (dai 4 kai World Energy Engineering Congress)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-02-01

    A survey group dispatched by the New Energy Industrial Forum technical development committee conduct researches into the status of technologies in the U.S. relative to fuel cells, hydrogen energy, and wind energy. The group also attend the 4th World Energy Engineering Congress. As for the research and development of the phosphoric acid fuel cell, it is undertaken by the United Technology Corporation, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and the Engelhard Corporation, each having its own peculiar technologies and thereby avoiding competition with others in one and the same domain. As for the molten carbonate fuel cell, the Argonne National Laboratory is entrusted with the control of technology development, and the Laboratory in turn requests the United Technology Corporation and Westinghouse Electric Corporation to develop technologies and systems. As for the solid oxide fuel cell, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation is entrusted with its development through the intermediary of the Argonne National Laboratory. As for hydrogen energy, the General Electric Company and Westinghouse Electric Corporation develop hydrogen production systems and the Brookhaven National Laboratory develops hydrogen storage systems using metallic hydrides. As for wind power generation, a Bendix-made 3,000kW wind power plant is visited and discussion is held on it. (NEDO)

  11. CTBT on-site inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, J. J.

    2014-05-01

    On-site inspection (OSI) is a critical part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The OSI verification regime provides for international inspectors to make a suite of measurements and observations on site at the location of an event of interest. The other critical component of the verification regime is the International Monitoring System (IMS), which is a globally distributed network of monitoring stations. The IMS along with technical monitoring data from CTBT member countries, as appropriate, will be used to trigger an OSI. After the decision is made to carry out an OSI, it is important for the inspectors to deploy to the field site rapidly to be able to detect short-lived phenomena such as the aftershocks that may be observable after an underground nuclear explosion. The inspectors will be on site from weeks to months and will be working with many tens of tons of equipment. Parts of the OSI regime will be tested in a field exercise in the country of Jordan late in 2014. The build-up of the OSI regime has been proceeding steadily since the CTBT was signed in 1996 and is on track to becoming a deterrent to someone considering conducting a nuclear explosion in violation of the Treaty.

  12. An investigation into the energy use in relation to yield of traditional crops in central Himalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Abhishek; Saradhi, P. Pardha; Rao, K.S.; Saxena, K.G.; Maikhuri, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    yields are restricted due to availability of manure, moisture and labour. → Energy efficiencies of resource use in agricultural system help us in achieving the goal of sustainable development.

  13. The development of an on-site container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.; McAllaster, M.E.; Jones, P.L.; McKinney, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a package for the on-site transport of chemical munitions for the US Army. This package was designed to prevent the release of lethal quantities of chemical agents during transportation of munitions to the demilitarization facilities on-site. The packaging prevents auto-ignition of the munitions by limiting the thermal and structural assault on the munitions during an accident. This package, with some modifications to account for contents, may be suitable for the on-site transport of mixed wastes at United States Department of Energy facilities. This paper discusses the design and verification testing of the package. The safety criteria for the package were modeled after the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) hypothetical accident sequence and modified to take credit for operational controls. The modified accident sequence consisted of drop, puncture, and thermal events. The post-accident leak rate was established to prevent harm to an exposed worker. The packaging has a mass of 8600 kg and can accommodate up to 3600 kg of contents. The interior of the package is 188 cm in diameter and 232 cm long. Two sample ports can be used to sample the interior of the package prior to opening the closure and an o-ring test port can be used to determine the leak rates prior to and after transport

  14. A Study of Mutation Breeding of High-Yielding Tryptophanase Escherichia coli by Low-Energy N+ Ion Beam Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Min; Yao Jianming; Wang Dongmei

    2009-01-01

    Low energy ion beam has been widely applied in microbe breeding, plant breeding, gene transfer and cell modification. In this study, the Escherichia coli (E.coli) strain producing tryptophanase was irradiated by a low energy nitrogen ion beam with an energy of 10 keV at a fluence of 13 x 10 14 N + /cm 2 when glycerin at a 15% concentration was used as a protector. The effect on the biomass of E. coli after N + implantation was analyzed in detail by statistic methods. The screening methods used in this study were proven to be effective. After continuous mutagenicity, a high-yield tryptophanase strain was selected and both its biomass and enzymatic activity were higher than those of the parent strain. The results of scale-up production showed that the biomass could reach wet weight 8.2 g/L and 110 g L-tryptophan could be formed in the volume of the 1l enzymatic reaction system.

  15. Pollution abatement with peat onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, J L [University of Maine, Orano, ME (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of onsite wastewater treatment is to provide economical removal of dissolved nutrients, pathogens and other contaminates from septic tank effluent to avoid the pollution of groundwater or creation of other health hazards. The effective use of conventional soil adsorption systems is limited by a number of factors including site characteristics, soil type and condition, and the proximity of the system to surface waters or a source of potable water. On adverse sites, where the use of conventional subsurface soil adsorption systems does not provide acceptable levels of treatment, Sphagnum peat may be used as an economical method of onsite wastewater treatment. The peat system, when properly designed and constructed, is relatively simple to install, requires minimal energy and maintenance, and provides a high quality effluent without additional disinfection. 19 refs.

  16. On energy consumption for size-reduction and yields from subsequent enzymatic saccharification of pretreated lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W; Zhu, J Y; Gleisner, R; Pan, X J

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of chemical pretreatment and disk-milling conditions on energy consumption for size-reduction and the efficiency of enzymatic cellulose saccharification of a softwood. Lodgepole pine wood chips produced from thinnings of a 100-year-old unmanaged forest were pretreated by hot-water, dilute-acid, and two SPORL processes (Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome Recalcitrance of Lignocellulose) at acid charge on oven dry (od) wood of 0% and 2.21%. The pretreated wood chips were then milled using a laboratory disk mill under various solids-loadings and disk-plate gaps to produce substrates for enzymatic hydrolysis. We found that post-chemical-pretreatment size-reduction of forest biomass can decrease size-reduction energy consumption by 20-80% depending on the pretreatment applied under 20% solids-loading and a disk-plate gap of 0.76 mm in milling. SPORL with a sodium bisulfite charge of 8% and sulfuric acid charge of 2.21% on wood was the most effective in decreasing size-reduction energy consumption. Solids-loading had the most significant effect on disk-milling energy. When solids-loading was reduced from 30% to 3%, disk-milling energy could be decreased by more than a factor of 10 for wood chips pretreated by both SPORL and dilute-acid at an acid charge of 2.21%. The enzymatic hydrolysis glucose yields (EHGY) from the substrates produced by all pretreatments were independent of the solids-loading in milling, indicating that these energy savings in size-reduction can be realized without affecting EHGY. When wood chips were pretreated by SPORL with 2.21% acid charge, size-reduction energy consumption was decreased to less than 50 Wh/kg od wood at a practical solids-loading of approximately 10-20%, equivalent to that used in size-reduction of agriculture biomass, with excellent EHGY of about 370 g per kg od wood. Similar effects on size-reduction energy savings and excellent EHGY were also achieved when large disk-plate gaps (up to 1.52 mm

  17. Simultaneous harvesting of straw and chaff for energy purposes : influence on bale density, yield, field drying process and combustion characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, G. [JTI Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden); Ronnback, M. [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boras (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    The potential to increase the productivity of fuel straw harvest and transportation was examined. When harvesting straw for energy purposes, only the long fraction is currently collected. However, technological improvements have now rendered it possible to harvest chaff, thus increasing the amount of harvest residues and bale density. The purpose of this study was to determine how harvest yield, bale density, field-drying behaviour and combustion characteristics are affected by the simultaneous harvest of straw and chaff. Field experiments were conducted in 2009 for long- and short-stalked winter wheat crops. Combine harvesting was carried out with 2 different types of combine harvesters. A high-density baler was used to bale the crop residues. Mixing chaff in with the straw swath by combine harvesting gave a lower initial moisture content compared with straw only. The density and the weight of each bale were not affected by the treatments. However, the added chaff increased the total yield of crop residues by 14 per cent, indicating that about half of the biologically available chaff was harvested. Although mixing in chaff increased the ash content by 1 percentage unit, there was no considerable change in net calorific value or ash melting behaviour.

  18. High yielding tropical energy crops for bioenergy production: Effects of plant components, harvest years and locations on biomass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, K C; Ogoshi, Richard; Zaleski, Halina M; Hashimoto, Andrew G; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2018-03-01

    The composition of lignocellulosic feedstock, which depends on crop type, crop management, locations and plant parts, significantly affects the conversion efficiency of biomass into biofuels and biobased products. Thus, this study examined the composition of different parts of two high yielding tropical energy crops, Energycane and Napier grass, collected across three locations and years. Significantly higher fiber content was found in the leaves of Energycane than stems, while fiber content was significantly higher in the stems than the leaves of Napier grass. Similarly, fiber content was higher in Napier grass than Energycane. Due to significant differences in biomass composition between the plant parts within a crop type, neither biological conversion, including anaerobic digestion, nor thermochemical pretreatment alone is likely to efficiently convert biomass components into biofuels and biobased products. However, combination of anaerobic digestion with thermochemical conversion technologies could efficiently utilize biomass components in generating biofuels and biobased products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Delgass, W. N. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Ribeiro, F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-08-31

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H2Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H2) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H2 is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H2Bioilprocess for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on

  20. Fiscal 2000 survey report. On-site survey of local state of affairs such as energy efficiency enhancement (Mongolia); 2000 nendo energy shohi koritsuka nado chiiki josei genchi chosa hokokusho. Mongoru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Information was collected and surveys were conducted in Mongolia in an effort to acquire information necessary for energy related technical cooperation. The results were arranged in four fields which are (1) the current state of economy and the future trend, (2) current state of energy production/consumption and the future trend, (3) current state of power supply/demand and power facilities and the future trend, and (4) the current state of energy efficiency enhancement and the future trend. Mongolia has a population of 2.45 million at a density of 1.57/km{sup 2}, with Ulan Bator the capital inhabited by 0.69-million people. The mean air temperature is -10 degrees C in the period November through March, which makes heating indispensable. Power stations are of the heat and power cogeneration type. Power is supplied by the Eastern, Central, and Western systems, with the Central system producing 80% or more and independent power sources 10%. Its economy has already recovered from the confusion that followed the change of its national constitution. Mongolia's demand for power lingers low, however, and its facilities can produce more electricity than what is now wanted. Energy efficiency enhancing activities should start with the upgrading, reinforcement, and maintenance of the existing facilities and with independent power sources. (NEDO)

  1. Calculation of total free energy yield as an alternative approach for predicting the importance of potential chemolithotrophic reactions in geothermal springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A; McDonald, Austin I; Hedlund, Brian P

    2012-08-01

    To inform hypotheses regarding the relative importance of chemolithotrophic metabolisms in geothermal environments, we calculated free energy yields of 26 chemical reactions potentially supporting chemolithotrophy in two US Great Basin hot springs, taking into account the effects of changing reactant and product activities on the Gibbs free energy as each reaction progressed. Results ranged from 1.2 × 10(-5) to 3.6 J kg(-1) spring water, or 3.7 × 10(-5) to 11.5 J s(-1) based on measured flow rates, with aerobic oxidation of CH(4) or NH4 + giving the highest average yields. Energy yields calculated without constraining pH were similar to those at constant pH except for reactions where H(+) was consumed, which often had significantly lower yields when pH was unconstrained. In contrast to the commonly used normalization of reaction chemical affinities per mole of electrons transferred, reaction energy yields for a given oxidant varied by several orders of magnitude and were more sensitive to differences in the activities of products and reactants. The high energy yield of aerobic ammonia oxidation is consistent with previous observations of significant ammonia oxidation rates and abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaea in sediments of these springs. This approach offers an additional lens through which to view the thermodynamic landscape of geothermal springs. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Conservation of fusion reaction optimum yield in focused discharges with variable voltage and energy but constant geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, L.; Bortolotti, A.; Brzosko, J.; DeChiara, P.; Kilic, H.; Mezzetti, F.; Nardi, V.; Powell, C.; Wang, J.

    1992-01-01

    The D-D fusion reaction yield per pulse, Y n , of focused discharges is monitored by changing the capacitor bank voltage Vo by a factor 2 without any change of construction parameters and of the filling gas pressure of two plasma focus machines PF1 (C1 congruent 50 microfarad, L1 congruent 20 nanohenry) and PF2 (C2 = 1.2Cl, L2 = 2L1). The interval Δ = 1 ± (ΔW)/W of the capacitor bank energy values W on which the scaling Y n ∼ W 2 applies is greater for PF2, where the corresponding variation ΔI2 of the peak electrode current I2 is smaller (in agreement with Lw/C2 > L1/C1) than for PF1. Suitable figure of merit (in terms of ΔI, ΔW, L, C, etc.) are used for determining the relative importance of (i), the induced variations of the pinch fine structure and of (ii), the variations of the insulator surface at the PF breech, with bearing on the initial stage of the current sheath formation. Schlieren and magnetic probe data monitor the current sheath structure and propagation speed. The D + ion emission from the pinch is monitored in the energy interval 50 keV to 25 MeV for clarifying the links between the pinch fine structure and the set of leading macroscopic parameters of the PF discharges

  3. The impact of silicon solar cell architecture and cell interconnection on energy yield in hot & sunny climates

    KAUST Repository

    Haschke, Jan

    2017-03-23

    Extensive knowledge of the dependence of solar cell and module performance on temperature and irradiance is essential for their optimal application in the field. Here we study such dependencies in the most common high-efficiency silicon solar cell architectures, including so-called Aluminum back-surface-field (BSF), passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC), passivated emitter rear totally diffused (PERT), and silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. We compare measured temperature coefficients (TC) of the different electrical parameters with values collected from commercial module data sheets. While similar TC values of the open-circuit voltage and the short circuit current density are obtained for cells and modules of a given technology, we systematically find that the TC under maximum power-point (MPP) conditions is lower in the modules. We attribute this discrepancy to additional series resistance in the modules from solar cell interconnections. This detrimental effect can be reduced by using a cell design that exhibits a high characteristic load resistance (defined by its voltage-over-current ratio at MPP), such as the SHJ architecture. We calculate the energy yield for moderate and hot climate conditions for each cell architecture, taking into account ohmic cell-to-module losses caused by cell interconnections. Our calculations allow us to conclude that maximizing energy production in hot and sunny environments requires not only a high open-circuit voltage, but also a minimal series-to-load-resistance ratio.

  4. Assessment of On-Site Power Opportunities in the Industrial Sector; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify the potential for on-site power generation in the U.S. industrial sector with emphasis on nine industrial groups called the ''Industries of the Future'' (IOFs) by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through its Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), the DOE has teamed with the IOFs to develop collaborative strategies for improving productivity, global competitiveness, energy usage and environmental performance. Total purchases for electricity and steam for the IOFs are in excess of$27 billion annually. Energy-related costs are very significant for these industries. The nine industrial groups are: (1) Agriculture (SIC 1); (2) Forest products; (3) Lumber and wood products (SIC 24); (4) Paper and allied products (SIC 26); (5) Mining (SIC 11, 12, 14); (6) Glass (SIC 32); (7) Petroleum (SIC 29); (8) Chemicals (SIC 28); and (9) Metals (SIC 33)-Steel, Aluminum, Metal casting. Although not currently part of the IOF program, the food industry is included in this report because of its close relationship to the agricultural industry and its success with on-site power generation. On-site generation provides an alternative means to reduce energy costs, comply with environmental regulations, and ensure a reliable power supply. On-site generation can ease congestion in the local utility's electric grid. Electric market restructuring is exacerbating the price premium for peak electricity use and for reliability, creating considerable market interest in on-site generation

  5. Determination of the biogas and methane yield of selected energy crops. [NAchWAchsende ROhstoffe]; Ermittlung der Biogas- und Methanausbeute ausgewaehlter Nawaro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohl, Susanne

    2011-11-15

    The aim of this paper is the characterization of substrate quality and methane yield of different energy crops, which were cultivated in Schleswig-Holstein. The specific methane production of 224 variants was determined in with Hohenheim biogas yield test (HBT), 72 variants were investigated in a common batch test. The specific methane production (HBT) is 359-371 l{sub N}/kg{sub oDM} for wheat, 358-378 l{sub N}/kg{sub oDM} for maize and 341-372 l{sub N}/kg{sub oDM} for perennial ryegrass. The results for the specific methane production are due to a systematic offset in the batch experiment always below those of the HBT. Silages achieve higher gas yields than fresh substrates. The mass losses, which occur during ensiling, were compensated due to the higher gas yields. Maize is compared with other energy crops superior in terms of the yield per hectare. The experimentally determined methane yields showed a good agreement with calculated theoretical methane yields (method of WEIssBACH 2008, 2009).

  6. Department of Energy's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), October 20--24, 1980: A special report prepared for the Nuclear Facilities Personnel Qualification and Training Committee: An independent on-site safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The intent of this on-site safety review was to make a broad management assessment of HFIR operations, rather than conduct a detailed in-depth audit. The result of the review should only be considered as having identified trends or indications. The Team's observations and recommendations are based upon licensed reactor facility practices used to meet industry standards. For the most part, these standards form the basis for many of the comments in this report. The Team believes that a uniform minimum standard of performance should be achieved in the operation of DOE reactors. In order to assure that this is accomplished, clear standards are necessary. Consistent with the provisions of past AEC and ERDA policy, the Team has used the standards of the commercial nuclear power industry. It is recognized that this approach is conservative in that the HFIR reactor has a significantly greater degree of inherent safety (low temperature, low pressure, low power) than a licensed reactor

  7. Measurement of activation yields for platinum group elements using Bremsstrahlung radiation with end-point energies in the range 11-14 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tickner, James, E-mail: james.tickner@csiro.a [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, PMB 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Bencardino, Raffaele; Roach, Greg [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, PMB 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    Activation yields have been measured for (gamma,n) reactions of the elements Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt. Metallic foils of natural isotopic composition were irradiated using Bremsstrahlung radiation produced from an electron linear accelerator operated with electron beam energies in the range 11-14 MeV. Activation products, including both unstable ground states and metastates were measured using a high-purity germanium detector. Cross-sections were estimated from the yield data by assuming a simple two-parameter model for the shape of the cross-section with energy.

  8. Measurement of activation yields for platinum group elements using Bremsstrahlung radiation with end-point energies in the range 11-14 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tickner, James; Bencardino, Raffaele; Roach, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Activation yields have been measured for (γ,n) reactions of the elements Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt. Metallic foils of natural isotopic composition were irradiated using Bremsstrahlung radiation produced from an electron linear accelerator operated with electron beam energies in the range 11-14 MeV. Activation products, including both unstable ground states and metastates were measured using a high-purity germanium detector. Cross-sections were estimated from the yield data by assuming a simple two-parameter model for the shape of the cross-section with energy.

  9. On-site emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1981-01-01

    This lecture covers the Emergency Planning of the Operating Organization and does not describe the functions and responsibilities of the Regulatory Body and public authorities. The lecture is based on the Codes of Practice and Safety Guides of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and arrangements as in use in the Swiss Nuclear Power Station Beznau. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of spectral effects on the energy yield of different PV (photovoltaic) technologies: The case of four specific sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Abella, M.; Chenlo, F.; Nofuentes, G.; Torres-Ramírez, M.

    2014-01-01

    This work is aimed at looking into the impact of the solar spectrum distribution on the energy yield of some PV (photovoltaic) materials on both monthly and annual time scales. The relative spectral responses of eight different PV solar cells – representative of each considered technology – have been selected. Modeling solar spectra in four sites located in the north hemisphere together with a 12-month experimental campaign in which spectral irradiances were periodically recorded in two of these sites located in Spain have provided highly interesting results. Regardless of the site, the considered amorphous silicon and cadmium telluride PV cells experience the most noticeable modeled and experimental variations of their monthly spectral gains, whilst flatter seasonal ones are identified in the remaining considered PV technologies. Thus, the maximum monthly variations of these spectral gains take place in the a-Si PV cell, ranging from −16% (winter) to 4% (summer) in Stuttgart. Anyway, the monthly spread of the spectral effects decreases as the latitude of the site does. Last, the impact of the solar spectrum distribution is remarkably reduced when the period of integration is enlarged up to a year. In fact, annual spectral gains keep below 2.2% for all the studied technologies and sites. - Highlights: • Monthly and annual spectral effects on eight different PV (photovoltaic) technologies studied. • Modeled spectra in four sites combined with relative spectral responses. • Measured spectra (12 months) in two sites combined with relative spectral responses. • Higher bandgap technologies: noticeable monthly variations in their spectral gains. • Annual spectral gains keep below 2.2% for all the studied technologies and sites

  11. Water Ice Radiolytic O2, H2, and H2O2 Yields for Any Projectile Species, Energy, or Temperature: A Model for Icy Astrophysical Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teolis, B. D.; Plainaki, C.; Cassidy, T. A.; Raut, U.

    2017-10-01

    O2, H2, and H2O2 radiolysis from water ice is pervasive on icy astrophysical bodies, but the lack of a self-consistent, quantitative model of the yields of these water products versus irradiation projectile species and energy has been an obstacle to estimating the radiolytic oxidant sources to the surfaces and exospheres of these objects. A major challenge is the wide variation of O2 radiolysis yields between laboratory experiments, ranging over 4 orders of magnitude from 5 × 10-7 to 5 × 10-3 molecules/eV for different particles and energies. We revisit decades of laboratory data to solve this long-standing puzzle, finding an inverse projectile range dependence in the O2 yields, due to preferential O2 formation from an 30 Å thick oxygenated surface layer. Highly penetrating projectile ions and electrons with ranges ≳30 Å are therefore less efficient at producing O2 than slow/heavy ions and low-energy electrons (≲ 400 eV) which deposit most energy near the surface. Unlike O2, the H2O2 yields from penetrating projectiles fall within a comparatively narrow range of (0.1-6) × 10-3 molecules/eV and do not depend on range, suggesting that H2O2 forms deep in the ice uniformly along the projectile track, e.g., by reactions of OH radicals. We develop an analytical model for O2, H2, and H2O2 yields from pure water ice for electrons and singly charged ions of any mass and energy and apply the model to estimate possible O2 source rates on several icy satellites. The yields are upper limits for icy bodies on which surface impurities may be present.

  12. Impact of onsite solar generation on system load demand forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Pedro, Hugo T.C.; Coimbra, Carlos F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We showed the impact onsite solar generation on system demand load forecast. • Forecast performance degrades by 9% and 3% for 1 h and 15 min forecast horizons. • Error distribution for onsite case is best characterized as t-distribution. • Relation between error, solar penetration and solar variability is characterized. - Abstract: Net energy metering tariffs have encouraged the growth of solar PV in the distribution grid. The additional variability associated with weather-dependent renewable energy creates new challenges for power system operators that must maintain and operate ancillary services to balance the grid. To deal with these issues power operators mostly rely on demand load forecasts. Electric load forecast has been used in power industry for a long time and there are several well established load forecasting models. But the performance of these models for future scenario of high renewable energy penetration is unclear. In this work, the impact of onsite solar power generation on the demand load forecast is analyzed for a community that meets between 10% and 15% of its annual power demand and 3–54% of its daily power demand from a solar power plant. Short-Term Load Forecasts (STLF) using persistence, machine learning and regression-based forecasting models are presented for two cases: (1) high solar penetration and (2) no penetration. Results show that for 1-h and 15-min forecasts the accuracy of the models drops by 9% and 3% with high solar penetration. Statistical analysis of the forecast errors demonstrate that the error distribution is best characterized as a t-distribution for the high penetration scenario. Analysis of the error distribution as a function of daily solar penetration for different levels of variability revealed that the solar power variability drives the forecast error magnitude whereas increasing penetration level has a much smaller contribution. This work concludes that the demand forecast error distribution

  13. SICOM: On-site inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serna, J.J.; Quecedo, M.; Fernandez, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    As the irradiation conditions become more demanding for the fuel than in the past, there is a need for surveillance programs to gather in-reactor operating experience. The data obtained in these programs can be used to assess the performance of current fuel designs and the improvements incorporated to the fuel assembly design, the performance of the advanced cladding alloys, etc. In these regards, valuable data is obtained from on-site fuel inspections. These on-site data comprise fuel assembly dimensional data such as length and distortion (tilt, twist and bow) and fuel rod data such as length and oxide thickness. These data have to be reliable and accurate to be useful thus, demanding a high precision inspection equipment. However, the inspection equipment has to be also robust and flexible enough to operate in the plant spent fuel pool and, sometimes, without interfering in the works carried out during a plant outage. To meet these requirements, during the past years ENUSA and TECNATOM have developed two on-site inspection systems. While the first system can perform most of the typical measurements in a stand-alone manner thus, without interfering with the critical path of the reload, the second one reduces the inspection time but requires using the plant capabilities. The paper describes both equipment for fuel on-site inspection, their characteristics and main features. (author)

  14. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  15. Requirements of on-site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchardt, H.

    1977-01-01

    1) Requirements of on-site facilities: a) brief description of supplying the site with electricity and water; communication facilities, b) necessary facilities for containment and pipeline installation, c) necessary facilities for storage, safety, accommodation of personnel, housing; workshops; 2) Site management: a) Organisation schedules for 'turn-key-jobs' and 'single commission', b) Duties of the supervisory staff. (orig.) [de

  16. Energetic conversion of European semi-natural grassland silages through the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass: energy yields and the fate of organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensgen, Frank; Bühle, Lutz; Donnison, Iain; Heinsoo, Katrin; Wachendorf, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Twelve European habitat types were investigated to determine the influence of the IFBB technique (integrated generation of biogas and solid fuel from biomass) on the fate of organic compounds and energy yields of semi-natural grassland biomass. Concentration of organic compounds in silage and IFBB press cake (PC), mass flows within that system and methane yields of IFBB press fluids (PF) were determined. The gross energy yield of the IFBB technique was calculated in comparison to hay combustion (HC) and whole crop digestion (WCD). The IFBB treatment increased fibre and organic matter (OM) concentrations and lowered non-fibre carbohydrates and crude protein concentrations. The PF was highly digestible irrespective of habitat types, showing mean methane yields between 312.1 and 405.0 LN CH4 kg(-1) VS. Gross energy yields for the IFBB system (9.75-30.19MWh ha(-1)) were in the range of HC, outperformed WCD and were influenced by the habitat type. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Noble-gas ion sputtering yield of gold and copper: Dependence on the energy and angle of incidence of the projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva-Florio, A.; Baragiola, R.A.; Jakas, M.M.; Alonso, E.V.; Ferron, J.

    1987-02-15

    We have measured the sputtering yield of Au and Cu targets as a function of energy and the angle of incidence of noble-gas projectiles in the energy range 2--50 keV. The experimental results were compared with the analytical theory of sputtering and with computer simulations. Our study indicates that the linear-cascade model is applicable only asymptotically for low nuclear stopping powers.

  18. Use of Direct and Indirect Estimates of Crown Dimensions to Predict One Seed Juniper Woody Biomass Yield for Alternative Energy Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the western United States there is increased interest in utilizing woodland biomass as an alternative energy source. We conducted a pilot study to predict one seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) chip yield from tree-crown dimensions measured on the ground or derived from Very Large Scale ...

  19. Fighting against a misconception about the Energy Yielding Metabolism: a proposal for starting the teaching of human nutrition in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Souza Silva

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that undergraduate and high school students share two contradictory concep- tions  regarding  the  energy  yielding  metabolism  (EYM:  the  incorrect  notion  that only glucose can be used for ATP  production together  with  more appropriated conception  according  to which other molecules,  mainly  lipids can also be used for ATP  production.  We have  deepened  the  study  about the origin of such conceptual  profile. Using questionnaires, we have determined that 7th grade school students do not  present  the  erroneous  conception,  but those  from the 8th  grade  (and  later  grades do.  This  finding has led us to  propose  the  hypothesis  that the wrong conception  may  emerge as a result of formal learning during 8th grade.  Indeed, the analysis of 8th grade textbooks  showed that the carbohydrates were associated  mainly  with  energy production by the  cells, while proteins  and  lipids were regarded  only as structural and storage  molecules, respectively.  In addition, only the glycolytic pathway was taught in high school, reinforcing  the  misconception.   We have also demonstrated that the conceptual  profile was widely distributed among students from different schools of different regions of the Rio de Janeiro  state,  reinforcing the importance of reformulation of the teaching of EYM-related topics  both  in grade  and  high schools.  Here we describe  the  development and  the  evaluation of an investigation-based approach  to human  nutrition to be used with  8th grade  students.  This  method- ology is based  in the  use of the  nutritional tables  found  in Brazilian  food packages  and  allows the students to identify not only which of the main nutrients do contain  calories (and thus can be used for,, energy production,, but the amount of calories found in 1g of each of them.  The methodology wastested

  20. Rate Structures for Customers With Onsite Generation: Practice and Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, L.; Takahashi, K.; Weston, F.; Murray, C.

    2005-12-01

    Recognizing that innovation and good public policy do not always proclaim themselves, Synapse Energy Economics and the Regulatory Assistance Project, under a contract with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), undertook a survey of state policies on rates for partial-requirements customers with onsite distributed generation. The survey investigated a dozen or so states. These varied in geography and the structures of their electric industries. By reviewing regulatory proceedings, tariffs, publications, and interviews, the researchers identified a number of approaches to standby and associated rates--many promising but some that are perhaps not--that deserve policymakers' attention if they are to promote the deployment of cost-effective DG in their states.

  1. Statistical evaluation of fuel yield and morphological variates for some promising energy plantation tree species in western Rajasthan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalla, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Stepwise regression analysis suggested that tree height and collar diameter were, in general, the morphological parameters that most reliably predicted fuel yield in Acacia nilotica, A. tortilis, Albizzia lebbek, Azadirachta indica and Prosopis juliflora.

  2. Liability for on-site nuclear property damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neems, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Typically, liability for on-site property addressed in contracts between operator and its suppliers. Nuclear power plant operators ordinarily protect themselves against risk of nuclear damage to on-site property by insurance. Nuclear liability laws do not specifically address liability for nuclear damage to on-site property. Nuclear plant owners should address risk of damage to on-site property when developing risk management program

  3. Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Energy Recovery from Co-Feeding of Cotton Gin Trash, Cow Manure, and Microalgae: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad Usman; Capareda, Sergio C.; Iqbal, Hamid; Arazo, Renato Ortiz; Baig, Muhammad Anwar

    2016-01-01

    The intensive search of new and cleaner energy catches interest in recent years due to huge consumption of fossil fuels coupled with the challenge of energy and environmental sustainability. Production of renewable and environmentally benign energy from locally available raw materials is coming in the frontline. In this work, conversion of the combined biomass (cotton gin trash, cow manure, and Microalgae [Nannochloropsis oculata]) through batch pyrolysis has been investigated. The effect of temperature to the production of energy fuels such as bio-oil, char, and biogas have been simulated considering the yield and energy content as responses. Result of the investigation generally revealed that the proportions of the different biomass did not significantly affect the product yield and energy recovery. Significant effect of temperature is evident in the simulation result of energy recovery whereby maximum conversion was achieved at 400°C for char (91 wt%), 600°C for syngas (22 wt%), and 551°C for bio-oil (48 wt%). Overall energy conversion efficiency of 75.5% was obtained at 589°C in which 15.6 MJ/kg of mixed biomass will be elevated to pyrolysis products. PMID:27043929

  4. Diffusion-enhanced Förster resonance energy transfer and the effects of external quenchers and the donor quantum yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Maik H; Dsouza, Roy N; Ghosh, Indrajit; Norouzy, Amir; Schwarzlose, Thomas; Nau, Werner M

    2013-01-10

    The structural and dynamic properties of a flexible peptidic chain codetermine its biological activity. These properties are imprinted in intrachain site-to-site distances as well as in diffusion coefficients of mutual site-to-site motion. Both distance distribution and diffusion determine the extent of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two chain sites labeled with a FRET donor and acceptor. Both could be obtained from time-resolved FRET measurements if their individual contributions to the FRET efficiency could be systematically varied. Because the FRET diffusion enhancement (FDE) depends on the donor-fluorescence lifetime, it has been proposed that the FDE can be reduced by shortening the donor lifetime through an external quencher. Benefiting from the high diffusion sensitivity of short-distance FRET, we tested this concept experimentally on a (Gly-Ser)(6) segment labeled with the donor/acceptor pair naphthylalanine/2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (NAla/Dbo). Surprisingly, the very effective quencher potassium iodide (KI) had no effect at all on the average donor-acceptor distance, although the donor lifetime was shortened from ca. 36 ns in the absence of KI to ca. 3 ns in the presence of 30 mM KI. We show that the proposed approach had to fail because it is not the experimentally observed but the radiative donor lifetime that controls the FDE. Because of that, any FRET ensemble measurement can easily underestimate diffusion and might be misleading even if it employs the Haas-Steinberg diffusion equation (HSE). An extension of traditional FRET analysis allowed us to evaluate HSE simulations and to corroborate as well as generalize the experimental results. We demonstrate that diffusion-enhanced FRET depends on the radiative donor lifetime as it depends on the diffusion coefficient, a useful symmetry that can directly be applied to distinguish dynamic and structural effects of viscous cosolvents on the polymer chain. We demonstrate that the

  5. Variation on biomass yield and morphological traits of energy grasses from the genus Miscanthus during the first years of crop establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezowski, S.; Glowacka, K.; Kaczmarek, Z. [Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Strzeszynska 34, 60-479 Poznan (Poland)

    2011-02-15

    This study presents the results of investigations of variation, genotype x year interactions and genotype x year x location interactions for the yield and morphological traits of several selected clones of energy grasses of the genus Miscanthus. The analyses were performed on the best clones of selected hybrid plants, which were obtained within the species M. sinensis or are the result of interspecific hybridization of M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus. Analyses were conducted on the basis of three-year field trials at two locations. The young plants produced from in vitro cultures were planted at a density of one plant per m{sup 2}. The early stages of plant development, from planting until peak yield in the third year of cultivation, were analysed. Statistical analyses performed on the yield and morphological traits as well as changes in these characteristics over the successive years of the study showed considerable genotypic variation for traits under study. Moreover, significant genotype x year interactions as well as genotype x year x location interactions were observed in terms of yield and morphological traits. Based on the collective results of the study, we suggest that apart from M. x giganteus particularly hybrids of M. sinensis x M. sacchariflorus, should be taken into consideration in genetic and breeding studies on the improvement of yield from energy grasses of the genus Miscanthus. (author)

  6. L-shell x-ray yields and production cross-sections of molybdenum induced by low-energy highly charged argon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Juan; Xu Jinzhang; Chen Ximeng; Yang Zhihu; Shao Jianxiong; Cui Ying; Zhang Hongqiang; Gao Zhimin; Liu Yuwen

    2007-01-01

    L-shell x-ray yields of molybdenum bombarded by highly charged Ar q+ ions (q=11-16) are measured. The x-ray production cross-sections are extracted from the yields data. The energy of the incident Ar ions ranges from 200 to 350 keV. After the binding energy correction, experimental data are explained in the framework of binary-encounter-approximation (BEA). The direct ionization is treated in the united atom (UA) limit (Lapicki and Lichten 1985 Phys. Rev. A 31 1354), not in the separate atom (SA) limit. The calculation results of BEA (Gacia and Fortner 1973 Rev. Mod. Phys. 45 111) are much lower than the experimental results, while the results of binding energy modified BEA are basically in agreement with the experimental results

  7. Yield of Prompt Gamma Radiation in Slow-Neutron Induced Fission of 235U as a Function of the Total Fragment Kinetic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albinsson, H [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)

    1971-07-01

    Fission gamma radiation yields as functions of the total fragment kinetic energy were obtained for 235U thermal-neutron induced fission. The fragments were detected with silicon surface-barrier detectors and the gamma radiation with a Nal(Tl) scintillator. In some of the measurements mass selection was used so that the gamma radiation could also be measured as a function of fragment mass. Time discrimination between the fission gammas and the prompt neutrons released in the fission process was employed to reduce the background. The gamma radiation emitted during different time intervals after the fission event was studied with the help of a collimator, the position of which was changed along the path of the fission fragments. Fission-neutron and gamma-ray data of previous experiments were used for comparisons of the yields, and estimates were made of the variation of the prompt gamma-ray energy with the total fragment kinetic energy

  8. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  9. A comparative study of quantum yield and electrical energy per order (E(Eo)) for advanced oxidative decolourisation of reactive azo dyes by UV light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandham, M; Selvam, K; Swaminathan, M

    2007-06-01

    This paper evaluates the quantum yield and electrical energy per order (E(Eo)) efficiency of Reactive Orange 4 (RO4) and Reactive Yellow 14 (RY14) azo dyes by three advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Both dyes were completely decolourised by all these processes. The relative decolourisation efficiencies of these processes were in the following order: Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)/UV>UV/TiO(2)>UV/H(2)O(2). The low efficiency of UV/H(2)O(2) process is mainly due to low UV absorption by hydrogen peroxide at the 365nm. The figure of merit E(Eo) values showed that UV/H(2)O(2) process consumes more electrical energy than the other two processes. The electrical energy consumption is in the following order: UV/H(2)O(2)>UV/TiO(2)>Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)/UV. At low initial dye concentration higher quantum yield was observed in UV/TiO(2) process, whereas in photo-Fenton process higher quantum yield was observed at high initial dye concentration. The structure of dye molecule also influences the quantum yield and E(Eo) value.

  10. A comparative study of quantum yield and electrical energy per order (E Eo) for advanced oxidative decolourisation of reactive azo dyes by UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muruganandham, M.; Selvam, K.; Swaminathan, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the quantum yield and electrical energy per order (E Eo ) efficiency of Reactive Orange 4 (RO4) and Reactive Yellow 14 (RY14) azo dyes by three advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Both dyes were completely decolourised by all these processes. The relative decolourisation efficiencies of these processes were in the following order: Fe 2+ /H 2 O 2 /UV > UV/TiO 2 > UV/H 2 O 2 . The low efficiency of UV/H 2 O 2 process is mainly due to low UV absorption by hydrogen peroxide at the 365 nm. The figure of merit E Eo values showed that UV/H 2 O 2 process consumes more electrical energy than the other two processes. The electrical energy consumption is in the following order: UV/H 2 O 2 > UV/TiO 2 > Fe 2+ /H 2 O 2 /UV. At low initial dye concentration higher quantum yield was observed in UV/TiO 2 process, whereas in photo-Fenton process higher quantum yield was observed at high initial dye concentration. The structure of dye molecule also influences the quantum yield and E Eo value

  11. Carcass fabrication yields of beef steers supplemented zilpaterol hydrochloride and offered ad libitum or maintenance energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Angela N; Walter, Lee-Anne J; Nichols, Wade T; Hutcheson, John P; Lawrence, Ty E

    2018-06-04

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the fabrication yields of carcasses from beef steers supplemented zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and fed at maintenance (MA) or ad libitum (AB) intake levels. Beef steers (n = 56) from a common sire were blocked (n = 28 per block) by terminal growth implant and sorted into pairs by BW. Four pairs (n = 8) were harvested on day 0; the remaining 24 pairs (n = 48) were assigned to a dietary intake level (MA or AB) and days on feed (28 or 56 d). Within pairs of MA or AB intakes, steers harvested on day 56 were randomly assigned to supplementation of ZH (90 mg·d-1 per steer) for 20 d followed by a withdrawal period of 4 d or control (C). Steers (BW = 603.5 ± 48.1 kg) were harvested at a commercial processing facility. After a 24-h chill period, standard USDA grading procedures were used to derive a calculated yield grade and quality grade. Following grading, left carcass sides were transported to the West Texas A&M University Meat Laboratory for fabrication. Each side was fabricated into subprimals to determine individual red meat yield (RMY), trimmable fat yield (TFY), and bone yield (BY). A mixed model was used for analysis; fixed effects included treatment combinations and random effects included block and pairs. Single df contrasts tested day 0 vs. 28, day 0 vs. 56, day 28 vs. 56, MA vs. AB, and C vs. ZH. Yield of chuck eye roll differed (P = 0.05) by days on feed (0 d = 4.14, 28 d = 4.11, 56 d = 4.55%). Similarly, eye of round yield was impacted (P = 0.02) by days on feed (0 d = 1.51, 28 d = 1.37, 56 d = 1.36%). Additionally, brisket yield was altered (P < 0.01) by days on feed (0 d = 4.08, 28 d = 3.56, 56 d = 3.48%) and treatment (C = 3.34, ZH = 3.61%). For remaining subprimals, no differences (P ≥ 0.15) were detected. Furthermore, results indicated that RMY tended (P = 0.07) to differ by treatment (C = 61.35, ZH = 63.67%). Comparatively, TFY was impacted (P = 0.04) by intake (MA = 20.44, AB = 23.33%). Results from this

  12. 75 FR 66795 - TTM Technologies, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services, Aerotek, and an On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... follows: ``All workers TTM Technologies, including on-site leased workers from Kelly Services and Aerotek... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-64,993] TTM Technologies, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services, Aerotek, and an On-Site Leased Worker From Orbotech...

  13. Experimental and computer simulation study of radionuclide yields in the ADT materials irradiated with intermediate energy protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titarenko, Yu.E.; Shvedov, O.V.; Batyaev, V.F. [Inst. for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1998-11-01

    The results of measurements and computer simulations of the yields of residual product nuclei in {sup 209}Bi, {sup 208,207,206,nat}Pb, {sup 65,63}Cu, {sup 59}Co thin targets irradiated by 0.13, 1.2 and 1.5 GeV protons are presented. The yields were measured by direct high-precision {gamma}-spectrometry. The process was monitored by the {sup 27}Al(p,x){sup 24}Na reaction. 801 cross sections are presented and used in comparisons between the reaction yields obtained experimentally and simulated by the HETC, GNASH, LAHET, INUCL, CEM95, CASCADE, NUCLEUS, YIELDX, QMD and ALICE codes. (author)

  14. Criteria for onsite transfers of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opperman, E.K.; Jackson, E.J.; Eggers, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    A general description of the requirements for making onsite transfers of radioactive material is provided in Chapter 2, along with the required sequencey of activities. Various criteria for package use are identified in Chapters 3-13. These criteria provide protection against undue radiation exposure. Package shielding, containment, and surface contamination requirements are established. Criteria for providing criticality safety are enumerated in Chapter 6. Criteria for providing hazards information are established in Chapter 13. A glossary is provided

  15. Alternative Wastewater Treatment: On-Site Bio-treatment Wetlands at the Fernald Preserve Visitors Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, J.; Glassmeyer, C.; Sauer, N.; Powell, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a constructed on-site bio-treatment wetland at the Fernald Preserve Visitors Center. The use of constructed wetlands for treatment of domestic wastewater at the Fernald Preserve contributed to the award of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design platinum certification from the U.S. Green Building Council. (authors)

  16. Onsite gas storage for industrial customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikari, Y.A.

    1990-01-01

    The changing pattern of industrial gas marketing in the United States and other countries has placed new pressures on industrial users to assume responsibility for assuring their own supply. Technological changes in manufacturing processes have placed greater emphasis on assuring fuel quality and many processes can no longer tolerate near-substitutes such as distillate fuel oil and LPG. One way to take advantage of lower cost interruptible gas service contracts is to provide stand-by sources of gas onsite which can be used when the primary supply is curtailed. This paper describes the methods which an industrial gas consumer could use to store gas onsite (or close by an industrial factory) and their technical and economic advantages or limitations. The regulatory factors such as environmental and safety issues are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are described. The application of emerging technologies such as storing natural gas on adsorbents at low pressure and solid absorption in LPG are reviewed and the research needed to make them acceptable is discussed. The potential applications in the marketplace are also discussed and the economics of onsite storage of natural gas is compared to other alternatives. (author). 11 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  17. The Brookside Farm Wetland Ecosystem Treatment (WET System: A Low-Energy Methodology for Sewage Purification, Biomass Production (Yield, Flood Resilience and Biodiversity Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian C. Abrahams

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater from domestic developments, farms and agro-industrial processing can be sources of pollution in the environment; current wastewater management methods are usually machine-based, and thus energy consuming. When Permaculture Principles are used in the creation of water purification and harvesting systems, there can be multiple environmental and economic benefits. In the context of energy descent, it may be considered desirable to treat wastewater using minimal energy. The constructed wetland design presented here is a low-entropy system in which wastewater is harvested and transformed into lush and productive wetland, eliminating the requirement for non-renewable energy in water purification, and also maximising benefits: biodiversity, flood resilience and yield. In permaculture design, the high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds in sewage are viewed as valuable nutrients, resources to be harvested by a constructed wetland ecosystem and converted into useful yield. Similarly, rainwater runoff is not viewed as a problem which can cause flooding, but as a potential resource to be harvested to provide a yield. This paper presents a case study, with both water quality and productivity data, from Brookside Farm UK, where the use of Permaculture Design Principles has created a combined wastewater management and purification system, accepting all site water.

  18. Toward an optimal control strategy for sweet pepper production 2. optimization of the yield pattern and energy efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Buwalda, F.; Zwart, de H.F.; Gelder, de A.; Hemming, J.

    2006-01-01

    Sweet pepper production is characterized by large fluctuations in fruit yield in time. These fluctuations have a detrimental effect on the operational planning of labor at nursery level as well as on the efficiency of the supply chain. At the same time, the dependence of temperate zone greenhouse

  19. X-ray yields from high-energy heavy ions channeled through a crystal: their crystal thickness and projectile dependences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, C.; Takabayashi, Y.; Muranaka, T.; Masugi, S.; Azuma, T.; Komaki, K.; Hatakeyama, A.; Yamazaki, Y.; Takada, E.; Murakami, T.

    2005-01-01

    X-rays emitted from Ar 17+ , Fe 24+ and Kr 35+ ions of about 400 MeV/u transmitting through a thin Si crystal of about 20 μm thickness have been measured in a planar channeling condition and compared with those in a random incident condition. We have found that the X-ray yield from Ar 17+ ions is larger for the channeling condition than for the random incidence, while those from Fe 24+ and Kr 35+ ions are rather smaller. Such tendencies are explained by considering the projectile dependences of excitation and ionization probabilities together with X-ray emission rates. A crude simulation has qualitatively reproduced these experimental results. When the crystal thickness is small, the X-ray yield is smaller in the channeling condition than in the random incident condition, because excitation is depressed. However, for thicker crystals, the X-ray yield is larger, since the survived population of projectile-bound electrons is larger due to small ionization probabilities under the channeling condition. This inversion occurs at a specific crystal thickness depending on projectile species. Whether the thickness of the used crystal is smaller or larger than the inversion thickness determines enhancement or depression of the X-ray yield in the channeling condition

  20. Status of small reactor designs without on-site refuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    There is an ongoing interest in member states in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For the longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the small-to-medium size range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). A distinct trend in design and technology development, accounting for about half of the SMR concepts developed worldwide, is represented by small reactors without on-site refuelling. Such reactors, also known as battery-type reactors, could operate without reloading and shuffling of fuel in the core over long periods, from 5 to 25 years and beyond. Upon the advice and with the support of IAEA member states, within its Programme 1 'Nuclear Power, Fuel Cycle, and Nuclear Science', the IAEA provides a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMRs development and implementation in the 21st century, and makes this information available to all interested Member States by producing status reports and other publications dedicated to advances in SMR technology. The objective of this report is to provide Member States, including those just considering the initiation of nuclear power programmes and those already having practical experience in nuclear power, with a balanced and objective information on important development trends and

  1. The On-Site Analysis of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Bulgarelli, Andrea; Zoli, Andrea; Aboudan, Alessio; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Juan José; De Cesare, Giovanni; De Rosa, Adriano; Maier, Gernot; Lyard, Etienne; Bastieri, Denis; Lombardi, Saverio; Tosti, Gino; Bergamaschi, Sonia; Beneventano, Domenico; Lamanna, Giovanni; Jacquemier, Jean; Kosack, Karl; Antonelli, Lucio Angelo; Boisson, Catherine; Borkowski, Jerzy; Buson, Sara; Carosi, Alessandro; Conforti, Vito; Colomé, Pep; Reyes, Raquel de los; Dumm, Jon; Evans, Phil; Fortson, Lucy; Fuessling, Matthias; Gotz, Diego; Graciani, Ricardo; Gianotti, Fulvio; Grandi, Paola; Hinton, Jim; Humensky, Brian; Inoue, Susumu; Knödlseder, Jürgen; Flour, Thierry Le; Lindemann, Rico; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Markoff, Sera; Marisaldi, Martino; Neyroud, Nadine; Nicastro, Luciano; Ohm, Stefan; Osborne, Julian; Oya, Igor; Rodriguez, Jerome; Rosen, Simon; Ribo, Marc; Tacchini, Alessandro; Schüssler, Fabian; Stolarczyk, Thierry; Torresi, Eleonora; Testa, Vincenzo; Wegner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will be one of the largest ground-based very high-energy gamma-ray observatories. The On-Site Analysis will be the first CTA scientific analysis of data acquired from the array of telescopes, in both northern and southern sites. The On-Site Analysis will have two pipelines: the Level-A pipeline (also known as Real-Time Analysis, RTA) and the level-B one. The RTA performs data quality monitoring and must be able to issue automated alerts on variable and transient astrophysical sources within 30 seconds from the last acquired Cherenkov event that contributes to the alert, with a sensitivity not worse than the one achieved by the final pipeline by more than a factor of 3. The Level-B Analysis has a better sensitivity (not be worse than the final one by a factor of 2) and the results should be available within 10 hours from the acquisition of the data: for this reason this analysis could be performed at the end of an observation or next morning. The latency (in part...

  2. Microwave Energy Increases Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Yield in Human Whole Blood Due to Increased Sphingomyelin Transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Ciobanu, Flaviu; Taha, Ameer Y; Stark, Ken D

    2015-09-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) by fingertip prick collection for fatty acid profiling are becoming increasingly popular due to ease of collection, minimal invasiveness and its amenability to high-throughput analyses. Herein, we assess a microwave-assisted direct transesterification method for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from DBS. Technical replicates of human whole blood were collected and 25-μL aliquots were applied to chromatography strips prior to analysis by a standard 3-h transesterification method or microwave-assisted direct transesterification method under various power (variable vs constant), time (1-5 min) and reagent (1-10% H2SO4 in methanol) conditions. In addition, a standard method was compared to a 5-min, 30-W power microwave in 1% H2SO4 method for FAME yield from whole blood sphingomyelin, and sphingomyelin standards alone and spiked in whole blood. Microwave-assisted direct transesterification yielded no significant differences in both quantitative (nmol/100 µL) and qualitative (mol%) fatty acid assessments after as little as 1.5- and 1-min reaction times, respectively, using the variable power method and 5% H2SO4 in methanol. However, 30-W power for 5 min increased total FAME yield of the technical replicates by 14%. This increase appears largely due to higher sphingomyelin-derived FAME yield of up to 109 and 399% compared to the standard method when determined from whole blood or pure standards, respectively. In conclusion, microwave-assisted direct transesterification of DBS achieved in as little as 1-min, and 5-min reaction times increase total fatty acids primarily by significantly improving sphingomyelin-derived fatty acid yield.

  3. Survey report on the status of new energy in the U.S. On-site research centering on fuel cell, hydrogen energy, and wind energy (Westinghouse Electric Corporation); Beikoku shin energy jijo chosa hokokusho. Nenryo denchi, suiso furyoku energy wo chushin to suru jicchi chosa (Westinghouse Electric Corporation hen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-02-01

    Under the auspices of the New Energy Foundation and the New Energy Industrial Forum technical development committee, a survey team is sent to the U.S. and conducts investigations there about fuel cells, hydrogen production, wind power generation, etc. Visited in the U.S. are the Advanced Energy System Division of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation. As for the phosphoric acid fuel cell, research and development is under way so that two 7.5MW demonstration plants will start service operation by 1987. As for the solid oxide fuel cell, a performance test has completed for a 15-cell model, and a life test is now under way. There is a plan to construct a 500kW plant in 1988. In the production of hydrogen by means of the sulfur hybrid decomposition process, a laboratory model with a capacity of 2L/min was built in 1978, and a life test is now under way for the constituent materials and catalysts. In the field of wind power, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation has developed a 200kW generator, which is now in operation in Mexico, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, and Hawaii. (NEDO)

  4. On-site waste storage assuring the success of on-site, low-level nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Waste management has reached paramount importance in recent years. The successful management of radioactive waste is a key ingredient in the successful operation of any nuclear facility. This paper discusses the options available for on-site storage of low-level radioactive waste and those options that have been selected by the Department of Energy facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The focus of the paper is on quality assurance (QA) features of waste management activities such as accountability and retrievability of waste materials and waste packages, retrievability of data, waste containment, safety and environmental monitoring. Technical performance and careful documentation of that performance are goals which can be achieved only through the cooperation of numerous individuals from waste generating and waste managing organizations, engineering, QA, and environmental management

  5. Yields of clustered DNA damage induced by charged-particle radiations of similar kinetic energy per nucleon: LET dependence in different DNA microenvironments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keszenman, D.J.; Sutherland, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the linear energy transfer (LET) dependence of the biological effects of densely ionizing radiation in relation to changes in the ionization density along the track, we measured the yields and spectrum of clustered DNA damages induced by charged particles of different atomic number but similar kinetic energy per nucleon in different DNA microenvironments. Yeast DNA embedded in agarose in solutions of different free radical scavenging capacity was irradiated with 1 GeV protons, 1 GeV/nucleon oxygen ions, 980 MeV/nucleon titanium ions or 968 MeV/nucleon iron ions. The frequencies of double-strand breaks (DSBs), abasic sites and oxypurine clusters were quantified. The total DNA damage yields per absorbed dose induced in non-radioquenching solution decreased with LET, with minor variations in radioquenching conditions being detected. However, the total damage yields per particle fluence increased with LET in both conditions, indicating a higher efficiency per particle to induce clustered DNA damages. The yields of DSBs and non-DSB clusters as well as the damage spectra varied with LET and DNA milieu, suggesting the involvement of more than one mechanism in the formation of the different types of clustered damages.

  6. Long term effects of different tillage systems influencing yield and energy efficiency in maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Momirović, Nebojša; Dolijanović, Željko; Oljača, Mićo V.; Videnović, Živorad

    2011-01-01

    Adoption and improvement of different tillage systems toward agricultural sustainability has a great social, economical and environmental impact. The base of sustainability is a system productivity as ratio of output to input in a given system, measured in the same units, commonly as energy requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the aspect of energy requirements in the different soil tillage systems regarding total energy consumption under conventional tillage. The appropri...

  7. Fission-product yields for thermal-neutron fission of 243Cm determined from measurements with a high-resolution low-energy germanium gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriman, L.D.

    1984-04-01

    Cumulative fission-product yields have been determined for 13 gamma rays emitted during the decay of 12 fission products created by thermal-neutron fission of 243 Cm. A high-resolution low-energy germanium detector was used to measure the pulse-height spectra of gamma rays emitted from a 77-nanogram sample of 243 Cm after the sample had been irradiated by thermal neutrons. Analysis of the data resulted in the identification and matching of gamma-ray energies and half-lives to individual radioisotopes. From these results, 12 cumulative fission product yields were deduced for radionuclides with half-lives between 4.2 min and 84.2 min. 7 references

  8. On-site inspection: A brief overview and bibliography of techniques pertinent to assessing suspected nuclear test sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrigan, C.R.

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a brief overview and bibliography of those techniques that may have application for the evaluation of a site to determine if a high energy release event is nuclear in nature. This effort is motivated by recognition of the changing world political climate and the perception that low yield and non-proliferation issues will grow in importance as countries become increasingly involved as signators to treaties that are intended to limit the development and testing of nuclear weapons. Along with an increasing interest in such issues is the awareness of the need to implement improved capabilities for treaty monitoring programs that must deal with assessing suspicious occurrences of high energy release events. In preparing this report, it is recognized that monitoring can take two main forms. The first involves the resolution of unidentified events detected by seismic and satellite National Technical Means. Events of an indeterminate nature could occur world-wide and could induce tension in neighboring countries. If an on-site measurement capability were available, a monitoring team could be sent to the suspected site of an event to take measurements that could confirm or disprove the occurrence of a clandestine nuclear test. The second monitoring form is the confirmation that a clandestine event is not masked by a declared event. For example, a large mining explosion could mask a decoupled nuclear explosion. On-site measurements before and during the test could confirm that a clandestine event did not occur and could provide assurance that the party carrying out the explosion is not taking advantage of clandestine testing opportunities. 48 refs

  9. Mechanical energy yields and pressure volume and pressure time curves for whole core fuel-coolant interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, P [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1979-10-15

    In determining the damage consequences of a whole core Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI), one measure of the strength of a FCI that can be used and is independent of the system geometry is the constant volume mixing mechanical yield (often referred to as the Hicks-Menzies yield), which represents a near upper limit to the mechanical work of a FCI. This paper presents a recalculation of the Hicks-Menzies yields for UO{sub 2} and sodium for a range of initial fuel temperatures and fuel to coolant mass ratios, using recently published UO{sub 2} and sodium equation of state data. The work presented here takes a small number of postulated FCIs with as wide range as possible of thermal interaction parameters and determines their pressure-volume P(V) and pressure-time P(t) relations, using geometrical constraints representative of the reactor. Then by examining these P(V) and P(t) curves a representative pressure-relative volume curve or range of possible curves, for use in containment analysis, is recommended

  10. Fission fragment yields and total kinetic energy release in neutron-induced fission of235,238U,and239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovesson, F.; Duke, D.; Geppert-Kleinrath, V.; Manning, B.; Mayorov, D.; Mosby, S.; Schmitt, K.

    2018-03-01

    Different aspects of the nuclear fission process have been studied at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) using various instruments and experimental techniques. Properties of the fragments emitted in fission have been investigated using Frisch-grid ionization chambers, a Time Projection Chamber (TPC), and the SPIDER instrument which employs the 2v-2E method. These instruments and experimental techniques have been used to determine fission product mass yields, the energy dependent total kinetic energy (TKE) release, and anisotropy in neutron-induced fission of U-235, U-238 and Pu-239.

  11. Effect of CuO receptor on the liquid yield and composition of oils derived from liquefaction of coals by microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagmur, Emine; Simsek, Emir H.; Aktas, Zeki; Togrul, Taner

    2008-01-01

    The effects of microwave receptor to coal (receptor/coal) ratio and the period of heating by microwave energy on the solubilization of Turkish coals in tetralin have been investigated. CuO was used as microwave receptor. The amount of receptor and the type of coal significantly affected the yield of liquid product. The addition of the CuO receptor caused to increase in the lignite conversions to oil fractions. The yield of THF soluble fraction increased in the presence of CuO receptor, however, due to catalytic effect of CuO, the yields of preasphaltene (PAS) and asphaltene (AS) decreased. The oil fractions were obtained from the experiments treated by microwave energy in the presence of 3/5 CuO/coal ratio and in the absence of receptor for 20 min liquefaction periods. The compositions of the oil fractions were determined by GC/MS. The composition of the oil fractions of the coals strongly depends on the type of coal. It was observed that the oil fractions contain oxygenated aromatic compounds in addition to condensed aromatic structures. Considerable amounts of 3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-naphthalenone (alpha-tetralone) were found in the oil fractions of lignites treated by microwave energy

  12. YIELDS OF IONS AND EXCITED STATES IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS EXPOSED TO X-RAYS OF 1 TO 30 KEV ENERGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOLROYD, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    When x-rays from a synchrotron source are absorbed in a liquid, the x-ray energy (E x ) is converted by the photoelectric effect into the kinetic energy of the electrons released. For hydrocarbons, absorption by the K-electrons of carbon dominates. Thus the energy of the photoelectron (E pe ) is E x -E b , where E b is the K-shell binding energy of carbon. Additional electrons with energy equal to E b is released in the Auger process that fills the hole in the K-shell. These energetic electrons will produce many ionizations, excitations and products. The consequences of the high density of ionizations and excitations along the track of the photoelectron and special effects near the K-edge are examined here

  13. Mass yields in the reaction 235U(nsub(th),f) as a function of the kinetic energy and ion charge of the fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlfarth, H.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper measurements of mass- and ioncharge distributions of the lower mass 235 U(nsub(th),f)-fission products, performed with the 'Lohengrin' recoil spectrometer of the Institut Lane-Langevin at Grenoble, are reported. The uranium targets used led to an energy loss of the fission fragments of only 1 to 2 MeV, so their energy was well defined. The mass abundance have been measured for the following fragment energies: E = 83.6, 88.5, 93.4, 98.3, 103.1, 108.0, 112.0 MeV. The energy integrated mass distributions were compared with recent data collections of fission yields. For nearly all masses the abundancies agree well within the limits of error. So these maesurements can be used as an independent source of data. (orig./RW) [de

  14. Slope stability and bearing capacity of landfills and simple on-site test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Atsushi; Doi, Yoichi; Omine, Kiyoshi

    2017-07-01

    This study discusses strength characteristics (slope stability, bearing capacity, etc.) of waste landfills through on-site tests that were carried out at 29 locations in 19 sites in Japan and three other countries, and proposes simple methods to test and assess the mechanical strength of landfills on site. Also, the possibility of using a landfill site was investigated by a full-scale eccentric loading test. As a result of this, landfills containing more than about 10 cm long plastics or other fibrous materials were found to be resilient and hard to yield. An on-site full scale test proved that no differential settlement occurs. The repose angle test proposed as a simple on-site test method has been confirmed to be a good indicator for slope stability assessment. The repose angle test suggested that landfills which have high, near-saturation water content have considerably poorer slope stability. The results of our repose angle test and the impact acceleration test were related to the internal friction angle and the cohesion, respectively. In addition to this, it was found that the air pore volume ratio measured by an on-site air pore volume ratio test is likely to be related to various strength parameters.

  15. Projectile Coulomb center effects on low-energy electron emission from H[sup +][yields]Ne collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, S. (Centro Atomico Bariloche e Inst. Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, S.C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)); Garibotti, C. (Centro Atomico Bariloche e Inst. Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, S.C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina) Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)); Bernardi, G. (Centro Atomico Bariloche e Inst. Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, S.C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina) Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)); Focke, P. (Centro Atomico Bariloche e Inst. Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, S.C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)); Meckbach, W. (Centro Atomico Bariloche e Inst. Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, S.C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina) Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina))

    1994-03-01

    We present doubly differential energy distributions of low-energy electrons emitted in collisions of 106 keV H[sup +] on Ne atoms. We find a relevant dependence of the measured distribution of low-energy electrons on the physical extension of the gas target and discuss a correction procedure. Our measurements enable a quantitative analysis of the shape of the soft electron peak, which is clearly evidenced by measured contour lines. Present results indicate that ''two center effects'' must be considered in order to account for the strong asymmetry of the soft electron peak observed experimentaly. (orig.)

  16. Onsite storage facility for low level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has designed and constructed an onsite storage facility for low level radwaste (LLRW) at its Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant in northern Alabama. The paper addresses the function of this facility and provides a complete description of the reinforced concrete storage modules which are the principal structural elements of the facility. The loads and loading combinations for the design of the storage modules are defined to include the foundation design parameters. Other aspects of the modules that are addressed are; the structural roof elements that provide access to the modules, shielding requirements for the LLRW, and tornado missile considerations

  17. Eco-friendly dry chemo-mechanical pretreatments of lignocellulosic biomass: Impact on energy and yield of the enzymatic hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, Abdellatif; Chuetor, Santi; Monlau, Florian; Solhy, Abderrahim; Rouau, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative dry NaOH chemo-mechanical pretreatment was developed. • Dry (TS dry ) and dilute (TS dilute ) NaOH chemo-mechanical pretreatment were compared. • TS dilute consumed higher amounts of water and energy compared to TS dry . • Energy efficiency obtained for TS dilute was 0.417 kg glucose kW h −1 and 0.888 for TS dry . - Abstract: In this study, we developed an eco-friendly dry alkaline chemomechanical pretreatment of wheat straw without production of waste and liquid fractions with objective to save energy input, to decrease the environmental impact and to increase enzymatic hydrolysis. Wheat straw was pretreated with NH 3 , NaOH-H 2 O 2 , NH 3 -H 2 O 2 and NaOH at high materials concentration (5 kg/L) equivalent to biomass/liquid ratio of 1/5 (dry chemomechanical) and at low materials concentration (0.2 kg/L) equivalent to biomass/liquid ratio of 5/1 (dilute chemomechanical). Untreated and chemical treated wheat straw samples were subjected to grinding and milling following by enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial cellulases. NaOH and NaOH-H 2 O 2 dry chemomechanical pretreatments were found to be more effective in decreasing the particle size and energy consumption and increasing the surface area. However, alkaline dilute-chemomechanical treatments consumed higher amounts of water (5 L water/1 kg biomass) and energy compared to dry-chemomechanical treatments. In point of fact, the lowest energy efficiency obtained was 0.417 kg glucose kW h −1 for dilute-chemomechanical treatments compared to 0.888 kg glucose kW h −1 glucose kW h −1 for dry-chemomechanical treatments. Alkaline dry-chemomechanical pretreatments approach appears more attractive and efficient in terms of glucose, energy efficiency and environmental impact, compared to conventional alkaline chemomechanical pretreatments

  18. Lowering rumen-degradable protein maintained energy-corrected milk yield and improved nitrogen-use efficiency in multiparous lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J D; Kassube, K R; Ríus, A G

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of reducing rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) proportions on feed intake, milk production, and N-use efficiency in primiparous and multiparous cows exposed to warm climates. Eighteen primiparous and 30 multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments formulated to contain 2 proportions of RDP (10 and 8%) and 2 proportions RUP (8 and 6%) of dry matter (DM) indicated as follows: (1) 10% RDP, 8% RUP; (2) 8% RDP, 8% RUP; (3) 10% RDP, 6% RUP; and (4) 8% RDP, 6% RUP. Protein sources were manipulated to obtain desired RDP and RUP proportions. Diets were isoenergetic and contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate (DM basis). Cows were individually fed the 10% RDP, 8% RUP diet 3 wk before treatment allocation. Cows were exposed to the prevailing Tennessee July and August temperature and humidity in a freestall barn with no supplemental cooling. Main effects and their interaction were tested using the Mixed procedure of SAS (least squares means ± standard error of the mean; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Observed values of nutrient intake and milk production were used to obtain NRC (2001) model predictions. Cows showed signs of heat stress throughout the study. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased dry matter intake (DMI; 0.9 kg/d) at 8% RUP, but increased DMI (2.6 kg/d) at 6% RUP in primiparous cows. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased milk yield (10%) at 8% RUP, but increased yield (14%) at 6% RUP. Treatments did not affect yield of energy-corrected milk. For multiparous cows, treatments did not affect DMI. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased yield of energy-corrected milk (3.4%) at 8% RUP, but increased yield (8.8%) at 6% RUP. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP and 8 to 6% RUP both increased N-use efficiency for primiparous and multiparous cows. The NRC

  19. Effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment on biogas yield and specific energy in anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable wholesale market wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhaneh Zeynali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic pre-treatment has been considered as an environmentally friendly process for enhancing the biodegradability of organic matter in anaerobic digestion. However the consumed energy during the pre-treatment is a matter of challenge especially where energy generation is the main purpose of a biogas plant. The aim of the present work was to study the efficiency of ultrasonic pre-treatment in enhancement of biogas production from fruits and vegetable wholesale market waste. Three sonication times (9, 18, 27 min operating at 20 kHz and amplitude of 80 μm were used on the substrate. The highest methane yield was obtained at 18 min sonication (2380 kJ kg−1 total solids while longer exposure to sonication led to lower methane yield. This amount of biogas was obtained in 12 d of batch time. The energy content of the biogas obtained from this reactor was two times of the input energy for sonication.

  20. Energy-Dissipation Performance of Combined Low Yield Point Steel Plate Damper Based on Topology Optimization and Its Application in Structural Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiang He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the disadvantages such as higher yield stress and inadequate adjustability, a combined low yield point steel plate damper involving low yield point steel plates and common steel plates is proposed. Three types of combined plate dampers with new hollow shapes are proposed, and the specific forms include interior hollow, boundary hollow, and ellipse hollow. The “maximum stiffness” and “full stress state” are used as the optimization objectives, and the topology optimization of different hollow forms by alternating optimization method is to obtain the optimal shape. Various combined steel plate dampers are calculated by finite element simulation, the results indicate that the initial stiffness of the boundary optimized damper and interior optimized damper is lager, the hysteresis curves are full, and there is no stress concentration. These two types of optimization models made in different materials rations are studied by numerical simulation, and the adjustability of yield stress of these combined dampers is verified. The nonlinear dynamic responses, seismic capacity, and damping effect of steel frame structures with different combined dampers are analyzed. The results show that the boundary optimized damper has better energy-dissipation capacity and is suitable for engineering application.

  1. Effects of dietary energy and lysine levels on growth performance and carcass yields of Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z G; Rasolofomanana, T J; Tang, J; Jiang, Y; Xie, M; Yang, P L; Hou, S S

    2017-09-01

    A 2 × 6 factorial experiment, using 2 dietary apparent metabolizable energy (AME) levels (2,750 and 3,050 Kcal/kg) and 6 supplemental lysine (Lys) levels (0, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, and 0.50%), was conducted to study the effects of dietary energy and lysine levels on growth performance and carcass yields of Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 d of age. A total of 576 one-day-old male White Pekin ducks was randomly allotted to 12 dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 21 d of age, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were measured, and then 2 ducks selected randomly from each pen were slaughtered to evaluate the yields of abdominal fat, breast meat, and leg meat. As a result, birds that were fed basal diets with no Lys supplementation showed growth depression, and significant positive effects of dietary Lys supplementation on body weight gain (P 0.05), but feed intake (P = 0.001) and feed/gain (P = 0.009) decreased significantly between the groups. Dietary Lys levels influenced the yields of breast (P ducks significantly (P = 0.004). According to the broken-line regression analysis, Lys requirements of Pekin ducks for weight gain at 2,750 and 3,050 Kcal of AME/kg were 0.94 and 0.98%, respectively. It suggested that Lys requirement was higher at 3,050 Kcal of AME/kg than at 2,750 Kcal of AME/kg. Dietary energy content determined feed intake of the ducks, and high-energy diets will require a higher amino acid concentration to compensate for a lower feed intake. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Excitation energy transfer in ruthenium (II)-porphyrin conjugates led to enhanced emission quantum yield and {sup 1}O{sub 2} generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jie; Jiang, Lijun; Chan, Chi-Fai [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Tsoi, Tik-Hung [Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, Hung Hom, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Shiu, Kwok-Keung; Kwong, Daniel W.J. [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Wong, Wing-Tak [Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, Hung Hom, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Wong, Wai-Kwok, E-mail: wkwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Wong, Ka-Leung, E-mail: klwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong)

    2017-04-15

    Porphyrins are good photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents due to its flexibility for modifications to achieve tumor localization and photo-cytotoxicity against cancer. Yet they are not perfect. In a Ru(polypyridyl)-porphyrin system, the Ru(polypyridyl) moiety improves the water solubility and cell permeability. Consider the similar excited state energies between Ru(polypyridyl) and porphyrin moieties; a small perturbation (e.g. Zn(II) metalation) would lead to a marked change in the energy migration process. In this work, we have synthesized a series of porphyrins conjugated with Ru(polypyridyl) complexes using different linkers and investigated their photophysical properties, which included singlet oxygen quantum yield and their in vitro biological properties, resulting from linker variation and porphyrin modification by Zn(II) metalation. - Graphical abstract: Four amphiphilic ruthenium(II)-porphyrin complexes were prepared that display energy transfer conversion with zinc coordination, lysosome specific target, low dark toxicity and efficient photodynamic therapy.

  3. Crop yield and light/energy efficiency in a closed ecological system: Laboratory Biosphere experiments with wheat and sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M; Dempster, W F; Silverstone, S; Alling, A; Allen, J P; van Thillo, M

    2005-01-01

    Two crop growth experiments in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, were conducted from 2003 to 2004 with candidate space life support crops. Apogee wheat (Utah State University variety) was grown, planted at two densities, 400 and 800 seeds m-2. The lighting regime for the wheat crop was 16 h of light-8 h dark at a total light intensity of around 840 micromoles m-2 s-1 and 48.4 mol m-2 d-1 over 84 days. Average biomass was 1395 g m-2, 16.0 g m-2 d-1 and average seed production was 689 g m-2 and 7.9 g m-2 d-1. The less densely planted side was more productive than the denser planting, with 1634 g m-2 and 18.8 g m-2 d-1 of biomass vs. 1156 g m-2 and 13.3 g m-2 d-1; and a seed harvest of 812.3 g m-2 and 9.3 g m-2 d-1 vs. 566.5 g m-2 and 6.5 g m-2 d-1. Harvest index was 0.49 for the wheat crop. The experiment with sweet potato used TU-82-155 a compact variety developed at Tuskegee University. Light during the sweet potato experiment, on a 18 h on/6 h dark cycle, totaled 5568 total moles of light per square meter in 126 days for the sweet potatoes, or an average of 44.2 mol m-2 d-1. Temperature regime was 28 +/- 3 degrees C day/22 +/- 4 degrees C night. Sweet potato tuber yield was 39.7 kg wet weight, or an average of 7.4 kg m-2, and 7.7 kg dry weight of tubers since dry weight was about 18.6% wet weight. Average per day production was 58.7 g m-2 d-1 wet weight and 11.3 g m-2 d-1. For the wheat, average light efficiency was 0.34 g biomass per mole, and 0.17 g seed per mole. The best area of wheat had an efficiency of light utilization of 0.51 g biomass per mole and 0.22 g seed per mole. For the sweet potato crop, light efficiency per tuber wet weight was 1.33 g mol-1 and 0.34 g dry weight of tuber per mole of light. The best area of tuber production had 1.77 g mol-1 wet weight and 0.34 g mol-1 of light dry weight. The Laboratory Biosphere experiment's light efficiency was somewhat higher than the USU field results but somewhat below

  4. On energy consumption for size-reduction and yields from subsequent enzymatic saccharification of pretreated lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Zhu; Junyong Zhu; Roland Gleisner; X.J. Pan

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of chemical pretreatment and disk-milling conditions on energy consumption for size-reduction and the efficiency of enzymatic cellulose saccharification of a softwood. Lodgepole pine wood chips produced from thinnings of a 100-year-old unmanaged forest were pretreated by hot-water, dilute-acid, and two SPORL processes (Sulfite...

  5. A G/NARRLI Effort. Measuring the Ionization Yield of Low-Energy Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Tenzing Henry Yatish [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Liquid argon has long been used for particle detection due to its attractive drift properties, ample abundance, and reasonable density. The response of liquid argon to lowenergy O(102 -1044 eV) interactions is, however, largely unexplored. Weakly interacting massive particles such as neutrinos and hypothetical dark-matter particles (WIMPs) are predicted to coherently scatter on atomic nuclei, leaving only an isolated low-energy nuclear recoil as evidence. The response of liquid argon to low-energy nuclear recoils must be studied to determine the sensitivity of liquid argon based detectors to these unobserved interactions. Detectors sensitive to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering may be used to monitor nuclear reactors from a distance, to detect neutrinos from supernova, and to test the predicted behavior of neutrinos. Additionally, direct detection of hypothetical weakly interacting dark matter would be a large step toward understanding the substance that accounts for nearly 27% of the universe. In this dissertation I discuss a small dual-phase (liquid-gas) argon proportional scintillation counter built to study the low-energy regime and several novel calibration and characterization techniques developed to study the response of liquid argon to low-energy O(102 -104 eV) interactions.

  6. Determination of renewable energy yield from mixed waste material from the use of novel image analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagland, S T; Dudley, R; Naftaly, M; Longhurst, P J

    2013-11-01

    Two novel techniques are presented in this study which together aim to provide a system able to determine the renewable energy potential of mixed waste materials. An image analysis tool was applied to two waste samples prepared using known quantities of source-segregated recyclable materials. The technique was used to determine the composition of the wastes, where through the use of waste component properties the biogenic content of the samples was calculated. The percentage renewable energy determined by image analysis for each sample was accurate to within 5% of the actual values calculated. Microwave-based multiple-point imaging (AutoHarvest) was used to demonstrate the ability of such a technique to determine the moisture content of mixed samples. This proof-of-concept experiment was shown to produce moisture measurement accurate to within 10%. Overall, the image analysis tool was able to determine the renewable energy potential of the mixed samples, and the AutoHarvest should enable the net calorific value calculations through the provision of moisture content measurements. The proposed system is suitable for combustion facilities, and enables the operator to understand the renewable energy potential of the waste prior to combustion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tungsten oxide thin film exposed to low energy D and He plasma: evidence for a thermal enhancement of the erosion yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Hussein; Martin, C.; Roubin, P.; Addab, Y.; Cabie, C.; Pardanaud, C.; Bannister, M.; Meyer, F.

    2017-10-01

    Nanocrystalline tungsten oxide thin films (25 nm - 250 nm thickness) produced by thermal oxidation of a tungsten substrate were exposed to low energy D and He plasma. Low energy D plasma exposure (11 eV/D+) of these films have resulted in the formation of a tungsten bronze (DxWO3) clearly observed by Raman microscopy. D plasma bombardment (4 1021 m-2) has also induced a color change of the oxide layer which is similar to the well-known electro-chromic effect and has been named ``plasma-chromic effect''. To unravel physical and chemical origins of the modifications observed under exposure, similar tungsten oxide films were also exposed to low energy helium plasma (20 eV/He+) . Due to the low fluence (4 1021 m-2) and low ion energy (20 eV), at room temperature, He exposure has induced only very few morphological and structural modifications. On the contrary, at 673 K, significant erosion is observed, which gives evidence for an unexpected thermal enhancement of the erosion yield. We present here new results concerning He beam exposures at low fluence (4 1021 m-2) varying the He+ energy from 20 eV to 320 eV to measure the tungsten oxide sputtering threshold energy. Detailed analyses before/after exposure to describe the D and He interaction with the oxide layer, its erosion and structural modification at the atomic and micrometer scale will be presented.

  8. Superconducting correlations in the one-band Hubbard model with intermediate on-site and weak attractive intersite interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, K.P.; Ramakumar, R.; Chancey, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a simple extended Hubbard model with an intermediate on-site interaction (both repulsive and attractive) and a weak intersite attractive interaction. Following Hubbard decoupling approximations and introducing Hubbard subband operators, we obtain a generalized gap function for singlet s-wave pairing that explicitly depends on the Hubbard subband energies. For the on-site repulsive-interaction case, we find that the superconductivity is not destroyed in the intermediate-interaction regime, contrary to the prediction of a Hartree-Fock mean-field treatment. The essential consequence of the on-site repulsion is the formation of the Hubbard subbands separated by the Mott-Hubbard gap, and it is within these subbands that pairing induced by the intersite interaction occurs. For the attractive on-site interaction case, the on-site pairing amplitude is found to be proportional to the bandwidth, and the gap function has contributions from both on-site and intersite pairing. The relevance of the model to high-temperature superconductivity is discussed

  9. Effect of oral mineral and energy supplementation on blood mineral concentrations, energetic and inflammatory profile, and milk yield in dairy cows affected with dystocia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaquen, M; Galvão, K N; Coleman, A E; Santos, J E P; Goff, J P; Risco, C A

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of mineral/energy supplementation of dairy cows with dystocia on blood mineral concentrations, energetic and inflammatory profiles, and milk yield. Multiparous Holstein cows with dystocia were randomly assigned into two groups, (1) treated with a mineral/energy supplement (DME, n= 18) and (2) not treated (DNT, n= 22). A group of cows with normal parturition were randomly selected and were left untreated (NNT, n= 25). Cows in DME received an oral drench of 110 g of calcium and 400 g of propionate as calcium propionate plus 110 g potassium chloride and 150 g of magnesium sulfate administered within 6 h of calving and again 3 days post-partum. Compared to cows with a normal parturition, dystocic cows had decreased plasma calcium concentrations, increased plasma haptoglobin, decreased milk yield at 1 day post-partum, and tended to have increased rectal temperatures from 1 to 12 days post-partum. Compared with cows in DNT, those in DME had decreased plasma calcium concentrations and increased plasma magnesium concentrations 2 and 3 days post-partum, and a tendency for an increase in rectal temperature from 1 to 12 days post-partum. Dystocia is detrimental to calcium homeostasis post-partum, but mineral/energy supplementation as undertaken in this study is not recommended for use in cows with dystocia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 77 FR 70478 - RG Steel Wheeling, LLC, Wheeling Office, A Division Of RG Steel, LLC, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Unlimited and Green Energy Initiatives LLC, Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Through Severstal..., Wheeling Office, a division of RG Steel, LLC, including on-site leased workers from Pro Unlimited and Green Energy Initiatives, LLC, Wheeling, West Virginia (TA-W-81,880) and Mountain State Carbon, LLC, including...

  11. Energy dependence of fission product yields from 235U, 238U, and 239Pu with monoenergetic neutrons between thermal and 14.8 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, Matthew; Arnold, Charles; Bhike, Megha; Bredeweg, Todd; Fowler, Malcolm; Krishichayan; Tonchev, Anton; Tornow, Werner; Stoyer, Mark; Vieira, David; Wilhelmy, Jerry

    2017-09-01

    Under a joint collaboration between TUNL-LANL-LLNL, a set of absolute fission product yield measurements has been performed. The energy dependence of a number of cumulative fission product yields (FPY) have been measured using quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams for three actinide targets, 235U, 238U and 239Pu, between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV. The FPYs were measured by a combination of fission counting using specially designed dual-fission chambers and γ-ray counting. Each dual-fission chamber is a back-to-back ionization chamber encasing an activation target in the center with thin deposits of the same target isotope in each chamber. This method allows for the direct measurement of the total number of fissions in the activation target with no reference to the fission cross-section, thus reducing uncertainties. γ-ray counting of the activation target was performed on well-shielded HPGe detectors over a period of two months post irradiation to properly identify fission products. Reported are absolute cumulative fission product yields for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.37, 2.4, 3.6, 4.6, 5.5, 7.5, 8.9 and 14.8 MeV. Preliminary results from thermal irradiations at the MIT research reactor will also be presented and compared to present data and evaluations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Security, LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory through NNSA Stewardship Science Academic Alliance grant No. DE-FG52-09NA29465, DE-FG52-09NA29448 and Office of Nuclear Physics Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER41033.

  12. Effect of high-energy electron irradiation of chicken meat on thiobarbituric acid values, shear values, odor, and cooked yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, J.L.; Owens, S.L.; Tesch, S.; Hannah, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether electron-beam irradiation would affect shear values, yield, odor, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of chicken tissues. Broiler breasts (pectoralis superficialis) and whole thighs were irradiated with an electron-beam accelerator at levels to produce adsorbed doses of 100, 200, and 300 krads on the surface of the sample. The thigh samples were stored for 2, 4, and 8 days before testing for TBA values. The depth to which the radiation had penetrated the pectoralis superficialis muscle was also determined. Radiation penetrated 22 mm into slices of pectoralis superficialis muscle when 100 krad was absorbed by the surface of the tissue. The dose absorbed beneath the tissue surface to a depth of 10 mm was larger than the dose absorbed at the surface. The absorbed dose decreased as the depth of penetration increased. For cooked breast tissue, the shear values and moisture content were not affected by the absorbed radiation. Cooking losses of aged breast tissue were not affected by irradiation, but cooking losses were reduced in breast tissue that had not been aged. Irradiating uncooked thigh and uncooked breast samples produced a characteristic odor that remained after the thighs were cooked but was not detectable after the breast samples were cooked. With two exceptions, no significantly different TBA values were found that could be attributed to irradiation

  13. Development of Onsite Transportation Safety Documents for Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank Hand; Willard Thomas; Frank Sciacca; Manny Negrete; Susan Kelley

    2008-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders require each DOE site to develop onsite transportation safety documents (OTSDs). The Nevada Test Site approach divided all onsite transfers into two groups with each group covered by a standalone OTSD identified as Non-Nuclear and Nuclear. The Non-Nuclear transfers involve all radioactive hazardous material in less than Hazard Category (HC)-3 quantities and all chemically hazardous materials. The Nuclear transfers involve all radioactive material equal to or greater than HC-3 quantities and radioactive material mated with high explosives regardless of quantity. Both OTSDs comply with DOE O 460.1B requirements. The Nuclear OTSD also complies with DOE O 461.1A requirements and includes a DOE-STD-3009 approach to hazard analysis (HA) and accident analysis as needed. All Nuclear OTSD proposed transfers were determined to be non-equivalent and a methodology was developed to determine if 'equivalent safety' to a fully compliant Department of Transportation (DOT) transfer was achieved. For each HA scenario, three hypothetical transfers were evaluated: a DOT-compliant, uncontrolled, and controlled transfer. Equivalent safety is demonstrated when the risk level for each controlled transfer is equal to or less than the corresponding DOT-compliant transfer risk level. In this comparison the typical DOE-STD-3009 risk matrix was modified to reflect transportation requirements. Design basis conditions (DBCs) were developed for each non-equivalent transfer. Initial DBCs were based solely upon the amount of material present. Route-, transfer-, and site-specific conditions were evaluated and the initial DBCs revised as needed. Final DBCs were evaluated for each transfer's packaging and its contents

  14. Effluent information system (EIS)/onsite discharge information system (ODIS) 1985 executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1986-09-01

    The Effluent Information System (EIS) and Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS) are Department of Energy (DOE) data base systems that aid DOE-Headquarters and Field Offices in managing the radioactive air and liquid effluents from DOE facilities. Data on effluents released offsite are entered into EIS and data on effluents discharged onsite and retained onsite are entered into ODIS. This document is a summary of information obtained from the CY 1985 effluent data received from all DOE and DOE contractor facilities and entered in the data bases. Data from previous years are also included. The summary consists of two parts. The first part summarizes information for effluents released offsite, and the second part summarizes information for effluents retained onsite. These summaries are taken from the routine annual reports sent to each DOE Operations Office. Special tabulations or specific data can be supplied upon request. Explanations of the significant changes are included in the EIS and ODIS graphic sections. Only those changes in activity greater than a factor of two and having a magnitude greater than 0.1 Ci are considered significant and are addressed in the explanation

  15. 2009 Melbourne metropolitan sewerage strategy: a portfolio of decentralised and on-site concept designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V; Jackson, D W; Khalifé, M

    2010-01-01

    The bulk and retail water companies of the greater Melbourne area are developing the 2009 Metropolitan Sewerage Strategy to provide sustainable sewerage services to 2060. The objective of the strategy is to establish long term principles and near term actions to produce a robust sewage management system for Melbourne. Melbourne's existing sewerage system is largely centralised and discharges to two major treatment plants. Several small satellite treatment plants service local urban areas generally more distant from the centralised system. Decentralised and on-site wastewater systems are options for future sewage management and could play a role in local recycling. A portfolio of 18 on-site and decentralised concept designs was developed, applicable to the full range of urban development types in Melbourne. The concepts can be used in evaluation of metropolitan system configurations as part of future integrated water cycle planning. The options included secondary and tertiary treatment systems incorporating re-use of water for non potable uses, urine separation, black and greywater separation and composting toilets. On-site and cluster treatment systems were analysed. Each option is described by its indicative capital and operating costs, energy use and water and nutrient balances. This paper summarises and compares the portfolio mix of decentralized and on-site options in Melbourne's context.

  16. On-site and off-site forensic analysis capabilities for proliferation and terrorism prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, R.E.; Nunes, P.J.; Reynolds, J.G.; Alcaraz, A.; Hart, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: We will present current on-site technologies that can be utilized for the screening of explosives, chemical agents, and environmental contaminants. These techniques must have the capability to detect various hazardous materials at very low levels, since they pose a major challenge for first responders. Specifically, the technology must detect concealed explosives or chemical agents on-site rapidly. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing several different high explosive screening and detection technologies for field use. Two technologies that have demonstrated an ability to screen for explosives at low levels are colorimetric spot tests and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Another technology that has demonstrated usefulness for the on-site analysis of unknowns is portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) sampling. Several examples utilizing these technologies and their usefulness will be presented. In addition to developing on-site screening methods, LLNL is an Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) designated laboratory and is certified to accept CW suspect samples. Currently, LLNL is expanding its ISO-17025 certification to include nuclear forensics and explosives. These off-site forensic analysis capabilities and certified procedures will support the needs for homeland security. We will highlight some of the ISO-17025 requirements to accredit procedures, handle samples, and reports. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48

  17. On-site and off-site forensic analysis capabilities for proliferation and terrorism prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.R.; Whipple, R.E.; Nunes, P.J.; Reynolds, J.G.; Alcaraz, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present current on-site technologies that can be utilized for the screening of explosives, chemical agents, and environmental contaminants. These techniques must have the capability to detect various hazardous materials at very low levels, since they pose a major challenge for first responders. Specifically, the technology must detect concealed explosives or chemical agents on-site rapidly. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing several different high explosive screening and detection technologies for field use. Two technologies that have demonstrated an ability to screen for explosives at low levels are colorimetric spot tests and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Another technology that has demonstrated usefulness for the on-site analysis of unknowns is portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) sampling. Several examples utilizing these technologies and their usefulness will be presented. In addition to developing on-site screening methods, LLNL is an Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) designated laboratory and is certified to accept CW suspect samples. Currently, LLNL is expanding its ISO-17025 certification to include nuclear forensics and explosives. These off-site forensic analysis capabilities and certified procedures will support the needs for homeland security. We will highlight some of the ISO-17025 requirements to accredit procedures, handle samples, and reports. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48. (author)

  18. Loss of the precise control of photosynthesis and increased yield of non-radiative dissipation of exitation energy after mild heat treatment of barley leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhov, N.G.; Boucher, N.; Carpentier, R.

    1998-01-01

    The after effects of a short exposure of intact barley leaves to moderately elevated temperature (40°C, 5 min) on the induction transients and the irradiance dependencies of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence are presented. This mild heat treatment strongly reduced the oscillations in the rate of photosynthesis and in the yield of chlorophyll fluorescence. However, only a 25% irreversible inhibition of maximum photosynthetic capacity of photosystem II (PSII) measured by oxygen evolution was produced and the intrinsic quantum yield of PSII measured by the chlorophyll fluorescence ratio (F m - F o )/Fm decreased by only 15%. In contrast, the above treatment increased radiationless dissipation processes in PSII by a factor of two. In heat-treated leaves, photosynthesis was not saturated even by strong light. Both ΔpH-dependent quenching of excitons in PSII (including formation of zeaxanthin) and state 1/state 2 transition were found to be stimulated. Heat exposure enhanced the control of PSII activity by PSI, as evidenced by a significant increase in the quenching effect of far-red light on the maximum yield of chlorophyll fluorescence. It was deduced that after mild heat treatment, the photosynthetic apparatus in leaves lacks the precise coordinating control of electron transport and carbon metabolism owing to the inability of PSII to support electron transport at a level adequate for carbon metabolism. This effect was not related to the small irreversible thermal damage to PSII, but was rather due to a significant increase in non-photochemical quenching of excitation energy. (author)

  19. Yields of nuclear fragments in the interactions of carbon nuclei with a beryllium target at a projectile energy of 0.6 GeV per nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, B. M.; Alexeev, P. N.; Borodin, Yu. A.; Bulychjov, S. A. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Gudima, K. K. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of); Dukhovskoy, I. A.; Krutenkova, A. P., E-mail: anna.krutenkova@itep.ru; Kulikov, V. V.; Martemianov, M. A.; Matsyuk, M. A. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Mashnik, S. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Turdakina, E. N.; Khanov, A. I. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    The yields of long-lived nuclear fragments at an angle of 3.5° that originate fromthe fragmentation of carbon ions with an energy of T{sub 0} = 0.6 GeV per nucleon on a berylliumtarget were measured in the FRAGMexperiment at the ITEP TWA heavy-ion accelerator. The momentum spectra of these fragments cover both the fragmentation-maximum region and the cumulative region. The respective differential cross sections change by about five orders of magnitude. The momentum distributions of fragments in the laboratory frame and their kinetic-energy distributions in the rest frame of the fragmenting nucleus are used to test the predictions of four models of ion–ion interactions: BC, INCL++, LAQGSM03.03, and QMD.

  20. 7 CFR 205.403 - On-site inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Certification § 205.403 On-site inspections. (a) On-site inspections. (1... site that produces or handles organic products and that is included in an operation for which...

  1. On-site and off-site activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    Design principles for NPP training programs. Effects of NPP contracts. Effects of domestic industrial activities. The role of international bodies. Requirements for on-site training. Training abroad, technical, financial and social aspects. Training center on-site, an evaluation. (orig.)

  2. A phenomenological study of the {pi}{sup -} p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} n charge exchange reaction at high energy; Etude phenomenologique de la reaction d`echange de charge {pi}{sup -} p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} n a haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaud, Y

    1995-09-21

    The aim of the study was to examine the behaviour of the proton-proton elastic scattering, for mass center energies around 10 GeV, and more especially to study the charge exchange reaction {pi}{sup -} p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} n for mass center energies between 3 and 20 GeV. A formalism based on the Glauber model has been used, and a Regge trajectory exchange term was introduced in the model in order to enable the description of the lower energy domain (inferior to 10 GeV) that is characterized by a large contribution of meson exchanges at the scattering amplitude. The Glauber model is then applied to the charge exchange reaction and the differential cross section is analyzed for a center mass energy comprised between 3 and 20 GeV, together with the polarization at 40 GeV/c. The approach is then validated through the study of the {pi}{sup -} p {yields} {eta} n reaction. The size of the kernel of proton and pion components implied in the {pi}{sup -} p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} n reaction, is also investigated. 90 refs., 48 figs., 4 tabs., 5 appends.

  3. 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satomi, Tomohide; Koike, Shunichi [Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA), Osaka (Japan); Ishikawa, Ryou [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) have been conducting a joint project on development of a 5000kW urban energy center type PAFC power plant (pressurized) and a 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant (non-pressurized). The objective of the technical development of 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant is to realize a medium size power plant with an overall efficiency of over 70% and an electrical efficiency of over 36%, that could be installed in a large building as a cogeneration system. The components and system integration development work and the plant design were performed in 1991 and 1992. Manufacturing of the plant and installation at the test site were completed in 1994. PAC test was carried out in 1994, and generation test was started in January 1995. Demonstration test is scheduled for 1995 and 1996.

  4. Variational Wavefunction for the Periodic Anderson Model with Onsite Correlation Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Katsunori; Onishi, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    We propose a variational wavefunction containing parameters to tune the probabilities of all the possible onsite configurations for the periodic Anderson model. We call it the full onsite-correlation wavefunction (FOWF). This is a simple extension of the Gutzwiller wavefunction (GWF), in which one parameter is included to tune the double occupancy of the f electrons at the same site. We compare the energy of the GWF and the FOWF evaluated by the variational Monte Carlo method and that obtained with the density-matrix renormalization group method. We find that the energy is considerably improved in the FOWF. On the other hand, the physical quantities do not change significantly between these two wavefunctions as long as they describe the same phase, such as the paramagnetic phase. From these results, we not only demonstrate the improvement by the FOWF, but we also gain insights on the applicability and limitation of the GWF to the periodic Anderson model.

  5. Variational wavefunction for the periodic anderson model with onsite correlation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Katsunori; Onishi, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    We propose a variational wavefunction containing parameters to tune the probabilities of all the possible onsite configurations for the periodic Anderson model. We call it the full onsite-correlation wavefunction (FOWF). This is a simple extension of the Gutzwiller wavefunction (GWF), in which one parameter is included to tune the double occupancy of the f electrons at the same site. We compare the energy of the GWF and the FOWF evaluated by the variational Monte Carlo method and that obtained with the density-matrix renormalization group method. We find that the energy is considerably improved in the FOWF. On the other hand, the physical quantities do not change significantly between these two wavefunctions as long as they describe the same phase, such as the paramagnetic phase. From these results, we not only demonstrate the improvement by the FOWF, but we also gain insights on the applicability and limitation of the GWF to the periodic Anderson model. (author)

  6. Energies and Yields of Prompt Gamma Rays from Fragments in Slow-Neutron Induced Fission of 235U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albinsson, H [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)

    1971-04-15

    Measurements were made on the gamma radiation emitted from fission fragments in slow-neutron induced fission of 235U. The fragments were detected with solid state detectors of the surface barrier type and the gamma radiation with a Nal(Tl) scintillator. Mass selection was used so that the gamma radiation could be measured as a function of fragment mass. Time discrimination between the fission gammas and the prompt neutrons released in the fission process was employed to reduce the background. The gamma radiation emitted during different time intervals after the fission event was studied with the help of a collimator, the position of which was changed along the path of the fission fragments. In this way it was possible to select various collimator settings and let gamma radiation of different half-lives be enhanced. Gamma-ray energy spectra from these time components were then recorded as function of mass. The spectrum shape differed greatly depending on the half-life of the radiation and the fragment from which it was emitted. The results of the present measurements were discussed in the light of existing fission models, and comparisons were made with prompt gamma-ray and neutron data from other fission experiments

  7. Energies and Yields of Prompt Gamma Rays from Fragments in Slow-Neutron Induced Fission of 235U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albinsson, H.

    1971-04-01

    Measurements were made on the gamma radiation emitted from fission fragments in slow-neutron induced fission of 235 U. The fragments were detected with solid state detectors of the surface barrier type and the gamma radiation with a Nal(Tl) scintillator. Mass selection was used so that the gamma radiation could be measured as a function of fragment mass. Time discrimination between the fission gammas and the prompt neutrons released in the fission process was employed to reduce the background. The gamma radiation emitted during different time intervals after the fission event was studied with the help of a collimator, the position of which was changed along the path of the fission fragments. In this way it was possible to select various collimator settings and let gamma radiation of different half-lives be enhanced. Gamma-ray energy spectra from these time components were then recorded as function of mass. The spectrum shape differed greatly depending on the half-life of the radiation and the fragment from which it was emitted. The results of the present measurements were discussed in the light of existing fission models, and comparisons were made with prompt gamma-ray and neutron data from other fission experiments

  8. Field Measurements of Black Carbon Yields from Gas Flaring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Bradley M; Johnson, Matthew R

    2017-02-07

    Black carbon (BC) emissions from gas flaring in the oil and gas industry are postulated to have critical impacts on climate and public health, but actual emission rates remain poorly characterized. This paper presents in situ field measurements of BC emission rates and flare gas volume-specific BC yields for a diverse range of flares. Measurements were performed during a series of field campaigns in Mexico and Ecuador using the sky-LOSA optical measurement technique, in concert with comprehensive Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analyses. Parallel on-site measurements of flare gas flow rate and composition were successfully performed at a subset of locations enabling direct measurements of fuel-specific BC yields from flares under field conditions. Quantified BC emission rates from individual flares spanned more than 4 orders of magnitude (up to 53.7 g/s). In addition, emissions during one notable ∼24-h flaring event (during which the plume transmissivity dropped to zero) would have been even larger than this maximum rate, which was measured as this event was ending. This highlights the likely importance of superemitters to global emission inventories. Flare gas volume-specific BC yields were shown to be strongly correlated with flare gas heating value. A newly derived correlation fitting current field data and previous lab data suggests that, in the context of recent studies investigating transport of flare-generated BC in the Arctic and globally, impacts of flaring in the energy industry may in fact be underestimated.

  9. Radiative corrections to the charged pion-pair production process {pi}{sup -}{gamma} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -} at low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, N.; Petschauer, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department T39, Garching (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    We calculate the one-photon loop radiative corrections to the charged pion-pair production process {pi}{sup -}{gamma} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}. In the low-energy region this reaction is governed by the chiral pion-pion interaction. The pertinent set of 42 irreducible photon-loop diagrams is calculated by using the package FeynCalc. Electromagnetic counterterms with two independent low-energy constants k{sub 1} and k{sub 2} are included in order to remove the ultraviolet divergences generated by the photon loops. Infrared finiteness of the virtual radiative corrections is achieved by including soft photon radiation below an energy cut-off {Lambda}. The purely electromagnetic interaction of the charged pions mediated by one-photon exchange is also taken into account. The radiative corrections to the total cross section (in the isospin limit) vary between +10% close to threshold and about -1% at a center-of-mass energy of 7m{sub {pi}}. The largest contribution comes from the simple one-photon exchange. Radiative corrections to the {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -} mass spectra are studied as well. The Coulomb singularity of the final-state interaction produces a kink in the dipion mass spectra. The virtual radiative corrections to elastic {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -} scattering are derived additionally. (orig.)

  10. Measurements on the gas desorption yield of the oxygen-free copper irradiated with low-energy Xe10+ and O+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Z. Q.; Li, P.; Yang, J. C.; Yuan, Y. J.; Xie, W. J.; Zheng, W. H.; Liu, X. J.; Chang, J. J.; Luo, C.; Meng, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, Y. M.; Yin, Y.; Chai, Z.

    2017-10-01

    Heavy ion beam lost on the accelerator vacuum wall will release quantity of gas molecules and make the vacuum system deteriorate seriously. This phenomenon is called dynamic vacuum effect, observed at CERN, GSI and BNL, leading to the decrease of beam lifetime when increasing beam intensity. Heavy ion-induced gas desorption, which results in dynamic vacuum effect, becomes one of the most important problems for future accelerators proposed to operate with intermediate charge state beams. In order to investigate the mechanism of this effect and find the solution method for the IMP future project High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF), which is designed to extract 1 × 1011 uranium particles with intermediate charge state per cycle, two dedicated experiment setups have been installed at the beam line of the CSR and the 320 kV HV platform respectively. Recently, experiment was performed at the 320 kV HV platform to study effective gas desorption with oxygen-free copper target irradiated with continuous Xe10+ beam and O+ beam in low energy regime. Gas desorption yield in this energy regime was calculated and the link between gas desorption and electronic energy loss in Cu target was proved. These results will be used to support simulations about dynamic vacuum effect and optimizations about efficiency of collimators to be installed in the HIAF main synchrotron BRing, and will also provide guidance for future gas desorption measurements in high energy regime.

  11. Onsite Distributed Generation Systems For Laboratories, Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    This guide provides general information on implementing onsite distributed generation systems in laboratory environments. Specific technology applications, general performance information, and cost data are provided to educate and encourage laboratory energy managers to consider onsite power generation or combined heat and power (CHP) systems for their facilities. After conducting an initial screening, energy managers are encouraged to conduct a detailed feasibility study with actual cost and performance data for technologies that look promising. Onsite distributed generation systems are small, modular, decentralized, grid-connected, or off-grid energy systems. These systems are located at or near the place where the energy is used. These systems are also known as distributed energy or distributed power systems. DG technologies are generally considered those that produce less than 20 megawatts (MW) of power. A number of technologies can be applied as effective onsite DG systems, including: (1) Diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel reciprocating engines; (2) Combustion turbines and steam turbines; (3) Fuel cells; (4) Biomass heating; (5) Biomass combined heat and power; (6) Photovoltaics; and (7) Wind turbines. These systems can provide a number of potential benefits to an individual laboratory facility or campus, including: (1) High-quality, reliable, and potentially dispatchable power; (2) Low-cost energy and long-term utility cost assurance, especially where electricity and/or fuel costs are high; (3) Significantly reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Typical CHP plants reduce onsite GHG by 40 to 60 percent; (4) Peak demand shaving where demand costs are high; (5) CHP where thermal energy can be used in addition to electricity; (6) The ability to meet standby power needs, especially where utility-supplied power is interrupted frequently or for long periods and where standby power is required for safety or emergencies; and (7) Use for standalone or off

  12. Energy dependence of fission product yields from 235U, 238U, and 239Pu with monoenergetic neutrons between thermal and 14.8 MeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gooden Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under a joint collaboration between TUNL-LANL-LLNL, a set of absolute fission product yield measurements has been performed. The energy dependence of a number of cumulative fission product yields (FPY have been measured using quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams for three actinide targets, 235U, 238U and 239Pu, between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV. The FPYs were measured by a combination of fission counting using specially designed dual-fission chambers and γ-ray counting. Each dual-fission chamber is a back-to-back ionization chamber encasing an activation target in the center with thin deposits of the same target isotope in each chamber. This method allows for the direct measurement of the total number of fissions in the activation target with no reference to the fission cross-section, thus reducing uncertainties. γ-ray counting of the activation target was performed on well-shielded HPGe detectors over a period of two months post irradiation to properly identify fission products. Reported are absolute cumulative fission product yields for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.37, 2.4, 3.6, 4.6, 5.5, 7.5, 8.9 and 14.8 MeV. Preliminary results from thermal irradiations at the MIT research reactor will also be presented and compared to present data and evaluations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Security, LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory through NNSA Stewardship Science Academic Alliance grant No. DE-FG52-09NA29465, DE-FG52-09NA29448 and Office of Nuclear Physics Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER41033.

  13. Propagation of transition fronts in nonlinear chains with non-degenerate on-site potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroky, I. B.; Gendelman, O. V.

    2018-02-01

    We address the problem of transition front propagation in chains with a bi-stable nondegenerate on-site potential and a nonlinear gradient coupling. For generic nonlinear coupling, one encounters a special regime of transitions, characterized by extremely narrow fronts, far supersonic velocities of the front propagation, and long waves in the oscillatory tail. This regime can be qualitatively associated with a shock wave. The front propagation can be described with the help of a simple reduced-order model; the latter delivers a kinetic law, which is almost not sensitive to the fine details of the on-site potential. Besides, it is possible to predict all main characteristics of the transition front, including its velocity, as well as the frequency and the amplitude of the oscillatory tail. Numerical results are in good agreement with the analytical predictions. The suggested approach allows one to consider the effects of an external pre-load, the next-nearest-neighbor coupling and the on-site damping. When the damping is moderate, it is possible to consider the shock propagation in the damped chain as a perturbation of the undamped dynamics. This approach yields reasonable predictions. When the damping is high, the transition front enters a completely different asymptotic regime of a subsonic kink. The gradient nonlinearity generically turns negligible, and the propagating front converges to the regime described by a simple exact solution for a continuous model with linear coupling.

  14. Evaluation of an organic package of practice towards integrated management of Solanum tuberosum and its comparison with conventional farming in terms of yield, quality, energy efficiency and economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antara Seal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was taken up during 2014-16 for evaluating the potential of an organic package of practice towards integrated crop production (green farming in comparison to conventional farmers’ practice in West Bengal, India. Under green farming, compost was integrated with chemical fertilizer for soil management while organic plant/ pest management was undertaken utilizing Inhana Rational Farming (IRF Technology. The study indicated higher yield (9.7 %, higher nutrient use efficiency and economic sustainability under green farming irrespective of study area or potato variety. Higher qualitative expression in terms of starch content, pulp pH, vitamin C etc. under green farming might be due to the organic plant management aimed at energization of plant biochemical functions. Soil quality development as noted under green farming might have been influenced by the on-farm produced compost containing rich self- generated micro flora (in order of 1016 per colony forming unit.. The study indicated that green farming may serve as an efficient substitute of conventional farming towards yield sustenance, abatement of food toxicity and quality end product; through higher use of renewable energy and activation of plant physiological functions.

  15. Energy production from tannery solid wastes : thermal balance, models of process yields and economic analysis; Produzione di energia da residui conciariprocesso e analisi di fattibilita`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzo, G; Grasso, G.; Bufalo, G. [Stazione Sperimentale per l`Industria delle Pelli e Materie Concianti, Naples (Italy)

    1996-01-01

    Present paper deals with a modeling approach to the recovery of thermal energy, chromium and compost from tannery solid wastes, by incineration to ash and biomethanization to digested biomass. A thermal balance on the whole industrial Italian production of tanning residues firstly quantifies the impact of the matter. A model was successively developed in order to compute the caloric content of the different kinds of residues, starting from their elementary composition. Proper models of the process yields, for both the incineration and biomethanization, were also derived. Finally an economic cost analysis of the incineration process was presented, conveniently disaggregated on the single cost elements. This analysis was based on the previously obtained data both of heat and chromium recovery and on matter-balance data of a typical tanning process (chromium shoe upper produced from salted bovine hide).

  16. Procurement Specifications Templates for On-Site Solar Photovoltaic: For Use in Developing Federal Solicitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-01-16

    With the increasing adaption of on-site renewable energy systems designed to feed site loads, there is a critical need to develop tools that allow the federal sector to become a mature and sophisticated consumer. This document is intended to reduce project development and operational risks while increasing the speed at which projects are completed; two necessary components to reach the scale required to meet mandates and achieve cost savings for taxpayers. This guide is intended to act as a living document where lessons learned from the increasing number of projects can be incorporated and provide guidance for efforts. While additional guides will be developed to cover other renewable technologies, this guide covers on-site solar photovoltaic systems with an emphasis on third-party designed, financed, owned, and operated systems.

  17. Managing the risks of on-site health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Kathleen M; Miller, Ross M

    2011-11-01

    This review sought to assess compliance concerns, determine risk management strategies, and identify opportunities for future research to contribute to employers' understanding of the laws and regulations that apply to on-site care. A comprehensive review of databases, professional organizations' websites, and journals resulted in 22 publications reporting on the consequences of noncompliance among on-site health centers accepted for inclusion. None of those studies reported a study design or quantifiable outcome data. Two noncompliance themes were repeated among the publications. First, direct penalties included fines, civil actions, loss of licensure, and, potentially, criminal charges. Second, noncompliance also resulted in indirect costs such as employee mistrust and lowered standards of care, which jeopardize on-site health centers' ability to demonstrate a return on investment. Further research with rigorous methodology is needed to inform employer decisions about on-site health services and associated risk management. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. PS II model based analysis of transient fluorescence yield measured on whole leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana after excitation with light flashes of different energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, N E; Schmitt, F-J; Paschenko, V Z; Riznichenko, G Yu; Rubin, A B; Renger, G

    2011-02-01

    Our recently presented PS II model (Belyaeva et al., 2008) was improved in order to permit a consistent simulation of Single Flash Induced Transient Fluorescence Yield (SFITFY) traces that were earlier measured by Steffen et al. (2005) on whole leaves of Arabidopsis (A.) thaliana at four different energies of the actinic flash. As the essential modification, the shape of the actinic flash was explicitly taken into account assuming that an exponentially decaying rate simulates the time dependent excitation of PS II by the 10 ns actinic flash. The maximum amplitude of this excitation exceeds that of the measuring light by 9 orders of magnitude. A very good fit of the SFITFY data was achieved in the time domain from 100 ns to 10s for all actinic flash energies (the maximum energy of 7.5 × 10¹⁶ photons/(cm²flash) is set to 100%, the relative energies of weaker actinic flashes were of ∼8%, 4%, ∼1%). Our model allows the calculation and visualization of the transient PS II redox state populations ranging from the dark adapted state, via excitation energy and electron transfer steps induced by pulse excitation, followed by final relaxation into the stationary state eventually attained under the measuring light. It turned out that the rate constants of electron transfer steps are invariant to intensity of the actinic laser flash. In marked contrast, an increase of the actinic flash energy by more than two orders of magnitude from 5.4×10¹⁴ photons/(cm²flash) to 7.5×10¹⁶ photons/(cm²flash), leads to an increase of the extent of fluorescence quenching due to carotenoid triplet (³Car) formation by a factor of 14 and of the recombination reaction between reduced primary pheophytin (Phe(-)) and P680(+) by a factor of 3 while the heat dissipation in the antenna complex remains virtually constant. The modified PS II model offers new opportunities to compare electron transfer and dissipative parameters for different species (e.g. for the green algae and the

  19. Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields from 235U, 238U and 239Pu for Incident Neutron Energies Between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, Matthew; Bredeweg, Todd; Fowler, Malcolm; Vieira, David; Wilhelmy, Jerry; Tonchev, Anton; Stoyer, Mark; Bhike, Megha; Finch, Sean; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tornow, Werner

    2017-09-01

    The energy dependence of a number of cumulative fission product yields (FPY) have been measured using quasi- monoenergetic neutron beams for three actinide targets, 235U, 238U and 239Pu, between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV. The FPYs were measured by a combi- nation of fission counting using specially designed dual-fission chambers and -ray counting. Each dual-fission chamber is a back-to-back ioniza- tion chamber encasing an activation target in the center with thin de- posits of the same target isotope in each chamber. This method allows for the direct measurement of the total number of fissions in the activa- tion target with no reference to the fission cross-section, thus reducing uncertainties. γ-ray counting of the activation target was performed on well-shielded HPGe detectors over a period of 2 months post irradiation to properly identify fission products. Reported are absolute cumulative fission product yields for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.37, 2.4, 3.6, 4.6 and 14.8 MeV. New data in the second chance fission region of 5.5 - 9 MeV are included. Work performed for the U.S. Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  20. A Brown Mesoporous TiO2-x /MCF Composite with an Extremely High Quantum Yield of Solar Energy Photocatalysis for H2 Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong; Qiu, Bocheng; Tian, Baozhu; Anpo, Masakazu; Che, Michel

    2015-04-24

    A brown mesoporous TiO2-x /MCF composite with a high fluorine dopant concentration (8.01 at%) is synthesized by a vacuum activation method. It exhibits an excellent solar absorption and a record-breaking quantum yield (Φ = 46%) and a high photon-hydrogen energy conversion efficiency (η = 34%,) for solar photocatalytic H2 production, which are all higher than that of the black hydrogen-doped TiO2 (Φ = 35%, η = 24%). The MCFs serve to improve the adsorption of F atoms onto the TiO2 /MCF composite surface, which after the formation of oxygen vacancies by vacuum activation, facilitate the abundant substitution of these vacancies with F atoms. The decrease of recombination sites induced by high-concentration F doping and the synergistic effect between lattice Ti(3+)-F and surface Ti(3+)-F are responsible for the enhanced lifetime of electrons, the observed excellent absorption of solar light, and the photocatalytic production of H2 for these catalysts. The as-prepared F-doped composite is an ideal solar light-driven photocatalyst with great potential for applications ranging from the remediation of environmental pollution to the harnessing of solar energy for H2 production. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Radioactive waste on-site storage alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufrane, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    The first, most frequently evaluated approach for the large producer is the construction of a relatively expensive storage building. However, with the likely possibility that at least one disposal site will remain available and the building never used, such expenditures are difficult to justify. A low cost, but effective alternative, is the use of ''On-Site Storage Containers'' (OSSC) when and if required. Radwaste is only stored in the OSSC if a disposal site is not available. A small number of OSSC's would be purchased initially just to assure immediate access to storage. Only in the unlikely event of total disposal sites closure would additional OSSC's have to be obtained and even this is cost effective. With two or three months of storage available on site, production lead time is sufficient for the delivery of additional units at a rate faster than the waste can be produced. The recommended OSSC design would be sized and shielding optimized to meet the needs of the waste generator. Normally, this would duplicate the shipping containers (casks or vans) currently in use. The reinforced concrete design presented is suitable for outside storage, contains a leakproof polyethylene liner and has remote sampling capability. Licensing would be under 10CFR50.59 for interim storage with long-term storage under 10CFR30 not an impossibility. Cost comparisons of this approach vs. building construction show that for a typical reactor plant installation, the OSSC offers direct savings even under the worst case assumption that no disposal sites are available and the time value of money is zero

  2. On-site monitoring of plutonium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.; Richardson, C.K.; Paulka, S.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: As part of the Maralinga rehabilitation program it is necessary to implement a system of on-site monitoring for the workers in order to ensure that they do not exceed recommended dose limits. The main problem in the rehabilitation work is the inhalation of dusts which contain micron sized plutonium particles. Using the new ICRP lung model and available data derived from measurements on contaminated soils, the intake for a dose of 20 mSv was calculated to be 1200 Bq. Four methods are available for direct measurements on workers; nasal swabs, faecal analysis, urine analysis and lung monitoring. The first two techniques are sensitive but will give varying results depending of the time interval between exposure and sampling. They are also difficult to implement on a routine basis. For the second two techniques, the activity in the lungs and the activity excreted per day in the urine remain relatively constant for several years following an intake, making more accurate dose estimates possible. The ICRP lung model predicts deposition in the lung of the order of 5% of intake and urinary excretion models predict approximately 10 -5 of this will be excreted daily in the urine. Lung monitoring of workers will be performed routinely at Maralinga in a partly enclosed room constructed from 10cm of steel, using two 50 mm diameter germanium detectors shielded with lead collimators. The detectors will measure 241 Am, which has grown in following the decay of 241 Pu, and the minimum detectable activity will be 15 - 20 Bq depending on the chest thickness and chest wall thickness of the individual being measured. Urine will be collected routinely and selected samples will be measured. The minimum detectable activity will be 2001μBq of 239 Pu in a daily urine sample

  3. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    OpenAIRE

    Gangolells Solanellas, Marta; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Forcada Matheu, Núria; Macarulla Martí, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling mun...

  4. Evaluation of Energy Production and Energy Yield Assessment Based on Feasibility, Design, and Execution of 3 × 50 MW Grid-Connected Solar PV Pilot Project in Nooriabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Jamil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The installation of 3 × 50 MW (150 MW DC large utility scale solar power plant is ground based using ventilated polycrystalline module technology with fixed tilt angle of 28° in a 750-acre land, and the site is located about 115 km northeast of Karachi, Pakistan, near the town of ThanoBula Khan, Nooriabad, Sindh. This plant will be connected to the utility distribution system through a national grid of 220 kV outgoing double-loop transmission line. The 3 × 50 MW solar PV will be one of the largest tied grid-connected power projects as the site is receiving a rich average solar radiation of 158.7 kW/h/m2/month and an annual average temperature of about of 27°C. The analysis highlights the preliminary design of the case project such as feasibility study and PV solar design aspects and is based on a simulation study of energy yield assessment which has all been illustrated. The annual energy production and energy yield assessment values of the plant are computed using the PVSYST software. The assumptions and results of energy losses, annual performance ratio (PR 74.73%, annual capacity factor 17.7%, and annual energy production of the plant at 232,518 MWh/year are recorded accordingly. Bear in mind that reference recorded data indicates a good agreement over the performance of the proposed PV power plant.

  5. Modelling the impact of mulching the soil with plant remains on water regime formation, crop yield and energy costs in agricultural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Yeugeniy M.; Dzhogan, Larisa Y.; Nasonova, Olga N.

    2018-02-01

    The model MULCH, developed by authors previously for simulating the formation of water regime in an agricultural field covered by straw mulch layer, has been used for the comparative evaluation of the efficiency of four agricultural cultivation technologies, which are usually used for wheat production in different regions of Russia and Ukraine. It simulates the dynamics of water budget components in a soil rooting zone at daily time step from the beginning of spring snowmelt to the beginning of the period with stable negative air temperatures. The model was designed for estimation of mulching efficiency in terms of increase in plant water supply and crop yield under climatic and soil conditions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones. It is used for studying the mulching effect on some characteristics of water regime and yield of winter wheat growing at specific sites located in semi-arid and arid regions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the eastern and southern parts of the East-European (Russian) plain. In addition, a previously developed technique for estimating the energetic efficiency of various agricultural technologies with accounting for their impact on changes in soil energy is applied for the comparative evaluation of the efficiency of four agricultural cultivation technologies, which are usually used for wheat production in different regions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the European Russia: (1) moldboard tillage of soil without irrigation, (2) moldboard tillage of soil with irrigation, (3) subsurface cultivation, and (4) subsurface cultivation with mulching the soil with plant remains.

  6. THE LANDSCAPE OF THE NEUTRINO MECHANISM OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE: NEUTRON STAR AND BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTIONS, EXPLOSION ENERGIES, AND NICKEL YIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Thompson, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    If the neutrino luminosity from the proto-neutron star formed during a massive star core collapse exceeds a critical threshold, a supernova (SN) results. Using spherical quasi-static evolutionary sequences for hundreds of progenitors over a range of metallicities, we study how the explosion threshold maps onto observables, including the fraction of successful explosions, the neutron star (NS) and black hole (BH) mass functions, the explosion energies (E SN ) and nickel yields (M Ni ), and their mutual correlations. Successful explosions are intertwined with failures in a complex pattern that is not simply related to initial progenitor mass or compactness. We predict that progenitors with initial masses of 15 ± 1, 19 ± 1, and ∼21-26 M ☉ are most likely to form BHs, that the BH formation probability is non-zero at solar-metallicity and increases significantly at low metallicity, and that low luminosity, low Ni-yield SNe come from progenitors close to success/failure interfaces. We qualitatively reproduce the observed E SN -M Ni correlation, we predict a correlation between the mean and width of the NS mass and E SN distributions, and that the means of the NS and BH mass distributions are correlated. We show that the observed mean NS mass of ≅ 1.33 M ☉ implies that the successful explosion fraction is higher than 0.35. Overall, we show that the neutrino mechanism can in principle explain the observed properties of SNe and their compact objects. We argue that the rugged landscape of progenitors and outcomes mandates that SN theory should focus on reproducing the wide ranging distributions of observed SN properties

  7. Influence of seaweed extract as an organic fertilizer on the growth and yield of Arachis hypogea L. and their elemental composition using SEM–Energy Dispersive Spectroscopic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ganapathy Selvam

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: It is suggested that there are considerable gains to be made in increasing yield and stabilizing the yield in environments characterized by terminal requirement for organic and by shortening crop duration nutrient management appear promising.

  8. Effects of genetic selection for milk yield on energy balance, levels of hormones, and metabolites in lactating cattle, and possible links to reduced fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Beerda, B.; Lende, van der T.

    2003-01-01

    Selection for a higher milk yield increases metabolic load via a higher yield per se and/or via physiological processes that facilitate milk yield, and it is difficult to differentiate between these two. Here, we aim to identify important pathways that contribute to the reduction in fertility

  9. International energy technology collaboration and climate change mitigation. Case study 2. Cooperation in Agriculture. R and D on High-Yielding Crop Varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon-Lebrun, F. [Global and Structural Policies Division, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    international collaboration by describing the globalisation of the economy and current efforts of technology collaboration and transfer. Finally, it considers various ways to strengthen international energy technology collaboration. This paper is one of six case-studies designed in an effort to provide practical insights on the role international technology collaboration could play to achieve the objectives of the UNFCCC. They will all consider the past achievements of international technology collaboration, and the role it could play in helping to develop and disseminate new technologies in the future: what worked, what did not work and why, and what lessons might be drawn from past experiences. Most case studies consider energy technologies that could help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. A few others consider areas not directly related to greenhouse gas emissions but where international technology collaboration has proven particularly successful in the past. This case study's aim is to review experience in international collaboration in the field of agriculture research and development (R and D) in order to identify lessons that may be relevant for climate-friendly technology collaboration. To this end, it traces the role of international collaboration in researching, developing and diffusing seeds of high-yielding varieties (HYV) to the world's farmers. This is done by looking mainly at the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The main question this paper addresses is: What are the lessons learned from international collaboration in the field of agriculture that could inform collaboration for climate-friendly technology?.

  10. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangolells, Marta; Casals, Miquel; Forcada, Núria; Macarulla, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling municipal engineering projects. In order to ensure the objectivity of the assessment process, direct and indirect indicators were always based on quantitative data from the municipal engineering project documents. Finally, two case studies were analysed and found to illustrate the practical use of the proposed model. The model highlights the significant environmental impacts of a particular municipal engineering project prior to the construction stage. Consequently, preventive actions can be planned and implemented during on-site activities. The results of the model also allow a comparison of proposed municipal engineering projects and alternatives with respect to the overall on-site environmental impact and the absolute importance of a particular environmental aspect. These findings are useful within the framework of the environmental impact assessment process, as they help to improve the identification and evaluation of on-site environmental aspects of municipal engineering works. The findings may also be of use to construction companies that are willing to implement an environmental management system or simply wish to improve on-site environmental performance in municipal engineering projects. -- Highlights: • We present a model to predict the environmental impacts of municipal engineering works. • It highlights significant on-site environmental impacts prior to the construction stage. • Findings are useful within the environmental impact assessment process. • They also

  11. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangolells, Marta, E-mail: marta.gangolells@upc.edu; Casals, Miquel, E-mail: miquel.casals@upc.edu; Forcada, Núria, E-mail: nuria.forcada@upc.edu; Macarulla, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.macarulla@upc.edu

    2014-01-15

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling municipal engineering projects. In order to ensure the objectivity of the assessment process, direct and indirect indicators were always based on quantitative data from the municipal engineering project documents. Finally, two case studies were analysed and found to illustrate the practical use of the proposed model. The model highlights the significant environmental impacts of a particular municipal engineering project prior to the construction stage. Consequently, preventive actions can be planned and implemented during on-site activities. The results of the model also allow a comparison of proposed municipal engineering projects and alternatives with respect to the overall on-site environmental impact and the absolute importance of a particular environmental aspect. These findings are useful within the framework of the environmental impact assessment process, as they help to improve the identification and evaluation of on-site environmental aspects of municipal engineering works. The findings may also be of use to construction companies that are willing to implement an environmental management system or simply wish to improve on-site environmental performance in municipal engineering projects. -- Highlights: • We present a model to predict the environmental impacts of municipal engineering works. • It highlights significant on-site environmental impacts prior to the construction stage. • Findings are useful within the environmental impact assessment process. • They also

  12. Recyclable transmission line (RTL) and linear transformer driver (LTD) development for Z-pinch inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) and high yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Robin Arthur; Kingsep, Alexander S.; Smith, David Lewis; Olson, Craig Lee; Ottinger, Paul F.; Schumer, Joseph Wade; Welch, Dale Robert; Kim, Alexander; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Kammer, Daniel C.; Rose, David Vincent; Nedoseev, Sergei L.; Pointon, Timothy David; Smirnov, Valentin P.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Kalinin, Yuri G.; Bruner, Nichelle

    2007-01-01

    Z-Pinch Inertial Fusion Energy (Z-IFE) complements and extends the single-shot z-pinch fusion program on Z to a repetitive, high-yield, power plant scenario that can be used for the production of electricity, transmutation of nuclear waste, and hydrogen production, all with no CO 2 production and no long-lived radioactive nuclear waste. The Z-IFE concept uses a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) accelerator, and a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the LTD driver to a high-yield fusion target inside a thick-liquid-wall power plant chamber. Results of RTL and LTD research are reported here, that include: (1) The key physics issues for RTLs involve the power flow at the high linear current densities that occur near the target (up to 5 MA/cm). These issues include surface heating, melting, ablation, plasma formation, electron flow, magnetic insulation, conductivity changes, magnetic field diffusion changes, possible ion flow, and RTL mass motion. These issues are studied theoretically, computationally (with the ALEGRA and LSP codes), and will work at 5 MA/cm or higher, with anode-cathode gaps as small as 2 mm. (2) An RTL misalignment sensitivity study has been performed using a 3D circuit model. Results show very small load current variations for significant RTL misalignments. (3) The key structural issues for RTLs involve optimizing the RTL strength (varying shape, ribs, etc.) while minimizing the RTL mass. Optimization studies show RTL mass reductions by factors of three or more. (4) Fabrication and pressure testing of Z-PoP (Proof-of-Principle) size RTLs are successfully reported here. (5) Modeling of the effect of initial RTL imperfections on the buckling pressure has been performed. Results show that the curved RTL offers a much greater buckling pressure as well as less sensitivity to imperfections than three other RTL designs. (6) Repetitive operation of a 0.5 MA, 100 kV, 100 ns, LTD cavity with gas purging between shots and automated operation is

  13. Recyclable transmission line (RTL) and linear transformer driver (LTD) development for Z-pinch inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) and high yield.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Robin Arthur; Kingsep, Alexander S. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Smith, David Lewis; Olson, Craig Lee; Ottinger, Paul F. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Schumer, Joseph Wade (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Welch, Dale Robert (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Kim, Alexander (High Currents Institute, Tomsk, Russia); Kulcinski, Gerald L. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Kammer, Daniel C. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rose, David Vincent (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Nedoseev, Sergei L. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Pointon, Timothy David; Smirnov, Valentin P. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Turgeon, Matthew C.; Kalinin, Yuri G. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Bruner, Nichelle " Nicki" (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Barkey, Mark E. (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL); Guthrie, Michael (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Thoma, Carsten (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Genoni, Tom C. (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Langston, William L.; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos

    2007-01-01

    Z-Pinch Inertial Fusion Energy (Z-IFE) complements and extends the single-shot z-pinch fusion program on Z to a repetitive, high-yield, power plant scenario that can be used for the production of electricity, transmutation of nuclear waste, and hydrogen production, all with no CO{sub 2} production and no long-lived radioactive nuclear waste. The Z-IFE concept uses a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) accelerator, and a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the LTD driver to a high-yield fusion target inside a thick-liquid-wall power plant chamber. Results of RTL and LTD research are reported here, that include: (1) The key physics issues for RTLs involve the power flow at the high linear current densities that occur near the target (up to 5 MA/cm). These issues include surface heating, melting, ablation, plasma formation, electron flow, magnetic insulation, conductivity changes, magnetic field diffusion changes, possible ion flow, and RTL mass motion. These issues are studied theoretically, computationally (with the ALEGRA and LSP codes), and will work at 5 MA/cm or higher, with anode-cathode gaps as small as 2 mm. (2) An RTL misalignment sensitivity study has been performed using a 3D circuit model. Results show very small load current variations for significant RTL misalignments. (3) The key structural issues for RTLs involve optimizing the RTL strength (varying shape, ribs, etc.) while minimizing the RTL mass. Optimization studies show RTL mass reductions by factors of three or more. (4) Fabrication and pressure testing of Z-PoP (Proof-of-Principle) size RTLs are successfully reported here. (5) Modeling of the effect of initial RTL imperfections on the buckling pressure has been performed. Results show that the curved RTL offers a much greater buckling pressure as well as less sensitivity to imperfections than three other RTL designs. (6) Repetitive operation of a 0.5 MA, 100 kV, 100 ns, LTD cavity with gas purging between shots and automated operation is

  14. Moisture content prediction in poultry litter using artificial intelligence techniques and Monte Carlo simulation to determine the economic yield from energy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Contreras, José Octavio; Aguilar-Lasserre, Alberto Alfonso; Méndez-Contreras, Juan Manuel; López-Andrés, Jhony Josué; Cid-Chama, Gabriela

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the economic return of poultry litter combustion in boilers to produce bioenergy (thermal and electrical), as this biomass has a high-energy potential due to its component elements, using fuzzy logic to predict moisture and identify the high-impact variables. This is carried out using a proposed 7-stage methodology, which includes a statistical analysis of agricultural systems and practices to identify activities contributing to moisture in poultry litter (for example, broiler chicken management, number of air extractors, and avian population density), and thereby reduce moisture to increase the yield of the combustion process. Estimates of poultry litter production and heating value are made based on 4 different moisture content percentages (scenarios of 25%, 30%, 35%, and 40%), and then a risk analysis is proposed using the Monte Carlo simulation to select the best investment alternative and to estimate the environmental impact for greenhouse gas mitigation. The results show that dry poultry litter (25%) is slightly better for combustion, generating 3.20% more energy. Reducing moisture from 40% to 25% involves considerable economic investment due to the purchase of equipment to reduce moisture; thus, when calculating financial indicators, the 40% scenario is the most attractive, as it is the current scenario. Thus, this methodology proposes a technology approach based on the use of advanced tools to predict moisture and representation of the system (Monte Carlo simulation), where the variability and uncertainty of the system are accurately represented. Therefore, this methodology is considered generic for any bioenergy generation system and not just for the poultry sector, whether it uses combustion or another type of technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Breeding for blast-disease-resistant and high-yield Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) mutants using low-energy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadtanapuk, S.; Teraarusiri, W.; Phanchaisri, B.; Yu, L.D.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •N-ion beam bombarded Thai jasmine rice seeds to induce mutation. •Mutants with blast-disease resistance and high yield were screened. •Gene involved in the blast-disease resistance was analyzed. •The gene responsible for the resistance was linked to Spotted leaf protein 11. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam was applied on mutation induction for plant breeding of blast-disease-resistant Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105). Seeds of the wild-type rice were bombarded in vacuum by nitrogen ion beam at energy of 60–80 keV to a beam fluence range of 2 × 10 16 –2 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 . The ion-bombarded rice seeds were grown in soil for 2 weeks as transplanted rice in plastic pots at 1 seedling/pot. The seedlings were then screened for blast resistance by Pyricularia grisea inoculation with 10 6 spores/ml concentrations. The blast-resistant rice mutant was planted up to F6 generation with the consistent phenotypic variation. The high percentage of the blast-disease-resistant rice was analyzed with DNA fingerprint. The HAT-RAPD (high annealing temperature-random amplified polymorphic DNA) marker revealed the modified polymorphism fragment presenting in the mutant compared with wild type (KDML 105). The cDNA fingerprints were investigated and the polymorphism fragment was subcloned into pGEM-T easy vector and then sequenced. The sequence of this fragment was compared with those already contained in the database, and the fragment was found to be related to the Spotted leaf protein 11 (Spl11)

  16. Breeding for blast-disease-resistant and high-yield Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) mutants using low-energy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadtanapuk, S. [School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Phayao, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Teraarusiri, W. [Central Laboratory, University of Phayao, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Phanchaisri, B. [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@frnf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S., E-mail: burinka@hotmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •N-ion beam bombarded Thai jasmine rice seeds to induce mutation. •Mutants with blast-disease resistance and high yield were screened. •Gene involved in the blast-disease resistance was analyzed. •The gene responsible for the resistance was linked to Spotted leaf protein 11. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam was applied on mutation induction for plant breeding of blast-disease-resistant Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105). Seeds of the wild-type rice were bombarded in vacuum by nitrogen ion beam at energy of 60–80 keV to a beam fluence range of 2 × 10{sup 16}–2 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. The ion-bombarded rice seeds were grown in soil for 2 weeks as transplanted rice in plastic pots at 1 seedling/pot. The seedlings were then screened for blast resistance by Pyricularia grisea inoculation with 10{sup 6} spores/ml concentrations. The blast-resistant rice mutant was planted up to F6 generation with the consistent phenotypic variation. The high percentage of the blast-disease-resistant rice was analyzed with DNA fingerprint. The HAT-RAPD (high annealing temperature-random amplified polymorphic DNA) marker revealed the modified polymorphism fragment presenting in the mutant compared with wild type (KDML 105). The cDNA fingerprints were investigated and the polymorphism fragment was subcloned into pGEM-T easy vector and then sequenced. The sequence of this fragment was compared with those already contained in the database, and the fragment was found to be related to the Spotted leaf protein 11 (Spl11)

  17. DFIG-based offshore wind power plant connected to a single VSC-HVDC operated at variable frequency: Energy yield assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Prada-Gil, Mikel; Díaz-González, Francisco; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Sumper, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The existence of HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) transmission systems for remote offshore wind power plants allows devising novel wind plant concepts, which do not need to be synchronized with the main AC grid. This paper proposes an OWPP (offshore wind power plant) design based on variable speed wind turbines driven by DFIGs (doubly fed induction generators) with reduced power electronic converters connected to a single VSC-HVDC converter which operates at variable frequency and voltage within the collection grid. It is aimed to evaluate the influence of the power converter size and wind speed variability within the WPP on energy yield efficiency, as well as to develop a coordinated control between the VSC-HVDC converter and the individual back-to-back reduced power converters of each DFIG-based wind turbine in order to provide control capability for the wind power plant at a reduced cost. To maximise wind power generation by the OWPP, an optimum electrical frequency search algorithm for the VSC-HVDC converter is proposed. Both central wind power plant control level and local wind turbine control level are presented and the performance of the system is validated by means of simulations using MATLAB/Simulink ® . - Highlights: • Influence of converter size and wind speed variability on energy capture efficiency. • Coordinated control between a VSC-HVDC and DFIG WTs with reduced power converters. • Static and dynamic analysis of the performance of the implemented control scheme. • Optimal variable frequency operation to maximize WPP generation at a reduced cost

  18. Studies on fission with ALADIN. Precise and simultaneous measurement of fission yields, total kinetic energy and total prompt neutron multiplicity at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Julie-Fiona; Taieb, Julien; Chatillon, Audrey; Belier, Gilbert; Boutoux, Guillaume; Ebran, Adeline; Gorbinet, Thomas; Grente, Lucie; Laurent, Benoit; Pellereau, Eric; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ayyad, Yassid; Benlliure, Jose; Cortina Gil, Dolores; Caamano, Manuel; Fernandez Dominguez, Beatriz; Paradela, Carlos; Ramos, Diego; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Jose-Luis; Vargas, Jossitt; Audouin, Laurent; Tassan-Got, Laurent; Aumann, Thomas; Casarejos, Enrique; Farget, Fanny; Rodriguez-Tajes, Carme; Heinz, Andreas; Jurado, Beatriz; Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Kurz, Nikolaus; Nociforo, Chiara; Pietri, Stephane; Rossi, Dominic; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Simon, Haik; Voss, Bernd; Weick, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    A novel technique for fission studies, based on the inverse kinematics approach, is presented. Following pioneering work in the nineties, the SOFIA Collaboration has designed and built an experimental set-up dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of isotopic yields, total kinetic energies and total prompt neutron multiplicities, by fully identifying both fission fragments in coincidence, for the very first time. This experiment, performed at GSI, permits to study the fission of a wide variety of fissioning systems, ranging from mercury to neptunium, possibly far from the valley of stability. A first experiment, performed in 2012, has provided a large array of unprecedented data regarding the nuclear fission process. An excerpt of the results is presented. With this solid starter, further improvements of the experimental set-up are considered, which are consistent with the expected developments at the GSI facility, in order to measure more fission observables in coincidence. The completeness reached in the SOFIA data, permits to scrutinize the correlations between the interesting features of fission, offering a very detailed insight in this still unraveled mechanism. (orig.)

  19. Studies on fission with ALADIN. Precise and simultaneous measurement of fission yields, total kinetic energy and total prompt neutron multiplicity at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Julie-Fiona; Taieb, Julien; Chatillon, Audrey; Belier, Gilbert; Boutoux, Guillaume; Ebran, Adeline; Gorbinet, Thomas; Grente, Lucie; Laurent, Benoit; Pellereau, Eric [CEA DAM Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Arpajon (France); Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ayyad, Yassid; Benlliure, Jose; Cortina Gil, Dolores; Caamano, Manuel; Fernandez Dominguez, Beatriz; Paradela, Carlos; Ramos, Diego; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Jose-Luis; Vargas, Jossitt [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Audouin, Laurent; Tassan-Got, Laurent [CNRS/IN2P3, IPNO, Orsay (France); Aumann, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Casarejos, Enrique [Universidad de Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Farget, Fanny; Rodriguez-Tajes, Carme [CNRS/IN2P3, GANIL, Caen (France); Heinz, Andreas [Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Jurado, Beatriz [CNRS/IN2P3, CENBG, Gradignan (France); Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Kurz, Nikolaus; Nociforo, Chiara; Pietri, Stephane; Rossi, Dominic; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Simon, Haik; Voss, Bernd; Weick, Helmut [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    A novel technique for fission studies, based on the inverse kinematics approach, is presented. Following pioneering work in the nineties, the SOFIA Collaboration has designed and built an experimental set-up dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of isotopic yields, total kinetic energies and total prompt neutron multiplicities, by fully identifying both fission fragments in coincidence, for the very first time. This experiment, performed at GSI, permits to study the fission of a wide variety of fissioning systems, ranging from mercury to neptunium, possibly far from the valley of stability. A first experiment, performed in 2012, has provided a large array of unprecedented data regarding the nuclear fission process. An excerpt of the results is presented. With this solid starter, further improvements of the experimental set-up are considered, which are consistent with the expected developments at the GSI facility, in order to measure more fission observables in coincidence. The completeness reached in the SOFIA data, permits to scrutinize the correlations between the interesting features of fission, offering a very detailed insight in this still unraveled mechanism. (orig.)

  20. A business case for on-site generation: The BD biosciences pharmingen project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Ryan; Creighton, Charles; Bailey, Owen; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael

    2003-09-01

    Deregulation is haltingly changing the United States electricity markets. The resulting uncertainty and/or rising energy costs can be hedged by generating electricity on-site and other benefits, such as use of otherwise wasted heat, can be captured. The Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1978 first invited relatively small-scale generators ({ge} 1 MW) into the electricity market. The advent of efficient and reliable small scale and renewable equipment has spurred an industry that has, in recent years, made even smaller (business scale) electricity generation an economically viable option for some consumers. On-site energy capture and/or conversion, known as distributed energy resources (DER), offers consumers many benefits, such as economic savings and price predictability, improved reliability, control over power quality, and emissions reductions. Despite these benefits, DER adoption can be a daunting move to a customer accustomed to simply paying a monthly utility bill. San Diego is in many ways an attractive location for DER development: It has high electricity prices typical of California and a moderate climate i.e. energy loads are consistent throughout the year. Additionally, the price shock to San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) customers during the summer of 2000 has interested many in alternatives to electricity price vulnerability. This report examines the business case for DER at the San Diego biotechnology supply company, BD Biosciences Pharmingen, which considered DER for a building with 200-300 kW base-load, much of which accommodates the refrigerators required to maintain chemicals. Because of the Mediterranean climate of the San Diego area and the high rate of air changes required due to on-site use of chemicals, modest space heating is required throughout the year. Employees work in the building during normal weekday business hours, and daily peak loads are typically about 500 kW.

  1. Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields from 235U, 238U and 239Pu for Incident Neutron Energies Between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, M. E.; Arnold, C. W.; Becker, J. A.; Bhatia, C.; Bhike, M.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fallin, B.; Fowler, M. M.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Krishichayan; Macri, R.; Rusev, G.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Fission Product Yields (FPY) have historically been one of the most observable features of the fission process. They are known to have strong variations that are dependent on the fissioning species, the excitation energy, and the angular momentum of the compound system. However, consistent and systematic studies of the variation of these FPY with energy have proved challenging. This is caused primarily by the nature of the experiments that have traditionally relied on radiochemical procedures to isolate specific fission products. Although radiochemical procedures exist that can isolate all products, each element presents specific challenges and introduces varying degrees of systematic errors that can make inter-comparison of FPY uncertain. Although of high importance in fields such as nuclear forensics and Stockpile Stewardship, accurate information about the energy dependence of neutron induced FPY are sparse, due primarily to the lack of suitable monoenergetic neutron sources. There is a clear need for improved data, and to address this issue, a collaboration was formed between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to measure the energy dependence of FPY for 235U, 238U and 239Pu. The measurements have been performed at TUNL, using a 10 MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to produce monoenergetic neutrons at energies between 0.6 MeV to 14.8 MeV through a variety of reactions. The measurements have utilized a dual-fission chamber, with thin (10-100 μg/cm2) reference foils of similar material to a thick (100-400 mg) activation target held in the center between the chambers. This method allows for the accurate determination of the number of fissions that occurred in the thick target without requiring knowledge of the fission cross section or neutron fluence on target. Following activation, the thick target was removed from the dual-fission chamber and gamma

  2. Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields from {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu for Incident Neutron Energies Between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooden, M.E., E-mail: m_gooden@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Arnold, C.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Becker, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bhatia, C. [McMaster University, Ontario (Canada); Bhike, M. [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Bond, E.M.; Bredeweg, T.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Fallin, B. [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Fowler, M.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Howell, C.R. [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Kelley, J.H. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27605 (United States); Krishichayan [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Macri, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Rusev, G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Ryan, C.; Sheets, S.A.; Stoyer, M.A.; Tonchev, A.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Tornow, W. [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); and others

    2016-01-15

    Fission Product Yields (FPY) have historically been one of the most observable features of the fission process. They are known to have strong variations that are dependent on the fissioning species, the excitation energy, and the angular momentum of the compound system. However, consistent and systematic studies of the variation of these FPY with energy have proved challenging. This is caused primarily by the nature of the experiments that have traditionally relied on radiochemical procedures to isolate specific fission products. Although radiochemical procedures exist that can isolate all products, each element presents specific challenges and introduces varying degrees of systematic errors that can make inter-comparison of FPY uncertain. Although of high importance in fields such as nuclear forensics and Stockpile Stewardship, accurate information about the energy dependence of neutron induced FPY are sparse, due primarily to the lack of suitable monoenergetic neutron sources. There is a clear need for improved data, and to address this issue, a collaboration was formed between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to measure the energy dependence of FPY for {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu. The measurements have been performed at TUNL, using a 10 MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to produce monoenergetic neutrons at energies between 0.6 MeV to 14.8 MeV through a variety of reactions. The measurements have utilized a dual-fission chamber, with thin (10-100 μg/cm2) reference foils of similar material to a thick (100-400 mg) activation target held in the center between the chambers. This method allows for the accurate determination of the number of fissions that occurred in the thick target without requiring knowledge of the fission cross section or neutron fluence on target. Following activation, the thick target was removed from the dual-fission chamber

  3. On-site disposal as a decommissioning strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    On-site disposal is not a novel decommissioning strategy in the history of the nuclear industry. Several projects based on this strategy have been implemented. Moreover, a number of studies and proposals have explored variations within the strategy, ranging from in situ disposal of entire facilities or portions thereof to disposal within the site boundary of major components such as the reactor pressure vessel or steam generators. Regardless of these initiatives, and despite a significant potential for dose, radioactive waste and cost reduction, on-site disposal has often been disregarded as a viable decommissioning strategy, generally as the result of environmental and other public concerns. Little attention has been given to on-site disposal in previous IAEA publications in the field of decommissioning. The objective of this report is to establish an awareness of technical factors that may or may not favour the adoption of on-site disposal as a decommissioning strategy. In addition, this report presents an overview of relevant national experiences, studies and proposals. The expected end result is to show that, subject to safety and environmental protection assessment, on-site disposal can be a viable decommissioning option and should be taken into consideration in decision making

  4. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on milk yield, energy balance, and metabolic status of dairy cows over 2 consecutive years: Effects in the second year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Remmelink, G J; Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dry period (DP) length on milk yield, energy balance (EB), and metabolic status in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in the second year after implementation of DP and dietary treatments. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 DP lengths (0, 30, or 60d) and 1 of 2 early lactation diets (glucogenic or lipogenic) for 2 consecutive years. Results of the first year were reported previously. In the second year, 19 cows in the 0-d DP group were attributed to a new group (0→67d DP) because these cows had a milk yield of cows with a 0-d or 0→67-d DP had greater body condition score (BCS) than cows with a 60-d DP. During the first 9wk, cows with a 0- or 30-d DP produced 5.0 and 4.3kg less milk per day, respectively, but had similar EB compared with cows with a 60-d DP. Cows with a 0- or 30-d DP produced additional milk precalving, which could compensate milk yield losses in the first 9wk postcalving. Cows with a 0-d DP did not have milk yield losses or improve EB in the second year as much as in the first year. Cows with a 0-d DP had greater plasma insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and lower liver triacylglycerol concentrations than cows with other DP lengths. Cows with a 0→67-d DP had lower EB, and greater plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations than cows with other DP lengths. Feeding a glucogenic diet increased plasma glucose, IGF-I, and insulin concentrations, and decreased plasma FFA, BHB, and urea concentrations compared with a lipogenic diet, independent of DP length. In conclusion, omitting the DP or feeding a glucogenic diet improved metabolic status in early lactation of the second year after implementation of DP length and dietary treatments, although effects of omitting the DP were less pronounced in the second year than in the first year. The less pronounced improvement of EB in the second year was related

  5. Intruder dose pathway analysis for the onsite disposal of radioactive wastes: The ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Napier, B.A.; Neuder, S.M.

    1987-02-01

    This document summarizes initial efforts to develop human-intrusion scenarios and a modified version of the MAXI computer program for potential use by the NRC in reviewing applications for onsite radioactive waste disposal. Supplement 1 of NUREG/CR-3620 (1986) summarized modifications and improvements to the ONSITE/MAXI1 software package. This document summarizes a modified version of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program. This modified version of the computer program operates on a personal computer and permits the user to optionally select radiation dose conversion factors published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in their Publication No. 30 (ICRP 1979-1982) in place of those published by the ICRP in their Publication No. 2 (ICRP 1959) (as implemented in the previous versions of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program). The pathway-to-human models used in the computer program have not been changed from those described previously. Computer listings of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program and supporting data bases are included in the appendices of this document

  6. Measurements of fission product yield in the neutron-induced fission of {sup 238}U with average energies of 9.35 MeV and 12.52 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukerji, Sadhana; Krishnani, Pritam Das; Suryanarayana, Saraswatula Venkat; Naik, Haladhara; Goswami, Ashok [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Shivashankar, Byrapura Siddaramaiah [Manipal University, Manipal (India); Mulik, Vikas Kaluram [University of Pune, Pune (India)

    2014-07-15

    The yields of various fission products in the neutron-induced fission of {sup 238}U with the flux-weighted averaged neutron energies of 9.35 MeV and 12.52 MeV were determined by using an off-line gamma ray spectroscopic technique. The neutrons were generated using the {sup 7}Li(p, n) reaction at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre-Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Pelletron facility, Mumbai. The gamma- ray activities of the fission products were counted in a highly-shielded HPGe detector over a period of several weeks to identify the decaying fission products. At both the neutron energies, the fission-yield values are reported for twelve fission product. The results obtained from the present work have been compared with the similar data for mono-energetic neutrons of comparable energy from the literature and are found to be in good agreement. The peak-to-valley (P/V) ratios were calculated from the fission-yield data and were found to decreases for neutron energy from 9.35 to 12.52 MeV, which indicates the role of excitation energy. The effect of the nuclear structure on the fission product-yield is discussed.

  7. Measurements of fission product yield in the neutron-induced fission of 238U with average energies of 9.35 MeV and 12.52 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerji, Sadhana; Krishnani, Pritam Das; Shivashankar, Byrapura Siddaramaiah; Mulik, Vikas Kaluram; Suryanarayana, Saraswatula Venkat; Naik, Haladhara; Goswami, Ashok

    2014-07-01

    The yields of various fission products in the neutron-induced fission of 238U with the flux-weightedaveraged neutron energies of 9.35 MeV and 12.52 MeV were determined by using an off-line gammaray spectroscopic technique. The neutrons were generated using the 7Li(p, n) reaction at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre-Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Pelletron facility, Mumbai. The gamma- ray activities of the fission products were counted in a highly-shielded HPGe detector over a period of several weeks to identify the decaying fission products. At both the neutron energies, the fission-yield values are reported for twelve fission product. The results obtained from the present work have been compared with the similar data for mono-energetic neutrons of comparable energy from the literature and are found to be in good agreement. The peak-to-valley (P/V) ratios were calculated from the fission-yield data and were found to decreases for neutron energy from 9.35 to 12.52 MeV, which indicates the role of excitation energy. The effect of the nuclear structure on the fission product-yield is discussed.

  8. Experiences with on-site power sources at KCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijnen, B. M.A. [Borssele Nuclear Power Station, N.V. P.Z.E.M., Postbus 48, 4330 AA Middleburg (Netherlands)

    1986-02-15

    The design of the nuclear power station is of the late sixties. The experiences with the on-site power sources, signal processing and some of the resulting modifications of the design of the power plant are mentioned. In order to let the design satisfy as much as possible present ideas about safety, it was decided to realize a total new and Independent decay heat removal System. With this system a second independent on-site power System is at disposal in case of accident situations. (author)

  9. Estimations of On-site Directional Wave Spectra from Measured Ship Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2006-01-01

    include an quivalence of energy in the governing equations and, as regards the parametric concept, a frequency dependent spreading of the waves is introduced. The paper includes an extensive analysis of full-scale measurements for which the directional wave spectra are estimated by the two ship response......In general, two main concepts can be applied to estimate the on-site directional wave spectrum on the basis of ship response measurements: 1) a parametric method which assumes the wave spectrum to be composed by parameterised wave spectra, or 2) a non-parametric method where the directional wave...

  10. On-Site Fecal Sludge Treatment with the Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine

    OpenAIRE

    Forbis-Stokes, Aaron A.; O'Meara, Patrick F.; Mugo, Wangare; Simiyu, Gelas M.; Deshusses, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine (ADPL) is a self-contained and energy neutral on-site sanitation system using anaerobic digestion of fecal sludge to generate biogas and then uses the biogas to pasteurize the digester effluent at 65?75?C to produce a safe effluent that can be reused locally as a fertilizer. Two ADPL systems were installed on residential plots with 17 and 35 residents in a peri-urban area outside of Eldoret, Kenya. Each system comprised three toilets bui...

  11. WE-G-BRA-05: IROC Houston On-Site Audits and Parameters That Affect Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kry, S; Dromgoole, L; Alvarez, P; Lowenstein, J; Molineu, A; Taylor, P; Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To highlight the IROC Houston on-site dosimetry audit program, and to investigate the impact of clinical conditions on the frequency of errors/recommendations noted by IROC Houston. Methods: The results of IROC Houston on-site audits from 2000-present were abstracted and compared to clinical parameters, this included 409 institutions and 1020 linacs. In particular, we investigated the frequency of recommendations versus year, and the impact of repeat visits on the number of recommendations. We also investigated the impact on the number of recommendations of several clinical parameters: the number and age of the linacs, the linac/TPS combination, and the scope of the QA program. Results: The number of recommendations per institution (3.1 average) has shown decline between 2000 and present, although the number of recommendations per machine (0.89) has not changed. Previous IROC Houston site visits did not Result in fewer recommendations on a repeat visit, but IROC Houston tests have changed substantially during the last 15 years as radiotherapy technology has changed. There was no impact on the number of recommendations based on the number of machines at the institution or the age of a given machine. The fewest recommendations were observed for Varian-Eclipse combinations (0.71 recs/machine), while Elekta- Pinnacle combinations yielded the most (1.62 recs/machine). Finally, in the TG-142 era (post-2010), those institutions that had a QA recommendation (n=77) had significantly more other recommendations (1.83 per institution) than those that had no QA rec (n=12, 1.33 per institution). Conclusion: Establishing and maintaining a successful radiotherapy program is challenging and areas of improvement can routinely be identified. Clinical conditions such as linac-TPS combinations and the establishment of a good QA program impact the frequency of errors/deficiencies identified by IROC Houston during their on-site review process.

  12. WE-G-BRA-05: IROC Houston On-Site Audits and Parameters That Affect Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kry, S; Dromgoole, L; Alvarez, P; Lowenstein, J; Molineu, A; Taylor, P; Followill, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To highlight the IROC Houston on-site dosimetry audit program, and to investigate the impact of clinical conditions on the frequency of errors/recommendations noted by IROC Houston. Methods: The results of IROC Houston on-site audits from 2000-present were abstracted and compared to clinical parameters, this included 409 institutions and 1020 linacs. In particular, we investigated the frequency of recommendations versus year, and the impact of repeat visits on the number of recommendations. We also investigated the impact on the number of recommendations of several clinical parameters: the number and age of the linacs, the linac/TPS combination, and the scope of the QA program. Results: The number of recommendations per institution (3.1 average) has shown decline between 2000 and present, although the number of recommendations per machine (0.89) has not changed. Previous IROC Houston site visits did not Result in fewer recommendations on a repeat visit, but IROC Houston tests have changed substantially during the last 15 years as radiotherapy technology has changed. There was no impact on the number of recommendations based on the number of machines at the institution or the age of a given machine. The fewest recommendations were observed for Varian-Eclipse combinations (0.71 recs/machine), while Elekta- Pinnacle combinations yielded the most (1.62 recs/machine). Finally, in the TG-142 era (post-2010), those institutions that had a QA recommendation (n=77) had significantly more other recommendations (1.83 per institution) than those that had no QA rec (n=12, 1.33 per institution). Conclusion: Establishing and maintaining a successful radiotherapy program is challenging and areas of improvement can routinely be identified. Clinical conditions such as linac-TPS combinations and the establishment of a good QA program impact the frequency of errors/deficiencies identified by IROC Houston during their on-site review process

  13. Design Status and Applications of Small reactors without On-site Refuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Small reactors without on-site refuelling are the reactors that can operate without reloading and shuffling of fuel for a reasonably long period, consistent with plant economy and considerations of energy security, with no fresh or spent fuel being stored at a site during reactor operation. Such reactors could simplify the implementation of safeguards and provide certain guarantees of sovereignty to those countries that would prefer to lease fuel from a foreign vendor or, perhaps, an international fuel cycle centre. About 30 concepts of such reactors are being analyzed or developed in 6 IAEA Member States. They cover all principle reactor lines: water cooled, fast gas cooled, sodium cooled, lead or lead bismuth cooled and molten salt cooled reactors. An increased refuelling interval could be achieved with reduced core power density, burnable absorbers, or high conversion ratio. The design goals for small reactors without on-site refuelling, inter alia, include: difficult unauthorized access to fuel; design provisions to facilitate the implementation of safeguards; capability to survive all postulated accident scenarios without requiring emergency response in the public domain; economic competitiveness for anticipated market conditions and applications; the capability to achieve higher manufacturing quality through factory mass production, design standardization and common basis for design certification; and a flexibility in siting and applications. Such reactors are often considered in conjunction with fuel or NPP leasing Small reactors without on-site refuelling have many common technology development issues related to the provision of lifetime core operation, economic competitiveness, high level of safety and proliferation resistance. Reestablishment of a practice of licensing by test and establishment of legal provisions and the insurance scheme for a transit of fuel loads or factory fabricated reactors through the territory of a third country are mentioned as

  14. Study of the reaction {gamma}p{yields}K{sup +}{sigma}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} for photon energies up to 2.65 GeV with the SAPHIR detector at ELSA; Untersuchung der Reaktion {gamma}p{yields}K{sup +}{sigma}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} fuer Photonenenergien bis 2.65 GeV mit dem SAPHIR-Detektor an ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulday, I.

    2004-10-01

    The reaction {gamma}p{yields}K{sup +}{sigma}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} was measured in the photon energy range from threshold up to 2.65 GeV. The cross section is dominated by the production of the resonances {sigma}(1385), {lambda}(1405) and {lambda}(1520) which decay into {sigma}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}. Cross sections were obtained as a function of the photon energy and the K{sup +} production angle for the reaction and the resonance production. The cross section for {lambda}(1520) rises up to (0.230{+-}0.029) {mu}b in the photon energy range 1.80yields a slope parameter b=-2.41{+-}0.37 GeV{sup -2}. The polar decay angular distribution is consistent with being flat. (orig.)

  15. Intruder dose pathway analysis for the onsite disposal of radioactive wastes: the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Neuder, S.M.

    1984-10-01

    Because of uncertainties associated with assessing the potential risks from onsite burials of radioactive waste, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has amended its regulations to provide greater assurance that buried radioactive material will not present a hazard to public health and safety. The amended regulations now require licensees to apply for approval of proposed procedures for onsite disposal pursuant to 10 CFR 20.302. The NRC technically reviews these requests on a case-by-case basis. These technical reviews require modeling potential pathways to man and projecting radiation dose commitments. This document contains a summary of our efforts to develop human-intrusion scenarios and to modify a version of the MAXI computer program for potential use by the NRC in reviewing applications for onsite radioactive waste disposal. The documentation of the ONSITE/MAXI computer program is written for two audiences. The first (Audience A) includes persons concerned with the mathematical models and computer algorithms. The second (Audience B) includes persons concerned with exercising the computer program and scenarios for specific onsite disposal applications. Five sample problems are presented and discussed to assist the user in operating the computer program. Summaries of the input and output for the sample problems are included along with a discussion of the hand calculations performed to verify the correct operation of the computer program. Computer listings of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program with an abbreviated data base listing are included as Appendix 1 to this document. Finally, complete listings of the data base with listings of the special codes used to create the data base are included in Appendix 2 as a microfiche attachment to this document

  16. The relationship between genetic merit for yield and live weight, condition score, and energy balance of spring calving Holstein Friesian dairy cows on grass based systems of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the effects of genetic merit for milk yield on energy balance, DM intake (DMI), and fertility for cows managed on three different grass-based feeding systems and to estimate possible interactions between genetic merit and feeding system. Individual

  17. Glucose as the Sole Metabolic Fuel: The Possible Influence of Formal Teaching on the Establishment of a Misconception about Energy-Yielding Metabolism among Students from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Mauricio R. M. P.; de Oliveira, Gabriel Aguiar; de Sousa, Cristiane Ribeiro; Da Poian, Andrea T.

    2008-01-01

    Energy-yielding metabolism is an important biochemistry subject that is related to many daily experiences and health issues of students. An adequate knowledge of the general features of EYM is therefore important, both from an academic and social point of view. In a previous study, we have shown that high-school students present the misconception…

  18. Comparative yields of alkali elements and thallium from uranium irradiated with high-energy protons, /sup 3/He and /sup 12/C

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Jonson, B; Jonsson, O C; Lindfors, V; Mattsson, S; Poskanzer, A M; Ravn, H L; Schardt, D

    1981-01-01

    Mass-separated ion beams of the alkali elements Na, K, and Fr, and of the element Tl are produced by bombarding a uranium target with 600 Me V protons, 890 MeV /sup 3/He/sup 2+/, and 936 MeV /sup 12/C/sup 4+/. Isotopic production yields are reported. In the case of the /sup 12/C beam these are thick target yields. Absolute cross-sections for the proton-beam data were deduced by normalizing the delay-time corrected yield curves to measured cross-sections. For products farthest away from stability the /sup 3/He/sup 2+/ beam generally gives the highest yields. (17 refs).

  19. Number of on-site personnel and their functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, M.

    1986-01-01

    After the definition of the general tasks, the development of an organization chart for on-site personnel is shown, the number and qualifications are indicated relating to the specific jobs. The functions of the different people are explained in detail. (orig.)

  20. Local Area Artworks: Collaborative Art Interpretation On-Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polli, Anna Maria; Korn, Matthias; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present Local Area Artworks, a system enabling collaborative art interpretation on-site deployed during an exhibition in a local art gallery. Through the system, we explore ways to re-connect people to the local place by making use of their personal mobile devices as interfaces...

  1. Safety assessment requirements for onsite transfers of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opperman, E.K.; Jackson, E.J.; Eggers, A.G.

    1992-05-01

    This document contains the requirements for developing a safety assessment document for an onsite package containing radioactive material. It also provides format and content guidance to establish uniformity in the safety assessment documentation and to ensure completeness of the information provided

  2. In-situ and on-site technologies; An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freestone, F J [Technical Support Branch, ORD, RREL, U.S. EPA, Edison, New Jersey (US)

    1990-01-01

    A broad analysis of and perspective on the characteristics and measured performance of in-situ and on-site treatment technologies available for remediation of contaminated soils, groundwater and associated debris at hazardous waste sites. Included in the analysis is information from U.S. and European sources. Available data are appended from nine recently completed field demonstrations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The most frequently applied technology areas appear to be on-site thermal treatment for organics, on-site and in-situ solidification/stabilization technologies for most inorganics and metals, traditional on-site water treatment techniques, and soil vapor extraction for volatile organic compounds. Rapidly developing areas include bioremediation technologies, and concentration technologies. Two of the weakest areas include materials handling for such situations as excavating buried drums and soils with volatiles safely, and performing physical and chemical site characterization using technology-sensitive parameters. An area worthy of international cooperatin is that of performing benchscale screening and treatability studies, including the specification of key parameters needing measurement, techniques for such measurement and for interpretation, storage and retrieval of resulting data. We are in the process of evaluating existing treatability study data on soils and debris, and will be installing that data onto an on-line information system available to the public world-wide. (AB) 10 refs.

  3. Measurements of inner-shell characteristic X-ray yields of thick W, Mo and Zr targets by low-energy electron impact and comparison with Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.L.; Zhao, J.L.; Tian, L.X.; An, Z.; Zhu, J.J.; Liu, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •We measured characteristic X-ray yields of thick W, Mo, Zr by 5–29 keV electrons. •Our measured data are in general in good agreement with the MC results with ∼10%. •Error of 10% of characteristic X-ray yields will produce errors of 2–7% for BIXS. -- Abstract: Inner-shell characteristic X-ray yields are one of the important ingredients in the β-ray induced X-ray spectrometry (BIXS) technique which can be used to perform tritium content and depth distribution analyses in plasma facing materials (PLMs) and other tritium-containing materials, such as W, Mo, Zr. In this paper, the measurements of K, L, M-shell X-ray yields Y(E) of pure thick W (Z = 74), Mo (Z = 42) and Zr (Z = 40) element targets produced by electron impact in the energy range of 5–29 keV are presented. The experimental data for Y(E) are compared with the corresponding predictions from Monte Carlo (MC) calculations using the general purpose MC code PENELOPE. In general, a good agreement is obtained between the experiment and the MC calculations for the variation of Y(E) with the impact energy both in shape and in magnitude with ∼10%. The effect of uncertainty of inner-shell characteristic X-ray yields on the BIXS technique is also discussed

  4. Improving the reliability of female fertility breeding values using type and milk yield traits that predict energy status in Australian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Recio, O; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to propose changing the selection criteria trait for evaluating fertility in Australia from calving interval to conception rate at d 42 after the beginning of the mating season and (2) to use type traits as early fertility predictors, to increase the reliability of estimated breeding values for fertility. The breeding goal in Australia is conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season. Currently, the Australian model to predict fertility breeding values (expressed as a linear transformation of calving interval) is a multitrait model that includes calving interval (CVI), lactation length (LL), calving to first service (CFS), first nonreturn rate (FNRR), and conception rate. However, CVI has a lower genetic correlation with the breeding goal (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) than conception rate. Milk yield, type, and fertility data from 164,318 cow sired by 4,766 bulls were used. Principal component analysis and genetic correlation estimates between type and fertility traits were used to select type traits that could subsequently be used in a multitrait analysis. Angularity, foot angle, and pin set were chosen as type traits to include in an index with the traits that are included in the multitrait fertility model: CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and conception rate at d 42 (CR42). An index with these 8 traits is expected to achieve an average bull first proof reliability of 0.60 on the breeding objective (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) compared with reliabilities of 0.39 and 0.45 for CR42 only or the current 5-trait Australian model. Subsequently, we used the first eigenvector of a principal component analysis with udder texture, bone quality, angularity, and body condition score to calculate an energy status indicator trait. The inclusion of the energy status indicator trait composite in a multitrait index with CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and CR42 achieved a 12-point increase in

  5. 75 FR 3250 - Glaxosmithkline, Including On-Site Temporary and Leased Workers From Kelly Services, Kelly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... subject firm. The workers are engaged in the production of penicillin-based antibiotics for humans and animals. The company reports that on-site leased workers from Dream Clean, Inc. were employed on-site at...

  6. Radiological effluent and onsite area monitoring report for the Nevada Test Site (January 1985 through December 1985)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, D.A.

    1986-09-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site as conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) onsite radiological safety contractor from January 1985 through December 1985. The results and evaluations of measurements of radioactivity in air and water, and of direct gamma radiation exposure rates are presented. Relevancy to DOE concentration guides (CG'S) is established. This report was formerly titled ''Environmental Surveillance Report for the Nevada Test Site.''

  7. Measurement of the Z{yields}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} production cross section in proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV center-of-mass energy with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capriotti, Daniele

    2012-06-11

    The subject of this thesis is the measurement of the Z{yields}{tau}{tau} production cross section in protonproton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The study of this process is important for several reasons. First, the measurement of the Z boson production in the {tau}{tau} final state confirms the measurements in the electron and muon pair final states providing information about the parton density functions at the energy of the Large Hadron Collider. In addition, the search for a low mass Higgs boson decaying into {tau} lepton pairs requires knowledge of the inclusive Z{yields}{tau}{tau} production cross section. Z{yields}{tau}{tau} production is an important benchmark process for the validation of {tau} lepton reconstruction and identification which is very difficult at a hadron collider. The reconstruction of Z{yields}{tau}{tau} events can be performed in several final states depending on the decay modes of the {tau} leptons. The semi-leptonic final state, where one {tau} lepton decays into an electron or muon and neutrinos and the other one into hadrons plus neutrino, has been investigated in this thesis. The production cross section has been determined for data collected in 2011 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.5 fb{sup -1}. This involved the determination of the muon trigger and reconstruction efficiencies from data and the estimation of the multi-jet background with a data driven technique. The results using the semileptonic final states, {sigma}(pp{yields}Z+X, Z{yields}{tau}{tau})=998.1{+-}23.7(stat){+-}131.9(syst){+-}36.9(lumi) pb ({tau}{sub e}{tau} h channel), {sigma}(pp{yields}Z+X, Z{yields}{tau}{tau})=912.4{+-}15.0(stat){+-}94.7(syst){+-}33.7(lumi) pb ({tau}{sub {mu}}{tau} h channel), can be combined with the measurement in the {tau}{sub e}{tau}{sub {mu}} channel to {sigma}(pp {yields}Z+X, Z{yields}{tau}{tau})=920.6 {+-}16.7(stat){+-}78.1(syst){+-}34.0(lumi) pb

  8. 75 FR 879 - National Semiconductor Corporation Arlington Manufacturing Site Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... engaged in activities related to the production of integrated circuits. The company reports that on-site... Corporation Arlington Manufacturing Site Including On-Site Leased Workers From GCA, CMPA (Silverleaf), Custom..., applicable to workers of National Semiconductor Corporation, Arlington Manufacturing Site, including on-site...

  9. 75 FR 41895 - Whirlpool Corporation, Evansville Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Andrews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ..., Evansville Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Andrews International, Inc., M.H. Equipment, and... 10321). The notice was amended on May 25, 2010 to include on-site leased workers from Andrews... workers of Whirlpool Corporation, Evansville Division, including on-site leased workers from Andrews...

  10. Lessons Learned from the On-Site Disposal Facility at Fernald Closure Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumthekar, U.A.; Chiou, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    The On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Closure Project near Cincinnati, Ohio is an engineered above-grade waste disposal facility being constructed to permanently store low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and treated mixed LLRW generated during Decommissioning and Demolition (D and D) and soil remediation performed in order to achieve the final land use goal at the site. The OSDF is engineered to store 2.93 million cubic yards of waste derived from the remediation activities. The OSDF is intended to isolate its LLRW from the environment for at least 200 years and for up to 1,000 years to the extent practicable and achievable. Construction of the OSDF started in 1997 and waste placement activities will complete by the middle of April 2006 with the final cover (cap) placement over the last open cell by the end of Spring 2006. An on-site disposal alternative is considered critical to the success of many large-scale DOE remediation projects throughout the United States. However, for various reasons this cost effective alternative is not readily available in many cases. Over the last ten years Fluor Fernald Inc. has cumulated many valuable lessons learned through the complex engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes of the OSDF. Also in the last several years representatives from other DOE sites, State agencies, as well as foreign government agencies have visited the Fernald site to look for proven experiences and practices, which may be adapted for their sites. This paper present a summary of the major issues and lessons leaned at the Fernald site related to engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes for the disposal of remediation waste. The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learned and to benefit other projects considering or operating similar on-site disposal facilities from our successful experiences. (authors)

  11. Contribution to the study of {pi}{sup -} + p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + n and {pi}{sup -} + p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + {pi} + n reactions at the energies of the maxima of the {pi}-nucleon interaction in the T = 1/2 state total cross section; Contribution a l'etude des reactions {pi}{sup -} + p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + n et {pi}{sup -} + p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + n aux energies des maxima de la section efficace totale de l'interaction {pi}{sup -} nucleon dans l'etat de spin isobarique T = 1/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turlay, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    In the first part of this experiment, we determined the total cross section for processes yielding only neutral particles, from 300 to 1600 MeV. For this, we counted the number of incident {pi}{sup -}, as defined by a counter telescope, which interact in a liquid-hydrogen target without giving charged particles in a 4{pi} counter surrounding the target. In the second part of this experiment, we have separated the reaction {pi}{sup -} p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} n and {pi}{sup -} p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} n between 300 and 1100 MeV, by supposing that only these two reactions was realized by placing lead absorbers between the target and 4{pi} counter and by comparing the counting rate for neutral events with and without lead. The transmission thus measured is a function of the average number of photons produced and therefore of the ratio between the two neutral channels, {pi}{sup 0} n and {pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} n. In the last section of this work, we discuss the experimental results and compare them to those obtained by other authors in the study of photoproduction and the {pi}-nucleon interaction. (author) [French] Dans une premiere partie de cette experience, nous determinons la section efficace totale des processus ne donnant naissance qu'a des particules neutres de 300 et 1 600 MeV. Pour cela nous comptons le nombre de {pi}{sup -}, defini par un telescope incident, qui interagissent dans une cible d'hydrogene liquide sans donner de particules chargees dans un compteur 4{pi} entourant cette cible. Dans la deuxieme partie de l'experience nous avons separe les reactions {pi}{sup -} p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} n et {pi}{sup -} p {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} n entre 300 et 1 600 MeV en supposant que seules ces deux voies soient importantes a ces energies. La separation de ces deux reactions a ete realisee en placant des ecrans de plomb entre la cible et le compteur 4 {pi}, et en comparant les traces de comptage des evenements a secondaires neutres avec et sans

  12. Onsite disposal of radioactive waste: Estimating potential groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, D.J.; Neuder, S.M.; Pennifill, R.A.; Ginn, T.

    1986-11-01

    Volumes 1 and 2 of this report describe the NRC's methodology for assessing the potential public health and environmental impacts associated with onsite disposal of very low activity radioactive materials. This volume (Vol. 3) describes a general methodology for predicting potential groundwater contamination from onsite disposal. The methodology includes formulating a conceptual model, representing the conceptual model mathematically, estimating conservative parameters, and predicting receptor concentrations. Processes which must generally be considered in the methodology include infiltration, leaching of radionuclides from the waste, transport to the saturated zone, transport within the saturated zone, and withdrawal at a receptor location. A case study of shallow burial of iodine-125 illustrates application of the MOCMOD84 version of the US Geological Survey's 2-D solute transport model and a corresponding analytical solution. The appendices include a description and listing of MOCMOD84, descriptions of several analytical solution techniques, and a procedure for estimating conservative groundwater velocity values

  13. The feasibility of mobile computing for on-site inspection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, Karl Emanuel; DeLand, Sharon Marie; Blair, Dianna Sue

    2014-09-01

    With over 5 billion cellphones in a world of 7 billion inhabitants, mobile phones are the most quickly adopted consumer technology in the history of the world. Miniaturized, power-efficient sensors, especially video-capable cameras, are becoming extremely widespread, especially when one factors in wearable technology like Apples Pebble, GoPro video systems, Google Glass, and lifeloggers. Tablet computers are becoming more common, lighter weight, and power-efficient. In this report the authors explore recent developments in mobile computing and their potential application to on-site inspection for arms control verification and treaty compliance determination. We examine how such technology can effectively be applied to current and potential future inspection regimes. Use cases are given for both host-escort and inspection teams. The results of field trials and their implications for on-site inspections are discussed.

  14. On-site tests on the nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilhat, P.; Favennec, J.M.; Neau, P.; Preudhomme, E.

    1996-01-01

    On-site tests and experiments are performed by EDF Research and Development Division on the nuclear power plants to assess the behaviour of major components submitted to thermal and vibratory solicitations. On-going studies deal with the qualification of new nuclear power plant standard and with the feedback of plants under operation. The tests, particularly the investigation tests, correspond to large investments and entail an important data volume which must ensure the continuity over a long period of the order of magnitude of the in-service plant life (around 40 years). This paper addresses the on-site experimental activities, describes the means to be used, and gives an example: the qualification of SG of new 1450 MW nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments

  16. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-08-27

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public.

  17. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum

  18. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-07-14

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.

  19. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public

  20. The Feasibility of Onsite Electrolysis as Primary and Clean Production Source of Fuel Hydrogen in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COSTA, Andre R

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the International Monetary Fund Brazil is currently the world's 12. largest and Latin America's largest economy, with a nominal GPD in the amount of US dollars 732,078 millions. Despite the fact that energy production is still heavily based on hydrocarbons, such as oil, natural gas and coal, the country is often indicated as one of the worldwide leaders in implementing renewable energy sources, primarily due to the spread utilization of bio-ethanol in transportation and the electricity production from hydropower. The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of onsite electrolysis as primary and clean source of fuel hydrogen in Brazil, indicating the main advantages of this production method. A perspective of the most significant challenges and actions to be taken regarding the accomplishment of a clean Brazilian hydrogen economy will be presented herein. (author)

  1. Integrated Risk Framework for Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Steven; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Thomas, Evan; Hargreaves, Megan; Frost, Ray; Dawes, Les

    2006-08-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are becoming increasingly important for the treatment and dispersal of effluent in new urbanised developments that are not serviced by centralised wastewater collection and treatment systems. However, the current standards and guidelines adopted by many local authorities for assessing suitable site and soil conditions for OWTS are increasingly coming under scrutiny due to the public health and environmental impacts caused by poorly performing systems, in particular septic tank-soil adsorption systems. In order to achieve sustainable onsite wastewater treatment with minimal impacts on the environment and public health, more appropriate means of assessment are required. This paper highlights an integrated risk based approach for assessing the inherent hazards associated with OWTS in order to manage and mitigate the environmental and public health risks inherent with onsite wastewater treatment. In developing a sound and cohesive integrated risk framework for OWTS, several key issues must be recognised. These include the inclusion of relevant stakeholders throughout framework development, the integration of scientific knowledge, data and analysis with risk assessment and management ideals, and identification of the appropriate performance goals for successful management and mitigation of associated risks. These issues were addressed in the development of the risk framework to provide a generic approach to assessing risk from OWTS. The utilisation of the developed risk framework for achieving more appropriate assessment and management techniques for OWTS is presented in a case study for the Gold Coast region, Queensland State, Australia.

  2. Continuous feed, on-site composting of kitchen garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eung-Ju; Shin, Hang-Sik; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2002-04-01

    Kitchen garbage generated at a school cafeteria was treated and stabilised in a controlled on-site composting unit for volume reduction and on-site utilisation of processed garbage. The on-site composter was fed with the garbage on a daily basis during the two-months experimental period. Compost was not removed from the unit but was entirely reused as a bulking agent in order to minimise the need for additional bulking agent and compost handling. Performance of the composter tinder this condition was investigated. Most of the easily degradable organic matter (EDM) in the garbage was biodegraded rapidly, and the final product had a low content of EDM. Lipids, total sugar, and hemi-cellulose were degraded 96%, 81%, and 66% respectively. Free air space (FAS) was higher than 0.5 all the time, so accumulation of dry matter in the unit was not significant in reducing reaction efficiency. Other reaction parameters such as pH and MC were kept within a suitable range; however, it was advisable to maintain MC at over 46%. As a result, this method of operation was able to stabilise the garbage with low sawdust demand and little compost production.

  3. Measurement of photo-neutron cross sections and isomeric yield ratios in the {sup 89}Y(γ,xn){sup 89-x}Y reactions at the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 65, 70 and 75 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatari, Mansoureh [Yazd Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Physics Dept.; Naik, Haladhara [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Kwangsoo [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Shin, Sung-Gyun; Cho, Moo-Hyun [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Advanced Nuclear Engineering

    2017-07-01

    The flux-weighted average cross sections of the {sup 89}Y(γ,xn; x=1-4){sup 89-x}Y reactions and the isomeric yield ratios of the {sup 87m,g}Y, {sup 86m,g}Y, and {sup 85m,g}Y radionuclides produced in these reactions with the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 65, 70 and 75 MeV have been determined by an activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique using the 100 MeV electron linac in Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Korea. The theoretical {sup 89}Y(γ,xn; x=1-4){sup 89-x}Y reaction cross sections for mono-energetic photons have been calculated using the computer code TALYS 1.6. Then the flux-weighted theoretical values were obtained to compare with the present data. The flux-weighted experimental and theoretical {sup 89}Y(γ,xn; x=1-4){sup 89-x}Y reaction cross sections increase very fast from the threshold values to a certain bremsstrahlung energy, where the other reaction channels open up. Thereafter it remains constant a while and then slowly decreases with the increase of cross sections for other reactions. Similarly, the isomeric yield ratios of {sup 87m,g}Y, {sup 86m,g}Y and {sup 85m,g}Y in the {sup 89}Y(γ,xn; x=2-4){sup 89-x}Y reactions from the present work and literature data show an increasing trend from their respective threshold values to a certain bremsstrahlung energy. After a certain point of energy, the isomeric yield ratios increase slowly with the bremsstrahlung energy. These observations indicate the role of excitation energy and its partitioning in different reaction channels.

  4. Customer adoption of small-scale on-site power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2001-04-01

    The electricity supply system is undergoing major regulatory and technological change with significant implications for the way in which the sector will operate (including its patterns of carbon emissions) and for the policies required to ensure socially and environmentally desirable outcomes. One such change stems from the rapid emergence of viable small-scale (i.e., smaller than 500 kW) generators that are potentially competitive with grid delivered electricity, especially in combined heat and power configurations. Such distributed energy resources (DER) may be grouped together with loads in microgrids. These clusters could operate semi-autonomously from the established power system, or macrogrid, matching power quality and reliability more closely to local end-use requirements. In order to establish a capability for analyzing the effect that microgrids may have on typical commercial customers, such as office buildings, restaurants, shopping malls, and grocery stores, an economic mod el of DER adoption is being developed at Berkeley Lab. This model endeavors to indicate the optimal quantity and type of small on-site generation technologies that customers could employ given their electricity requirements. For various regulatory schemes and general economic conditions, this analysis produces a simple operating schedule for any installed generators. Early results suggest that many commercial customers can benefit economically from on-site generation, even without considering potential combined heat and power and reliability benefits, even though they are unlikely to disconnect from the established power system.

  5. Customer adoption of small-scale on-site power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2001-01-01

    The electricity supply system is undergoing major regulatory and technological change with significant implications for the way in which the sector will operate (including its patterns of carbon emissions) and for the policies required to ensure socially and environmentally desirable outcomes. One such change stems from the rapid emergence of viable small-scale (i.e., smaller than 500 kW) generators that are potentially competitive with grid delivered electricity, especially in combined heat and power configurations. Such distributed energy resources (DER) may be grouped together with loads in microgrids. These clusters could operate semi-autonomously from the established power system, or macrogrid, matching power quality and reliability more closely to local end-use requirements. In order to establish a capability for analyzing the effect that microgrids may have on typical commercial customers, such as office buildings, restaurants, shopping malls, and grocery stores, an economic mod el of DER adoption is being developed at Berkeley Lab. This model endeavors to indicate the optimal quantity and type of small on-site generation technologies that customers could employ given their electricity requirements. For various regulatory schemes and general economic conditions, this analysis produces a simple operating schedule for any installed generators. Early results suggest that many commercial customers can benefit economically from on-site generation, even without considering potential combined heat and power and reliability benefits, even though they are unlikely to disconnect from the established power system

  6. Concentration dependence of the light yield and energy resolution of NaI:Tl and CsI:Tl crystals excited by gamma, soft X-rays and alpha particles

    CERN Document Server

    Trefilova, L N; Kovaleva, L V; Zaslavsky, B G; Zosim, D I; Bondarenko, S K

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of light yield dependence on activator concentration for NaI:Tl and CsI:Tl excited by gamma-rays, soft X-rays and alpha-particles, an explanation of the effect of energy resolution enhancement with the rise of Tl content has been proposed. Based on the concept regarding the electron track structure, we proposed an alternative explanation of the intrinsic resolution value. The concept does not take into account the non-proportional response to electrons of different energies and is based on the statistic fluctuation of scintillation photon number formed outside and inside the regions of higher ionization density.

  7. Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Supported on Macro-Mesoporous Aluminosilicates for Catalytic Steam Gasification of Heavy Oil Fractions for On-Site Upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic steam gasification of extra-heavy oil (EHO fractions was studied using functionalized aluminosilicates, with NiO, MoO3, and/or CoO nanoparticles with the aim of evaluating the synergistic effect between active phase and the support in heavy oil on-site upgrading. Catalysts were characterized by chemical composition through X-ray Fluorescence, surface area, and pore size distribution through N2 adsorption/desorption, catalyst acidity by temperature programmed desorption (TPD, and metal dispersion by pulse H2 chemisorption. Batch adsorption experiments and catalytic steam gasification of adsorbed heavy fractions was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis and were performed with heavy oil model solutions of asphaltenes and resins (R–A in toluene. Effective activation energy estimation was used to determine the catalytic effect of the catalyst in steam gasification of Colombian EHO. Additionally, R–A decomposition under inert atmosphere was conducted for the evaluation of oil components reactions with active phases and steam atmosphere. The presence of a bimetallic active phase Inc.reases the decomposition of the heavy compounds at low temperature by an increase in the aliphatic chains decomposition and the dissociation of heteroatoms bonds. Also, coke formation after steam gasification process is reduced by the application of the bimetallic catalyst yielding a conversion greater than 93%.

  8. Enhancing the muon-catalyzed fusion yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Much has been learned about muon-catalyzed fusion since the last conference on emerging nuclear energy systems. Here the authors consider what they have learned about enhancing the muon-catalyzed fusion energy yield

  9. Live growth performance, carcass grading characteristics, and harvest yields of beef steers supplemented zilpaterol hydrochloride and offered ad libitum or maintenance energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy Walter, Lee-Anne; Schmitz, Angela Nicole; Nichols, Wade Taylor; Hutcheson, John Paul; Lawrence, Ty Ellis

    2018-05-04

    A trial was conducted to examine live growth efficiency, harvest yields, and carcass grading performance of steers fed at maintenance (M) or at ad libitum (A) level of intake during zilpaterol hydrochloride (Z) supplementation. Single-sired, beef steers (n = 56; start of trial BW 590 ± 36 kg) blocked (n = 2) by weight and terminal implant were sorted into pairs (n = 14 per block) by weight. Pairs of steers were initially assigned to 0, 28, or 56 d of feeding. Within 28 or 56 d, pairs were assigned to M or A intake. Steers within a pair assigned to 56 d of feeding were randomly assigned to either 20 d of Z supplementation (90 mg/d per steer) with a 4 d withdrawal period prior to slaughter or to no ZH supplementation (C). Steers were housed and fed in individual pens. Weights of all non-carcass and carcass components were recorded at slaughter; carcasses were graded 24-h postmortem. Data were analyzed via a mixed model; the fixed effect was treatment combination with random effects of block and pair. Live growth data used harvest day as the repeated measure and animal as the subject. Single df contrasts were constructed for day 0 vs. day 28, day 0 vs. day 56, day 28 vs. day 56, M vs. A, and C vs. Z. Treatment impacted (P ≤ 0.05) live ADG; contrasts indicated A (1.33) was greater than M (0.14 kg), and Z (1.12) was greater than C (0.82 kg). Similarly, carcass ADG differences (P carcass and internal cavity mass (P carcass yield was greater (P carcass growth, carcass transfer, kill yields, and carcass characteristics across time.

  10. Quality and energy yield of modules and photovoltaic plants - Final report; Qualita e resa energetica di moduli ed impianti fotovoltaici. Centrale ISAAC-TISO - Periodo VII: 2003-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianese, D; Bernasconi, A; Friesen, G; Cereghetti, N; Pola, I; Bura, E; Nagel, K; Pittet, D; Realini, A; Pasinelli, P; Ballerini, N; Rioggi, S

    2008-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done at the ISAAC-TISO test centre in southern Switzerland. The main objective of the test centre is the evaluation of photovoltaic module quality, i.e. the assessment of the power values declared by the manufacturer, the electrical behaviour and energy production in varying climatic conditions, the stability of these values over time, and module life-span. Up till now, both outdoor and indoor structures for testing the electrical behaviour of modules have been realised. Indoor measurements under standard conditions are carried out using a solar simulator, outdoor measurements are carried out using external stands capable of accommodating 18 pairs of modules. The aim of the test procedure is to verify the actual power of modules; to verify if module guarantees are respected; to observe the behaviour of modules under real climatic conditions; to compare the energy yield of the different types of module; and finally, to develop methods for forecasting energy yield. The test installations are described in detail and various results are presented. Building-integrated photovoltaics is discussed and the mechanical characteristics of various module types are examined.

  11. Measurement of the reaction {gamma}p{yields}K{sup 0}{sigma}{sup +} for photon energies up to 2.65 GeV with the SAPHIR detector at ELSA; Messung der Reaktion {gamma}p {yields} K{sup 0}{sigma}{sup +} fuer Photonenergien bis 2.65 GeV mit dem SAPHIR-Detektor an ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawall, R.

    2004-01-01

    The reaction {gamma}p {yields} K{sup 0}{sigma}{sup +} was measured with the SAPHIR-detector at ELSA during the run periods 1997 and 1998. Results were obtained for cross sections in the photon energy range from threshold up to 2.65 GeV for all production angles and for the {sigma}{sup +}-polarization. Emphasis has been put on the determination and reduction of the contributions of background reactions and the comparison with other measurements and theoretical predictions. (orig.)

  12. A novel flattop current regulated energy discharge type pulsed power supply and magnet yielding 4.4 kGauss-meter for 6 milliseconds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, A.T.

    1989-07-01

    Most energy discharge power supplies obtain their bursts of power from the energy stored in charged capacitors when it is suddenly released into a load. This note describes the design of a similar small 800 Joules energy discharge type power supply and magnet. The magnet gap is 2 in.x2 in.x25-1/2 in. long and produces about 4.4 kGauss-meters at a rate of 12 pulses per minute. Each pulse is current regulated at the top for a duration of 6 msec. and varies less than 0.6% of set value. Current regulation at flattop is obtained by switching a resistor in and out of the discharge circuit with an IGBT at a rate of about 5 kHz. Most energy discharge systems produce half sine wave pulses, and current regulation is obtained by controlling the charge voltage at the energy storage capacitor, resulting only in a controlled peak current value of the half sine wave pulse. The current value at the top changes substantially during 6 msec. depending on the operating frequency

  13. Optimizing the space-time-yield and the specific energy consumption of molten salt electrolysis processes for the electrowinning of metals in subgroups 4 and 5 of the periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeck, W.

    1988-04-01

    Disadvantages of molten salt electrolysis are its low space-time-yield (kg/m 3 h) combined with its high specific energy consumption (kWh/kg). These factors essentially determine how electrolysis is applied on an industrial scale. The electrolysis of tantalum was selected as an example representative for other electrolytic processes; this series of tests allow statements also on the winning of the other elements from subgroups 4 and 5 of the periodic table, and on electrolytic aluminium extraction. Optimal operating conditions for direct current electrolysis were determined in the laboratory by varying the current density and the electrolysis temperature. In order to improve the space-time-yield from an existing electrolytic cell with a given electrolyte composition beyond the optimal range of direct current electrolysis, the process of periodic current reversal is applied. In this process, the polarity is reversed for a short time at constant periodic intervals. If the forward time period and the backward time period are chosen in a suitable way, both the current efficiency and the space-time-yield can be improved without increasing the energy consumption. 59 refs., 48 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  14. Demonstration of an on-site PAFC cogeneration system with waste heat utilization by a new gas absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Tatsuo [Tokyo Gas Company, LTD, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Analysis and cost reduction of fuel cells is being promoted to achieve commercial on-site phosphoric acid fuel cells (on-site FC). However, for such cells to be effectively utilized, a cogeneration system designed to use the heat generated must be developed at low cost. Room heating and hot-water supply are the most simple and efficient uses of the waste heat of fuel cells. However, due to the short room-heating period of about 4 months in most areas in Japan, the sites having demand for waste heat of fuel cells throughout the year will be limited to hotels and hospitals Tokyo Gas has therefore been developing an on-site FC and the technology to utilize tile waste heat of fuel cells for room cooling by means of an absorption refrigerator. The paper describes the results of fuel cell cogeneration tests conducted on a double effect gas absorption chiller heater with auxiliary waste heat recovery (WGAR) that Tokyo Gas developed in its Energy Technology Research Laboratory.

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to riboflavin (vitamin B2) and contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to riboflavin (vitamin B2) and contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism. The food constituent, riboflavin, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism is a beneficial physiological...... effect for infants and young children. A claim on riboflavin and contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism in the general population has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. The Panel notes that the role of riboflavin on normal energy-yielding metabolism applies to all ages, including...... infants and young children (from birth to three years). The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of riboflavin and contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism....

  16. Onsite defluoridation system for drinking water treatment using calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elaine Y; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2018-06-15

    Fluoride in drinking water has several effects on teeth and bones. At concentrations of 1-1.5 mg/L, fluoride can strengthen enamel, improving dental health, but at concentrations above 1.5 to 4 mg/L can cause dental fluorosis. At concentrations of 4-10 mg/L, skeletal fluorosis can occur. There are many areas of the world that have excessive fluoride in drinking water, such as China, India, Sri Lanka, and the Rift Valley countries in Africa. Treatment solutions are needed, especially in poor areas where drinking water treatment plants are not available. On-site or individual treatment alternatives can be attractive if constructed from common materials and if simple enough to be constructed and maintained by users. Advanced on-site methods, such as under sink reserve osmosis units, can remove fluoride but are too expensive for developing areas. This paper investigates calcium carbonate as a cost effective sorbent for an onsite defluoridation drinking water system. Batch and column experiments were performed to characterize F - removal properties. Fluoride sorption was described by a Freundlich isotherm model, and it was found that the equilibrium time was approximately 3 h. Calcium carbonate was found to have comparable F - removal abilities as the commercial ion exchange resins and possessed higher removal effectiveness compared to calcium containing eggshells and seashells. It was also found that the anion Cl- did not compete with F - at typical drinking water concentrations, having little impact on the effectiveness of the treatment system. A fluoride removal system is proposed that can be used at home and can be maintained by users. Through this work, we can be a step closer to bringing safe drinking water to those that do not have access to it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of various milling modes combined to the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass for bioenergy production: Glucose yield and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licari, A.; Monlau, F.; Solhy, A.; Buche, P.; Barakat, A.

    2016-01-01

    Bagasse is an abundant by-product from sugarcane production that can be used for conversion into biofuels. Nonetheless, the recalcitrant structures of lignocellulosic fibers required a pretreatment prior conversion into biofuels. In this study, four mechanical deconstruction methods were compared in terms of energy demand and energy efficiency at lab scale: BM (ball mill), VBM (vibratory ball mill), CM (centrifugal mill) and JM (jet mill). Results indicate that VBM was more effective compared to BM, JM and CM in enzymatic accessibility and sugars solubilization: VBM-3h > BM-72 h > JM-5000 rpm > CM-0.12 mm. However, preliminary energetic assessment showed that at lab scale, the CM (centrifugal mill) as mechanical fractionation process appears to be the most efficient in terms of energy-efficiency (kg glucose/kWh) compared to BM, VBM and JM. A comparison with literature pretreatments data highlighted that fine and/or ultrafine milling process (BM, VBM, CM) are simpler saccharification technologies, which not required any chemical or water inputs, thus minimizing waste generation and treatment. - Highlights: • VBM (vibro ball milling) was the most effective in decreasing of cellulose crystallinity. • BM (ball milling) was the most effective in increasing surface area. • The highest energy efficiency was obtained with CM (centrifugal milling).

  18. Effect of changes in diet energy density on feed intake, milk yield and metabolic parameters in dairy cows in early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N.I.; Friggens, N.C.; Larsen, T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate how early lactating cows adjust their metabolism and production to acute, but moderate changes in the energy density of the diet. Sixty dairy cows were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: two change-over groups (HNH and NHN) and two contr...

  19. Geochemically induced shifts in catabolic energy yields explain past ecological changes of diffuse vents in the East Pacific Rise 9°50'N area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hentscher Michael

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The East Pacific Rise (EPR at 9°50'N hosts a hydrothermal vent field (Bio9 where the change in fluid chemistry is believed to have caused the demise of a tubeworm colony. We test this hypothesis and expand on it by providing a thermodynamic perspective in calculating free energies for a range of catabolic reactions from published compositional data. The energy calculations show that there was excess H2S in the fluids and that oxygen was the limiting reactant from 1991 to 1997. Energy levels are generally high, although they declined in that time span. In 1997, sulfide availability decreased substantially and H2S was the limiting reactant. Energy availability dropped by a factor of 10 to 20 from what it had been between 1991 and 1995. The perishing of the tubeworm colonies began in 1995 and coincided with the timing of energy decrease for sulfide oxidizers. In the same time interval, energy availability for iron oxidizers increased by a factor of 6 to 8, and, in 1997, there was 25 times more energy per transferred electron in iron oxidation than in sulfide oxidation. This change coincides with a massive spread of red staining (putative colonization by Fe-oxidizing bacteria between 1995 and 1997. For a different cluster of vents from the EPR 9°50'N area (Tube Worm Pillar, thermodynamic modeling is used to examine changes in subseafloor catabolic metabolism between 1992 and 2000. These reactions are deduced from deviations in diffuse fluid compositions from conservative behavior of redox-sensitive species. We show that hydrogen is significantly reduced relative to values expected from conservative mixing. While H2 concentrations of the hydrothermal endmember fluids were constant between 1992 and 1995, the affinities for hydrogenotrophic reactions in the diffuse fluids decreased by a factor of 15 and then remained constant between 1995 and 2000. Previously, these fluids have been shown to support subseafloor methanogenesis. Our

  20. On-site worker-risk calculations using MACCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.L.

    1993-01-01

    We have revised the latest version of MACCS for use with the calculation of doses and health risks to on-site workers for postulated accidents at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado. The modifications fall into two areas: (1) an improved estimate of shielding offered by buildings to workers that remain indoors; and, (2) an improved treatment of building-wake effects, which affects both indoor and outdoor workers. Because the postulated accident can be anywhere on plant site, user-friendly software has been developed to create those portions of the (revised) MACCS input data files that are specific to the accident site

  1. Topological phases in the Haldane model with spin–spin on-site interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-García, A.; García-Ripoll, J. J.

    2018-04-01

    Ultracold atom experiments allow the study of topological insulators, such as the non-interacting Haldane model. In this work we study a generalization of the Haldane model with spin–spin on-site interactions that can be implemented on such experiments. We focus on measuring the winding number, a topological invariant, of the ground state, which we compute using a mean-field calculation that effectively captures long-range correlations and a matrix product state computation in a lattice with 64 sites. Our main result is that we show how the topological phases present in the non-interacting model survive until the interactions are comparable to the kinetic energy. We also demonstrate the accuracy of our mean-field approach in efficiently capturing long-range correlations. Based on state-of-the-art ultracold atom experiments, we propose an implementation of our model that can give information about the topological phases.

  2. Estimation of Potential Shale Gas Yield Amount and Land Degradation in China by Landcover Distribution regarding Water-Food-Energy and Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N.; Heo, S.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    Shale gas is gain attention due to the tremendous reserves beneath the earth. The two known high reservoirs are located in United States and China. According to U.S Energy Information Administration China have estimated 7,299 trillion cubic feet of recoverable shale gas and placed as world first reservoir. United States had 665 trillion cubic feet for the shale gas reservoir and placed fourth. Unlike the traditional fossil fuel, spatial distribution of shale gas is considered to be widely spread and the reserved amount and location make the resource as energy source for the next generation. United States dramatically increased the shale gas production. For instance, shale gas production composes more than 50% of total natural gas production whereas China and Canada shale gas produce very small amount of the shale gas. According to U.S Energy Information Administration's report, in 2014 United States produced shale gas almost 40 billion cubic feet per day but China only produced 0.25 billion cubic feet per day. Recently, China's policy had changed to decrease the coal powerplants to reduce the air pollution and the energy stress in China is keep increasing. Shale gas produce less air pollution while producing energy and considered to be clean energy source. Considering the situation of China and characteristics of shale gas, soon the demand of shale gas will increase in China. United States invested 71.7 billion dollars in 2013 but it Chinese government is only proceeding fundamental investment due to land degradation, limited water resources, geological location of the reservoirs.In this study, firstly we reviewed the current system and technology of shale gas extraction such as hydraulic Fracturing. Secondly, listed the possible environmental damages, land degradations, and resource demands for the shale gas extraction. Thirdly, invested the potential shale gas extraction amount in China based on the location of shale gas reservoirs and limited resources for the

  3. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) transuranic performance demonstration program sample packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccoy, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Transuranic Performance Demonstration Program (TPDP) sample packaging is used to transport highway route controlled quantities of weapons grade (WG) plutonium samples from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) to the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility and back. The purpose of these shipments is to test the nondestructive assay equipment in the WRAP facility as part of the Nondestructive Waste Assay PDP. The PDP is part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National TRU Program managed by the U. S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office, Carlsbad, New Mexico. Details of this program are found in CAO-94-1045, Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay for the TRU Waste Characterization Program (CAO 1994); INEL-96/0129, Design of Benign Matrix Drums for the Non-Destructive Assay Performance Demonstration Program for the National TRU Program (INEL 1996a); and INEL-96/0245, Design of Phase 1 Radioactive Working Reference Materials for the Nondestructive Assay Performance Demonstration Program for the National TRU Program (INEL 1996b). Other program documentation is maintained by the national TRU program and each DOE site participating in the program. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the TRU PDP sample packaging meets the onsite transportation safety requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for an onsite Transportation Hazard Indicator (THI) 2 packaging. This SARP, however, does not include evaluation of any operations within the PFP or WRAP facilities, including handling, maintenance, storage, or operating requirements, except as they apply directly to transportation between the gate of PFP and the gate of the WRAP facility. All other activities are subject to the requirements of the facility safety analysis reports (FSAR) of the PFP or WRAP facility and requirements of the PDP

  4. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  5. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, M.; Al-Adili, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Mattera, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Simutkin, V.; Solders, A.

    2016-06-01

    The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f) and Th(p,f) have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn) reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  6. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantz M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f and Th(p,f have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  7. The development of an on-site container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.E.; McAllaster, M.E.; Jones, P.L.; McKinney, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the development of a packaging designed for on-site transportation of chemical munitions. The criteria for the package were patterned after the requirements for Type B packagings, but were modified to take credit for the operational controls that could be applied on-site. The design phase has been completed and a contract has been placed for fabrication of 165 units. In addition to the tests completed during the design phase, a complete sequence of verification tests will be performed on the first fleet unit. This sequence will consist of: (1) a 22,700-kg load placed on the packaging for 24 hours, (2) the flat side free drop, (3) the center-of-gravity over closure joint puncture test, and (4) a 15-min all-engulfing JP-4 pool-fire test. At the completion of the test sequence, the package will be required to meet the less than 1 x 10 -1 std cc/s leak test. (J.P.N.)

  8. Portable Infrared Laser Spectroscopy for On-site Mycotoxin Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Markus; Kos, Gregor; Sulyok, Michael; Godejohann, Matthias; Krska, Rudolf; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2017-03-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungi that spoil food, and severely impact human health (e.g., causing cancer). Therefore, the rapid determination of mycotoxin contamination including deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 in food and feed samples is of prime interest for commodity importers and processors. While chromatography-based techniques are well established in laboratory environments, only very few (i.e., mostly immunochemical) techniques exist enabling direct on-site analysis for traders and manufacturers. In this study, we present MYCOSPEC - an innovative approach for spectroscopic mycotoxin contamination analysis at EU regulatory limits for the first time utilizing mid-infrared tunable quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectroscopy. This analysis technique facilitates on-site mycotoxin analysis by combining QCL technology with GaAs/AlGaAs thin-film waveguides. Multivariate data mining strategies (i.e., principal component analysis) enabled the classification of deoxynivalenol-contaminated maize and wheat samples, and of aflatoxin B1 affected peanuts at EU regulatory limits of 1250 μg kg-1 and 8 μg kg-1, respectively.

  9. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) contaminated well cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    In support of past operations, railcars were used to ship irradiated fuel from the 100 Area fuel storage basins to the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility. There are two configurations for the packaging systems that transported the fuel: the Three-Well Cask Car, which is outfitted with three casks, and the taller, single well, New Production Reactor (NPR) Cask Car. In this document, these cask cars are referred to collectively as well cars. The purpose of this document is to evaluate and authorize the onsite transportation of well cars that contain significant levels of contamination. No irradiated fuel will be transported in the well cars. Neutron detection data confirmed that the well cars do not contain fuel. The intention is to move 14 retired well cars from their current locations in the 100 Area to a suitable storage location in the 200 Area. Each well car contains Type B quantities of radioactivity; so that the hazard of the transport operation is relatively low. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the contaminated well cars meet the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for Hazardous Material Shipments for an onsite packaging. The scope of this document addresses the preparation and transportation of the contaminated well cars

  10. 37Ar monitoring techniques and on-site inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Rongliang; Chen Yinliang; Li Wei; Wang Hongxia; Hao Fanhua

    2001-01-01

    37 Ar is separated, purified and extracted from air sample with a low temperature gas-solid chromatographic purifying method, prepared into a radioactive measurement source and its radioactivity is measured with a proportional counter. Based on the monitoring result, a judgement can be made if an nuclear explosion event has happened recently in a spectabilis area. A series of element techniques that are associated the monitoring of the trace element 37 Ar have been investigated and developed. Those techniques include leaked gas sampling, 37 Ar separation and purification, 37 Ar radioactivity measurement and the on-site inspection of 37 Ar. An advanced 37 Ar monitoring method has been developed, with which 200 liters of air can be treated in 2 hours with sensitivity of 0.01 Bq/L for 37 Ar radioactivity measurement. A practical 37 Ar On-site Inspection system has been developed. This research work may provide technical and equipment support for the verification protection, verification supervision and CTBT verification

  11. 77 FR 13352 - Exxonmobil Chemical Company Films Business Division Including on-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ..., Take Care Corporation, Conestoga Rovers and Associates, Phillips Engineering, Rockwell Engineering, Excel Logistics, and American Food and Vending, Calhoun Spotting Service, and Job World working on-site...

  12. Secondary radiation yield from a surface of heavy targets, irradiated by protons of average energies (E sub p approx 1 GeV)

    CERN Document Server

    Krupnyj, G I; Yanovich, A A

    2001-01-01

    Experimental data on the nuclear reaction rates of threshold rhodium, indium, phosphorus, sulfur, aluminium, carbon, niobium and bismuth activated detectors are presented. The detectors were set up on the cylindrical surface of full absorption targets: tungsten, uranium and chloride with the molar ratios of the 70 % NaCl and 30 % PbCl sub 2 salts. The targets were irradiated by protons with the energies from 0.8 to 1.21 GeV. Growth of the reaction rate with increasing reaction of primary protons and raising atomic number of the targets, presence of the target profile, where the maximum reaction rate is observed, are noted

  13. Fusion-fission and deep inelastic orbiting in the target-like yields from 32S formed in 20Ne+12C reaction at different excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, BirBikram; Kaur, Mandeep; Sharma, Manoj K.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2014-01-01

    A strong motivation behind this work is that, though NOC model marked large σ C Expt in the decay of 32 S or small NOC for 20 Ne+ 12 C reaction indicating equivalently possibility of nCN contribution in it, but it does not work out the amount of contributions of σ ff and σ orb separately in the total σ C and the dynamics behind it, at different centre of mass energies, E c.m. . We intend to address this question in the present work

  14. Circumstances under which various approximate relativistic and nonrelativistic theories yield accurate Compton scattering doubly differential cross sections at high photon energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaJohn, L A; Pratt, R H

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the increase in error with increasing nuclear charge Z in the use of the relativistic impulse approximation (RIA) for the calculation of Compton K-shell scattering doubly differential cross sections (DDCS). We also show that nonrelativistic (nr) expressions can be used to obtain accurate peak region DDCS at scattering angles less than about 35 0 even at incident photon energies ω i exceeding 1 MeV, if Z<30. This is possible because in the Compton peak region, as θ→0, a low momentum transfer limit is being approached.

  15. Status of fission product yield data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuninghame, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The topics covered in this paper are: (a) cumulative yields in thermal neutron fission and in fast fission up to 14 MeV incident neutron energy, (b) dependence of the yields on incident neutron energy and spectrum, (c) independent yields, (d) charge dispersion and distribution, and (e) yields of light particles from ternary fission. The paper reviews information on these subjects for fission of actinides from 232 Th upwards with special emphasis on data published since the 1973 Bologna FPND Panel, compares data sets, and discusses the gaps still to be found in them. (author)

  16. Breeding for blast-disease-resistant and high-yield Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) mutants using low-energy ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadtanapuk, S.; Teraarusiri, W.; Phanchaisri, B.; Yu, L. D.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam was applied on mutation induction for plant breeding of blast-disease-resistant Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105). Seeds of the wild-type rice were bombarded in vacuum by nitrogen ion beam at energy of 60-80 keV to a beam fluence range of 2 × 1016-2 × 1017 ions/cm2. The ion-bombarded rice seeds were grown in soil for 2 weeks as transplanted rice in plastic pots at 1 seedling/pot. The seedlings were then screened for blast resistance by Pyricularia grisea inoculation with 106 spores/ml concentrations. The blast-resistant rice mutant was planted up to F6 generation with the consistent phenotypic variation. The high percentage of the blast-disease-resistant rice was analyzed with DNA fingerprint. The HAT-RAPD (high annealing temperature-random amplified polymorphic DNA) marker revealed the modified polymorphism fragment presenting in the mutant compared with wild type (KDML 105). The cDNA fingerprints were investigated and the polymorphism fragment was subcloned into pGEM-T easy vector and then sequenced. The sequence of this fragment was compared with those already contained in the database, and the fragment was found to be related to the Spotted leaf protein 11 (Spl11).

  17. High resolution measurement of the 238U neutron capture yield for incident neutron energies between 1 and 100 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, R.L.; Perez, R.B.; de Saussure, G.; Ingle, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the capture gamma-ray spectrum of three U-238 metallic samples of areal densities, N = 0.0124, 0.0031, and 0.00057 at/b, were performed by placing a sample at the center of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator liquid scintillator tank. Five measurements of the time of flight spectrum were performed for each sample thickness. Measurements were done with and without aluminum filters in the beam, at both 800 and 400 pulses per second to determine the energy-dependent background which arises from pulse overlap and room return. The fifth measurement had a polyethylene plug in the beam to determine the constant background due to cosmic rays and long-lived radioactivities in the sample and surrounding materials. The shape of the incident neutron spectrum was determined by the count rate of a 1-mm-thick Li-6 glass scintillation monitor placed upstream of the liquid scintillator

  18. Status of fission yield data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, T.R.; Blachot, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the current status of the recent US evaluation for 34 fissioning nuclides at one or more neutron incident energies and for spontaneous fission. Currently there are 50 yields sets, and for each we have independent and cumulative yields and uncertainties for approximately 1100 fission products. When finalized the recommended data will become part of Version VI of the US ENDF/B. Other major evaluations in progress that are included in a recently formed IAEA Coordinated Research Program are also summarized. In a second part we review two empirical models in use to estimate independent yields. Comparison of model estimates with measured data is presented, including a comparison with some recent data obtained from Lohengrin (Cf-249 T). 18 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, D.; Denn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We are surrounded in everyday life by yield stress fluids: materials that behave as solids under small stresses but flow like liquids beyond a critical stress. For example, paint must flow under the brush, but remain fixed in a vertical film despite the force of gravity. Food products (such as

  20. Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, G.; De, M.

    2013-05-01

    Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were 99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater delivery in tradional systems. Total P in the wastewater was ~10 mg/L, but low in all lysimeters (0.046-1.72 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.78 mg

  1. On-site and off-site emergency planning at Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyberk, O.A.

    1986-01-01

    An emergency plan was prepared for minimizing the consequences of any unforeseen radiation accident in Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre (CNAEM) in Istanbul, Turkey. CNAEM is situated near Kucukcekmece Lake, which is about 30 km to the west of Istanbul. It includes two pool-type research reactors of 1 MW(th) and 5 MW(th). The population in the nearest inhabited areas varies from 1000 to 50,000. Accidents are classified, according to their severity, into three categories at CNAEM: (a) local emergency, (b) on-site emergency, (c) off-site emergency. During local emergency situations evacuation is not necessary. An on-site emergency situation requires the evacuation of personnel from the plant. Personnel hearing the emergency alarm should move directly to the preselected place as soon as possible. An off-site emergency is any accident that leads to widespread contamination outside the boundary. In this situation the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and governmental authorities are notified immediately. The emergency organization group consists of: (a) Plant Superintendent, (b) Emergency Director, (c) Reactor Supervisor, (d) Senior Health Physicist, (e) Reactor Shift Operator, (f) Health Physicists. The administration building will be used as the Emergency Control Centre. The emergency teams working under the direction of the Emergency Director consist of: (a) Health Physics, (b) Fire and Rescue, (c) First Aid and Decontamination, (d) Transportation, (e) Security and Patrol. The emergency situation is evaluated in three phases at CNAEM. The first phase is the first few hours after the beginning of the accident. The second phase is between 8-10 hours or more following the first phase. The third phase is the recovery phase. The integrated doses over periods of two hours and two days are calculated according to the situation of the core, i.e. total or partial melting, and weather conditions. The results of the calculated parameters can be adapted to possible

  2. Design of an X -band electron linear accelerator dedicated to decentralized 99Mo/99mTc supply: From beam energy selection to yield estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jaewoong; Yamamoto, Masashi; Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2017-10-01

    The most frequently used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine, 99mTc, is generally obtained by the decay of its parent radionuclide, 99Mo. Recently, concerns have been raised over shortages of 99Mo/99mTc, owing to aging of the research reactors which have been supplying practically all of the global demand for 99Mo in a centralized fashion. In an effort to prevent such 99Mo/99mTc supply disruption and, furthermore, to ameliorate the underlying instability of the centralized 99Mo/99mTc supply chain, we designed an X -band electron linear accelerator which can be distributed over multiple regions, whereby 99Mo/99mTc can be supplied with improved accessibility. The electron beam energy was designed to be 35 MeV, at which an average beam power of 9.1 kW was calculated by the following beam dynamics analysis. Subsequent radioactivity modeling suggests that 11 of the designed electron linear accelerators can realize self-sufficiency of 99Mo/99mTc in Japan.

  3. Design of an X-band electron linear accelerator dedicated to decentralized ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc supply: From beam energy selection to yield estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoong Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The most frequently used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine, ^{99m}Tc, is generally obtained by the decay of its parent radionuclide, ^{99}Mo. Recently, concerns have been raised over shortages of ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc, owing to aging of the research reactors which have been supplying practically all of the global demand for ^{99}Mo in a centralized fashion. In an effort to prevent such ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc supply disruption and, furthermore, to ameliorate the underlying instability of the centralized ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc supply chain, we designed an X-band electron linear accelerator which can be distributed over multiple regions, whereby ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc can be supplied with improved accessibility. The electron beam energy was designed to be 35 MeV, at which an average beam power of 9.1 kW was calculated by the following beam dynamics analysis. Subsequent radioactivity modeling suggests that 11 of the designed electron linear accelerators can realize self-sufficiency of ^{99}Mo/^{99m}Tc in Japan.

  4. Systematics of Fission-Product Yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Empirical equations representing systematics of fission-product yields have been derived from experimental data. The systematics give some insight into nuclear-structure effects on yields, and the equations allow estimation of yields from fission of any nuclide with atomic number Z F = 90 thru 98, mass number A F = 230 thru 252, and precursor excitation energy (projectile kinetic plus binding energies) PE = 0 thru ∼200 MeV--the ranges of these quantities for the fissioning nuclei investigated. Calculations can be made with the computer program CYFP. Estimates of uncertainties in the yield estimates are given by equations, also in CYFP, and range from ∼ 15% for the highest yield values to several orders of magnitude for very small yield values. A summation method is used to calculate weighted average parameter values for fast-neutron (∼ fission spectrum) induced fission reactions

  5. Systematics of Fission-Product Yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.C. Wahl

    2002-05-01

    Empirical equations representing systematics of fission-product yields have been derived from experimental data. The systematics give some insight into nuclear-structure effects on yields, and the equations allow estimation of yields from fission of any nuclide with atomic number Z{sub F} = 90 thru 98, mass number A{sub F} = 230 thru 252, and precursor excitation energy (projectile kinetic plus binding energies) PE = 0 thru {approx}200 MeV--the ranges of these quantities for the fissioning nuclei investigated. Calculations can be made with the computer program CYFP. Estimates of uncertainties in the yield estimates are given by equations, also in CYFP, and range from {approx} 15% for the highest yield values to several orders of magnitude for very small yield values. A summation method is used to calculate weighted average parameter values for fast-neutron ({approx} fission spectrum) induced fission reactions.

  6. Enhancement of on-site emergency diesel generator reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boner, G.L.; Hanners, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    The University of Dayton Research Institute has concluded a program designed to provide NRC/DOR with technical assistance in evaluating the factors leading to improved reliability of on-site emergency diesel generator (DG) units. The program consisted of a comprehensive review of DG maintenance and operating experience and a comparative evaluation of the DG manufacturer's recommendations. This information, will enable the NRC to improve the basis on which it makes regulatory decisions. The primary goal of the program is to better identify the main problem areas which decrease the reliability of the DG units and make recommendations. The report has attained the program objectives by identifying and discussing the more significant problems and presenting the recommended corrective actions. The identified problems have been categorized into three groups as a function of their significance

  7. CTBTO tests its on-site inspection regime in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    The former Soviet Union's nuclear test site at Semipalatinsk in the east of today's Kazakhstan was closed down after Kazakhstan became an independent State in 1991. This region in the Kazakh steppe is deserted and pockmarked by countless craters, remnants of over 450 nuclear explosions that were detonated there. In September 2008, the area will start brimming with activity. Scientists, diplomats and journalists will arrive from all over the world to witness an endeavour in the Kazakh steppe that is of great significance for the safety of our planet. The organization that monitors the comprehensive ban on nuclear testing will conduct a large scale exercise to test one of the key elements of its global alarm system - on-site inspections.

  8. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) doorstop samplecarrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrien, J.H.

    1997-02-24

    The Doorstop Sample Carrier System consists of a Type B certified N-55 overpack, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) specification or performance-oriented 208-L (55-gal) drum (DOT 208-L drum), and Doorstop containers. The purpose of the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is to transport samples onsite for characterization. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the Doorstop Sample Carrier System meets the requirements and acceptance criteria for both Hanford Site normal transport conditions and accident condition events for a Type B package. This SARP also establishes operational, acceptance, maintenance, and quality assurance (QA) guidelines to ensure that the method of transport for the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is performed safely in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping.

  9. CASDAC system: On-Site Multiplexer user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoichi; Koyama, Kinji

    1993-03-01

    The CASDAC (Containment and Surveillance Data Authenticated Communication) system has been developed by JAERI for nuclear safeguards and physical protection of nuclear material. This system is a remote monitoring system for continual verification of security and safeguards status of nuclear material. The CASDAC system consists of two subsystems, one of them is a Grand Command Center (GCC) subsystem and the other is a facility subsystem. This report describes the outline and usage of the On-Site Multiplexer (OSM), which controls all other equipments in a facility subsystem and communicates with the GCC. This work has been carried out in the framework of Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) as a project, JA-1. (author)

  10. Innovative on-site treatment cuts frac flowback water costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    Water is an essential component of the drilling and hydraulic fracturing or fracking process and so the natural gas industry is a heavy user of water. Learning from other industries, gas producers are now employing mobile service providers with the latest integrated treatment systems (ITS) to clean flowback and produced water from fracturing operations at the wellhead. This paper presents a novel on-site treatment for frac water. ITS are pre-fabricated on moveable skids or a truck trailer with all the necessary controls, piping, valves, instrumentation, pumps, mixers and chemical injection modules. They remove oil and other hydrocarbons, suspended solids, and dissolved metals from the frac water using the tightly controlled chemistry, separation and filtration technology. This method can cut the average cost of treating produced water by 50%, simultaneously allowing drillers to maximize their efforts and manpower on generating oil and gas profits, rather than on water treatment.

  11. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  13. Acetoacetate is a more efficient energy-yielding substrate for human mesenchymal stem cells than glucose and generates fewer reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Mary; Lopez, Colleen; van den Bos, Christian; Callaghan, Richard; Clarke, Kieran; Carr, Carolyn

    2017-07-01

    Stem cells have been assumed to demonstrate a reliance on anaerobic energy generation, suited to their hypoxic in vivo environment. However, we found that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have an active oxidative metabolism with a range of substrates. More ATP was consistently produced from substrate oxidation than glycolysis by cultured hMSCs. Strong substrate preferences were shown with the ketone body, acetoacetate, being oxidised at up to 35 times the rate of glucose. ROS-generation was 45-fold lower during acetoacetate oxidation compared with glucose and substrate preference may be an adaptation to reduce oxidative stress. The UCP2 inhibitor, genipin, increased ROS production with either acetoacetate or glucose by 2-fold, indicating a role for UCP2 in suppressing ROS production. Addition of pyruvate stimulated acetoacetate oxidation and this combination increased ATP production 27-fold, compared with glucose alone, which has implications for growth medium composition. Oxygen tension during culture affected metabolism by hMSCs. Between passages 2 and 5, rates of both glycolysis and substrate-oxidation increased at least 2-fold for normoxic (20% O 2 )- but not hypoxic (5% O 2 )-cultured hMSCs, despite declining growth rates and no detectable signs of differentiation. Culture of the cells with 3-hydroxybutyrate abolished the increased rates of these pathways. These findings have implications for stem cell therapy, which necessarily involves in vitro culture of cells, since low passage number normoxic cultured stem cells show metabolic adaptations without detectable changes in stem-like status. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Measurements of fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.

    2000-01-01

    After some historical introductory remarks on the discovery of nuclear fission and early fission yield determinations, the present status of knowledge on fission yields is briefly reviewed. Practical and fundamental reasons motivating the pursuit of fission yield measurements in the coming century are pointed out. Recent results and novel techniques are described that promise to provide new interesting insights into the fission process during the next century. (author)

  15. Nutrition Program Quality Assurance through a Formalized Process of On-Site Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Joan Doyle; Dollahite, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for a systematic onsite review of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education was developed to support quality programming and ensure compliance with state guidelines and federal regulations. Onsite review of local nutrition program operations is one strategy to meet this…

  16. 13 CFR 120.1051 - Frequency of on-site reviews and examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Frequency of on-site reviews and examinations. 120.1051 Section 120.1051 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1051 Frequency of on-site reviews and examinations...

  17. 13 CFR 120.1050 - On-site reviews and examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... losses); (3) Management quality (including internal controls, loan portfolio management, and asset... Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1050 On-site reviews and examinations. (a) On-site... operations management; (3) Credit administration; and (4) Compliance with Loan Program Requirements. (b) On...

  18. 78 FR 28642 - Eastman Kodak Company, Electrographic Print Solutions, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Kodak Company, Electrographic Print Solutions, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco and Datrose, Spencerport, New York; Eastman Kodak Company, IPS, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, Dayton, Ohio... Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) filed on behalf of Eastman Kodak Company, Electrographic Print...

  19. 78 FR 19530 - Eastman Kodak Company (GCG), Electrographic Print Solutions, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... Kodak Company (GCG), Electrographic Print Solutions, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco and Datrose, Spencerport, New York; Eastman Kodak Company, IPS, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco..., 2011, applicable to workers of Eastman Kodak Company (GCG), Electrographic Print Solutions, including...

  20. 78 FR 12358 - UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ..., Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Leafstone... Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations (UBS), Weehawken, New Jersey. The workers are engaged... to include all leased workers on-site at UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas...

  1. 75 FR 32221 - Whirlpool Corporation, Evansville Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Andrews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ..., Evansville Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Andrews International, Inc., Evansville, IN... that workers leased from Andrews International, Inc. were employed on-site at the Evansville, Indiana... findings, the Department is amending this certification to include leased workers from Andrews...

  2. 77 FR 4368 - Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-75,201] Abbott Laboratories..., applicable to workers of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, including on-site leased workers from... (clerical) were employed on-site at the Irving, Texas location of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division...

  3. 75 FR 28295 - Cummins Filtration, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower and Spherion Staffing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    .... The Department has determined that workers from Spherion Staffing were sufficiently under the control..., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower and Spherion Staffing, Including On-Site Workers From Hagemeyer North America, Lake Mills, IA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker...

  4. 76 FR 81986 - Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ..., Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...., Automation and Control Solutions Division. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently...., Automation and Control Solutions Division, including on-site leased workers from Manpower, Spherion...

  5. 76 FR 175 - Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco Employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... Technologies Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco Employment Servcies and Emcon Technologies, Troy, MI..., applicable to workers of Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies, Troy, Michigan, including on-site leased workers from Adecco Employment Services, Troy, Michigan. The Department's notice of determination was...

  6. The extent of on-site leakage in selected suburbs of Johannesburg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated on-site leakage on 182 properties with relatively new municipal water meters in well-established suburbs of Johannesburg. A methodology was developed to estimate the on-site leakage rate from readings taken from these municipal water meters, which was then adjusted to account for metering ...

  7. Measurement of flux-weighted average cross-sections and isomeric yield ratios for {sup 103}Rh(γ, xn) reactions in the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 55 and 60 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakilur Rahman, Md.; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun; Nadeem, Muhammad; Thi Hien, Nguyen; Shahid, Muhammad [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Naik, Haladhara [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiochemistry Division, Mumbai (India); Yang, Sung-Chul; Cho, Young-Sik; Lee, Young-Ouk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Nuclear Data Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung-Gyun; Cho, Moo-Hyun [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Woo Lee, Man; Kang, Yeong-Rok; Yang, Gwang-Mo [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Research Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ro, Tae-Ik [Dong-A University, Department of Materials Physics, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    We measured the flux-weighted average cross-sections and the isomeric yield ratios of {sup 99m,g,100m,g,101m,g,102m,g}Rh in the {sup 103}Rh(γ, xn) reactions with the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 55 and 60 MeV by the activation and the off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique, using the 100 MeV electron linac at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL), Korea. The flux-weighted average cross-sections were calculated by using the computer code TALYS 1.6 based on mono-energetic photons, and compared with the present experimental data. The flux-weighted average cross-sections of {sup 103}Rh(γ, xn) reactions in intermediate bremsstrahlung energies are the first time measurement and are found to increase from their threshold value to a particular value, where the other reaction channels open up. Thereafter, it decreases with bremsstrahlung energy due to its partition in different reaction channels. The isomeric yield ratios (IR) of {sup 99m,g,100m,g,101m,g,102m,g}Rh in the {sup 103}Rh(γ, xn) reactions from the present work were compared with the literature data in the {sup 103}Rh(d, x), {sup 102-99}Ru(p, x), {sup 103}Rh(α, αn), {sup 103}Rh(α, 2p3n), {sup 102}Ru({sup 3}He, x), and {sup 103}Rh(γ, xn) reactions. It was found that the IR values of {sup 102,101,100,99}Rh in all these reactions increase with the projectile energy, which indicates the role of excitation energy. At the same excitation energy, the IR values of {sup 102,101,100,99}Rh are higher in the charged particle-induced reactions than in the photon-induced reaction, which indicates the role of input angular momentum. (orig.)

  8. Fission product yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenta, V.; Hep, J.

    1978-01-01

    Data are summed up necessary for determining the yields of individual fission products from different fissionable nuclides. Fractional independent yields, cumulative and isobaric yields are presented here for the thermal fission of 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu and for fast fission (approximately 1 MeV) of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu; these values are included into the 5th version of the YIELDS library, supplementing the BIBFP library. A comparison is made of experimental data and possible improvements of calculational methods are suggested. (author)

  9. Remediation of cadmium-contaminated paddy soils by washing with calcium chloride: Verification of on-site washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Tomoyuki; Kamiya, Takashi; Takano, Hiroyuki; Itou, Tadashi; Sekiya, Naoki; Sasaki, Kouta; Maejima, Yuji; Sugahara, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    We developed a new, three-step soil-wash method to remediate Cd-contaminated paddy fields. The method comprises (1) chemically washing the field soil with a CaCl 2 solution; (2) washing the treated soil with water to eliminate residual Cd and CaCl 2 ; and (3) on-site treatment of wastewater using a portable wastewater treatment system. Cd concentrations in the treated water were below Japan's environmental quality standard (0.01 mg Cd L -1 ), and the removal of Cd from the exchangeable fraction was 55% and from the acid-soluble fraction 15%. While soil fertility properties were affected by the soil washing, adverse effects were not crucial and could be corrected. The washing had no affect on rice growth, and reduced the average Cd concentration in rice grains by about two-thirds compared to a control plot. These results confirmed the effectiveness of the soil-wash method in remediating Cd-contaminated paddy fields. - In situ soil washing in a paddy field using an on-site wastewater treatment system resulted in an effective decrease of Cd in soil and rice grains without affecting rice yield

  10. ENERGY MANAGEMENT INNOVATION IN THE US SKI INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ski areas represent a unique opportunity to develop innovative energy management practices in an industrial setting. Through a unique synergy of onsite generation, preferably by renewable sources and innovative technologies, and the energy storage potential of exis...

  11. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  12. [On-site evaluation of raw milk qualities by portable Vis/NIR transmittance technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Jun; Han, Dong-Hai

    2014-10-01

    To ensure the material safety of dairy products, visible (Vis)/near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with che- mometrics methods was used to develop models for fat, protein, dry matter (DM) and lactose on-site evaluation. A total of 88 raw milk samples were collected from individual livestocks in different years. The spectral of raw milk were measured by a porta- ble Vis/NIR spectrometer with diffused transmittance accessory. To remove the scatter effect and baseline drift, the diffused transmittance spectra were preprocessed by 2nd order derivative with Savitsky-Golay (polynomial order 2, data point 25). Changeable size moving window partial least squares (CSMWPLS) and genetic algorithms partial least squares (GAPLS) meth- ods were suggested to select informative regions for PLS calibration. The PLS and multiple linear regression (MLR) methods were used to develop models for predicting quality index of raw milk. The prediction performance of CSMWPLS models were similar to GAPLS models for fat, protein, DM and lactose evaluation, the root mean standard errors of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.115 6/0.103 3, 0.096 2/0.113 7, 0.201 3/0.123 7 and 0.077 4/0.066 8, and the relative standard deviations of prediction (RPD) were 8.99/10.06, 3.53/2.99, 5.76/9.38 and 1.81/2.10, respectively. Meanwhile, the MLR models were also cal- ibrated with 8, 10, 9 and 7 variables for fat, protein, DM and lactose, respectively. The prediction performance of MLR models was better than or close to PLS models. The MLR models to predict fat, protein, DM and lactose yielded the RMSEP of 0.107 0, 0.093 0, 0.136 0 and 0.065 8, and the RPD of 9.72, 3.66, 8.53 and 2.13, respectively. The results demonstrated the usefulness of Vis/NIR spectra combined with multivariate calibration methods as an objective and rapid method for the quality evaluation of complicated raw milks. And the results obtained also highlight the potential of portable Vis/NIR instruments for on-site assessing quality indexes of

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of fission yields, kinetic energy, fission neutron spectrum and decay γ-ray spectrum for 232Th(n,f) reaction induced by 3H(d,n) 4He neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei; Zeen Yao; Changlin Lan; Yan Yan; Yunjian Shi; Siqi Yan; Jie Wang; Junrun Wang; Jingen Chen; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo transport code Geant4 has been successfully utilised to study of neutron-induced fission reaction for 232 Th in the transport neutrons generated from 3 H(d,n) 4 He neutron source. The purpose of this work is to examine the applicability of Monte Carlo simulations for the computation of fission reaction process. For this, Monte Carlo simulates and calculates the characteristics of fission reaction process of 232 Th(n,f), such as the fission yields distribution, kinetic energy distribution, fission neutron spectrum and decay γ-ray spectrum. This is the first time to simulate the process of neutron-induced fission reaction using Geant4 code. Typical computational results of neutron-induced fission reaction of 232 Th(n,f) reaction are presented. The computational results are compared with the previous experimental data and evaluated nuclear data to confirm the certain physical process model in Geant4 of scientific rationality. (author)

  14. Development of Amorphous/Microcrystalline Silicon Tandem Thin-Film Solar Modules with Low Output Voltage, High Energy Yield, Low Light-Induced Degradation, and High Damp-Heat Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yi Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, tandem amorphous/microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar modules with low output voltage, high energy yield, low light-induced degradation, and high damp-heat reliability were successfully designed and developed. Several key technologies of passivation, transparent-conducting-oxide films, and cell and segment laser scribing were researched, developed, and introduced into the production line to enhance the performance of these low-voltage modules. A 900 kWp photovoltaic system with these low-voltage panels was installed and its performance ratio has been simulated and projected to be 92.1%, which is 20% more than the crystalline silicon and CdTe counterparts.

  15. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  16. On-site laboratory support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory environmental restoration field activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, J.L.E.

    1995-07-01

    A remedial investigation/feasibility study has been undertaken at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Bechtel National, Inc. and partners CH2M Hill, Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, and PEER Consultants are contracted to Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, performing this work for ORNL's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. An on-site Close Support Laboratory (CSL) established at the ER Field Operations Facility has evolved into a laboratory where quality analytical screening results can be provided rapidly (e.g., within 24 hours of sampling). CSL capabilities include three basic areas: radiochemistry, chromatography, and wet chemistry. Radiochemical analyses include gamma spectroscopy, tritium and carbon-14 screens using liquid scintillation analysis, and gross alpha and beta counting. Cerenkov counting and crown-ether-based separation are the two rapid methods used for radiostrontium determination in water samples. By extending count times where appropriate, method detection limits can match those achieved by off-site contract laboratories. Volatile organic compounds are detected by means of gas chromatography using either headspace or purge and trap sample introduction (based on EPA 601/602). Ionic content of water samples is determined using ion chromatography and alkalinity measurement. Ion chromatography is used to quantify both anions (based on EPA 300) and cations. Wet chemistry procedures performed at the CSL include alkalinity, pH (water and soil), soil resistivity, and dissolved/suspended solids. Besides environmental samples, the CSL routinely screens health and safety and waste management samples. The cost savings of the CSL are both direct and indirect

  17. 76 FR 19466 - Masco Builder Cabinet Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reserves Network, Reliable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Builder Cabinet Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reserves Network, Reliable Staffing, and Third Dimension Waverly, OH; Masco Builder Cabinet Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reserves Network... Group including on-site leased workers from Reserves Network, Jackson, Ohio. The workers produce...

  18. 28 CFR 79.13 - Proof of physical presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... participated onsite in the atmospheric detonation of a nuclear device. ... requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear testing. 79.13... presence for the requisite period and proof of participation onsite during a period of atmospheric nuclear...

  19. 77 FR 40638 - Syniverse Technologies, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Insight Global Stone Staffing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ..., Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Insight Global Stone Staffing, and Randstad Formerly Known..., Massachusetts, including on-site leased workers from Insight Global, Stone Staffing, Randstad formerly known as... Insight Global, Stone Staffing, Randstad, formerly known as Sapphire Technologies, were employed on-site...

  20. 77 FR 29362 - Kohler Company, Malvern Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower Staffing and Dow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower Staffing and Dow Cleaning Services, Malvern, AR..., and components. The company reports that workers from Dow Cleaning Services were employed on-site at... leased from Dow Cleaning Services working on-site at the Malvern, Arkansas location of Kohler Company...

  1. 75 FR 26793 - Beam Global Spirits & Wine, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Adecco, St. Elizabeth Business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... & Wine, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Adecco, St. Elizabeth Business Health, Guardsmark, and Lab... 26, 2010, applicable to workers of Beam Global Spirits & Wine, including on-site leased workers from... on-site at the Cincinnati, Ohio location of Beam Global Spirits & Wine. The Department has determined...

  2. Treatment of trace organic compounds in common onsite wastewater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Siegrist,; Conn, Kathleen E.

    2015-01-01

    Onsite wastewater systems (OWS) have historically been relied on to treat conventional pollutants and pathogens in a fashion similar to that expected from centralized wastewater systems. However, based on the occurrence of, and potential effects from, contaminants of emerging concern in wastewaters, OWS as well as centralized systems need to account for these compounds in system design and use. One group of contaminants involves organic compounds such as those associated with consumer product chemicals and pharmaceuticals, which are collectively referred to as trace organic compounds (TOrCs) due to their very low levels (e.g., ng/L to ug/L) relative to other pollutants. The question being confronted today is how best to account for TOrCs in onsite system design and use while also achieving other goals such as system simplicity, limited operation and maintenance requirements, low cost, and sustainability. In contrast to conventional pollutants such as nutrients and pathogens which have specific and achievable treatment goals, there are currently no enforceable treatment standards for TOrCs, which often have non-traditional toxicological endpoints (i.e. endocrine disruption). As highlighted in this paper, there are a large number of TOrCs that can be present in OWS and they have different properties, can be present at different frequencies of occurrence and concentrations, and have different susceptibilities to treatment in OWS. In general, based on the studies summarized in this paper, TOrCs normally should not require additional considerations beyond those for conventional pollutants and pathogens (e.g., nitrogen or bacteria and virus) during design and use of OWS. That said, there are situations where TOrCs could be a serious concern warranting special consideration in system design and use. In this paper, the frequency of occurrence of TOrCs and the range of concentrations encountered are highlighted. An evolving approach is outlined that could help assess the

  3. US DOE-EM On-Site Disposal Cell Working Group - Fostering Communication On Performance Assessment Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Site Restoration, Germantown, MD (United States); Phifer, Mark [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-03-01

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These facilities are typically developed with regulatory oversight from States and/or the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in addition to USDOE. The facilities are developed to meet design standards for disposal of hazardous waste as well as the USDOE performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. The involvement of multiple and different regulators for facilities across separate sites has resulted in some differences in expectations for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RA) that are developed for the disposal facilities. The USDOE-EM Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to performance and risk assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement. The working group holds teleconferences, as needed, focusing on specific topics of interest. The topics addressed to date include an assessment of the assumptions used for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RAs) for on-site disposal cells, requirements and assumptions related to assessment of inadvertent intrusion, DOE Manual 435.1-1 requirements, and approaches for consideration of the long-term performance of liners and covers in the context of PAs. The working group has improved communication among the staff and oversight personnel responsible for onsite disposal cells and has provided a forum to identify and resolve common concerns.

  4. On-Site Detection as a Countermeasure to Chemical Warfare/Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Y

    2014-01-01

    On-site monitoring and detection are necessary in the crisis and consequence management of wars and terrorism involving chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as sarin. The analytical performance required for on-site detection is mainly determined by the fatal vapor concentration and volatility of the CWAs involved. The analytical performance for presently available on-site technologies and commercially available on-site equipment for detecting CWAs interpreted and compared in this review include: classical manual methods, photometric methods, ion mobile spectrometry, vibrational spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, sensors, and other methods. Some of the data evaluated were obtained from our experiments using authentic CWAs. We concluded that (a) no technologies perfectly fulfill all of the on-site detection requirements and (b) adequate on-site detection requires (i) a combination of the monitoring-tape method and ion-mobility spectrometry for point detection and (ii) a combination of the monitoring-tape method, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry with counterflow introduction, and gas chromatography with a trap and special detectors for continuous monitoring. The basic properties of CWAs, the concept of on-site detection, and the sarin gas attacks in Japan as well as the forensic investigations thereof, are also explicated in this article. Copyright © 2014 Central Police University.

  5. Phonon transmission and thermal conductance in one-dimensional system with on-site potential disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Songshan; Xu Hui; Deng Honggui; Yang Bingchu

    2011-01-01

    The role of on-site potential disorder on phonon transmission and thermal conductance of one-dimensional system is investigated. We found that the on-site potential disorder can lead to the localization of phonons, and has great effect on the phonon transmission and thermal conductance of the system. As on-site potential disorder W increases, the transmission coefficients decrease, and approach zero at the band edges. Corresponding, the thermal conductance decreases drastically, and the curves for thermal conductance exhibit a series of steps and plateaus. Meanwhile, when the on-site potential disorder W is strong enough, the thermal conductance decreases dramatically with the increase of system size N. We also found that the efficiency of reducing thermal conductance by increasing the on-site potential disorder strength is much better than that by increasing the on-site potential's amplitude. - Highlights: → We studied the effect of on-site potential disorder on thermal transport. → Increasing disorder will decrease thermal transport. → Increasing system size will also decrease its thermal conductance. → Increasing disorder is more efficient than other in reducing thermal conductance.

  6. Energy balance of the cathode connection and calculation of the yield of caesium diodes; Bilan des energies dans la connexion de cathode et calcul du rendement dans les diodes a cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merard, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The cathode connection is one of the critical elements in the calculation of the yield of caesium diodes. In particular a study is made of the balance of the losses due to the Joule effect, to radiation and to thermal conduction as a function of the shape and the nature of the cathode connection. The internal voltage drop of the diode is obtained from the expression for the total Joule losses of the metallic conductors. The length of the cathode connection is calculated as a function of the losses and the yield is optimized as a function of the relationship existing between the cathodic losses due to thermal conduction and the Joule losses in the connection. The calculations lead to hyper-elliptic integrals which can only be manipulated by series development. The results obtained are approximate. (author) [French] Dans le calcul du rendement des diodes a cesium, la connexion de cathode est l'un des elements critiques. On etudie specialement le bilan des pertes par effet joule, rayonnement et conduction thermique, en fonction de la forme et de la nature de la connexion de cathode. On obtient la chute de tension interne de la diode a partir de l'expression des pertes joules totales dans les conducteurs metalliques. La longueur de la connexion de cathode est calculee en fonction des pertes et l'on optimise le rendement en fonction du rapport qui existe entre les pertes par conduction thermique de la cathode et les pertes joules dans la connexion. Les calculs conduisent a des integrales hyperelliptiques dont la manipulation n'est possible que par des developpements en serie. Les resultats cherches sont approximatifs. (auteur)

  7. Monolithic reactor : Higher yield, less energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzer, M.T.; Moulijn, J.A.; Kapteijn, F.; Mols, B.

    2004-01-01

    The production of margarine, the desulphurisation of crude oil, and the manufacture of synthetic diesel fuel, these are only three of the many industrial processes in which a three-phase reactor is used. Traditionally, this type of reactor is rather ill-defined. Success with a lab scale set-up is no

  8. On-Site Fecal Sludge Treatment with the Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbis-Stokes, Aaron A; O'Meara, Patrick F; Mugo, Wangare; Simiyu, Gelas M; Deshusses, Marc A

    2016-11-01

    The Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine (ADPL) is a self-contained and energy neutral on-site sanitation system using anaerobic digestion of fecal sludge to generate biogas and then uses the biogas to pasteurize the digester effluent at 65-75°C to produce a safe effluent that can be reused locally as a fertilizer. Two ADPL systems were installed on residential plots with 17 and 35 residents in a peri-urban area outside of Eldoret, Kenya. Each system comprised three toilets built above a floating dome digester and one heat pasteurization system to sanitize the digested effluent. ADPLs are simple systems, with no moving parts and relying on gravity-induced flows. Adoption at the two sites was successful, and residents reported that the systems had little to no odor or flies. ADPLs were monitored for biogas production and temperatures in the pasteurization system. ADPLs serving 17 and 35 residents produced on average 16 and 11 L biogas /person/day (maximum of 20 and 15 L biogas /p/d), respectively. The temperature in the sterilization system was greater than 65°C on 58% and 87% of sampling days during the most stable period of operation. Treated effluent was analyzed periodically for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), pH, and fecal coliform (FC). On average, the effluent at the two locations contained 4,540 and 6,450 mg COD/L (an 85% or 89% reduction of the estimated input), 2,050 and 3,970 mg BOD/L, and 2,420 and 4,760 mg NH 3 -N, respectively, and greater than 5 log reductions of FC (nondetectable) in the sterilization tank. Results from this field study show that anaerobic digestion of minimally diluted fecal sludge can provide enough energy to pasteurize digester effluent and that the ADPL may be a suitable option for on-site fecal sludge treatment.

  9. On-Site Fecal Sludge Treatment with the Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbis-Stokes, Aaron A.; O'Meara, Patrick F.; Mugo, Wangare; Simiyu, Gelas M.; Deshusses, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine (ADPL) is a self-contained and energy neutral on-site sanitation system using anaerobic digestion of fecal sludge to generate biogas and then uses the biogas to pasteurize the digester effluent at 65–75°C to produce a safe effluent that can be reused locally as a fertilizer. Two ADPL systems were installed on residential plots with 17 and 35 residents in a peri-urban area outside of Eldoret, Kenya. Each system comprised three toilets built above a floating dome digester and one heat pasteurization system to sanitize the digested effluent. ADPLs are simple systems, with no moving parts and relying on gravity-induced flows. Adoption at the two sites was successful, and residents reported that the systems had little to no odor or flies. ADPLs were monitored for biogas production and temperatures in the pasteurization system. ADPLs serving 17 and 35 residents produced on average 16 and 11 Lbiogas/person/day (maximum of 20 and 15 Lbiogas/p/d), respectively. The temperature in the sterilization system was greater than 65°C on 58% and 87% of sampling days during the most stable period of operation. Treated effluent was analyzed periodically for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), pH, and fecal coliform (FC). On average, the effluent at the two locations contained 4,540 and 6,450 mg COD/L (an 85% or 89% reduction of the estimated input), 2,050 and 3,970 mg BOD/L, and 2,420 and 4,760 mg NH3-N, respectively, and greater than 5 log reductions of FC (nondetectable) in the sterilization tank. Results from this field study show that anaerobic digestion of minimally diluted fecal sludge can provide enough energy to pasteurize digester effluent and that the ADPL may be a suitable option for on-site fecal sludge treatment. PMID:27924135

  10. Do On-Site Mental Health Professionals Change Pediatricians' Responses to Children's Mental Health Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue Horwitz, Sarah; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Kerker, Bonnie D; Szilagyi, Moira; Garner, Andrew S; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Green, Cori M; Foy, Jane M; Stein, Ruth E K

    2016-01-01

    To assess the availability of on-site mental health professionals (MHPs) in primary care; to examine practice/pediatrician characteristics associated with on-site MHPs; and to determine whether the presence of on-site MHPs is related to pediatricians' comanaging or more frequently identifying, treating/managing, or referring mental health (MH) problems. Analyses included American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) members who participated in an AAP Periodic Survey in 2013 and who practiced general pediatrics (n = 321). Measures included sociodemographics, practice characteristics, questions about on-site MHPs, comanagement of MH problems, and pediatricians' behaviors in response to 5 prevalent MH problems. Weighted univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses were performed. Thirty-five percent reported on-site MHPs. Practice characteristics (medical schools, universities, health maintenance organizations, managed, or referred 5 common child MH problems. Among the subset of pediatricians who reported comanaging, there was an association with comanagement when the on-site MHP was a child psychiatrist, substance abuse counselor, or social worker. On-site MHPs are more frequent in settings where low-income children are served and where pediatricians train. Pediatricians who comanage MH problems are more likely to do so when the on-site MHP is a child psychiatrist, substance abuse counselor, or social worker. Overall, on-site MHPs were not associated with comanagement or increased likelihood of pediatricians identifying, treating/managing, or referring children with 5 common child MH problems. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intruder dose pathway analysis for the onsite disposal of radioactive wastes: the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program. Supplement No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Napier, B.A.; Neuder, S.M.

    1986-05-01

    The document entitled Intruder Dose Pathway Analysis of the Onsite Disposal of Radioactive Wastes: The ONSITE/MAXI1 Computer Program (1984) summarizes initial efforts to develop human-intrustion scenarios and a modified version of the MAXI computer program for potential use by the NRC in reviewing applications for onsite radioactive waste disposal. This document is a supplement to that document and summarizes efforts to further modify and improve the ONSITE/MAXI1 software package. To facilitate cross-referencing, it follows the same format. Notable improvements to the software package include the capability to account for shielding conditions that represent noncompacted trash wastes and the option to indicate alternative land-use condition;s. This supplement contains a description of the implementation of these modifications. In addition, a series of discussions are included in an attempt to increase the user's understanding of the scenarios and dose calculation methods. These discussions respond to frequently asked questions about the mathematical models and use of the software. Computer listings of the ONSITE/MAXI1 computer program are included as Appendices A and B of this document. Appendix C lists external exposure dose-rate factor libraries

  12. Soviet test yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergino, Eileen S.

    Soviet seismologists have published descriptions of 96 nuclear explosions conducted from 1961 through 1972 at the Semipalatinsk test site, in Kazakhstan, central Asia [Bocharov et al., 1989]. With the exception of releasing news about some of their peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) the Soviets have never before published such a body of information.To estimate the seismic yield of a nuclear explosion it is necessary to obtain a calibrated magnitude-yield relationship based on events with known yields and with a consistent set of seismic magnitudes. U.S. estimation of Soviet test yields has been done through application of relationships to the Soviet sites based on the U.S. experience at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), making some correction for differences due to attenuation and near-source coupling of seismic waves.

  13. Laboratory and On-Site Tests for Rapid Runway Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Leonelli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The attention to rapid pavement repair has grown fast in recent decades: this topic is strategic for the airport management process for civil purposes and peacekeeping missions. This work presents the results of laboratory and on-site tests for rapid runway repair, in order to analyse and compare technical and mechanical performances of 12 different materials currently used in airport. The study focuses on site repairs, a technique adopted most frequently than repairs with modular elements. After describing mechanical and physical properties of the examined materials (2 bituminous emulsions, 5 cement mortars, 4 cold bituminous mixtures and 1 expanding resin, the study presents the results of carried out mechanical tests. The results demonstrate that the best performing material is a one-component fast setting and hardening cement mortar with graded aggregates. This material allows the runway reopening 6 h after the work. A cold bituminous mixture (bicomponent premixed cold asphalt with water as catalyst and the ordinary cement concrete allow the reopening to traffic after 18 h, but both ensure a lower service life (1000 coverages than the cement mortar (10,000 coverages. The obtained results include important information both laboratory level and field, and they could be used by airport management bodies and road agencies when scheduling and evaluating pavement repairs.

  14. Canon multifunction copier machines – now with onsite support!

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Following a retendering process in 2012, the IT Department is pleased to announce that leased multifunction copier machines are now covered by onsite support, provided by Canon technicians via the CERN Service Desk support system.   You can now contact the Service Desk regarding any problems or requests for toner: Telephone: 77777 Email: Service-Desk@cern.ch Please remember to quote the machine printer name and/or serial number (marked on the side of the machine). The following submission forms are available online: Report a failure with a printer or copier Request for network printer or copier installation or move Request toner/ink for my printer or copier The website below details the range of models available, all of which include print, photocopy and scan-to-mail functions as standard. These multifunction copier machines are leased subject to a monthly charge (minimum of 48 months) plus a “per click” charge to cover consumables (except staples), leaving you noth...

  15. ON-SITE SOLID PHRASE EXTRACTION AND LABORATORY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance materials, such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally analyzed by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of I -L samples. A I -L sample, however, usually provides too little analyte for full-scan data acquisition. An on-site extraction method for extracting synthetic musks from 60 L of wastewater effluent has been developed. Such a large sample volume permits high-quality, full-scan mass spectra to be obtained for various synthetic musk compounds. Quantification of these compounds was conveniently achieved from the full-scan data directly, without preparing SIM descriptors for each compound to acquire SIM data. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-sol

  16. On-site equipment and materials against CBRNE terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Soichiro; Tokita, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    There is no almighty field service equipment that can handle by itself all CBRNE (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, Explosive) terrorism. Since there is merit and demerit for each of equipment, operation methods and linkage of material/equipment based on detection principle are indispensable. This paper explained the principle and operation method of detection equipment, operation using multiple material/equipment, and system construction to facilitate cooperation with related ministries and agencies. There are six examples as typical material/equipment and detection principle for handling CBRNE as shown below: (1) ion mobility spectrometer, (2) infrared spectroscopy, (3) Raman scattering spectroscopy, (4) gas chromatographic mass spectrometry, (5) fluorescent reactive dye classification method, and (6) antigen antibody reaction method. This paper shows a flowchart that can measure within the duration of a respirator while wearing Level A protective clothing (about 15 to 20 min) by the combination of detector/analyzer based on these methods. The authors developed an information system that allows prompt information exchange between the on-site administrative agencies, research institutes, and other related organizations via network, in the case when substances etc. could not be specified in the above flowchart. (A.O.)

  17. Advanced on-site conceptual simulator for Forsmark 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, G.; Sjoestrand, K.

    1984-01-01

    On-site conceptual simulators have been extensively used at Swedish nuclear power plants. Despite having access to identical replica simulators, both the Swedish State Power Board and the Swedish private power industry have ordered conceptual simulators during 1982. The motivation has been that a complete training programme requires access to both a replica and a conceptual simulator. The replica simulator is perfect for training in control room behaviour but less appropriate for ensuring deeper process understanding. On the other hand, the conceptual simulator is not well suited for getting the personnel acquainted with the control room but is perfect for extending their knowledge of the plant processes. In order to give a realistic description of these processes, the conceptual simulator model must be fairly advanced. The Forsmark 3 conceptual simulator simulates the entire primary system, including the details of the steam and feedwater systems. Considerable attention has also been devoted to the presentation of calculated variables. For example, all the variables in the data base (approx. 6600) can be presented on colour-graphic CRTs as functions of time. (author)

  18. An On-Site Presentation of Invisible Prehistoric Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Unger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of information technology has enabled the creation of entirely new presentation frameworks and this article will attempt to explore the subject of on-site presentation of archaeological sites. The most frequently used environment currently has been in the form of a variety of virtual museums that are accessible on the Internet; in essence these keep their visitors stuck in front of a PC monitor. One option that allows leaving the monitor and stepping directly out-of-doors into a virtual open-air museum is by means of applications for mobile phones. Terms such as 'virtual' or 'augmented reality' no longer represent a million light-years away science-fiction concepts, but rather a new tool for public archaeology and for the preservation of the archaeological heritage. This article presents several projects that have been implemented by the Archaeological Institute in Prague, who, by using mobile applications, built virtual open-air museums directly in the locations of archaeological excavations.

  19. ON-SITE SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION AND LABORATORY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance materials such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of I -L samples. Full-scan mass spectra are required to verify that a target analyte has been found by comparison with the mass spectra of fragrance compounds in the NIST mass spectral library. A I -L sample usually provides insufficient analyte for full scan data acquisition. This paper describes an on-site extraction method developed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)- Las Vegas Nevada - for synthetic musks from 60 L of wastewater effluent. Such a large sample volume permits high-quality, full-scan mass spectra to be obtained for a wide array of synthetic musks. Quantification of these compounds was achieved from the full-scan data directly, without the need to acquire SIM data. The detection limits obtained with this method are an order of magnitude lower than those obtained from liquid-liquid and other solid phase extraction methods. This method is highly reproducible, and recoveries ranged from 80 to 97% in spiked sewage treatment plant effluent. The high rate of sorbent-sample mass transfer eliminated the need for a methanolic activation step, which reduced extraction time, labor, and solvent use, More samples could be extracted in the field at lower cost. After swnple extraction, the light- weight cartridges ar

  20. Development of the on-site power supply in German nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit - GRS mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, D-5000 Koeln 1, Cologne (Germany)

    1986-02-15

    The design of the on-site power supply is different in German Nuclear Power Plants, depending on age and size of the plant. The cause for this is the evolution of the safety requirements. The general development of the design of safety Systems, which resulted in a strict separation of redundant trains is also reflected in the design of the emergency power system and even the complete on-site power supply System. This will be demonstrated by different examples. The advantages of this design with respect to the availability of on-site power will be explained and verified by means of operating experience. (author)

  1. On-site storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banck, J.

    1999-01-01

    The selection of back-end strategies for spent fuel assemblies is influenced by a number of different factors depending on the given situation in any specific country. In Germany, the back-end strategy implemented in the past was almost exclusively reprocessing. This strategy was required by the German Atomic Energy Act. Since 1994, when the Atomic Energy Act was amended, the option of direct final disposal has been granted the equivalent status by law to that afforded to reprocessing (and reuse of valuable materials). As a result, German utilities may now choose between these two alternatives. Another important condition for optimizing the back-end policy is the fact that fuel cycle costs in Germany are directly dependent on spent fuel volumes (in contrast to the US, for example, such costs are related to the amount of power generated). Another boundary condition for German utilities with respect to spent fuel management is posed by the problems with militant opponents of nuclear energy during transportation of spent fuel to interim storage sites. These facts have given rise to a reconsideration of the fuel cycle back-end, which has resulted in a change in strategy by most German utilities in favour of the following: Preference for long-term storage and maximized use of on-site storage capacity; Reduction in the amount of spent fuel by increasing burnup as much as possible. These decisions have also been driven by the deregulation of energy markets in Europe, where utilities are now permitted to sell electric power to consumers beyond their original supply network and must therefore offer electric power on a very cost competitive basis. (author)

  2. Precise measurement of the absolute fluorescence yield of nitrogen in air. Consequences on the detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays; Mesure precise du rendement absolu de la fluorescence de l'azote dans l'air. Consequences sur la detection des rayons cosmiques d'ultra-haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefeuvre, G

    2006-07-15

    The study of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (E > 10{sup 20} eV) requires to determine the energy with much more precision than what is currently achieved. The shower of particles created in the atmosphere can be detected either by sampling particle on the ground, or by detecting the fluorescence induced by the excitation of nitrogen by shower electrons. At present, the measurement of the fluorescence is the simplest and the most reliable method, since it does not call upon hadronic physics laws at extreme energies, a field still inaccessible to accelerators. The precise knowledge of the conversion factor between deposited energy and the number of fluorescence photons produced (the yield) is thus essential. Up to now, it has been determined with an accuracy of 15 % only. This main goal of this work is to measure this yield to better than 5 per cent. To do this, 1 MeV electrons from a radioactive source excite nitrogen of the air. The accuracy has been reached thanks to the implementation of a new method for the absolute calibration of the photomultipliers detecting the photons, to better than 2 per cent. The fluorescence yield, measured and normalized to 0.85 MeV, 760 mmHg and 15 Celsius degrees, is (4.23 {+-} 0.20) photons per meter, or (20.46 {+-} 0.98) photons per deposited MeV. In addition, and for the first time, the absolute fluorescence spectrum of nitrogen excited by a source has been measured with an optical grating spectrometer. (author)

  3. Wackenhut Services, Incorporated: Report from the DOE Voluntary Protection Program onsite review, August 10--14, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP) Review Team`s findings from the five-day onsite evaluation of Wackenhut Services, Inc. (WSI) at Savannah River Site (SRS), conducted August 10-14, 1998. The site was evaluated against the program requirements contained in US Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program, Part 1: Program Elements to determine its success in implementing the five DOE-VPP tenets. The Team determined that WSI has met in varying degrees, all the tenets of the DOE-VPP. In every case, WSI programs and procedures exceed the level or degree necessary for compliance with existing standards, DOE Orders, and guidelines. In addition, WSI has systematically integrated their occupational safety and health (OSH) program into management and work practices at all levels. WSI`s efforts toward implementing the five major DOE-VPP tenets are summarized.

  4. Wackenhut Services, Incorporated: Report from the DOE Voluntary Protection Program onsite review, August 10-14, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP) Review Team's findings from the five-day onsite evaluation of Wackenhut Services, Inc. (WSI) at Savannah River Site (SRS), conducted August 10-14, 1998. The site was evaluated against the program requirements contained in US Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program, Part 1: Program Elements to determine its success in implementing the five DOE-VPP tenets. The Team determined that WSI has met in varying degrees, all the tenets of the DOE-VPP. In every case, WSI programs and procedures exceed the level or degree necessary for compliance with existing standards, DOE Orders, and guidelines. In addition, WSI has systematically integrated their occupational safety and health (OSH) program into management and work practices at all levels. WSI's efforts toward implementing the five major DOE-VPP tenets are summarized

  5. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Measurement of excitation yields of low energy prompt γ-ray from proton bombardment of Cr-foils with energies ranging between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work is measurement of differential cross sections for the production of 378 keV γ-rays from the reactions 52 Cr(p,γ1) 53 Mn and 53 Cr(p,nγ1) 53 Mn for proton energies ranging between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV at the laboratory angle of 90° using foils with thickness ∼1.9×10 18 at/cm 2 (∼ 0.23 μm) of nat Cr.

  7. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  8. Electrokinetic remediation of plutonium-contaminated nuclear site wastes: Results from a pilot-scale on-site trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnew, Kieran; Cundy, Andrew B.; Hopkinson, Laurence; Croudace, Ian W.; Warwick, Phillip E.; Purdie, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the field-scale application of a novel low-energy electrokinetic technique for the remediation of plutonium-contaminated nuclear site soils, using soil wastes from the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) Aldermaston site, Berkshire, UK as a test medium. Soils and sediments with varying composition, contaminated with Pu through historical site operations, were electrokinetically treated at laboratory-scale with and without various soil pre-conditioning agents. Results from these bench-scale trials were used to inform a larger on-site remediation trial, using an adapted containment pack with battery power supply. 2.4 m 3 (ca. 4 tonnes) of Pu-contaminated soil was treated for 60 days at a power consumption of 33 kW h/m 3 , and then destructively sampled. Radiochemical data indicate mobilisation of Pu in the treated soil, and migration (probably as a negatively charged Pu-citrate complex) towards the anodic compartment of the treatment cell. Soil in the cathodic zone of the treatment unit was remediated to a level below free-release disposal thresholds (1.7 Bq/g, or <0.4 Bq/g above background activities). The data show the potential of this method as a low-cost, on-site tool for remediation of radioactively contaminated soils and wastes which can be operated remotely on working sites, with minimal disruption to site infrastructure or operations.

  9. Postulated accident scenarios for the on-site transport of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morandin, G.; Sauve, R.

    2004-01-01

    Once a spent fuel container is loaded with spent fuel it typically travels on-site to a processing building for permanent lid attachment. During on-site transport a lid clamp is utilized to ensure the container lid remains in place. The safe on-site transport of spent nuclear fuel must rely on the structural integrity of the transport container and system of transport. Regard for on-site traffic and safe, efficient travel routes are important and manageable with well thought-out planning. Non-manageable incidences, such as flying debris from tornado force winds or postulated blasts in proximity to the transport container, that may result in high velocity impact and shock loading on the transport system must be considered. This paper consists of simulations that consider these types of postulated accident scenarios using detailed nonlinear finite element techniques

  10. 76 FR 2144 - Quest Diagnostics, Inc. Information Technology Help Desk Services Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    .... Information Technology Help Desk Services Including On-Site Leased Workers From Modis, West Norriton, PA..., applicable to workers of Quest Diagnostics, Inc., Information Technology Help Desk Services, West Norriton... Quest Diagnostics, Inc., Information Technology Help Desk [[Page 2145

  11. 75 FR 49526 - Halliburton Company, Duncan Mfg., Including On-Site Leased Workers from Express Personnel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Company, Duncan Mfg., Including On-Site Leased Workers from Express Personnel, Clayton Personnel Service, and Manpower Planning, Duncan, OK; Halliburton Company, Technology and Engineering Division, Finance... Halliburton Company, Technology and Engineering Division, and Finance and Administration Division, Duncan...

  12. Wilderness Recreation Demand: A Comparison of Travel Cost and On-Site Cost Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Bowker; A. Askew; L. Seymour; J.P. Zhu; D. English; C.M. Starbuck

    2009-01-01

    This study used travel cost and on-site day cost models, coupled with the Forest Service’s National Visitor Use Monitoring data, to examine the demand for and value of recreation access to designated Wilderness.

  13. Comparison of central adjudication of outcomes and onsite outcome assessment on treatment effect estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndounga Diakou, Lee A ymar; Trinquart, Ludovic; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2016-01-01

    ) when AC assessed events identified independently from unblinded onsite assessors; and 1.11 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.27, I(2) = 0%, 10 RCTs) when AC assessed events identified by unblinded onsite assessors. However, there was a statistically significant interaction between these subgroups (P = 0.03) AUTHORS......, there was no difference in treatment effect estimates from onsite assessors and AC (combined ROR: 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97 to 1.04; I(2) = 0%, 47 RCTs). The combined ROR was 1.00 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.04; I(2) = 0%, 35 RCTs) when onsite assessors were blinded; 0.76 (95% CI 0.48 to 1.12, I(2) = 0%, two RCTs...

  14. 76 FR 13666 - Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ...., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Guidant... workers and former workers of Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management Division, Engineering... reviewed the certification to clarify the subject worker group's identity. Additional information revealed...

  15. On-Site Processing and Subsampling of Surface Soil Samples for the Analysis of Explosives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hewitt, Alan D

    2003-01-01

    The on-site implementation of a sampling and analysis plan for the determination of explosives residues exposed a large uncertainty in our ability to quickly obtain representative subsamples from either large (>500 g...

  16. AMCO On-Site Air Monitoring Map Service, Oakland CA, Live 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service contains the following layers: All On-Site Air Monitors, TCE, PCE, and Vinyl Chloride. The layers draws at all scales. Full FGDC metadata for the...

  17. On-site quality assurance during erection of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper deals with general quality assurance measures, the quality assurance during on-site production (incoming inspection, inspection of welds and welding equipment) and describes in more detail the quality assurance procedures for the containment. (RW) [de

  18. Medical complications and outcomes at an onsite rehabilitation unit for older people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulroy, M

    2013-09-01

    The rehabilitation of older patients in Ireland after an acute medical event occurs at dedicated onsite hospital units or at offsite centres. Information on medical complications and outcomes is inadequate.

  19. Greywater characterization and loadings - Physicochemical treatment to promote onsite reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutsopoulos, C; Andreadakis, A; Kouris, N; Charchousi, D; Mendrinou, P; Galani, A; Mantziaras, I; Koumaki, E

    2018-06-15

    Greywater is the wastewater produced in bathtubs, showers, hand basins, kitchen sinks, dishwashers and laundry machines. Segregation of greywater and blackwater and on site greywater treatment in order to promote its reuse for toilet flushing and/or garden irrigation is an interesting option especially in water deficient areas. The objective of this study was to characterize the different greywater sources in Greek households and to evaluate the performance of alternative physicochemical treatment systems to treat several types of greywater. Based on the results average daily greywater production was equal to 98 L per person per day and accounts for approximately 70-75% of the total household wastewater production (135 L per person per day). Among the different sources, laundry and kitchen sink are the main contributors to the total greywater load of organic carbon, suspended solids and surfactants, whereas dishwasher and bathroom greywater are the main sources of phosphorus and endocrine disrupting chemicals respectively. Depending on sources, greywater accounts for as low as 15% of the total wastewater load of organic carbon (in the case of light greywater sources), to as high as 74% of the total load organic load (in the case of the heavy greywater sources). On the other hand, the nutrients load of greywater is limited. The application of a physical treatment system consisting of coagulation, sedimentation, sand filtration, granular activated carbon filtration and disinfection can provide for a final effluent with high quality characteristics for onsite reuse, especially when treating light greywater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Onsite vibrational characterization of DCMIX2/3 experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollé, Judit; Dubert, Diana; Gavaldà, Josefina; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Ruiz, Xavier; Shevtsova, Valentina

    2017-11-01

    The SODI-DCMIX thermodiffusion series experiments are part of the fluid research program carried out by the European Space Agency on board of the International Space Station (ISS). In particular, DCIMIX2/3 were conducted in the past inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox in the US Laboratory. Due to the physical nature of the processes implied, these kind of runs were very long and particularly delicate because the low vibratory limit requirements must be maintained for hours. This restrictive condition not always is achieved, therefore, an accurate surveillance of the acceleration levels along the different experiments is necessary, to ensure a correct interpretation of the experimental results. This work analyzes onsite vibrational environment of DCMIX2/3 covering the periods in which the experiments were going on. To do so, acceleration signals only coming from the es03 sensor, nearest to the experimental equipment and located in the Glovebox, were downloaded from the PIMS NASA website. To be as precise as possible the signals have always been treated minute by minute. To detect the transient disturbances along the experiments, several warnings were considered. First, 1 min RMS values, for the three acceleration components were evaluated, in time and in frequency domain. Additional information was obtained by plotting the power spectral densities of the signals, PSD, and their spectrogram with the aim of characterizing long periods of acceleration data. Due to great influence of low frequencies in this type of experiments, the Frequency Factor Index, FFI, was evaluated each minute. Complementary, the spectral entropy evolution was proposed as a fast new indicator of external perturbations. It has been found a good correlation between the spectrogram, temporal RMS and spectral entropy. Finally, a graphic representation of the points associated to the 1-min RMS values in one-third-octave frequency intervals which exceed the ISS limit curve requirements, was

  1. Project VISION (Very Intensive Scientific Intercurricular On-Site Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Gustavo A.

    1999-01-01

    Project VISION (Very Intensive Scientific Intercurricular On-Site Education) is a joint effort among NASA/John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida International University, Universidad del Turabo, Miami-Dade County Public Schools and the Caguas/Gurabo Public Schools in Puerto Rico. The project's main mission is to institutionalize change among the elementary and middle school science and math teachers at participating schools so that their students receive continuously enriched instruction in the principles of science and math through the use of hands-on and minds-on experiments called learning modules. These leaming modules incorporate the national science and math education standards provided by the National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessments and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, respectively. The use of learning modules that require hands-on and minds-on activities in a classroom setting garners great enthusiasm and motivation on the part of the target students for the understanding of the lesson's underlying math and science principles. With this enthusiasm and motivation, comes acceptance, attention, participation, discipline, acquiescence, and collaboration. Additionally, the use of hands-on activities may also require learning through a gamut of senses. Not only can the student use his/her eyes and ears during these activities, but most times, they can also use their senses of touch, smell, and taste, as well as intuition. Learning is, therefore, achieved using most or all the human senses. The combination of motivation/enthusiasm and the use of multiple senses creates an ideal environment conducive to leaming at a profound level.

  2. Onsite nondestructive examination techniques for irradiated water-cooled power reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency, in response to the recommendations from several Member States, has prepared this Guidebook on Onsite Non-Destructive Techniques for Irradiated Water-Cooled Power Reactor Fuel with the assistance of a number of experts and organizations in this field. During the preparation of this report it became evident that a comparison between different techniques is a most difficult task and depends on a number of factors related to fuel design, plant characteristics and operating conditions. Consequently the emphasis of the report is on the survey of different techniques presently available. It is also to be noted that because the degree of development for any given technique varies significantly among organizations, it is understood that the report should not be used as consensus standard of the minimum capabilities for each class of techniques, nor does it give recommendations in the regulatory sense. Furthermore, the inclusion of some commercial pieces of equipment, services and other products are for illustrative purposes only and neither implies any preference by the Agency nor can the Agency be liable for any material presented in the report

  3. Application of On-Site Wastewater Treatment in Ireland and Perspectives on Its Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Dubber

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater of one third of Ireland’s population is treated on-site using domestic treatment systems (DWWTSs that usually consist of a septic tank and soil attenuation system. Within the past four years, the legislative framework for these systems has undergone a major change with a registration and inspection regime being introduced to identify legacy sites that will require remediation work, particularly in areas of the country underlain by subsoils of very low permeability. Against this background this study aims to assess the overall sustainability of existing DWWTSs as well as alternative treatment and disposal options. The results show that main CO2eq emissions are from the methane production in septic tanks. The reduced methane production in mechanically aerated secondary treatment systems was found to counterbalance the related emissions due to the additional energy requirements. In contrast, septic tank systems have the lowest construction and operational costs representing the most economically sustainable solution. Pressurised disposal systems are slightly more expensive but have the potential to reduce environmental impact on surface water and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Clustered decentralised treatment solutions could be environmentally and economically sustainable but ownership, management and related financial and legal issues will need to be addressed and developed.

  4. High-Strength Domestic Wastewater Treatment and Reuse with Onsite Passive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Anda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the preliminary monitoring results of an onsite pilot wastewater treatment plant consisting of a septic tank, an anaerobic up-flow filter, and a horizontal subsurface flow wetland system planted with Agapanthus africanus. The system was designed to treat heavily polluted domestic wastewater produced in a research and development (R&D center, reaching additional goals of zero energy consumption and eliminating the use of chemical additives. First water quality data shows that organic load in the treated sewage were removed achieving more than 95% efficiency. Nutrients were removed by almost 50%, and fecal and total coliform counts decreased by 99.96%. The results were compared to official Mexican regulations for wastewater discharged into lakes and reservoirs complied with all of them except for nutrients. In this pilot project, the resulting treated wastewater was directly reused for watering the green areas of the R&D center. The result was that the excess of nutrients improved the quality of the grass, avoiding the use of synthetic fertilizers, and created a wetland habitat for small wildlife species living in the area.

  5. Spent-fuel storage - MRS and/or on-site?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuierer, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The US government through the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is seeking by the use of an authorized negotiator a site for a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. Based on a public information document provided by the office of the negotiator, the MRS will be an integral part of the federal system for safe and permanent disposal of the nation's high-level radioactive wastes. It is planned that the MRS will accept and store spent fuel above ground until a repository opens and spent fuel that has been stored is shipped from the MRS to the repository. Additional spent fuel stored at reactor sites will be shipped to the MRS, which will be used as a staging area to assemble dedicated trains for shipment to the repository. The intent of the MRS is to reduce utilities' needs to expand on-site storage of spent fuel. A utility viewpoint may emphasize an alternate set of priorities. The waste management system must be considered as an overall system involving both the utility and DOE that begins with the first discharge of spent nuclear fuel from a commercial reactor and ends with high-level waste in a final repository. Many studies have been made on individual components of a waste system. This study, with the benefit of past hands-on experience as a guide, looks at costs and reliability for a total system concept with particular emphasis on the interface between the utility and Department of Energy

  6. Enhancement of HHG yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrat, C.; Biegert, J.

    2011-01-01

    A static electric field periodically distributed in space controls and enhances the yield in high harmonic generation. The method is relatively simple to implement and allows tuning from the extreme-ultraviolet to soft X-ray. The radiation yield is selectively enhanced due to symmetry breaking induced by a static electric field on the interaction between the driving laser and the medium. The enhanced spectral region is tuned by varying the periodicity of the static electric field. Simulations predict an increase of more than two orders of magnitude for harmonics in the water window spectral range.

  7. Pendekatan Pelatihan On-Site dan Step by Step untuk Optimalisasi Fungsi Guru dalam Pembelajaran

    OpenAIRE

    Moch. Sholeh Y.A. Ichrom

    2016-01-01

    Remoteness of programme content from teachers' real work situation and unsuitability of approach employed were suspected as main reasons contributing to the failure of many inservise teacher training programmes. A step by step, onsite teacher training (SSOTT) model was tried out in this experiment to study if the weakness of inservise programmes could be rectified. As it was tried out in relation with kindergarten mathemathics it was then called SSOTT-MTW (Step by Step Onsite Teacher Training...

  8. Pendekatan Pelatihan On-Site Dan Step by Step Untuk Optimalisasi Fungsi Guru Dalam Pembelajaran

    OpenAIRE

    Ichrom, Moch. Sholeh Y.A

    1996-01-01

    Remoteness of programme content from teachers' real work situation and unsuitability of approach employed were suspected as main reasons contributing to the failure of many inservise teacher training programmes. A step by step, onsite teacher training (SSOTT) model was tried out in this experiment to study if the weakness of inservise programmes could be rectified. As it was tried out in relation with kindergarten mathemathics it was then called SSOTT-MTW (Step by Step Onsite Teacher Training...

  9. Improving the yield from fermentative hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Jeremy T; Bagley, David M

    2007-05-01

    Efforts to increase H(2) yields from fermentative H(2) production include heat treatment of the inoculum, dissolved gas removal, and varying the organic loading rate. Although heat treatment kills methanogens and selects for spore-forming bacteria, the available evidence indicates H(2) yields are not maximized compared to bromoethanesulfonate, iodopropane, or perchloric acid pre-treatments and spore-forming acetogens are not killed. Operational controls (low pH, short solids retention time) can replace heat treatment. Gas sparging increases H(2) yields compared to un-sparged reactors, but no relationship exists between the sparging rate and H(2) yield. Lower sparging rates may improve the H(2) yield with less energy input and product dilution. The reasons why sparging improves H(2) yields are unknown, but recent measurements of dissolved H(2) concentrations during sparging suggest the assumption of decreased inhibition of the H(2)-producing enzymes is unlikely. Significant disagreement exists over the effect of organic loading rate (OLR); some studies show relatively higher OLRs improve H(2) yield while others show the opposite. Discovering the reasons for higher H(2) yields during dissolved gas removal and changes in OLR will help improve H(2) yields.

  10. NASA energy technology applications program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-05

    The NASA Energy Technology Applications Program is reviewed. This program covers the following points: 1. wind generation of electricity; 2. photovoltaic solar cells; 3. satellite power systems; 4. direct solar heating and cooling; 5. solar thermal power plants; 6. energy storage; 7. advanced ground propulsion; 8. stationary on-site power supply; 9. advanced coal extraction; 10. magnetic heat pump; 11. aeronautics.

  11. A small-scale flow alkaline fuel cell for on-site production of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillas, Enric; Alcaide, Francisco; Cabot, Pere-Lluis

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of a small-scale flow alkaline fuel cell (AFC) built-up for on-site production of HO 2 - using commercial gas-diffusion electrodes has been studied. It produces a spontaneous current due to the oxidation of H 2 to H 2 O at the H 2 -diffusion anode and the reduction of O 2 to HO 2 - at the O 2 -diffusion cathode, while a fresh 1.0-6.0 mol dm -3 KOH electrolyte at 15.0-45.0 deg. C is injected through it. Under circulation of HO 2 - +KOH solutions in open circuit, the flow AFC behaves as a two-electron reversible system. When it is shorted with an external load (R ext ), steady cell voltage-current density curves are found. The use of O 2 /N 2 mixtures to fed the cathode causes a loss of its performance, being required to supply pure O 2 to yield a maximum HO 2 - electrogeneration. The current density and HO 2 - productivity increase with raising OH - concentration, temperature and pressure of O 2 fed. At R ext =0.10 Ω, a current efficiency close to 100% is obtained, and current densities >100 mA cm -2 are achieved for 1.0 mol dm -3 KOH at 45.0 deg. C and for higher KOH concentrations at 25.0 deg. C. The flow AFC can work under optimum conditions up to 6.0 mol dm -3 KOH and 45.0 deg. C for possible industrial applications

  12. Benchmarking of RESRAD-OFFSITE : transition from RESRAD (onsite) to RESRAD-OFFSITE and comparison of the RESRAD-OFFSITE predictions with peercodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Gnanapragasam, E.; Cheng, J.-J.; Biwer, B.

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this report is to document the benchmarking results and verification of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code as part of the quality assurance requirements of the RESRAD development program. This documentation will enable the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its licensees and other stakeholders to use the quality-assured version of the code to perform dose analysis in a risk-informed and technically defensible manner to demonstrate compliance with the NRC's License Termination Rule, Title 10, Part 20, Subpart E, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 20, Subpart E); DOE's 10 CFR Part 834, Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment''; and other Federal and State regulatory requirements as appropriate. The other purpose of this report is to document the differences and similarities between the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE codes so that users (dose analysts and risk assessors) can make a smooth transition from use of the RESRAD (onsite) code to use of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code for performing both onsite and offsite dose analyses. The evolution of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code from the RESRAD (onsite) code is described in Chapter 1 to help the dose analyst and risk assessor make a smooth conceptual transition from the use of one code to that of the other. Chapter 2 provides a comparison of the predictions of RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE for an onsite exposure scenario. Chapter 3 documents the results of benchmarking RESRAD-OFFSITE's atmospheric transport and dispersion submodel against the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) CAP88-PC (Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988) and ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex-Long Term) models. Chapter 4 documents the comparison results of the predictions of the RESRAD-OFFSITE code and its submodels with the predictions of peer models. This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory's (Argonne

  13. Independent isomer yield ratio of 90Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Ford, G.P.; Willmes, H.

    1985-05-01

    The independent isomer yield ratio for 90 Rb from thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been measured by use of a new technique involving a pulsed reactor and an on-line mass spectrometer facility. The apparent isomer yield ratio was measured for different ion collection time intervals and extrapolated to zero collection time to eliminate interference from 90 Kr decay. The observed isomer yield ratio of 8.7 +- 1.0 is one of the largest ratios measured for a low energy fission process. However, a statistical model analysis shows that the average angular momentum ( = 4.5) deduced from this isomer yield ratio is consistent with average angular momentum for other products from low energy fission. 7 refs

  14. Excitation functions and yields of proton induced reactions at intermediate energies leading to important diagnostics radioisotopes of 52Fe, 77Br, 82Rb, 97Ru, 111In, 123I, 127Xe, 128Cs, 178Ta and 201Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rurarz, E.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes investigations of the excitation functions of the proton induced reactions on 14 targets (Mn, Co, Br, Rb, 99 Tc, 113 Cd, 114 Cd, Cd, I, Cs, Ta, 206,207,208 Pb) leading directly or indirectly to the formation of radionuclides 52 Fe, 77 Br, 82 Rb, 97 Ru, 111 In, 123 I, 127 Xe, 128 Cs, 178 Ta and 201 Tl frequently used in diagnostic procedures of nuclear medicine. The measurements of the excitation functions were made over a wide proton energy range from the reaction threshold up to 100 MeV using the stacked foil (or pellet) technique. Small energy steps were used to allow for accurate determination of the structure of excitation functions. For 97 Ru, 111 In and 127 Xe formation with protons, new reaction channels and targets were used and data concerning this method are published for the first time. The data for 52 Fe, 77 Br, 82 Rb, 123 I, 128 Cs and 201 Tl obtained in the present work for the E p =70-100 MeV region are also published for the first time. The measured excitation functions for the formation of desired (and undesired) radionuclides (altogether 28 excitation functions) are compared with the theoretical ones calculated on the basis of a hybrid model of nuclear reactions in the form of the Overlaid Alice computer code. In order to determine the contribution of the competitive reaction channels to the purity of the produced, desired radionuclide, the excitation functions of the accompanying reactions were also calculated. The 122 calculated excitation functions for the possible contaminant are given in the present work. The comparison of experimental excitation functions with the results of model calculations showed satisfactory agreement, especially if one considers, that no parameter adjustment for individual reaction products was undertaken. From the measured excitation functions the production yields for 28 radionuclides mentioned above have been determined (author). 262 refs, 65 figs, 34 tabs

  15. Isobaric yields and radiochemistry of near-target residues in the interaction of 12C and 16O with 103Rh at an incident energy of 400 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buthelezi, E.Z.; Steyn, G.F.; Walt, T.N. Van der; Aardaneh, K.; Gadioli, E.; Albertini, F.; Cerutti, F.; Connell, S.H.; Cowley, A.A.; Nortier, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Production cross sections of residues with mass near to that of the target were measured in 12 C and 16 O induced reactions on Rh at an incident energy of 400 MeV. An ion-exchange method has been developed for the separation of Rh, Pd and Ag nuclides from all other produced activities. Rh and Ag nuclides were separated from elements such as Pd, Ru, and Tc, amongst others, on an AG1-X8 anion exchange resin in 6M HCl. The Ag nuclides were then removed from the effluent using a precipitation technique so that only Rh remained in the final solution. The Pd was afterwards separated from Ru and Tc by eluting it from the resin with 5% ammonia solution. This procedure made it possible to accurately measure production cross sections for 103m Rh and 103 Pd. Cross sections for the production of various other observed residues are also presented. The results are consistent with an enhanced isobaric yield in the near-target mass region. The radiochemical separation technique is also suitable for the routine production of Pd and Rh nuclides, e.g., 103 Pd and 101m Rh, in proton-induced reactions on Rh targets. (author)

  16. Determination of the Effective Detector Area of an Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometer at the Scanning Electron Microscope Using Experimental and Theoretical X-Ray Emission Yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procop, Mathias; Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan; Terborg, Ralf; Berger, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    A method is proposed to determine the effective detector area for energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS). Nowadays, detectors are available for a wide range of nominal areas ranging from 10 up to 150 mm2. However, it remains in most cases unknown whether this nominal area coincides with the "net active sensor area" that should be given according to the related standard ISO 15632, or with any other area of the detector device. Moreover, the specific geometry of EDS installation may further reduce a given detector area. The proposed method can be applied to most scanning electron microscope/EDS configurations. The basic idea consists in a comparison of the measured count rate with the count rate resulting from known X-ray yields of copper, titanium, or silicon. The method was successfully tested on three detectors with known effective area and applied further to seven spectrometers from different manufacturers. In most cases the method gave an effective area smaller than the area given in the detector description.

  17. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  18. A method for the on-site determination of prestressing forces using long-gauge fiber optic strain sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Jaber, H; Glisic, B

    2014-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) consists of the continuous or periodic measurement of structural parameters and their analysis with the aim of deducing information about the performance and health condition of a structure. The significant increase in the construction of prestressed concrete bridges motivated this research on an SHM method for the on-site determination of the distribution of prestressing forces along prestressed concrete beam structures. The estimation of the distribution of forces is important as it can give information regarding the overall performance and structural integrity of the bridge. An inadequate transfer of the designed prestressing forces to the concrete cross-section can lead to a reduced capacity of the bridge and consequently malfunction or failure at lower loads than predicted by design. This paper researches a universal method for the determination of the distribution of prestressing forces along concrete beam structures at the time of transfer of the prestressing force (e.g., at the time of prestressing or post-tensioning). The method is based on the use of long-gauge fiber optic sensors, and the sensor network is similar (practically identical) to the one used for damage identification. The method encompasses the determination of prestressing forces at both healthy and cracked cross-sections, and for the latter it can yield information about the condition of the cracks. The method is validated on-site by comparison to design forces through the application to two structures: (1) a deck-stiffened arch and (2) a curved continuous girder. The uncertainty in the determination of prestressing forces was calculated and the comparison with the design forces has shown very good agreement in most of the structures’ cross-sections, but also helped identify some unusual behaviors. The method and its validation are presented in this paper. (papers)

  19. REPORT OF ON-SITE INSPECTION WORKSHOP-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J J

    2009-07-07

    The central issue addressed by this workshop was the task of making the on-site inspection (OSI) part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification system operationally ready at entry into force of the Treaty. It is recognized, and this was emphasized by the 2008 OSI Integrated Field Exercise (IFE), that it is not possible to develop every part of the OSI regime simultaneously. Therefore, it is necessary to prioritize the approach to OSI readiness. The reviews of the IFE have pointed to many elements of OSI readiness that still need development. The objective of this workshop was to provide priorities for the path forward for Working Group B to consider. Several critical areas have been identified that are related to the development of OSI readiness: (1) Technology development: Priorities are radionuclide and noble gas sampling and analysis, visual observation, multispectral/infrared imaging methods, active seismic methods and the recognition of the importance of signatures. (2) Organizational development: Priorities are health and safety, the Operations Support Centre, the Equipment Storage and Maintenance Facility, information technology data flow and communications. (3) Resources: The expertise to develop key parts of the OSI regime is not available within the current OSI Division staff. To develop these aspects of the regime will require more staff or supplements to the staff with cost-free experts or other means. Aspects of the system that could benefit from more staff include radionuclide and noble gas detection methods, data flow and communications, visual observation, multispectral/infrared methods and health and safety. As the path forward, participants of this workshop recognized a need to optimize the development of OSI priorities. The outcome of this workshop is to suggest for consideration an operational approach to OSI readiness that utilizes results of an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of OSI elements versus their relative

  20. Flamanville 3 EPR, Safety Assessment and On-site Inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedagnel, Corinne; Tarallo, Francois; Monnot, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    As a Technical Support Organisation of the French Safety Authority (ASN), the IRSN carries out the safety assessment of EPR project design and participates in the ASN inspections performed at the construction site and in factories. The design assessment consists in defining the safety functions which should be ensured by civil structures, evaluating the EPR Technical Code for Civil works (ETC-C) in which EdF has defined design criteria and construction rules, and carrying out a detailed assessment of a selection of safety-related structures. Those detailed assessments do not consist of a technical control but of an analysis whose objectives are to ensure that design and demonstrations are robust, in accordance with safety and regulatory rules. Most assessments led IRSN to ask EdF to provide additional justification sometimes involving significant modifications. In the light of those complementary justifications and modifications, IRSN concluded that assessments carried out on design studies were globally satisfactory. The participation of IRSN to the on-site inspections led by ASN is a part of the global control of the compliance of the reactor with its safety objectives. For that purpose IRSN has defined a methodology and an inspection program intended to ASN: based on safety functions associated with civil works (confinement and resistance to aggressions), the corresponding behaviour requirements are identified and linked to a list of main civil works elements. During the inspections, deviations to the project's technical specifications or to the rules of the art were pointed out by IRSN. Those deviations cover various items, such as concrete fabrication, concrete pouring methodology, lack of reinforcement in some structures, unadapted welding procedures of the containment leak-tight steel liner and unsatisfactory treatment of concreting joints. The analysis of those problems has revealed flaws in the organisation of the contractors teams together with an

  1. Brazilian Soybean Yields and Yield Gaps Vary with Farm Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, G. R.; Cohn, A.; Griffin, T. S.; Bragança, A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the farm size-specific characteristics of crop yields and yield gaps may help to improve yields by enabling better targeting of technical assistance and agricultural development programs. Linking remote sensing-based yield estimates with property boundaries provides a novel view of the relationship between farm size and yield structure (yield magnitude, gaps, and stability over time). A growing literature documents variations in yield gaps, but largely ignores the role of farm size as a factor shaping yield structure. Research on the inverse farm size-productivity relationship (IR) theory - that small farms are more productive than large ones all else equal - has documented that yield magnitude may vary by farm size, but has not considered other yield structure characteristics. We examined farm size - yield structure relationships for soybeans in Brazil for years 2001-2015. Using out-of-sample soybean yield predictions from a statistical model, we documented 1) gaps between the 95th percentile of attained yields and mean yields within counties and individual fields, and 2) yield stability defined as the standard deviation of time-detrended yields at given locations. We found a direct relationship between soy yields and farm size at the national level, while the strength and the sign of the relationship varied by region. Soybean yield gaps were found to be inversely related to farm size metrics, even when yields were only compared to farms of similar size. The relationship between farm size and yield stability was nonlinear, with mid-sized farms having the most stable yields. The work suggests that farm size is an important factor in understanding yield structure and that opportunities for improving soy yields in Brazil are greatest among smaller farms.

  2. Ultra-Portable Solar-Powered 3D Printers for Onsite Manufacturing of Medical Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Julielynn Y

    2015-09-01

    The first space-based fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer is powered by solar photovoltaics. This study seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of using solar energy to power a FDM 3D printer to manufacture medical resources at the Mars Desert Research Station and to design an ultra-portable solar-powered 3D printer for off-grid environments. Six solar panels in a 3×2 configuration, a voltage regulator/capacitor improvised from a power adapter, and two 12V batteries in series were connected to power a FDM 3D printer. Three designs were printed onsite and evaluated by experts post analogue mission. A solar-powered 3D printer composed of off-the-shelf components was designed to be transported in airline carry-on luggage. During the analogue mission, the solar-powered printer could only be operated for solar-powered 3D printer was designed that could print an estimated 16 dental tools or 8 mallet finger splints or 7 scalpel handles on one fully charged 12V 150Wh battery with a 110V AC converter. It is feasible to use solar energy to power a 3D printer to manufacture functional and personalized medical resources at a Mars analogue research station. Based on these findings, a solar-powered suitcase 3D printing system containing solar panels, 12V battery with charge controller and AC inverter, and back-up solar charge controller and inverter was designed for transport to and use in off-grid communities.

  3. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  4. Yield Mapping in Salix; Skoerdekartering av salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Christoffer; Gilbertsson, Mikael; Rogstrand, Gustav; Thylen, Lars

    2004-09-01

    The most common species for energy forest production is willow. Willow is able to produce a large amount of biomass in a short period of time. Growing willow has a potential to render a good financial result for the farmer if cultivated on fields with the right conditions and plenty of water. Under the right conditions growing willow can give the farmer a net income of 3,000 SEK (about 430 USD) per hectare and year, which is something that common cereal crops cannot compete with. However, this is not the common case since willow is often grown as a substitute crop on fields where cereal crop yield is low. The aim of this study was to reveal if it is possible to measure yield variability in willow, and if it is possible to describe the reasons for yield variation both within the field but also between different fields. Yield mapping has been used in conventional farming for about a decade. The principles for yield mapping are to continuously measure the yield while registering location by the use of GPS when harvesting the field. The collected data is then used to search for spatial variations within the field, and to try to understand the reasons for this variation. Since there is currently no commercial equipment for yield mapping in willow, a yield mapping system had to be developed within this project. The new system was installed on a Claas Jaguar harvester. The principle for yield mapping on the Claas Jaguar harvester is to measure the distance between the feeding rollers. This distance is correlated to the flow through the harvester. The speed and position of the machine was registered using GPS. Knowing the working width of the harvester this information was used to calculate the yield. All collected data was stored on a PDA computer. Soil samples were also collected from the yield mapped fields. This was to be able to test yield against both physical and chemical soil parameters. The result shows that it is possible to measure spatial variations of yield in

  5. Process design and economics of on-site cellulase production on various carbon sources in a softwood-based ethanol plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Zsolt; Kovacs, Krisztina; Reczey, Kati; Zacchi, Guido

    2010-06-28

    On-site cellulase enzyme fermentation in a softwood-to-ethanol process, based on SO(2)-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, was investigated from a techno-economic aspect using Aspen Plus© and Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator© softwares. The effect of varying the carbon source of enzyme fermentation, at constant protein and mycelium yields, was monitored through the whole process. Enzyme production step decreased the overall ethanol yield (270 L/dry tonne of raw material in the case of purchased enzymes) by 5-16 L/tonne. Capital cost was found to be the main cost contributor to enzyme fermentation, constituting to 60-78% of the enzyme production cost, which was in the range of 0.42-0.53 SEK/L ethanol. The lowest minimum ethanol selling prices (4.71 and 4.82 SEK/L) were obtained in those scenarios, where pretreated liquid fraction supplemented with molasses was used as carbon source. In some scenarios, on-site enzyme fermentation was found to be a feasible alternative.

  6. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    On the occasion of the World Environment Day the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment held a conference on growth problems in energy consumption. The themes which were treated were energy conservation, hydroelectric power, the role of nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, fossil fuel resources, ecological limits, pollution and international aspects. Nuclear energy forms the main theme of one lecture and an aspect of several others. (JIW)

  7. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  8. Neutron yield measurements on a TMX endplug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaughter, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron yield measurements were made on the east endplug of TMX using a calibrated recoil proton counter. The detector consists of a liquid scintillator (NE 213) with a pulse shape discrimination property that allows for identifying photon and neutron interactions. An energy threshold is established to suppress the response to scattered neutrons with energies lower than 1 to 2 MeV. Results indicate there are typical neutron yields of 2 to 3 x 10 11 n/s during a 25-ms discharge with 200 A of 20-keV neutral beam injection into the endplug

  9. Perceptions of on-site hunters: Environmental concerns, future land use, and cleanup options at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, J.; Sanchez, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy owns land in 34 states, and most of these lands have been off limits to the public for over 50 years. Although some parts of each site are contaminated, most of many sites are not. With the ending of the Cold War, the department is considering alternative land uses. In this article, the perceptions of hunters and fishermen allowed on site for a limited time were examined, about environmental concerns, future land use, and cleanup options. Although loss of jobs was the foremost concern, preserving parts of the site had more support as a future land use than continuing the nuclear mission, and nearly three-quarters of the sample supported cleanup, regardless of cost. On-site employment was a significant indicator of lower concern about safety and environmental issues, less support for designating the site for research, and more concern for maintaining jobs

  10. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  11. On-site transportation and handling of uranium-233 special nuclear material: Preliminary hazards and accident analysis. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solack, T.; West, D.; Ullman, D.; Coppock, G.; Cox, C.

    1995-01-01

    U-233 Special Nuclear Material (SNM) currently stored at the T-Building Storage Areas A and B must be transported to the SW/R Tritium Complex for repackaging. This SNM is in the form of oxide powder contained in glass jars which in turn are contained in heat sealed double polyethylene bags. These doubled-bagged glass jars have been primarily stored in structural steel casks and birdcages for approximately 20 years. The three casks, eight birdcages, and one pail/pressure vessel will be loaded onto a transport truck and moved over an eight day period. The Preliminary Hazards and Accident Analysis for the on-site transportation and handling of Uranium-233 Special Nuclear Material, documented herein, was performed in accordance with the format and content guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, dated July 1994, specifically Chapter Three, Hazard and Accident Analysis. The Preliminary Hazards Analysis involved detailed walkdowns of all areas of the U-233 SNM movement route, including the T-Building Storage Area A and B, T-Building truck tunnel, and the roadway route. Extensive discussions were held with operations personnel from the Nuclear Material Control Group, Nuclear Materials Accountability Group, EG and G Mound Security and the Material Handling Systems Transportation Group. Existing documentation related to the on-site transportation of hazardous materials, T-Building and SW/R Tritium Complex SARs, and emergency preparedness/response documentation were also reviewed and analyzed to identify and develop the complete spectrum of energy source hazards

  12. Intruder dose pathway analysis for the onsite disposal of commercial radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1984-10-01

    Because of uncertainties associated with assessing the potential risks from onsite burials of commercial radioactive waste, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has amended its regulations to provide greater assurance that buried radioactive material will not present a hazard to public health and safety. The amended regulations now require licensees to apply for approval of proposed procedures for onsite disposal pursuant to 10 CFR 20.302. The NRC technically reviews these requests on a case-by-case basis. These technical reviews require modeling potential pathways to man and projecting radiation dose commitments. This paper contains a summary of our efforts to develop human-intrusion scenarios and to modify a version of the MAXI computer program for potential use by the NRC in reviewing applications for onsite radioactive waste disposal. The ONSITE/MAXI1 computer software package contains four computer codes. ONSITE is the interactive user interface that allows the end-user to simply and efficiently create and use the radiation-exposure scenarios. MAXI1 is then used with the scenario information to calculate the maximum annual dose to the exposed individual from selected pathways. 1 figure

  13. Modification of an existing radwaste facility to provide onsite low level waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ault, G.M.; Reiss, J.F.; Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago, IL)

    1985-01-01

    The decision of whether or not to install onsite storage capacity for low-level radioactive waste is dictated by individual utility circumstances. Commonwealth Edison has decided to construct facilities to store low-level radwaste onsite at each of their four operating nuclear stations, and they plan to have those facilities in operation by January, 1986. At Dresden, that onsite storage capacity is being provided by modifying an existing radwaste building which already has installed a remotely-operated precision-placement type crane. The purposes of this paper are to describe: (1) how Commonwealth Edison arrived at the decision to construct onsite storage facilities as a hedge against possible disruption of burial site availability in January, 1986; (2) why the desire to minimize the capital investment for this protection led to selection of an uncomplicated design for their ''standard'' facility and to the decision to modify an existing building at Dresden rather than construct a new one; and (3) what is being done to adapt the Dresden 1 Decontamination/Radwaste Building for extended onsite storage

  14. Evolution of Onsite and Offsite Power Systems in US Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Roy K.

    2015-01-01

    The AC electric power system is the source of power for station auxiliaries during normal operation and for the reactor protection system and emergency safety features during abnormal and accident conditions. Since the construction of early plants in US, the functional adequacy and requirements of the offsite power systems, safety and non safety related onsite electric power systems have changed considerably to ensure that these systems have adequate redundancy, independence, quality, maintenance and testability to support safe shutdown of the nuclear plant. The design of AC systems has evolved from a single train to multiple (up to four) redundant trains in the current evolutionary designs coupled with other auxiliary AC systems. The early plants were designed to cope with a Loss of Offsite Power (LOOP) event through the use of onsite power supplies only. However operating experience has indicated that onsite and offsite power AC power systems can fail due to natural phenomena (earthquakes, lightning strikes, fires, geomagnetic storms, tsunamis, etc.) or operational abnormalities such as loss of a single phase, switching surges or human error. The onsite DC systems may not be adequately sized to support plant safe shutdown over an extended period if AC power cannot be restored within a reasonable time. This paper will discuss the requirements to improve availability and reliability of offsite and onsite alternating current (AC) power sources to U.S. Nuclear Power Plants. In addition, the paper will discuss the requirements and guidance beyond design basis events. (author)

  15. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Jałowiecki

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A, trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B, and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C. High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters.

  16. Performance of on-site Medical waste disinfection equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of studies available on the performance of on-site medical waste treatment facilities is rare, to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of onsite medical waste treatment equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A various range of the on-site medical waste disinfection equipment (autoclave, chemical disinfection, hydroclave, and dry thermal treatment was considered to select 10 out of 22 hospitals in Tabriz to be included in the survey. The apparatus were monitored mechanically, chemically, and biologically for a six months period in all of the selected hospitals. Results: The results of the chemical monitoring (Bowie-Dick tests indicated that 38.9% of the inspected autoclaves had operational problems in pre-vacuum, air leaks, inadequate steam penetration into the waste, and/or vacuum pump. The biological indicators revealed that about 55.55% of the samples were positive. The most of applied devices were not suitable for treating anatomical, pharmaceutical, cytotoxic, and chemical waste. Conclusion: Although on-site medical waste treating facilities have been installed in all the hospitals, the most of infectious-hazardous medical waste generated in the hospitals were deposited into a municipal solid waste landfill, without enough disinfection. The responsible authorities should stringently inspect and evaluate the operation of on-site medical waste treating equipment. An advanced off-site central facility with multi-treatment and disinfection equipment and enough capacity is recommended as an alternative.

  17. Track models and radiation chemical yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Magee, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The authors are concerned only with systems in which single track effects dominate and radiation chemical yields are sums of yields for individual tracks. The authors know that the energy deposits of heavy particle tracks are composed of spurs along the particle trajectory (about one-half of the energy) and a more diffuse pattern composed of the tracks of knock-on electrons, called the penumbra (about one-half of the energy). The simplest way to introduce the concept of a unified track model for heavy particles is to consider the special case of the track of a heavy particle with an LET below 0.2-0.3eV/A, which in practice limits us to protons, deuterons, or particles with energy above 100 MeV per nucleon. At these LET values, to a good approximation, spurs formed by the main particle track can be considered to remain isolated throughout the radiation chemical reactions

  18. Status of fission yield measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeck, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Fission yield measurement and yield compilation activities in the major laboratories of the world are reviewed. In addition to a general review of the effort of each laboratory, a brief summary of yield measurement activities by fissioning nuclide is presented. A new fast reactor fission yield measurement program being conducted in the US is described

  19. On-site Destruction of Radioactive Oily Wastes Using Adsorption Coupled with Electrochemical Regeneration - 12221

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.W. [Arvia Technology Ltd, Daresbury Innovation Centre, Daresbury, WA4 4FS (United Kingdom); Wickenden, D.A. [Magnox Ltd, Berkeley Centre, Gloucestershire, GL13 9PB (United Kingdom); Roberts, E.P.L. [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Arvia{sup R}, working with Magnox Ltd, has developed the technology of adsorption coupled with electrochemical regeneration for the degradation of orphan radioactive oil wastes. The process results in the complete destruction of the organic phase where the radioactivity is transferred to liquid and solid secondary wastes that can then be processed using existing authorised on-site waste-treatment facilities.. Following on from successful laboratory and pilot scale trials, a full scale, site based demonstrator unit was commissioned at the Magnox Trawsfynydd decommissioning site to destroy 10 l of LLW and ILW radioactive oils. Over 99% of the emulsified oil was removed and destroyed with the majority of activity (80 - 90%) being transferred to the aqueous phase. Secondary wastes were disposed of via existing routes with the majority being disposed of via the sites active effluent treatment plant. The regeneration energy required to destroy a litre of oil was 42.5 kWh/l oil. This on-site treatment approach eliminates the risks and cost associated with transporting the active waste oils off site for incineration or other treatment. The Arvia{sup R} process of adsorption coupled with electrochemical regeneration has successfully demonstrated the removal and destruction of LLW and ILW radioactive oils on a nuclear site. Over 99.9% of the emulsified oil was removed, with the majority of the radioactive species transferred to the aqueous, supernate, phase (typically 80 - 90 %). The exception to this is Cs-137 which appears to be more evenly distributed, with 43% associated with the liquid phase and 33 % with the Nyex, the remainder associated with the electrode bed. The situation with Plutonium may be similar, but this requires confirmation, hence further work is underway to understand the full nature of the electrode bed radioactive burden and its distribution within the body of the electrodes. - Tritium gaseous discharges were negligible; hence no off-gas treatment

  20. Radiological effluent and onsite area monitoring report for the Nevada Test Site (January 1986-December 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, D.A.

    1987-09-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site as conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) onsite radiological safety contractor from January 1986 through December 1986. It presents results and evaluations of radioactivity measurements in air and water, and of direct gamma radiation exposure rates. It establishes relevant correlations between the data recorded and DOE concentration guides (CG's). External gamma exposure levels and radioactivity in air and water on the Nevada Test Site were low compared to DOE guidelines. The highest average gross beta concentration in air was 0.005% of the DOE concentration guide (CG). The highest average Pu-239 concentration was 7.7% of the standard. The highest average tritium concentration was 0.39% of the standard. Kr-85 concentrations increased slightly from CY-1985 to CY-1986. Xe-133 remained nondetectable with some exceptions. The highest average gross beta concentration in potable water remained within the applicable standard for drinking water. The highest average Pu-239 concentration from contaminated waters was 0.0005% of the concentration guide. The highest average tritium concentration in noncontaminated water was 6% of the level for drinking water required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulation. The amounts of tritium-bearing effluent released to contaminated waste ponds was calculated and reported to DOE Headquarters. Gamma radiation measurements were roughly the same in CY-1986 relative to the previous year. All surveillance results from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) indicate that no detectable releases of radioactive materials occurred in that network in 1986. 29 refs., 14 figs., 23 tabs