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Sample records for onopordum nervosum boiss

  1. Hydrolysis of Lignocellulose Biomass of Onopordum nervosum Boiss; Hidrolisis acida de la Biomasa Lignocelulosica del cardo Onopordum nervosum Boiss

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    Suarez Contreras, C.; Diaz Palma, A.; Paz, M. D.

    1985-07-01

    Hydrolysis of resistant cellulose of Onopordum nervosum Boiss (thistle) to reducing sugars in dilute sulfuric acid in glass ampoules and long residence times has been studied and kinetic parameters determined. The rate of hydrolysis is similar to that of the cellulose of Douglas fir, but comparatively the effect of the acid is more pronounced than temperature. From kinetic data it can be pre ducted the yield and since it can be obtained at least 45% of the potential glucose (48% as reducing sugars) at 190 degree centigree, 1,6% acid and 6,1 min. residence time, it indicates that the continuous acid hydrolysis of thistle may be a process of commercial interest. (Author) 18 refs.

  2. Acid Pre hydrolysis of the Lignocellulose biomass from thistle Onopordum nervosum Boiss; Prehidrolisis acida de la Biomasa Lignocelulosica del Cardo Onopordum nervosum Boiss

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    Suarez Contreras, C.; Paz Saa, D.; Diaz Palma, A.

    1983-07-01

    The acid pre hydrolysis of the lignocellulose biomass from thistle O. nervosum has been conducted to determine the conditions for maximum yield of pentoses with minimum yield of hexoses. Variables studied were acid concentration (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 1 , 3, 4 and 5%) , temperature (1000 and 120 degree centigree) time, solid to liquid ratio and degree of fineness of thistle (1 to 65 mesh). (Author) 15 refs.

  3. Big thistle eats the little thistle: does unidirectional introgressive hybridization endanger the conservation of Onopordum hinojense?

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    Balao, Francisco; Casimiro-Soriguer, Ramón; García-Castaño, Juan Luis; Terrab, Anass; Talavera, Salvador

    2015-04-01

    Hybridization is known to have a creative role in plant evolution. However, it can also have negative effects on parental species. Onopordum is a large genus whose species frequently hybridize. In the Southwest Iberian Peninsula, the rare O. hinojense co-occurs with the widely distributed O. nervosum, and hybrids between these two taxa have been described as O. × onubense. In this study we determine the extinction risk in a hybrid zone, both for hybrids and parentals, using analyses of morphological and cytogenetic traits as well as genetic markers and demographic models. To investigate the introgression process we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, Bayesian analyses and genome scan methods. Morphology, genome size and molecular markers confirmed homoploid hybridization and also indicated unidirectional backcrossing of F₁ hybrids with O. nervosum, which is likely to swamp O. hinojense, the parental with lower pollen size and a very low fruit set (8%). Genome scan methods revealed several loci significantly deviating from neutrality. Finally, our demographic modeling indicated that the higher fitness of O. nervosum threats the survival of O. hinojense by demographic swamping. Our study provides strong new evidence for a scenario of rapid extinction by unidirectional introgression and demographic swamping. The multifaceted approach used here sheds new light on the role of introgression in plant extinctions.

  4. The Research of Antioxidant Activity of the Endemic Species of Onopordum Anatolicum

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    G. TAŞDELEN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As is the case elsewhere in the world, Turkish people have long utilized plants as remedies, food, fuel, and dye, as well as for furniture, ornamentation, agricultural tools, and construction materials. Onopordum is a valuable medicinal plant that is widely used in traditional medicine in Europe. The application of Onopordum as food is limited and its main importance is due to medicine utilization. Because of having flavonoid compositions, Onopordum is an important plant. The Genus Onopordum L. (Asteraceae includes about 38 species. The representatives of the genus are native to Europe, Northern Africa, the Canary Island, the Caucasus, Southwest and Central Asia. In Turkey, this genus is represented with 20 species, 6 of which are endemic. Onopordum (cotton thistle, also known as Scots or Scotch thistle species are biennials herbaceous plants with branched, spinose winged stems. They have application in medical practice as a bactericide, cardiotonic, and hemostatic agent and are used against hypotonicity. In this study antioxidant activities of ethanol, methanol, acetone and benzen extracts of some endemic Onopordum anatolicum (Boiss. Boiss. & Heldr. ex Eig seeds which are in Denizli were examined. DPPH and β-carotene-Linoleic acid methods were used in order to determinethe antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity (77% was seenin the extract which is obtained by using methanol catalyst. The lowest activity of antioxidant of the extracts is acetone (5%. In terms of impact, the strenght of antioxidant depends on the phenolic amount of it. For that purpose, O. anatolicum total fenolic content was calculated in terms of mg/ml gallic acid in the experiment performed by using Folin-Ciocaltaeu medhod. According to these values, the highest amount of phenolic compounds are in methanol and the lowest amount of phenolic compounds are in benzen. According to the results of the experiment performed by using DPPH method, it is obvious that the

  5. STUDIES ON VIBURNUM NERVOSUM HOOK CHEMISTRY AND SPECTROSCOPY OF BERGENIN AND ITS DERIVATIVES

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    Brijesh K. Tiwari* and R.L. Khosa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bergenin is reported to occur in Viburnum nervosum (Capprifoliaceae. This is the first report of its occurrence in genus Viburnum. Derivative of Bergenin viz Bergenin diethyl ether, its penta acetate and diethyl ether triacetate have been prepared. Their method of preparation and characterization by spectroscopy is reported for the first time.

  6. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibranchiatum QM9414 and Rut C30; Produccion de celulasas a partir de dos cepas hiperproductoras de trichoderma longibranchiatum Qm9-41 4 y Rut C30

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    Blanco, M. J.

    1991-07-01

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum Boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma Ionqibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. Ionqibrachiatum Rut C30 on 5% (w/v) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the ferment. (Author) 40 refs.

  7. Anatomical Study and Pollen Micromorphology of Onopordum L. in Iran

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    Elham AGHABABAEYAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, pollen micromorphological structure, leaf and stem anatomy structure of six species of Onopordum (O. acanthium L., O. armenum Grossh., O. carduchorum Bornm. & Beauv., O. carmanicum (Bornm. Bornm., O. heteracanthum C. A. Mey and O. leptolepis DC were examined with different repetitions. About 17 qualitative anatomical features were statistically analyzed. Glandular trichome, cortex fiber tissue, embowed in subsidiary vascular, its fiber tissue and vascular sheath extensions, adaxial collenchyma tissue and types of adaxial and abaxial stomata were distinct characters in separating of the species. In palynologic studies based on P/E ratio, 2 types of pollen grains were observed: oblate- spheroidal and suboblate. SEM study of the exine showed echinate, reticulate and perforate sculpturing in all six species.

  8. Protective Effect of Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala Fruit Extract against Oxidative Renal Damage Caused by Cadmium

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    Warut Poontawee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium nephrotoxicity is a serious environmental health problem as it will eventually end up with end stage renal disease. The pathobiochemical mechanism of this toxic heavy metal is related to oxidative stress. This study investigated whether Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala fruit extract (CNFE could protect the kidney against oxidative injury caused by cadmium. Initial analysis of the extract revealed antioxidant abilities and high levels of polyphenols, particularly catechin. Its potential renal benefits was further explored in rats treated with vehicle, CNFE, cadmium (2 mg/kg, and cadmium plus CNFE (0.5, 1, 2 g/kg for four weeks. Oxidative renal injury was developed after cadmium exposure as evidenced by blood urea nitrogen and creatinine retention, glomerular filtration reduction, renal structural damage, together with increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, but decreased antioxidant thiols, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in renal tissues. Cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity was diminished in rats supplemented with CNFE, particularly at the doses of 1 and 2 g/kg. It is concluded that CNFE is able to protect against the progression of cadmium nephrotoxicity, mostly via its antioxidant power. The results also point towards a promising role for this naturally-occurring antioxidant to combat other human disorders elicited by disruption of redox homeostasis.

  9. Assessment of genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of an aqueous extract of Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala in in vitro and in vivo models.

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    Charoensin, Suphachai; Taya, Sirinya; Wongpornchai, Sugunya; Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan

    2012-12-01

    Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala, an edible fruit found in Northern Thailand, contains high amounts of phenolic compounds with in vitro antioxidant activity. The aqueous extract of the ripe fruit was evaluated for its safety and beneficial effects using genotoxicity and toxicity tests. The C. nervosum extract was not only non-mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of metabolic activation, but exhibited also moderate antimutagenic effects against aflatoxin B1 and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline-induced mutagenesis. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric analysis revealed the major anthocyanins, which included cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-5-glucoside. The administration of C. nervosum at concentration of 5,000 mg/kg bw did not induce acute toxicity in rats. A liver micronucleus test was performed to detect clastogenicity and anticlastogenicity. The extract in the dose of 1,000 mg/kg did not cause micronucleus formation in the liver of rats. Furthermore, in rats administered 100-1,000 mg/kg of the extract, no anticlastogenic effect against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic micronucleus formation was observed. These studies provide data concerning the safety and antimutagenic potency of an aqueous extract of C. nervosum fruit.

  10. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and total flavonoid of extracts from stems of Jasminum nervosum Lour

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    Wei, Xiangyong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Guangxi traditional Chinese Medical University Universidad de Medicina Tradicional China de Guangxi This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of the extracts of Jasminum nervosum Lour. stems along with the effects of different extract solvents on total phenolics (TP, total flavonoids (TF, and antioxidant potential. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed using the following methods: DPPH, ABTS+ both free radicals scavenging assays, and reducing assays. TP and TF were detected by spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. In former methods, the highest amount of TP content was ethy lacetate extract (EAE, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The greatest TF content was in the n-butanol extract (BE, expressed as lutin equivalents. No significant difference was observed in the TP/TF content between these two extracts. The antioxidant activity and TP/TF content of three extracts seemed to follow the same trend. This implied that there is a good correlation between antioxidant activities and TP/TF content. But in HPLC methods, EAE contained the highest content of lutin and gallic acid, which decreased in the same order of EAE > BE > PE, the rank order of TP/TF content of EAE and BE were different according to antioxidant ability. The overall results showed that the EAE and BE were richer in phenolics and flavonoids than petroleum ether extract (PE, and may represent a good source of antioxidants.Este estudio evaluó las actividades antioxidantes de extractos de tallos de Jasminum nervosum Lour., y el efecto de diferentes disolventes de extracción en los fenoles totales (TP y flavonoides totales (TF, y su potencial antioxidante. La actividad antioxidante de los extractos fue evaluada usando los siguientes métodos: DPPH, ABTS+ y ensayos reductores. TP y TF fueron detectados por métodos espectroscópicos y por HPLC. Con el primer método, el contenido más alto de TP se obtuvo en el extracto con acetato de etilo (EAE, expresado como

  11. Variation in oil content, fatty acid and phytosterols profile of Onopordum acanthium L. during seed development.

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    Arfaoui, Moufida Oueslati; Renaud, Justin; Ghazghazi, Hanen; Boukhchina, Sadok; Mayer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study has determined oil, fatty acid (FA) and phytosterols content during the ripening of the Tunisian Onopordum acanthium L. seeds. In total, nine FAs and six phytosterols were identified. The main FAs were linoleic acid (0.18-8.06 mg/g of seed) followed by oleic acid (0.051-2.45 mg/g of seed), palmitic acid and stearic acid. Pentadecanoic acid was detected, for the first time, in unripe fruits and the two last stages of development were characterised by a relative abundance of erucic acid. Overall, β-sitosterol (34.5-77.79% of total sterols) was the major 4-desmethylsterols during maturation. The first episodes of growth were characterised by the best amounts of stigmasterol and campesterol, while stigmastanol and Δ7 sitosterol had quoted the semi-ripe and fully ripe fruits; however, cholesterol was absent. These findings are useful in understanding a potential new source of important natural compounds (Phytosterols and USFA) found in this fruit and when harvest should be undertaken to optimise desired FA and phytosterols content.

  12. Secondary Metabolites of Centaurea cadmea Boiss.

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    Kaveh Alizadeh Astari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid (1, scutellarin (2, syringin (3, 6S, 9R-roseoside (4 and b -sitosterol-3- O - b - D-glucopyranoside (5 were isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurea cadmea Boiss. (Asteraceae. S tructure elucidation of the compounds were performed by using spectroscopic methods (1-D and 2-D NMR and LC-MS-MS. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 1 , 2, 3 and 4 have been isolated for the first time from this endemic species. C ompound 4 is new for the genus Centaurea.

  13. In Vitro Anti-Candida Activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss

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    Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi; Muhammad Ali Dabbagh; Zahra Fouladi

    2006-01-01

    Zataria multiflora Boiss known as Avishan Shirazi (in Iran) is one of the valuable Iranian medicinal plants. The aim of study was to evaluate anti-Candida activity of Z. multiflora against different species of Candida in vitro. Anti-Candida activity of the aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic maceration extract of the aerial parts of Z. multiflora Boiss was studied in vitro. Anti-Candida activity against Candida species was done using serial dilutions of extracts in Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Mi...

  14. Synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Jasminum nervosum leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against filarial and arboviral vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Lallawmawma, H; Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Sarathbabu, Subburayan; Ghatak, Souvik; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil

    2015-11-01

    Silver and gold nanoparticles of Jasminum nervosum L. had unique optical properties such as broad absorbance band in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Characterization of the nanoparticles using UV spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the particles were silver (AgNPs) and gold (AuNPs) ranging between 4-22 and 2-20 nm with an average particles size of 9.4 and 10 nm, respectively. AgNPs and AuNPs of J. nervosum had high larvicidal activity on the filarial and arboviral vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, than the leaf aqueous extract. Observed lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) against the third instar larvae were 57.40 and 144.36 μg/ml for AgNPs and 82.62 and 254.68 μg/ml for AuNPs after 24 h treatment, respectively. The lethal time to kill 50% of C. quinquefasciatus larvae were 2.24 and 4.51 h at 150 μg/ml of AgNPs and AuNPs, respectively, while in the case of aqueous leaf extract of J. nervosum it was 9.44 h at 500 μg/ml (F 2,14 = 397.51, P < 0.0001). The principal component analysis plot presented differential clustering of the aqueous leaf extract, AgNP and AuNPs in relation to lethal dose and lethal time. It is concluded from the present findings that the biosynthesised AgNPs and AuNPs using leaf aqueous extract of J. nervosum could be an environmentally safer nanobiopesticide, and provided potential larvicidal effect on C. quinquefasciatus larvae which could be used for prevention of several dreadful diseases.

  15. Effect of gamma Irradiation on the acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose thistle; Efecto de la irradiacion gamma en la hidrolisis acida de cardo exento de pentosas

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    Suarez, C.; Paz, M. D.; Diaz, A.

    1983-07-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the subsequent acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose Onopordum Nervosum Boiss thistle Ls determined. Its shown the influence of gamma-irradiation on the yield of sugar obtained flora the batch wise hydrol isis of the call ulose (1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 180 degree centigree at increasing doses). At all irradiation levels studied, the rate of hydrolysis of thistle samples was higher than the rate of hydrolysis of the cellulose from paper treated similarly. The maximum over-all yield of sugar in the irradiated lignocellulose material was about 66o at 100 MRad, less than two times the yield obtainable from the control. The corresponding yield from papel was 53%, 2'3 times that of the control. Irradiation under 1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doesn't enhance the yield anyway. (Author) 21 refs.

  16. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory caffeoyl phenylpropanoid and secoiridoid glycosides from Jasminum nervosum stems, a Chinese folk medicine.

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    Guo, Zhi-Yong; Li, Ping; Huang, Wen; Wang, Jian-Jun; Liu, Yu-Jing; Liu, Bo; Wang, Ye-Ling; Wu, Shi-Biao; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chun-Lin

    2014-10-01

    Eight compounds including four caffeoyl phenylpropanoid glycosides, jasnervosides A-D (1-4), one monoterpenoid glycoside, jasnervoside E (5), and three secoiridoid glycosides, jasnervosides F-H (10-12), were isolated from the stems of Jasminum nervosum Lour. (Oleaceae), along with four known compounds, poliumoside (6), verbascoside (7), α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)-1-O-E-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (8), and jaspolyanthoside (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of their physicochemical and spectroscopic properties. Compounds 1, 2, 4 and 11 displayed potent antioxidant activities in the DPPH assay, while 2 and 3 displayed good activities against LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β production in BV2 cells. Compounds 1-5 and 10-12 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cell lines (A-549, Bel-7402, and HCT-8), but none displayed significant activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. COMPOSITION OF STEMBARK ESSENTIAL OIL FROM SALVIA MACROSIPHON BOISS

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    FIROUZ MATLOUBI-MOGHADDAM

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Salvia macrosiphon boiss (Labiatae was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by GC and coupled GC/MS. Twenty substances out of about thirty-three detected components were identified. The major constituents were sesquiterpenes (69.5%, a-Gurjunene (11%, P-Cubebene (10.6%, Germacrene-B (7%.

  18. Two New Compounds from Melanosciadum pimpinelloideum H. Boiss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two new compounds, melanochromone and 2-ethoxyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, were isolated from the whole plants of Melanosoiadum pimpinelloideum H. Boiss. The known compounds isolated were 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2-ethanediol, tymine, cimifugin, umtatin, bergenin, daucosterol and stigmasterol. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data.

  19. ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ZATARIA MULTIFLORA BOISS

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    F JAFFARY

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Zataria multiflora Boiss is an Iranian medicinal plant from lamiaceae family. It could be found in central and southern regions of Iran. Several pharmacological effects such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antiseizure and anti-inflammatory effects have been reported for this plant but only its antifungal effects has been studied yet. Flavonoids and the essential oil are the most important constituents of this plant. In this study the possible anti-inflammatory effect of its total extract, the essential oil and flavonoid fractions were examined in carrageen an (CAR test. Methods. Male Wistar rats weighing 180-220 g in groups of 6 were used. CAR was injected in sub plantar surface of right (10 mg/ml, 0.1 ml paw of rats and the inflammation was measured 3 hrs later by plethysmograph. Dexamethasone (1mg/kg.ip was used as standard. Results. All fractions of the plant including total extract (900 mg/kg p.o, 500 mg/kg i.p., flavonoid (900 mg/kg p.o and i.p and the essential oil had significant preventive effect on CAR-induced rat paw edema. In contrast to indomethacin (positive control both total extract and the essential oil did not show any ulcerogenic effect on rat stomach. Discussion. Thus, this plant has a significant anti-inflammatory effect which in part is due to its flavonoids and the essential oil but other active substances of the plant could be involved. The lack of ulcerogenic effects is its important advantage. After purification of active ingredients further toxicological and in-vivo studies should be designed for this potential effective anti-inflammatory plant.

  20. In vitro anti-aging activities of extracts from leaves of Ma Kiang (Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala).

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    Manosroi, Jiradej; Chankhampan, Charinya; Kumguan, Kulthida; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Aranya

    2015-06-01

    Cleistocalyx nervosum (DC.) Kosterm. var. paniala (Roxb.) J. Parn. & Chantaran. (Myrtaceae) or Ma Kiang contains high amounts of phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity of its fruit and seed has been investigated. However, limited available information concerning the biological activities of its leaves has been reported. To investigate the in vitro anti-aging potential of young and old leaves of Ma Kiang. Ma Kiang leaves were extracted using water, methanol, and chloroform as the solvents by cold (sonication) and hot (boiling) processes. The extracts were determined for total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The extracts (at 0.001-10 mg/ml) were tested for antioxidative and tyrosinase inhibition activities using a colorimetric method. The cytotoxicity of extracts (at 0.0001-1 mg/ml) was determined with human skin fibroblasts. Also, the extracts at 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mg/ml which showed no toxicity were tested for MMP-2 inhibition. The cold methanol extract of the old leaves showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents of 511.44 ± 18.23 μg GAE/mg and 262.96 ± 2.98 μg QE/mg, respectively. This extract also gave high free radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and tyrosinase inhibition activities with SC50, IPC50, and IC50 values of 0.02 ± 0.004, 0.23 ± 0.13, and 0.02 ± 0.006 mg/ml, respectively. The extract at 0.1 mg/ml exhibited the highest MMP-2 inhibition of 91.14 ± 1.67%. The anti-aging potential of the cold methanol extract from old leaves of Ma Kiang can be further developed as an anti-aging agent.

  1. Investigation of the Antiproliferative Properties of Natural Sesquiterpenes from Artemisia asiatica and Onopordum acanthium on HL-60 Cells in Vitro

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    Judit Molnár

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants and plant extracts play a crucial role in the research into novel antineoplastic agents. Four sesquiterpene lactones, artecanin (1, 3β-chloro-4α,10α-dihydroxy-1α,2α-epoxy-5α,7αH-guaia-11(13-en-12,6α-olide (2, iso-seco-tanapartholide 3-O-methyl ether (3 and 4β,15-dihydro-3-dehydrozaluzanin C (4, were isolated from two traditionally used Asteraceae species (Onopordum acanthium and Artemisia asiatica. When tested for antiproliferative action on HL-60 leukemia cells, these compounds exhibited reasonable IC50 values in the range 3.6–13.5 μM. Treatment with the tested compounds resulted in a cell cycle disturbance characterized by increases in the G1 and G2/M populations, while there was a decrease in the S phase. Additionally, 1–3 elicited increases in the hypodiploid (subG1 population. The compounds elicited concentration-dependent chromatin condensation and disruption of the membrane integrity, as revealed by Hoechst 33258–propidium staining. Treatment for 24 h resulted in significant increases in activity of caspases-3 and -9, indicating that the tested sesquiterpenes induced the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. The proapoptotic properties of the sesquiterpene lactones were additionally demonstrated withannexin V staining. Compounds 1 and 2 increased the Bax/Bcl-2 expression and decreased the expressions of CDK1 and cyclin B2, as determined at the mRNA level by means of RT-PCR. These experimental results indicate that sesquiterpene lactones may be regarded as potential starting structures for the development of novel anticancer agents.

  2. Chemical composition and anti-biofilm activity of Thymus sipyleus BOISS. subsp. sipyleus BOISS. var. davisianus RONNIGER essential oil.

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    Ceylan, Ozgur; Ugur, Aysel

    2015-06-01

    In this study, antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities and the chemical composition of Thymus sipyleus BOISS. subsp. sipyleus BOISS. var. davisianus RONNIGER essential oil was evaluated. The essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fourteen compounds were characterized, having as major components thymol (38.31%) and carvacrol (37.95%). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of oil and the major components were calculated by serial dilution method, and anti-biofilm effects by microplate biofilm assay against five Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus MU 38, MU 40, MU 46, MU 47, Stahylococcus epidermidis MU 30) and five Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa MU 187, MU 188, MU 189, Pseudomonas fluorescens MU 180, MU 181) bacteria. It was found that MICs for essential oil, thymol and carvacrol were between 5 and 50 µl/ml, 0.125-0.5 µg/ml and 0.125-05 µl/ml, respectively. The results showed that doses of MIC produced a greater anti-biofilm influence than 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 MIC. In the presence of essential oil (MIC), the mean biofilm formation value was equal to 67 ± 5.5% for P. aeruginosa MU 188, and essential oil (MIC) inhibition exceeds 60% for P. aeruginosa biofilms. The results also showed that carvacrol (MIC) was able to induce an inhibition 72.9 ± 4.1% for S.aureus (MU 40) biofilm. In addition, thymol (MIC) showed 68.6 ± 5.3% reduction in biofilm formation of P. fluorescens MU 181. This study demonstrated the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of T. sipyleus BOISS. subsp. sipyleus BOISS. var. davisianus RONNIGER essential oil and points out the exceptional efficiency of thymol and carvacrol, which could represent candidates in the treatment of Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus biofilms.

  3. In Vitro Propagation of Thymus sipyleus Boiss. (Lamiaceae)

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    ERDAĞ, Bengi BABA

    1999-01-01

    In vitro propagation of Thymus sipyleus Boiss. (Lamiaceae), an endemic from western Anatolia was investigated. Sterilized seeds of the plant were germinated on modified Murashige-Skoog medium (mMS) and Heller's nutrient media. Then, seedlings were transferred to Murashige-Skoog basal medium containing 0.4 mg/l Naphtaleneacetic acid, (NAA) and 3 mg/l Benzyladenin (BA) and then they formed callus where they were in contact with the medium. Plantlets which regenerated on the same medium...

  4. Isolation and characterisation of cytotoxic compounds from Euphorbia clementei Boiss.

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    Benmerache, Abbes; Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Labed, Amira; Kabouche, Ahmed; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Hubert, Jane; Morjani, Hamid; Kabouche, Zahia

    2017-09-01

    A new phorbol-type diterpene ester, 4,20-dideoxy-4α-phorbol-12β-acetate-13α-isobutyrate, in addition to 11 known compounds were isolated from the latex and roots of Euphorbia clementei Boiss. Structure elucidation was performed by comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses ((1)H and (13)C NMR, COSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC experiments), mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) and by comparison with literature data. The inhibitory activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated against promyelocytic leukemia HL60 and human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia K562 cell lines and seven of these compounds exhibited a weak cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 40 to 97 μM.

  5. Nepetalactone: a new opioid analgesic from Nepeta caesarea Boiss.

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    Aydin, S; Beis, R; Oztürk, Y; Baser, K H; Baser, C

    1998-07-01

    The essential oils of Nepeta species including Nepeta phyllochlamys P. H. Davis, N. nuda L. ssp. nuda, and N. caesarea Boiss. have been screened by use of the tail-flick and tail immersion (52.5 degrees C) methods. Of the species studied, only N. caesarea showed significant analgesic activity, besides marked sedation, which was also blocked by naloxone, indicating involvement of opioid receptors. Moreover, it was only active on mechanical, not thermal, algesic response which suggests specificity for specific opioid receptor subtypes, excluding mu-opioid receptors. Because 4a alpha,7alpha,7a alpha-nepetalactone is the main component of the essential oil of N. caesarea, and is present at very high levels (92-95%), it is concluded that 4a alpha,7alpha,7a alpha-nepetalactone is the active principle and has a specific opioid receptor subtype agonistic activity.

  6. Antibacterial effect and physicochemical properties of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour Amin; Enayat Kalantar; Neda Mohammad-Saeid; Behzad Ahsan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial effect and physicochemical properties of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. Methods:Antibacterial activity of essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss was assessed by agar disc diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) was tested by E test. Results:The essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss was effective on pathogenic bacteria particularly Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The MIC values of the target cultures ranged from 0.39 mg/mL to 1.56 mg/mL. The physicochemical properties like effects of pH, temperature, detergents, and enzymes on the activity of essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss were also determined. The essential oil was quite stable to temperature as tested against S. aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The essential oil was very stable over a wide range of pH. The antibacterial activity of essential oil was insensitive to various protein-denaturing detergents (Such as Tween 80, Tween 20, Triton 100, etc.) and enzymes (namely proteinase K, trypsin, lipase, and lysosyme). Conclusions:A potential use of the essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss is suggested. More studies including further purification, mass spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and evaluation of toxicity are needed for confirmation of this suggestion.

  7. [Determination of eight metal elements in Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet by microwave digestion-FAAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ling-Peng; Zhou, Xiao-Ying; Cui, Jian; Pang, Zong-Ran; Liu, Hong-Bing; Ge, Liang

    2009-12-01

    The Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet is a traditional Uighur natural herbal medicine, but has not been analyzed and studied in terms of its metal elements. In the experiment, the Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet powder was digested with HNO3 by microwave digestion before determination. The eight metal elements, potassium, nickel, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc, in Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet were determined by FAAS. The working conditions, accuracy and precision of the method were studied. The linear correlations of standard curves are good (r = 0.999 1-0.999 9). The recovery (n = 6) is 92.25%-110.5%, and the RSD (n = 6) is 0.7%-3.88%. The results showed that there were comparatively rich metal elements, among which are comparatively high calcium (65.84 mg x g(-1)), iron (24.38 mg x g(-1)), magnesium (278.17 mg x g(-1)) and potassium (18.50 mg x g(-1)), in Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet, and the contents of other elements are nickel of 0.004 38 mg x g(-1), manganese of 0.52 mg x g(-1), copper of 0.016 5 mg x g(-1) and zinc of 0.18 mg x g(-1). This provided useful data for discussing the relationship between the content of the metal elements in Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet and its clinical application in cardiovascular and osteoporosis disease.

  8. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using methanol and dichloromethane extracts of Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitsazi, Mohammad Reza; Korbekandi, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Bahri Najafi, Rahim; Badii, Akbar; Iravani, Siavash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to study the potential of Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. aerial parts in production of nanoparticles and the effect of the extraction solvent on the produced nanoparticles. Methanol and dichloromethane extracts were prepared by percolation of the plant powder. Both the extracts of P. gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. successfully produced small and polydispersed nanoparticles with low aggregates in early hours of the biotransformation. Methanol extract produced spherical and many single nanoparticles, whereas dichloromethane produced porous polyhedral and more aggregated nanoparticles. Methanol extract of this plant seems to be quiet useful for industrial scale production of nanoparticles.

  9. Essential oil composition of Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC.) Boiss. from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Ayşe Betül; Korkmaz, Mustafa; Özçelik, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the essential oil content and composition of Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC.) Boiss., a rare species spread in flora of Turkey. The samples were collected during the fructifying period of the plant from Erzincan, Turkey, at an altitude of 2430 m, in 2010. Essential oils were obtained from different parts of the plant such as fruits and herbal parts with Clevenger apparatus by hydro-distillation. Essential oil contents of the plant material were 0.38 ± 0.015%, 0.23 ± 0.012% and 0.21 ± 0.015% from fruits, herbal parts with fruits and herbal parts without fruits, respectively. Composition of essential oil was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oil of the herbal parts of the plant was dominated by fatty alcohols and aldehydes which accounted for 73.10% and 24.64%, respectively. Myristyl alcohol (1-tetradecanol) was identified as a major component of essential oil with an average content of 73.10%.

  10. Antimicrobial antioxidant daucane sesquiterpenes from Ferula hermonis Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheim, Zedan Zeid; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Dai, Huanqin; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Lixin; Jaspars, Marcel

    2012-04-01

    Seventeen daucane sesquiterpenoid esters, including a new one (4), were isolated from the root of Ferula hermonis Boiss. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and correlated with known compounds. The relative stereochemistry of the new compound was determined using 2D NOESY and the most stable and the lowest energy conformation was determined using molecular modelling. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by determination of MIC using the broth microdilution method against six bacterial strains and one fungal strain (Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Mycobacterium bovis BCG Pasteur, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 and Candida albicans SC5314). There was a significant indication that compounds 15, 16, 17 demonstrated potent activity against Gram +ve (S. aureus, B. subtilis), as well as Mycobacterium strains M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis H37Rv. None of the isolated compounds exhibited a significant antifungal activity. In the antioxidant study using the DPPH assay method, the highest radical scavenging activity was observed for compounds 15, 16, 17.

  11. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai Mohammed Farid; Sameh Reda Hussein; Lamiaa Fawzy Ibrahim; Mohammed Ali El Desouky; Amr Mohammed Elsayed; Ahmad Ali El Oqlah; Mahmoud Mohammed Saker

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the fractionated extract as well as isolated compounds of Arum palaestinum Boiss. (A. palaestinum) (black calla lily), and to identify the volatile components which may be responsible for the potential antitumor activity. Methods: A. palaestinum was collected from its natural habitats and subjected to phytochemical analysis for separation of pure compounds. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against four human carcinoma cell lines Hep2, HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7 for the fractionated extract and isolated compounds. While, the diethyl ether fraction was subjected to GC–MS analysis as it exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effect to evaluate the active constituents responsible for the cytotoxic activities. Results:Four flavonoid compounds were isolated (luteolin, chrysoeriol, isoorientin, isovitexin) from the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts and the pure isolated compounds showed a significant high antiproliferative activity against all investigated cell lines. The GC–MS analysis revealed the separation and identification of 15 compounds representing 95.01%of the extract and belonging to different groups of chemical compounds. Conclusions:The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition, chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  12. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai; Mohammed; Farid; Sameh; Reda; Hussein; Lamiaa; Fawzy; Ibrahim; Mohammed; Ali; El; Desouky; Amr; Mohammed; Elsayed; Ahmad; Ali; El; Oqlah; Mahmoud; Mohammed; Saker

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the fractionated extract as well as isolated compounds of Arum palaestinum Boiss.(A. palaestinum)(black calla lily), and to identify the volatile components which may be responsible for the potential antitumor activity.Methods: A. palaestinum was collected from its natural habitats and subjected to phytochemical analysis for separation of pure compounds. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against four human carcinoma cell lines Hep2, He La, Hep G2 and MCF7 for the fractionated extract and isolated compounds. While, the diethyl ether fraction was subjected to GC–MS analysis as it exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effect to evaluate the active constituents responsible for the cytotoxic activities.Results: Four flavonoid compounds were isolated(luteolin, chrysoeriol, isoorientin,isovitexin) from the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts and the pure isolated compounds showed a significant high antiproliferative activity against all investigated cell lines. The GC–MS analysis revealed the separation and identification of 15 compounds representing 95.01% of the extract and belonging to different groups of chemical compounds.Conclusions: The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition,chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  13. IS JASIONE HELDREICHII BOISS. ET ORPH. SYNONYM TO J. JANKAE NEILR.?

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    CIOCARLAN VASILE

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In the „Flora of Romania” Jasione jankae is presented as a synonym name at J. heldreichii Boiss. et Orph. After an analysis of some samples collected from the “locus classicus” (Mountain Trescovat, Banat, we are demonstrating that J. heldreichii and J. jankae are two separated plant species, point of view backed by Janka & Hayek.

  14. Ferula gummosa Boiss. Embryogenic culture and karyological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Françoise; Bazarnov, Hossein Shaker; Khatab, Leila Javadi; Darabi, Ahmad Shafiei; Sheidai, Massoud

    2007-06-15

    Ferula gummosa Boiss. a highly valuable medicinal plant which naturally propagates in very limited areas of the Middle East with specific environmental conditions. The production of Ferula gummosa somatic embryos and the karyological analysis of somatic seedlings were the purpose of this study. High frequency indirect embryogenesis was induced in callus derived from zygotic embryonic axes. Embryogenesis was obtained when callus tissues were placed onto an agar induction Murashige and Skoog medium with 1-naphthalene acetic acid and after the transfer of the cultures in a thermoperiod regime of 16 h, 19 degrees C/8 h, 7 degrees C under photoperiod of 16 h light/8h dark. Embryogenic callus tissues were maintained by subculture on induction medium. Globular proliferation was achieved with suspension culture in the Murashige and Skoog medium added with 1-naphthalene acetic acid or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid for two weeks. Maturation of embryos and development of plantlets arose on the induction agar medium, but was better after transfer into the hormone free Murashige and Skoog medium. However, the level of abnormal embryos was high. Direct embryogenesis was obtained from somatic seedlings. The best results were obtained from hypocotyl explants. Embryo induction was achieved by two week culture of the explants in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid liquid medium; somatic embryo growth and maturation was recovered on the hormone free medium. High level of abnormalities was recorded in the culture. Karyological analysis showed a high incidence level of cytochimerism in somatic seedlings with chromosome stickiness, polypoidy and aneuploidy in metaphase cells of the same root tip. The frequency of these karyological changes varied with the type of somatic embryos with regard to morphological abnormalities. Normal and abnormal rooted somatic seedlings were able to grow until production of the first leaf and then entered dormancy in the same manner as zygotic plantlets.

  15. Pharmacological characterization of Cirsium ligulare Boiss. (Asteraceae herb decoction

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    Dobrić Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Data on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of genus Cirsium Mill. (Asteraceae are scarce. Some data suggest that decoctions or infusions prepared from these plants are used in folk medicine as tonics, particularly in inflammatory, liver and stomach diseases. So far there have been no pharmacological investigations related to Cirsium ligulare (C. ligulare Boiss. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to estimate antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities of aqueous extracts of C. ligulare herb prepared as 5% and 10% decoctions. Methods. Antioxidative activity was determined using the method of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging. Investigations of anti-inflammatory (a model of systemic inflammatory response induced by endotoxin of Escherichia coli and carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model for local inflammatory response, as well as gastroprotective effects (a model of stress-ulcer induced by absolute ethanol, were conducted in adult female Wistar rats that were given the aqueous extracts of C. ligulare herb per os. Indomethacin and ranitidine were used as reference drugs for evaluation of local anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects, respectively. Results. The results demonstrated that aqueous extracts of C. ligulare herb produced strong antioxidative activity, diminished body weight loss induced by endotoxin, significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema, and prevented the ulcerogenic action of absolute ethanol. Both anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities of the extract tested were comparable to those of the reference drugs. Conclusion. Presented results justify the traditional use of C. ligulare herb decoctions and further phytochemical and pharmacological investigations are warranted. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173021

  16. Inhibitory effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil, alone and in combination with monolaurin, on Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Bektas TEPE; Kiani, Hossein; Khoshbakht, Rahem; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Tadrisi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is one of the major causes of infections in developing countries. In this study, chemical composition and anti-listerial effect of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. alone and in combination with monolaurin were evaluated at different pH values (5, 6, and 7) and temperatures (5 ˚C and 30 ˚C). Chemical composition of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration...

  17. Morphology of representatives of the tribe Coronilleae (Adans. Boiss. (Fabaceae from Ukrainian flora on early stages of ontogenesis

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    Nataliia I. Karpenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative investigations of the morphological peculiarities in 15 species of Coronilleae (Adans. Boiss. tribe (Fabaceae at early stages of their ontogenesis were carried out. The morphological descriptions of the young plants of all species studied were presented. The appropriateness of some taxonomic changes was shown, in particular the placement of Coronilla emeroides Boiss. et Sprun. into the genus Hippocrepis L. and Coronilla varia L., С. cretica L., C. elegans Panč. into the genus Securigera DC.

  18. Volatile Constituents of Different Plant Parts and Populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Vučković; Ljubodrag Vujisić; Marina Todosijević; Danijela Stešević; Slobodan Milosavljević; Sne žana Trifunović

    2014-01-01

    The volatile constituents of different plant parts and populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 12 samples were examined and 45 compounds were identified. The volatile content of different M. aurea populations was very similar, while the volatile fractions obtained from different plant parts showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The most abundant compounds fou...

  19. Characterization of Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. x Triticum aestivum L. hybrid lines

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    Roman Prażak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of four F5 and one BC1F1 Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. x Triticum aestivum L. hybrid lines was conducted to determine their quantitative morphological and qualitative features as well as a molecular investigation was carried out. Observations of ten quantitative traits showed that the F5 hybrid lines exhibited intermediate values between Ae. kotschyi Boiss. and T. aestivum L., or had similar traits to one of the parents. These hybrid lines had a significantly lower number and weight of grains per main spike, main spike fertility and 1000-grain weight than T. aestivum L. cv. ‘Rusałka’. The BC1F1 hybrid line was characterized by wheat-like fertility and phenotype. The F5 hybrid lines were characterized by much higher variability of the analysed morphological traits than T. aestivum L. cv. ‘Rusałka’. Grains of the hybrid lines had higher protein and micronutrient (iron and zinc content than wheat grains. The presence of DNA fragments specific to Ae. kotschyi Boiss. in the genotypes of the hybrid lines was confirmed by seven ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats molecular markers. Two ISSR markers – ISSR23690 and ISSR33650 – were the most effective for germplasm analysis of the hybrid lines. The analysed lines can become a source material for improvement of common wheat T. aestivum L. in crossing programs.

  20. The essential oil composition of aerial parts of Anthemis tricolor Boiss. from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaalp, C; Erel, S Baykan; Nalbantsoy, A; Gücel, S; Demirci, B; Baser, K H C

    2014-01-01

    The water-distilled essential oil from the aerial parts of Anthemis tricolor Boiss. (Asteraceae), an endemic taxon from Cyprus, was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The analysis revealed 40 compounds accounting for 84.5% of the oil. Muurola-4,11-diene (20.2%), β-caryophyllene (9.1%) and germacrene-D (5.5%) were the main compounds of A. tricolor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed study of the essential oil composition of A. tricolor collected from Cyprus.

  1. Hemijski sastav i antimikrobna aktivnost nekih sekundarnih metabolita biljaka Centaurea pannonica (Heuffel) Simonkai (Asteraceae) i Origanum scabrum Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević-Ifantis, Tanja S.

    2013-01-01

    Predmet doktorske disertacije je izolovanje i identifikacija sekundarnih metabolita iz ekstrakata nadzemnih delova biljaka Centaurea pannonica (Heuffel) Simonkai (Asteraceae) i Origanum scabrum Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiacea), kao i ispitivanje obima njihove antimikrobne aktivnosti i hemotaksonomski značaj. Takođe, predmet ispitivanja je hemijski sastav etarskog ulja Centaurea pannonica i antimikrobna aktivnost. Primenom hromatografskih metoda izolovanja jedinjenja i spektroskopskih metod...

  2. Acantholimon zakirovii Beshko (Sect. Staticopsis Boiss., Plumbaginaceae, a new species from north-western Pamir-Alay

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    N. Yu. Beshko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species Acantholimon zakirovii Beshko (section Staticopsis Boiss., Plumbaginaceae from Nuratau mountain ridge (North-Western Pamir-Alay, Uzbekistan is described. A morphological description is given. Differences from related species A. nuratavicum Zakirov, A. subavenaceum Lincz. and A. gontscharovii Czerniak. are discussed.

  3. Antioxidant activity of flower, stem and leaf extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss

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    Mohammad Nabavi, Seyed

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Antioxidant and antihemolytic activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of the flowers, stems and leaves of the Ferula gummosa Boiss were investigated employing different in vitro assay systems. Leaf extract showed better activity in DPPH radical scavenging. In addition it showed better activity in nitric oxide and H2O2 scavenging and Fe2+ chelating activity than the other parts. The extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system test but were not comparable with vitamin C (p2O2 induced hemolysis. Among the extracts, the flowers had higher phenolic and flavonoid contents. This plant is very promising for further biochemical experiments.La actividad antihemolítica y antioxidante de extractos hidroalcohólicos de flores, tallos y hojas de Ferula gummosa Boiss fueron investigados empleando diferentes ensayos in vitro. Los extractos de hojas mostraron una mejor actividad captadora de radicales libres. Además, mostraron una mejor actividad captadora de óxido nítrico y H2O2 y actividad quelatante de Fe2+ que las otras partes. Los extractos exhibieron una buena actividad antioxidante en el ensayo con ácido linoleico pero no comparable con la vitamina C (pF. gummosa mostraron una mejor actividad antihemolítica contra la hemolisis inducida con H2O2. Entre los extractos, las flores tienen los más altos contenidos de fenoles y flavonoides. Esta planta es muy prometedora para futuros experimentos bioquímicos.

  4. Phytochemical screening and biological activity of extracts of plant species Halacsya sendtneri (Boiss. Dörfl.

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    Mašković Pavle Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at examining total polyphenol, flavonoid, gallotannin and condensed tannins content in acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts of Halacsya sendtneri (Boiss. Dörfl., their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, as well as identifying and quantifying the phenolic components. The antioxidant activity is consistent with the results of total quantity of phenolic compound. The results showed that the acetone extract of plant species Halascya sendtneri (Boiss. Dörfl. possessed the highest antioxidant activity. IC50 values were determined: 9.45��1.55 μg/mL for DPPH free radical scavenging activity, 13.46±1.68 μg/mL for inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation, 59.11±0.83 μg/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and 27.91±0.88 μg/mL for ferrous ion chelating ability. The antimicrobial activity was tested using broth dilution procedure for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The MICs were determined for 8 selected indicator strains. All of the extracts showed strong to moderate strong antimicrobial activity. The phenolic composition of Halacsya sendtneri extracts was determined by the HPLC method. The dominant phenolic compound in acetone, chloroform and ethyl acetate extract is rosmarinic acid. Ethyl acetate extract was also abundant in p-hydroxybenzoic acid and ferulic acid. The main compounds in petrol ether extract were chlorogenic acid and quercetin.

  5. Enzymatic activity of the cellulolytic complex produced by Trichoderma reesei. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; Actividad enzimatica del complejo celulolitico producido por Trichoderma reesei. Hidrolisis enzimatica de la celulosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsel, M.; Negro, M. J.; Saez, R.; Martin, C.

    1986-07-01

    The enzymatic activity characterization of the cellulolytic complex obtained from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 and the influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolysis yield are studied. Pure cellulose and native or alkali pretreated biomass Onopordum nervosum have been used as substrates. The values of pH, temperature, substrate concentration and enzyme-substrate ratio for the optimum activity of that complex, evaluated as glucose and reducing sugars production, have been selected. Previous studies on enzymatic hydrolysis of 0. nervosum have shown a remarkable effect of the alkaline pretreatments on the final hydrolysis yield. (Author) 10 refs.

  6. Cytotaxonomy study of four populations of Astragalus anserinifolius Boiss. of section Malacothrix Bunge from Iran

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    Massoud Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, meiotic chromosome number and the behavior of four populations of Astragalus anserinifolius Boiss. of Astragalus sect. Malacothrix were studied. All wild populations were diploid and showed 2n=2x=16 chromosome number, consistent with the proposed base number of x=8 from IPCN. Although all taxa displayed regular bivalent pairing and chromosome segregation at meiosis, some meiotic abnormalities included varied degrees of fragmented and sticky chromosomes in metaphase I, polynucleate and a variable number of laggards, forwarded chromosomes and bridges in anaphase I/telophase I, asynchronous nucleus and precocious chromosome migration in metaphase II and laggards, bridges and cytomixis in anaphase II/telophase II were observed.

  7. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish steno-endemic Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (Lamiaceae

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    Süleyman Doğu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Origanum leptocladum Boiss. is an endemic East Mediterranean element, naturally growing only in Ermenek district of Karaman province in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine anatomical features of the species. The study materials were collected from Karaman-Ermenek in 2009 and then preserved in 70 % alcohol. O. leptocladum generally exhibits the anatomical feaures of the family Lamiaceae. Hovewer, herbaceaus stem is weakly-rectangle shaped or tends to be circular, the collenchymatic tissue at the corner of the stem and scleranchymatic pericycle around the vascular tissue are weakly-developed. The most striking anatomical feature is that leaf lamina is dorsiventral in the region near to midvein, but equifacial out of the midvein. According to the results, while the stomata are of mesomorphic type on the leaf surfaces, O. leptocladum has xeromorphic characters such as palisade richness in mesophyll, the occurrence of rich scleranchymatic tissue in midvein and cuticle thickness on leaf surface.

  8. Chemical Analysis of Essential oil of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss" by GC and GC/ MS

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    A. Nassir- Ahraadi . A. Rustaiyan

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil from the leaves and flowers of "Artemisia haussknechtii Boiss growing wild in the north-west of Iran, was investigated by GC and GC/MS."nThe main components of the volatile oil were 1,8 - cineol (16.5%, camphor (14.1%. artemisia ketone (10.5%, fragranol (9.0%, Yomogi alcohol (7.5% and B- pinene (5.4%. The total contribution of these compounds to the oil amounted to 63.0%."nMonoterpens and sesquiterpenes represent 90.08% and 1.52% of the oil respectively. Of the twenty oxygen-containing monoterpenes which made up a fairly large fraction of the terpenoid composition, the predominant components were 1,8 - cineole and camphor.

  9. Chemical and genetic relationships among sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) cultivars and Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böszörményi, Andrea; Héthelyi, Eva; Farkas, Agnes; Horváth, Györgyi; Papp, Nóra; Lemberkovics, Eva; Szoke, Eva

    2009-06-10

    The essential oil composition and genetic variability of common sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) and its three ornamental cultivars ('Purpurascens', 'Tricolor', and 'Kew Gold') as well as Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.) were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Common sage and its cultivars contained the same volatile compounds; only the ratio of compounds differed. The main compounds were the sesquiterpene alpha-humulene and the monoterpenes beta-pinene, eucalyptol, and camphor. Judean sage contained mainly the sesquiterpenes beta-cubebene and ledol. All of the samples exhibited characteristic RAPD patterns that allowed their identification. Cluster analyses based on oil composition and RAPD markers corresponded very well to each other, suggesting that there is a strong relationship between the chemical profile and the genetic variability.

  10. Antioxidant activity of flower, stem and leaf extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabavi, S. F.; Ebrahimzadeh, M. A.; Nabavi, S. M.; Eslami, B.

    2010-07-01

    The Antioxidant and anti hemolytic activities of hydro alcoholic extracts of the flowers, stems and leaves of the Ferula gummosa Boiss were investigated employing different in vitro assay systems. Leaf extract showed better activity in DPPH radical scavenging. In addition it showed better activity in nitric oxide and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} scavenging and Fe{sup 2}+ chelating activity than the other parts. The extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system test but were not comparable with vitamin C (p< 0.001). The extracts showed weak reducing power activity. The F. gummosa stem extract showed better anti hemolytic activity against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced hemolysis. Among the extracts, the flowers had higher phenolic and flavonoid contents. This plant is very promising for further biochemical experiments. (Author) 43 refs.

  11. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory potential and chemical constituents of Origanum dubium Boiss., growing wild in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioti, Anastasia; Milošević-Ifantis, Tanja; Pachopos, Nikitas; Niryiannaki, Niki; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Skaltsa, Helen

    2015-02-01

    Origanum dubium Boiss. is a flavouring herb widely used in Cyprus. In this study, both lipophilic and polar extracts of the aerial parts of O. dubium were investigated for their chemical contents and their antioxidant potential. Overall, 20 constituents were isolated and identified, belonging mainly to three significant classes of compounds: terpenes, phenolic derivatives, such as hydroquinone glycosides and flavonoids and alicyclic derivatives. None of them was previously reported as constituent of O. dubium The inhibitory potencies of all total extracts and the isolated compounds on lipid peroxidation and their interaction with 1,1-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity is discussed. The polar extract showed strong interaction with DPPH stable radical and significant inhibition of lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation.

  12. Isolation and Biological Activity of New and Known Diterpenoids From Sideritis stricta Boiss. & Heldr.

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    Turgut Kilic

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nine known and one new ent-kaurene diterpenoid were isolated from the acetone extract of Sideritis stricta Boiss & Heldr. The new compound, identified as ent-1β-hydroxy-7α-acetyl-15β,16β-epoxykaurane (1 by IR, 1D and 2D NMR techniques and mass spectra, was isolated along with sideroxol (2, 7-acetyl sideroxol (3, 7-epicandicandiol (4, linearol (5, ent-7α,15β,18-trihydroxy-kaur-16-ene (6, ent-7α-acetyl,15,18-dihydroxy-kaur-16-ene (7, foliol (8, sideridiol (9 and siderol (10. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of these compounds and the whole crude acetone extract were evaluated against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumeonia and C. albicans.

  13. Incorporating Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil and sodium bentonite nano-clay open a new perspective to use zein films as bioactive packaging materials.

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    Kashiri, Mahboobeh; Maghsoudlo, Yahya; Khomeiri, Morteza

    2017-10-01

    Active zein films with different levels of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil were produced successfully. To enhance properties of this biopolymer for food packaging applications, sodium bentonite clay was used at two levels (2 and 4%). The results indicated that the addition of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil caused a reduction in tensile strength and Young's modulus and slight increase in the percent of elongation at break of the films. Maximum solubility in water and water vapor permeability was observed by incorporation of 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in the zein matrix. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs of zein film were verified by the exfoliation of the layers of sodium bentonite clay in the zein matrix. Stronger films with lower water vapor permeability and water solubility were evident of good distribution of sodium bentonite clay in the zein matrix. According to the results, 2% sodium bentonite clay was selected for evaluation of nano active film properties. Water vapor permeability, UV light barrier, tensile strength, and Young's modulus values of active films were improved by incorporation of 2% sodium bentonite clay. The antibacterial activity of different contents of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in vapor phase demonstrated that use of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in the liquid phase was more effective than in vapor phase. The antibacterial zein-based films showed that active zein film with 5 and 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil had reductions of 1.68 log and 2.99 log, respectively, against Listeria monocytogenes and 1.39 and 3.07 log against Escherichia coli. Nano active zein film containing 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil and 2% sodium bentonite clay showed better antibacterial properties against L. monocytogenes (3.23 log) and E. coli (3.17 log).

  14. Composition of the essential oil of leaves, galls, and ripe and unripe fruits of Jordanian Pistacia palaestina Boiss.

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    Flamini, Guido; Bader, Ammar; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Katbeh-Bader, Ahmad; Morelli, Ivano

    2004-02-11

    Pistacia palaestina Boiss. (Pistacia terebinthus L. var. palaestina (Boiss.) Engl.) is a medicinal and foodstuff plant. The ripe fruits are used largely in the Middle East as a component of the so-called Zaatar, a mix of aromatic and food plants. Results of GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oils of leaves, galls produced by Baizongia pistaciae (L.), and ripe and unripe fruits of Pistacia palaestinaBoiss. collected in Jordan are reported. Both qualitative and quantitative differences between different parts of the plant were observed. The oil was rich in monoterpenes, and the main constituents were alpha-pinene (63.1%) and myrcene (13.3%) in the leaves and alpha-pinene (49.4%), sabinene (22.8%), and limonene (8.1%) in the galls. (E)-Ocimene (33.8-41.3%), sabinene (20.3-24.1%), and (Z)-ocimene (3.8-13.0%) were the main ones in both unripe and ripe fruits. Sesquiterpenes have been detected in small quantities in leaves and fruits and in trace amounts in galls.

  15. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities of Allium hirtifolium Boiss

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    Salmiah Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium hirtifolium Boiss. known as Persian shallot, is a spice used as a traditional medicine in Iran and, Mediterranean region. In this study, the chemical composition of the hydromethanolic extract of this plant was analyzed using GC/MS. The result showed that 9-hexadecenoic acid, 11,14-eicosadienoic acid, and n-hexadecanoic acid are the main constituents. The antibacterial activity of the shallot extract was also examined by disk diffusion and microdilution broth assays. It was demonstrated that Persian shallot hydromethanolic extract was effective against 10 different species of pathogenic bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Specifically, the minimum concentration of the extract which inhibited bacterial growth (MIC values was 1.88 mg/mL for most of the gram-positive bacteria. This concentration was not much different from the concentration that was safe for mammalian cells (1.50 mg/mL suggesting that the hydromethanolic extract of Persian shallot may be a safe and strong antibacterial agent.

  16. Evaluation of the anxiolytic effect of Nepeta persica Boiss. in mice

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    Sajjadi, S. E.; Mohammadi, A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of Nepeta persica Boiss. (Lamiaceae) on the elevated plus-maze (EPM) model of anxiety. The extract of arial parts of the plant was administered intraperitoneally to male NMRI mice, at various doses, 30 min before behavioural evaluation. The HE extract of N. persica at the dose of 50 mg kg−1 significantly increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the EPM. This dose of plant extract affected neither animal's locomotor activity nor ketamine-induced sleeping time. The 50 mg kg−1 dose of the plant extract seemed to be the optimal dose in producing the anxiolytic effects, lower or higher doses of the plant produce either sedative or stimulant effects. At 100 mg kg−1, the plant extract increased the locomotor activity. These results suggested that the extract of N. persica at dose of 50 mg kg−1 possess anxiolytic effect with less sedative and hypnotic effects than that of diazepam and causes a non-specific stimulation at 100 mg kg−1. PMID:18604252

  17. Developmental instability and plant potential fitness in a Mediterranean perennial plant, Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss

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    Fungairiño, S. G.; Fernández, C.; Serrano, J. M.; López, F.; Acosta, F. J.

    2005-02-01

    Developmental instability is manifested as developmental errors reflected in exaggerated intra-individual variation in repeated traits and patterns. Plants, as organisms with modular construction, are very suitable subjects for detecting developmental instability caused by environmental disturbance. The analysis of the asymmetry of plant structural traits allows for determination of deviations from the basic structural pattern, which is a measure of plant developmental instability. In this paper, we study the relationship between intra-individual variations on self-similar structural traits (as a measure of developmental instability) and plant potential fitness. Randomly-selected branches (composed of branch segments) were monitored on different plants of a natural population of the woody perennial plant Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss. Data on the morphology and the demographic processes that occurred during plant development (determined from marks left on the persistent structure of the plant) were recorded on the different branches. Different measures of developmental instability were analysed and related with plant potential fitness, which was estimated from the demographic data of the modules of each plant (bud development, branch survival, etc). Our results show a direct relationship between developmental instability measured on structural traits (except for branch segment diameter) and plant potential fitness, estimated by means of branch survival.

  18. Volatile Constituents of Different Plant Parts and Populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro

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    Ivan Vučković

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of different plant parts and populations of Malabaila aurea Boiss. from Montenegro were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 12 samples were examined and 45 compounds were identified. The volatile content of different M. aurea populations was very similar, while the volatile fractions obtained from different plant parts showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences. The most abundant compounds found in stems & leaves were apiole (51.0-56.3%, myristicin (16.3-25.4%, and falcarinol (4.1-10.7%. The roots showed the same major components, but with different relative abundances: 30.9-49.1% of apiole, 12.9-34.7% of falcarinol, and 9.9-31.1% of myristicin. The volatile constituents of fruits & flowers were remarkably different, containing up to 71.2-80.5% octyl butyrate, 11.4-18.0% octanol, and 2.7-6.8% octyl hexanoate. The results were discussed as possible indication of relatedness of Malabaila aurea and Pastinacasativa (parsnip .

  19. Benefits of Zataria multiflora Boiss in Experimental Model of Mouse Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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    Leila Ashtaral Nakhai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic condition of the intestine with unknown etiology involving multiple immune, genetic and environmental factors. We were interested to examine the effect of total extract from Zataria multiflora Boiss, a folk medicinal plant on prevention and treatment of experimental IBD. Z. multiflora was administered (400, 600, 900 p.p.m. through drinking water to IBD mice induced by intrarectal administration of acetic acid. Prednisolone was used as the standard drug for comparison. Biochemical, macroscopic and microscopic examinations of colon were performed. Biochemical evaluation of inflamed colon was done using assay of myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS concentration as indicators of free radical activity and cell lipid peroxidation. The activity of MPO and lipid peroxidation products (TBARS increased in acetic acid-treated groups while recovered by pretreatment of animals with Z. multiflora (400–900 p.p.m. and prednisolone. Z. multiflora (600 and 900 p.p.m. and prednisolone-treated groups showed significantly lower score values of macroscopic and microscopic characters when compared with the acetic acid-treated group. The beneficial effect of Z. multiflora (900 p.p.m. was comparable with that of prednisolone. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory potentials of Z. multiflora might be the mechanisms by which this herbal extract protects animals against experimentally induced IBD. Proper clinical investigation should be carried out to confirm the activity in human.

  20. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities of the Essential oil of Origanum rotundifolium Boiss. from Turkey

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    Hilal Özbek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Origanum rotundifolium Boiss. Its chemical content and composition were analyzed by using a gas chromatography (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Total phenolic content of the essential oil was determined as 132.39 µg gallic acid equivalent by Folin–Ciocalteu’s method and the major component was identified as carvacrol (56.8 % along with p-cymene (13.1 %, (Z- b -ocimene (5.4 %, b -caryophyllene (3.9 %, borneol (3.4 % and thymol (3.2 %. After chemical characterization, the essential oil was evaluated for its antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical, superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities as well as ferrous ion-chelating power test, ABTS radical cation decolorization assay and ferric thiocyanate methods. Besides antioxidant activity, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of the essential oil were also evaluated by Ellman’s method. It demonstrated inhibitory activities on AChE and BuChE, key enzymes in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, in addition to significant antioxidant activity.

  1. On the distribution and intraspecific taxonomy of Scrophularia olympica Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae

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    M. B. Sheludyakova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the distribution and intraspecific systematics of Scrophularia olympica Boiss., one of taxonomically problematic species of figworts. The special attention is given to the record of thisspecies from the Crimea from where it had been reported based on the single herbarium specimen collected “infra Baidara” by F. J. Ruprecht in 1861. This collection was previously regarded as made near the village of Orlinoye (former Baydary in the vicinity of Sevastopol. Actually, the locality “infra Baidara” should be referred to the river Baydara in Georgia, and S. olympica should be excludedboth from the floras of the Crimea and Europe as a whole. Six varieties are recognized within the species; a key to their identification is proposed. Lectotypes of S. olympica var. integrifolia Freyn et Sint., S. olympica var. macrophylla Freyn et Sint., S. olympica var. pinnatifida Trautv. ex Grossh. and S. olympica var. platyloma Grossh. are designated. A new name, S. olympica var. bordzilowskii Sheludyakova, nom. nov. ≡ S. olympica var. integrifoliaBordz., non Freyn et Sint., is proposed.

  2. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils as two natural preservatives in cake

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    Habibe Kordsardouei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss.(ZMEO and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. Materials and Methods:The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Results: Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm and the control. Conclusion: Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs.

  3. Chemical constituents of essential oil of Dracocephalum moldavica L. and Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. from Iran

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    Ahmad Reza GOLPARVAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum moldavica L. and Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. are aromatic plants belonging to Lamiaceae family. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical components of D. kotschyi and D. moldavica from Iran. The aerial parts of D. kotschyi were collected from (Kamu Mountain Isfahan province and the aerial parts of D. moldavica were collected from Sari (Mazandaran province North of Iran, during 2014. The essential oil was extracted by a Clevenger approach and analyzed using GC/MS. In total, 32 and 24 compounds were identified in the essential oil from the aerial parts D. kotschyi and D. moldavica, respectively. The results obtained in our study indicated that the major components in the oil D. kotschyi were limonene (23.56 %, carvacrol (14.65 %, γ-terpinene (12.99 %, α -pinene (12.62 %, 2-methyl-1-octen-3-yne (9.73 %, camphene (4.66 %, myrcene (3.65 % and α -terpinene (3.12 %. The major constituents of the oil D. moldavica were geranyl acetate (36.62 %, geraniol (24.31 %, neral (16.25 % and geranial (11.21 %. D. kotschyi is one of the important sources of limonene and D. moldavica is one of the important sources of geranyl acetate.

  4. Control of Three Stored−Product Beetles with Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae Essential Oil

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    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of aerial parts from Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae was investigated against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab., the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L., and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Dry ground plants were subjected to hydro−distillation using a Clevenger−type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was studied by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS. The major components of the oil were camphor (29.24%, 1, 8−cineol (27.62%, yomogi alcohol (5.23%, and camphene (4.80%. The essential oil in same concentrations was assayed against (1−7 days old adults of insect species and percentage mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. LC50 values were varied between 19.84 and 103.59 μL L-1 air, depending on insect species and exposure time. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than other species. These results suggested that A. haussknechtii oil might have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.

  5. Cytotoxicity effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. on two human colon carcinoma cell lines

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    F. Sharififar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Natural products are one of the major sources for investigations of novel medicines. Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZM has shown pharmacological activities especially in gastrointestinal tract; however, there are limited studies about its cytotoxicity effects. In this study, the effect of Zataria multiflora was examined on two colon cancer cell lines (SW-48 and HT-29. Methods: Hydro-alcoholic extract of ZM and its fractions including chloroform, petroleum ether and methanol extract were prepared by warm maceration method. Different concentrations were prepared and examined on SW-48 and HT-29 cell lines using 2-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl 2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results: The results of the present study have shown the cytotoxic effect of some fractions of ZM. The most considerable cytotoxic effect was shown against HT-29 cell line. Also, total ZM extract and the petroleum ether fraction demonstrated cytotoxic effects with IC50 values of 44.22 and 33.42 µg/ml on SW-48 and HT-29 cell lines, respectively. Conclusion: Zataria multiflora was cytotoxic to against colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and SW-48.

  6. Glucosinolate Profile of Croatian Stenoendemic Plant Fibigia triquetra (DC. Boiss. ex Prantl.

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    Ivica Blažević

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of our ongoing investigation of the stenoendemic plants belonging to the Brassicaceae family, we report on the chemistry of Fibigia triquetra (DC. Boiss. ex Prantl for the first time. Different plant parts (flower, leaf, stem, and seed of F. triquetra were characterized and quantified for glucosinolates (GLs according to the ISO 9167-1 EU official method based on the HPLC analysis of desulfo-GLs. A taxonomic screening showed that F. triquetra contained relatively high levels of C-4 GLs, namely but-3-enyl GL (gluconapin, 1a, 4-methylsulfanylbutyl GL (glucoerucin, 3a, and 4-methylsulfinylbutyl GL (glucoraphanin, 5a. GC-MS analysis of the volatile fractions obtained after enzyme hydrolysis and/or HPLC-ESI-MS of intact GLs confirmed the GL profile. Four minor GLs, namely isopropyl GL (glucoputranjivin, 6a, sec-butyl GL (glucocochlearin, 7a, pent-4-enyl GL (glucobrassicanapin, 2a, and 5-methylsulfanylpentyl GL (glucoberteroin, 4a were also identified and quantified while 4-methylpentyl GL, 5-methylhexyl GL, and n-heptyl GL, were tentatively identified by GC-MS of their degradation products. Based on the major, as well as the minor GLs, this study shows differences in chemotaxonomy between F. triquetra and the related Degenia velebitica (Degen Hayek as well as other investigated species of the genus Fibigia.

  7. Evaluation of the Anxiolytic Effect of Nepeta persica Boiss. in Mice

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    M. Rabbani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of hydroalcoholic extract (HE of Nepeta persica Boiss. (Lamiaceae on the elevated plus-maze (EPM model of anxiety. The extract of arial parts of the plant was administered intraperitoneally to male NMRI mice, at various doses, 30 min before behavioural evaluation. The HE extract of N. persica at the dose of 50 mg kg−1 significantly increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the EPM. This dose of plant extract affected neither animal's locomotor activity nor ketamine-induced sleeping time. The 50 mg kg−1 dose of the plant extract seemed to be the optimal dose in producing the anxiolytic effects, lower or higher doses of the plant produce either sedative or stimulant effects. At 100 mg kg−1, the plant extract increased the locomotor activity. These results suggested that the extract of N. persica at dose of 50 mg kg−1 possess anxiolytic effect with less sedative and hypnotic effects than that of diazepam and causes a non-specific stimulation at 100 mg kg−1.

  8. Antibacterial, anti-fungal and phytotoxic activities of Ferula narthex Boiss.

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    Bashir, Shumaila; Alam, Mahboob; Ahmad, Bashir; Aman, Akhtar

    2014-11-01

    Crude methanolic extract of roots, aerial parts and its subsequent fractions of Ferula narthex Boiss were tested for antibacterial, anti-fungal and phytotoxic activities. Crude methanolic extract of roots and its fractions showed significant antibacterial effect against P.aeruginosa (86.95%, 73.91, 69.59, 78.26 & 73.91%) represented by percent inhibition except ethyl acetate (EtoAc) fraction. The EtoAc fraction of roots and aerial parts showed significant activity against E. coli (80%), S. typhi (81.2 & 81.25%) and S. pneumoniae (80%). The n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous fractions of aerial parts showed significant activity against P. aeruginosa (78.26, 69.56 & 73.91%). Following fungal strains (T. longifusus, C. albicans, A. flavus, M. canis, F. solani, C. glabrata) were also used for anti-fungal activity. Among tested samples only crude methanol extract of roots, n-hexane and chloroform fraction showed moderate anti-fungal activity against M. canis (40, 35 & 30%) represented by percent inhibition. The remaining fractions showed no effect on tested fungi. Different oils fractions were also tested against above fungal strains. Fraction I, II & V showed mild to moderate activity against M. canis (40, 40 & 25%). Phytotoxic effect of tested samples of roots, aerial part and its fractions showed concentration dependent growth inhibition. Maximum phytotoxic effect was noted for n-hexane and aqueous fraction (50% growth inhibition). The remaining tested samples showed mild effect on growth of Lemna minor plant.

  9. Anatomical and Phytochemical Study of Lilium ledebourii (Baker Boiss., a Rare Endemic Species in Iran

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    "Hassan Farsam

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Lilium ledebourii (Baker Boiss.(Liliaceae, locally named “Susan -e Chelcheragh” is a native and rare species grown on the heights of Damash region (ca. 2100 m in Gilan province, north part of Iran.The microscopic and anatomical features and the composition of oils of flower and corm of this unique plant were studied. The microscopic study has shown the main characteristic elements of leaf, stem, corm and flower of this plant. The composition of essential oils of flower and corm were determined by coupled GC-MS analysis. The yields of oils of flower and corm were 0.71 % and 1.65 % (v/w respectively. The major components of flower’s oil were isopulegol (55.15 %, pentacosane (18.1%, 3-methyltricosane (9.97%, tricosane (5.35%, 2-methylpentacosane (4.35%, docosane (4.28% and linalool oxide (2.20%. The components of corm’s oil were almost fatty acids. No aromatic volatile compound was found in the corm oil. Primary qualitative phytochemical tests of stem, leaf, corm and flower showed positive results for alkaloid and flavonoid (one plus in stem and for saponin (4 plus in corm and (2 plus in the flower. Tests for tannin in all parts were negative. Further phytochemical and botanical studies on this unique plant is of importance.

  10. Traditional uses, chemical composition and biological activities of Sideritis raeseri Boiss. & Heldr.

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    Romanucci, Valeria; Di Fabio, Giovanni; D'Alonzo, Daniele; Guaragna, Annalisa; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando

    2017-01-01

    Sideritis species have been used in folk medicine for their antimicrobial, antiulcerogenic, digestive and anti-inflammatory properties. Over the years, the phytochemistry of the genus Sideritis has been studied, and various terpenoids, sterols, coumarins and especially flavonoid aglycones and glycosides have been identified. In particular, species from the Balkan Peninsula have been studied and were found to be rich in flavonoids, with valuable antioxidant activity. In the folk medicine of the Balkan countries, Sideritis raeseri is used as a herbal tea in the treatment of inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders and coughs, and also as a tonic, whereas extracts are used as a component of dietary supplements for anaemia. Its dried inflorescences are used to prepare a beverage called 'mountain tea'. In light of the considerable interest generated in the chemistry, pharmacological properties and commercial value of S. raeseri Boiss. & Heldr., we review and summarise the available literature on these plants. The review details the chemical composition of the essential oil, its mineral and polyphenol contents, the naming of these plants and their physicochemical characterisation, and the nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data and biological properties associated with the plant extracts, with a focus on their potential chemotherapeutic applications. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil on colony morphology and ultrastructure of Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandomi, Hassan; Misaghi, Ali; Basti, Afshin Akhondzadeh; Hamedi, Hassan; Shirvani, Zahra Ramezani

    2011-09-01

    The mode of inhibitory action of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil (EO) on the fungus, Aspergillus flavus, was studied by colony morphology examination, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The EO at concentrations used in this study suppressed the size of the colony as well as sporulation. SEM of mycelia treated with given concentrations of EO showed morphological alterations ranging from loss of turgidity and uniformity of mycelia at low concentrations of EO to evident destruction of the hyphae at higher concentration of EO. Semi-thin sections of mycelia exposed to different concentrations of EO were analysed by light microscopy and revealed that the major change at level as low as 50 ppm of EO was limited to vacuolisation of cytoplasm resulting in cell swelling, while at higher concentrations, detachment of the cell membrane from the cell wall, deformation of mycelia and shedding the cytoplasm from the cell were the main alterations. These damages were well documented by TEM, which showed that the main sites of action of EO were the plasma membrane and cell wall. In conclusion, morphological and structural changes observed in this study may be one of the mechanisms involved in growth inhibition of the fungi and reducing aflatoxin production.

  12. [The use of RAPD and ITE molecular markers to study genetical structure of the Crimean population of Triticum boeoticum Boiss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallabaeva, D Sh; Ignatov, A N; Sheĭko, I A; Isikov, V P; Geliuta, V P; Boĭko, N G; Seriapin, A A; Dorokhov, D B

    2007-01-01

    Wild wheat Triticum boeoticum Boiss. is the rare species are included in the Red Book of Ukraine. This species are reducing the magnitude of population and the area of distribution under anthropogenic activity. We studied genetic structure of two populations of T. boeoticum, located on Sapun Mountain and in Baidar Valley in Crimea. According RAPD and ITE molecular analysis we have estimated that the population of T. boeoticum on Sapun Mountain is genetically more impoverished than a population from the Baidar Valley. For preservation of maximal natural genetic polymorphism of the rare species it is recommended to direct efforts to preservations of a population of T. boeoticum from the Baidar Valley.

  13. The evaluation of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil effect on biogenic amines formation and microbiological profile in Gouda cheese.

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    Es'haghi Gorji, M; Noori, N; Nabizadeh Nodehi, R; Jahed Khaniki, G; Rastkari, Noushin; Alimohammadi, M

    2014-12-01

    The effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (Z. multiflora) essential oils (EO) on biogenic amines (BAs) production and microbial counts in Gouda cheese has been investigated. Zataria multiflora was added to milk in different concentrations (0·05, 0·1, 0·2 and 0·4% (v/v)). The BAs (tyramine and histamine) were measured by RP-HPLC, following extraction from the cheese. Various microbiological analyses (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, enterococci, mesophilic lactobacilli, Enterobacteriaceae, lactococci and yeasts) were performed during ripening using the viable plate count method on specific culture media. The overall acceptability of cheeses was investigated by seven panellists. All the samples containing different concentrations of EO were acceptable to the panellists. Also, Gouda cheeses with 0·2% Z. multiflora EO showed the highest acceptability among all the samples. At the end of maturation period, 0·1, 0·2 and 0·4% Z. multiflora EO reduced tyramine and histamine significantly to 5%, 22% and 44% for tyramine and 14%, 29% and 46% for histamine, respectively, when compared to the control group. The increase of Z. multiflora EO concentrations led to further decrease in BAs content and microbial counts. The maximum microbiological reduction was observed in yeasts, and minimum microbiological reduction was seen in Enterobacteriaceae counts. Zataria multiflora EO could be used for reduction of BAs and also as a flavouring agent in Gouda cheese and could contribute to consumers' health. The presence of biogenic amines in cheese has a serious impact on public health. Besides, there is growing concern about the use of chemical preservatives and the food industry is looking for new natural preservation methods. Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil is well known for its antimicrobial effects, and we attempted to reduce biogenic amines formation in Gouda cheese using Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil as a natural additive. Furthermore, the desirable organoleptic

  14. Pre-sowing treatment for breaking dormancy in Acer velutinum Boiss.seed lots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mostafa Farhadi; Mulualem Tigabu; Alireza Ghasemi Arian; Mehdi Sharifani; Abolfazl Daneshvar; Per Christer Oden

    2013-01-01

    Acer velutinum Boiss is a valuable tree species native to Iran,and its seeds possess physiological dormancy that hampers seedling production in the nursery for large-scale reforestation efforts.The aim of this study was to determine the optimal dormancy breaking treatments for A.velutinum seeds.We conducted a factorial experiment involving six seed lots collected along an elevation gradient from 300 to 1800 m at 300 m interval and four cold-moist stratification periods (0,4,8 and 16 weeks) at 4℃ and 70% relative humidity.The result shows that the germination of cold-moist stratified seeds was significantly (p < 0.0001)higher than the control for all seed lots.The highest germination capacity was recorded after 16 weeks of cold-moist stratification for all seed lots (68%-88% depending on the seed lot) except those collected from mid altitude sites (600 and 900 m) that germinated equally well (≥ 75%) after 4-and 8-week of clod-moist stratification compared to the other seed lots.The mean germination time was significantly shorter (12 to 19 days,depending on the seed lot) for seeds stratified for 16 weeks than for untreated seeds.It can be concluded that:(1) cold-moist stratification for 16 weeks is the best pre-sowing treatment for breaking dormancy in A.velutinum seeds; and (2) seeds should be collected from mid altitude sites (600 and 900 m) to get more than 80% germination within 15 days,and these seed lots even required shorter cold-moist stratification period (eight weeks) than other seed lots.

  15. Antidiarrhoeal assessment of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. and apigenin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Shahverdi, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss, a member of Labiatae family, is a native plant to Iran, which has been reported to have immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic and antispasmodic activities. The objective of this research was to study the antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal activities of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi in mice. Furthermore, the antidiarrhoeal and antispasmodic effect of apigenin, a flavonoid constituent of D. kotschyi, was also studied. Hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts were obtained from aerial part of D. kotschyi using percolation method. Antispasmodic effect of the test compounds was assessed by measurement of small intestine transit following oral administration of a charcoal meal. Diarrhoea was induced by administration of either castor oil (0.5 ml) or magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) (10% w/v solution). Both the hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi (10 and 20 mg/kg) reduced the intestinal charcoal meal transit. Loperamide (2 mg/kg) and apigenin (2 and 10 mg/kg) inhibited intestinal movement of the charcoal meal and also inhibited castor oil and MgSO4-induced diarrhoea. The hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi (10 and 20 mg/kg) also significantly inhibited the castor oil and MgSO4-induced diarrhoea in mice in comparison with the vehicle-treated control groups. This study confirms that both the hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi has antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal properties in vivo and could be a suitable remedy for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in which smooth muscle spasm and/or diarrhoea plays a significant roles.

  16. Comparison of antispasmodic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. in rat uterus and ileum

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    Hassan Sadraei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. is a traditional medicine with antispasmodic activities. The objective of this research was to study antispasmodic activities of hydroalcoholic extract of D. kotschyi on rat isolated uterus contractions for comparison with isolated ileum. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained from aerial part of D. kotschyi using percolation method. A portion of rat ileum or uterus was suspended in Tyrode′s solution at 37 °C and gassed with O 2 . Effect of D. kotschyi extract was assessed on ileum or uterus contractions induced by KCl (80 mM, acetylcholine (ACh, 500 nM, electrical field stimulation (EFS or oxytocin (0.0005 IU/mL. The extract of D. kotschyi concentration-dependently inhibited ileum responses to KCl (IC 50 = 65 ± 18 μg/mL, ACh (IC 50 = 102 ± 18 μg/mL and EFS (IC 50 = 117 ± 29 μg/mL. The extract of D. kotschyi also concentration-dependently inhibited uterus responses to KCl (IC 50 = 453 ± 64μg/mL, ACh (IC 50 = 58 ± 9 μg/mL, EFS (IC 50 = 22 ± 3 μg/mL as well as oxytocin (IC 50 = 70 ± 11 μg/mL. From this experiment it was concluded that D. kotschyi extract possesses antispasmodic activities on both smooth muscle of ileum and uterus. In comparison, the extract was more effective inhibitor of ACh and EFS responses in rat uterus than on the ileum. On the other hand, the extract was a more potent inhibitor of KCl response on rat ileum. However, the extract was found to be a potent inhibitor of oxytocin-induced contraction of rat uterus. These results indicate that D. kotschyi extract may contain components that might be useful lead compounds for prevention of uterus spasm.

  17. Comparison of antispasmodic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. in rat uterus and ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alinejad, Mahla

    2016-07-01

    Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. is a traditional medicine with antispasmodic activities. The objective of this research was to study antispasmodic activities of hydroalcoholic extract of D. kotschyi on rat isolated uterus contractions for comparison with isolated ileum. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained from aerial part of D. kotschyi using percolation method. A portion of rat ileum or uterus was suspended in Tyrode's solution at 37°C and gassed with O2. Effect of D. kotschyi extract was assessed on ileum or uterus contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 500 nM), electrical field stimulation (EFS) or oxytocin (0.0005 IU/mL). The extract of D. kotschyi concentration-dependently inhibited ileum responses to KCl (IC50 = 65 ± 18 μg/mL), ACh (IC50 = 102 ± 18 μg/mL) and EFS (IC50 = 117 ± 29 μg/mL). The extract of D. kotschyi also concentration-dependently inhibited uterus responses to KCl (IC50 = 453 ± 64μg/mL), ACh (IC50 = 58 ± 9 μg/mL), EFS (IC50 = 22 ± 3 μg/mL) as well as oxytocin (IC50 = 70 ± 11 μg/mL). From this experiment it was concluded that D. kotschyi extract possesses antispasmodic activities on both smooth muscle of ileum and uterus. In comparison, the extract was more effective inhibitor of ACh and EFS responses in rat uterus than on the ileum. On the other hand, the extract was a more potent inhibitor of KCl response on rat ileum. However, the extract was found to be a potent inhibitor of oxytocin-induced contraction of rat uterus. These results indicate that D. kotschyi extract may contain components that might be useful lead compounds for prevention of uterus spasm.

  18. Antidiarrhoeal assessment of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. and apigenin in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sadraei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss, a member of Labiatae family, is a native plant to Iran, which has been reported to have immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic and antispasmodic activities. The objective of this research was to study the antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal activities of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi in mice. Furthermore, the antidiarrhoeal and antispasmodic effect of apigenin, a flavonoid constituent of D. kotschyi, was also studied. Hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts were obtained from aerial part of D. kotschyi using percolation method. Antispasmodic effect of the test compounds was assessed by measurement of small intestine transit following oral administration of a charcoal meal. Diarrhoea was induced by administration of either castor oil (0.5 ml or magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 (10% w/v solution. Both the hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi (10 and 20 mg/kg reduced the intestinal charcoal meal transit. Loperamide (2 mg/kg and apigenin (2 and 10 mg/kg inhibited intestinal movement of the charcoal meal and also inhibited castor oil and MgSO4-induced diarrhoea. The hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi (10 and 20 mg/kg also significantly inhibited the castor oil and MgSO4-induced diarrhoea in mice in comparison with the vehicle-treated control groups. This study confirms that both the hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of D. kotschyi has antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal properties in vivo and could be a suitable remedy for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in which smooth muscle spasm and/or diarrhoea plays a significant roles.

  19. Efficacy of the Bunium persicum (Boiss Essential Oil against Acute Toxoplasmosis in Mice Model

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    Amir TAVAKOLI KARESHK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We evaluated the in vivo activity of Bunium persicum (Boiss essential oil on infected mice with acute toxoplasmosis.Methods: To evaluate prophylactic effects, male NMRI mice received B. persicum essential oil at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 mL/kg for 14 days. After 24 h mice were infected intraperitonealy with 1×104 tachyzoites of T. gondii, RH strain. In order to investigate therapeutic effects, mice were infected and then received B. persicum oil at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 ml/kg two times a day for 5 days. The time/mean time of death in all infected mice and the number of tachyzoites from infected mice were recorded.Results: The time/mean time of death of infected mice was 8 and 9 days after oral administration of B. persicum oil at the concentration of 0.05 and 0.1 mL/kg, respectively (P<0.05. In contrast, the time/mean time of death control group was 5 days. In addition, B. persicum significantly reduced the mean number of tachyzo­ites compared with control group. The time/mean time of death of infected mice was 6 and 7 days after oral administration of B. persicum essential oil at the concentra­tion of 0.05 and 0.1 mL/kg, respectively. In contrast, the time/mean time of death control group was 5 days. B. persicum especially at the concentration of 0.1 ml/kg significantly reduced the mean number of tachyzoites compared with con­trol group. Conclusion: The results showed the potential of B. persicum essential oil as a natu­ral source for the production of new prophylactic agent for use in toxoplasmosis.

  20. Simultaneous compartmentalization of lead and arsenic in co-hyperaccumulator Viola principis H. de Boiss.: an application of SRXRF microprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Mei; Chen, Tong-Bin; Huang, Ze-Chun; Wang, Yao-Dong; Huang, Yu-Ying

    2008-08-01

    The cellular distributions of Pb and As in the leaves of co-hyperaccumulator Viola principis H. de Boiss. were inspected by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SRXRF). The results revealed that Pb and As had similar compartmentalization patterns in the leaves. Both elements were enriched in the bundle sheath and the palisade mesophyll. In comparison with the sheath and the mesophyll, the vascular bundle and the epidermis contained lower levels of Pb and As. The palisade enrichment of Pb and As indicated that V. principis H. de Boiss. may have a special mechanism on detoxification of toxic metals within the mesophyll cells. Relative concentrations of both Pb and As in trichome bases were higher than those in trichome rays. The results of hierarchical cluster analysis and correlation analysis confirmed that the distribution of Pb was similar to that of As in the leaves, and their distribution patterns were different from the nutrient elements, such as K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. In vivo cellular localization of Pb and As in the leaves provides insight into the physiological mechanisms of metal tolerance and hyperaccumulation in the hyperaccumulators.

  1. Inhibitory effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil, alone and in combination with monolaurin, on Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Tepe, Bektas; Kiani, Hossein; Khoshbakht, Rahem; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Tadrisi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is one of the major causes of infections in developing countries. In this study, chemical composition and anti-listerial effect of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. alone and in combination with monolaurin were evaluated at different pH values (5, 6, and 7) and temperatures (5 ˚C and 30 ˚C). Chemical composition of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil and monolaurin were determined using microbroth dilution method and the interactions of essential oil and monolaurin were determined by the evaluation of fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) index. Carvacrol (63.20%) and thymol (15.10%) were found as the main components of the essential oil. The MIC values of the oil and monolaurin at pH 7 and 30 ˚C were measured as 312.50 µg mL(-1) and 125.00 µg mL(-1), respectively. Combination of monolaurin and Z. multiflora essential oil were found to act synergistically (FIC index monolaurin and the essential oil. The lowest MIC value of monolaurin and essential oil was observed at pH 5 and 5 ˚C. According to our results, the oil alone or in combination with monolaurin at low pH and temperature conditions showed a promising inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes.

  2. Antioxidant effects of hydroalcoholic and polyphenolic extracts of Peucedanum pastinacifolium Boiss. & Hausskn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedian, Ahmad; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Mirshekari, Mehrzad

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of Peucedanum pastinacifolium Boiss. & Hausskn aerial part hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) and polyphenolic extract (PPE) as well as their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were studied. Phenolic and flavonoid contents were respectively estimated as gallic acid and quercetin equivalents. The in vitro antioxidant activity of two extracts of P. pastinacifolium were evaluated by radical scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), chelating activity on ferrous ions, or ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. In addition, the in vivo antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract was measured by FRAP assay. Total phenolic contents of PPE and HAE were 117.1 ± 6.2 and 44.3 ± 1.7 mg/g, respectively. Total flavonoid content of PPE (43.4 ± 2.1 mg/g) was found to be higher than that of HAE (8.0 ± 1.5 mg/g). In DPPH radical scavenging assay, HAE and PPE showed fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 469.4 ± 9.3 μg/mL and 128.2 ± 5.5 μg/mL, respectively. Iron chelating activity assays indicated IC50 values of 657.5 ± 13.2 μg/mL and 735.4 ± 16.1 μg/mL for HAE and PPE as opposed to ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) being 16.5 ± 0.8 μg/mL. PPE exhibited greater FRAP value (154.0 ± 1.8 μM) as compared with that of HAE being 69.3 ± 1.4 μM. In animal study, HAE showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in FRAP level when compared with that of control group. Our results showed that P. pastinacifolium possess antioxidant properties which most likely are exerted through free radical scavenging, chelating activity, and reducing power. PMID:27920823

  3. Spasmolytic activity of essential oil and various extracts of Ferula gummosa Boiss. on ileum contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G R; Hajhashemi, V; Kolagar, A; Ebrahimi, M

    2001-09-01

    Traditional herbal medicines such as Ferula gummosa Boiss. have been used for treatment of intestinal disorders in Iran. To date no pharmacological evidence for their effectiveness has been reported. The aim of this study was to examine the relaxant effect of essential oil, hydro-alcoholic, etheric, petrolic and methanolic extracts of Ferula gummosa and two of its components, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, on isolated rat ileum contractions induced by KCl and acetylcholine (ACh). Ferula gummosa essential oil (FGEO) and hydro-alcoholic, etheric, petrolic and methanolic extracts all inhibited the response to 80 mM KCl in a concentration-dependent manner and attenuated the maximum attainable response of the ACh concentration-response curve. Although the effect of etheric extract on ACh contractions was less than that of petrolic extract, the overall order of effectiveness on the weight basis was the etheric, petrolic, methanolic, and hydro-alcoholic extracts, and the essential oil, respectively. A mixture of etheric and petrolic extracts together had a similar effect on KCl response to etheric extract was used alone. Alpha-pinene and beta-pinene both exhibited inhibitory effect on the contraction of rat ileum, but the inhibitory effect of beta-pinene on KCl contraction was more pronounced. The inhibitory effect of a mixture of these two compounds was, however, less than the sum of their separate effects. When a mixture of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene together were examined on the ileum, without presence of the spasmogen, they initially caused contraction of the tissue, while neither of them used alone caused a noticeable contraction of the ileum. This study shows that Ferula gummosa essential oil and its various extracts are relaxant of rat isolated ileum and that at least part of their inhibitory effect is due to alpha-pinene and beta-pinene components. As the inhibition of contractile over-activity of the ileum is the basis of the treatment of some gastero

  4. Marrubium lutescens Boiss. ve M. cephalanthum Boiss. & Noë subsp. akdaghicum (Lamiaceae' un Gövde ve Yaprak Özelliklerinin Anatomik Olarak Karşılaştırılması

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    Meltem TUYLU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Çalışmada; Lamiaceae familyasındaki Marrubium L. cinsinin iki taksonu olan   Marrubium lutescens Boiss. ve M. cephalanthum Boiss. & Noë subsp. akdaghicum’ da gövde ve yaprak, anatomik olarak incelenerek cinsin taksonomik problemlerinin çözümüne katkı amaçlanmıştır. Işık mikroskobu için iki tip preperasyon yapılmıştır. Parafin içerisindeki gövde ve yaprak örnekleri Safranin-Fast Green ile boyandıktan sonra, epon içerisindeki yarı ince kesitler ise Toluidine blue ile boyandıktan sonra ışık mikroskobunda incelenerek fotoğrafları çekilmiştir. Her iki taksonda gövde; köşeli, kalın kutikulalı, tek sıralı epidermis ile çevrilidir. Köşelerde, epidermisin altında 2-3 sıralı lamellar kollenkima bulunmaktadır. Yaprak; M. lutescens' te bifasiyal iken M. cephalanthum’ da unifasiyaldir. Küçük iletim demetleri kollateraldir ve yaprak amfistomatiktir. Gövdelerde ve yaprakların alt ve üst yüzeyinde örtü ve salgı tüyleri bulunmaktadır. Anatomik sonuçlar karşılaştırıldığında, iki taksonun birbirine yakın oldukları anlaşılmıştır.

  5. Antimicrobial effects of Ferula GummosaBoiss gum against extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Acinetobacterclinical isolates

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    Fatemeh Farid Afshar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Acinetobacter spp. are important causes of nosocomial infections. They possess various antibiotic resistance mechanisms including extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs. The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance profile of Acinetobacter clinical isolates especially among ESBL-producing strains and to investigate the antimicrobial effects of oleo-gum-resin extract and essential oil of Ferula gummosa Boiss.Materials and Methods: 120 Acinetobacter strains were isolated from various clinical samples of hospitalized patients in Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran during 2011-2012. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed on the isolates using disk diffusion method. To detect and confirm the ESBL-positive isolates, phenotypic and genotypic tests were performed. Three types of F. gummosa oleo-gum-resin extracts and essential oils were prepared and the bioactive components of F. gummosa Boiss extracts were determined by GC-Mass chromatography. F. gummosa antimicrobial activity was evaluated against standard strain of Acinetobacter baumannii (ATCC19606 as well as Acinetobacter clinical isolates using well and disk diffusion methods. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined by broth microdilution method.Results: 46 isolates were resistant to all tested antibiotics. All clinical isolates were resistant to cefotaxime. 12.94% of the isolates were phenotypically ESBL-producing among which 94.2% carried ESBL genes (blaPER-1, blaOXA-4 and blaCTX-M detected by PCR. Oleo-gum-resin of F. gummosa had significant antibacterial activity and alcoholic essential oil had higher inhibitory effect on Acinetobacter strains (MIC of 18.75 mg/ml.Conclusion: Ferula gummosa extract contained components with well-known antimicrobial effects. 

  6. Antimicrobial effects of Ferula gummosa Boiss gum against extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Acinetobacter clinical isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Fatemeh Farid; Saffarian, Parvaneh; Hosseini, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh; Sattarian, Fereshteh; Amin, Mohsen; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Acinetobacter spp. are important causes of nosocomial infections. They possess various antibiotic resistance mechanisms including extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs). The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance profile of Acinetobacter clinical isolates especially among ESBL-producing strains and to investigate the antimicrobial effects of oleo-gum-resin extract and essential oil of Ferula gummosa Boiss. Materials and Methods: 120 Acinetobacter strains were isolated from various clinical samples of hospitalized patients in Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran during 2011–2012. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed on the isolates using disk diffusion method. To detect and confirm the ESBL-positive isolates, phenotypic and genotypic tests were performed. Three types of F. gummosa oleo-gum-resin extracts and essential oils were prepared and the bioactive components of F. gummosa Boiss extracts were determined by GC-Mass chromatography. F. gummosa antimicrobial activity was evaluated against standard strain of Acinetobacter baumannii (ATCC19606) as well as Acinetobacter clinical isolates using well and disk diffusion methods. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by broth microdilution method. Results: 46 isolates were resistant to all tested antibiotics. All clinical isolates were resistant to cefotaxime. 12.94% of the isolates were phenotypically ESBL-producing among which 94.2% carried ESBL genes ( bla PER-1 , bla OXA-4 and bla CTX-M ) detected by PCR. Oleo-gum-resin of F. gummosa had significant antibacterial activity and alcoholic essential oil had higher inhibitory effect on Acinetobacter strains (MIC of 18.75 mg/ml). Conclusion: Ferula gummosa extract contained components with well-known antimicrobial effects.

  7. Composition chimique et activité antimicrobienne des huiles essentielles de Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. et Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. du Maroc

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    Chaouch, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. and Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. essential oils of Morocco. The aim of this work is to study the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils of Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. and Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. of Morocco against seven microorganisms. The essential oils of T. ciliatus are characterized by the presence of thymol (44.2%, β-E-ocimene (25.8% and α-terpinene (12.3% as principal chemical components. The essential oils of T. algeriensis are formed mainly by camphor (27.7% and α-pinene (20.5%. The oil of T. ciliatus showed a strong antibacterial and antifungal activity against all tested bacteria and fungi. This bioactivity is due mainly to the richness of this essential oil in thymol known for its effectiveness against the microbial agents.

  8. Effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil and nisin on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in light salted silver carp fillet (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)

    OpenAIRE

    Choobkar, Nasrin

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing demand in developing newer and safer methods in preserving food products.Among which herbal additives seem to attract evermore attention recently.the major advantage of herbal additives is due to their favorable aroma besides their antimicrobial effects and less expensive than chemical additives. Zataria multiflora Boiss is a native Iranian herb which is used vastly as a food preserver essential oils and also medical usage. Metabolites of harmless bacteria, such as N...

  9. Bioactivities of Ethanolic Extract and its Fractions of Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae) and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Osman; Berrin-Ozcelik; Baykal, Turhan

    2016-01-01

    Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae) and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae) have been used for treatment of some illnesses in Turkish folk medicine. In the present study, the ethanolic extract and its fractions obtained using re-extraction by hexane (Hx), chloroform (CHCl3), butanol, and remaining-water (r-H2O) of C. laurifolius were screened for their in vitro bioactivities. Activities were determined against both standard and the isolated strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, as well as yeasts such as Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis by microdilution method. Also, antiviral activity of C. laurifolius and S. wiedemannii extracts were tested on herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and vero cell lines. Tested extracts of C. laurifolius (minimum inhibitory concentration 32 μg/mL) exerted a strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria of E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii. The Hx extract of C. laurifolius (cytopathogenic effect of 32-8 μg/mL) had antiviral activity on PI-3. Also, the r-H2O, CHCl3, and ethanol extracts (16-Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae) and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae) were screened against both standard and the isolated strains of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, S. aureus, E. faecalis, C. albicans and C. parapsilosis by microdilution methodAntiviral activity were tested on HSV-1 and PI-3 using MDBK and Vero cell linesExtracts of C. laurifolius exerted a strong antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii(MIC; 32 μg/mL)The Hx extract of C. laurifolius had antiviral activity on PI-3 (CPE; 32-8 μg/mL). Also, the r-H2O, CHCl3, and ethanol extracts (16-<0.25 μg/mL) of S. wiedemannii had significant antiviral activity.

  10. The effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss hydroalcoholic extract and fractions in pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in mice

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    Ali Shamsizadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: At present, there are many antiepileptic drugs with a wide range of side effects on the human body. It was assumed that Zataria multiflora Boiss (Z. multiflora with sedative, anti-spasmodic and anti-inflammatory activity may be effective in the treatment of epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of Z. multiflora hydroalcoholic extract and its fraction extracts on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced chemical kindling. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, eight separate groups of male albino mice were used. All groups received 11 separate intraperitoneal injections of PTZ (35 mg/kg with two-day intervals. 30 min before the injection of PTZ, mice received vehicle, Z. multiflora hydroalcoholic extract (300 and 600 mg/kg, n-hexane, acetone, methanol fraction extracts (150 mg/kg, or diazepam (10 mg/kg. Results: The kindled mice that were pretreated with vehicle showed a gradual increase in their seizure scores up to the end of the study. The hydroalcoholic extract of Z. multiflora (300 and 600 mg/kg reduced seizure scores significantly. However, n-hexane, acetone and methanol extracts did not affect seizure scores significantly. Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate that the hydroalcoholic extract of Z. multiflora did reduce the severity of seizure attacks in PTZ-induced chemical kindling in mice.

  11. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss: An endangered medicinal plant in Iran.

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    Nejad-Sadeghi, Masoud; Taji, Saeed; Goodarznia, Iraj

    2015-11-27

    Extraction of the essential oil from a medicinal plant called Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss was performed by green technology of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. A Taguchi orthogonal array design with an OA16 (4(5)) matrix was used to evaluate the effects of five extraction variables: pressure of 150-310bar, temperature of 40-60°C, average particle size of 250-1000μm, CO2 flow rate of 2-10ml/s and dynamic extraction time of 30-100min. The optimal conditions to obtain the maximum extraction yield were at 240bar, 60°C, 500μm, 10ml/s and 100min. The extraction yield under the above conditions was 2.72% (w/w) which is more than two times the maximum extraction yield that has been reported for this plant in the literature using traditional extraction techniques. Results from analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the CO2 flow rate and the extraction time were the most significant factors on the extraction yield by percentage contribution of 44.27 and 28.86, respectively. Finally, the chemical composition of the essential oil was evaluated by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Citral, p-mentha-1,3,8-triene, D-3-carene and methyl geranate were the major components identified.

  12. Effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil on growth and aflatoxin formation by Aspergillus flavus in culture media and cheese.

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    Gandomi, Hassan; Misaghi, Ali; Basti, Afshin Akhondzadeh; Bokaei, Saeed; Khosravi, Alireza; Abbasifar, Arash; Javan, Ashkan Jebelli

    2009-10-01

    The effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil (EO) against growth, spore production and aflatoxin formation by Aspergillus flavus ATCC 15546 was investigated in synthetic media as well as Iranian ultra-filtered white cheese in brine. EO effectively inhibited radial growth and spore production on potato dextrose agar (PDA) in a dose-dependent manner. At 200 ppm, the radial growth and sporulation reduced by 79.4% and 92.5%, respectively. The growth was completely prevented at EO400 ppm on PDA, and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of the oil was estimated at 1000 ppm. The oil also significantly suppressed mycelial growth and aflatoxin synthesis in broth medium at all concentrations tested (Paflatoxin accumulation reduced by 90% and 99.4%, respectively. The EO at all concentrations tested, had an inhibitory effect against radial fungal growth and aflatoxin production by A. flavus in cheese. However, no concentration of EO examined was able to completely inhibit the growth and aflatoxin production in cheese. The results suggested the potential substitution of the antifungal chemicals by this EO as a natural inhibitor to control the growth of molds in foods such as cheese.

  13. Variation in antioxidant, and antibacterial activities and total phenolic content of the bulbs of mooseer (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.

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    Abdollah GHASEMI PIRBALOUTI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Allium hirtifolium Boiss. (mooseer belonging to the family Alliaceae, is an endemic species of Iran which grows wild in the Zagros Mountains range, western and southwestern Iran. The bulb of A. hirtifolium has been used as a flavouring agent, especially dairy foods and pickles by the indigenous people, southwestern Iran. In this study, the bulbs of various populations of the plant were collected from the alpine regions in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran. The total phenolic content of the ethanol extract was determined by Folin– Ciocalteu method, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the antibacterial activity of the extracts against four bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella typhimurium was determined by serial dilution assay. Results indicated that the total phenolic content in the ethanol extracts of different populations of A. hirtifolium ranged between 34 to 44 mg gallic acid/g extract. In addition, the extracts of A. hirtifolium indicated moderate– to–good inhibitory activities (MICs = 0.062 to 0.250 mg/ml against four bacteria, especially against B. cereus. The antioxidant activity of the bulbs of A. hirtifolium indicated the extract acted as an effective DPPH scavenger, but were not as effective as the BHT control. This finding suggests that the bulbs of A. hirtifolium may be considered as a natural source of antioxidants and antimicrobial agents.

  14. Evaluation of antibacterial effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss extracts against ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains

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    Masoud Dadashi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are few therapeutic options for treatment of multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates as a hospital infectious agent (nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss extracts against ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 100 K. pneumoniae isolates from two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and microdilution broth methods and detection of ESBL was carried out according to CLSI guidelines. The blaCTX-M-15plasmid genewas detected by PCR and sequencing methods. Extracts susceptibility test was performed by broth microdilution method.  Results: Among 100 K. pneumoniae strains, 48 (48% were ESBL positive. In this study, fosfomycin, colistin and tigecycline were more active than other antibiotics. The existence of blaCTX-M-15 was detected in 30 (62.5% of 48 ESBL-producing isolates. The chloroformic extract showed potent activity against ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains (MIC50 = 1.56 mg/ml and MIC90=3.12mg/ml. The MIC50 and MIC90 (The MIC50 represents the MIC value at which ≥50% of the isolates in a test population are inhibited and the MIC90 represents the MIC value at which ≥90% of the strains within a test population are inhibited were 3.12 and 6.25 mg/ml and 6.25  and 12.5 mg/ml for methanolic and acetonic extracts, respectively. Conclusions: The incidence of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae is very high. Therefore, detection of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates is of great importance in identifying drug resistance patterns in K. pneumoniae isolates and in control of infections. Zataria multiflora may have the potential to be used against multidrug resistant organisms such as clinical isolates of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae.

  15. Evaluation of antibacterial effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss extracts against ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains

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    Dadashi, Masoud; Hashemi, Ali; Eslami, Gita; Fallah, Fatemeh; Goudarzi, Hossein; Erfanimanesh, Soroor; Taherpour, Arezou

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There are few therapeutic options for treatment of multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates as a hospital infectious agent (nosocomial infection). The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss extracts against ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 100 K. pneumoniae isolates from two hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and microdilution broth methods and detection of ESBL was carried out according to CLSI guidelines. The blaCTX-M-15 plasmid gene was detected by PCR and sequencing methods. Extracts susceptibility test was performed by broth microdilution method. Results: Among 100 K. pneumoniae strains, 48 (48%) were ESBL positive. In this study, fosfomycin, colistin and tigecycline were more active than other antibiotics. The existence of blaCTX-M-15 was detected in 30 (62.5%) of 48 ESBL-producing isolates. The chloroformic extract showed potent activity against ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains (MIC50 = 1.56 mg/ml and MIC90=3.12mg/ml). The MIC50 and MIC90 (The MIC50 represents the MIC value at which ≥50% of the isolates in a test population are inhibited and the MIC90 represents the MIC value at which ≥90% of the strains within a test population are inhibited) were 3.12 and 6.25 mg/ml and 6.25 and 12.5 mg/ml for methanolic and acetonic extracts, respectively. Conclusion: The incidence of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae is very high. Therefore, detection of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates is of great importance in identifying drug resistance patterns in K. pneumoniae isolates and in control of infections. Zataria multiflora may have the potential to be used against multidrug resistant organisms such as clinical isolates of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae. PMID:27462557

  16. Bioactivities of Ethanolic Extract and its Fractions of Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae) and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae) Species

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    Ustun, Osman; Berrin-Ozcelik; Baykal, Turhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae) and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae) have been used for treatment of some illnesses in Turkish folk medicine. In the present study, the ethanolic extract and its fractions obtained using re-extraction by hexane (Hx), chloroform (CHCl3), butanol, and remaining-water (r-H2O) of C. laurifolius were screened for their in vitro bioactivities. Materials and Methods: Activities were determined against both standard and the isolated strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, as well as yeasts such as Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis by microdilution method. Also, antiviral activity of C. laurifolius and S. wiedemannii extracts were tested on herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and vero cell lines. Results: Tested extracts of C. laurifolius (minimum inhibitory concentration 32 μg/mL) exerted a strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria of E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii. Conclusion: The Hx extract of C. laurifolius (cytopathogenic effect of 32–8 μg/mL) had antiviral activity on PI-3. Also, the r-H2O, CHCl3, and ethanol extracts (16–MDBK and Vero cell linesExtracts of C. laurifolius exerted a strong antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii(MIC; 32 μg/mL)The Hx extract of C. laurifolius had antiviral activity on PI-3 (CPE; 32–8 μg/mL). Also, the r-H2O, CHCl3, and ethanol extracts (16–<0.25 μg/mL) of S. wiedemannii had significant antiviral activity PMID:27041865

  17. Agronomical and Botanical Characteristics of Cuminum setifolium (Boiss. Kos.-Pol. a Plant with Potentially Medicinal Applications

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    Abbas SAFARNEJAD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the most important source of medicine. Cuminum setifolium ( Boiss. Kos.-Pol. with common name of white cumin, a member of the Apiaceae family, growing wild on mountains was investigated as a species having capability for cultivation and crop breeding. Generally, there is not information about Cuminum setifolium species. The aim of this study was to found plant identification and distribution in Iran, phenology, best treatment for seeds germination, farm cultivation and anatomical description. Cuminum setifolium plant is a annual herb which is distributed in Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tien-Shan and central Asia. In our studied region, the plant is generally grown on calcareous marl soils with climatic conditions of desert cold, semi-arid to arid having hot summer and cold winter. The effects of different treatment on seed germination showed significant highest germination percentage (54.4%, germination rate (6.4% were obtained from seeds that had exposed for 3 weeks at 4�C after omit of seeds hairs. The experiment of cultivation showed the best time for sowing in Mashhad was autumn and growing time was from middle of March until end of June and ripening seeds were end of June at 2005. Microscopic observation of the root structure showed lacking secondary structures and having epidermis tissue with only a row of cells along with relatively thick cuticle and for stem and leaf structure with stomata without any hairs. Parenchyma cells contained 2-3 rows of irregular oblong cells. Stomata type of epidermis was diacytic and distance between stomata was measured 5 ?m in average.

  18. Euphorbia L. subsect. Esula (Boiss. in DC. Pax in the Iberian Peninsula. Leaf surface, chromosome numbers and taxonomic treatment

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    Molero, Julià

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a taxonomic study of the representatives or Euphorbia subsect. Esula in the Iberian Peninsula. Prior to this, a first section is included on the study of the leaf surface and a second section on chromosome numbers.
    The section on leaf surface is based on a study of the leaves or 45 populations of Iberian and European taxa of the subsections using a light microscope and SEM. The characters analyzed are cell shape, morphology of the cells and stomata (primary and secondary sculpture and epicuticular waxes (tertiary sculpture. Some microcharacters of the leaf surface proved particularly usefu1for taxonomical purposes. Thus the basic type of stoma and the distribution model of the stomata on the two sides of the leaf are characters which make it possible to separate taxa as closely related as E. esula L. subsp. esula and E. esula L. subsp orientalis (Boiss. in DC. Molero & Rovira. The morphological type of the epicuticular waxes also enables us to differentiate between E.graminifolia Vill. and E. esula aggr. And to distinguish subsp. bolosii Molero & Rovira from the remaining subespecies in E. nevadensis Boiss. & Reuter.
    Cytogenetic investigation reveals the presence of only the diploid cytotype (2n=10 in E. cyparissias L. and E. esula L. subsp. esula in the Iberian Peninsula. We describe for the first time in E. nevadensis s.1. a polyploidy complex with a base of x= 10 in which the diploid level (2n=20 is present in all subspecies; the tetraploid level (2n=40 is present in E. nevadensis subsp. nevadensis and the hexaploid level (2n=60 is found in E. nevadensis subsp. bolosii. Chromosome number is not a parameter that can be used for taxonomic purposes. In E. nevadensis, cytogenetic differentiation has followed its own course, with no apparent relationship to the process of morphological

  19. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Phlomis linearis Boiss. & Bal., and biological effects on the CAM-assay: a safety evaluation.

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    Demirci, Betül; Dadandi, Mehmet Y; Paper, Dietrich H; Franz, Gerhard; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2003-01-01

    Phlomis linearis Boiss. & Bal. of the Lamiaceae family growing in central, east and southeast Anatolia is an endemic species for Turkey. The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts by hydro distillation was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. The main components of the oil were found as beta-caryophyllene (24.2%), germacrene D (22.3%) and caryophyllene oxide (9.2%), among 49 identified compounds, representing 94.5% of the total essential oil. The overall biological activity of the essential oil (100 microg/pellet) was tested on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the fertilized hen's egg in order to examine the anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory activity. None of the tests showed pronounced activity, toxicity or irritation at the tested concentration.

  20. Notopterygium forbesii boiss extract and its active constituents increase reactive species and heme oxygenase-1 in human fetal hepatocytes: mechanisms of action.

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    Tang, Soon Yew; Wang, Huansong; Zhang, Wenxia; Halliwell, Barry

    2008-12-01

    Notopterygium forbesii Boiss (NF) has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of common cold and rheumatism. However, there has been limited research on the biological properties of NF, and the mechanisms of action remain unknown. Here, we aimed to study the mechanism of NF-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in human fetal hepatocytes (HFHs) and to identify the constituents responsible. Exposure of HFHs to NF causes oxidative stress with the accumulation of reactive species, which in turn leads to the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 transcription factor, and eventually increased levels of HO-1 mRNA and protein. The increases in reactive species and HO-1 protein are inhibited by agonists of glucocorticoid receptors (GR), such as RU28362, prednisolone, and dexamethasone, as well as by N-acetyl-L-cysteine and SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor), suggesting a role of GR in NF-induced increases in reactive species and HO-1. Assay-guided fractionation of NF led to three active compounds, phenethyl ferulate, bergaptol, and isoimperatorin, that were found to increase oxidative stress and HO-1 protein levels in HFHs. The induction of HO-1 protein in response to moderate oxidative stress may explain some of the beneficial pharmacological effects of NF.

  1. Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils and Hexane Extracts of Two Turkish Spice Plants, Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC. Boiss. and Echinophora tenuifolia L. Against Foodborne Microorganisms

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    Bülent Çetin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodistillated essential oils and hexane extracts of two spice plants, Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC. Boiss. and Echinophora tenuifolia L. were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. C. erythraeum oil is rich in aliphatic aldehydes, alcohols and acids and (E-2-decenal (26.1%, (E-2-decen-1-ol (15.7%, (E-2-dodecenal (13.2% and decanal (7.8% were the predominant components. However, ethyl palmitate (16.4%, 2-decenoic acid (14.1% and (E-2-dodecenal (5.2% were the major components of the hexane extract of C. erythraeum. E. tenuifolia oil contained mainly methyl eugenol (53.0%, p-cymene (17.0% and α-phellandrene (13.2%. The hexane extract displayed a different chemical composition, and n-tricosane (75.0% and n-pentacosane (7.6% were found to be the major compounds. The oils showed antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms and they were more active against the tested fungal species as compared with bacteria. The growths of important food-borne pathogens, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were also inhibited by the oils. However, hexane extract of C. erythraeum was showed weak antibacterial activity against limited number of tested bacteria. The current results showed that the essential oils of C. erythraeumand E. tenuifolia can be used in food preservation.

  2. GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.

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    Cengiz Sarikurkcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be β-caryophyllene (37.37%, (Z-β-farnesene (15.88%, and germacrene D (10.97%. Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including β-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700 nm, respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol and the essential oil at 1.0 mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAEs/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 μg quercetin equivalents (QEs/mg extract.

  3. Chemical Composition, and Antibacterial and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities of the Essential Oils of a Citronellol Producing New Chemotype of Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak

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    Satyajit D. Sarker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oils obtained from the flowering aerial parts of two populations of Thymus pubescens, collected from Mishov-Dagh, was determined by the GC-MS analyses. A total of 18 compounds, representing about 95% of the total oils, were identified in both samples of the essential oils. The essential oils of these two populations showed the presence of high amounts of citronellol (42.0% and 42.6%, geranyl acetate (14.0 and 14.0%, geraniol (13.0 and 13.1%, citronellyl acetate (3.9 and 3.8%, L-linalool (7.8% and 7.9%, cis-nerodiol (5.9% and 5.5% and citronellyl acetate (3.9% and 3.8%. However, in the published literature, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene were reported to be the major compounds in T. pubescens. This significant difference in the composition of the essential oils was a clear evidence of chemical polymorphism with in the T. pubescens taxon, suggesting that these two populations of T. pubescens were in deed a new chemotype of this species, and the name Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak chemotype Citronellol for this new chemotype has been proposed . The antibacterial and free-radical-scavenging properties of the essential oils of T. pubescens have also been evaluated.

  4. Induction of aromatic amino acids and phenylpropanoid compounds in Scrophularia striata Boiss. cell culture in response to chitosan-induced oxidative stress.

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    Kamalipourazad, Maryam; Sharifi, Mohsen; Maivan, Hassan Zare; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Chashmi, Najmeh Ahmadian

    2016-10-01

    Manipulation of cell culture media by elicitors is one of most important strategies to inducing secondary metabolism for the production of valuable metabolites. In this investigation, inducing effect of chitosan on physiological, biochemical, and molecular parameters were investigated in cell suspension cultures of Scrophularia striata Boiss. The results showed that chitosan concentration and time of elicitation are determinants of the effectiveness of the elicitor. Accumulation of aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine [Phe] and tyrosine [Tyr]), phenylpropanoid compounds (phenolic acids [PAs] and echinacoside [ECH]), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and gene expression, and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], peroxidase [POX], catalase [CAT]) activities were altered by changing the exposure time of elicitation. Results showed that, upon elicitation with chitosan, oxidative events were induced, antioxidant responses of S. striata cells were boosted through enhanced activity of an effective series of scavenging enzymes (SOD, CAT, and POX), and biosynthesis of non-enzymatic antioxidants (ECH and PAs [cinnamic, p-coumaric and, caffeic acids]). The increase in amino acid content and PAL activity at early days of exposure to chitosan was related with rises in phenolic compounds. These results provide evidence that chitosan by up-regulation of PAL gene differentially improves the production of phenylpropanoid compounds, which are of medical commercial value with good biotechnological prospects.

  5. Alkaloids extract of Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. seeds used as novel eco-friendly inhibitor for carbon steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution: Electrochemical and surface studies

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    El Hamdani, Naoual; Fdil, Rabiaa; Tourabi, Mustapha; Jama, Charafeddine; Bentiss, Fouad

    2015-12-01

    Current research efforts now focus on the development of non-toxic, inexpensive and environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors as alternatives to different organic and non-organic compounds. In this field, alkaloids extract of Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. seeds (AERS) was tested for the first time as corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl medium using electrochemical and surface characterization techniques. The obtained results showed that this plant extract's acts as an efficient corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl and an inhibition efficiency of 94.4% was reached with 400 mg/L of AERS at 30 °C. Ac impedance experimental data revealed a frequency distribution of the capacitance, simulated as constant phase element. Impedance results demonstrated that the addition of the AERS in the corrosive solution decreases the charge capacitance and simultaneously increases the function of the charge/discharge of the interface, facilitating the formation of an adsorbed layer over the steel surface. Polarization curves indicated that AERS is a mixed inhibitor. Adsorption of such alkaloid extract on the steel surface obeyed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the inhibition of steel corrosion in normal hydrochloric solution by AERS is mainly controlled by a physisorption process and the inhibitive layer is composed of an iron oxide/hydroxide mixture where AERS molecules are incorporated.

  6. Considering the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil treated with gamma-irradiation in vitro and in vivo systems

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    Faezeh, Fatema; Salome, Dini; Abolfazl, Dadkhah; Reza, Zolfaghari Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) obtained from the aerial parts of Zataria multiflora Boiss against Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by in vivo and in vitro methods. Also, the effects of gamma-irradiation (0, 10 and 25 kGy) as a new microbial decontamination on the antibacterial activities of Z. multiflora were examined. For this purpose, the collected herbs were exposed to radiation at doses of 0, 10 and 25 kGy following essential oil (EOs) extraction by steam distillation. Then, the in vitro antibacterial potency of the irradiated and non-irradiated oils was determined by using disc diffusion, agar well diffusion and MIC and MBC determination assays. The in vivo antibacterial activity was also studied in sepsis model induced by CLP surgery by Colony forming units (CFUs) determination. The results showed that the extracted oils were discovered to be effective against all the gram positive and gram negative pathogens in vitro system. In addition, the oil significantly diminished the increased CFU count observed in CLP group. Moreover, the irradiated samples were found to possess the antibacterial activities as the non-irradiated ones both in vitro and in vivo systems. These data indicated the potential use of gamma-irradiation as a safe technique for preservation of Z. multiflora as a medicinal plant with effective antibacterial activities.

  7. Neuroprotective Effect of Total and Sequential Extract of Scrophularia striata Boiss. in Rat Cerebellar Granule Neurons Following Glutamate- Induced Neurotoxicity: An In-vitro Study

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    Salavati, Parvin; Ramezani, Mina; Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid R; Hajiagha, Reza; Parsa, Maliheh; Tavajohi, Shoreh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Neuroprotective effect of the extract from aerial parts of Scrophularia striata Boiss (Scrophulariaceae) was investigated against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity on cultured rat pups Cerebellar Granule Neurons (CGNs). CGNs from 8 days old Sprague-Dawley rat were prepared and cultured. The experiments were performed after 8 days in culture. The plant was collected from the northeastern part (Ruin region) of Iran and air-dried at room temperature. The total extract was prepared with maceration of prepared powder in ethanol 80% for three times. Sequential extracts were obtained using dried and powdered aerial parts with increasingly polar solvents: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol 80% solution. Cultured cells were exposed to 125 μM of glutamate for 12 h following a 24 h of incubation with test fractions at concentration of 10 mcg/mL. Morphological assay was performed using invert light microscope after fixation and staining with haematoxylin. Neuronal viability was measured using MTT assay. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed by Tukey post-hoc test. Values were considered statistically significant when p-value ≤ 0.05. Results of this study showed a significant neuroprotective activity of high polarity methanolic fraction of aerial parts of Scrophularia striata against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in a dosedependent manner. Treatment with 10 mcg/mL of the fractions showed the best result. PMID:24250613

  8. Evaluation of In Vitro Antimalarial Activity of Different Extracts of Artemisia aucheri Boiss. and A. armeniaca Lam. and Fractions of the Most Potent Extracts

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    Mahdi Mojarrab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten extracts with different polarity from two Iranian Artemisia species, A. armeniaca Lam. and A. aucheri Boiss, were screened for their antimalarial properties by in vitro  β-hematin formation assay. Dichloromethane (DCM extracts of both plants showed significant antimalarial activities with IC50 values of 1.36 ± 0.01 and 1.83 ± 0.03 mg/mL and IC90 values of 2.12 ± 0.04 and 2.62 ± 0.09 mg/mL for A. armeniaca and A. aucheri, respectively. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of DCM extracts of both plants by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC over silica gel with solvent mixtures of increasing polarities afforded seven fractions. Two fractions from DCM extract of A. armeniaca and four fractions from DCM extract of A. aucheri showed potent antimalarial activity with reducing IC50 and IC90 values compared to extracts. The most potent fraction belonged to DCM extract of A. armeniaca with IC50 and IC90 values of 0.47 ± 0.006 and 0.71 ± 0.006 mg/mL, respectively.

  9. Influence of Different Temperatures and Times on Antiradical Properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum Essential Oils by Using DPPH Method

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    Habibeh KORDSARDOUEI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of fats and oils has a key role in the reduction of the nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, there is a tendency to create to use natural preservatives, such as essential oils, for antioxidant, antiradical and antimicrobial properties in foodstuffs. In this study, the effect of thermal processing on the antiradical activities of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZMEO and Cinnamon zeylanicum (CZEO essential oils is checked. Antiradical activities were measured with a 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH– assay at 3 temperatures (100, 140 and 180 °C and at 3 different time intervals (1, 2 and 3 h. The EC50 of ZMEO and CZEO were 4026.67 ± 2.2 and 2605.01 ± 15.57 ppm, respectively, at 25 °C. The 2 essences showed various reactions and characteristics at different temperatures (100, 140 and 180 °C and time ranges (1, 2 and 3 h. Maximum and minimum antiradical properties were observed for ZMEO at respectively, 140 and 180 °C after 1 h heating.

  10. Antioxidant, Color and Antibacterial Properties of Edible Chitosan Film Incorporated with Zataria Multiflora Boiss ٍEssential Oil against Listeria Monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Moradi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The film containing antimicrobial agents are a type of active packaging which is mainly designed to control microbial and chemical spoilage of food. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and color properties of chitosan film incorporated with essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZEO. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study which was conducted at Urmia University of Medical Sciences between 2009-2010, the chemical composition of ZEO was analyzed using GC-MS. Chitosan films containing 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% ZEO, were obtained by casting method and subsequently, total phenol (TP, antioxidant, color (accordance with hunter system (L* (luminosity, * (redness, and b* (yellowness and antimicrobial characteristics of films on Listeria monocytogenes were studied. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software. Results: The order of TP for all films in the experiment was 2% ZEO1% ZEO 0.5% ZEO unsupplemented chitosan film, respectively. It was also concluded that the antioxidant activity of chitosan films was increased by adding various concentrations of ZEO. These increases were significant for film containing 1% (33.98% and 2% (37.77% ZEO (p0.05. Regarding the color luminosity (L* of the chitosan film, results indicated no significant changes by incorporating ZEO, whereas the incorporation of ZEO into films had a significant effect on film yellowness, evidenced by lower b* values. Finally, it was shown that the presence of ZEO in chitosan films significantly modified the anti- listerial activity of chitosan, (p0.05. Conclusion: The results indicated that an active film from chitosan could be achieved by incorporating ZEO. Addition of ZEO improves functional and antibacterial characteristics of chitosan film.

  11. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Oil and Extracts of Bunium persicum (Boiss. B. Fedtsch.: Wild and Cultivated Fruits

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    Arezoo Rustaie 1,2, Roya Keshvari 1, Nasrin Samadi 3, Farahnaz Khalighi-Sigaroodi 4, Mohammad Reza Shams Ardekani 1,5, Mahnaz Khanavi 1,2,6 *

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruits of Bunium persicum (Boiss. B. Fedtsch (Apiaceae has been used as spice, anti-flatulence and antiseptic agent for many years. In recent years the wild resources of the plant have been threatened by extinction. Domestication of such a plant saves its genetic resources from depletion. However, concerns remain about the possible changes due to development of chemotypes and changes in the composition and biological and pharmacological potentials. Methods: Analyses of essential oils from fruits of wild and cultivated types was performed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. Antimicrobial assessment was done by agar diffusion method Results: The main compounds of both oils were included γ-terpinene (30.77% and 27.57%, cuminaldehyde (20.49% and 21.1%, ρ-cymene (20.1% and 18.32% and γ-terpinen-7-al (8.29% and 7.84% respectively. Analytical results of both tested oils exhibited very close similarities in major compounds, whereas some differences in their percentages were observed. In vitro antimicrobial evaluation of volatile oils, total extract and the resultant fractions against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans demonstrated some similarities and differences. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of wild grown fruits essential oils ranged between 0.375-1.5 mg/ml, while those of cultivated one were 0.75-6.25 mg/ml. All extracts and fractions showed similarly minor antibacterial potential while anti-Candida albicans activity was much remarkable with MICs calculated 2.5-5 mg/ml for cultivated and 5 mg/ml for wild grown extracts and fractions. Conclusion: In conclusion, despite the substantial similarities in composition of both oils, the alteration in antimicrobial results may be caused by variety in concentration of major and minor compounds and their synergism or antagonism in mixture.

  12. Establecimiento de una red de equilibrios biológicos en ecosistemas con presencia de pinsapo (Abies pinsapo Boiss. en Andalucía.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Cerrillo, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, the Consejería de Medio Ambiente of the Junta de Andalucía established a Monitoring Network on ecosystems of Abies pinsapo Boiss.for evaluating the phytosanitary state in the natural range areas of A. pinsapo in the Iberian Península: Sierra de las Nieves (Málaga, Spain, Sierra de Grazalema (Cadiz, Spain and Los Reales de Sierra Bermeja (Málaga, Spain. This network is based on a 1 x 1 Km grid established throughout the forest stands where Abies pinsapo is present, given by the Mapa Forestal de España (Spanish land cover map, RUIZ DE LA TORRE, 1990. The Network has been constructed from 35 sample plots, which will be visited annually (in summer in order to assess the state of trees. This article describes the network design process and the main results from the first campaign of sampling.

    [fr]
    En mai 2001, la Consejería de Medio Ambiente-Junta de Andalucía a mis sur pied un Réseau pour la surveillance systématique et multitemporelle de l'état de santé et vitalité des forets de Abies pinsapo Boiss. dans ses aires de répartition naturelle dans la Péninsule Ibérique: Sierra de las Nieves (Málaga, Espagne, Sierra de Grazalema (Cádiz, Espagne et Los Reales de Sierra Bermeja (Málaga, Espagne. Cet inventaire a été réalisé à partir d'un réseau d'échantillonnage systématique selon un maillage de 1 x 1 kilomètres couvrant la surface des forêts avec présence de Abies pinsapo, d'après la Mapa Forestal de España (Carte Forestière Espagnole, RUIZ DE LA TORRE, 1990. Après Rétablissement, l'inventaire a été constitué par 35 parcelles d'observation, qui seront visitées annuellement (en été pour évaluer l'état des arbres. Cette note présente le dessin de ce réseau et les résultats de la première campagne de terrain.
    [es]
    En la primavera del año 2001, la Consejería de Medio Ambiente de la Junta de Andalucía estableció una Red de Equilibrios Biol

  13. Sclerorhachis Platyrachis (Boiss. Podlech Ex Rech. F.: an Indigenous Medicinal Plant from Northeastern Iran; Essential Oil Composition, Total Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Akhlaghi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Sclerorhachis platyrachis (Boiss. Podlech ex Rech. f. (Compositae, growing wild in Sabzevar, Khorasan Razavi Province (Iran, was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The total yield of volatiles was 0.38% (w/w. Sixty- three compounds representing 89.2% of the aerial parts oil were identified.  The main components of the oil were β-pinene (17.5% and γ-terpinene (15.4%. The oil was rich in monoterpenoids, and among them, monoterpene hydrocarbons (48.7% predominated over oxygenated monoterpenes (11.8%. The total flavonoid content of different extracts of the plant was in the range 52.4-172.3 mg/g, with the maximum amount being in the methanol extract. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were also measured based on radical scavenging activity of antioxidants using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. The results showed that IC50 values of extracts of S. platyrachis are higher than for the standard synthetic antioxidants, BHT, ascorbic acid and gallic acid. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;}    

  14. Development of new active packaging film made from a soluble soybean polysaccharide incorporated Zataria multiflora Boiss and Mentha pulegium essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarbashi, Davoud; Tajik, Sima; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Moayyed, Hamid; Khaksar, Ramin; Noghabi, Mostafa Shahidi

    2014-03-01

    An active edible film from soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) incorporated with different concentrations of Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) and Mentha pulegium (MEO) essential oils was developed, and the film's optical, wettability, thermal, total phenol and antioxidant characteristics were investigated, along with their antimicrobial effectiveness against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium. The film's colour became darker and more yellowish and had a lower gloss as the levels of ZEO or MEO were increased. Antioxidant activity of the films was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays. DPPH was reduced in the range of 19.84-74.12% depending on the essential oil type and concentration. Film incorporated with 3% (v/v) ZEO showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (IC50=4188.60±21.73mg/l and EC50=8.86±0.09mg/ml, respectively), compared with the control and MEO added film. Films containing ZEO were more effective against the tested bacteria than those containing MEO. S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive bacterium to both ZEO or MEO, followed by B. cereus and E. coli. A highest inhibition zone of 387.05mm(2) was observed for S. aureus around the films incorporated with 3% (v/v) ZEO. The total inhibitory zone of 3% (v/v) MEO formulated films was 21.98 for S. typhimurium and 10.15mm(2) for P. aeruginosa. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed a single glass transition temperature (Tg) between 16 and 31°C. The contact angle increased up to 175% and 38% as 3% (v/v) of ZEO or MEO used: it clearly shows that films with ZEO were more hydrophobic than those with MEO. The results showed that these two essential oils could be incorporated into SSPS films for food packaging.

  15. 新疆大果阿魏叶片及其油胶树脂化学成分研究%Study on Chemical Components Leaves and Resin of Ferula lehmanni Boiss in Xingjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文彬; 谭勇; 朱芸; 相颖

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] Essential oils chemical components of resin and basilar leaves from Ferula lehmanni Boiss were studied and found medicinal substitute of Ferula sinkiangensis and Ferula fukangensis. [Method] Chemical constituents of volatile oils from Ferula lehmanni Boiss were analyzed by GC-MS. [Result] 78 compositions had been identified from 84 chromato graphicpeaks. 77 compositions were seperated from the essential oil of resin and 63 kinds of compounds were identified. [Conclusion] GC-MS is a simple and accurate method for determination essential oils. The research results have important significance of looking for new Ferula plant medical resources and extending drug.%[目的]对大果阿魏的叶片挥发油化学成分进行了分析,寻找新疆阿魏和阜康阿魏的药用替代品.[方法]采用气相色谱-质谱联用法测定挥发油化学成分.[结果]从大果阿魏叶挥发油中分离出84个成分,鉴定出其中的78种化合物;树脂胶挥发油分离出77个成分,鉴定出63种化合物.[结论]运用气相色谱-质谱法分析阿魏挥发油,方法简便、准确,该研究结果对寻找新疆阿魏和阜康阿魏的代用品及为扩大阿魏药源具有重要意义.

  16. Étude de la toxicité des extraits foliaires d’Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. et Reut. (Euphorbiaceae chez Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. KEMASSI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of the toxicity of the crude acetone leaf extract of Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. and Reut. (Euphorbiaceae in Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775 (Orthoptera-Acrididea Abstract-This study examines the effect by ingestion of leaf cabbage sprayed with crude acetone extract of Euphorbia guyoniana leaves harvested in the Algerian Sahara on some biological parameters of larvae L5 and adult of desert locusts. The ingestion of cabbage leaves soaked in acetone extract of this Saharan plant generates a 100% mortality in larvae L5 and 66,67% for adult. A significant reduction in food intake was observed in the treated population compared to the control population. It results in a loss of exceptional weight ranging from 26,93% in larvae L5 to 33,09% in adults. Difficulties and anomalies are observed in moulting 16,66% of larvae L5 fed with cabbage leaves soaked in leaf extract of E. guyoniana. Dissection of adult females of the lot processing allows the observation of body regression demonstrating the depressant action of this extract on ovocyte cycle in the desert locust.

  17. Corología de tres táxones de interés en el macizo del Castro Valnera: Eriophorum vaginatum L., Gentiana acaulis L. y Gentiana boryi Boiss. [Chorology of three interesting plants from Castro Valnera (Cantabrian Mountains, N Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Alejandre Sáez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se ofrece una visión actualizada de la situación en el macizo del Castro Valnera de tres especies de alto interés regional: Eriophorum vaginatum L., Gentiana acaulis L. y Gentiana boryi Boiss. Se comentan datos sobre la historia de su descubrimiento en ese macizo. Se recogen y enumeran para cada uno de ellos los datos de recolecciones, citas bibliográficas y de campo. Con el conjunto de todas ellas se elaboran varios mapas. Finalmente, se aportan comentarios que contribuyen al conocimiento de su comportamiento ecológico y se apuntan algunas pautas y criterios a tener en cuenta para su protección. ABSTRACT: Chorology of three interesting plants from Castro Valnera (Cantabrian Mountains, N Spain. An updated view of the situation within the Castro Valnera mountain range of three species of high regional interest is provided: Eriophorum vaginatum L., Gentiana acaulis L. y Gentiana boryi Boiss. The history data of their discovery within that mountain range is discussed. Collections data and field citations are gathered and listed for each of them and several maps are drawn with the whole of them. Finally, comments that contribute to the knowledge of their environmental performance are provided, as well as some guidelines and criteria to be considered for their protection.

  18. Determination of Eight Metal Elements in Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet by Microwave Digestion-FAAS%用微波消解法-FAAS测定民族药腺毛菊苣根中八种金属元素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴凌鹏; 周晓英; 崔箭; 庞宗然; 刘宏炳; 葛亮

    2009-01-01

    The Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet is a traditional Uighur natural herbal medicine, but has not been analyzed and studied in terms of its metal elements. In the experiment, the Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet powder was digested with HNO_3 by microwave digestion before determination. The eight metal elements, potassium, nickel, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc, in Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet were determined by FAAS. The working conditions, accuracy and precision of the method were studied. The linear correlations of standard curves are good (r=0. 999 1-0. 999 9). The recovery (n=6) is 92. 25%-110. 5%, and the RSD (n=6) is 0. 7%-3.88%. The results showed that there were compara-tively rich metal elements, among which are comparatively high calcium (65.84 mg·g~(-1) ), iron (24.38 mg·g~(-1) ), magnesium (278. 17 mg·g~(-1)) and potassium (18. 50 mg·g~(-1)), in Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet, and the contents of other ele-ments are nickel of 0. 004 38 mg·g~(-1), manganese of 0. 52 mg·g~(-1), copper of 0. 016 5 mg·g~(-1) and zinc of 0. 18 mg·g~(-1).This provided useful data for discussing the relationship between the content of the metal elements in Cichorium glandulosumBoiss et Huet and its clinical application in cardiovascular and osteoporosis disease.%腺毛菊苣是新疆维吾尔族传统习用药材,但其药物中有效微量、常量元素成分尚未进行过分析研究.试验采用HNO_3作为消解液,利用微波消解的方法处理样品,原子吸收分光光度法测定维吾尔药材菊苣根中钾(K)、镍(Ni)、钙(Ca)、镁(Mg)、铁(Fe)、锰(Mn)、铜(Cu)和锌(Zn)八种微量、常量元素的含量,精密度和回收率较好,回收率控制在92.25%~110.5%之间,相对标准偏差RSD≤3.88%.结果显示新疆菊苣中Mg,Ca,Fe,K等人体所需的必须微量元素含量十分丰富,特别是Mg和Ca含量较高,分别达到278.17和65.84 mg·g~1.其他元素中Mg和Zn含量

  19. Comparative efficacy of Zataria multiflora Boiss., Origanum compactum and Eugenia caryophyllus essential oils against E. coli O157:H7, feline calicivirus and endogenous microbiota in commercial baby-leaf salads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizkhani, Maryam; Elizaquível, Patricia; Sánchez, Gloria; Selma, María Victoria; Aznar, Rosa

    2013-09-02

    Ready-to-eat salads using baby-leaf and multi-leaf mixes are one of the most promising developments in the fresh-cut food industry. There is great interest in developing novel decontamination treatments, which are both safe for consumers and more efficient against foodborne pathogens. In this study, emulsions of essential oils (EOs) from Origanum compactum (oregano), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove), and Zataria multiflora Boiss (zataria) were applied by spray (0.8 ml) after the sanitizing washing step. The aim was to investigate their ability to control the growth of potentially cross-contaminating pathogens and endogenous microbiota in commercial baby leaves, processed in a fresh-cut produce company. Zataria EO emulsions of 3%, 5% and 10% reduced Escherichia coli O157:H7 by 1.7, 2.2 and 3.5 log cfu/g in baby-leaf salads after 5 days of storage at 7°C. By contrast, reductions in E. coli O157:H7 counts remained the same when clove was applied at concentrations of 5% and 10% (2.5 log cfu/g reduction). Oregano (10%) reduced inoculated E. coli O157:H7 counts in baby-leaf salads by a maximum of 0.5 log cfu/g after 5 days of storage. Zataria showed strong antimicrobial efficacy against E. coli O157:H7 and also against the endogenous microbiota of baby-leaf salads stored for 9 days. Feline calicivirus (FCV), a norovirus surrogate, survived on inoculated baby-leaf salads during refrigerated storage (9 days at 7°C) regardless of treatment. Refrigeration temperatures completely annulled the effectiveness of the EOs against FCV inoculated in baby-leaf salads as occurred in FCV cultures. This study shows that EOs, and zataria in particular, have great potential use as an additional barrier to reduce contamination-related risks in baby-leaf salads. However, further research should be done into foodborne viruses in order to improve food safety.

  20. Bazı Yemişen Taksonlarında (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Crataegus x sinaica Boiss. Ekim Zamanının Çimlenme Oranına Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazin Cemal GÜLTEKİN

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Çalısmada, Crataegus x sinaica Boiss. ve Crataegus monogyna Jacq. tohumlarında ekim zamanının çimlenme yüzdesine etkileri arastırılmıstır. Bu amaçla, C. x sinaica meyveleri, Isparta Orman Bölge Müdürlügü sınırları içinde yer alan Sütçüler-Tota Orman İşletme Sefliğinden, C. monogyna meyveleri ise Egirdir-Asagıgökdere İşletme Sefliginden toplanmıstır. Her bir türden 20'ser adet birey seçilmis ve araştırma materyali meyveler, bu bireylerden 15-20 Eylül 2003 tarihleri arasında toplanmıstır. Tohumlar 5 farklı tarihte (03 Ekim 2003, 03 Kasım 2003, 03 Aralık 2003, 03 Ocak 2004 ve 03 Subat 2004 ekilmiştir. Ekim zamanları esas alındıgında, C. monogyna ve C. x sinaica tohumlarının çimlenme oranları arasında anlamlı (P<0.001 farklılıklar ortaya çıkmıstır. Buna göre; C. monogyna ve C. x sinaica türlerinde en yüksek çimlenme oranı (% 60,3 ve % 70,6 03 Ekim 2003 tarihli ekim isleminde saglanmıstır. En düsük çimlenme yüzdesi ise her iki tür için 03 Subat 2004 tarihinde yapılan ekimlerde elde edilmistir. Buna göre, çalısmamıza konu yemisen türlerinde tohumların eylül ayında toplanması ve toplanır toplanmaz ekilmesi önerilir. Aksi takdirde, soguk katlama zorunludur.

  1. Antiglycation Activity of Otostegia persica (Burm.) Boiss

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... Glycation and AGEP formation are also accompanied by the formation of free radicals via ... Abbreviations: DMSO, Dimethyl sulfoxide; BSA, bovine serum .... over silica gel and eluted with petroleum ether/EtOAc (58:42 and.

  2. Bioactivity of Centaurea persica boiss. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker Satyajit D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The free-radical-scavenging property, antibacterial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of petroleum ether (PE, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of Centaurea persica, a Turkish medicinal plant, were assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay, the resazurin microtiter plate based assay, and the brine shrimp lethality assay, respectively. Additionally, the disc diffusion assay was also used to assess antibacterial activity. Only the MeOH extract of C. persica exhibited a significant free-radical-scavenging property in the DPPH assay, with an RC50 value of 0.025 mg/mL. However, in the TLC-based qualitative assay, petroleum ether and DCM extracts showed an extremely low level of free-radical-scavenging property. Among the solid-phase extraction fractions of the MeOH extract, the fractions eluted with 60% and 80% MeOH in water exhibited the highest level of free-radicalscavenging activity (RC50 = 0.010 and 0.015 mg/mL, respectively. While DCM extract showed reasonable antibacterial activity against five out of the nine test strains both in the disc diffusion assay and in the resazurin assay, the MeOH extract was highly active against both Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli strains. Among the solid-phase extraction fractions of the MeOH extract, fractions eluted with 80% MeOH in water and 100% MeOH displayed significant antibacterial potencies against both E. coli species. None of the extracts showed any significant toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = >1.00 mg/mL.

  3. 不同采收期栽培宽叶羌活挥发性成分的研究%Comparison Analysis of Contents and Constituents of Volatile Oils Extracted from Cultivated Notopterygium forbesii H.Boiss Collected in Different Months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春丽; 周玉碧; 周国英; 徐文华; 杨路存

    2012-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取不同采收时间(5、6、7、8和9月)栽培宽叶羌活药材中的挥发油,测定其含量;通过GC-MS对挥发油成分进行了分析鉴定,并采用面积归一化法计算各组分的相对含量.实验结果表明,不同采收时间,栽培宽叶羌活挥发油含量存在差异,以8月份采收的药材挥发油含量最高;挥发油经GC-MS分析,共鉴定出39个化合物,有31种共有成分;对共有组分进行主成分分析显示,香桧烯、a-蒎烯、莰烯、β-蒎烯、γ-萜品烯、乙酸龙脑酯、α-红没药醇等15种成分可作为挥发油季节变化的特征组分.不同季节采集的羌活生药材,其挥发油含量和成分具有一定的差别,在一定程度上反映了其药用价值的微妙差异,可为羌活药材药理药用价值的进一步开发利用提供一定的参考.%To determine the contents and constituents of volatile oils extracted from cultivated Notopterygium forbesii H. Boiss vegetated in different months. Analyzed their seasonal dynamics and provided experiment foundation for reasonable utilization of Rhizoma et Radix Notopteiygii. Volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation. The chemical constituents were separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The relative content of each component was determined by area normalization. The difference of volatile oil contents was significant at the 0. 01 level between different samples. The content was highest in the sample collected in August,and lowest in the sample vegetated in May. Thirty nine constituents were identified by GC-MS analysis .and there were thirty one same compounds in the five samples. The principal components analysis of SPSS was applied to the study of characteristic compounds and separated 15 kinds of compounds as characteristic constituents of volatile oil extracted from cultivated N. forbesii H. Boiss. vegetated in different months. The contents and constituents of

  4. In vitro microtuberization of Black Zira (Bunium persicum Boiss.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hosein

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper ... meaning ''wild cumin'', and are used as a culinary spice. (Mortazavi et al. ... Khorasan Research Institute for Food Science and Technology in. Iran from 2010 to ...

  5. Optimization of mooseer (A. hirtifolium Boiss.) dehydration under infrared conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayjan, Reza Amiri; Fealekari, Mosayeb

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, infrared drying has gained popularity as an alternative drying method for a va- riety of agricultural products. The use of infrared radiation technology in drying agricultural products has several advantages. These may include decreased drying time, high energy efficiency, high-quality finished products and uniform temperature in the product. With intermittent infrared and convection heating of a thick porous material, the drying time can be reduced compared to convection alone, while keeping good food quality and high energy efficiency. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the drying con- ditions of mooseer under infrared-convective drying. Experiments were performed at air temperatures of  40, 55 and 70°C, infrared powers of 500, 1000 and 1500 W, air velocities of 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m/s and slice thicknesses of 2, 4, and 6 mm. In this study, effective moisture diffusivity (Deff), shrinkage, color changes and specific energy consumption (SEC) were investigated. The central composite design (CCD) was selected for the design and optimization of the process. Deff was obtained between 1.4×10 and 3.57×10    m /s. With increasing air temperature and slice –10                                  –9       2 thickness, Deff also increased. The level of shrinkage rose as slice thickness increased. The highest and lowest values of color changes were calculated at air temperatures of 70°C (52.3%) and 40°C (5.65%), respectively. Increasing air velocity led to an increase in SEC. Optimum conditions for mooseer drying were achieved at air temperature of 70°C, infrared power of 867.46, air velocity of 0.59 m/s and slice thickness of 2 mm. At this point, Deff, shrinkage, color changes and SEC was obtained as 1.32×10–9 m2/s, 29.58%, 17.62% and 4.64 MJ/kg, respectively. The desir- ability value of 0.689 was achieved for the drying process.  .

  6. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss.

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    Mai Mohammed Farid

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition, chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  7. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Effects of Moltkia aurea Boiss

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    Iclal Saracoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The water extract of M. aurea exhibited strong scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil ( DPPH, nitric oxide (NO and superoxide (SO radicals. The free radical scavenging effect of the extract was found comparable to that of reference antioxidants, 3-t-butyl-4-hydroxyanizole (BHA and ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C. Cytotoxic activity of the extract was also investigated against three different cancer cell lines, Hep-2 (human larynx epidermoid carcinoma, RD (human rhabdomyosarcoma, L-20B (transgenic murine L-cells and one non-cancerous cell line (VERO- African green monkey kidney epithelial cell using 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenytetrazolium bromide (MTT assayty. While dose dependent cytotoxic activity was observed against cancer cell lines, no cytotoxic effect on VERO cell line was found in the tested expe In addition, phochemical investigations to identify chemical content of the plant were resulted to the isolation of (+-syringaresinol-4′-O- b -glucopyranoside (1, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (2, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Rutine, 3 and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (4 on the basis of different spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR, HR ESI-MS.

  8. Effect of Alcohol Extract of Zataria multiflora (Boiss), Satureja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran, 3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,. Shahrekord ... structures and processes responsible for ..... immune-regulatory and anti-inflammatory effects.

  9. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. & Heldr. Hayek var. persica (Boiss. Wagenitz from Turkey

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    Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 μg/ml (in the DPPH assay. In the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 ω3 (α-linolenic acid by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.La capacidad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos y composición de ácidos grasos de C. kotschyi var. pérsica fueron investigados. Seis métodos químicos diferentes fueron realizados para la determinación de la capacidad antioxidante. La composición de ácidos grasos fue analizada por cromatografía de gases. Los valores de IC50 de los extractos fueron 37.09 μg/ml (en el ensayo con DPPH. En el sistema β-carotene/ácido linoleico, el extracto mostró un 65.22% de inhibición frente a la oxidación del ácido linoleico. La cantidad total de contenido fenólico y capacidad antioxidante total fueron 36.52 mg equivalentes de ácido gallico (GAE/g y 74.93 mg equivalentes de ácido ascórbico (AE/g, respectivamente. El principal ácidos graso encontrado, por análisis de CG, en C. kotschyi var. pérsica fue el C 18:3 ω3 (ácido α-linolenico. Los resultados presentados aquí indican que C. kotschyi var. pérsica posee unas fuertes propiedades antioxidantes. Además, las especies pueden ser usadas como aditivos naturales en los alimentos, en cosmética y en industria farmacéutica.

  10. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. and Heldr.) Hayek var. persica (Boiss.) Wagenitz from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengin, G.; Guler, G.O.; Cakmak, Y.S.; Aktumseka, A.

    2011-07-01

    The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 ig/ml (in the DPPH assay). In the {beta}carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE)/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 u3 ({beta}-linolenic acid) by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. (Author).

  11. Towards a Terminologia Neuroanatomica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, H.J. ten; Broman, J.; Neumann, P.E.; Puelles, L.; Riva, A.; Tubbs, R.S.; Kachlik, D.

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with a recent revision of the terminology of the Sections Central Nervous System (CNS; Systema nervosum centrale) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS; Systema nervosum periphericum) of the Terminologia Anatomica (TA, 1998) and the Terminologia Histologica (TH, 2008). These sections

  12. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the endemic species Glaucium vitellinum Boiss. and Buhse

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    Mina Mehrara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Belonging to Papaveraceae family, Glaucium vitellinum is one of the Persian endemic plants which has not been investigated biologically. The present paper focused on the assessment of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the total methanol extract and alkaloid sub-fraction of the flowering aerial parts of G. vitellinum. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated using cup plate method and disc diffusion assay, respectively. The MIC values of the active samples were determined using micro plate dilution method. Results: The crude extract and alkaloid sub-fraction of G. vitellinum had significant inhibition activity on the growth of S. aureus and S. typhi. From antifungal assay, it is concluded that only the yeast C. albicans, showed a high sensitivity to the extract and especially to the related alkaloid sub-fraction. Conclusions: Regarding the results, G. vitellinum could be employed as a natural antibacterial and antifungal agent against S. aureus, S. typhi, and C. albicans, respectively. Moreover, based on the results of this study, further in vivo and ex vivo confirmatory tests for total methanol extract and alkaloid sub-fraction are recommended.

  13. Evaluation of antinociceptive and antimicrobial activities of galbanum plant (Ferula gumosa Boiss

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    B. S. Fazly Bazzaz

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the antinociceptive and antimicrobial activities of galbanum plant (Ferula gumosa, various parts of the plant were collected at specific seasons. Aerial parts and root of the plant were dried in shady place and grinded to desirable. Unnatural and natural gum resins did not have the drying and grinding stages. The alcohol-aqueous (33%extract was obtained by masuration and the solvent was removed by rotary evaporator at low temperature and vaccum condition. The essential oil was extracted by water and steam distillation. Its antinociceptive effect was investigated in mice using hot plate method. Antibacterial effect was determined using paper disk method. The results suggest that the maximum antinociceptive effect (efficacy of root and aerial parts extract was higher than morphine and maximum effect of unnatural and natural gum resins extract was equal to morphine. The maximum effect of essential oil and unnatural gum resin was less than morphine but potency of these preparations were less than morphine. The amount of microbial growth inhibition of all extracts was less than chloramphenicol (30 ;ug on gram positive bacteria, but these extracts have not any growth inhibitory effect on gram negative baceria. These extracts inhibited fungus growth equal to nystatin (100units. "nThese results in conjunction with economic considerations suggest the usefulness of aerial parts of plant for medical treatment.

  14. Bioactivity-guided isolation of spasmolytic components of Pycnocycla spinosa Decne ex Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Behzad, S

    2011-07-01

    Hydroalcoholic extract of Pycnocycla spinosa has spasmolytic effect in vitro and antidiarrhoeal action in vivo. The aim of this research was to separate fractions of total hydroalcoholic extract of P. spinosa guided by their spasmolytic activity. Aerial parts of P. spinosa were extracted with ethanol. The concentrated extract was subjected to column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Initially four fractions were obtained (F1, F2, F3, and F4) and their spasmolytic activities were determined on ileum contraction induced by KCl (80 mM). The more active fraction was subjected to further isolation and tested to find its most active components. The active component was phytochemically characterized using phytochemical methods including ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. spinosa (10-320 μg/ml) in a concentration dependent manner inhibited ileum contraction with the IC(50) value of 47 ± 8.1 μg/ml (mean ± S.E.M., n=6). Fraction F2 was the most potent inhibitor of ileum contraction (IC(50)= 3.4 ± 0.33 μg/ml). From five sub-fractions separated from fraction F2 (F2a, F2b, F2c, F2d, and F2e, respectively), F2c was a more active component with the IC(50) value of 2.6 ± 0.27 μg/ml. The primary results of target fraction (F2c) showed sugar moiety in its structure or in one of its components. In this research we have isolated pharmacological active fraction which is most likely responsible for antispasmodic action of P. spinosa hydroalcoholic extract.

  15. Antimutagenic activity of major fractions of Zataria multiflora Boiss by Ames method

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    Fariba Sharififar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zataria multiflora is a medicinal plant that has been interested in antimutagenicity effect because of its high antioxidant activity and richness of flavonoids. Antimutagenicity effect of total extract of the plant has been reported previously. Aerial parts of Z. multiflora were extracted by petroleum ether, chloroform and 80% methanol by liquid-liquid extraction method consequently. The fractions were concentrated in vacuum and dried at 40°C in oven. The genotype of two standard strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA98, TA100 was confirmed by the evaluation of two important factors of histidine requirement and the presence of R factor. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC of the fractions against these two strains was determined by agar dilution method. From each fraction, various concentrations less than MIC were studied for anti-mutagenic test. The sample along with bacterial strain and mutagen agent were incubated at 37°C for 48 h. The number of revertant colonies was counted and compared with control plates. Our results showed that all fractions especially petroleum ether and chloroform ones maintain the number of colonies in the standard range in control plates and prevent from the growth of many strains of bacteria and increase of revertant colonies enhancement in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was prominent against TA100 starin. Methanolic fraction exhibited anti-mutagen activity just in the highest used concentration in the presence of TA98.

  16. Effects of tree architecture on pollen dispersal and mating patterns in Abies pinsapo Boiss. (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; García-Castaño, Juan L; Balao, Francisco; Terrab, Anass; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Tremetsberger, Karin; Talavera, Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Plant architecture is crucial to pollination and mating in wind-pollinated species. We investigated the effect of crown architecture on pollen dispersal, mating system and offspring quality, combining phenotypic and genotypic analyses in a low-density population of the endangered species Abies pinsapo. A total of 598 embryos from three relative crown height levels (bottom, middle and top) in five mother plants were genotyped using eleven nuclear microsatellite markers (nSSRs). Paternity analysis and mating system models were used to infer mating and pollen dispersal parameters. In addition, seeds were weighed (N = 16 110) and germinated (N = 736), and seedling vigour was measured to assess inbreeding depression. Overall, A. pinsapo shows a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, with an average pollen dispersal distance of 113-227 m, an immigration rate of 0.84-26.92%, and a number of effective pollen donors (Nep ) ranging between 3.5 and 11.9. We found an effect of tree height and relative crown height levels on mating parameters. A higher proportion of seeds with embryo (about 50%) and a higher rate of self-fertilization (about 60%) were found at the bottom level in comparison with the top level. Seed weight and seedling vigour are positively related. Nevertheless, no differences were found in seed weight or in seedling-related variables such as weight and length of aerial and subterranean parts among the different relative crown height levels, suggesting that seeds from the more strongly inbred bottom level are not affected by inbreeding depression. Our results point to vertical isotropy for outcross-pollen and they suggest that self-pollen may ensure fertilization when outcross-pollen is not available in low-density population.

  17. Antiproliferative evaluation of terpenoids and terpenoid coumarins from Ferulago macrocarpa (Fenzl Boiss. fruits

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    Seyed-Ebrahim Sajjadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago macrocarpa is a plant used as flavoring agent and protectant in the food industry and as a folk medicinal plant in Iran with no available information on its chemical identity. Ferulago spp. showed to contain biologically terpenoids and coumarins. Objective: The objective was to isolate and characterize terpenoids and coumarins from the acetone extract of F. macrocarpa fruits and to evaluate their antiproliferative effects on several cell lines. Materials and Methods: A series of normal and reverse phase gravity and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses were used to purify constituents. Compounds 1-5 and 7 were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects on MCF-7, HT-29 and H-1299 cell lines. Results: Six compounds including bornyl acetate (1, 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (2, stigmasterol (3 and three coumarins grandivittin (4, prantschimgin (5 and 4"-hydroxygrandivittin (7 along with mixtures of feruloyl derivatives (6a-6c have been purified. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance and MS analyses. Compound 2 showed moderate cytotoxicity effect with IC 50 values of 5.0 and 6.7 mM on MCF-7 and HT-29, respectively. Conclusion: 1,10-di-epi-Cubenol could be considered as a potential proliferation inhibitor of MCF-7 and HT-29 cell lines.

  18. Antimicrobial and Insecticidal Activities of the Endemic Thymus broussonetti Boiss. and Thymus maroccanus Ball

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    Moulay A. E. A. ElFels

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial and the insecticidal activities of essential oils (EOs extracted from the leaves of Thymus broussonetii and Thymus maroccanus . These two endemic plants of Morocco, which are traditionally used in medicinal remedies, were collected from Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz region. The EOs were extracted by direct steam distillation and their chemical constituents were analyzed and quantified by gas GC-MS and GC. The dominant components identified were p-cymene (21.0%, borneol (16.5%, α-pinene (11.8% and thymol (11.3% for T. broussonetti and carvacrol (33.0%, p-cymene (25.3% and α-pinene (11.6% for T. maroccanus . The investigation by the agar-diffusion method of the antibacterial activity of EOs proved that they have antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus , Salmonella sp. , Escherichia coli, Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae and Bacillus subtilis . The obtained results showed that T. maroccanus EOs possessed higher antibacterial effects on some studied bacteria than T. broussonetti EOs. The EOs of T. broussonetii and T. maroccanus also presented insecticidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Culex pipiens .

  19. Pentacylic triterpenes ofJurinea anatolic boiss. andJurinea consanguinea DC. Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczak, K L; Smith, C R

    1967-03-01

    Pentacyclic triterpene alcohols, together with their acetate, myristate, and palmitate esters, comprise about 40% of the petroleum ether extract of the fruit (seed and pericarp) of twoJurinea species. All the triterpene esters and a porition of the free triterpene alcohols in theJ. anatolica extract are derived from the pericarp portion of the fruit. The triterpene alcohol moieties and their approximate percentage of the hydrolyzed extract ofJ. anatolica fruit are alpha-amyrin, 5%; beta-amyrin, 6%; lupeol, 6%; and psi-taraxasterol plus taraxasterol, 16%.J. consanguinea fruit extract yields essentially the same amount of the same five triterpene alcohols on hydrolysis. These concentrations of triterpenoid materials are believed to be the largest found in plant tissues.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolites isolated from Centaurea spruneri Boiss. & Heldr.

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    ANA ĆIRIĆ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two coumarins, scopoletin (1 and isoscopoletin (2, two simple phenolic acids, protocatechuic acid (3 and isovanillic acid (4 and one flavonoid, eriodictyol (5 were isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurea spruneri. The structure of the compounds was established by spectroscopic methods. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds was tested against eight bacteria and eight fungal species, using a microdilution method. All compounds tested showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations were in the range 0.655–2.38 µmol ml-1 and their minimal bactericidal concentrations ranged from 0.694 to 4.15 µmol ml-1 against the tested bacterial species. All compounds showed fungistatic activity at 0.259–2.38 µmol ml-1 and fungicidal at 0.69–2.6 µmol ml-1 against all fungi tested.

  1. Investigating the effect of Phlomis lanceolata Boiss and hohen on cancer cell lines.

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    Farnaz Soltani-Nasab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Phlomis lanceolata is a medicinal plant that has long been used to treat various conditions such as diabetes, gastric ulcer, hemorrhoids, inflammation and wounds. As most of Phlomis species have shown cytotoxic activity against proliferation of different cell lines, a biological investigation of P. lanceolata was carried out in this study. The aim of this study was to find out the in vitro cytotoxic activity of total extract and different fractions of Phlomis lanceolata on four cell lines. Cytotoxic activity of the metanolic total extract and partition fractions of chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether of flowering aerial parts of Phlomis lanceolata on the HT29, Caco2, T47D and NIH3T3 cell lines is examined by MTT. Petroleum ether fraction showed high cytotoxic activity against proliferation of all four cell lines. Presence of heavy triterpens and lipophil compounds recognized by TLC test in Petroleum ether fraction is responsible for high cytotoxic activity. The results emphasize the importance of phytochemical studies which could lead to the discovery of new active compounds.

  2. Antibiofilm, Antioxidant, Antimutagenic Activities and Phenolic Compounds of Allium orientale BOISS.

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    Ozgur Ceylan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This is the first study to investigate the antibiofilm, antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and phenolic compounds of Allium orientale. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of A. orientale was determined by a broth microdilution method. Antibiofilm activity was evaluated by microplate biofilm assay. The antioxidant activity was determined using three complementary assays; namely, DPPH scavenging, β-carotene-linoleic acid, and total phenolic compounds assays. Phenolic compounds were evaluated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The antimutagenic effect of extracts was analyzed by the Ames test. In RP-HPLC analysis, (+-catechin, apigenin and caffeic acid were identified as major phenolic compounds in the aerial parts of A. orientale. The aerial parts extract possessed the highest total phenolic content (120.979 ± 1.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, which were in good correlation with its significant DPPH (IC50 42.18 ± 1.68 mg/mL and lipid peroxidation (89.98 ± 0.69% at 10 mg/mL concentration capacities. A. orientale exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested with MICs ranging from 3.125 to 25 mg/mL. Escherichia coli biofilm formation was inhibited maximum by the aerial parts extract to an extent of 68.51%. The strongest antimutagenic activity was observed at 2.5 mg/plate concentration of aerial parts extract against Salmonella typhimurium TA98.These results suggested that the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of A.orientale could become useful supplement for pharmaceutical products as a new antioxidant, antibiofilm and antimutagenic agent.

  3. Regulation of Water Use in the Southernmost European Fir (Abies pinsapo Boiss.: Drought Avoidance Matters

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    Raúl Sánchez-Salguero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current scenario of global warming has resulted in considerable uncertainty regarding the capacity of forest trees to adapt to increasing drought. Detailed ecophysiological knowledge would provide a basis to forecast expected species dynamics in response to climate change. Here, we compare the water balance (stomatal conductance, xylem water potential, needle osmotic adjustment of Abies pinsapo, a relict drought-sensitive Mediterranean fir, along an altitudinal gradient. We related these variables to soil water and nutrient availability, air temperature, atmospheric water potential, and vapour pressure deficit during two consecutive years. Our results indicate that A. pinsapo closed stomata rapidly over a very narrow range of soil water availability and atmospheric dryness. This isohydric response during water stress suggests that this relict conifer relied on the plant hormone abscisic acid to maintain closed stomata during sustained drought, instead of needle desiccation to passively drive stomatal closure, needle osmotic adjustment or a plastic response of the xylem to different levels of water availability. Both the soil and foliar nutrient contents suggest that the studied populations are not limited by nutrient deficiencies, and drought was stronger in the warmer low-elevation areas.

  4. Seasonal variation of mono- and sesquiterpenoid components in the essential oil of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Asghari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Dracocephalum kotschyi is a plant which belongs to the Lamiaceae family and exists mostly in south-west Asian countries, including Iran. This plant is used as antispasmodic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory to treat rheumatoid diseases. Methods: In order to investigate the impact of the harvesting time changes on the quantity and quality of mono- and sesquiterpenoid components of D. kotschyi aerial parts, ten samples were collected from cultivated plants from 19 April to 27 August 2013. Also samples of flower and root were harvested in order to investigate their essential oil components. The essential oils were obtained through hydrodistillation method. The components were studied and identified by GC and GC ⁄ MS systems. Results: The highest yield of the essential oil was obtained on 3 May (1.10% V.W and the lowest on 28 July (0.29% V.W. Totally 55 compounds were identified in the essential oil while the highest percentage belonged to monoterpenes especially the oxygenated ones. Most variations were observed in geraniol (1.40-15.34%, geranyl acetate (trace-14.41% and neryl acetate (0.62-17.51%. The major value in most cases belonged to geranial. Conclusion: the results of this study indicate that the harvesting time of plant is an effective factor in the quality and quantity of theessential oil of Dracocephalum kotschyi.

  5. valuation of Germination Characteristics for Hedysarum Criniferum Boiss in Alternative Temperature and Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahbazi

    2016-05-01

    24-26 °C day-night and four drought levels (0, -2, -4, and -6 bar with three replications. According to the results, different levels of drought stress and alternative temperature had significant effects on germination percentage and germination speed of the species seeds (α=5%. The study showed that increasing temperature and drought levels leads to reducing the germination percentage and germination speed of the species. Higher germination percentage of H. criniferum seeds in different drought levels compared to alternative temperature levels of 24-26 °C indicated that this species is more sensitive to higher temperature than high levels of drought condition. Therefore, it could partly be concluded that the H. criniferum is a relatively drought resistance species.

  6. Terpenes and polyacetylenes from cultivated Artemisia granatensis boiss (Royal chamomile) and their defensive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, Alejandro F; Herrador del Pino, M Mar; Portero, Adriana González; Burón, Pilar Arteaga; Arteaga, Jesús F; Alquézar, Jesús Burillo; Díaz, Carmen Elisa; Coloma, Azucena González

    2013-10-01

    Artemisia granatensis, an endemic endangered plant species from Sierra Nevada (Spain) has been successfully cultivated in artificial systems (plants in artificial soil and transformed in vitro roots) to generate enough plant biomass (aerial and root) to allow for its chemical and biological study and at the same time to provide with methods for the sustainable production of the plant and its metabolites. A eudesmanolide (17) along with six sesquiterpenes (11-16), nine monoterpenes (2-10), one nor-monoterpene (1), three acetylenic spiroacetal enoleters (18-20) and one coumarin (21) have been identified from the aerial plant ethanolic extract. Acetylenic spiroacetal enoleters 18-19 and coumarins 21-23 have been isolated from the transformed root ethanolic extract. These extracts and some isolated compounds or mixtures of them have been tested for their insect antifeedant effects against Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi. Significant antifeedant properties were determined for the aerial plant extract, spiroacetals 19-20 and secoguaianolides 13+14 and 16.

  7. Stabilization of soybean oil during accelerated storage by essential oil of ferulago angulata boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ehsan; Mahtabani, Aidin; Etminan, Alireza; Karami, Farahnaz

    2016-02-01

    This study has been considered effect of Ferulago angulata essential oil on stabilizing soybean oil during accelerated storage. The essential oil was extracted by Clevenger-type apparatus. For analysis of the essential oil, GC/MS was used. Main components of the essential oil were monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of F. angulata at four concentrations, i.e. 125 (SBO-125), 250 (SBO-250), 500 (SBO-500) and SBO-Mixture (60 ppm TBHQ +60 ppm essential oil) were added to preheated refined soybean oil. TBHQ was used at 120 ppm as standard besides the control. Antioxidant activity index (AAI), free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (p-AnV) were served for appreciation of efficacy of F. angulata in stabilization of soybean oil. Results from different tests showed that SBO-mixture had highest effect and followed by SBO-TBHQ, SBO-250, SBO-125, SBO-500 and Ctrl. These results reveal F. angulata is a strong antioxidant and can be used instead of synthetic antioxidant.

  8. Free radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition of Hypericum helianthemoides (spach Boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Moein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are compounds that obstruct the oxidation of macromolecules in the body. In general, there are two categories of antioxidants, natural and synthetic. Recently, interest has been increased considerably for obtaining new natural antioxidants. In this study, the scavenging of free radicals such as DPPH, NO and OH by Hypericum helianthemoides extract was evaluated. Also, the antioxidant properties of this extract were evaluated by FRAP, FTC methods and determination phenolic compounds. The plant was collected from north of Fars Province and plant extraction was obtained using ethanol. In DPPH radical scavenging, different concentrations of the Hypericum extract were added to DPPH radical. In hydroxyl radical scavenging, Fenton reaction mixture, TCA and TBA were mixed with Hypericum extract. In nitric radical scavenging, nitropruside was mixed with Hypericum extract and then sulphanilic acid, naphthylene diamine were added. In determination of phenolic compounds, Folin-ciocalteu and sodium carbonate were added to Hypericum extract. In DPPH radical scavenging, the IC50 of Hypericum extract (309.35±6.5μg/ml was higher than the antioxidant standards, BHT (IC50=81.9±2.6 μg/ml and quercetin (IC50=60.04±6.48 μg/ml. The highest scavenging of hydroxyl radicals was observed in Hypericum extract (70.3±0.8%, 125 μg/ml. In gallic acid it was (73.8±3.3%. In 200 μg/ml of Hypericum extract scavenged NO radical (85.2±2.7%. In FRAP method, the IC50 of this extract was 109.7±10.5 μg/ml. In FTC method, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by Hypericum extract, BHT and ascorbic acid were 59.2±2.2, 66.9±0.15, 64.06±0.02 respectively. Total phenol of the plant extract was 3±0.4 mg/g.

  9. Acute Toxicity Of Euphorbia Royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae latex on freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes Fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae Toxicidad aguda del látex de Euphorbia royleana Boiss (Euphorbiaceae en el bagre de agua dulce, Heteropneutes fossilis (Siluriformes, Heteropneustidae

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    Prasad ManiRam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An acute toxicity test was performed by using a four-day static renewal test to determine the LC50 value of aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex for the freshwater fsh, Heteropneustes fossilis. The LC50 values, their upper and lower confdence limits and slope functions were calculated. The LC50 values for aqueous extract of Euphorbia royleana latex at various exposure periods were 7.758 mg/L for 24 h, 5.847 mg/L for 48 h, 4.474 mg/L for 72 h and 3.090 mg/L for 96 h. The regression coeffcient showed that there was signifcant negative correlation between exposure time and different LC values. Hence, it is concluded that the concentration to produce toxicity of latex of Euphorbia royleana is comparable and close to the concentration to produce toxicity of synthetic organophosphates pesticides for the fsh H. fossilis. Therefore, adequate precautions must be taken when Euphorbia royleana latex is being used near fsh- inhabited areas.La prueba de la toxicidad aguda fue realizada utilizando un test estático con renovación, de cuatro días de duración, para determinar el valor de la CL50 de un extracto acuoso del látex de Euphorbia royleana, en el pez de agua dulce Heteropneustes fossilis. Se calcularon el valor de la CL50, los límites de confanza máximo y mínimo y la pendiente. Los valores de la CL50 para el extracto acuoso del látex en varios períodos de exposición fueron 7,758 mg/L para 24 h, 5,847 mg/L para 48 h, 4,474 mg/L para 72 h y 3,090 mg/L para 96 h. El coefciente de regresión mostró una correlación negativa signifcativa entre el tiempo de exposición y diferentes valores de la CL50. Se concluye que la concentración del látex de E. royleana que produce toxicidad es comparable y cercana a la de los plaguicidas sintéticos organofosforados para el pez H. fossilis. Por lo tanto, se deben tomar precauciones adecuadas cuando el látex de E. royleana es utilizado cerca de áreas donde habita el pez H. fossilis.

  10. Antidiarrheal activities of isovanillin, iso-acetovanillon and Pycnocycla spinosa Decne ex.Boiss extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Ghanadian, M; Asghari, G; Azali, N

    2014-01-01

    Isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon are two phenolic components isolated from a number of plants including Pycnocycla spinosa. P. spinosa extract has antispasmodic and antidiarrheal activities. However, no comparative study has been done on antidiarrheal action of isovanillin and iso- acetovanillon, so far. The aim of this study was to investigate antidiarrheal action of isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon and their effects on small intestinal transit, for comparison with propantheline. Male mice (25-30 g), fasted over night with free access to water, were treated with test compounds or control (p.o.). Thirty min later castor oil (0.5 ml) was given orally to the animals. In another groups of animals MgSO4 (0.5 ml of 10% solution) was given first and half an hour later the test drugs were administered. Onset and number of wet defecations were recorded for each animal over 3.5 h after treatment with diarrhoea inducing agents. In another groups, intestinal transit of charcoal meal was determined following administration of the compounds. Isovanillin (2 mg/kg & 5 mg/kg), iso-acetovanillon (2 mg/kg & 5 mg/kg) and P. spinosa extract (5 mg/kg) delayed onset of diarrhoea and significantly reduced wet defecation induced by castor oil and MgSO4. They all had antidiarrheal effect similar to propantheline (5 mg/kg). Isovanillin, iso-acetovanillon and P. spinosa extract compared to control groups, significantly reduced small intestinal transit of charcoal meal. This study shows that antidiarrheal effect of P. spinosa extract is at least partially due to presence of two active compounds isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon.

  11. Antibacterial activity of fruit, leaves extracts of Artemisia Persica Boiss ,Rhus Coriaria, Ephedra Intermedia and Daphne Mucronata Royle of Lorestan

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    gholamreza Talei

    2004-01-01

    Conclusion: Rhus Coriaria or Lorian sumac has strong antibacterial activities on gram positive bacteria particularly on the entrococci. Animal and clinical trial of this extract may be useful for possible use of Rhus Coriaria against antibiotic resistant Enterococci infections.

  12. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

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    Ali Niaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982 at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA and Teucrium stocksianum (CST had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development.

  13. Systematic of genera Pulicaria Gaertn. and Platycheteae Boiss. from tribe Inuleae s.str (Asteraceae in Iran

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    Peyman Zarin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pulicaria Gaertn belongs to the tribe Inuleae (Asteraceae. This genus includes five species in Iran (P. dysenterica, P. vulgaris, P. Arabica, P. gnaphalodes and P. salvifolia. The most diagnostic morphological characteristics were kind of pappus, achene, corolla, phyllaries and form of leafs. In the recent study by Anderberg, focusing on the close relationship between the genus Pulicaria and platychaete, they have been announced synonymous. Platychaete includes five species in Iran (P. glucescens, P. carnosa, P. velutina, P. mucronifolia and P. aucheri. In this study the relationships between them were confirmed and therefore, the Anderberg’s view of convergence of the two genera was attested. Also, species identification key, phenogram and distribution map in Iran were provided and discussed.

  14. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Volatile Oil of Salvia santolinifolia Boiss. From Southeast of Iran

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    Mir Babak Bahadori, Hassan Valizadeh , Mahdi Moridi Farimani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salvia santolinifolia is a medicinal plant, traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, hypercholesterolemia, hemorrhoids and diarrhea. Discovery of new natural antimicrobial agents is necessary because of microorganism’s resistance to common antibiotics. Methods: Essential oil of S. santolinifolia was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Antibacterial, antifungal and general toxic activities of the essential oil were also evaluated. Results: Chemical analysis of the oil revealed that α-pinene (49.3%, β-eudesmol (20.0%, camphene (7.8% and limonene (7.7% are the major components of the essential oil of S. santolinifolia. The inhibition zones ranged from 11.5 to 23.8 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the oil obtained from 200 to 800 µg/ml against several microbial strains. Conclusion: Our results showed that the volatile oil of S. santolinifolia could be considered as a rich source of natural agents for several uses as antibiotics against human pathogenic microbes.

  15. Allelopathy of Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae) on germination and early development of Bidens pilosa (L.) and Glycine max (L.) Merr

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica da Silva; Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes; Fernanda Melo Gomes; Tassiane Terezinha Pinto; Thaliny Bonamigo; Nayara Parisoto Boiago

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the possible presence of allelopathic potential in camelina, as well as its effect on germination and early growth of soybean seedlings and beggarticks, in order, to verify the possibility of cultivating it with soybeans in a culture rotation system and its use as a herbicide. The experiments were carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Physiology of Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. The design was completely randomized and the evaluations...

  16. Allelopathy of Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae on germination and early development of Bidens pilosa (L. and Glycine max (L. Merr

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    Jéssica da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the possible presence of allelopathic potential in camelina, as well as its effect on germination and early growth of soybean seedlings and beggarticks, in order, to verify the possibility of cultivating it with soybeans in a culture rotation system and its use as a herbicide. The experiments were carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Physiology of Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. The design was completely randomized and the evaluations were held daily. The parameters under analysis were: germination percentage, time and average speed of germination, and average root lenght. The data obtained underwent the F-Test and the mean values were compared through Tukey’s test, at a 5% probability level. The results confi rm the presence of allelopathic potential in camelina. It was found that this species can be considered an option for cultivating with soybean, due to the positive allelophatic interference caused in the culture and because it can be used in the control of weeds such as beggartick, having in mind that that it has delayed the development of the seedlings tested.

  17. A forest simulation approach using weighted Voronoi diagrams. An application to Mediterranean fir Abies pinsapo Boiss stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abellanas, B.; Abellanas, M.; Pommerening, A.; Lodares, D.; Cuadros, S.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. a) To present a new version of the forest simulator Vorest, an individual-based spatially explicit model that uses weighted Voronoi diagrams to simulate the natural dynamics of forest stands with closed canopies. b) To apply the model to the current dynamics of a Grazalema pinsapo stand to identify the nature of its competition regime and the stagnation risks it is currently facing. Area of study: Sierra del Pinar de Grazalema (S Spain) Material and methods: Two large plots representative of Grazalema pinsapo stands were used to fit and validate the model (plus 6 accesory plots to increase the availability of mortality data). Two inventories were carried out in 1998 and 2007 producing tree size and location data. We developed a forest simulator based on three submodels: growth, competition and mortality. The model was fitted, evaluated and validated for Grazalema plots. The simulation outputs were used to infer the expected evolution of structural diversity of forest stands. Main results: Vorest has proved to be a good tool for simulating dynamics of natural closed stands. The application to Grazalema pinsapo stands has allowed assessing the nature of the main processes that are driving its development pathway. We have found that the prevailing size-asymmetric competition dominates the self-thinning process in small-sized trees. At the same time, there is an active tree-size differentiation process. Research highlights: Vorest has proved to be a good tool for simulating natural stands with closed canopies. The Grazalema pinsapo stand under consideration is currently undergoing a natural process of differentiation, avoiding long-term stagnation. (Author)

  18. A forest simulation approach using weighted Voronoi diagrams. An application to Mediterranean fir Abies pinsapo Boiss stands

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    Begoña Abellanas

    2016-07-01

    • The Grazalema pinsapo stand under consideration is currently undergoing a natural process of differentiation, avoiding long-term stagnation. Keywords: Vorest; stand dynamics; individual-based forest model; spatially explicit forest model; pinsapo.

  19. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties of Nepeta crassifolia Boiss & Buhse and Nepeta binaludensis Jamzad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundis, Rosa; Nadjafi, Farsad; Menichini, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    This article reports phytochemical and biological studies on Nepeta binaludensis and Nepeta crassifolia. Both species were investigated for their angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties through three in vitro models [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay]. Aerial parts were extracted with methanol and partitioned between water and subsequently n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. N. binaludensis methanol extract exerted significantly higher reducing power (1.9 μM Fe(II)/g) than did the positive control butylhydroxytoluene (63.2 μM Fe(II)/g) in FRAP assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was found for N. crassifolia, with IC50 values of 9.6 and 12.1 µg/mL for ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions, respectively. n-Butanol fraction of both species showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 59.3 and 81.7 µg/mL for N. binaludensis and N. crassifolia, respectively. Phytochemical investigations resulted in the isolation of ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, apigenin, luteolin and ixoroside. Apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 8-hydroxycirsimaritin and cirsimaritin were furthermore identified in N. crassifolia ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. Nepetanudoside B was isolated from the n-butanol fraction of N. binaludensis.

  20. Meiotic chromosome number and behavior of six populations of Onobrychis melanotricha Boiss. (O. sect. Heliobrychis in Iran

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    Massoud Ranjbar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Onobrychis Mill. with about 130 species in 9 sections is one of the most valued legumes distributed mainly in temperate regions of north hemisphere. However, its main centers of diversity are eastern Mediterranean and southwestern Asia. O. sect. Heliobrychis is the largest section of the genus and has nearly 21 species in Iran. In this investigation, the chromosome number and meiotic behavior were studied in 6 populations of O. melanotricha. All taxa were diploid and had the basic chromosome number of 2n=2x=16. Although the taxa represented regular meiosis, some abnormalities such as laggard and fragmented chromosomes in anaphase/telophase I, II and diakinesis/methaphase I, cytomixis in anaphase/telophase I, II, micronucleus in telophase II, multipolar cells in telophase II, bridges in anaphase I and asynchronous nuclei in metaphase II and telophase I and II were observed.

  1. In vitro effects of Thai medicinal plants on human lymphocyte activity

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    Pranee Chavalittumrong

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the effects of Cleistocalyx nervosum var paniala, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Gynura procumbens, Houttuynia cordata, Hyptis suaveolens, Portulaca grandiflora, Phytolacca americana and Tradescantia spathacea on lymphocyte proliferation and the effects of C. nervosum, G. pentaphyllum, H. suaveolens and P. grandiflora on natural killer (NK cells activity. All of the extracts significantly stimulated human lymphocyte proliferative responses at various concentrations depending on each extract. The extracts of C. nervosum and H. suaveolens were significantly enhanced NK cells activity while those of G. pentaphyllum and P. grandiflora did not alter NK cells function. Our results suggested that the extracts of those plants have stimulating activity on human lymphocytes and could be clinically useful for modulating immune functions of the body.

  2. In vitro and in vivo comparison of the biological activities of two traditionally and widely used Arum species from Jordan: Arum dioscoridis Sibth & Sm. and Arum palaestinum Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Fatma U; Kasabri, Violet; Litescu, Simona C; Abaza, Ismail M

    2016-08-01

    Arum dioscoridis and A. palaestinum (Araceae) are indigenous plant species in Jordan. HPLC-MS analysis of A. dioscoridis revealed the presence of apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-β-glucoside, vitexin, isoorientin, esculin, and caffeic and ferulic acids. Both Arum spp., influenced gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid digestion and absorption. Orlistat inhibited dose dependently and highly substantially pancreatic lipase (PL) in vitro. Similar to orlistat, Arum species aqueous extracts (AEs), apigenin, caffeic acid and esculin exhibited a concentration related PL inhibition. Comparable to acarbose, dual inhibition of α-amylase/α-glucosidase was observed for both Arum species. Like guar gum, A. dioscoridis AE minimised substantially area under 24 h glucose curve. Acute starch-induced postprandial hyperglycaemia in overnight fasting rats was highly significantly (p < 0.001) decreased by A. dioscoridis AE. A. palaestinum could not perform effectively in either starch- or glucose-fed fasting rats. No antiproliferative effects against colorectal cancer cell lines HT29, HCT116 and SW620 were detected for tested Arum spp.

  3. An efficient method in breaking of dormancy from Bunium persicum(Boiss)Fedtsch seeds:a valuable herb of middle East and Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yousef; Emamipoor; Mahmood; Maziah

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To develop a protocol lor breaking of seed dormancy and increasing the seed germination rate of Bunium persicum.Methods:The seeds were treated with 3.1.6.3.12.5.25.50 and 100 μmol/L of benzyl aminopurine.gibberellic acid(GA,),thidiazuron(TDZ) and forchlorlenuron.Then,seeds were transferred to two different temperature conditions including room temperature(25 ℃) and chilling temperature(2-5℃).Results:The treatment of moist seeds with chilling temperature(2—5℃) broke seed dormancy and showed maximum germination,which was 54.7%after 60 d treatment.Also,the treatment of dn seeds with chilling temperature broke seed dormancy with 9.3%germination rate after 120 d.Treatment of seeds with different level of plant growth regulators showed that under moistroom condition,there was evidence ol higher and lower seed germination rate:GA,(100 μmol/L)with 46.7%and TDZ(50 μmol/L) with 6.67%respectively.In addition,the results showed that under moist-chilling condition.TDZ(6.3 μmol/L) with 53.3%seed germination rate had higher influence on breaking seed dormancy.Treatment of seeds with combination of TDZ and GA3 under moistchilling condition revealed higher rale of breaking of seed dormancy when 6.3 μmol/L TDZ was combined with 100 μmol/L GA,.showing 93.7%genninatiou rate.Conclusions:The effect of plant growth regulators coupled with chilling temperature on breaking of seed dormancy could provide a large number of seedlings while the long juvenile time which is the next restricting factor of plantation still remained.Thus,the subsequent growth of seedlings to provide a large number of corms is necessary for successful plantation.

  4. An efficient method in breaking of dormancy from Bunium persicum (Boiss) Fedtsch seeds:a valuable herb of Middle East and Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yousef Emamipoor; Mahmood Maziah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop a protocol for breaking of seed dormancy and increasing the seed germination rate of Bunium persicum. Methods:The seeds were treated with 3.1, 6.3, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µmol/L of benzyl aminopurine, gibberellic acid (GA3), thidiazuron (TDZ) and forchlorfenuron. Then, seeds were transferred to two different temperature conditions including room temperature (25 °C) and chilling temperature (2-5 °C). Results: The treatment of moist seeds with chilling temperature (2-5 °C) broke seed dormancy and showed maximum germination, which was 54.7%after 60 d treatment. Also, the treatment of dry seeds with chilling temperature broke seed dormancy with 9.3%germination rate after 120 d. Treatment of seeds with different level of plant growth regulators showed that under moist-room condition, there was evidence of higher and lower seed germination rate:GA3 (100 µmol/L) with 46.7%and TDZ (50 µmol/L) with 6.67%respectively. In addition, the results showed that under moist-chilling condition, TDZ (6.3 µmol/L) with 53.3%seed germination rate had higher influence on breaking seed dormancy. Treatment of seeds with combination of TDZ and GA3 under moist-chilling condition revealed higher rate of breaking of seed dormancy when 6.3 µmol/L TDZ was combined with 100 µmol/L GA3, showing 93.7%germination rate. Conclusions:The effect of plant growth regulators coupled with chilling temperature on breaking of seed dormancy could provide a large number of seedlings while the long juvenile time which is the next restricting factor of plantation still remained. Thus, the subsequent growth of seedlings to provide a large number of corms is necessary for successful plantation.

  5. Effects of Plant Density and Water Stress on Competitive Ability and Yield of Medicago Sativa L. and Bromus tomentellus Boiss.in Mono and Mixed Cropping

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    S. Barati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of plant density and water stress on yield of Medicago sativa and Bromus tomentellus was studied. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at Isfahan University of Technology in 2013. The experiment included 18 treatments, three crop compositions (M.sativa, B. tomentellus or mixture of the two, two plant density levels, three watering regimes and four replicates, arranged in a completely randomized block design. Results showed that total yield of M. sativa mono-cropping was higher than mixed cropping and it was higher than B. tomentellus mono-cropping. Land Equivalent Ratio (LER values were less than 1 for all mixed cropping treatments, indicated the interspecific competition in mixed cropping. The biomass production per plant decreased with increasing density, competition for resource utilization and water stress. Compare of above-ground and below-ground dry matter showed that M. sativa appeared to be more constrained by intraspecific than by interspecific competition, Conversely, B. tomentellus was more suppressed by interspecific competition exerted by M. sativa than by intraspecific competition. Relative competition intensity (RCI values were positive for B. tomentellus and negative for M.sativa, implying that competitive ability of M.sativa was higher than B. tomentellus in mixed cropping .

  6. Variation of chemical composition of essential oils in wild populations of Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut., a North African endemic Species

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    Zouari Nacim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymus algeriensis is an endemic aromatic plant to Tunisia largely used in folk medicine and as a culinary herb. The bulks aromatic plants come from wild populations whose essential oils compositions as well as their biological properties are severely affected by the geographical location and the phase of the plant development. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to provide more information on the variation of essential oil composition of T. algeriensis collected during the vegetative and the flowering phases and from eight different geographical regions. Besides, influence of population location and phenological stage on yield and metal chelating activity of essential oils is also assessed. Methods The essential oil composition of Thymus algeriensis was determined mainly by GC/FID and GC/MS. The chemical differentiation among populations performed on all compounds was assessed by linear discriminate analysis and cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance. Results A total of 71 compounds, representing 88.99 to 99.76% of the total oil, were identified. A significant effect of the population location on the chemical composition variability of T. algeriensis oil was observed. Only 18 out of 71 compounds showed a statistically significant variation among population locations and phenological stages. Chemical differentiation among populations was high. Minor compounds play an important role to distinguish between chemical groups. Five chemotypes according to the major compounds have been distinguished. Chemotypes distribution is linked to the population location and not to bioclimate, indicating that local selective environmental factors acted on the chemotype diversity. Conclusions The major compounds at the species level were α-pinene (7.41-13.94%, 1,8-cineole (7.55-22.07%, cis-sabinene hydrate (0.10-12.95%, camphor (6.8-19.93%, 4-terpineol (1.55-11.86%, terpenyl acetate (0-14.92% and viridiflorol (0-11.49%. Based on major compounds, the populations were represented by (α-pinene/1,8-cineole/cis-sabinene hydrate/camphor/viridiflorol, (1,8-cineole/camphor/terpenyl acetate, (α-pinene/1,8-cineole/camphor, (1,8-cineole/camphor/4-terpineol and (α-pinene/1,8-cineole/cis-sabinene hydrate/camphor/4-terpineol chemotypes. Variation of phenological stage did not have a statistically significant effect on the yield and metal chelating activity of the essential oil. These results can be used to investigate the geographical location and the harvesting time of this plant for relevant industries.

  7. Karyotyping and in situ chromosomal localization of rDNA sites in black cumin Bunium persicum (Boiss B. Fedtsch,1915 (Apiaceae

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    R. K. Chahota

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH technique has been applied to somatic chromosomes in the medicinally important species, Bunium persicum, to elucidate its karyotypes. The bicolour FISH technique involving 18S-5.8S-26S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes as probes was used to assign physical localization and measurement of rDNA sites on homologous pairs of chromosomes. The two 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA gene sites were at the terminal regions of the short arms of the chromosomes 1 and 2 involving NOR region of chromosome 1. The 5S rDNA sites were found on subtelomeric region of the long arm of the chromosome number 5 and at interstitial regions of the short arm of chromosome 7. Based on direct visual analysis of chromosome length, morphology and position of FISH signals, a pioneer attempt has been made to construct metaphase karyotype in B. persicum, an endangered medicinal plant of North Western Himalayas.

  8. Alelopatia de Camelina sativa Boiss. (Brassicaceae sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento inicial de Bidens pilosa (L. e Glycine max (L. Merr

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    Jéssica da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p17 O presente trabalho buscou avaliar a possível presença de potencial alelopático na camelina, bem como o seu efeito sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de soja e picão-preto, a fim de verificar a possibilidade do cultivo dela com a soja no sistema de rotação de culturas e de seu uso como herbicida. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, Paraná. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado e as avaliações realizadas diariamente. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: porcentagem de germinação, tempo e velocidade média de germinação e comprimento médio de raiz. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao Teste F e as médias comparadas pelo Teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Os resultados obtidos comprovam a presença de potencial alelopático na camelina. Foi verificado que esta espécie pode ser considerada uma opção para o cultivo com a soja devido à interferência alelopática positiva provocada na cultura e ainda, que ela apresenta capacidade para utilização no controle de plantas invasoras como o picão-preto, já que atuou atrasando o desenvolvimento das plântulas testadas.

  9. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions

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    Hassan Sadraei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode′s solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS, KCl (80 mM and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM. The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37 °C and continuously gassed with O 2 . The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%, β-eudesmol (6.4 %, ρ-cymene (5.7%, caryophyllene oxide (3.6%, α-pinine (1.4% and α-phelandrene (1.1%. The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC 50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml, ACh (IC 50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml and EFS (IC 50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC 50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum.

  10. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alipour, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa) possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl (80 mM) and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM). The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%), β-eudesmol (6.4 %), ρ-cymene (5.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%), α-pinine (1.4%) and α-phelandrene (1.1%). The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum.

  11. Alpha-Pinene as the Main Component of Ducrosia anethifolia (Boiss Essential Oil is Responsible for its Effect on Locomotor Activity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamyad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Ducrosia anethifolia (DA is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat a wide spectrum of illnesses. DA contains a series of antioxidant compounds, including alpha-pinene, which give it a sedative and relaxing effect. In spite of these effects of DA, the effects of DA essential oil on anxiety and locomotor activity in open field tests have not yet been studied. In the present study, the effects of DA essential oil and its main component of alpha-pinene on locomotor activity and anxiety were studied using open field tests. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of DA essential oil and its main component, alpha-pinene, on locomotor activity and anxiety behaviors using open field and antioxidant capacity tests in Wistar rats. Methods Sixty-three adult male Wistar rats (weighing 200 - 250 g were divided into 9 groups: control, positive control (diazepam, essential oil treated groups (25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally, (i.p. and alpha-pinene groups (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg, i.p.. For precisely 30 minutes after each injection in all groups, open field tests were used to assess behaviors such as rearing, line crossing, walling, grooming, and stretched attend posturing. In addition, oxidant and antioxidant parameters (malondialdehyde [MDA] and catalase [CAT] were assessed in the rats’ temporal lobes. Results DA (200 and 500 mg/kg doses and alpha-pinene (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg doses significantly reduced locomotor activity, whereas doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg of DA failed to show such an effect. Treatment with DA and alpha-pinene resulted in a significant decrease in MDA levels and a significant increase in CAT activity in comparison to controls. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the main component of DA (alpha-pinene is responsible for DA’s ability to reduce locomotor activity and anxiety, which is indicative of CNS depressant activity. Moreover, it is possible that some of the motor suppression and sedation effects of the alpha-pinene in DA are due to the antioxidant capacity of this substance. However, further research and clinical evaluations are necessary to isolate and identify the other substances responsible for these activities in DA.

  12. The potential effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus

    OpenAIRE

    Yahyaraeyat, R.; Khosravi, A R; Shahbazzadeh, D.; V Khalaj

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) essential oil (EO) on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus) ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial...

  13. The potential effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaraeyat, R; Khosravi, A R; Shahbazzadeh, D; Khalaj, V

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) essential oil (EO) on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus) ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial dry weight of samples were measured and all the media were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for aflatoxinB1 (AFB1), aflatoxinB2 (AFB2), aflatoxinG1 (AFG1), aflatoxinG2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin total (AFTotal) production. The results showed that mycelial dry weight and aflatoxin production reduce in the presence of Z. multiflora EO (100 ppm) on day 5 of growth. It was found that the expression of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes was correlated with the ability of fungus to produce aflatoxins on day 5 in YES medium. RT-PCR showed that in the presence of Z.multiflora EO (100 ppm) nor-1, ver-1 and omtA genes expression was reduced. It seems that toxin production inhibitory effects of Z. multiflora EO on day 5 may be at the transcription level and this herb may cause reduction in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes activity.

  14. The potential effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yahyaraeyat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora essential oil (EO on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial dry weight of samples were measured and all the media were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC for aflatoxinB1 (AFB1, aflatoxinB2 (AFB2, aflatoxinG1 (AFG1, aflatoxinG2 (AFG2 and aflatoxin total (AFTotal production. The results showed that mycelial dry weight and aflatoxin production reduce in the presence of Z. multiflora EO (100 ppm on day 5 of growth. It was found that the expression of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes was correlated with the ability of fungus to produce aflatoxins on day 5 in YES medium. RT-PCR showed that in the presence of Z.multiflora EO (100 ppm nor-1, ver-1 and omtA genes expression was reduced. It seems that toxin production inhibitory effects of Z. multiflora EO on day 5 may be at the transcription level and this herb may cause reduction in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes activity.

  15. Cholinesterase, tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of randomly selected Umbelliferous plant species and chromatographic profile of Heracleum platytaenium Boiss. and Angelica sylvestris L. var. sylvestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Ilkay Edrogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological activity of the methanol extracts of thirteen Umbelliferae (Apiaceae plants was tested against acetylcholinesterase (AChE, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, and tyrosinase (TYR using high-throughput screening technique. Although the extracts displayed none to low profile of inhibition against enzymes, the highest cholinesterase inhibition was observed with Heracleum platytaenium (32.52 ± 3.27 % for AChE and 46.16 ± 1.42 % for BChE at 100 μg mL-1. Since neurodegeneration is linked to oxidative damage, antioxidant potential of the extracts was searched through radical scavenging, metal-chelating capacity, and reducing power experiments and exerted modest levels of activity varying according to the method. The extracts had a better ability to scavenge nitric oxide radical (19.47 ± 2.09 % to 54.91 ± 1.98 %. Since these species are known to be rich in coumarins, our quantitative high-performance liquid chroatography (HPLC analysis indicated presence of xanthotoxin, angelicin, isopimpinellin, bergapten, and pimpinellin in Heracleum platytaenium and angelicin and imperatorin in Angelica sylvestris var. sylvestris.

  16. An efficient method in breaking of dormancy from B unium persicum (Boiss Fedtsch seeds: a valuable herb of Middle East and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Emamipoor

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: The effect of plant growth regulators coupled with chilling temperature on breaking of seed dormancy could provide a large number of seedlings while the long juvenile time which is the next restricting factor of plantation still remained. Thus, the subsequent growth of seedlings to provide a large number of corms is necessary for successful plantation.

  17. The genus Myxopyrum L. (Oleaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiew, R.

    1984-01-01

    The morphology and leaf anatomy of Myxopyrum is described and a key to the species is given. Of the 15 species previously described four species and two subspecies are recognised: M. nervosum Bl. (synonyms M. horsfieldii, M. zippelii) with one subspecies coriaceum (Bl.) Kiew (synonym M. ellipticum),

  18. Isolation and characterization of ingenol esters from Euphorbia cornigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imam Bakhsh Baloch; Musa Kaleem Baloch

    2011-01-01

    Methanolic extract of Euphorbia cornigera Boiss. on HPLC separation yielded three new compounds. Their structures and relative stereochemistry were established through 2D-NMR spectroscopic measurements.

  19. Comparative efficacy of herbal essences with amphotricin B and ketoconazole on Candida albicans in the in vitro condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Gavanji

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: In the present study, essential oils with different components showed antifungal activity (especially Z. multiflora Boiss essential oil. They can therefore be used as new antifungal substances.

  20. "Zahraa", a Unani multicomponent herbal tea widely consumed in Syria: components of drug mixtures and alleged medicinal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, M D; Llorach, R; Obon, C; Rivera, D

    2005-12-01

    In Unani system of medicine, drugs consist of complex formulae with more than three components, for which, literature analysing these mixtures as they are sold in the market is scarce. In this paper, the main botanical components of the herbal tea known as "Zahraa" in Damascus, which contains between 6 and 14 species components is elucidated: Alcea damascena (Mout.) Mout. (Malvaceae), Aloysia triphylla (L'Herit.) Britt. (Malvaceae), Astragalus cf. amalecitanus Boiss., Cercis siliquastrum L. subsp. hebecarpa (Bornm.) Yalt. and subsp. siliquastrum. (Leguminosae), Colutea cilicica Boiss. et Bal. in Boiss. (Leguminosae), Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc. ex DC. (Rosaceae), Cytisopsis pseudocytisus (Boiss.) Fertig. (Leguminosae), Eleagnus angustifolia L. (Eleagnaceae), Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. (Equisetaceae), Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench. subsp. barrelieri (Ten.) Nyman. (Compositae), Matricaria recutita L. (Compositae), Mentha longifolia L. subsp. noeana (Boiss. ex. Briq.) Briq. (Labiatae), Mentha spicata L. subsp. condensata (Briq.) Greuter and Burdet (Labiatae), Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. and Hohen. in Boiss. (Labiatae), Paronychia argentea Lam. (Caryophyllaceae), Phlomis syriaca Boiss. (Labiatae), Rosa damascena Mill. (Rosaceae), Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Labiatae), Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae), Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae), Zea mays L. (Gramineae).

  1. Marker Assisted Transfer of Two Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 from Triticum boeoticum (Boiss. to Triticum aestivum (L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fawzy Abdelnaby Elkot

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the important wheat diseases, worldwide. Two PM resistance genes, designated as PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, were identified in T. boeoticum acc. pau5088 and mapped on chromosome 7AL approximately 48cM apart. Two resistance gene analogue (RGA-STS markers Ta7AL-4556232 and 7AL-4426363 were identified to be linked to the PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, at a distance of 0.6cM and 6.0cM, respectively. In the present study, following marker assisted selection (MAS, the two genes were transferred to T. aestivum using T. durum as bridging species. As many as 12,317 florets of F1 of the cross T. durum /T. boeoticum were pollinated with T. aestivum lines PBW343-IL and PBW621 to produce 61 and 65 seeds, respectively, of three-way F1. The resulting F1s of the cross T. durum/T. boeoticum//T. aestivum were screened with marker flanking both the PM resistance genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 (foreground selection and the selected plants were backcrossed to generate BC1F1. Marker assisted selection was carried both in BC1F1 and the BC2F1 generations. Introgression of alien chromatin in BC2F1 plants varied from 15.4-62.9 percent. Out of more than 110 BC2F1 plants showing introgression for markers linked to the two PM resistance genes, 40 agronomically desirable plants were selected for background selection for the carrier chromosome to identify the plants with minimum of the alien introgression. Cytological analysis showed that most plants have chromosome number ranging from 40-42. The BC2F2 plants homozygous for the two genes have been identified. These will be crossed to generate lines combining both the PM resistance genes but with minimal of the alien introgression. The PM resistance gene PmTb7A.1 maps in a region very close to Sr22, a stem rust resistance gene effective against the race Ug99. Analysis of selected plants with markers linked to Sr22 showed introgression of Sr22 from T. boeoticum in several BC2F1 plants. Thus, in addition to PM resistance, these progeny might also carry resistance to stem rust race Ug99.

  2. Acute toxicity and repellent activity of the Origanum scabrum Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiaceae) essential oil against four mosquito vectors of public health importance and its biosafety on non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    The recent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus highlighted the pivotal importance of mosquito vector control in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. However, mosquito control is facing hot challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance in Culicidae and the limited success of biocontrol programs on Aedes mosquitoes. In this framework, screening botanicals for their mosquitocidal potential may offer effective and eco-friendly tools in the fight against mosquitoes. In the present study, the essential oil (EO) obtained from the medicinal plant Origanum scabrum was analyzed by GC-MS and evaluated for its mosquitocidal and repellent activities towards Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. GC-MS analysis showed a total of 28 compounds, representing 97.1 % of the EO. The major constituents were carvacrol (48.2 %) and thymol (16.6 %). The EO was toxic effect to the A. stephensi, A. aegypti, C. quinquefasciatus, and C. tritaeniorhynchus larvae, with LC50 of 61.65, 67.13, 72.45, and 78.87 μg/ml, respectively. Complete ovicidal activity was observed at 160, 200, 240, and 280 μg/ml, respectively. Against adult mosquitoes, LD50 were 122.38, 134.39, 144.53, and 158.87 μg/ml, respectively. In repellency assays, the EOs tested at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) concentration of O. scabrum gave 100 % protection from mosquito bites up to 210, 180, 150, and 120 min, respectively. From an eco-toxicological point of view, the EO was tested on three non-target mosquito predators, Gambusia affinis, Diplonychus indicus, and Anisops bouvieri, with LC50 ranging from 4162 to 12,425 μg/ml. Overall, the EO from O. scabrum may be considered as a low-cost and eco-friendly source of phytochemicals to develop novel repellents against Culicidae.

  3. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic evaluation of some herbal essential oils in comparison with common antibiotics in bioassay condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Gavanji

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The essential oils used in the present study with different components showed antibacterial activity (especially Z. multiflora Boiss essential oil, and therefore they can be used as a new antibacterial substance.

  4. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPAQ

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran .... standard Gram‟s procedure (Somasegaran and Hoben, 1994). Cell ..... nodulation observed with rhizobial isolates, clearly.

  5. Application of zein antimicrobial edible film incorporating Zataria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-06-12

    Jun 12, 2015 ... Zein based edible film was developed and incorporated with Zataria multiflora boiss essential oil. ... Besides, application of natural plant essential oil has economical and ... some chemical preservatives and negative customer.

  6. Thymus × pseudogranatensis (Labiatae, nuevo híbrido para Sierra Nevada (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorite, Juan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, a new spontaneous hybrid of Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis and Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, collected in the dolomitic areas of Sierra Nevada (SE Spain, is described. Morphological characters of the new nothospecies are analysed and its distribution and ecology are discussed.Se describe Thymus × pseudogranatensis Vizoso, F.B. Navarro & Lorite, un nuevo híbrido entre Th. granatensis Boiss. subsp. granatensis y Th. zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss. R. Morales, colectado en la orla dolomítica de Sierra Nevada (SE de España. Se analizan los caracteres morfológicos de la nueva notoespecie y se aportan detalles sobre su hábitat y distribución.

  7. A new variety of Salvia macrosiphon (Lamiaceae) for Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharazian, Navaz

    2008-04-15

    In this study, Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. var. longiflora Kharaz. is reported for the first time as one of the new varieties of Salvia macrosiphon in Iran. The morphological characters of this variety have been described in details.

  8. FLAVONOIDS OF SALVIA MICROSTEGIA

    OpenAIRE

    A. ULUBELEN**, Z. SUKAL*, B. HALFON*

    2015-01-01

    Three flavonoids, apigenin, apigenin 7-0-glucoside and chrysoeriol, havebeen isolated from the aerial parts of Salvia microstegia Boiss. et Bal.Key words: Salvia, flavonoids, apigenin, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, chrysoeriol.

  9. Total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid contents and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mmpa

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... properties of the methanol extracts of R. kurdica Boiss for flowers and .... Total phenolic contents of the extract and the oil were determined using the .... Antioxidants and antiradicals in almond hull and shell. (Amygdalus ...

  10. A new Consolida subspecies from Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misirdali, H.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A new subspecies from Anatolia. Consolida hellespontica (Boiss. Chater subsp. rosea Misirdali & Ilarslan subsp. nova, is described.

    [ca] Es descriu una nova subspècie d'Anatòlia, Consolida hellespontica (Boiss. Chater subsp. rosea Misirdali & Ilarslan subsp. nova

  11. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FLORA OF EUROPEAN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    G. DALGIÇ, F. DANE

    2015-01-01

    Alyssum hinrrrtnm Bieb. (Brassicaceae), Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. palaediw(Boiss.) Engler (Anacardiaceae) Lamirim album L. (Lamiaceae) and Eziphorbianlaclaclada Boiss. (Er(phor6iaceae) have been added to the flora of European Turkey, following the collection of specimens from Al(E) Edime and Canakkale. In addition, two taxa, Pistacia terebinthus subsp. palaestina and Eriphorbia macroclada represent new records for the flora of Europe.Key words: Flora of European Turkey, flora of Europe, ...

  12. SEED GERMINATION BEHAVIOUR OF THREE ALPINE SPECIES FROM ULUDAĞ MOUNT,TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HülyaARSLAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the germination requirements of three species from alpine belt of Uludağ Mount; Gypsophila olympica Boiss., Matthiola montana Boiss. and Silene rhynchocarpa Boiss. We tested thegermination under (20 °C dark, (20 °C continuous light, and photoperiod 20/10 °C (12/12h with distilled water. Different germination behaviour was found for these three species from closely related habitat conditions. G. olympica showed similar germination percentages in dark, light and photoperiod, and germinated faster in light (3.9 days. S. rhyncocarpa germinated 100 % at all the threeconditions but faster in dark with 2.0 days. M. montana seeds were found to require light for germination. The germination was 27.2 % at dark, whereas the seeds were germinated 90 % under photoperiod.The results can be useful for both in situ and ex situ conservation of these plant species.

  13. Vitamins A, C, and E and β-Carotene Content in Seeds of Seven Species of Vicia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet SAHIN; Yasar KIRAN; Fikret KARATAS; Senem SONMEZ

    2005-01-01

    To determine the vitamins A, C, and E and β-carotene content of Vicia species that can be used in animal feed, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to investigate the vitamin and β-carotene content in mature and immature seeds of seven Vicia species (Vicia anatolica Turrill., V. ervilia (L.) Willd., V. michauxii Sprengel, V. mollis Boiss. et Hausskn. ex Boiss., V. noeana Reuter ex Boiss., V. peregrina L., and V. sericocarpa Fenzl.), which are useful plants in animal feed in the eastern Anatolia region in Turkey. The vitamin content was found to differ between mature and immature seeds. The levels of vitamins A, C, and E and β-carotene were higher in mature seeds than in immature seeds (P < 0.01).

  14. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Turkey: description of five new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedrowicz, Agnieszka; Denizhan, Evsel; Bromberek, Klaudia; Szydło, Wiktoria; Skoracka, Anna

    2016-01-15

    Five new eriophyoid mite species (Eriophyidae) from Turkey are described and illustrated in this paper: Aceria vanensis n. sp., Aceria onosmae n. sp., Aculus lydii n. sp., Aculus gebeliae n. sp. and Aculus spectabilis n. sp.. The descriptions are based on the morphology of females collected from weedy plants, respectively: Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae), Onosma isauricum Boiss. et Heldr. (Boraginaceae), Hypericum lydium Boiss. (Hypericaceae), Lotus gebelia Vent. (Fabaceae) and Stachys spectabilis Choisy ex DC. (Lamiaceae). The new species were found to be vagrant on their host plants with no visible damage symptoms observed.

  15. Three eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Honarmand, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Three mite species of the family Eriophyidae from Iran are described and illustrated. They are: Tegolophus marrubiumer sp. nov. on Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae); Phyllocoptes sp. cf. balasi Farkas, 1962 on Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. minor (Rosaceae) and Aceria fasciculifolis sp. nov. on Astragalus fasciculifolius Boiss. (Fabaceae). Both new species described herein are vagrants on their respective host plants.

  16. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae),Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species.

  17. A new Bacillus pasteurii urease inhibitor from Euphorbia decipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, Muhammad Arif; Hussain, Javid; Abbasi, Muhammad Athar; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin

    2006-10-01

    Inhibition of Bacillus pasteurii urease enzyme by 3,7,15-tri-O-acetyl-5-O-nicotinoyl-13,14-dihydroxymyrsinol (1), a diterpene ester with a myrsinol-type skeleton, isolated from Euphorbia decipiens Boiss. and Buhse, was un-competitive consistent with the molecular docking results. The Ki value was 117.40 +/- 0.7 microM.

  18. Three Grasses New to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SCHOLZ, Hildemar

    2014-01-01

    Studies on herbarium material of grasses recently collected in Turkey revealed the existence of three taxa hitherto not reported from this country: Bromus tomentellus Boiss. subsp. nivalis (Bornm.) H. Scholz & Byfield, subsp. et stat. nov., Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus as a probably introduced plant, and Poa asiae-minoris H. Scholz & Byfield, sp. nova, described here as a species new to science.

  19. Three Grasses New to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SCHOLZ, Hildemar

    2000-01-01

    Studies on herbarium material of grasses recently collected in Turkey revealed the existence of three taxa hitherto not reported from this country: Bromus tomentellus Boiss. subsp. nivalis (Bornm.) H. Scholz & Byfield, subsp. et stat. nov., Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus as a probably introduced plant, and Poa asiae-minoris H. Scholz & Byfield, sp. nova, described here as a species new to science.

  20. Genome Relationship between Psathyrostachys huashanica and P. fragilis (Poaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. Von; Kotimäki, M.; Linde-Laursen, I.

    1987-01-01

    Hybrids between the Chinese endemic species Psathyrostachys huashanica KENG and the SW. Asian species P. fragilis (BOISS.) NEVSKI (all 2n = 14) developed normally but were completely sterile. Meiotic analyses revealed a high chiasma frequency indicating that the two species as well as P. juncea (...

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of Biebersteinia Stephan (Geraniaceae) inferred from rbcL and atpB sequence comparisons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.T.; Vassiliades, D.D.; Morton C., C.; Savolainen, V.

    1998-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of rbcL and atpB gene sequences from Biebersteinia Stephan (represented by B. orphanidis Boiss.) and from selected taxa of the rosids I and II clades does not support traditional grouping of this genus in Geraniaceae s.s. nor in Geraniales, but indicates strong support for a po

  2. Determination of volatile organic compounds in the dried leaves of Salvia species by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Rosaria; Ramezani, Sadrollah; Martignetti, Antonella; Mari, Angela; Piacente, Sonia; De Giulio, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Salvia spp. are used throughout the world both for food and pharmaceutical purposes. In this study, a method involving headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed, to establish the volatiles profile of dried leaves of four Iranian Salvia spp.: Salvia officinalis L., Salvia leriifolia Benth, Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. and two ecotypes of Salvia reuterana Boiss. A total of 95 volatiles were identified from the dried leaves of the five selected samples. Specifically, α-thujone was the main component of S. officinalis L. and S. macrosiphon Boiss. (34.40 and 17.84%, respectively) dried leaves, S. leriifolia Benth was dominated by β-pinene (27.03%), whereas α-terpinene was the major constituent of the two ecotypes of S. reuterana Boiss. (21.67 and 13.84%, respectively). These results suggested that the proposed method can be considered as a reliable technique for isolating volatiles from aromatic plants, and for plant differentiation based on the volatile metabolomic profile.

  3. Aanwinsten voor de Nederlandse adventief-flora, 12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, F.

    1974-01-01

    A number of species and varieties are mentioned as new to the adventitious flora of the Netherlands, viz. Zingeria trichopoda (Boiss.) P. Smirn.; Poa trivialis L. var. silvicola (Guss.) Hack.; Galium floribundum Sibth. & Sm., G. murale All.; Lallemantia iberica (Bieb.) Fisch. & Mey.; Veronica cf. gr

  4. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species.

  5. Cytogenetic studies in Trifolium Spp. related to berseem : I. Intra- and interspecific hybrid seed formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putiyevsky, E; Katznelson, J

    1973-01-01

    Seed formation by large-scale hybridization within and between Trifolium species related to T. alexandrinum L., was studied. The twelve species studied were: a. T. alexandrinum L., b. T. berytheum Boiss., c. T.salmoneum Mout., d, T. apertum Bobr., e. T. Meironense Zoh. et Lern., f. T. echinatum M.B., g. T. latinum Seb., h. T.carmeli Boiss., i. T. scutatum Boiss., j. T. plebeium Boiss., k. T. vavilovi Eig. and 1. T. constantinopolitanum Ser. Hybridization was done either by emasculation and fertilization by hand, or in nature, by utilizing the existence of natural stands and to serve as pollen source the self-incompatibility of some of the species concerned. Results of the two methods were highly comparable although seedset was much higher when crossing was done manually.Crossability, as estimated by seedset, varied in specific cross combinations and ranged between 0 and 70%. Based on the pattern of crossability, five crossability groups were identified with > 20% seedset in interspecific-intra-group cross combinations, and usually less than 5% in inter-group cross combinations. Species a, b, c, d and e form the first crossability group; f, g and h form the second one; h, i, j belong to the third crossability group, while k and l appear as unispecific fourth and fifth crossability groups. The high level of seedset in interspecific hybridization is discussed.

  6. The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, D; Obón, C

    1995-05-01

    The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands is extremely interesting because of the cultural and biogeographic features of this region, which make it a centre of medicinal plant diversity (richness of endemic flora, geographical isolation in the Atlantic sea, crosscultural influences, and past abundance of local healers). The medicinal flora of Madeira is composed of 259 species. Some noteworthy medicinal taxa, endemic or locally relevant, are: Acanthus mollis, Aeonium glandulosum, Aeonium glutinosum, Bidens pilosa, Borago officinalis, Chamaemelum nobile var. discoideum, Culcita macrocarpa, Echium nervosum, Euphorbia platiphylla, Helichrysum melaleucum, Helichrysum obconicum, Hypericum glandulosum, Hypericum humifussum, Kleinia repens, Laurus azorica, Monizia edulis, Ocotea foetens, Psoralea bituminosa, Rubus bollei, Rumex maderensis, Sambucus lanceolata, Scilla maderensis, Sedum brissemoretii, Sedum farinosum, Sedum nudum, Sibthorpia peregrina, Teucrium betonicum, Thymus caespititius, Trifolium squamosum and Vaccinium padifolium. Among the medicinal cryptogams, one can underline the parasitic fungus Laurobasidium lauri, which grows on the stems of Laurus azorica and is used as an antirheumatic, haemostatic, emmenagogue, insecticide and analeptic.

  7. Karyotipic asymmetry of both wild and cultivated species of Pennisetum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed the establishment of the relation between karyotipic asymmetry values obtained for different accessions of both wild and cultivated species of Pennisetum from Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Gado de Leite/Juiz de Fora-Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Conventional cell cycle synchronization protocols and Feulgen staining method were used to obtain metaphases plates. The wild-type accessions corresponded to the species P. setosum (2n=6x=54, P. nervosum (2n=4x=36, and P. orientale (2n=4x=36, and the cultivated to P. purpureum (2n=4x=28 and P. glaucum (2n=2x=14. No significant difference was found for the total length of chromosomes (p>0.05 among the species. The analysis of intra-chromosomal asymmetry (A1 and inter-chromosomal asymmetry (A2 has shown that P. setosum has a tendency to chromosome asymmetry. P. nervosum, P. orientale, and P. purpureum have presented an intermediary level of asymmetry and P. glaucum, low asymmetry. Considering Stebbins criteria, the karyotype of P. glaucum and those from the three wild species fitted into the category 1A-symmetrical. With regard to P. purpureum, karyotypes of the accessions BAGs 54, 65 and 91 fitted into the category 2B and the other two genotypes (BAGs 63 and 75 fitted into the 1A. Comparison between the karyotype classification according to the inter- and intra-chromosomal asymmetry and Stebbins methodologies revealed that this last one alone was not able to detect small variations between karyotypes of the taxa closely related.

  8. Novelties on taxonomy and nomenclature of Spanish vascular hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo, Manuel B.

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available The nomenclature of some Iberian hybrids is revised and several new combinations are proposed: Centaurea X subdecurrens var. segobricensis, C. X subdecurrens notbosubsp. albuferae, Cistus X hybridus nothosubsp. grandiflorus var. secallianus. C. X ledon var. recognitus, C. X nigricans var. longifolius, C. X nigricans nothosubsp. grosii and Onopordum X humile var. turolensis. Besides, a new nothosubspecies: Sideritis x paui nothosubsp. enguerana (S. hirsuta X S. incana subsp. virgata, is described for the mountains of Valencia Province (E of Spain.

    Se revisa la nomenclatura de algunos híbridos vasculares ibéricos, proponiéndose algunas nuevas combinaciones: Centaurea X subdecurrens var. segobricensis, C. X subdecurrens notbosubsp. albuferae, Cistus X hybridus nothosubsp. grandiflorus var. secallianus. C. X ledon var. recognitus, C. X nigricans var. longifolius, C. X nigricans nothosubsp. grosii y Onopordum X humile var. turolensis. Además, se describe una nueva notosubespecie de las montañas de la provincia de Valencia: Sideritis X paui nothosubsp. enguerana (S. hirsuta X S. incana subsp. virgata.

  9. 浙江种子植物分布新记录%New records to the spermatophyte taxa of Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈征海; 刘安兴; 孙孟军; 李根有; 胡绍庆

    2002-01-01

    报道了采自浙江的10个种子植物新记录分类群.其中杜仲科Eucommiaceae为科级分布新记录;圆柏属Sabina Mill.,杜仲属Eucommia Oliv.和福王草属Prenanthes L.等3属为属级分布新记录;圆柏Sabina chinensis(L.)Ant.,杜仲Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.,小花山桃草Gaura parviflora Dougl.,福王草Prenanthes tatarinowii Maxim和御谷Pennisetum americarum(L.)Leeke等5种,细叶水芹Oenanthe dielsii de Boiss.var.stenophylla de Boiss.1变种为种(变种)级分布新记录.参5

  10. The determination of nutritive value of some rangeland plants using nylon bags technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafi V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine of nutritive value of pasture forages (Agropyron intermedium Boiss, Coronilla Varia, Ziziphora Tenuior and Scorzonera grossheimii lipsch using in situ, this study was carried out. In this study two fistulated wetheres (35±1.8 kg were used in in situ method. Ruminal DM and CP disappearances were measured 0,4,8,16,24,36,48,72 and 96 h. Dry matter degradabilities of Coronilla Varia and Agropyron intermedium Boiss at 48 h, were higher and lower, that showed significant differences (P<0.05. Crude protein degradabilities of Coronilla Varia at 96 h was 78.18 % that were higher and showed significant differences (P<0.05. Pasture forages can used largely as a ruminant feeds.

  11. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic evaluation of some herbal essential oils in comparison with common antibiotics in bioassay condition

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin Gavanji; Elmira Mohammadi; Behrouz Larki; Azizollah Bakhtari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since ancient times, various infectious diseases have been treated using herbal drugs. Today, efforts regarding the discovery of the effectual components of plants possessing antimicrobial properties are advanced. Herbal essential oils are widely used for treatment of various diseases, and they play an important role in health care considerations. Methods: The antibacterial activity of Artemisia kermanensis, Lavandula officinalis, and Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oils aga...

  12. First natural urease inhibitor from Euphorbia decipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Viqar Uddin; Hussain, Javid; Hussain, Hidayat; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Ullah, Farman; Lodhi, Muhammad Arif; Yasin, Amsha; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2003-06-01

    Three new diterpene esters with a myrsinol-type skeleton have been isolated from Euphorbia decipiens BOISS. & BUHSE. The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was based primarily on two-dimensional (2D)-NMR techniques including correlation spectroscopy (COSY), heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC) and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments. Compounds 1 and 3 are active against prolyl endopeptidase and compound 2 showed inhibitory activity against urease enzyme.

  13. Two new infraspecific taxa of Verbascum delphicum ( Scrophulariaceae , Scrophularieae ) from mainland Greece and the island of Evvia

    OpenAIRE

    Zografidis, Aris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Verbascum delphicum Boiss. & Heldr. subsp. cervi Zografidis ( Scrophulariaceae , Scrophularieae ) is described as a subspecies new to science and illustrated. It is narrowly distributed in the Greek National Park of Mt Parnitha (Attica, Greece) with a very small population size. The new subspecies is a seldom-collected taxon, previously overlooked and misidentified as consubspecific with the autonymous subspecies, an endemic of the island of Evvia (Greece). Also described in this stu...

  14. Two new infraspecific taxa of Verbascum delphicum (Scrophulariaceae, Scrophularieae) from mainland Greece and the island of Evvia

    OpenAIRE

    Aris Zografidis

    2016-01-01

    Verbascum delphicum Boiss. & Heldr. subsp. cervi Zografidis (Scrophulariaceae, Scrophularieae) is described as a subspecies new to science and illustrated. It is narrowly distributed in the Greek National Park of Mt Parnitha (Attica, Greece) with a very small population size. The new subspecies is a seldom-collected taxon, previously overlooked and misidentified as consubspecific with the autonymous subspecies, an endemic of the island of Evvia (Greece). Also described in this study i...

  15. Synthesis of the reported structure of piperazirum using a nitro-Mannich reaction as the key stereochemical determining step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Anderson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Piperazirum, isolated from Arum palaestinum Boiss, was originally assigned as r-3,c-5-diisobutyl-c-6-isopropylpiperazin-2-one. The reported structure was synthesised diastereoselectively using a key nitro-Mannich reaction to set up the C5/C6 relative stereochemistry. The structure was unambiguously assigned by single crystal X-ray diffraction but the spectroscopic data did not match those reported for the natural product. The structure of the natural product must therefore be revised.

  16. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXX. Cynaropicrin in species of the subtribe Centaureanae Dumort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of cynaropicrin was determined in 13 species of the subtribe Centaureinae Dumort.: Centaurea declinata M. B.- C. leucophylla M. B.. C. dealbata Willd.. C. zangezuri (Sosn. Sosn., C. carthalinica (Sosn. Sosn., C. thracica (Janka Hayek, C. exarata Boiss. ex Cosson, C. phaeopappoides Bordz., Chartolepis intermedia Bioss., Ch. glastifolia (L. Cass., Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd. Iljin, Rh. serratuloides (Georgi Bobr., Leuzea rhapontica (L. Holub.

  17. Notas taxonómicas y nomenclaturales sobre el género Ononis L. (Leguminosae en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López González, Ginés

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Ononis reuteri Boiss, is considered to be a good species, clearly different from O. aragonensis Asso, and hs presence in North África is confirmed. O. Hispanica L. f. is regarded as a nomen ambiguum, which should not be used. The classification of the O. natrix L. group is discussed and a new species of this group, O. talaverae Devesa & G. López, is described. O. crispa L., to the Balearic Islands endemic, is excluded from the Iberian Península flora. O. tridentate L. is typified. O. saxicola Boiss. & Reut. is considered to be merely a subspecies of O. pusilla L. The new combinations O. tridentata susbp. angustifolia (Lange Devesa & G. López and O. pusilla var. calycina (Rouy Devesa & G. López, are proposed.Se destaca la autonomía de Ononis reuteri Boiss, frente a O. aragonensis Asso y se confirma su presencia en el norte de África. Se considera que O. hispanica L. f. es un nombre ambiguo que debe ser rechazado. Se discute la clasificación del grupo de O. natrix L. y se publica una nueva especie, O. talaverae Devesa & G. López. Se excluye O. crispa L. -un endemismo balear- de la Península Ibérica. Se tipifica O. tridentata L. y se publica la combinación O. tridentata subsp. angustifolia (Lange Devesa & G. López. Se acepta que O. saxicola Boiss. & Reut. es una simple subespecie de O. pusilla L. Se propone la combinación O. pusilla var. calycina (Rouy Devesa & G. López.

  18. Etude Phytochimique et Activités Biologiques de quelques Plantes médicinales de la Région Nord et Sud Ouest de l’Algérie

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMEDI, Zohra

    2013-01-01

    Dans le cadre d’une valorisation des ressources naturelles, des extraits méthanoliques de 10 plantes (Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst., Tamarix pauciovulata J. Gay, Paronychia argentea (Lam.), Paronychia chlorothyrsa (Murb.) Morettia canescens (Boiss.), Haloxylon scoparium (Pomel), Arthrophytum schmittianum (Pomel) M. et W., Thymelaea hirsuta (Endl.), Daphne gnidium (L.) and Calotropis procera (Ait.)) ont été testé pour leur activité antioxydante, antifongique et antiaflatoxinogène....

  19. Euphorbia gummifera. A. gregaria and a new species from Damaraland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Leach

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity of  Euphorbia gummifera Boiss. and  E. gregaria Marl, is discussed and a new species, E. damarana Leach, is described. A key to the species including  E. carunculifera Leach from southern Angola and a map showing their distribution are provided. The possible significance of these species in the phylogeny of the genus is also discussed.

  20. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXII. Guaianolides in species from the genus Chartolepis Cass.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Nowak; Bohdan Drożdż; Miroslav Holub

    2014-01-01

    Differences in the composition of the "lactone fraction" of 4 species from the genus Chartolepis Cass. were observed. Cynaropierin was isolated from the above-ground parts of Chartolepis intermedia Boiss. and the occurrence there of grossheimin was confirmed. The following compounds were isolated from the above-ground parts of Chartolepis glastifolia (L.) Cass.: centaurepensin, repin, cebellin C, acroptillin, cebellin D, cynaropicrin, cebellin F and janerin. Centaurepensin, repin, cebellin C,...

  1. Socioeconomic Study of Grasses and Legumes in Baria and Godhra Forest Division, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhara J. GANDHI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gujarat has rich traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity. The cultural diversity in the Indian society reflects close relationship between the existence of human life and nature including all other living creatures and non-living creatures. The present paper deals with the traditional knowledge of villagers in 10 villages nearby the grasslands in Panchmahal and Dahod districts of Gujarat, India, regarding the multipurpose use of grasses and associated legumes prevailing in these grasslands. A survey with the help of questionnaire was conducted to analyze the socioeconomic status. 69 grass species and 34 legumes could be identified growing in these grasslands of which 92 were used for livestocks. Among these grasses the most preferred grass species were Dichanthium annulatum and Sehima nervosum because of its high palatability. Three grasses and 8 legume species were used for food and medicine. The study emphasizes the use of plant wealth to human needs of the regions and assist in appraisal of various anthropogenic interventions accountable for loss of prevailing biodiversity of the region.

  2. 朱广旗教授治疗小儿癫痫病经验%Experience of Professor ZHU Guang-qi for treating children’s epilepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶奕汐; 朱广旗

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsia is a common disease of children’s systema nervosum, which can cause many kinds of chronic brain diseases and damage brain function if breaks out frequently. Therefore, it becomes the main prevention and cure mental disorder. Professor ZHU Guang-qi has worked as a doctor for more than 30 years, and has abundant experience for treating epilepsia. He summarizes several kinds which has notable efficacy.%  癫痫为小儿神经系统常见疾病之一,是多种病因引起的慢性脑疾病;长期、频繁地发作可损害脑功能,因此该病成为全球重点防治的神经精神疾病。吾师从医30余年,学验颇丰,在治疗小儿癫痫中积累了丰富经验,总结出熄风豁痰、补脾肾等治痫方法,临床疗效显著。

  3. Scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding by Avicenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobli, Masumeh; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Amin, Gholamreza; Haririan, Ismaeil; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Rahimi, Roja

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is one of the prevalent gynecological disorders that cause considerable morbidity and management of that plays an important role in protecting women's health. This review focuses on medicinal plants mentioned by Avicenna, a great Iranian philosopher and physician (A.D. 980-1037), in his book Canon for treatment of AUB. Medicinal plants mentioned in Canon for treatment of AUB were elicited and searched in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Cochrane library to find studies that confirmed their efficacy. Data were collected for the years 1980-2014. The findings included 23 plants belonging to 18 families. Scientific findings have revealed that these plants control AUB through four mechanisms of action including inhibition of inflammatory process, inhibition of prostaglandins production, antiproliferative activity on human cervical cancer cells (HeLa), and estrogenic activity. All of the plants exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and/or in vivo. Cuscuta chinensis and Portulaca oleracea exhibited estrogenic activity. Boswellia carteri, Lens culinaris, Myrtus communis, Polygonum aviculare, Pistacia lentiscus, and Punica granatum have revealed inhibitory activity on biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Some of the mentioned plants including: Ceratonia siliqua, Cuscuta chinensis, Cuscuta epithymum, Cydonia oblonga, Paeonia sp., Portulaca oleracea, Solanum nigrum, Rumex acetosa and Onopordum acanthium have shown antiproliferative activity on HeLa cells. Investigation of traditional Iranian medicine literatures can lead to the identification of effective natural medicines for the management of AUB; however, conclusive confirmation of the efficacy and safety of these treatments needs more evaluations.

  4. Anatomy of Subterranean Organs of Medicinally Used Cardueae and Related Species and its Value for Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Elisabeth; Saukel, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Numerous species of the Asteraceae, the composites, are famous for their use in both traditional and conventional medicine. Reliable anatomical descriptions of these plants and of possible adulterations provide a basis for fast identification and cheap purity controls of respective medicinal drugs by means of light microscopy. Nevertheless, detailed comparative studies on root and rhizome anatomy of valuable as well as related inconsiderable composite plants are largely missing yet. The presented study aims to narrow this gap by performing anatomical analyses of roots and rhizomes of 16 species belonging to the tribe Cardueae, of formerly and currently used drugs as well as their near relatives as potential adulterations (Carlina acaulis L., Carlina vulgaris L., Arctium lappa L., Arctium tomentosum Mill., Carduus defloratus L., Carduus personata (L.) Jacq, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten., Cirsium erisithales (Jacq.) Scop., Onopordum acanthium L., Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Rhaponticum scariosum Lam., Centaurea jacea L., Centaurea scabiosa L., Centaurea cyanus L., Cnicus benedictus L.). A detailed verbal and graphical survey of the analysed anatomical features is provided. Several characters were finally extracted which allow for discrimination of the examined species and may be effectively used for drug quality controls. PMID:21617780

  5. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Several Plant Extracts and Oils against Some Gram-Negative Bacteria

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    Ayman Al-Mariri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants are considered new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of 28 plant extracts and oils against four Gram-negative bacterial species. Methods: Experimental, in vitro, evaluation of the activities of 28 plant extracts and oils as well as some antibiotics against E. coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Proteus spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed. The activity against 15 isolates of each bacterium was determined by disc diffusion method at a concentration of 5%. Microdilution susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the plant extracts, oils, and antibiotics. Results: Among the evaluated herbs, only Origanum syriacum L., Thymus syriacus Boiss., Syzygium aromaticum L., Juniperus foetidissima Wild, Allium sativum L., Myristica fragrans Houtt, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. essential oils and Laurus nobilis L. plant extract showed anti-bacterial activity. The MIC50 values of these products against the Gram-negative organisms varied from 1.5 (Proteus spp. and K. pneumoniae( and 6.25 µl/ml (Yersinia enterocolitica O9 to 12.5 µl/ml (E. coli O:157. Conclusion: Among the studied essential oils, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. essential oils were the most effective. Moreover, Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics against almost all the studied bacteria. Therefore, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. could act as bactericidal agents against Gram-negative bacteria.

  6. Some phytochemical studies or the genera Aconitum L., Delphinium L. and Consolida (DC. S.F. Gray

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    de la Fuente, Gabriel

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum napellus L. subsp. castellanum Molera & Blanché, A. Burnatii Gayer, A. Compactum Reichenb., Delphinium gracile DC., D. pentagynum Lam., D. verdunense Balbis (= D. cardiopetalum DC., D. Requienii DC.. Consolida orientalis (Gay Schröd, subsp. orientalis i C. pubescens (OC. Soó. distributed in the Iberian Peninsula, and A . napellus L. s. Str. (from England, D. montanum DC. (from France, D. nanum Dc. subsp. elongatum (Boiss Blanché & al. (= D. peregrinum L. var. elongatum Boiss. (from Morocco i D. pictum Willd. (from Mallorca are reviewed. The alkaloid content, structural types. and oxygenation patterns are discussed with respect to related species.

    [ca] Es revisen els alcaloides diterpènics obtinguts d'Aconitum napellus L. subsp. castellanum Molera & Blanché, A. Burnatii Gayer, A. Compactum Reichenb., Delphinium gracile DC., D. pentagynum Lam., D. verdunense Balbis (= D. cardiopetalum DC., D. Requienii DC.. Consolida orientalis (Gay Schröd, subsp. orientalis and C. pubescens (OC. Soó. distribuïts a la Península Ibèrica, així com d'A . napellus L. s. Str. (d'Anglaterra, D. montanum DC. (de França, D. nanum Dc. subsp. elongatum (Boiss Blanché & al. (= D. peregrinum L. var. elongatum Boiss. (del Marroc i D. pictum Willd. (de Mallorca. El contingut en alcaloides, llurs tipus estructurals i models d'oxigenació són discutits en relació a d'alt res espècies afins.

  7. Two new infraspecific taxa of Verbascum delphicum (Scrophulariaceae, Scrophularieae from mainland Greece and the island of Evvia

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    Aris Zografidis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Verbascum delphicum Boiss. & Heldr. subsp. cervi Zografidis (Scrophulariaceae, Scrophularieae is described as a subspecies new to science and illustrated. It is narrowly distributed in the Greek National Park of Mt Parnitha (Attica, Greece with a very small population size. The new subspecies is a seldom-collected taxon, previously overlooked and misidentified as consubspecific with the autonymous subspecies, an endemic of the island of Evvia (Greece. Also described in this study is a new variety of subsp. delphicum from Mt Ochi of southern Evvia.

  8. Iridoid and Phenylethanoid Glycosides from Verbascum lasianthum

    OpenAIRE

    AKDEMİR, Zeliha Ş.; TATLI, İ. İrem

    2004-01-01

    Three iridoid glucosides, 8-O-acethylharpagide (1), harpagoside (2), and 6-O-vanilloylajugol (3), were isolated from the roots of Verbascum lasianthum Boiss. ex Bentham. In addition, 2 phenylethanoid glycosides, verbascoside {=acteoside, [b -(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl]-(3' -O-a -L-rhamnopyranosyl)-(4' -O-caffeoyl)-b -D-glucopyranoside} (4) and poliumoside {= [b -(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl]-(3',6' -O-a -L-dirhamnopyranosyl)-(4' -O-caffeoyl)-b -D-glucopyranos...

  9. Psephellus vanensis (Asteraceae, a new species from east Turkey

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    Bekir Dogan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Psephellus vanensis A.Duran, Behçet & B.Dogan (Asteraceae from Anatolia, Turkey, is described and illustrated. The species grows on the serpentine stony field of the village of Çaldıran in the district of Başkale (Van province in eastern Anatolia. It is morphologically similar to Psephellus pyrrhoblepharus (Boiss. Wagenitz. Diagnostic characters are discussed, and a key to the most similar species is provided. Ecology, conservation status and notes on biogeography of the species are also presented. In addition, the geographical distribution of the new species and other related species in Turkey is mapped.

  10. Estudo da eficácia da irradiação gama na conservação da qualidade nutricional de azedas durante o armazenamento refrigerado

    OpenAIRE

    Pinela, José; João C. M. Barreira; Barros, Lillian; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Carvalho, Ana Maria; M.B.P.P. Oliveira; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    O consumo de vegetais minimamente processados tem sido impulsionado pelo estilo de vida acelerado da sociedade moderna e pela crescente conscienciatização da influência da alimentação na saúde. Além de conveniência, salubridade e segurança, o consumidor procura também alimentos com características organoléticas diferenciadas das dos alimentos habitualmente consumidos diariamente. Neste sentido, a recuperação do uso das azedas (Rumex induratus Boiss. & Reut.) poderá responder a ...

  11. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXVI. Sesquiterpene lactones in several subgenera of the genus Centaurea L.

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    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of both known and new sesquiterpene lactones was determined in six species classified in different subgenera of Centaurea L. Chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin and janerin were isolated from C. phaeopappoides Bordz. and C. thracica (Janka Hayek. C. marschalliana Spreng. was found to contain acroptilin, chlorojanerin, cebellin D and janerin while C. adjarica Alb. had repin, acroptilin, chlorojanerin, centaurepensin, janerin, repidiolide, cebellin D, E, F and L A new, hitherto underscribed cebellin J quaianolide was found in C. bella Trautv. and another germacranolide, 3α, 15-dihydroxycostunolide was found in C. sphaerocephala subsp. lusitanica (Boiss. et Reuter Nyman.

  12. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXII. Guaianolides in species from the genus Chartolepis Cass.

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    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the composition of the "lactone fraction" of 4 species from the genus Chartolepis Cass. were observed. Cynaropierin was isolated from the above-ground parts of Chartolepis intermedia Boiss. and the occurrence there of grossheimin was confirmed. The following compounds were isolated from the above-ground parts of Chartolepis glastifolia (L. Cass.: centaurepensin, repin, cebellin C, acroptillin, cebellin D, cynaropicrin, cebellin F and janerin. Centaurepensin, repin, cebellin C, acroptillin, cynaropicrin, janerin and a new guaianolide, pterocaulin were isolated from the herb Chartolepis biebersteinii Jaub. et Spach. In addition to the lactones found in Chartolepis biebersteinii, Chartolepis pterocaula (Trautv. Czer. also accumulated grossheimin.

  13. The chemical composition of the essential oils of Euphorbia caracasana and E. cotinifolia (Euphorbiaceae) from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Janne; Baldovino, Shirley; Vizcaya, Marietta; Rojas, Luis B; Morales, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    The essential oils from leaves of E. caracasana Boiss collected from Miyoi, Pueblo Llano, Mérida State at 1800 m above sea level and leaves of E. cotinifolia L collected from Manzano Alto-Ejido, Mérida State at 1520 m were analyzed by GC/MS. Beta-Caryophyllene (33.7 %), alpha-humulene (18.8 %) and aromadendrene (8.4 %) were the major constituents of E. caracasana oil, whereas those of E. cotinifolia oil were beta-caryophyllene (39.3 %), germacrene-D (21.5 %) and alpha-copaene (9.3 %).

  14. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L.

  15. Phytochemical Study of Swertia Longifolia

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    V Mozaffarian

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swertia spp. (Gentianaceae grow widely in eastern and southern Asian countries such as Japan, China and India and are used as traditional remedy for gastrointestinal complains because of their bitter principles. Several studies have been carried out on hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, mono amino oxidase inhibitory and antidepressant effects of these plants and it has been shown that xanthones and iridoids are responsible for their activities. Purpose of the study: In order to gain better knowledge of endemic plants of Flora Iranica, Swertia longifolia Boiss. growing in the northern parts of Iran, was subjected to phytochemical studies. Methods: Dried and milled aerial parts of the plant were extracted with petroleum ether and ethanol of which results of petroleum ether extract has been reported previously. For purification of ethanol extract, it was acidified with acetic acid and subsequently extracted with chloroform and then with n-butanol. The n-butanol extract was analyzed using different chromatographic methods and the structures of the isolated components were established by means of spectroscopic techniques. Results: Four components including an iridoid glycoside (loganic acid, a secoiridoid glycoside (gentiopicroside, a secoiridoid dilactone (gentiolactone and a nucleoside (uridine were isolated from n-butanol extract of the plant. Major conclusion: Similar to other species of Swertia, iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides could be considered as major constituents of Swertia longifolia Boiss.

  16. Extraction of Indigo from Some Isatis species and Dyeing Standardization Using Low-technology Methods

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    Nazan Comlekcioglu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fresh leaves of four Isatis species culture form of I. tinctoria L and wild forms of I. buschiana Schischkin, I. candolleana Boiss. (endemic and I. tinctoria L. subsp. corymbosa. (Boiss. were used for indigo production. Dyes were extracted by fermentation and hot water application. The extracted dyes were optimized with different pH and reducing agents. Results showed that the dye from hot water application produced the desired dying quality at pH 11. Reducing agent concentrations had no significant effect on color quality. Dark blue and blue colors were obtained from I. tinctoria and I. candolleana extracts although I. tinctoria subsp. corymbosa and I. buschiana produced mostly yellow-gray colors. Light, dry and wet rubbing fastness values varied between 3 and 3/4 while washing fastness was between 2 and 4/5. The highest indigo amounts were determined spectrophotometrically as 4.19 mg/g and 2.53 mg/g in I. tinctoria and I. candolleana, respectively. Results also showed that harvesting season was important for indigo production and the highest indigo amount was observed in mid-June.

  17. Grandivittin as a natural minor groove binder extracted from Ferulago macrocarpa to ct-DNA, experimental and in silico analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, F; Valadbeigi, S; Sajjadi, S E; Shokoohinia, Y; Azizian, H; Taheripak, G

    2016-10-25

    Ferulago macrocarpa (Fenzl) Boiss., is an endemic medicinal herb of Iran. In this study a dihydrofuranocoumarin called grandivittin (GRA) was separate and purified from Ferulago macrocarpa (Fenzl) Boiss, and characterized by (1)H NMR and Mass spectroscopic methods. The electrochemical behavior of GRA was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The interaction of GRA with calf thymus double strand deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA), was evaluated by CV, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), fluorescence, UV-Vis, FT-IR and molecular modeling methods. The thermodynamic parameters of GRA-DNA complex were measured and reported as: ΔH = 15.04 kJ mol(-1), ΔS = 105.54 J mol(-1) and ΔG = -15.62 kJ mol(-1). Docking simulation was performed to investigate the probable binding mode of GRA to various DNA, too. The polymerase extension study was performed using real-time PCR to confirm the inhibitory effect of GRA on polymerase extension activity as a mirror of binding to ct-DNA. However, all data showed that the grooves binding especially minor groove between GRA and ct-DNA is more predominant rather than other binding modes.

  18. Chemotaxonomy and flavonoid diversity of Salvia L.(Lamiaceae in Iran

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    Navaz Kharazian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the chemotaxonomic status and chemical diversity of Salvia L. species in Iran using leaf flavonoid profiles. From natural habitats in the country, we collected samples of 14 species of the genus: S. spinosa L.; S. macrosiphon Boiss.; S. reuterana Boiss.; S. sharifii Rech.f. & Esfand.; S. nemorosa L.; S. virgata Jacq.; S. syriaca L.; S. mirzayanii Rech.f. & Esfand.; S. atropatana Bunge; S. limbata C. A. Mey; S. sclarea L.; S. ceratophylla L.; S. multicaulis Vahl.; and S. hydrangea Dc. ex Benth. Two-dimensional maps of these species were created with thin-layer chromatography. In order to study the taxonomic position of these species and 37 accessions, cluster analysis was applied. The results of the cluster analysis showed that S. spinosa was distinct from S. reuterana. Despite considerable morphological similarity between S. nemorosa and S. virgata, those two species are definitely distinguished. In addition, S. spinosa and S. macrosiphon were roughly grouped, whereas S. ceratophylla and S. multicaulis composed two separate groups. In the 14 species collected, the flavonoids identified were flavones, flavonols, flavanones, isoflavones, dihydroflavonols and chalcones. We found that flavonoids are appropriate indicators to determine the taxonomic position of Salvia species.

  19. Comparative Studies on Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant, Wound Healing and Cytotoxic Activities of Selected Achillea L. Species Growing in Turkey

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    Osman Tuncay Agar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of the most important centers of diversity for the genus Achillea L. in the world. Keeping in mind the immense medicinal importance of phenols, in this study, three species growing in Turkey, A. coarctata Poir. (AC, A. kotschyi Boiss. subsp. kotschyi (AK and A. lycaonica Boiss. & Heldr. (AL were evaluated for their phenolic compositions, total phenolic contents (TPC, antioxidant properties, wound healing potencies on NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Comprehensive LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that AK was distinctively rich in chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, apigenin, hesperidin, rutin, kaempferol and luteolin (2890.6, 987.3, 797.0, 422.5, 188.1, 159.4 and 121.2 µg analyte/g extract, respectively. The findings exhibited a strong correlation between TPC and both free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. Among studied species, the highest TPC (148.00 mg GAE/g extract and TAC (2.080 UAE, the strongest radical scavenging (EC50 = 32.63 μg/mL, the most prominent wound healing and most abundant cytotoxic activities were observed with AK. The results suggested that AK is a valuable source of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid with important antioxidant, wound healing and cytotoxic activities. These findings warrant further studies to assess the potential of AK as a bioactive source that could be exploited in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.

  20. Competitive effect of a native-invasive species on a threatened shrub in a Mediterranean dune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz Esquivias, M; Zunzunegui, María; Díaz Barradas, Mari Cruz; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor

    2015-01-01

    The canopy shade of the Retama species has been widely reported to ameliorate the environmental conditions in the understory, thus facilitating other species' establishment. The shading effect of the native-invasive leguminous shrub Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss on the endangered Thymus carnosus Boiss was analysed to determine a positive or negative net effect. Data was taken in all four seasons, representing contrasting light and water availability in a Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystem (SW Spain). The morphological and physiological status of sun-exposed T. carnosus plants growing in open areas versus shaded plants growing under R. monosperma were measured seasonally. Leaf mass area, leaf area index and pigment content showed typical sun-shade responses. In contrast, sun-exposed T. carnosus displayed higher stem water potential, transpiration rate and water use efficiency, both intrinsic and integrated, denoting low tolerance to the presence of R. monosperma. Five years after the measurements, canopy cover had decreased and mortality was higher in shaded plants, thus confirming the competitive effect of R. monosperma on T. carnosus. R. monosperma arises as a competitor for endangered T. carnosus communities, consequently reinforcing its invasive behaviour. This species-specific shrub study demonstrates that eventual beneficial effects of Retama canopy may be overridden by competition in the understory, particularly in the case of species well-adapted to high light and low water levels.

  1. Wood anatomical changes due to uptake of cadmium and lead from contaminated soils in Acer velutinum seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeynab Shahpoori; Vilma Bayramzadeh; Vahid Reza Safdari; Manoochehr Khan Zarinkafsh; Pedram Attarod; Roghayeh Jirroodnejad

    2012-01-01

    We investigated wood anatomical changes due to uptake and accumulation of cadmium and lead from contaminated soils in Acer velutinum Boiss seedlings.Two-year old seedlings were exposed for 180 days to soil concentrations with varying cadmium and lead concentrations.We measured three wood anatomical traits,average vessel area (μm2),vessel number per square millimetre,and vessel lumen area percentage (%).For assessing the cadmium and lead accumulation,we measured the concentrations in the soil,leaf,stem,and root.Average vessel area and vessel lumen area percentage were similar (p>0.05) in control and treated seedlings.Vessel number per square millimetre showed a decreasing trend from pith to bark in control and treated seedlings,and the trend was more pronounced in treated seedlings.We conclude that vessel number per square millimetre in A.velutinum is influenced by soil contamination.A.velutinum Boiss is not a suitable species for remediation of soils contaminated by cadmium and lead but it can be used as an indicator of the soil lead contamination,because lead concentrations in seedlings increased with increasing amount of lead in the soil.

  2. Evaluating the Effects of Study Scale on Spatial Patterns of three Range Plant Species Using Quadrate Indices and Point Pattern Analysis in Chaharmahal- Bakhtirai Province Rangelands

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    M. Safaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the spatial patterns of Acanthophyllum microcephalum Boiss, Nepeta glomerulosa Boiss and Hertia angustifolia and evaluate the effects of study scale on spatial patterns of three range plant species in Ghale-Gharak research-station located in Shahr-e-Kord. 40 points with a distance of five meters from each other were selected for sampling of vegetation along four 50 m transects using a random-systematic approach. The species spatial patterns were measured by 6 different distance-based methods including Hopkines, Johnson-and-Zimer, Eberhardt, Holgate, Hines and T-Square-index. A 100 m2 reference site (10 by 10 m was selected to record the species co-ordinates and conduct point pattern analysis. The spatial patterns of the species were determined in 3 scales of 10×10, 5×10 and 5×5 meters to highlight the effects of scale on spatial patterns of vegetation. According to the results, H. angustifolia showed randomized spatial patterns due to its seed dispersal ability. N. glomerulosa and A. microcephalum showed a clustered spatial pattern beacuse their seed are in achene form and fall next to these species. All the 3 species had a clustered pattern when the scale of point pattern analysis was decreased. Identifying these plant spatial patterns and their controlling factors such as seed dispersal mechanisms of the species and sampling scale are required to select the best sampling strategy in rangeland assessment programs.

  3. Effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on Escherichia coli

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    Aburjai Talal A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli occurs naturally in the human gut; however, certain strains that can cause infections, are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant E. coli that produce extended-spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs, such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs and bloodstream infections may be associated with these community-onsets. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of nineteen Jordanian plants against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Methods The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs using a broth microdilution method. Nineteen Jordanian plant extracts (Capparis spinosa L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Echinops polyceras Boiss., Gundelia tournefortii L, Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. & Blanche, Eruca sativa Mill., Euphorbia macroclada L., Hypericum trequetrifolium Turra, Achillea santolina L., Mentha longifolia Host, Origanum syriacum L., Phlomis brachydo(Boiss. Zohary, Teucrium polium L., Anagyris foetida L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Thea sinensis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium sativum L., Pimpinella anisum L. were combined with antibiotics, from different classes, and the inhibitory effect of the combinations was estimated. Results Methanolic extracts of the plant materials enhanced the inhibitory effects of chloramphenicol, neomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin and nalidixic acid against both the standard strain and to a lesser extent the resistant strain of E. coli. Two edible plant extracts (Gundelia tournefortii L. and Pimpinella anisum L. generally enhanced activity against resistant strain. Some of the plant extracts like Origanum syriacum L.(Labiateae, Trigonella foenum- graecum L.(Leguminosae, Euphorbia macroclada (Euphorbiaceae and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae did not enhance the activity of

  4. "Essential oils of Heracleum Persicum Desf.ex Fischer leaves "

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    Mojab F

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Heracleum persicum Desf ex Fischer (Syn. H glabrascens Boiss. & Hohen, H. prbescens Rech. (Fam Apiaceae were collected in July - Auguest 1993 from kandavan area in north of Tehran. The oil was extracted by hydrodistillation (0.13% from leaves and was analyzed by GC, GC/CS and 1H-NMR. The major component was trans - anethole (82.8% Other components were β - pinene, p-cymene and terpinolene (monoterpenes , α- caryophylene, α- bergamotene, α- farnesene, zingiberene, spathulenol (sesqiterpenes. Cis - anethole, stragole, 2,5-dimethyl styrene (aromatic compounds, and β- springene ( an aliphatic and hydrocarbonic diterpene . It is concluded that this oil is a source of trans - anethole .

  5. Contribuciones al conocimiento de la flora del País Vasco, III

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    AIZPURU, I., ASEGINOLAZA, C., GARIN, F., VIVANT J.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan algunas adiciones y modificaciones que se recogerán en la segunda edición de las Claves ilustradas de la flora del País Vasco y territorios limítrofes (Aizpuru, I., C. Aseginolaza, P.M. Uribe-Echebarría, P. Urrutia and I. Zorrakin, eds., 1999. En concreto se realiza la revisión de algunos géneros (Arum, Asphodelus, Doronicum, Rhinantus junto con la aportación de nuevos datos corológicos y correcciones de nomenclaturas. Se combina D. carpetanum Boiss and Reuter ex Willk. subsp. pubescens (C. Pérez Morales, A. Penas, F. Llamas and C. Acedo Aizpuru aomb. and stat. nov.

  6. Development of microsatellite markers in Lupinus luteus (Fabaceae) and cross-species amplification in other lupine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Lorena B Parra; Straub, Shannon C K; Doyle, Jeff J; Ortega, Paula E Mora; Garrido, Haroldo E Salvo; Butler, Iván J Maureira

    2010-08-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in Lupinus luteus L., an emerging temperate protein crop, to investigate genetic diversity, population structure, and to facilitate the generation of better yellow lupine varieties. • Thirteen polymorphic primer sets were evaluated in a European and Eastern European accession collection of L. luteus. The primers amplified di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats with 2-4 alleles per locus. These revealed a moderate to low level of genetic variation, as indicated by an average observed heterozygosity of 0.0126. Select loci also amplified successfully in the closely related species L. hispanicus Boiss. & Reut. and in the New World species L. mutabilis Sweet. • These results indicate the utility of primers for the study of genetic diversity across L. luteus populations and related lupine species. The use of these microsatellite markers will facilitate the implementation of several molecular breeding strategies in yellow lupine.

  7. SOAP-T: A tool to study the light-curve and radial velocity of a system with a transiting planet and a rotating spotted star

    CERN Document Server

    Oshagh, M; Boué, G; Montalto, M; Santos, N C; Bonfils, X; Haghighipour, N

    2012-01-01

    We present an improved version of SOAP (Boisse et al. 2012) named "SOAP-T", which can generate the radial velocity variations and light-curves for systems consisting of a rotating spotted star with a transiting planet. This tool can be used to study the anomalies inside transit light-curves and the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, to better constrain the orbital configuration and properties of planetary systems and active zones of their host stars. Tests of the code are presented to illustrate its performance and to validate its capability when compared with analytical models and real data. Finally, we apply SOAP-T to the active star, HAT-P-11, observed by the NASA Kepler space telescope and use this system to discuss the capability of this tool in analyzing light-curves for the cases where the transiting planet overlaps with the star's spots.

  8. Theodor von Heldreich (1822-1902) and his Turkish collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baytop, Asuman; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    The distinguished German botanist Theodor von Heldreich (1822-1902) visited Anatolia on at least 6 separate occasions as documented by specimens cited in Flora of Turkey and Flora Orientalis. His first visit was in 1845 and his last, to Izmir, in 1852. Within this period of less than seven years he...... the Flora alone as precise dates and numbers are rarely provided in the citations. However, by studying actual specimens deposited in herbaria we can obtain more information and this work is in progress. Heldreich´s Turkish collections are represented in 27 herbaria located in 12 European countries...... excluding 2 in the United States. He is commemorated by the genus Heldreichia Boiss. (Brassicaceae), which has 4 species in Turkey. Numerous other taxa bear the epithets heldreichii, heldreichianus, -a or -um. At least 18 such taxa are listed in the Flora of Turkey. Heldreich died in Athens at the age of 80...

  9. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil the leaf of Nepeta persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya AKHSHI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the leaf of Nepeta persica Boiss, analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography (GC/mass spectrometry (MS, were shown to contain 4aα, 7α, 7aβ-nepetalactone (49.46% and 4aα, 7α, 7aα-nepetalactone (14.18%. The other main constituents were n-octane (13.10%, n-decane (3.67% and germacrene-D (2.04%. Antibacterial activities of the leaf oil were evaluated using the micro-dilution broth method. Inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis were recorded. The leaf oil has difference activities against the test microorganisms. The antibacterial property of the essential oil might be ascribed to their high content of nepetalactone isomers.

  10. Evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for antidiarrhoeal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

    2005-06-01

    The antidiarrhoeal effect of seven plant extracts namely: the aerial parts of Euphorbia paralias L. (EP), Bidens bipinnata L. (BB), Cynachum acutum L. (CyAc), Diplotaxis acris (Forssk.) Boiss (DA), Convolvulus fatmensis (CF) and Schouwia thebaica Webb (ST) and the leaves of Plantago major L. (PM), was evaluated on castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastrointestinal movement in rats (charcoal meal) and on the motility of duodenum isolated from freshly slaughtered rabbits. A significant antidiarrhoeal effect of the tested plant extracts against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats was achieved by 200 and 400 mg/kg. The tested plant extracts decreased the gastrointestinal movement as indicated by the significantly (pmajor active constituents of the tested plants.

  11. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXIII. Isolation of sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea L. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Geppert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpene lactones were isolated from 18 species or subspecies of the genus Centaurea L.: salonitenolide (I was found in C. crithmifolia Vis., C. friderici Vis., C, paniculata L., C. calcitrapa L., C. pontica Prodan et E. L' Nyarady, C. eriophora L., C. alba L. subsp. deusta (Ten. Nyman, C. alba L. subsp. caliacrae (Prodan Dostal and C. weldeniana Reichenb.; cnicin (II was found in: C. vallesiaca (DC. Jordan, C. calcitrapa L., C. aspera L. subsp. aspera, C. sphaerocephala L. subsp. lusitanica (Boiss. et Reuter Nyman, C. sulphurea Willd., C. eriophora L. and C. rocheliana (Heuffel Dostal; cynaropicrin (III was detected in C. debeauxii Gren. et Gordon subsp. thuillieri Dostal; acroptillin (V, repin (VI and janerin (VII in C. bella Trautv. Other unidentified sesquiterpene lactones were also found to be present in the examined plants.

  12. Nuclear microsatellite primers for the endangered relict fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae) and cross-amplification in related Mediterranean Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; Balao, Francisco; García-Castaño, Juan L; Terrab, Anass; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Talavera, Salvador

    2012-11-05

    Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR) were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454) data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin, and most of the loci showed higher polymorphisms in the Mediterranean species than in A. pinsapo. These microsatellite markers provide tools for conservation genetic studies in Abies pinsapo as well other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin.

  13. Nuclear Microsatellite Primers for the Endangered Relict Fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae and Cross-Amplification in Related Mediterranean Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Navarro-Sampedro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454 data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin, and most of the loci showed higher polymorphisms in the Mediterranean species than in A. pinsapo. These microsatellite markers provide tools for conservation genetic studies in Abies pinsapo as well other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin.

  14. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of turkish endemic Sideritis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünver, Ahmet

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sideritis species are traditionally used as teas, flavoring agents and for medicinal purposes in Turkey . In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC and Sideritis eryhrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE endemic species' extracts of Lamiaceae were determined. These extracts were investigated for antibacterial activity by using the agar diffusion method against 15 species of bacteria: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus feacalis, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. Statistical differences within bacteria were significant at pLas especies de Sideritis de usan tradicionalmente para la elaboración del té, como flavorizantes y con fines médicos en Turquía. En este estudio, se han determinado las actividades antimicrobiana y antioxidante de extractos de especies endémicas de la Familia Lamiaceae , como son Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC y Sideritis erythrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE. La actividad antibacteriana fue determinada mediante el método de difusión en agar con 15 especies de bacterias: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus , Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus feacalis, Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus y Yersinia enterocolitica. Se consideraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas cuando p<0,05. El extracto de SC tuvo mayor actividad antimicrobiana que el extracto de SE. La bacteria más sensible fue P. aeruginosa , mientras que las más resistentes fueron E. feacalis para el extracto

  15. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadila Moussaoui; Tajelmolk Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To demonstrate the in vitro antibacterial properties of five essential oils against ten bacterial strains and study the synergistic effect of the combination of essential oils with standard antibiotics.Methods:Origanum compactum,Chrysanthemum coronarium,Thymus willdenowii Boiss,Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana L.were used alone and combined used with standard antibiotics to evaluate their antimicrobial activities.The disk diffusion method was employed.Results:The results showed that the combined application of the essential oils of the plants with antibiotics led to a synergistic effect in some cases,but antagonistic effect was also observed in some bacteria.Conclusions:This study shows that the combination of essential oils of the five plants with antibiotics may be useful in the fight against emerging microbial drug resistance.

  16. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadila Moussaoui; Tajelmolk Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the in vitro antibacterial properties of five essential oils against ten bacterial strains and study the synergistic effect of the combination of essential oils with standard antibiotics. Methods: Origanum compactum, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Thymus willdenowii Boiss, Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana L. were used alone and combined used with standard antibiotics to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. The disk diffusion method was employed. Results: The results showed that the combined application of the essential oils of the plants with antibiotics led to a synergistic effect in some cases, but antagonistic effect was also observed in some bacteria. Conclusions: This study shows that the combination of essential oils of the five plants with antibiotics may be useful in the fight against emerging microbial drug resistance.

  17. Evaluation of Zenian and Avishan-e Shirazi Antibacterial Activity against Vibrio cholerae Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezou Taherpour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss (Avishan-e Shirazi and Carum copticum (Zenianextracts on Vibrio cholerae American Type Culture Collection (ATCC14035and V. cholerae Persian Type Culture Collection (PTCC1611 strains.Methods: Antimicrobial effects of the extracts were assayed by disc diffusionand broth microdilution methods.Results: Using susceptibility tests, it was shown that Carum copticummethanolic extract had the highest antibacterial effect on V. cholerae standardstrains at 6.25 mg/ml concentration.Conclusions: Other evaluations considering herbal extracts as an antibacterialagent as well as in vivo examination of these extracts is needed to provide anatural, cost effective and strong alternative for traditionally less effectiveantibiotics normally used.

  18. Contemporary inter-specific hybridization between Cirsium aduncum and C. haussknechtii (Asteraceae: Evidence from molecular and morphological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheidai Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirsium aduncum Fisch. & C.A.Mey. Ex DC. and C. haussknechtii Boiss., (Asteraceae are important medicinal plant species that grow in different geographical regions of Iran. We had no knowledge about population genetic structure, intra-specific and inter-specific gene flow and the presence of hybrid zone for this two species in Iran. Therefore, in order to provide data for conservation of these two medicinally important species, the population genetic analysis and morphometric studies were performed in 18 geographical populations of these species. ANOVA and MDS analyses revealed significant morphological difference among the studied populations in either species, while MDS plot showed morphological overlap in plants of these two species. AMOVA test revealed significant genetic difference among the studied populations. Mantel test showed positive significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances and the occurrence of isolation by distance. Population assignment test and STRUCTURE plot of genetic data revealed inter-specific introgression between these species.

  19. Comparative Study of Alkaloid Pattern of Four Bulgarian Fumaria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncheva, Tsvetelina; Yordanova, Gabriela; Vutov, Vassil; Kostova, Nadezhda; Philipov, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    The alkaloid pattern of four Fumaria species (Fumaria kralikii, Fumaria rostellata, Fumaria schleicherii, Fumaria thureii) growing in Bulgaria was investigated by GC-MS and twenty isoquinoline alkaloids were determined. Phytochemical investigation of the alkaloid composition on Fumaria thuretii Boiss was made for the first time. The alkaloid profile of the species was compared at two levels, between different species and within two species from different habitats. Two chemotypical groups, based on the types of isoquinoline alkaloids were suggested. To group A belong species F. kralikii, F. rostellata (F. r. 1) and F. thuretii containing more than 50% spirobenzylisoquinoline alkaloids of the crude alkaloid mixtures. To group B belong species F. rostellata (F. r. 2) and F. schleicherii containing more than 40% protopine alkaloids and relatively high percentage phthaldeisoquinoline alkaloids (11-19%). In group A phthaldeisoquinoline alkaloids were not detected.

  20. Analysis of essential oils from Scutellaria orientalis ssp. alpina and S. utriculata by GC and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Piozzi, Franco; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides

    2011-09-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Scutellaria orientalis L. ssp. alpina (Boiss.) O. Schwarz and S. utriculata Labill. growing wild in Lebanon, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In S. orientalis ssp. alpina, strongly characterized by sesquiterpenes (41.2%) and particularly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (31.7%), hexahydrofarnesylacetone (11.7%) was recognized as the main constituent, together with hexadecanoic acid (7.6%), caryophyllene (7.4%), caryophyllene oxide (6.8%), 4-vinylguaiacol (5.4%) and germacrene D (5.4%). S. utriculata oil was instead constituted above all by monoterpenes (42.2%), particularly oxygen containing monoterpenes (39.9%), and in this oil the main compounds were linalool (20.1%), 4-vinyl guaiacol (15.5%), alpha-terpineol (8.9%), (E)-nerolidol (8.9%) and geraniol (8.2%).

  1. Proteinase activity in latex of three plants of the family Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Michel Sobottka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the family of Euphorbiaceae,the genera Euphorbia and Sapium are known to contain essentially latex-bearing species. In the present study, the latex of Euphorbia selloi(Klotzsch & Garcke Boiss., Euphorbia papillosa A.St.-Hil., and Sapium glandulosum (L. Morong, plants native from Brazil, were examined concerning proteolytic activity. All studied species have proteins with significant proteolytic activity and E. papillosa has the greatest specific activity. Aiming to verify the type of protease present, an assay with different inhibitors was performed. In the three tested plants, the proteolytic activity was significantly inhibited by a serine protease inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF. Using techniques of electrophoresis with polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE, the subunits of proteins were separated according to their molecular masses, and the protein activity was visually detected by zymography.

  2. Repellency and toxicity of aromatic plant extracts against the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Abdallah F; El-Haj, Samih; Tueni, Marie; Taoubi, Khalil; Nader, Natalie Abi; Mrad, Abir

    2005-06-01

    The insecticidal activities of essential oil extracts from leaves, flowers and roots of aromatic plants against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus Forskal were determined. Extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill were the most toxic, followed by those of Ferula hermonis Boiss, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, Pinus pinea L, Laurus nobilis L and Eucalyptus spp with LC50 values of 24.5, 44.0, 60.0, 75.0, 117.0 and 120.0 mg litre(-1), respectively. Combination tests between the LC50 and the maximum sub-lethal concentration (MSLC) were determined. Over 20 major components were identified in extracts from each plant species tested. Five essential oils and nine pure components were studied for their repellency against mosquito bites. Terpineol and 1,8-cineole were the most effective against Culex pipiens molestus bites offering complete protection for 1.6 and 2 h, respectively.

  3. The effect of harvest periods on the chemical compositions of essential oils of sage (Salvia aucheri L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Guilles; Chalchat, Jean Claude; Chalard, Pierre; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils of sage leaves (Salvia aucheri Bentham var. canescens Boiss. & Heldr.), growing wild in South Anatolia, were extracted by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. The percentage yields of the essential oils from sage leaves harvested at different years were 1.0%, 1.3%, 1.3%, 1.0%, 1.4%, 1.5% and 1.2%, respectively. In this study, 1,8-cineole, camphre, camphene α-pinene and β-pinene were identified as the major components of sage leaves collected at different periods. The main constituents of sage oil collected over the years were 1,8-cineole (35.01-48.06%), camphre (13.58-23.92%), camphene (6.77-8.82%), α-pinene (5.79-8.54%) and β-pinene (4.32-6.28%).

  4. Dendroclimatic Reconstruction of April-May Temperature Fluctuations in the Western Himalaya of India Since A.D. 1698

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ram R.; Park, Won-Kyu; Bhattacharyya, Amalava

    1997-09-01

    Ring-width chronologies of Himalayan cedar ( Cedrus deodara(D. Don.) G. Don.), Himalayan pine ( Pinus wallichianaA. B. Jackson), and Himalayan spruce ( Picea smithiana(Wall.) Boiss.) from the western Himalayan region, India, have been used to reconstruct mean April-May temperature back to A.D. 1698. The reconstruction correlates significantly with the average April-May instrumental temperature record ( r= +0.62, 1876-1988) and is characterized by annual to multiyear fluctuations. The most striking feature of the present reconstruction is the absence of any warming trend in the 20th century. Relationships between the mean April-May temperature for the western Himalayan region, Indian summer monsoon rainfall, and Southern Oscillation Index indicate that the tree-ring chronologies, as surrogate temperature records, will provide valuable data for climate change studies with regional and global perspectives.

  5. Feruhermonins A-C: three daucane esters from the seeds of Ferula hermonis (Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzi, Abdurazag A; Gray, Alexander I; Salem, Mohamed M; Badwan, Adnan A; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2008-01-01

    Seventeen daucane esters have been isolated from the seeds of Ferula hermonis Boiss (Apiaceae). Three of these sesquiterpenes, 4beta-hydroxy-6alpha-benzoyl-7-daucen-9-one (1), 4beta, 8beta-dihydroxy-6alpha-benzoyl-dauc-9-ene (2), and 4beta, 9alpha-dihydroxy-6alpha-benzoyl-dauc-7-ene (4), named feruhermonins A-C, respectively, are novel natural products. The structures of these compounds were elucidated unequivocally by a series of 1D and 2D NMR analyses. Although 4beta, 8beta-dihydroxy-6alpha-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyl)-dauc-9-ene (3) was reported previously, the complete spectroscopic data for this compound are presented here for the first time.

  6. Antiinflammatory sesquiterpenes from the root oil of Ferula hermonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geroushi, Afaf; Auzi, Abdurazag A; Elhwuegi, Abdalla Salem; Elzawam, Fawzi; Elsherif, Akram; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2011-05-01

    Ferula hermonis Boiss. (Apiaceae), commonly known as 'Shilsh-el-zallouh', 'Hashishat-al-kattira' or 'The Lebanese viagra', is a small shrub that grows abundantly on the Hermon Mountain between Syria and Lebanon. The seeds and roots of this plant have long been used in the Middle East as an aphrodisiac, and for the treatment of frigidity and impotence for both men and women. The antiinflammatory properties of three major daucane esters, ferutinin (1) teferin (2) and teferidin (3), isolated from the root oil of Ferula hermonis, were assessed by the carrageenan-induced oedema model in rats. The antiinflammatory effect of both 1 and 2 was observed with a dose of 100 mg/kg, while compound 3 did not show any antiinflammatory activity; conversely it produced a significant proinflammatory effect 2 and 3 h after carrageenan injection.

  7. Inhibition of 304 stainless steel corrosion in acidic solution by Ferula gumosa (galbanum) extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behpour, M.; Ghoreishi, S.M.; Soltani, N. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kashan (Iran); Kashani, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kashan (Iran); Barij Essence pharmaceutical, Kashan (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    The inhibition effect of the extract of galbanum (Ferula gummosa Boiss.) on the corrosion of 304 stainless steel in 2 M HCl solution was studied by weight loss measurements, Tafel polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. It was found that the inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. Tafel polarization method revealed the mixed mode inhibition of galbanum extract (GE) with predominant control of anodic reaction. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior of steel indicates that inhibition efficiency of the natural substance increases with the rise in temperature. At all temperatures, the adsorption of the extract components onto the steel surface was found to follow the Temkin adsorption isotherm. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Characterization of soluble soybean polysaccharide film incorporated essential oil intended for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarbashi, Davoud; Tajik, Sima; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Shahidi Noghabi, Mostafa; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    This study examines the development of new bio-active polysaccharide-based bioplastics through casting and solvent-evaporation. Soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) films incorporated with Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at various concentrations were prepared and characterized. The presence of ZEO and MEO improved polysaccharide interactions, reducing the films' water solubility and water vapor barrier properties, but did not markedly modify their moisture content or thickness. Differing amounts of ZEO or MEO had no significant effect on mechanical behavior, with the exception of 3% oil concentration, which decreased tensile strength and significantly increased elongation at break. DMTA curves revealed a single Tg, which may indicate the compatibility of essential oil and SSPS. The electron scanning micrograph for the composite film was homogeneous, without signs of phase separation between the components. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO can potentially be directly incorporated into SSPS to prepare active biodegradable films for food-packaging applications.

  9. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain); Aplicacion de Flora Autoctona en la Recuperacion de Zonas Afectadas por la Mineria en el Valle del Rio Rodrigatos (El Bierzo, Leon, Espana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galean, L.; Gamarra, R.; Sainz, H.; Millan, R.

    2010-07-27

    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  10. The taxonomic status of Scilla beirana Samp. (Hyacinthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldas, Francisco B.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Scilla beirana Samp. were sampled in NW Portugal and compared with its relatives S. ramburei Boiss, and S. peruviana L. Leaf and scape anatomy, morphology, chromosome number and idiogram were identical in S. beirana and S. ramburei, but differed from S. peruviana. Diagnostic characters previously used to discriminate S. beirana (width of leaves and flower number showed continuous, but not clinal, variation, and failed to provide a clear-cut basis for identification and no other morphological attributes were found to separate the taxa. All available evidence suggests that S. beirana should be put into synonymy with S. ramburei, as was earlier suggested by COUTINHO (1935.Se muestreó Scilla beirana Samp. en diversas poblaciones del noroeste de Portugal y se comparó con dos táxones con los que se había relacionado previamente, S. ramburei Boiss, y S. peruviana L. La macromorfología, la anatomía de la hoja y escapo, el número cromosomático y el idiograma de S. beirana y S. ramburei fueron indistinguibles, pero diferentes de los de S. peruviana. Los caracteres diagnósticos que se habían utilizado previamente para discriminar a S. beirana -anchura foliar y número de flores- revelaron una variación continua y no permitieron diferenciarla de S. ramburei, en la cual debería ser incluida como sinónimo, tal como había sugerido COUTINHO (1935.

  11. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and anticonvulsant activity of some Iranian medicinal Ferula species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Malmir, Maryam; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2010-03-01

    Several Ferula (Umbelliferae) species have been used in Iranian traditional medicine as antiflatulent, antispasmodic, anticonvulsant, expectorant, etc. In the present study, cytotoxicity and anticonvulsant activity of the methanol extracts from several Ferula species were evaluated. Air-dried samples of different parts of these plants (Ferula diversivittata Regel & Schmalh. (roots), Ferula persica Willd. (aerial parts), Ferula ovina (Boiss.) Boiss. (roots), Ferula badrakema Kos.-Pol. (roots), Ferula diversivittata (flowers), Ferula latisecta Rech. F. & Aell. (roots), and Ferula badrakema (fruits)) were macerated with methanol for 3 days. The mixtures were then filtered, concentrated and dried. For determination of the cytotoxicity of the extracts and also the oleo-gum-resin of F. assafoetida L., the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was employed as a model assay system since it provides a convenient in-house pre-screening method for evaluating general cytotoxicity. The methanol extracts of different Ferula species and the oleo-gum-resin of F. assafoetida exhibited cytotoxic effect with LC(50) values in the range of 6-321 microg/mL. For the anticonvulsant testing, seizure was induced by injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), 90 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.). This dose was given to 10 groups, each consisting of 6 mice, which were pretreated i.p. with the extracts (300 mg/kg), Diazepam (10 mL/kg) or saline (10 mL/kg). The results showed that none of the tested Ferula species can prevent PTZ-induced seizure at the used dose. In conclusion, all of the extracts and the oleo-gum resin of F. assafoetida showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity which was highest in F. badrakema fruits and lowest in F. badrakema roots. Our findings also revealed that the methanol extracts and F. assafoetida oleo-gum resin do not possess anticonvulsant activity.

  12. Cytotaxonomy of North African species of Delphinium L. sect. Delphinium (Ranunculaceae

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    Blanché, César

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available Both chromosome numbers and karyotype structure from 15 wild North-African populations of Delphinium L. sect. Delphinium were studied. Delphinium balansae Boiss. & Reuter, with a more symmetrical karyotype, appears as a possible perennial ancestor of' the remaining annuals with highly asymmetrical and shorter karyotype. A taxonomical reorganization of this section is proposed: two new series (ser. Macropetala ser. nova and ser. Balansae ser. nova. and two new nomenclatural combinations (D. nanum subsp. alboliliaceum and D. nanum subsp. elongatum are proposed.

    S'han estudiat els nombres cromosòmics i l'estructura deis cariotipus de 15 poblacions nordafricanes de Delphinium L. sect. Delphinium. Delphinium balansae Boiss. & Reuter, amb cariotipus mes simètric, apareix com a possible ancestre perenne de la resta d’espècies anuals amb cariotipus més asimètric i més curt. Es proposa una reorganització taxonòmica de la secció, d'on es descriu en dues series noves (ser. Macropetala ser. nova i ser. Balansae ser. nova. i es proposen dues combinacions noves (D. nanum subsp. alboliliaceum and D. nanum subsp. elongatum.

  13. [Cardiodoron® bei Patienten mit Schlafstörungen - Ergebnisse einer prospektiven Beobachtungsstudie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Claudia; Schnelle, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Hintergrund: Schlafstörungen gehören zu den häufigsten gesundheitlichen Problemen der heutigen Zeit. Stress und die dadurch bedingte innere Anspannung sowie eine unrhythmische Lebensführung z.B. durch Schichtarbeit sind bekannte auslösende Faktoren. Weniger bekannt ist, dass auch funktionelle Herz-Kreislauf-Beschwerden zu Störungen des Schlafs führen können und dass deren Behandlung zu einer Verbesserung der Schlafqualität beiträgt. Ganzheitlich betrachtet geht es daher um die Wiederherstellung einer gesunden Rhythmik, insbesondere des Herz-/Atem- sowie des Schlaf-Wach-Rhythmus, die Cardiodoron®, eine Heilpflanzenkomposition aus Primula veris, Hyoscyamus niger und Onopordum acanthium, unterstützt. Patienten und Methoden: Mittels einer prospektiven, multizentrischen Beobachtungsstudie sollte ermittelt werden, wie sich funktionelle Herz-Kreislauf-Beschwerden und/oder Schlafstörungen unter der Behandlung mit Cardiodoron® (Dilution) über 3-6 Monate entwickeln. Im Zeitraum von September 2009 bis März 2012 dokumentierten 92 Ärzte 501 Patienten, von denen 380 über Schlafstörungen klagten und deren Daten in dieser Publikation näher betrachtet werden. Nach einer Aufnahmeuntersuchung erfolgte nach 90 Tagen eine Abschlussuntersuchung und bei Fortführung der Therapie nach nochmals 90 Tagen eine Follow-up-Untersuchung. Neben 30 ärztlicherseits bewerteten Symptomen beurteilten die Patienten ihr Befinden mittels Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) nach Buysse und der Beschwerden-Liste nach von Zerssen (B-L und B-L'). Ergebnisse: Unter der Cardiodoron®-Therapie gingen bei guter Verträglichkeit sowohl die Ausprägung der Schlafstörungen (um 65% von 2,0 auf 0,7 Punkte) als auch die erfassten 30 Symptome (um 59% von 24,3 auf 9,9 Punkte) deutlich zurück (p mit Schlafstörungen (mit oder ohne funktionelle Herz-Kreislauf-Beschwerden) kann die Ausprägung der Beschwerden mit Cardiodoron® deutlich gesenkt werden. Cardiodoron® ist gut verträglich. © 2016 S

  14. A foundation monograph of Convolvulus L. (Convolvulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John R I; Williams, Bethany R M; Mitchell, Thomas C; Carine, Mark A; Harris, David J; Scotland, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    A global revision of Convolvulus L. is presented, Calystegia R.Br. being excluded on pragmatic grounds. One hundred and ninety species are recognised with the greatest diversity in the Irano-Turanian region. All recognised species are described and the majority are illustrated. Distribution details, keys to species identification and taxonomic notes are provided. Four new species, Convolvulusaustroafricanus J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, sp. nov., Convolvulusiranicus J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, sp. nov., Convolvuluspeninsularis J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, sp. nov. and Convolvulusxanthopotamicus J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, sp. nov., one new subspecies Convolvuluschinensissubsp.triangularis J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, subsp. nov., and two new varieties Convolvulusequitansvar.lindheimeri J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, var. nov., Convolvulusglomeratusvar.sachalitarum J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, var. nov. are described. Convolvulusincisodentatus J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, nom. nov., is provided as a replacement name for the illegitimate Convolvulusincisus Choisy. Several species treated as synonyms of other species in recent publications are reinstated including Convolvuluschinensis Ker-Gawl., Convolvulusspinifer M.Popov., Convolvulusrandii Rendle and Convolvulusaschersonii Engl. Ten taxa are given new status and recognised at new ranks: Convolvulusnamaquensis (Schltr. ex. A.Meeuse) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulushermanniaesubsp.erosus (Desr.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvuluscrenatifoliussubsp.montevidensis (Spreng.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulusfruticulosussubsp.glandulosus (Webb) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvuluscapituliferussubsp.foliaceus (Verdc.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulushystrixsubsp.ruspolii (Dammer ex Hallier f.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulushystrixsubsp.inermis (Chiov.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulusrottlerianussubsp.stocksii (Boiss.) J

  15. A família Euphorbiaceae nas caatingas arenosas do médio rio São Francisco, BA, Brasil The family Euphorbiaceae on the sand dunes of the middle São Francisco River, Bahia State, Brazil

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    Larissa Nascimento Sátiro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbiaceae é uma das famílias mais representativas da caatinga, particularmente nas áreas sobre dunas arenosas do médio rio São Francisco, no Estado da Bahia, Brasil. O levantamento das espécies de Euphorbiaceae nessa formação foi efetuado com base em coletas realizadas na região e materiais de herbário. A família está representada nas áreas estudadas por 20 espécies, distribuídas nos seguintes gêneros: Alchornea Swartz (uma espécie; Chamaesyce S.F. Gray (3; Cnidoscolus Pohl (4; Croton L. (4; Dalechampia L. (1; Jatropha L. (3; Manihot Miller (2; Sapium P. Browne (1 e Tragia L. (1. Chamaesyce alsinifolia (Boiss. Sátiro, C. chamaeclada (Ule Sátiro, Croton paludosus Mull. Arg., Manihot catingae Ule e M. heptaphylla Ule são endêmicas do Estado da Bahia. Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl e C. urnigerus (Pax Pax são restritas às regiões de caatinga do Brasil. São apresentadas chaves para gêneros e espécies, descrições, ilustrações, dados sobre distribuição geográfica e habitat, bem como comentários sobre as espécies.Euphorbiaceae is one of the most representative families in the caatinga especially on the sand dunes of the middle São Francisco River, in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The survey of Euphorbiaceae species from this formation was based on field work and herbaria collections. The family is represented in the study area by 20 species: Alchornea Swartz (one species; Chamaesyce S.F. Gray (3; Cnidoscolus Pohl (4; Croton L. (4; Dalechampia L. (1; Jatropha L. (3; Manihot Miller (2; Sapium P. Browne (1 and Tragia L. (1. Chamaesyce alsinifolia (Boiss. Sátiro, C. chamaeclada (Ule Sátiro, Croton paludosus Mull. Arg., Manihot catingae Ule and M. heptaphylla Ule are endemic to the state of Bahia. Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl and C. urnigerus (Pax Pax are restricted to caatinga regions of Brazil. Identification keys, morphological descriptions, illustrations, notes on geographic distribution, habitat and comments on

  16. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera from different habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Karahan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of root methanolic extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera (Waldst. & Kit. Boiss. (Fabaceae were investigated. Plant samples were collected from different habitats in the East Mediterranean part of Turkey. The plant extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activities against nine bacterial and two yeast strains using disc-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The antioxidant activity was determined by using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The antimicrobial assays indicated that the plant root extracts were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than against Gram-negative ones. In addition, the extracts had higher antimicrobial effect against Candida species than against bacteria. The extracts showed good antioxidant activity, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50 in the range of 588 ± 0.86 µg/mL to 2190 ± 1.73 µg/mL. Results indicated that different environmental conditions in each habitat might affect the contents of chemical compounds and biological activity in the natural licorice populations of. This study also supported the traditional use of licorice and as well as suggested that it may also be its beneficial role in the treatment of other infections. The obtained results indicated that different environmental conditions in each habitat might affect the contents of chemical compounds and the biological activity in the natural licorice populations.

  17. Analysis of Triticum boeoticum and Triticum urartu seed defensins: To the problem of the origin of polyploid wheat genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsova, Tatyana I; Korostyleva, Tatyana V; Odintsova, Margarita S; Pukhalsky, Vitaliy A; Grishin, Eugene V; Egorov, Tsezi A

    2008-06-01

    The origin of polyploid wheat genomes has been the subject of numerous studies and is the key problem in wheat phylogeny. Different diploid species have been supposed to donate genomes to tetraploid and hexaploid wheat species. To shed light on phylogenetic relationships between the presumable A genome donors and hexaploid wheat species we have applied a new approach: the comparison of defensins from diploid Triticum species, Triticum boeoticum Boiss. and Triticum urartu Thum. ex Gandil., with previously characterized Triticum kiharae defensins [T.I. Odintsova et al., Biochimie 89 (2007) 605-612]. Defensins were isolated by acidic extraction of seeds followed by three-step chromatographic separation. Isolated defensins were identified by molecular masses using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. For the first time, we have shown that T. urartu defensins are more similar to those of the hexaploid wheat than T. boeoticum defensins, although variation among samples collected in different regions of the world was revealed. Our results clearly demonstrate that T. urartu of the Asian origin contributed the A genome to polyploid wheat species.

  18. Relationships among the A Genomes of Triticum L. Species as Evidenced by SSR Markers, in Iran

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    Simon G. Krattinger

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationships among 55 wheat accessions (47 accessions collected from Iran and eight accessions provided by the Institute of Plant Biology of the University of Zurich, Switzerland belonging to eight species carrying A genome (Triticum monococcum L., T. boeoticum Boiss., T. urartu Tumanian ex Gandilyan, T. durum Desf., T. turgidum L., T. dicoccum Schrank ex Schübler, T. dicoccoides (Körn. ex Asch. & Graebner Schweinf. and T. aestivum L. were evaluated using 31 A genome specific microsatellite markers. A high level of polymorphism was observed among the accessions studied (PIC = 0.77. The highest gene diversity was revealed among T. durum genotypes, while the lowest genetic variation was found in T. dicoccoides accessions. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA showed a significant genetic variance (75.56% among these accessions, representing a high intra-specific genetic diversity within Triticum taxa in Iran. However, such a variance was not observed among their ploidy levels. Based on the genetic similarity analysis, the accessions collected from Iran were divided into two main groups: diploids and polyploids. The genetic similarity among the diploid and polyploid species was 0.85 and 0.89 respectively. There were no significant differences in A genome diversity from different geographic regions. Based on the genetic diversity analyses, we consider there is value in a greater sampling of each species in Iran to discover useful genes for breeding purposes.

  19. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of some Lamiaceae species from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Nurdan; Ugur, Aysel

    2009-08-01

    In this study, antimicrobial activities of the essential oils obtained by using the hydrodistillation method from some lamiaceous plants--Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson ssp. longifolia, M. longifolia (L.) Hudson ssp. typhoides (Briq.) Harley var. typhoides, Mentha pulegium L., Salvia fruticosa Miller, Salvia tomentosa Miller, Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi ssp. glandulosa (Req.) P.W. Ball, Nepeta cadmea Boiss., Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas, and Ziziphora tenuior L.--were determined by using the disc diffusion method. The plants used in this study were collected from different localities of Muğla Province, Turkey. All the essential oils isolated from the plants were very effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which included multiple-antibiotic resistant strains, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Pseudomonas fluorescens MU 87. The essential oils of the plant species, except S. tomentosa and S. fruticosa, were very effective against Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activities varied depending on the species, subspecies, or variety. In fact, essential oils of some plants belonging to the same taxa but collected from different localities showed different levels of antimicrobial activities.

  20. Soap, A Free-code Tool To Study The Impact Of Stellar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisse, Isabelle; Bonfils, X.; Santos, N.

    2011-09-01

    Dark spots and bright plages are present on the surface of all stars, even low-active stars (like the Sun in its low-active phase). Their appearance and disappearance on the stellar photosphere, combined with the stellar rotation, may lead to errors and uncertainties in the characterization of planets both in radial velocimetry and photometry. SOAP is a tool offered to the community (Boisse, Bonfils and Santos, in prep.) that enables to simulate spots and plages on rotating stars and computes their impact on RV and photometric measurements. This talk will discuss the challenges related to the knowledge of stellar activity for the next decade: detect telluric planets in the habitable zone of their stars (from G to M dwarfs), understand the activity in the low-mass end of M dwarf (on which will focus future projects like Elektra, SPIRou or CARMENES), limitation to the sum of different transit observations in order to characterize the atmospheric components (from the ground or with Spitzer, JWST), planets around young stars,... and how this can be simulated with SOAP in order to search for indices and corrections. IB and NCS would like to thank the support by the European Research Council/European Community under the FP7 through a Starting Grant, as well from Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia (FCT), Portugal.

  1. 基于psbA-trnH序列变异分析川明参属亲缘关系及分类地位%Analyses on relationship and taxonomic position of Chuanminshen Sheh et Shan (Apiaceae) based on variation of psbA-trnH sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋春凤; 吴宝成; 周伟; 刘启新

    2014-01-01

    By means of PCR amplification and sequencing methods, cpDNA psbA-trnH fragment from Chuanminshen violaceum Sheh et Shan, Peucedanum wawrae ( H. Wolff) Su and P. medicum Dunn of Trib. Peucedaneae, Changium smyrnioides H. Wolff, Pleurospermum davidii Franch., P. foetens Franch. and P. cristatum de Boiss. of Trib. Smyrnieae in Apiaceae were amplified and sequenced, sequences obtained were submitted to GenBank and their accession numbers were KF557756-KF557762 . In combination of psbA-trnH fragment sequences, induced from GenBank, of one species in Ferula Linn., one species in Semenovia Regel et Herder and two species in Angelica Linn. of Trib. Peucedaneae, one species in Sinolimprichtia H. Wolff, one species in Notopterygium de Boiss. and one species in Trachydium Lindl. of Trib. Smyrnieae, and Turgenia latifolia ( Linn.) Hoffm. of Trib. Scandicineae,psbA-trnH fragment information of all species was analyzed, and MP, ML and BI phylogenetic trees were constructed taking T. latifolia as an outgroup. The results show that length of psbA-trnH fragment of both Chuanminshen violaceum and Changium smyrnioides is 258 bp and GC content of both is 23%, while length of psbA-trnH fragment of other species is 228-405 bp and their GC content is 26%-35%. And total length of psbA-trnH fragment after alignment is 553 bp ( including gaps) , in which, there are 237 variable sites and 178 information sites. The relative genetic distance between Chuanminshen violaceum and Changium smyrnioides is the smallest ( only 0 . 02 ) , while that among Chuanminshen violaceum and other species is 0. 10-1. 34, and generally, that among Chuanminshen violaceum and species in Trib. Smyrnieae is smaller, meaning that relationship of Chuanminshen violaceum with Changium smyrnioides and some species in Trib. Smyrnieae is nearer. In MP, ML and BI phylogenetic trees, both Chuanminshen violaceum and Changium smyrnioides are clustered together and are grouped as one clade with other species of Trib. Smyrnieae

  2. Vegetation as an indicator of soil properties and water quality in the Akarçay stream (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serteser, Ahmet; Kargioğlu, Mustafa; Içağa, Yilmaz; Konuk, Muhsin

    2008-11-01

    In this study, the relationship among water quality, soil properties, and plant coverage in the region of the Akarçay stream was examined. Correlation analyses were carried out between soil samples taken from each of four plant communities in the Akarçay basin and water in the Akarçay stream. The four plant communities in the study area are as follows: Limonium lilacinum (Boiss. et Bal.) Wag., Alhagi pseudalhagi (M. Bieb.) Desv. Peganum harmala L., and Hordeum marinum Huds. subsp. marinum. B, Cl, EC, K, Mg, Na, pH, and SO4 data from both soil and water samples were subjected to statistical analysis, and significant correlations were obtained (p indicated that the chemical features of the soil had a major effect on water quality. The important parameters were B, Cl, EC, K, Mg, Na, pH, and SO4 for Limonium lilacinum communities; Ca, K, and pV for Peganum harmala; and B, Cl, Mg, pH, and pV for Alhagi pseudalhagi. There were also statistically significant relationships (p indicators for soil chemistry and water quality.

  3. Repellent activities of some Labiatae plant essential oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-06-01

    The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively.

  4. Chemical and principal-component analyses of the essential oils of Apioideae taxa (Apiaceae) from central Balkan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanos, Chrysostomos; Karioti, Anastasia; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar; Veljić, Milan; Skaltsa, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the essential oils of 23 taxa belonging to the Apioideae subfamily were studied in detail. The investigated taxa were Pimpinella serbica (Vis.) Bentham & Hooker, Libanotis montana Cr., Cnidium silaifolium (Jacq.) Simk. ssp. orientale (Boiss.) Tutin, Bupleurum praealtum L., B. sibthorpianum S. S. var. diversifolium (Roch.) Hay, Aegopodium podagraria L., Torilis anthriscus (L.) Gmel., Orlaya grandiflora (L.) Hoffm., Laserpitium siler L., Laser trilobum (L.) Brokh., Chaerophyllum aureum L., C. hirsutum L., C. temulum L., Pastinaca sativa L., P. hirsuta Pancic., Tordylium maximum L., Physospermum cornubiense (L.) DC., Peucedanum alsaticum L., P. oreoselinum (L.) Moench, P. cervaria (L.) Cuss., P. austriacum (Jacq.) Koch, P. longifolium W. et K., and P. officinale L. All of these species grow wild in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. The essential oils were found to be complex mixtures of various compounds, more than 100 constituents being in each taxon, with contributions of main products never exceeding 25% of the total content. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were found to be the main group of constituents of all taxa, except for Peucedanum species, where monoterpene hydrocarbons were identified as the main components. The chemotaxonomic value of the essential-oil composition is discussed according to results of principal-component analysis (PCA). The essential-oil composition mainly reflects current taxonomic relationships between the investigated taxa.

  5. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Crataegus species Collected from Different Regions of Turkey

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    Mustafa Özyürek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crataegus species (Rosaceae, known as “Howthorn” have found special medicinal use for the treatment of mild heart diseases. This work aims to measure the antioxidant capacities of various Crataegus species growing in Turkey . In this study, the flowers and leaves from 52 samples belonging to 17 taxa of 14 Crataegus species naturally growing in Turkey have been investigated for their antioxidant activity/capacity. Four different methods (CUPRAC, FRAP, ABTS/Persulfate and Folin: FCR assays were used for determination of the antioxidant capacities of the samples. The leaves and the flowers of the plants were studied separately. Samples representing the same species collected from different locations were studied separately. The results have indicated that the samples differing by some minor morphological characteristics exhibit considerably different antioxidant capacities. Among the flower samples, the most effective species was C. × sinaica Boiss. nothosubsp. sinaica and among the leaf samples C. pentagyna Waldst and Kit. ex. Willd. were the most active. Generally, C. monogyna Jacq. samples have exhibited markedly high antioxidant activity. Moreover, the species collected from Bolu district (surrounded by several forest s and lake s have shown significantly high activity regardless of the species differences among the samples.

  6. UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS Analyses on Phenolic, Fatty Acid and Essential Oil of Verbascum pinetorum with Antioxidant, Anticholinesterase, Antimicrobial and DNA Damage Protection Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boğa, Mehmet; Ertaş, Abdulselam; Yılmaz, Mustafa Abdullah; Kızıl, Murat; Çeken, Bircan; Haşimi, Nesrin; Özden, Tuğba Yılmaz; Demirci, Serpil; Yener, İsmail; Deveci, Özcan

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the first phytochemical and ABTS cation radical decolorisation activity, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, anticholinesterase and DNA damage protection effect of endemic Verbascum pinetorum (Boiss.) O. Kuntze. Phenolic profile of V. pinetorum were qualified and quantified by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Malic acid (47250.61±2504.28 µg/g) and luteolin (7651.96±527.98 µg/g) were found as most abundant compounds for metanol and acetone extracts, respectively. Fatty acid and essential oil compositions were determined by GC-MS analysis. The main components of fatty acid were found to be palmitic (27.1%) and stearic (22.1%) acids. The main compounds of the essential oil were cineole (16.9%) and α-selinene (16.4%). The acetone extract was found to be more active than BHT used as a standard in β-carotene-linoleic acid test system. In DPPH free radical scavenging activity, the acetone and methanol extracts showed higher activity than BHT at all tested concentrations. The acetone, methanol and water extracts showed strong inhibition while the acetone extract showed better activity than BHT and α-tocopherol which were used as standards in ABTS cation radical scavenging and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assays, respectively. All extracts were found to be inactive in antialzheimer activity. The acetone extract exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against C. albicans. The methanol extract of V. pinetorum were found no significant effect on DNA cleavage protection.

  7. Effect of Alnus subcordata, Acer insigne and Sequoia sempervirens plantations on plant diversity in Hyrcanian forest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH GHEIBI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gheibi F, Akbarinia M, Kooch Y. 2015. Effect of Alnus subcordata, Acer insigne and Sequoia sempervirens plantations on plant diversity in Hyrcanian forest of Iran. Biodiversitas 16: 10-15. Forest plantation is a common action in order to restore the degraded forests in Hyrcanian forests of Iran. This study compares the plant biodiversity in four 25-year-old stands of plantation, adjacent understory of alder (Alnus subcordata C. A. Mey., maple (Acer insigne Boiss., sequoia or red wood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don Endl. and mixed stand (maple and sequoia, located in Salmanshahr of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. Research carried out in, 10 sample plots with 20m × 20m area which taken by systematic-random in each plantation. All understory species were identified, recorded and then the biodiversity indices (diversity, richness and evenness were calculated. Our findings show that the planted species had significant effects on understory diversity. Statistical comparisons revealed that the highest and lowest diversity (Simpson and Shanon-Winer and richness (Margalef and Menhinic indices occurred in sequoia and alder stands, respectively. The evenness indices (Camargo and Smith-Wilson were significantly greater in maple, sequoia and mixed stands compared with the alder type. As a conclusion, floristic change trends were different according to the planted tree species. A good understanding of the complexity of vegetation processes requires long-term monitoring of vegetation change.

  8. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

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    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  9. Comparison of Two Species of Notopterygium by GC-MS and HPLC

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    Yaping Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix (Qianghuo, including Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H. T. Chang (NI and Notopterygium franchetii H. de Boiss (NF, is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Of these two plants, NI, is more commonly used and has a much higher price in the marketplace. To compare these two plants, a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was carried out, thus obtaining an overall characterization for both volatile and none-volatile compounds. Combined with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principal component analysis, GC-MS was successfully applied to distinguish NF and NI. The chemical constitutes of volatile oil in NI and NF were firstly compared in detail, and 1R-alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and 4-isopropyl-1-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene had great contribution to the discrimination. Fingerprints of 14 batches of Qinghuo samples were also established based on HPLC, and an obvious difference was found between the two species. The chromatographic fingerprints were further analyzed by similarity analysis and HCA. The present study is the first reported evaluation of two origins of Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix by GC-MS and HPLC, which will facilitate quality control and its clinical application.

  10. A plastid gene phylogeny of the non-photosynthetic parasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.-M.; Manen, J.-F.; Colwell, A.E.; Schneeweiss, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group based on a region from the plastid genome (rps2 gene). Although substitution rates appear to be elevated compared to the photosynthetic members of Orobanchaceae, relationships among the major lineages Cistanche, Conopholis plus Epifagus, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) B. Fedtsch., B. himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson, B. hookeri Walp. plus B. strobilacea A. Gray, and Orobanche s. l. remain unresolved. Resolution within Orobanche, however, is much better. In agreement with morphological, cytological and other molecular phylogenetic evidence, five lineages, corresponding to the four traditionally recognised sections (Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Orobanche, Trionychon) and O. latisquama Reut. ex Boiss. (of sect. Orobanche), can be distinguished. A combined analysis of plastid rps2 and nuclear ITS sequences of the holoparasitic genera results in more resolved and better supported trees, although the relationships among Orobanche s. l., Cistanche, and the clade including the remaining genera is unresolved. Therefore, rps2 is a marker from the plastid genome that is well-suited to be used in combination with other already established nuclear markers for resolving generic relationships of Orobanche and related genera. ?? 2008 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer.

  11. The structural studies on the medicinal plant Haplophyllum telephioides

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    Mehmet Tekin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Haplophyllum telephioides Boiss., Rutaceae, is an endemic herb which generally grows at the steppe region in Central Turkey. Its aerial parts in flowering stage are used by local people against influenza virus due to its antimicrobial effect. The main purpose of this study was to examine the morphology, anatomy and histology of the vegetative and reproductive organs of the H. telephioides, which are used in popular medicine, thereby, contributing to the pharmacognostic evaluation of the species. The species was studied morphologically in detail. New morphological features were described for them, such as the dimension of leaf, sepal and fruit, size of filament, anther and pistil, and diameter of the ovary. In addition, some deviating features were found in relation to previous published descriptions for the species, such as plant height and petal length. The anatomy of plant parts such as stem, leaf, sepal, petal, filament and pistil, were studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Stem has incipient secondary growth. The leaf is amphistomatic and the mesophyll is equifacial. Stomata are anomocytic and sunken. In micromorphological studies, it is determined that the leaf is coated by a thick cuticle and above epicuticular wax. Schizogenous glands were found in all vegetative and reproductive organs. The structural features herein found can assist the diagnosis of H. telephioides.

  12. Immunosuppressive principles from Achillea talagonica, an endemic species of Iran

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    S Saeidnia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background and the purpose of study: Achillea talagonica Boiss. (Asteraceae grows in the western and central parts of Iran. This plant has long been used in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent for treatment of rheumatic pain. Previously, the immunosuppressive activity of the aqueous extract of this endemic plant in experimental animals was reported. In this research, isolation of the main immunologically active components of A. talagonica, which were effective on humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice is elucidated. Methods: In order to find the main immunosuppressive components of A. talagonica, methanol and methanol-water (80% and 50% v:v extracts were injected to BALB/c mice and the hemagglutinating antibody titer was assayed after immunization with SRBC (sheep red blood cells. Guided by this assay, active principles were separated by chromatographic methods. Results: Isolated compounds were identified as caffeic acid 9-O-glucoside (1, quercetin (2, luteolin (3, 3'-methoxy luteolin (4, proline (5 and choline (6 by comparison of their spectral data with those of reported in literatures. Immunosuppressive property of choline (5 mgkg-1 was comparable to those of prednisolone (10 mgkg-1; although, quercetin (20 mgkg-1 and caffeoyl glucoside (20 mgkg-1 decreased anti-SRBC titer in comparison with control groups. Major conclusion: Immunosuppressive effects of A. talagonica are due to some components belonging to betaine, flavonol and phenoilc esters.

  13. Tree rings reveal recent intensified spring drought in the central Himalaya, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthi, Shankar; Bräuning, Achim; Zhou, Zhe-Kun; Fan, Ze-Xin

    2017-10-01

    To better understand long-term drought variations in the central Himalaya, we developed new tree-ring width chronologies of Himalayan spruce (Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss.) from three sites in the north-western Nepal. The local site chronologies showed high cross correlations and similar growth-climate responses to regional spring drought variability. We thus combined all site chronologies into a regional composite (RC) standard chronology that spans 516 years (1498-2013 CE). The RC chronology showed significant positive (negative) correlations with spring (March-May) precipitation (temperature) variability. Meanwhile, RC chronology showed the highest correlation with spring self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index (scPDSI, r = 0.652, p correlation analysis indicate that spring drought variability in the central Himalaya may be linked to large scale climatic drivers, mainly Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation activities due to sea surface temperatures variation in the Atlantic Ocean. Our reconstruction revealed a continuous shift toward drier conditions in the central Himalaya since early 1980s that coincide with continental-scale warming and reduced spring precipitation in the central Himalaya.

  14. Assessment of heavy metals accumulation by spontaneous vegetation: Screening for new accumulator plant species grown in Kettara mine-Marrakech, Southern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midhat, Laila; Ouazzani, Naaila; Esshaimi, Mouhsine; Ouhammou, Ahmed; Mandi, Laila

    2017-02-01

    The present paper aims to perform a screening of native plants growing in Kettara mine-Marrakech (Southern Morocco) for its phytoremediation. Plants and soil samples were collected and analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd concentrations at several sites in the mine. The results showed that the soil in the vicinity of Kettara mine is deficient in major elements and contain toxic levels of metals. Spontaneously growing native plants were botanically identified and then classified into 21 species and 14 families. Significant difference was observed among the average concentrations of four heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd) in plants (p ≤ 0.05). Six plants of 21 species namely Hammada scoparia (Pomel) Iljin, Hirschfeldia incana (L.) Lagreze-Fossat, Lamarckia aurea (L.) Moench, Calendula algeriensis Boiss. & Reuter, Aizoon hispanicum L. and Melilotus sulcata Desf. were considered as the best-performing specimens due to their high ability to accumulate multiple metals in their shoots and roots without sustaining toxicity. This was confirmed by the transfer factors generally higher than 1. Using the most common criteria to classify the hyperaccumulator plants, these species can be classified as new accumulator plants of many heavy metals and be potentially used as remediation tools of metal-contaminated sites.

  15. Differences in foliage affect performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda: implications for species fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, D; Molina, J M

    2010-01-01

    Implications for adults' fitness through the foliage effects of five different host plants on larval survival and performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), as well as their effect on species fitness were assayed. Larvae were reared under controlled laboratory conditions on excised foliage. Long-term developmental experiments were done using first instar larvae to adult emergence, and performance experiments were done using fifth instar larvae. Survival, development rates, and food use were measured. Foliar traits analysis indicated that leaves of different host plants varied, significantly affecting larvae performance and adult fitness. Pistacia lentiscus L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss. (Fabales: Fabaceae) were the most suitable hosts. Larvae fed on Tamarix gallica L. (Caryophyllales: Tamaricaceae) and Spartium junceum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) showed the lowest survival, rates of development and pupal and adult weight. In general, S. panda showed a relatively high capacity to buffer low food quality, by reducing developmental rates and larvae development thereby reaching the minimum pupal weight that ensures adult survival. Less suitable plants seem to have indirect effects on adult fitness, producing smaller adults that could disperse to other habitats.

  16. Новые данные по числам хромосом некоторых сосудистых растений из Израиля и России

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Lomonosova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Приведены числа хромосом для 10 видов из семейств Amaranthaceae s. str., Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae и Frankeniaceae. Для Atriplex intracontinentalis Sukhor. (2n = 18, Corispermum filifolium C.A. Meyer ex Becker (2n = 18 и Frankenia tuvinica Lomon. (2n = 20 числа хромосом не были известны ранее. Впервые на материале из Израиля указаны числа хромосом для Amaranthus albus L. (2n = 32, Dyssodia tenuiloba (DC R.B. Rob. (2n = 24, Lactuca viminea (L. J. et C. Presl (2n = 18, Tragopogon coelesyriacus Boiss. (2n = 12, Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex W.D.J. Koch et Ziz (2n = 54 и Chenopodium missouriense Aellen (2n = 54.

  17. Overcoming seed dormancy of mooseer (Allium hirtifolium) through cold stratification, gibberellic acid, and acid scarification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farshad Dashti; Hojat Ghahremani-Majd; Mahmood Esna-Ashari

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:Mooseer (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.) is bulbous perennial herb widely used in pharmaceutical and food industry in Iran.We studied germination of mooseer seeds in two separate experiments.In the first experiment,we evaluated four treatments:sulfuric acid scarification,sandpaper scarification,cold stratification,and gibberellic acid (GA3)application.In the second experiment,we evaluated combinations of these treatments.All treatments in the first experiment had no effect on seed germination,suggesting that mooseer seeds have physical and physiological dormancy.In the second experiment,the highest germination percentage (86.6%) was observed after five minutes scarification with sulfuric acid (75% v/v),followed by 60 days of cold stratification.Duration of sulfuric acid scarification (5,10,and 20 min) did not affect germination rates,but increasing duration of cold stratification (from 15to 60 days),increased germination from 28.3% to 86.6%.Our study showed that mooseer seeds have both physical and physiological dormancy.

  18. Antibacterial activities of essential oils from Iranian medicinal plants on extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Mnayer, D; Roointan, A; Shahri, F; Ayatollahi, S A M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Molaee, N; Sharifi-Rad, M

    2016-09-19

    The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli strains can lead to various infections particularly urinary tract infections. The main objective of this investigation was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) from different Iranian medicinal plants against TEM gene positive ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections. EOs were extracted using hydrodistillation method. E. coli strains were isolated by different specific Medias. ESBL-producing E. coli strains were isolated from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections in Shiraz hospital, Iran. Then, ESBL- producing strains were identified using double disk synergy test, phenotypic disc confirmatory test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for TEM gene detection. The antibacterial activity of the EOs from different plants (Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch, Echinophora platyloba DC., Lallemantia royleana, Nepeta persica Boiss., Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn., Salvia nemorosa, and Satureja intermedia C.A.Mey) and antibiotics against ESBL-producing strains was studied using the microdilution method for the evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The 103 out of 295 E. coli strains with 97 (90.65%) TEM gene distributions were identified as ESBL-producing strains. All of the EOs derived from different plants displayed high inhibitory effects against ESBL-producing E. coli strains. The results of our investigations may propose a good treatment option against resistant infectious bacteria.

  19. Antibacterial activity and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils from flower, leaf and stem of Origanum vulgare ssp. viride growing wild in north-west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghat, Ali

    2011-09-01

    Essential oils obtained from flowers, leaves and stems of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek., growing wild in Ardabil Province (north-west Iran), were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. beta-Caryophyllene was the major constituent in all three oils (48.1%, 50.1% and 60.2%, respectively). Of the 19 components detected in the flower oil, comprising 96.3% of the total, the major components were 1,8-cineole (11.6%), alpha-pinene (6.9%), and gamma-cadinene (4.8%). 1-Octen-3-ol (23.8%), and 1,8-cineole (8.5%) predominated in the leafoil. In the stem oil, other main constituents were bicyclogermacrene (9.8%), 1,8-cineole (6.4%), borneol (5.1%), and pinocarvone (4.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against 10 selected microorganisms. The data obtained contribute to the future use of certain essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their safety and positive effect on shelf life.

  20. Nepetalactone content and antibacterial activity of the essential oils from different parts of Nepeta persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghat, Ali; Oji, Khodamali

    2010-04-01

    The essential oils from the flower, leaf, stem and root of Nepeta persica Boiss., analyzed by GC and GC/MS, were shown to contain 4abeta,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone (58.5%, 62.3%, 66.2% and 27.1%, respectively), and 4aalpha,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone (33.0%, 28.3%, 24.9% and 7.6%, respectively). The other main component of the flower and stem oils was alpha-pinene (3.6% and 4.4%) and of the leaf oil beta-ocimene (3.6%). In the root oil, other main constituents were alpha-pinene (40.4%), alpha-amorphene (5.3%), gamma-cadinene (2.9%), and cis-calamenene (2.5%). Nepetalactone was the major component of the flower, leaf and stem oils, which are thus important sources of nepetalactone. Antibacterial activities of the flower, leaf, stem and root oils were evaluated using the micro-dilution broth method. Inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis were recorded. The flower, leaf, stem, and root oils had difference activities against the test microorganisms. The antibacterial property of the essential oils might be ascribed to their high content of nepetalactone isomers.

  1. 亚临界水萃取植物精油的模型%Proposed Models for Subcritical Water Extraction of Essential Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Khajenoori; A.Haghighi Asl; F.Hormozi

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms that control the extraction rate of essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss. (Z. Multiflora) with subcritical water (SW) were studied. The extraction curves at different solvent flow rates were used to determine whether the extractions were limited primarily by the near equilibrium partitioning of the analyte between the matrix and solvent (I.e. Partitioning thermodynamics) or by the rates of analyte desorption from the matrix (I.e. Kinetics). Four simple models have been applied to describe the extraction profiles obtained with SW: (1) a model based solely on the thermodynamic distribution coefficient KD, which assumes that analyte desorption from the matrix is rapid compared to elution; (2) one-site kinetic model, which assumes that the extraction rate is limited by the analyte desorption rate from the matrix, and is not limited by the thermodynamic (KD) partitioning that occurs during elution; (3) two-site kinetic model and (4) external mass transfer resistance model. For SW extract ion, the thermodynamic elution of analytes from the matrix was the prevailing mechanism as evidenced by the fact that extraction rates increased proportionally with the SW flow rate. This was also confirmed by the fact that simple removal calculations based on determined KD (for major essential oil compounds) gave good fits to experimental data for flow rates from 1 to 4 ml·min-1. The results suggested that the overall extraction mechanism was influenced by solute partitioning equilibrium with external mass transfer through liquid film.1

  2. Otostegia persica (Lamiaceae: A review on its ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sadeghi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The current study summarizes the updated information concerning the ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Otostegia persica Boiss. (Lamiaceae, an endemic medicinal plant in south and southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: Information was collected through bibliographic investigation from scientific journals, books, theses, reports, and electronic search (databases SCOPUS, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Science Direct. Moreover, documentation from unpublished resources and ethnobotanical surveys has been used. The present review covers the literature available from 2003 to 2013. Results: In traditional systems of medicine, this plant is reputed for treating diabetes, arthritis, gastric discomfort, headache, rheumatism, sedative activities, regulating blood pressure, and hyperlipidemia. Phytochemical screening of active components and mineral element evaluation of this species have been reported. Several types of diterpenoids and flavonols including morin, kaempferol, and quercetin are identified from the plant. Most of the pharmacological activity of this plant resides in its flavonoid fraction which causes antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Various pharmacological studies on O. persica show antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-aphid, and hepatoprotective activities. Conclusion: Being an endemic plant of Iran, this species is an important medicinal herb which can be used for various purposes. This review might be helpful for scientists and researchers to find new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional uses and discover new lead compounds for diseases mentioned.

  3. Identification of nickel chelators in three hyperaccumulating plants: an X-ray spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montargès-Pelletier, Emmanuelle; Chardot, Vanessa; Echevarria, Guillaume; Michot, Laurent J; Bauer, Allan; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2008-05-01

    We have investigated the accumulation of nickel in a hyperaccumulating plant from the Brassicacae family Leptoplax emarginata (Boiss.) O.E. Schulz. Two supplementary hyperaccumulating plants, which have been the subject of a high number of publications, Alyssum murale Waldst. & Kit and Thlaspi caerulescens J.&C. Presl, and a nonaccumulating species Aurinia saxatilis were also studied for reference. The plants were grown during 4 months in specific rhizoboxes with Ni-bearing minerals as a source of nickel. Nickel speciation was analyzed through X-ray absorption spectroscopy at Ni K-edge (X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy) in the different parts of the plants (leaves, stems and roots) and compared with aqueous solutions containing different organo-Ni(II) complexes. Carboxylic acids (citrate, malate) appeared as the main ligands responsible of nickel transfer within those plants. Citrate was found as the predominant ligand for Ni in stems of Leptoplax and Alyssum, whereas in leaves of the three plants, malate appeared as the chelating organic acid of accumulated metal. Histidine could not be detected either in leaves, stems nor roots of any studied plant sample.

  4. Palynological characters of Glycyrrhiza,Glycyrrhizopsis,and Meristotropis(Leguminosae),with special reference to their taxonomic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei MENG; Xiang-Yun ZHU

    2010-01-01

    The pollen morphology of 11 species of the genus Glycyrrhiza L.with one from each of the genera Glycyrrhizopsis Boiss.& Bal.and Meristotropis Fisch.& C.A.Mey.was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.In pollen morphology,the main differences between Glycyrrhizopsis and Glycyrrhiza are: Glycyrrhizopsis-pollen grains 36.63× 40.42 μm in size,oblate spheroidal in shape; and Glycyrrhiza-pollen grains 24.47-33.18 × 23.82-31.83 μm in size,prolate spheroidal in shape.Glycyrrhizopsis and Glycyrrhiza should be recognized as two distinct genera based on palynologicai and morphological characters.Meristotropis and Glycyrrhiza are similar in many important palynological and morphological characters,suggesting that the two should be merged.In Glycyrrhiza,two types of pollen grains,3-lobed-circular or subtriangular in polar view,are found in different species,in accordance with morphological differences in the two groups,shedding light on the classification and evolution of the genus.

  5. Antihyperlipidemic effect of peucedanum pastinacifolium extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Ahmad Movahedian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dyslipidemia is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus, significantly contributing to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Peucedanum pastinacifolium Boiss. & Hausskn. is commonly used as an antihyperlipidemic vegetable in Iranian folk medicine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, we examined a hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Peucedanum pastinacifolium to determine its lipid-lowering activity in normal and streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Experimental diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin. Normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were separated into four groups. The groups were fed with 0, 125, 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight of Peucedanum Pastinacifolium hydroalcoholic Extract (PPE in aqueous solution for 30 days. RESULTS: The results show that there were significant (P < 0.05 increases in total serum cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with PPE over a period of a month returned these levels close to control levels. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PPE has hypolipidemic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  6. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by endemic Viola species from the soil in the vicinity of the As-Sb-Tl mine "allchar' Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baceva, K; Stafilov, T; Matevski, V

    2014-01-01

    Allchar mine is an abandoned arsenic-antimony-thallium deposit located on the northwestern part of Kozuf Mt., Republic of Macedonia. Allchar is a unique deposit within the world, due to the variety of its mineral composition especially and in the high content of thallium. The aim of this work was to assess the level of contamination at this post-mining area as well as to determine the intensity of accumulation of various elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) with focus on As, Sb and Tl, in two endemic Viola species from this locality (Viola allcharensis G. Beck, Viola arsenica G. Beck) and one Balkan endemic species (Viola macedonica Boiss. & Heldr.). Samples of different plant parts and soil were digested and then analysed by ICP-AES. It was found that the accumulation of As, Sb, and Tl in these endemic species is significantly high. In this study a systematic investigation of the As-Sb-Tl contamination of soils and their bioavailability was carried out using the extraction procedure in order to explore the mobility and potential bioavailability of the As, Sb, and Tl.

  7. Essential Oils Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Three Thymus Species

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    Hamzeh Amiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of three wild-growing Thymus species, collected from west of Iran during the flowering stage, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Under the optimum extraction and analysis conditions, 44, 38, and 38 constituents (mainly monoterpenes compounds were identified in T. kotschyanus Boiss. and Hohen, T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas, and T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas which represented 89.9%, 99.7%, and 95.8% of the oils, respectively. The main constituents were thymol (16.4–42.6%, carvacrol (7.6–52.3%, and γ-terpinene (3–11.4%. Antioxidant activity was employed by two complementary test systems, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free-radical scavenging and β-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Antioxidant activity of polar subfraction of T. daenensis subsp lancifolius (Celak Jalas was found to be higher than those of the others in DPPH assay, while nonpolar subfraction of T. eriocalyx (Ronniger Jalas has most antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linoleic acid test (19.1±0.1 μg/mL and 96.1±0.8% inhibition rate, resp..

  8. Environmental impact of almond crop in strong slope with two vegetable covers: bush and leguminous; Impacto en el medio ambiente del cultivo de almendros en fuertes pendientes con dos cubiertas vegetales: Matorral y Leguminosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carceles Rodriguez, B.; Francia Martinez, J. R.; Martinez Raya, A.

    2009-07-01

    Soil erosion is one of the main physical processes of land degradation in Spain. Several studies in the Mediterranean environment have demonstrated the positive effect of vegetation covers on the reduction of water erosion and their indirect improvement of the soil physical and chemical properties, essentially by the incorporation of organic matter. Sol loss and surface runoff patterns over a four-year period were monitors in erosion plots from hill slope with two different cover-crop strips: (1) non-tillage with leguminous (Lens esculenta Moench) and (2) non-tillage with and a mixture of autochthonous thymes (Thymus baeticus Boiss. ex Lacaita, Thymus capitatus (L) Hoffmanns and Link., Thymus vulgaris L.) of 3 m with, in Lanjaron (Granada) on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada of southeast Spain. The erosion plots were located on the hill slope at 35% incline, at 580 m in altitude and with 144 m{sup 2} (24 m x 6 m) in area. the area selected for the experiment is the part of the rainfed orchard given entirely with almond (Prunus amygdalus Basch cv. Desmayo Largueta) trees, the planting gird were 6 x 7 m. (Author) 10 refs.

  9. Pseudomoniasis phytotherapy: a review on most important Iranian medicinal plants effective on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Hassanzadazar, Hassan; Taherikalani, Morovat

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium found in water and soil. It is a normal flora in skin and gastrointestinal tract of human beings. P. aeruginosa as an opportunistic pathogen involved in nosocomial infections having multiple pathogenic factors and shows high rate of resistance to different antibiotics. The aim of this study was to identify the most important native medicinal plants of Iran effective on P. aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: All required information was obtained by searching keywords such as P. aeruginosa, medicinal plant extracts or essential oils in published articles in authentic scientific databases such as Science Direct, Wiley-Blackwell, Springer, Google scholar, Scientific Information Database (SID) and Magiran. Results: According to the literature review, our results showed 12 different native medicinal plants were effective against P. aeruginosa in Iran including Eucalyptus camadulensis, Marticaria chamomilla, Ferula gummosa Boiss, Lawsonia inermis, Ocimumgra tissimum, Allium sativum, Satureja hortensis L, Satureja bachtiarica Bunge, Satureja khuzestanica (Jamzad), Thymus daenensis Celak, Thymus carmanicus Jalals and Camellia sinensis. Conclusion: Phytochemical analysis has shown that bioactive compounds of medicinal plants with their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties can be good alternatives for the synthetic medicines in food and drug industry. PMID:28149496

  10. SUDAN KURŞUN VE NİKEL İYONLARININ Verbascum cheiranthifolium L. MATERYALİ İLE GİDERİMİ

    OpenAIRE

    DURSUN, Şükrü; (UÇAN) KÖYSÜREN, H. Nagehan

    2014-01-01

     Bu çalışmada, suda çözünmüş Pb(II) ve Ni(II) iyonlarının modifikayon yapılmış sığırkuyruğu (Verbascum cheiranthifolium BOISS. var. cheiranthifolium) bitki materyali tarafından giderilmesi araştırılmıştır. Bu ağır metal iyonlarının giderilmesinde modifikasyon işleminin adsorpsiyon kapasitesini arttırıcı etkisi araştırılmıştır. Modifikasyondan önce ve sonra sığırkuyruğu bitki materyalinin yapısı FTIR ve SEM analizleri ile belirlenmiştir. Modifikasyon işlemi HCl asit çözeltisi ile yapılmıştır. ...

  11. Potential Habitat Modelling of Ferula ovina Using Artificial Neural Network in Fereydunshahr Region, Isfahan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Rahmati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution maps have been widely developed based on ecological niche theory together with statistical and geographical information system in plant ecology. The current study aimed to evaluate Artificial Neural Network (ANN in mapping potential habitat of Ferula ovina Boiss in Ferydunshar rangelands, Isfahan. This is known as valuable forage and medicinal species. Environmental data (independent variables and species occurrence data (dependent variable were required to determine potential habitat of a given species. Some physical and chemical soil properties, climate and physiographic variables were mapped for the entire studied area using krigging and inverse distance weighting methods. F. ovina occurrence data were collected from 278 sites including 137 presence and 141 absence sites. The relationships between the studied environmental variables and F. ovina occurrence data were explored using ANN method. According to the sensitivity analysis, occurrence of F. ovina mostly correlated with silt and sand percentage, elevation slope, and organic matter. Model evaluation based on Kappa coefficient (0.66 and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC=0.9 showed good model fitness in relation to reality on local scales. The ANN technique enables managers to identify appropriate areas for rehabilitation practices such as direct seeding and planting.                       

  12. Composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil from the rhizome and roots of Ferula hermonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ja'fari, Abdel-Hadi; Vila, Roser; Freixa, Blanca; Tomi, Felix; Casanova, Joseph; Costa, Joan; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2011-08-01

    The analysis of the essential oil from rhizome and roots of Ferula hermonis Boiss. (Apiaceae) by GC-FID, GC-MS and ¹³C NMR allowed the identification of 79 constituents, more than 90% of the oil, the major one being α-pinene (43.3%), followed by α-bisabolol (11.1%) and the unusual acetylenic compound 3,5-nonadiyne (4.4%). The antifungal activity of the essential oil before and after fractionation was assayed against several yeasts and filamentous fungi. Purification of the active fractions afforded 3,5-nonadiyne, α-bisabolol, jaeschkeanadiol angelate, α-bisabolol oxide B and trans-verbenol, as well as two purified fractions, one of them (JB73) with 73% of jaeschkeanadiol benzoate and the other with 50% of spathulenol. Determination of MIC and MFC values of all these products evidenced strong antifungal activities for JB73 and 3,5-nonadiyne. Particularly, against the dermatophyte Tricophyton mentagrophytes, MIC and MFC values were 0.25 μg/ml for JB73, and 8 μg/ml for 3,5-nonadiyne, the former being more active than amphotericin B and nystatin.

  13. Ethanolic extract of Ferula gummosa is cytotoxic against cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudarzi, Hoda; Salimi, Mona; Irian, Saeed; Amanzadeh, Amir; Mostafapour Kandelous, Hirsa; Azadmanesh, Keyhan; Salimi, Misha

    2015-01-01

    Ferula gummosa Boiss. has medicinal applications in treating a wide range of diseases including cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative activities of the seed and gum extracts of F. gummosa as well as to study the effect of the potent extract on the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Our results demonstrated that the ethanolic extract had the lowest IC50 value at 72 h (0.001 ± 1.2 mg/mL) in BHY cells. Moreover, flowcytometry and annexin-V analysis revealed that the ethanolic extract induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in BHY cells at G1/S phase. In addition, colorimetric methods exhibited the highest amount of total phenolics and flavonoids in the aqueous and gum extracts (0.12 ± 0.037, 0.01 ± 2.51 mg/g of dry powder). Generally, the results obtained indicate that F. gummosa ethanol extract may contain effective compounds which can be used as a chemotherapeutic agent.

  14. Effect of Ferula hermonis root extract on rat skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouh, Mohammed Z

    2011-12-01

    Ferula hermonis Boiss. is an aphrodisiac plant that grows in the Mediterranean region. It has been reported that treatment with acetonic extract from the root of this plant acutely increases serum testosterone in the rat. This study investigated the effects of F. hermonis extract alone or combined with exercise on rat skeletal muscle fibers. Adult male rats were divided into four groups: control-sedentary (CS) that had no treatment or exercise; ferula-sedentary (FS) that was orally treated with ferula extract at a dose of 60 mg/kg/rat every other day over a period of 20 d; control-exercised (CE) that was trained by swimming for 40 min every other day; and ferula-exercised (FE) that received ferula and performed exercise. At the end of experiments, the fiber diameter and number of muscle nuclei of tibialis anterior were measured by using immunofluorescent techniques and software analyses. The FE group showed significant increases in muscle weight, fiber size and nuclear number compared with the other groups. However, no significant changes in the aforementioned parameters were found among the CS, FS and CE groups. Ferula treatment and exercise were additive to each other. In conclusion, short-term exercise combined with administration of F. hermonis extract was more effective in enhancing the growth of skeletal muscle fibers than exercise alone.

  15. Kinetics of glucosylated and non-glucosylated aryltetralin lignans in Linum hairy root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Luyen Huynh; Dauwe, Rebecca; Lequart, Michelle; Vinchon, Sophie; Renouard, Sullivan; Fliniaux, Ophélie; Colas, Cyril; Corbin, Cyrielle; Doussot, Joël; Hano, Christophe; Lamblin, Frédéric; Molinié, Roland; Pilard, Serge; Jullian, Nathalie; Boitel, Michèle; Gontier, Eric; Mesnard, François; Laberche, Jean-Claude

    2015-07-01

    Due to their pronounced cytotoxic activity, a number of aryltetralin lignans (ATLs), such as podophyllotoxin (PTOX), are used as antitumor compounds. The production of such molecules from entire plants or plant cell-tissue-organ cultures is thus of interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Hairy root cultures constitute a good tool not only for phytochemical production but also for investigating plant secondary metabolism. This work reports on the growth and ATL biosynthesis in two hairy root cultures of Linum album Kotschy ex Boiss. and Linum flavum. The kinetics of accumulation of the intermediates of MPTOX biosynthesis and of their glucosylated forms are described over a 21-day period of growth. An accumulation of non-glucosylated forms of the ATLs during the exponential phase of the cultures is followed by an accumulation of the glucosylated forms during the stationary phase. Our results show a strong coordination of the biosynthetic paths derived from deoxypodophyllotoxin via deoxypodophyllotoxin 6-hydroxylase and deoxypodophyllotoxin 7-hydroxylase, and a coordinated glucosylation of podophyllotoxin, methoxypodophyllotoxin, and 5'-demethoxymethoxypodophyllotoxin. Furthermore, our results suggest an important role of β-peltatin-6-glucoside formation in the control of ATL accumulation in Linum hairy root cultures.

  16. In vitro and in vivo activities of Haplophyllum myrtifolium against Leishmania tropica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostan, Ipek; Saglam, Hüsniye; Limoncu, M Emin; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Toz, Seray Ozensoy; Ozbel, Yusuf; Ozbilgin, Ahmet

    2007-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo leishmanicidal activity of an endemic Turkish plant and compare its efficacy with a reference drug. In addition to the in vitro activities of the ethanol, acidified and alkaloid extracts and furoquinoline alkaloids skimmianine and gamma-fagarine, in vivo antileishmanial activitiy of the acidified extract of Haplophyllum myrtifolium Boiss. (Rutaceae) were investigated against Leishmania tropica (L. tropica), a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis. All the extracts and pure compounds showed in vitro inhibitory activity against the promastigotes of. L. tropica. The in vitro 50% inhibitory concentrations of y-fagarine, acidified extract, ethanol extract, skimmianine and alkaloid extract against promastigotes were determined as 8.7, 9.4, 10.9, 25.7 and 25.8 microg/ml respectively. In vivo results of Haplophyllum myrtifolium acidified extract showed that this plant has a limited effect on decreasing the lesion size of experimental mice infected with Leishmania tropica. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time both the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activity of Haplophyllum mrytifolium have been reported in the same research.

  17. Profile of bioactive compounds of Capparis spinosa var. aegyptiaca growing in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riham Omar Bakr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate polyphenolic and sulphur contents of the aerial parts of Capparis spinosa var. aegyptia (Lam. Boiss., Capparaceae, wildly growing in Egypt. The chemical compositions of the water distilled essential oil were investigated by GC/MS analysis where the major constituent of the oil was methyl isothiocyanate (24.66%. Hydroethanolic extract was evaluated by LC-HRESI-MS–MS in both positive and negative modes. Forty-two compounds were identified including quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin derivatives in addition to myricetin, eriodictyol, cirsimaritin and gallocatechin derivatives. Quercetin tetrahexoside dirhamnoside as well as kaempferol dihexoside dirhamnoside have not been identified before in genus Capparis. Phenolic acids, such as quinic acid, p-coumaroyl quinic acid and chlorogenic acid were also identified. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity of hydroethanolic extract against three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; breast adenocarcinoma cells, Hep-G2; hepatocellular carcinoma cells and HCT-116; colon carcinoma using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay showed significant effect with IC50 values 24.5, 24.4 and 11 µg/ml, compared to Doxorubicin as a standard cytotoxic drug. C. spinosa revealed itself as a promising candidate for nutraceutical researches.

  18. The mono - and sesquiterpene content of aphid-induced galls on Pistacia palaestina is not a simple reflection of their composition in intact leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Karin; Bar, Einat; Ben-Ari, Matan; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Inbar, Moshe

    2014-06-01

    Pistacia palaestina Boiss. (Anacardiaceae), a sibling species of P. terebinthus also known as turpentine tree or terebinth tree, is common in the Levant region. The aphid Baizongia pistaciae L. manipulates the leaves of the plant to form large galls, which provide both food and protection for its developing offspring. We analyzed the levels and composition of mono-and sesquiterpenes in both leaves and galls of ten naturally growing trees. Our results show that monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents of P. palaestina leaves and galls, but terpene levels and composition vary among trees. Despite this inter-tree variation, terpene levels and compositions in galls from different trees resemble each other more than the patterns displayed by leaves from the same trees. Generally, galls contain 10 to 60 fold higher total terpene amounts than leaves, especially of the monoterpenes α-pinene and limonene. Conversely, the leaves generally accumulate more sesquiterpenes, in particular E-caryophyllene, germacrene D and δ-cadinene, in comparison to galls. Our results clearly show that the terpene pattern in the galls is not a simple reflection of that of the leaves and suggest that aphids have a strong impact on the metabolism of their host plant, possibly for their own defense.

  19. NUTRITIVE VALUES OF SOME ANNUAL CLOVERS (Trifolium sp. AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES

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    A TEKELI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted between the years of 2001-2002 in the experimental area and laboratory of Field Crops Department of Agriculture Faculty in Trakya University, Tekirdağ (Turkey. Five different clovers [Persian (Trifolium resupinatum L. var. majus Boiss., Mediterranean (T. spumosum L., narrow-leaved (T. angustifolium L., hedgehog (T. echinatum M. Bieb. and lappa (T. lappaceum L. clovers] were used. Each plot consisted of 8 rows with a length of 5 m. Row spacing of 30 cm and sowing rate of 10 kg ha-1 were used. Sowing times were on 2.25.2001 and on 2.28.2002. Plots were not irrigated and fertilized after sown and harvest. One cut was taken in both years at 4 growing stages such as pre-bud, pre-bloom, 50% bloom and full-bloom. The central 1 m-2 sections was cut at ground level for dry matter. Approximately 500g samples were dried at 55 °C for 24 hours and stored for one day at room temperature then found dry matter. Crude protein (% was determined by Kjeldahl method.

  20. Chemical composition and screening of the antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of extracts of Stachys species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA S. LAZAREVIĆ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available GC and GC/MS analyses of the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Stachys germanica subsp. heldreichii (Boiss Hayek, Stachys iva Griseb., Stachys plumosa Griseb. and Stachys scardica Griseb., Balkan peninsula endemics, were performed. One hundred and seventy-nine constituents, accounting for 88.8–98.1% of the total composition of the extracts, were identified. The common feature of the diethyl ether extracts was the high content of terpenoids and fatty acid-derived compounds, while the common feature of the ethyl acetate extracts was the prevalence of fatty acid-derived compounds. A disk diffusion method was used for the evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of the extracts against a panel of microorganisms (bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enteritidis; fungi: Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The total antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum method. The preliminary bioassay results indicated that the diethyl ether extract of S. plumosa could be a possible source of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

  1. Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Three Onobrychis Species from Iran

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    Roya Karamian , Mostafa Asadbegy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant phenolic compounds are a main group of plant natural products and flavonoids are the largest and best studied natural phenols. These substances possess a series of biological properties and act on biological systems as antioxidants. In present research, the aim is to determine in vitro total phenolics content and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of three Onobrychis species belonging to the family Fabaceae, namely O. sosnovskyi Grossh., O. viciifolia Scop. and O. melanotricha Boiss. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify any correlations between total phenolic content of the extracts with their antioxidant activities Methods: Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by three different test systems, namely 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DPPH, metal-chelation activity and ß-carotene/linoleic acid model. Results: Results indicated that O. viciifolia extract contains the highest total phenolic content (10.38 ± 0.33mg GAE/g of dry extract. However, the species are not remarkable different (P 0.55 to 0.98. Conclusion: Our results showed that the examined Onobrychis extracts represent strong antioxidant activity; hence, they can be suggested as antioxidant agents for special use in future.

  2. Self-incompatibility, floral parameters, and pollen characterization in the narrow endemic and threatened species Artemisia granatensis (Asteraceae

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    Taisma, María Angélica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia granatensis Boiss. is a paradigmatic species for plant conservation in Spain and Europe. It is a critically endangered (CR endemic species growing above 2500 m in the Sierra Nevada (southern Spain. Natural populations have been considerably devastated in the past due to intensive human exploitation for folk medicine. The sparse available data concerning the reproductive biology of this species under natural conditions indicate a low reproductive success. To provide additional information on the reproductive biology of A. granatensis, and consequently information useful for the management and conservation of this species, we studied the breeding system through pollen-tube growth. In addition, some floral and pollen traits were recorded. No differences were found between populations in terms of the morphological traits of flowers and inflorescences. A. granatensis is an anemophilous species, and the data indicate that pollen transfer may be limited between isolated populations, and so contributing to an extremely low fruit-set. Results show A. granatensis is selfincompatible, probably with a sporophytic self-incompatibility system, and with no evidence of partial self-incompatibility. Reproductive traits, related to pollen morphology and settling speed may explain the low rate of recruitment in the small populations separated by geographical barriers.Artemisia granatensis Boiss. es una especie paradigmática en la conservación de flora a nivel español y europeo. Es una especie catalogada como En Peligro Crítico (CR endémica de Sierra Nevada (sur de España, donde habita por encima de los 2500 m. Las poblaciones naturales han sido casi exterminadas en el pasado debido a una recolección masiva de la especie, utilizada en medicina popular. Los escasos datos disponibles acerca de su biología reproductiva en condiciones naturales indican que existe un bajo éxi to reproductivo. Con el objetivo de proporcionar información adicional

  3. A foundation monograph of Convolvulus L. (Convolvulaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John R.I.; Williams, Bethany R.M.; Mitchell, Thomas C.; Carine, Mark A.; Harris, David J.; Scotland, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    ., Convolvulus rottlerianus subsp. stocksii (Boiss.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, comb. et stat. nov., Convolvulus calvertii subsp. ruprechtii (Boiss.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulus cephalopodus subsp. bushiricus (Bornm.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov. The status of various infraspecific taxa is clarified and numerous taxa are lectotypified. This account represents a new initiative in terms of taxonomic monography, being an attempt to bring together the global approach of the traditional monograph with the more pragmatic and identification-focussed approach of most current floras while at the same time being informed by insights from molecular systematics. PMID:26140023

  4. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae

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    Shoeb M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae, commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the brine shrimp lethality assays. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC and PTLC were used to isolate compounds from the extracts.  The structures of these compounds [1-4] were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and also by direct comparison with the respective published data.  Both the DCM and the MeOH extract showed significant levels of antioxidant activities with the RC50 values of 72.6 x 10-2 and 47.3 ´ 10-2 mg/mL, respectively. The MeOH extract exhibited low levels of toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = 125.0 ´ 10-2 mg/mL. Three major bioactive components of the MeOH extract were matairesinoside [1], arctiin [2] and matairesinol [3]. An eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, pterodontriol [4], was also isolated from the DCM extract.  Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to various ailments, the antioxidant properties of the extracts as well as the isolated compounds may be of medicinal significance. This is the first report on the occurrence of 1-4 in C. pamphylica, and 4 in the genus Centaurea.  

  5. Physical, mechanical and barrier properties of corn starch films incorporated with plant essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemlou, Mehran; Aliheidari, Nahal; Fahmi, Ronak; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Keshavarz, Behnam; Cran, Marlene J; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    Corn starch-based films are inherently brittle and lack the necessary mechanical integrity for conventional packaging. However, the incorporation of additives can potentially improve the mechanical properties and processability of starch films. In this work two essential oils, Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at three levels (1%, 2% and 3% (v/v)), were incorporated into starch films using a solution casting method to improve the mechanical and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties and to impart antimicrobial activity. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 2% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 94.38% to 162.45% and from 53.34% to 107.71% respectively, but did not significantly change tensile strength values of the films. The WVP properties of the films decreased from 7.79 to 3.37 or 3.19 g mm m(-2) d(-1) kPa(-1) after 3% (v/v) ZEO or MEO incorporation respectively. The oxygen barrier properties were unaffected at the 1% and 2% (v/v) oil concentration used but oxygen transmission increased with 3% (v/v) for both formulations. The films' color became slightly yellow as the levels of ZEO or MEO were increased although transparency was maintained. Both films demonstrated antimicrobial activity with films containing ZEO more effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus than those containing MEO. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO have the potential to be directly incorporated into corn starch to prepare antimicrobial biodegradable films for various food packaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of κ-carrageenan films incorporated plant essential oils with improved antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Hosseini, Hedayat; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh; Khaksar, Ramin

    2014-01-30

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial kappa-carrageenan-based films containing different concentrations of Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) and Mentha pulegium (MEO) essential oils were developed, and their water vapor permeability (WVP), optical, microstructure, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were characterized. ZEO and MEO decreased the WVP of the emulsified films; for example, 3% ZEO reduced WVP by around 80%. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 1% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 37.43% to 44.74% and from 36.09% to 41.25% respectively. Carrageenan-composite films were less resistant to breakage, more flexible and more opaque with lower gloss. These properties were related to the film's microstructure as analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. ZEO affected the antioxidant properties of the films more markedly than MEO, e.g., ZEO containing films showed DPPH radical scavenging of 80.6% which were two-fold higher than those having MEO. The films' antimicrobial activities were increased by incorporating essential oils, particularly ZEO, which were more effective against the bacteria in the direct-contact method than a vapor phase. S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive bacterium to either ZEO or MEO, followed by B. cereus and E. coli. A highest inhibition zone of 544.05 mm(2) was observed for S. aureus around the films incorporated with 3% (v/v) ZEO. The total inhibitory zone of 3% (v/v) MEO formulated films was 20.43 for S. typhimurium and 10.15 mm(2) for P. aeruginosa. These results revealed that ZEO and MEO have good potential to be incorporated into κ-carrageenan to make antimicrobial and antioxidant edible films for food applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Notes on the family Brassicaceae in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dmitry A GERMAN; Wen-Li CHEN

    2009-01-01

    A critical revision of the collections of Brassicaceae in some Chinese (PE, XJA, XJBI, XJFA, XJNM, XJU) and foreign (LE, P) herbaria is made. One genus, Neurotropis (DC.) E K. Mey., and 11 species, Alyssum szarabiacum Nyar., Barbarea stricta Andrz., Erysimum czernjajevii N. Busch, Erysimum kotuchovii D. German, Erysimum mongolicum D. German, Lepidium karelinianum A1-Shehbaz, Matthiola superba Conti, Neurotropis platycarpa (Fisch. & Mey.) E K. Mey., Ptilotrichum dahuricum Peschkova, Sisymbrium subspinescens Bunge, and Smelowskia micrantha (Botsch. & Vved.) Al-Shehbaz & S. I. Warwick, are reported from China for the first time. Six species, Aphragmus involucratus (Bunge) O. E. Schulz, Dontostemonperennis C. A. Mey., Goldbachia torulosa DC., Lepidium amplexicaule Willd., Neotorularia brevipes (Kar. & Kir.) Hedge & J. Leonard, and Parrya stenocarpa Kar. & Kir., are confirmed to occurr in China. Five species, Dontostemon integrifolius (L.) C. A. Mey., Draba zangbeiensis L. L. Lou, Lepidium alashanicum H. L. Yang, Sinapis arvensis L., and Strigosella brevipes (Btmge) Botsch., are reported as novelties for some provinces in China, and Strigosella hispida (Litv.) Borsch. occurs in Xinjiang, China. However, the occurrence of one genus, Pseudoarabidopsis Al-Shehbaz, O'Kane & Price, and four species, Draba huetii Boiss., Eutrema halophilum (C. A. Mey.) Al-Shehbaz & S. I. Warwick, Galitzkya spathulata (Steph. ex Willd.) V. Bocz., and Pseudoarabidopsis toxophylla (Bieb.) Al-Shehbaz, O'Kane & Price, could not be confirmed in China. The occurrence of six species, Aphragmus bouffordii Al-Shehbaz, Barbarea orthoceras Ledeb., Lepidium latifolium L., Ptilotrichum canescens (DC.) C. A. Mey., Strigosella hispida (Litv.) Botsch., and Strigosella scorpioides (Bunge) Botsch., is not confirmed in certain provinces of China. All names follow the latest taxonomic treatment for relevant groups; detailed morphological descriptions of the newly recorded taxa are provided; and distinguishing

  8. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of Rumex papillaris, a dioecious plant with an XX/XY(1)Y (2) sex chromosome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Schwarzacher, Trude; Rejón, Manuel Ruiz; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A

    2009-01-01

    Rumex papillaris Boiss, & Reut., an Iberian endemic, belongs to the section Acetosa of the genus Rumex whose main representative is R. acetosa L., a species intensively studied in relation to sex-chromosome evolution. Here, we characterize cytogenetically the chromosomal complement of R. papillaris in an effort to enhance future comparative genomic approaches and to better our understanding of sex chromosome structure in plants. Rumex papillaris, as is common in this group, is a dioecious species characterized by the presence of a multiple sex chromosome system (with females 2n = 12 + XX and males 2n = 12 + XY(1)Y(2)). Except for the X chromosome both Y chromosomes are the longest in the karyotype and appear heterochromatic due to the accumulation of at least two satellite DNA families, RAE180 and RAYSI. Each chromosome of pair VI has an additional major heterochromatin block at the distal region of the short arm. These supernumerary heterochromatic blocks are occupied by RAE730 satellite DNA family. The Y-related RAE180 family is also present in an additional minor autosomal locus. Our comparative study of the chromosomal organization of the different satellite-DNA sequences in XX/XY and XX/XY(1)Y(2) Rumex species demonstrates that of active mechanisms of heterochromatin amplification occurred and were accompanied by chromosomal rearrangements giving rise to the multiple XX/XY(1)Y(2) chromosome systems observed in Rumex. Additionally, Y(1) and Y(2) chromosomes have undergone further rearrangements leading to differential patterns of Y-heterochromatin distribution between Rumex species with multiple sex chromosome systems.

  9. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid; Asadi-Samani; Najme; Kafash-Farkhad; Nafiseh; Azimi; Ali; Fasihi; Ebrahim; Alinia-Ahandani; Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver.In this review,we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine,with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CCI4 agent.In this study,online databases including Web of Science.PubMed.Scopus,and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013.Search terms consisted of medicinal plants,traditional medicine,folk medicine,hepatoprotective.Iran,liver,therapeutic uses,compounds,antioxidant.CCI4.anti-inflammatory,and antihepatotoxic,hepatitis,alone or in combination.Allium hirtifolium Boiss..Apium graveolens L..Cynara scolyinus.Berberis vulgaris L..,Calendula officinalis,Nigella sativa L..Taraxacum officinale.Tragopogon porrifolius.Prangos ferulacea L..Allium sativum,Marribium vulgare,Ammi majus L..Citrullus lanatus Thunb.Agrimonia eupatoria L.and Primus armeniaca L.are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine.Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents,silymarin,P-sitosterol,betalain,neoandrographolide.phyllanthin.andrographolide.curcumin.picroside.hypophyllanlhin.kutkoside,and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties.Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future,the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  10. RP-HPLC/MS/MS Analysis of the Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Salvia L. Species

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    Hatice Tohma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The identification and quantification of the phenolic contents of methanolic extracts of three Salvia L. species namely S. brachyantha (Bordz. Pobed, S. aethiopis L., and S. microstegia Boiss. and Bal. were evaluated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, UV adsorption, and mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/MS. In order to determine the antioxidant capacity of these species, cupric ions (Cu2+ reducing assay (CUPRAC and ferric ions (Fe3+ reducing assay (FRAP were performed to screen the reducing capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay was employed for evaluation of the radical scavenging activity for both solvents. In further investigation, the antimicrobial activities of Salvia species were tested using the disc diffusion method against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative microbial species, as well as three fungi species. The results showed that there is a total of 18 detectable phenols, the most abundant of which was kaempferol in S. microstegia and rosmarinic acids in S. brachyantha and S aethiopis. The other major phenols were found to be apigenin, luteolin, p-coumaric acid, and chlorogenic acid. All species tested showed moderate and lower antioxidant activity than standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, and ascorbic acid. The ethanolic extracts of Salvia species revealed a wide range of antimicrobial activity. S. brachyantha and S. microstegia showed the highest antimicrobial activities against B. subtilis, whereas S. aethiopis was more effective on Y. lipolytica. None of the extracts showed anti-fungal activity against S. cerevisiae. Thus these species could be valuable due to their bioactive compounds.

  11. Protective Effects of Scrophularia Striata in Ovalbumin-induced Mice Asthma Model

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    Abbas Azadmehr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Scrophularia striata Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae is a plant growing in the northeastern part of Iran and being used as a traditional herb for various inflammatory disorders.This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of the Scrophularia striata extract in Ovalbumin (OVA induced-asthma mice model.Methods:OVA-sensitized mice were intrapritonealy treated with two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg of the extract on days 8 to 14 separately. Broncoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF was collected 48 h after the final OVA challenge and then the number of eosinophils and other inflammatory cells were assessed by direct microscopic counting. In addition, total immunoglubolin (Ig E and OVA-specific IgE levels in serum, IL-4 and IL-5 cytokines in BALF were determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Moreover, phytochemical assay by thin layer chromatography (TLC and the 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH were used to evaluate the main compounds and the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract, respectively.Results:The results showed that the main components; including flavonoids, phenolic compounds and phenyl propanoids were presented in the S. striata extract. In addition, the treatment with extract significantly reduced the number of inflammatory cells and suppressed T-helper 2 (Th2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF. Also, total IgE and OVA-specific IgE levels in the serum decreased.Conclusion:Collectively, it is concluded that the extract has the potential to modulate the Th2 cytokines and could be used as immunomodulatory agent in the treatment of allergic asthma.

  12. Assessment of ferula Gummosa gum as a binding agent in tablet formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enauyatifard, Reza; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Fadakar, Yousef

    2012-01-01

    Ferula gummosa Boiss. (Apiaceae) is one of the natural plants of Iran. The whole plant, but especially the root, contains the gum resin "galbanum". A study of the comparative effects of galbanum gum and two standard binding agents--polyvinylpyrolidone and acacia--on characteristics of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts was made. The Ferula gummosa gum was extracted and its swelling index was determined. Acetaminophen and calcium carbonate granules were prepared using the wet granulation method and were evaluated for their micromeritics and flow properties, while the compacts were evaluated for mechanical properties using the hardness, tensile strength and friability. The drug release from acetaminophen compacts were assessed using dissolution studies. The dry powder of Ferula gummosa gum resin (galbanum) yielded 14% w/w of gum using distilled water as extraction solvent. The swelling index indicates that galbanum gum swelled to about 190% of initial volume in distilled water. Thus galbanum gum has the ability to hydrate and swells in cold water. The bulk and tapped densities and the interspace porosity (void porosity) percent of the granules prepared with different binders showed significant difference. The hardness and tensile strength of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts containing various binders was of the rank order PVP > acacia > galbanum gum (p tablets containing the different binders was PVP> galbanum gum > acacia. The results of mechanical properties of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts indicate that galbanum gum could be useful to produce tablets with desired mechanical characteristics for specific purposes, and could be used as an alternative substitute binder in pharmaceutical industries.

  13. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-04

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use

  14. Salvia macrosiphon seeds and seed oil: pharmacognostic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties

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    A. Hamedi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Wild Sage(Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. known as “Marvak” in Persian is one of the polymorphic and abundant plants of Lamiaceae. The plants whole seeds usually soaked or boiled in hot water are widely used for inflammatory ailments in folk medicine. Documents have shown that there is scant information on the chemical constituents of this plant seeds. The current study was carried out to assess the phytochemical constituents of Salvia macrosiphon seeds as well as anti-inflammatory activities. Methods: The seed oil extracted via a Soxhlet extractor was subjected to pharmacognostic assays using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC, Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis of fatty acids and sterols as well as evaluation of the possible anti-inflammatory activities in rats. Results: Total ash, acid insoluble and water soluble ash values were determined as 51.67±7.53, 10.00±0.02 and 30.01±5.01 mg/g, respectively. HPTLC assessment revealed the presence of different steroids, triterpenes and fatty acids. Amount of sterols in oil was found 2.44, 24.92 and 4.60 mg/g for esterified β-sitosterol, free β-sitosterol and free stigmasterol, respectively. The α-linolenic acid (77.69±6.10% was the principal fatty acid. Regarding the anti-inflammatory activity, the seed oil showed low activity in the early phase of formalin test; however, could not significantly inhibit the neutrophil-induced damage by reducing MPO activity in the paws of the rat. Conclusion: The seed oil did not exhibit satisfactory effects on acute inflammation in this study but considering the rich phytosterols content, the seed and its oil can be introduced as useful dietary supplements.

  15. Identification and Preliminary Analysis of Several Centromere-associated Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones from a Diploid Wheat Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Although the centromeres of some plants have been investigated previously, our knowledge of the wheat centromere is still very limited. To understand the structure and function of the wheat centromere, we used two centromeric repeats (RCS1 and CCS1-5ab) to obtain some centromere-associated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones in 32 RCS1-related BAC clones that had been screened out from a diploid wheat (Triticum boeoticum Boiss.; 2n=2x=14) BAC library. Southern hybridization results indicated that, of the 32 candidates,there were 28 RCS1-positive clones. Based on gel blot patterns, the frequency of RCS1 was approximately one copy every 69.4 kb in these 28 RCS1-positive BAC clones. More bands were detected when the same filter was probed with CCS1-5ab. Furthermore, the CCS1 bands covered all the bands detected by RCS1, which suggests that some CCS1 repeats were distributed together with RCS1. The frequency of CCS1 families was once every 35.8 kb, nearly twice that of RCS1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated that the five BAC clones containing RCS1 and CCS1 sequences all detected signals at the centromeric regions in hexaploid wheat, but the signal intensities on the A-genome chromosomes were stronger than those on the B- and/or D-genome chromosomes. The FISH analysis among nine Triticeae cereals indicated that there were A-genomespecific (or rich) sequences dispersing on chromosome arms in the BAC clone TbBAC5. In addition, at the interphase cells, the centromeres of diploid species usually clustered at one pole and formed a ring-like allocation in the period before metaphase.

  16. New models for estimating the carbon sink capacity of Spanish softwood species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Rio, M. del; Montero, G.

    2011-07-01

    Quantifying the carbon balance in forests is one of the main challenges in forest management. Forest carbon stocks are usually estimated indirectly through biomass equations applied to forest inventories, frequently considering different tree biomass components. The aim of this study is to develop systems of equations for predicting tree biomass components for the main forest softwood species in Spain: Abies alba Mill., A. pinsapo Boiss., Juniperus thurifera L., Pinus canariensis Sweet ex Spreng., P. halepensis Mill., P. nigra Arn., P. pinaster Ait., P. pinea L., P. sylvestris L., P. uncinata Mill. For each species, a system of additive biomass models was fitted using seemingly unrelated regression. Diameter at the breast height and total height were used as independent variables. Diameter appears in all component models, while tree height was included in the stem component model of all species and in some branch component equations. Total height was included in order to improve biomass estimations at different sites. These biomass models were compared to previously available equations in order to test their accuracy and it was found that they yielded better fitting statistics in all cases. Moreover, the models fulfil the additivity property. We also developed root:shoot ratios in order to determine the partitioning into aboveground and belowground biomass. A number of differences were found between species, with a minimum of 0.183 for A. alba and a maximum of 0.385 for P. uncinata. The mean value for the softwood species studied was 0.265. Since the Spanish National Forest Inventory (NFI) records species, tree diameter and height of sample trees, these biomass models and ratios can be used to accurately estimate carbon stocks from NFI data. (Author) 55 refs.

  17. Comparison of antifungal activities of various essential oils on the Phytophthora drechsleri, the causal agent of fruit decay

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    Ali Mohammadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The efficacy of Mentha piperita L, Zataria multiflora Boiss and Thymus vulgaris L essential oils (EOs was evaluated for controlling the growth of Phytophthora drechsleri, the causative agent of damage to many crops that is consumed directly by humans.Materials and Methods: The EOs used in this study was purchased from Magnolia Co, Iran. The pour plate method in petri dishes containing Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA was used to evaluate the antifungal properties of EOs. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC, minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC as well as mycelial growth inhibition (MGI were measured. The IC50 value (the concentration inhibited 50% of the mycelium growth was calculated by probit analysis.Results and Conclusion: The fungal growth was significantly reduced by increasing concentrations of tested EOs. The complete reduction was obtained with Shirazi thyme at all concentrations, whereas the complete reduction for peppermint and thyme was observed at 0.4% and 0.8% (v/v concentrations, respectively. Meanwhile, the minimum inhibition wasobserved when 0.1% peppermint (MGI values of 9.37% was used. The IC50, MIC and MFC values of Shirazi thyme was 0.053, 0.1% and 0.2%, respectively. Similarly, MIC and MFC values of peppermint and thyme were recorded 0.4% and 0.8%, respectively. The results obtained from this study may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from this pathogenic fungus and many agricultural plant pathogens causing drastic crop losses.

  18. In vitro antibacterial and antitumor activities of some medicinal plant extracts, growing in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arzu Birinci Yildirim; Fatma Pehlivan Karakas; Arzu Ucar Turker

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antibacterial and antitumor activities of 51 different extracts prepared with 3 types of solvents (water, ethanol and methanol) of 16 different plant species (Ajuga reptans (A. reptans) L., Phlomis pungens (P. pungens) Willd., Marrubium astracanicum (M. astracanicum) Jacq., Nepeta nuda (N. nuda) L., Stachys annua (S. annua) L., Genista lydia (G. lydia) Boiss., Nuphar lutea (N. lutea) L., Nymphaea alba (N. alba) L., Vinca minor (V. minor) L., Stellaria media (S. media) L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (C. bursa-pastoris) L., Galium spurium (G. spurium) L., Onosma heterophyllum (O. heterophyllum) Griseb., Reseda luteola (R. luteola) L., Viburnum lantana (V. lantana) L. and Mercurialis annua (M. annua) L.) grown in Turkey was conducted. Methods:Antibacterial activity was evaluated with 10 bacteria including Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), Escheria coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens), Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris), Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacea), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) by using disc diffusion method. Antitumor activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens)-induced potato disc tumor assay. Results: Best antibacterial activity was obtained with ethanolic extract of P. pungens against S. pyogenes. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of N. alba and ethanolic extract of G. lydia also showed strong antibacterial activities. Results indicated that alcoholic extracts especially ethanolic extracts exhibited strong antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Best antitumor activity was obtained with methanolic extracts of N. alba and V. lantana (100%tumor inhibition). Ethanolic extract of N. alba, alcoholic extracts of N. lutea, A. reptans and V. minor flowers, methanolic extracts of G. lydia and O

  19. Investigation of Cytotoxic Activity in Four Stachys Species from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Manayi, Azadeh; Lotfi, Mahnaz; Abbasi, Rofeyde; Majdzadeh, Maryam; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2012-01-01

    The aerial parts of Stachys laxa Boiss. and Buhse. from Siah-bishe in Mazandaran province, Stachys trinervis Aitch. and Hemsl. from Karaj in Alborz province, Stachys subaphylla Rech. F. and Stachys turcomanica Trautv. from Golestan province have been collected in May 2008. Total extracts were obtained through MeOH/H2O (80/20) and then partitioned between CHCl3, EtOAc and MeOH. These fractions and total extracts have been investigated for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against the colon carcinoma (HT-29), colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2), breast ductal carcinoma (T47D) and Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines using MTT assay (3-(4,5-di methyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-di phenyltetrazolium bromide). At each cell line, doses of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 100, 200, 400 and 800 µg/mL in 1% (v/v) DMSO of all samples were tested. Ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions of Stachys laxa against proliferation of T47D and HT-29 cell lines and chloroform fraction of Stachys subaphylla and Stachys subaphylla ethyl acetate fraction toward T47D cell line exhibited highest cytotoxic activity (IC50 < 50 µg/mL). Ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions of Stachys turcomanica against HT-29 cell line, except methanol fraction of Stachys subaphylla, the other extrcts on T47D cell line, represented moderate cytotoxic activity (IC50 < 70 µg/mL). All fractions of S. trinervis demonstrated no effective cytotoxic activity. IC50 values confirmed that the growth and proliferation of HT-29 and T47D cells were most affected by chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of Stachys laxa and Stachys turcomanica due to their nonpolar compounds. PMID:24250483

  20. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Hafizi, Mitra; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Rad, Yaghoob Razzaghi; Baghenegadian, Ameneh; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum. Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively. Results: The major components of essential oil were (z)-β-ocimene (43.3%), α-pinene (18.23%) and bornyl acetate (3.98%). Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%). The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml−1) and it was effective against Anopheles stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml−1). The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml−1). Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models. PMID:26114148

  1. Mutagenic and cytotoxic activities of Limonium globuliferum methanol extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Yasin

    2016-10-01

    Unmonitored use of plant extractions alone or in combination with drugs may cause important health problems and toxic effects. Limonium (Plumbaginaceae) plants are known as antibacterial, anticancer and antivirus agent. But it is possible that this genus may have toxic effects. This study evaluated the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of Limonium globuliferum (Boiss. et Heldr.) O. Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae) acetone/methanol (2:1), and methanol extracts of root, stem, and leaf. Different parts of this species were used in order to compare the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these parts. Ames test was carried out with S. typhimurium TA98, and TA100 strains. Strains were incubated at 37 °C for 72 h. MDBK cell line was used in MTT test. 10,000, 1000, 100, 10, 1 and 0.1 µg/plate concentrations of plant extracts were used in Ames test. 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 µg/ml concentrations of root, stem and leaf acetone/methanol (2:1) and methanol extracts were used in MTT test. Ames test results indicated that only methanol leaf extract (10,000 µg/plate) had mutagenic activity. L. globuliferum root methanol extracts (3.125 and 6.25 µg/ml) increased the proliferation rates. Root acetone/methanol (2:1) extracts were found highly cytotoxic in all treatments. The results indicated that leaf extracts had lower cytotoxic effects than root and stem extracts. High concentrations of L. globuliferum stem and leaf methanol extracts showed cytotoxic activity in all treatment periods while low concentrations of the stem methanol extracts increased the proliferation rates.

  2. Anatomical Studies on Several Species of Heliotropium L. in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam ABBASI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium spp. is distributed worldwide mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, with dry and warm temperate to semi-arid regions so that Southwest and center of Asia have considered as the main centre of origin and diversity of Heliotropium genus. Iran, with 32 species and 14 (sub endemic species, has the highest diversity in the world followed by Pakistan and Turkey with 15 species and only one endemic species and the Arabian Peninsula with 15 species and three endemic species are in the next ranks. In order to anatomical studies on Heliotropium, twelve species of this genus were selected from different regions of Iran. The selected species included: H. bacciferum Forssk., H. ramossisimum BGE., H. brevilimb Boiss., H. transoxanum BGE., H. dasycarpum Ledeb, H. dyginum Forssk., H. aucheri Dc., H. carmanicum BGE. As perennial group and H. ellipticum Ledeb., H. lasiocarpum Fisch., H. suaveolens M.B. as annual group. In order to add more data to leaf anatomy characters, evaluating of systematic relevance and/or adaptive value of the morphological and anatomical diversity we have studied 24 anatomical characters in theses 12 species. For example shape and vascular bundles of main midrib, type of parenchyma cells located under lower epidermis of midrib, distance between vascular bundles and lower or upper epidermis, angle of between two parts of blade, number of cellular layers in lower or upper mesophylla, length of upper and lower mesophylla, type of cell wall in lower and upper mesophylla and thickness of lamina were investigated in this study. In order to this present obtained H. aucheri can be separated from H. carmanicum in H. aucheri subsp. carmanicum. It can be conclude that two species H. aucheri and H. carmanicum are independent species and can accept H. transoxanum as a sub group of H. dasycarpum.

  3. RP-HPLC/MS/MS Analysis of the Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Salvia L. Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohma, Hatice; Köksal, Ekrem; Kılıç, Ömer; Alan, Yusuf; Yılmaz, Mustafa Abdullah; Gülçin, İlhami; Bursal, Ercan; Alwasel, Saleh H.

    2016-01-01

    The identification and quantification of the phenolic contents of methanolic extracts of three Salvia L. species namely S. brachyantha (Bordz.) Pobed, S. aethiopis L., and S. microstegia Boiss. and Bal. were evaluated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, UV adsorption, and mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/MS). In order to determine the antioxidant capacity of these species, cupric ions (Cu2+) reducing assay (CUPRAC) and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing assay (FRAP) were performed to screen the reducing capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was employed for evaluation of the radical scavenging activity for both solvents. In further investigation, the antimicrobial activities of Salvia species were tested using the disc diffusion method against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative microbial species, as well as three fungi species. The results showed that there is a total of 18 detectable phenols, the most abundant of which was kaempferol in S. microstegia and rosmarinic acids in S. brachyantha and S aethiopis. The other major phenols were found to be apigenin, luteolin, p-coumaric acid, and chlorogenic acid. All species tested showed moderate and lower antioxidant activity than standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and ascorbic acid. The ethanolic extracts of Salvia species revealed a wide range of antimicrobial activity. S. brachyantha and S. microstegia showed the highest antimicrobial activities against B. subtilis, whereas S. aethiopis was more effective on Y. lipolytica. None of the extracts showed anti-fungal activity against S. cerevisiae. Thus these species could be valuable due to their bioactive compounds. PMID:27775656

  4. Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of the Essential Oils of Heracleum pyrenaicum subsp. pollinianum and Heracleum orphanidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usjak, Ljubos; Petrović, Silvana; Drobac, Milica; Soković, Marina; Stanojković, Tatjana; Ćirić, Ana; Niketić, Marjan

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this research was to analyze the chemical composition, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of Heracleun pyrenaicum subsp. pollinianum (Bertol.) F. Pedrotti & Pignatti (HPP) and H. orphanidis Boiss. (HO) essential oils. The composition of the oils was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. β-Pinene (35.1%) was the most abundant compound in HPP root oil, while (Z)-falcarinol (80.0%) dominated in HO root oil. (E)-Nerolidol (28.5%) was the main constituent in HPP leaf oil. HPP fruit oil, as well as HO leaf and fruit oils mainly contained aliphatic esters, mostly octyl acetate (50.5-84.5%). Antimicrobial screening was performed by microdilution method against eight bacterial and eight fungal strains. The strongest antibacterial activity was shown by both root oils (MICs 0.02-0.60 mg/mL and MBCs 0.04-2.50 mg/mL for HPP, and MICs 0.02-1.25 mg/mL and MBCs 0.04-2.50 mg/mL for HO), while the best antifungal potential was exhibited by HPP fruit oil (MICs 0.30-0.60 mg/mL and MFCs 0.60-1.25 mg/mL) and HO leaf oil (MICs 0.15-0.63 mg/mL and MFCs 0.30-1.25 mg/mL). The tested root and fruit oils exhibited strong cytotoxic effect, which was determined by MTT test against HeLa (IC50 7.53-21.07 µg/mL) and LS174 (IC50 24.16-58.86 µg/mL) cell lines.

  5. Composition and Biological Activity of Volatile Oil from Salviajudaica and S. multicaulis from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Fatma U; Kasabri, Violet; Al-Jaber, Hala I; Abu-Irmaileh, Barakat E; Al-Qudah, Mahmoud A; Abazaa, Ismail F

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil of Salvia judaica Boiss. and S. multicaulis Vahl. (Lamiaceae) from Jordan by GC and GC-MS and to report the actual composition of their fresh leaves and flowers using SPME (Solid Phase Micro-Extraction).Their dual alpha-amylase/alpha glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities as well as their anti-proliferative potential were screened. The aroma profile of the leaves, flowers, and flowers at pre-flowering stages of S. judaica, obtained through SPME was composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (87.7 %, 71.8 %, and 86.2 %, respectively) while the hydro-distilled oil of the dry leaves was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes (50.8%). Fresh leaves of S. multicaulis were rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (58.1%), while monoterpene hydrocarbons dominated the blooming flowers (57.2%) and the flowers at the pre-flowering stage (64.7%). The hydro-distilled oil of the dry leaves was rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (77.6%). With doxorubicin as a positive control, no anti-proliferative activity was observed against colorectal cancer cell lines HT29, HCT116, and SW620 using SRB assay for either Salvia spp. In vitro enzymatic starch digestion was evaluated with Acarbose (IC50: 0.2 ± 0.0 µg /mL) as the reference drug. The respective IC50 (mg/mL) values of S. judaica and S. multicaulis aqueous extracts were 4.9 ± 0.4 and 10.3 ± 0.9. Modulation of pancreatic lipase activity (PL) was determined by colorimetry and compared with Orlistat (IC50 : 0.11 ± 0.0 µg/mL). PL-IC50 values (µg/mL) obtained for S. judaica and S. multicaulis were 108.5±6.4 and 31.8 ± 0.8, respectively.

  6. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from Ferulago angulata.

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    Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Izadi, Arezo; Malek Poor, Fatemeh; Hamedi, Behzad

    2016-11-01

    Ferulago angulata Boiss. (Apiaceae), a perennial aromatic herb, grows wild in Iran. The aerial parts of F. angulata are used as a flavouring in foods, especially dairy foods by indigenous people in western and southwestern Iran. This study investigates variation in chemical compositions, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oils from F. angulata collected from natural habitats in the alpine regions of southwestern Iran. The antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal (MBC) of the essential oils were evaluated against four bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium). Antioxidant activity of the oils was determined by DPPH assay. The essential oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS, which 49 volatile components were identified. There were significant differences between the various populations for oil yield and some main compounds. The major constituents of the essential oils from F. angulata were α-pinene, and cis-β-ocimene. The MICs of the essential oils were within concentration ranges from 62 to 250 μg/mL and the respective MBCs were 125 to > 500 μg/mL. Generally, the oils from F. angulata indicated weak to moderate inhibitory activities against bacteria, especially against Listeria monocytogenes. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained from the oil of the Kallar population (IC50 value = 488 μg/mL) and BHT as positive control (IC50  value = 321 μg/mL). The essential oil of F. angulata could be serving as a potential source of α-pinene and cis-β-ocimene for use in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  7. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils from flower, leaf and stem of Ferula cupularis growing wild in Iran.

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    Alipour, Ziba; Taheri, Poroshat; Samadi, Nasrin

    2015-04-01

    Ferula cupularis (Boiss.) Spalik et S. R. Downie (Apiaceae) is a common plant in Iran that grows in the foothills of Dena Mountain. In traditional folk medicine, this plant has different applications, but there are no studies proving their uses. This study is the first attempt to investigate the chemical composition and antibacterial effect of the essential oils of F. cupularis. The essential oils from flower, leaf, and stem of F. cupularis were analyzed by using GC and GC-MS. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was determined by microdilution method against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oil from flower of F. cupularis contained 15 monoterpene, 13 oxygenated monoterpene, and 2 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The leaf essential oil contained 12 monoterpene, 13 oxygenated monoterpene, 2 sesquiterpene, 6 oxygenated sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, and 3 non-terpenoid components. Stem essential oil contained one monoterpene, 23 oxygenated monoterpene, 2 sesquiterpene, and 6 oxygenated sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The MIC value of stem essential oil was 2.85 mg/mL against both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria except P. aeruginosa which was inhibited at 22.75 mg/mL. The MIC values of leaf and flower essential oils were higher than 5.69 and 22.75 mg/mL, respectively. This study highlighted the strong antibacterial effect of Ferula cupularis's essential oil which might be due to its high content of oxygenated monoterpene hydrocarbons. Our results suggested that this plant may be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  8. Larvicidal activity of selected plant hydrodistillate extracts against the house mosquito, Culex pipiens, a West Nile virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Huseyin; Yanikoglu, Atila; Cilek, James E

    2011-04-01

    The larvicidal activity of hydrodistillate extracts from Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Hypericum scabrum L., Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. palaestina (Boiss.) Engler, and Vitex agnus castus L. was investigated against the West Nile vector, Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Yield and identification of the major essential oils from each distillation was determined by GC-MS analyses. The major essential oil component for each plant species was as follows: α-pinene for P. terebinthus palaestina, and H. scabrum (45.3% and 42.3%, respectively), trans-β-caryophyllene for V. agnus castus (22.1%), and borneol for C. coronarium (20.9%). A series of distillate concentrations from these plants (that ranged from 1 ppm to 500 ppm, depending on plant species) were assessed against late third to early fourth C. pipiens larvae at 1, 6, and 24 h posttreatment. In general, larval mortality to water treated with a distillate increased as concentration and exposure time increased. H. scabrum and P. terebinthus palaestina were most effective against the mosquito larvae and both produced 100% mortality at 250 ppm at 24-h continuous exposure compared with the other plant species. Larval toxicity of the distillates at 24 h (LC(50) from most toxic to less toxic) was as follows: P. terebinthus palaestina (59.2 ppm) > H. scabrum (82.2 ppm) > V. agnus castus (83.3 ppm) > C. coronarium (311.2 ppm). But when LC(90) values were compared, relative toxicity ranking changed as follows: H. scabrum (185.9 ppm) > V. agnus castus (220.7 ppm) > P. terebinthus palaestina (260.7 ppm) > C. coronarium (496.3 ppm). Extracts of native Turkish plants continue to provide a wealth of potential sources for biologically active agents that may be applied against arthropod pests of man and animals.

  9. Expansion of the gamma-gliadin gene family in Aegilops and Triticum

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    Goryunova Svetlana V

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gamma-gliadins are considered to be the oldest of the gliadin family of storage proteins in Aegilops/Triticum. However, the expansion of this multigene family has not been studied in an evolutionary perspective. Results We have cloned 59 gamma-gliadin genes from Aegilops and Triticum species (Aegilops caudata L., Aegilops comosa Sm. in Sibth. & Sm., Aegilops mutica Boiss., Aegilops speltoides Tausch, Aegilops tauschii Coss., Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk., Aegilops uniaristata Vis., and Triticum monococcum L. representing eight different genomes: Am, B/S, C, D, M, N, T and U. Overall, 15% of the sequences contained internal stop codons resulting in pseudogenes, but this percentage was variable among genomes, up to over 50% in Ae. umbellulata. The most common length of the deduced protein, including the signal peptide, was 302 amino acids, but the length varied from 215 to 362 amino acids, both obtained from Ae. speltoides. Most genes encoded proteins with eight cysteines. However, all Aegilops species had genes that encoded a gamma-gliadin protein of 302 amino acids with an additional cysteine. These conserved nine-cysteine gamma-gliadins may perform a specific function, possibly as chain terminators in gluten network formation in protein bodies during endosperm development. A phylogenetic analysis of gamma-gliadins derived from Aegilops and Triticum species and the related genera Lophopyrum, Crithopsis, and Dasypyrum showed six groups of genes. Most Aegilops species contained gamma-gliadin genes from several of these groups, which also included sequences from the genera Lophopyrum, Crithopsis, and Dasypyrum. Hordein and secalin sequences formed separate groups. Conclusions We present a model for the evolution of the gamma-gliadins from which we deduce that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA of Aegilops/Triticum-Dasypyrum-Lophopyrum-Crithopsis already had four groups of gamma-gliadin sequences, presumably the result of two

  10. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

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    Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum.Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively.Results: The major components of essential oil were (z-β-ocimene (43.3%, α-pinene (18.23% and bornyl acetate (3.98%. Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%. The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml-1 and it was effective against Anophelesstephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml-1. The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml-1.Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  11. Sulphur-containing compounds in the essential oil of Ferula alliacea roots and their mass spectral fragmentation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaian, Jamal; Asili, Javad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2016-10-01

    Context GC-MS analysis is the best way to characterize volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Ferula (Apiaceae) is a genus of perennial herbs. Due to the occurrence of essential oils or oleoresins in the Ferula species, these plants usually possess strong aromatic scent. Terpenoid compounds were the most abundant constituents of Ferula oils, however, in some of Ferula species, the essential oils were dominated by volatile sulphur-containing compounds. Objectives Ferula alliacea Boiss. is considered one of the sources of the oleo-gum-resin asafoetida. In this study, we analyzed the hydrodistilled essential oil from its dried roots and provide new data about retention indices and mass fragmentation patterns of some volatile sulphur-containing compounds that are useful for future studies on this class of compounds. Materials and methods The roots of F. alliacea were collected during the flowering stage of plant, from Bezgh, Kashmar to Neishabour road, Khorasan-Razavi province, Iran, in June 2012. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC-MS. Results This is the first report on phytochemical analysis of F. alliacea roots. Seventy-six components, representing 99.5% of the oil, were characterized. The major components were 10-epi-γ-eudesmol (22.3%), valerianol (12.5%), hinesol (8.3%), guaiol (7.3%) and Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%). Predominant mass fragment ions of the identified sulphur-containing compounds are explained in this paper. Conclusion The volatile oil of F. alliacea mostly contains oxygenated sesquiterpenes, however, its odour was dominated by sulphur-containing compounds. The most abundant sulphur-containing compound includes Z-propenyl-sec-butyl trisulphide (6.5%).

  12. Physio-ecological response of Haloxylonpersicum photosynthetic shoots to drought stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruan Xiao; Wang Qiang; Chen Yaning; Huang Junhua

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied the seasonal characteristics to resist the drought stress of Haloxylon persicum Bge.Ex Boiss.et Buhse photosynthetic shoots at habitat.The results showed that the predominant drought resistance factors were varied at the different stage from growth to development.In the blooming season (from May 31 to June 29),endogenous ABA contents were rare;stomatal conductance and photosynthesis intensity were the highest at the whole stage from growth to development;soluble sugars contents had a decreasing trend and proline contents increased a little that made proline become the predominant factor to resist the drought under this light water stress.In the hot summer (from June 29 to July 26),ABA contents accumulated rapidly;stomatal conductance dropped to the lowest level of the growth and development;chlorophyll was also decomposed;both soluble sugars and proline contents showed the trend of quickly accumulating,but the former was faster than the latter.It was due to stomatal limitation and osmotic organic molecules accumulation that would affect the photosynthetic shoots to resist severe drought stress.At the late period of the development (from Aug 9 to Aug 22),ABA rapidly accumulated,its contents got to the highest level of whole life-span;stomatal conductance increased a little;proline and soluble sugars contents changed little at high level;while the ratios of ABA to CTK content and ABA to IAA content got up obviously,the effect to resist drought stress on high content ABA was inhibited by endogenous plant hormone CTK and IAA,then the continuing accumulation of proline and soluble sugars would be prevented,Osmosis of organic molecules was the most important factor to adjust leaves to severe water stress at this period.

  13. Cosmochemical Estimates of Mantle Composition

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    Palme, H.; O'Neill, H. St. C.

    2003-12-01

    In 1794 the German physicist Chladni published a small book in which he suggested the extraterrestrial origin of meteorites. The response was skepticism and disbelief. Only after additional witnessed falls of meteorites did scientists begin to consider Chladni's hypothesis seriously. The first chemical analyses of meteorites were published by the English chemist Howard in 1802, and shortly afterwards by Klaproth, a professor of chemistry in Berlin. These early investigations led to the important conclusion that meteorites contained the same elements that were known from analyses of terrestrial rocks. By the year 1850, 18 elements had been identified in meteorites: carbon, oxygen, sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, potassium, calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, and tin (Burke, 1986). A popular hypothesis, which arose after the discovery of the first asteroid Ceres on January 1, 1801 by Piazzi, held that meteorites came from a single disrupted planet between Mars and Jupiter. In 1847 the French geologist Boisse (1810-1896) proposed an elaborate model that attempted to account for all known types of meteorites from a single planet. He envisioned a planet with layers in sequence of decreasing densities from the center to the surface. The core of the planet consisted of metallic iron surrounded by a mixed iron-olivine zone. The region overlying the core contained material similar to stony meteorites with ferromagnesian silicates and disseminated grains of metal gradually extending into shallower layers with aluminous silicates and less iron. The uppermost layer consisted of metal-free stony meteorites, i.e., eucrites or meteoritic basalts. About 20 years later, Daubrée (1814-1896) carried out experiments by melting and cooling meteorites. On the basis of his results, he came to similar conclusions as Boisse, namely that meteorites come from a single, differentiated planet with a metal core, a silicate mantle

  14. Autecology Essential Oil Composition, Antibacterial, Anti Candidacies and Ethnopharmacological Survey of Ferula Gummosa L. As Anti Infection to Treat Of Vaginal Infections in Traditional Medicine of Razavi Khorasan Province (North East of Iran

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    Mazandarani Masoumeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ferula gummosa Boiss. (Apiaceae family, which has been used in traditional medicine of Iran as anti vaginal infection, anti-sinusitis, sedative, and anti-inflammation. Materials and Methods: In this research, the gums of plant root were collected from the Heidary nature reserve in Razavi Khorasan Province (Iran in August 2012. The ethnopharmacological data about traditional uses of plant were obtained from the rural healers (women 67-75 year of this region. Essential oil of the plant root gum was obtained by hydrodistillation (Clevenger apparatus and was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Antibacterial activity of plant ethanolic extract was studied in vitro against Candida albicans and 9 Gram-positive and negative bacteria using well method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay. Results: Results showed that a total of 39 components have been identified in the plant sampl oil, representing 81% of the total oil and β-pinene (19.88%, guaiol (8%, shyobunone (6.96%, delta-cadinene (4.65%, α-pinene (3.16 %, β-phellandrene (3.28% and myrtenol (2.8%, were the main essential oil composition, respectively. The results from antibacterial screening (Table 2, were showed that C. albicans (25.2 ± 1.6, Staphylococcus epidermidis (23.6 ± 0.7 mm, Staphylococcus aureus (21.3 ± 0.2 mm, Escherichia coli (16.5 ± 0.8 mm, Bacillus cereus (19.5 ± 0.1 mm, Enterococcus faecalis (17.2 ± 0.8 mm and Pseudomonas aeroginosa ( 17.8 ± 0.2 mm inhibition zone and MIC (35.4-112 μg/ml were the most sensitive pathogenes to the plant extract respectively, which followed Shigella (12.3 ± 0.3 mm and Klebsiella pneumonia (12.5 ± 0.2 mm were found to be moderate sensitive bacteria and then the Salmonella typhymorium which completely was resistant to plant root extract. Conclusion: According to these results, it can be concluded that the extract of F. gummosa L. have suitable antimicrobial and anti-Candidacies activity, which can be

  15. Analysis of chemical constituents and antinociceptive potential of essential oil of Teucrium Stocksianum bioss collected from the North West of Pakistan

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    Shah Syed Muhammad

    2012-12-01

    may be due to some toxic effect of higher dose. ED50 value for Teucrium stocksianum was calculated as 31.5 ± 1.72415 mg/kg (b.w. Conclusion Our results indicate that there is a lot of variation in the composition of essential oil of Teucrium stocksianum boiss, which may be due to different climatic and experimental conditions. Secondly, the essential oil possesses strong antinociceptive activity and could be used in analgesic preparations especially for topical use.

  16. Plant species influence on soil C after afforestation of Mediterranean degraded soils

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    Dominguez, Maria T.; García-Vargas, Carlos; Madejón, Engracia; Marañón, Teodoro

    2015-04-01

    Increasing C sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems is one of the main current environmental challenges to mitigate climate change. Afforestation of degraded and contaminated lands is one of the key strategies to achieve an increase in C sequestration in ecosystems. Plant species differ in their mechanisms of C-fixation, C allocation into different plant organs, and interaction with soil microorganisms, all these factors influencing the dynamics of soil C following the afforestation of degraded soils. In this work we examine the influence of different woody plant species on soil C dynamics in degraded and afforested Mediterranean soils. The soils were former agricultural lands that were polluted by a mining accident and later afforested with different native plant species. We analysed the effect of four of these species (Olea europaea var. sylvestris Brot., Populus alba L., Pistacia lentiscus L. and Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss.) on different soil C fractions, soil nutrient availability, microbial activity (soil enzyme activities) and soil CO2 fluxes 15 years after the establishment of the plantations. Results suggest that the influence of the planted trees and shrubs is still limited, being more pronounced in the more acidic and nutrient-poor soils. Litter accumulation varied among species, with the highest C accumulated in the litter under the deciduous species (Populus alba L.). No differences were observed in the amount of total soil organic C among the studied species, or in the concentrations of phenols and sugars in the dissolved organic C (DOC), which might have indicated differences in the biodegradability of the DOC. Microbial biomass and activity was highly influenced by soil pH, and plant species had a significant influence on soil pH in the more acidic site. Soil CO2 fluxes were more influenced by the plant species than total soil C content. Our results suggest that changes in total soil C stocks after the afforestation of degraded Mediterranean

  17. Effect of Persian Medicine Remedy on Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Breast Cancer: A Double Blind, Randomized, Crossover Clinical Trial.

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    Nazari, Mohammad; Taghizadeh, Ali; Bazzaz, Mojtaba Mousavi; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Shokri, Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a side effect, and has negative effect on quality of life and continuation of chemotherapy. Despite new regimen and drugs, the problems still remain and standard guidelines, effective treatment and supportive care for refractory CINV are still not yet established. Persian medicine, the old Iranian medical school, offer Persumac (prepared from Rhus Coriaria and Bunium Persicum Boiss). The specific objectives were to assess the effect of Persumac on the number and severity of nausea and vomiting in refractory CINV in acute and delayed phase. This randomized, double blind, crossover clinical trial study was carried out on 93 patients with breast cancer and refractory CINV, who received outpatient high emetogenic chemotherapy in Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran from October 2015 to May 2016. The study has three stages: in stage I patients received a questionaire and completed it after chemotherapy. In stage II they were randomly divided into intervention group with Persumac and control group with placebo (lactose were used). In stage III, wash out and crossover was conducted. Both groups in all stages received standard antiemetic therapy for CINV. The following were set as the inclusion criteria of the study: female, Age ≥18 years, clinical diagnosis of breast cancer, history of refractory CINV, normal blood tests and at least three courses of chemotherapy remaining. Exclusion criteria of this study were: Total or upper abdominal radiation therapy along with chemotherapy, drugs/therapy for nausea and vomiting not prescribed in this study, hypersensitivity to Sumac or Bunium Persicum, use of sumac and Bunium Persicum in seven days prior to the intervention, clinical diagnosis of digestion disorders, non-chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, milk allergy, loss of two consecutive or three intermittent doses of Persumac or placebo. Outcomes were gathered by Persian questionnaire. Number and severity of nausea and

  18. Effect of Persian Medicine Remedy on Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Breast Cancer: A Double Blind, Randomized, Crossover Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mohammad; Taghizadeh, Ali; Bazzaz, Mojtaba Mousavi; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Shokri, Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a side effect, and has negative effect on quality of life and continuation of chemotherapy. Despite new regimen and drugs, the problems still remain and standard guidelines, effective treatment and supportive care for refractory CINV are still not yet established. Persian medicine, the old Iranian medical school, offer Persumac (prepared from Rhus Coriaria and Bunium Persicum Boiss). Objective The specific objectives were to assess the effect of Persumac on the number and severity of nausea and vomiting in refractory CINV in acute and delayed phase. Methods This randomized, double blind, crossover clinical trial study was carried out on 93 patients with breast cancer and refractory CINV, who received outpatient high emetogenic chemotherapy in Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran from October 2015 to May 2016. The study has three stages: in stage I patients received a questionaire and completed it after chemotherapy. In stage II they were randomly divided into intervention group with Persumac and control group with placebo (lactose were used). In stage III, wash out and crossover was conducted. Both groups in all stages received standard antiemetic therapy for CINV. The following were set as the inclusion criteria of the study: female, Age ≥18 years, clinical diagnosis of breast cancer, history of refractory CINV, normal blood tests and at least three courses of chemotherapy remaining. Exclusion criteria of this study were: Total or upper abdominal radiation therapy along with chemotherapy, drugs/therapy for nausea and vomiting not prescribed in this study, hypersensitivity to Sumac or Bunium Persicum, use of sumac and Bunium Persicum in seven days prior to the intervention, clinical diagnosis of digestion disorders, non-chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, milk allergy, loss of two consecutive or three intermittent doses of Persumac or placebo. Outcomes were gathered by Persian questionnaire. Number