WorldWideScience

Sample records for online vfa measurement

  1. Monitoring and control of the biogas process based on propionate concentration using online VFA measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Steyer, J.P.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Simple logic control algorithms were tested for automatic control of a lab-scale CSTR manure digester. Using an online VFA monitoring system, propionate concentration in the reactor was used as parameter for control of the biogas process. The propionate concentration was kept below a threshold...

  2. Evaluating 5 and 8 pH-point titrations for measuring VFA in full-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received 24 February 2012; accepted in revised form 19 November 2012. ... applied to determine VFA in full-scale primary sludge hydrolysate and was shown to be equally efficient to the methods .... To test and measure the recovery of different VFA concentra- ..... bonate and SCFA weak acid bases in anaerobic systems.

  3. Pilot-scale application of an online VFA sensor for monitoring and control of a manure digester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    parameter for optimization, it could not distinguish between the decreases of biogas production from inhibition and from lower organic content in the substrate, which resulted in undesired decreasing of the control gas setpoint when the substrate was diluted. It was necessary to adjust the yield parameter...... in order to get this control approach to function properly, which is not suitable for the full-scale biogas plant where the organic content of waste streams can vary. An alternative approach could be a modified rule-based algorithm that includes VFA parameters to help distinguish between different process......A volatile fatty acids (VFA) sensor based on headspace chromatography was tested for online monitoring and control of a pilot-scale manure digester. The sensor showed satisfying results in terms of sensitivity and reliability for monitoring of the digester. The online VFA and biogas production data...

  4. A novel in-situ sampling and VFA sensor technique for anaerobic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    that has made it possible to monitor VFA on-line in one of the most difficult media: animal slurry or manure. A novel in-situ filtration technique has made it possible to perform microfiltration inside the reactor system. This filter enables sampling from closed reactor systems without large scale pumping......A key information for understanding and controlling the anaerobic biogas process is the concentration of Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA). However, access to this information has so far been limited to off-line measurements by manual time and labour consuming methods. We have developed a new technique...... and filtering. Using this filtration technique together with commercially available membrane filters we have constructed a VFA sensor system that can perform automatic analysis on animal slurry at a frequency as high as every 15 minutes. The VFA sensor has been tested for a period of more than 60 days with more...

  5. Dicty_cDB: VFA356 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VF (Link to library) VFA356 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14976-1 VFA356P (Link to Original site) VFA356...F 493 VFA356Z 633 VFA356P 1126 - - Show VFA356 Library VF (Link to library) Clone ID VFA356...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VF/VFA3-C/VFA356Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VFA356...P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VFA356 (VFA356Q) /CSM/VF/VFA3-C/VFA356...ing significant alignments: (bits) Value VFA356 (VFA356Q) /CSM/VF/VFA3-C/VFA356Q.Seq.d/ 1909 0.0 VHA688 (VHA

  6. A new VFA sensor technique for anaerobic reactor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    A key parameter for understanding and controling the anaerobic biogas process is the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA). However, this information has so far been limited to off-line measurements using labor-intensive methods. We have developed a new technique that has made it possible......, propionate, iso-/n-butyrate and iso-/n-valerate ranging from 0.1 to 50 mM (6-3000 mg). The measuring range could readily be expanded to more components and both lower and higher concentrations if desired. In addition to the new VFA sensor system, test results from development and testing of the in situ...

  7. A hybrid cascade control scheme for the VFA and COD regulation in two-stage anaerobic digestion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Acosta, H O; Campos-Rodríguez, A; González-Álvarez, V; García-Sandoval, J P; Snell-Castro, R; Latrille, E

    2016-10-01

    A hybrid (continuous-discrete) cascade control is proposed to regulate both, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations in two-stage (acidogenic-methanogenic) anaerobic digestion (TSAD) processes. The outer loop is a discrete controller that regulates the COD concentration of the methanogenic bioreactor by using a daily off-line measurement and that modifies the set-point tracked by inner loop, which manipulates the dilution rate to regulate the VFA concentration of the acidogenic bioreactor, estimated by continuous on-line conductivity measurements, avoiding acidification. The experimental validation was conducted in a TSAD process for the treatment of tequila vinasses during 110days. Results showed that the proposed cascade control scheme was able to achieve the VFA and COD regulation by using conventional measurements under different set-point values in spite of adverse common scenarios in full-scale anaerobic digestion processes. Microbial composition analysis showed that the controller also favors the abundance and diversity toward methane production.

  8. Measuring online social bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Nikolov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social media have become a prevalent channel to access information, spread ideas, and influence opinions. However, it has been suggested that social and algorithmic filtering may cause exposure to less diverse points of view. Here we quantitatively measure this kind of social bias at the collective level by mining a massive datasets of web clicks. Our analysis shows that collectively, people access information from a significantly narrower spectrum of sources through social media and email, compared to a search baseline. The significance of this finding for individual exposure is revealed by investigating the relationship between the diversity of information sources experienced by users at both the collective and individual levels in two datasets where individual users can be analyzed—Twitter posts and search logs. There is a strong correlation between collective and individual diversity, supporting the notion that when we use social media we find ourselves inside “social bubbles.” Our results could lead to a deeper understanding of how technology biases our exposure to new information.

  9. Measuring consumer perceptions of online shopping convenience

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Margarida Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this master thesis is to identify which dimensions of convenience affect consumers’ intention of using online shopping. Also it explores a conceptual model to measuring consumer perceptions of online shopping convenience. This paper contains prospects about online consumer behavior, and the results have important implications for retailers, managers and marketers, related to online shopping strategies. An empirical investigation was carried out to test the hypotheses. In order t...

  10. Measuring Student Engagement in an Online Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigatel, Paula; Williams, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to measure the effectiveness of faculty development courses promoting student engagement, the faculty development unit of Penn State's Online Campus conducted a pilot study within a large online Bachelor of Science in Business (BSB) program. In all, 2,296 students were surveyed in the spring and summer semesters of 2014 in order to…

  11. Beam energy online measurement of BEPCII LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shao-Zhe; Chi, Yun-Long

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes beam energy online measurement of BEPCII linac, presents the calculation formula and some of the results. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring beam positions in the horizontal direction with three beam position monitors (BPM) eliminating the effect of orbit fluctuation, which is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in the end of this paper.

  12. Online wind turbine measurement laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.S.; Helgesen Pedersen, K.O.; Schmidt Paulsen, U.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the International Master of Science Program in Wind Energy at DTU, a complete interactive wind turbine measurement laboratory has been developed. A 500 kW stall regulated wind turbine has been instrumented with sensors for recording 1) turbine operational parameters, 2) meteorological...... conditions, 3) electrical quantities and 4) mechanical loads in terms of strain gauge signals. The data acquisition system has been designed and implemented by Risø together with students and teachers from DTU. It is based on LabVIEW© combined with a MySQL database for data management. The system enables...... calculations and extreme loads estimation in basic wind turbine courses. Power quality analysis is carried out based on high speed sampled, three-phase voltage and current signals. The wide spectrum of sensors enables a detailed study of the correlation between meteorological, mechanical and electrical...

  13. Measuring Online Dialogic Conversations: A Scale Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara; Murtarelli, Grazia;

    2016-01-01

    interactivity. Dialogic conversations are defined as sequences of communicative actions and counteractions taken by social actors for different purposes based on specific linguistic choices and characterised by diverse communicative approaches and the role played by the involved parties. Design......-taking, sequencing of conversation, repair strategies and procedures. Originality/value: This is the first study proposing a systematic measurement of the dialogue orientation of online conversations that takes into consideration the role of language and communicative actions. The proposed measurement offers...

  14. Measuring Online Dialogic Conversations: A Scale Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara; Murtarelli, Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The scope of this paper is to develop and test a measurement scale for assessing the quality of dialogic conversations among companies and digital publics in social media. It is argued that dialogic conversations are the drivers of dialogic engagement and the result of dialogic....../methodology/approach: A multidimensional scale for measuring dialogic conversations is developed from relevant literature concerning dialogue and public engagement in the fields of corporate communication, public relations, management studies and conversation analysis. The scale was pre-tested to redefine and purify it from irrelevant...... corporate communication managers a concrete tool for evaluating the quality of their online communications and for identifying those areas of their online communication that need improvement....

  15. How should we measure online learning activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim O'Riordan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of Web-based learning objects makes finding and evaluating resources a considerable hurdle for learners to overcome. While established learning analytics methods provide feedback that can aid learner evaluation of learning resources, the adequacy and reliability of these methods is questioned. Because engagement with online learning is different from other Web activity, it is important to establish pedagogically relevant measures that can aid the development of distinct, automated analysis systems. Content analysis is often used to examine online discussion in educational settings, but these instruments are rarely compared with each other which leads to uncertainty regarding their validity and reliability. In this study, participation in Massive Open Online Course (MOOC comment forums was evaluated using four different analytical approaches: the Digital Artefacts for Learning Engagement (DiAL-e framework, Bloom's Taxonomy, Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO and Community of Inquiry (CoI. Results from this study indicate that different approaches to measuring cognitive activity are closely correlated and are distinct from typical interaction measures. This suggests that computational approaches to pedagogical analysis may provide useful insights into learning processes.

  16. Online monitoring and control of the biogas process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, K.

    2006-07-01

    The demand for online monitoring and control of biogas process is increasing, since better monitoring and control system can improve process stability and enhance process performance for better economy of the biogas plants. A number of parameters in both the liquid and the gas phase have been suggested as process indicators. These include gas production, pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and hydrogen. Of these, VFA is the most widely recognised as a direct, relevant measure of stability. The individual, rather than collective VFA concentrations are recognised as providing significantly more information for diagnosis. However, classic on-line measurement is based on filtration, which suffers from fouling, especially in particulate or slurry wastes. In this project, a new online VFA monitoring system has been developed using gas-phase VFA extraction to avoid sample filtration. The liquid sample is pumped into a sampling chamber, acidified, added with salt and heated to extract VFA into the gas phase before analysis by GC-FID. This allows easy application to manure. Sample and analysis time of the system varies from 25-40 min. depending on the washing duration. The sampling frequency is fast enough for the dynamic of a manure digester, which is in the range of several hours. This system has been validated over more than 6 months and had shown good agreement with offline VFA measurement. Response from this sensor was compared with other process parameters such as biogas production, pH and dissolved hydrogen during overload situations in a laboratory-scale digester, to investigate the suitability of each measure as a process indicator. VFA was most reliable for indicating process imbalance, and propionate was most persistent. However, when coupling the online VFA monitoring with a simple control for automatic controlling propionate level in a digester, it was found that propionate decreased so slow that the biogas production fluctuated. Therefore, it is more

  17. Online Distributed Fault Detection of Sensor Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jianliang; XU Yongjun; LI Xiaowei

    2007-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a faulty sensor may produce incorrect data and transmit them to the other sensors. This would consume the limited energy and bandwidth of WSNs. Furthermore, the base station may make inappropriate decisions when it receives the incorrect data sent by the faulty sensors. To solve these problems, this paper develops an online distributed algorithm to detect such faults by exploring the weighted majority vote scheme. Considering the spatial correlations in WSNs, a faulty sensor can diagnose itself through utilizing the spatial and time information provided by its neighbor sensors. Simulation results show that even when as many as 30% of the sensors are faulty, over 95% of faults can be correctly detected with our algorithm. These results indicate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance in detecting fault of sensor measurements in WSNs.

  18. A Comparison of Performance Measures via Online Search

    CERN Document Server

    Boyar, Joan; Maiti, Abyayananda

    2011-01-01

    Though competitive analysis has been a very useful performance measure for the quality of online algorithms, it is recognized that it sometimes fails to distinguish between algorithms of different quality in practice. A number of alternative measures have been proposed, but, with a few exceptions, these have generally been applied only to the online problem they were developed in connection with. Recently, a systematic study of performance measures for online algorithms was initiated [Boyar, Irani, Larsen: Eleventh International Algorithms and Data Structures Symposium 2009], first focusing on a simple server problem. We continue this work by studying a fundamentally different online problem, online search, and the Reservation Price Policies in particular. The purpose of this line of work is to learn more about the applicability of various performance measures in different situations and the properties that the different measures emphasize. We investigate the following analysis techniques: Competitive, Relati...

  19. Measuring Student Engagement in the Online Course: The Online Student Engagement Scale (OSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Marcia D.

    2015-01-01

    Student engagement is critical to student learning, especially in the online environment, where students can often feel isolated and disconnected. Therefore, teachers and researchers need to be able to measure student engagement. This study provides validation of the Online Student Engagement scale (OSE) by correlating student self-reports of…

  20. A comparison of performance measures for online algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, Joan; Irani, Sandy; Larsen, Kim Skak

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a systematic study of several recently suggested measures for online algorithms in the context of a specific problem, namely, the two server problem on three colinear points. Even though the problem is simple, it encapsulates a core challenge in online algorithms which is to b...

  1. Measuring the Community in Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Beth; Fernandes, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes both theoretical and empirical approaches to differentiating the community of inquiry (CoI) in online classes at individual and group levels. Following the example of research on organizational climate, it assesses the strength of shared perceptions of teaching presence, social presence, and cognitive presence. The paper…

  2. Toasting of cereal grains: effects on in vitro rumen gas production and VFA yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seerp Tamminga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fermentation properties of the following feeds: pelleted barley (PB, toasted and pelleted barley (TPB, pelleted maize (PM and toasted and pelleted maize (TPM were studied using an in vitro gas production (GP technique. Each feed sample (0.5g was incubated (3 replications, with rumen fluid collected from 3 grazing lactating dairy cows. The kinetics of GP were automatically recorded for 72h. The amounts of DM disappeared (DMd and the volatile fatty acid yields (VFA were measured. On barley, compared to simple pelleting, toasting significantly (P<0.05 reduced DMd (87.5 vs. 86.2%, the asymptotic GP (A, 388 vs. 367ml/g DMd and slightly increased the time of maximum GP rate (TRmax, 2.89 vs. 3.15h. On maize toasting did not affect DMd and A, but significantly reduced T1/2 (9.71 vs. 8.57; P<0.05 and TRmax (5.04 vs. 4.49, P<0.05. Toasting significantly reduced the VFA yields both of barley and maize. These results, in agreement with previous in sacco and in vivo observations, suggest that toasting might reduce the amount of potential fermentable substrate of barley, whereas it might increase the rate of fermentation of maize.

  3. Effect of pH and VFA on hydrolysis of organic solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Scharff, H.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2000-01-01

    The anaerobic hydrolysis rate of organic solid waste was studied at fixed volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations ranging from 3 to 30 g COD/L and fixed pH values between 5 and 7. For separate control of both VFA and pH, a special completely mixed reactor was designed. In this way, it was possible

  4. A Critical Perspective on Online Safety Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Dunkels

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nordic countries have enjoyed mass use of the Internet at home and in schools since the mid-1990’s. Children have been noted to have rapidly taken the Internet into possession and to have made use of the affordances (Greeno, 1994 of Internet communication. However, media coverage of how children take on, and learn what the Internet has to offer has often been of a negative kind. Blazing headlines portray a generation in bottomless danger where children are defined both as possible victims and perpetrators. Another common attribute of this media coverage is the exoticising of young people’s net cultures – describing the young and their cultures as profoundly different from earlier generations and elevating the “colourful and the bizarre” (Coffey et al., 1999, p. 169 to a level where it appears normal for this particular generation. In this setting safe use guides – tips for parents and children on how to keep safe on the Internet – began to appear. They were often composed by teachers, concerned parents, non-governmental organisations and in some cases governments. The safe use guides were disseminated online in different forums aimed at concerned adults. In this article I will give a brief description of current online safety issues and examine them critically. My earlier research – 104 interviews with 12-year old Swedes conducted in 2004-2005 (Dunkels, 2007 and a study of European safe use guides conducted in 2008 (Lüders et al., 2009 left me with a number of questions. I could see that safe use guides were strikingly similar, despite their origin, and I could see that they rested upon norms and values that were actually neither accounted for nor even declared. This article is a literature review of the area with the aim of critically discussing some of these questions.

  5. USING EYE TRACKING TO MEASURE ONLINE INTERACTIVITY: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana-Emilia ROBU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding that each and every company, even the sweetshop around the corner has found its way to the Internet, some customers still hesitate to shop online or to shop from one site and ignore the other. In order to build an online effective communication between the participants, one of the most important factors is interactivity. In the last decade it received extensive attention in the marketing literature, but few are the studies which have seen new methods to measure it. Eye tracking technology has been broadly used in the cognitive sciences. The purpose of this study is to investigate the existing literature in order to give insights into the eye tracking methodology when measuring the online interactivity. It also describes the eye tracking technology in general, extracts various examples from the eye tracking research field, with different applications, highlights its importance when analyzing the online consumer behavior, giving examples from various studies and finds the key points of the methodological difficulties. Finally, this work has an important merit for the future studies when taking into consideration the eye tracking technology in the online interactivity research and further, it is relevant for marketers, regarding the enhancement of online interactive interfaces and web or mobile applications.

  6. Dietary marker effects on fecal microbial ecology, fecal VFA, nutrient digestibility coefficients, and growth performance in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Ziemer, C J

    2015-05-01

    Use of indigestible markers such as Cr2O3, Fe2O3, and TiO2 are commonly used in animal studies to evaluate digesta rate of passage and nutrient digestibility. Yet, the potential impact of indigestible markers on fecal microbial ecology and subsequent VFA generation is not known. Two experiments utilizing a total of 72 individually fed finishing pigs were conducted to describe the impact of dietary markers on fecal microbial ecology, fecal ammonia and VFA concentrations, nutrient digestibility, and pig performance. All pigs were fed a common diet with no marker or with 0.5% Cr2O3, Fe2O3, or TiO2. In Exp. 1, after 33 d of feeding, fresh fecal samples were collected for evaluation of microbial ecology, fecal ammonia and VFA concentrations, and nutrient digestibility, along with measures of animal performance. No differences were noted in total microbes or bacterial counts in pig feces obtained from pigs fed the different dietary markers while Archaea counts were decreased (P = 0.07) in feces obtained from pigs fed the diet containing Fe2O 3compared to pigs fed the control diet. Feeding Cr2O3, Fe2O3, or TiO2 increased fecal bacterial richness (P = 0.03, 0.01, and 0.10; respectively) when compared to pigs fed diets containing no marker, but no dietary marker effects were noted on fecal microbial evenness or the Shannon-Wiener index. Analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis gels did not reveal band pattern alterations due to inclusion of dietary markers in pig diets. There was no effect of dietary marker on fecal DM, ammonia, or VFA concentrations. Pigs fed diets containing Cr2O3 had greater Ca, Cu, Fe, and P (P ≤ 0.02), but lower Ti ( P= 0.08) digestibility compared to pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed diets containing Fe2O3 had greater Ca (P = 0.08) but lower Ti (P = 0.01) digestibility compared to pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed diets containing TiO2 had greater Fe and Zn (P ≤ 0.09), but lower Ti ( P= 0.01) digestibility compared to pigs fed the

  7. ONLINE GRINDING WHEEL WEAR COMPENSATION BY IMAGE BASED MEASURING TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Daping; HU Dejin; WU Qi; ZHANG Yonghong

    2006-01-01

    Automatic compensation of grinding wheel wear in dry grinding is accomplished by an image based online measurement method. A kind of PC-based charge-coupled device image recognition system is schemed out, which detects the topography changes of the grinding wheel surface. Profile data, which corresponds to the wear and the topography, is measured by using a digital image processing method. The grinding wheel wear is evaluated by analyzing the position deviation of the grinding wheel edge. The online wear compensation is achieved according to the measure results. The precise detection and automatic compensation system is integrated into an open structure CNC curve grinding machine. A practical application is carried out to fulfil the precision curve grinding. The experimental results confirm the benefits of the proposed techniques, and the online detection accuracy is less than 5 μm. The grinding machine provides higher precision according to the in-process grinding wheel error compensation.

  8. On-Line Voltage Stability Assessment based on PMU Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; P. Da Silva, Luiz C.; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2009-01-01

    through statistic analysis. During the off-line analysis, a memory of high-risk situations following a pre-defined voltage stability criterion is obtained. Thereafter, basic statistics analyses are applied resulting in the definition of voltage regions. During on-line operation, voltage magnitudes......This paper presents a method for on-line monitoring of risk voltage collapse based on synchronised phasor measurement. As there is no room for intensive computation and analysis in real-time, the method is based on the combination of off-line computation and on-line monitoring, which are correlated...... of critical buses obtained by phasor measurements are monitored in relation to the risk regions. Comprehensive studies demonstrate that the proposed method could assist operators to avoid voltage collapse events, by taking preventive or emergency actions....

  9. User Contribution Measurement in Online Forum with Fraud Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Ying Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It's very important to reward the contributive users of online forums, for that almost all contents are provided by users in such forums. There should be some rewards for contributive users, and rewards should be proportional to the contributions. So the determination and measurement of user contributions are needed in online forums. At the same time, some users may do some fake contributions to obtain more rewards. In this paper, we analyzed possible frauds in online forum, examined features of each kind of fraud, and proposed some fraud-tolerant parameters according the features of frauds. Results of our experiment show that almost 81% users in the examined online forum have fraudulent activities and pure advertising users can be discovered according to the fraud-tolerant parameters we considered. On the other hand, the experiment results also show that the biggest count of fraud type detected is with the parameter minimum intervals of posts from the same users, and followed by the parameter minimum length of posts. While minimum average rate value of post after specified rates is the parameter that was used for least times. Based on the idea of this paper, frauds of user contributions could be discriminated well, and user contributions can be measured quantitatively and fraud-tolerantly, which provides a basis for online forums to reward users in various ways.

  10. On-line phase space measurement with kicker excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, J.; Maier, R.; Mohos, I.

    1998-12-01

    A new method for on-line phase space measurements with kicker excitation at COSY was developed. The position data were measured using the analog output of two beam position monitors (BPMs) and directly monitored on a digital storage oscilloscope with an external clock (bunch-synchronous sampling). Nonlinear behavior of the proton beam was visible as well as were resonance islands. Typical measurements are presented.

  11. ONLINE MEASUREMENT OF THE PROGRESS OF DECONTAMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    In order to determine if the sensor technology and the decontamination technology will face problems once integrated, a feasibility study (see Appendix B) was produced in which the effect of motion on the efficiency of a radiation sensor was measured. It was found that the effect is not negligible; however, it is not catastrophic, and if the sensors are properly calibrated, this obstacle can be overcome. During the first year of this project, many important tasks have been accomplished. The search for radiation sensors provided knowledge on the technologies commercially available. This, in turn, allowed for a proper assessment of the properties, limitations, different methods of measurement, and requirements of a large number of sensors. The best possible characterization and data collection instrument and decontamination technologies were chosen using the requirement information in Appendix A. There are technical problems with installing sensors within the blasting head, such as steel shot and dust interference. Therefore, the sensor array is placed so that it will measure the radioactivity after the blasting. Sensors are rather sensitive, and therefore it is not feasible to place the sensor windows in such an abrasive environment. Other factors, such as the need for radiation hardening in extreme cases, and the possible interference of gamma rays with the radio frequency modem, have been considered. These factors are expected to be negligible and can be revisited at the time of prototype production. Factors that need to be addressed are the vibrations of the blasting unit and how to isolate the sensor array from these. In addition, an electromagnetic survey must be performed to ensure there will be no interference with the electronic component that will be integrated. The integration design is shown in section 4.0.

  12. On-line measurement of heat of combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, S. K.; Chegini, H.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental method for an on-line measurement of heat of combustion of a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixture of unknown composition is developed. It involves combustion of a test gas with a known quantity of air to achieve a predetermined oxygen concentration level in the combustion products. This is accomplished by a feedback controller which maintains the gas volumetric flow rate at a level consistent with the desired oxygen concentration in the products. The heat of combustion is determined from a known correlation with the gas volumetric flow rate. An on-line microcomputer accesses the gas volumetric flow data, and displays the heat of combustion values at desired time intervals.

  13. Online SAG Mill Pluse Measurement and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

    2007-06-30

    The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment. An instrumented load cell package that can measure the force of impacts inside the grinding chamber of a mill is developed here. The signal from the instrumented load cell package is interpreted in terms of a histogram termed as an impact spectrum which is a plot of the number of impacts at a specific energy level against the energy. It reflects on the average force regime of the mill. The instrumented load cell package was calibrated against the ultra fast load cell which has been unanimously accepted as a standard to measure single breakage events. The load cell package was successfully used to produce impact spectra in an 8.5 inch lab scale mill. The mill speed and the ball size were varied to

  14. On-line Measuring Method for Shell Chamber Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-zhong; WANG De-min; JIANG Tao; CAO Guo-hua; WANG Qi

    2005-01-01

    Using the ideal gas state equation, an on-line measuring method for the shell chamber volume is studied in this paper. After analyzing how various measurement parameters affect the measurement accuracy, the system parameters are optimized in this method. Because the shape and volume of the tested items are similar, the method of using "tamping" to raise the accuracy and speed of the measurement is put forward. Based on the work above, a prototype of the testing instrument for shell chamber volume was developed, automatically testing and controlling. Compared with the method of "water weight", this method is more accurate, quicker and more automotive, so it is adaptable for the use of on-line detection.

  15. On-line Measurements of Settling Charateristics in Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Larsen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    An on-line settling column for measuring the dynamic variations of settling velocity of activated sludge has been developed. The settling column is automatic and self-cleansing insuring continuous and reliable measurements. The settling column was tested on sludge from a batch reactor where sucrose...... was added as an impulse to activated sludge. The continuous measurement of settling velocity revealed a highly dynamic response after the sucrose was added. The result were verified with simultaneous measurement of the initial settling rate. A 200 hour experiment showed variations in settling velocity...

  16. Differential Electronic Nose in On-Line Dynamic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osowski S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents application of differential electronic nose in the dynamic (on-line volatile measurement. First we compare the classical nose employing only one sensor array and its extension in the differential form containing two sensor arrays working in differential mode. We show that differential nose performs better at changing environmental conditions, especially the temperature, and well performs in the dynamic mode of operation. We show its application in recognition of different brands of tobacco

  17. Online measurement system for the surface inclination of metal workpieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Yang, Qian

    2013-12-01

    The online measurement of the metal surfaces' parameters plays an important role in many industrial fields. Because the surfaces of the machined metal pieces have the characteristics of strong reflection and high possibilities of scattered disturbing irradiation points, this paper designs an online measurement system based on the measurement principles of linear structured light to detect whether the parameters of the machined metal surfaces' height difference and inclination fulfill the compliance requirements, in which the grayscale gravity algorithm is applied to extract the sub-pixel coordinates of the center of laser, the least squares method is employed to fit the data and the Pauta criterion is utilized to remove the spurious points. The repeat accuracy of this system has been tested. The experimental results prove that the precision of inclination is 0.046° RMS under the speed of 40mm/sec, and the precision of height difference is 0.072mm RMS, which meets the design expectations. Hence, this system can be applied to online industrial detection of high speed and high precision.

  18. Implementation of online volatile fatty acids sensor for control and optimization of anaerobic process for low cost biogas production from manure. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, K.; Angelidaki, I.

    2010-10-15

    Proper monitoring and control can improve process stability and enhance process performance for better economy of the biogas plants. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) is the most widely recognized as a direct, relevant measure of stability. Classic on-line measurement of individual VFA is based on filtration, which suffers from fouling when applied with manure slurries. A VFA sensor developed at DTU Environment, based on headspace chromatography technique could avoid the problems from particulate matters. In this work, the sensor had been implemented for online monitoring of the lab-scale and the pilot-scale manure digester. The industrial prototype of the VFA sensor and sample acquisition system has been constructed and implemented at a pilot scale biogas plant, located at Lundtofte, DTU. The VFA sensor has shown very satisfying results in terms of sensitivity and reliability for monitoring the biogas process. Moreover, the online VFA and biogas registration data were used as process indicators for automatic control of the biogas reactor. The results from control experiments confirmed that the combination of biogas production, total VFA concentration and propionate concentration could effectively reflect the dynamic state of the process which was very crucial for automatic control. Due to the standardized analyzing condition (pH<2, temperature>70 deg. C), the sensor responses were not affected by the manure composition (TS, VS or the addition of extra organics), which made these results representative for implementing in the full-scale biogas plant where some industrial organic wastes were added to increase the biogas production. During the project period, the sensor design and construction had been modified and tested several times to improve the robustness. However, the implementation of the sensor in full-scale biogas plant would need some further development such as improvement of mechanical design and further up-scaling depending on the dry solid content in the

  19. Metacognitive planning: development and validation of an online measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Bo; Du, Han; Zhu, Ze; Li, Yi Ming

    2015-03-01

    Planning is the critical first stage of metacognition. Although it has long been emphasized theoretically, it has not been the subject of much empirical study due to the lack of a valid assessment tool. Because planning is a metacognitive process, online methods that collect data during task performance would much better capture it. The present study was conducted to develop an online measure of metacognitive planning. Researchers designed a puzzle task that took the form of the popular game Sokoban, and the ratio between planning time and total time of each item was chosen as the metacognitive planning index. The task was administered to a heterogeneous sample of 440 participants composed of college students as well as 5th-, 7th-, and 10th-grade students. The results showed that valid inference could be made from the time ratio score. Cronbach's alpha and test-retest correlation provided robust evidence of reliability of the time ratio score. Confirmatory factor analysis further confirmed its unidimensionality. Validity evidence also supported the use of the time ratio score. After controlling for demographic variables, intelligence, and motivation, the time ratio score still accounted for a significant proportion of variance of Sokoban performance, the Tower of London performance, and academic achievement. The time ratio score was also found to increase with age. Taken together, the results of the study revealed that the time ratio is a psychometrically sound online measure of metacognitive planning. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  20. SNR efficiency of combined bipolar gradient echoes: Comparison of three-dimensional FLASH, MPRAGE, and multiparameter mapping with VFA-FLASH and MP2RAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutras, Jean-David; Wachowicz, Keith; Gilbert, Guillaume; De Zanche, Nicola

    2017-06-01

    High-bandwidth bipolar multiecho gradient echo sequences are increasingly popular in structural brain imaging because of reduced water-fat shifts, lower susceptibility effects, and improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency. In this study, we investigated the performance of three three-dimensional multiecho sequences (MPRAGE, MP2RAGE, and FLASH) with scan times technique with multiecho FLASH (VFA-FLASH). Multiecho sequences were optimized to yield equivalent contrast and improved SNR compared with their single-echo counterparts. Theoretical SNR gains were verified with measurements in a multilayered phantom. Robust image processing pipelines extracted PD, T1 , and T2* maps from MP2RAGE or VFA-FLASH, and the corresponding SNR was measured with varying SENSE accelerations (R = 1-5) and number of echoes (N = 1-12). All sequences were tested on four healthy volunteers. Multiecho sequences achieved SNR gains of 1.3-1.6 over single-echo sequences. MP2RAGE yielded comparable T1 -to-noise ratio to VFA-FLASH, but significantly lower SNR (sampling bandwidths. VFA-FLASH surpasses MP2RAGE in its ability to map three parameters with high SNR and 1-mm isotropic resolution in a clinically relevant scan time (∼8:30 min), whereas MP2RAGE yields lower intersubject variability in T1 . Magn Reson Med 77:2186-2202, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Online dissolved methane and total dissolved sulfide measurement in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R; Fluggen, Markus; O'Halloran, Kelly; Murthy, Sudhir; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies using short-term manual sampling of sewage followed by off-line laboratory gas chromatography (GC) measurement have shown that a substantial amount of dissolved methane is produced in sewer systems. However, only limited data has been acquired to date due to the low frequency and short span of this method, which cannot capture the dynamic variations of in-sewer dissolved methane concentrations. In this study, a newly developed online measuring device was used to monitor dissolved methane concentrations at the end of a rising main sewer network, over two periods of three weeks each, in summer and early winter, respectively. This device uses an online gas-phase methane sensor to measure methane under equilibrium conditions after being stripped from the sewage. The data are then converted to liquid-phase methane concentrations according to Henry's Law. The detection limit and range are suitable for sewer application and can be adjusted by varying the ratio of liquid-to-gas phase volume settings. The measurement presented good linearity (R² > 0.95) during field application, when compared to off-line measurements. The overall data set showed a wide variation in dissolved methane concentration of 5-15 mg/L in summer and 3.5-12 mg/L in winter, resulting in a significant average daily production of 24.6 and 19.0 kg-CH₄/d, respectively, from the network with a daily average sewage flow of 2840 m³/day. The dissolved methane concentration demonstrated a clear diurnal pattern coinciding with flow and sulfide fluctuation, implying a relationship with the wastewater hydraulic retention time (HRT). The total dissolved sulfide (TDS) concentration in sewers can be determined simultaneously with the same principle.

  2. The Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA in the Philippines: Insights on Issues of Sovereignty, Security and Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Anthony M. Velasco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study intends to compare the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA between the Philippines and the United States of America and the VFA between the Philippines and Australia. The research piece is arranged in the following flow of ideas. The first and the second part provides the foundations by highlighting issues on definition, historical background, provisions of the agreement and concerns faced by the agreement of the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA between the Republic of the Philippines and the United States of America and the Status of the Visiting Forces Agreement (SOVFA between the Republic of the Philippines and Australia. The third part is an analysis of the VFA and the SOVFA under the tutelage of the framework on the non-intervention principle. As a result, the provisions of SOVFA were in consonance with the legal arrangement in the Philippines than the VFA with the United States of America.

  3. Rasch Measurement of Collaborative Problem Solving in an Online Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Susan-Marie E; Griffin, Patrick E

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to the assessment of human to human collaborative problem solving using a set of online interactive tasks completed by student dyads. Within the dyad, roles were nominated as either A or B and students selected their own roles. The question as to whether role selection affected individual student performance measures is addressed. Process stream data was captured from 3402 students in six countries who explored the problem space by clicking, dragging the mouse, moving the cursor and collaborating with their partner through a chat box window. Process stream data were explored to identify behavioural indicators that represented elements of a conceptual framework. These indicative behaviours were coded into a series of dichotomous items. These items represented actions and chats performed by students. The frequency of occurrence was used as a proxy measure of item difficulty. Then given a measure of item difficulty, student ability could be estimated using the difficulty estimates of the range of items demonstrated by the student. The Rasch simple logistic model was used to review the indicators to identify those that were consistent with the assumptions of the model and were invariant across national samples, language, curriculum and age of the student. The data were analysed using a one and two dimension, one parameter model. Rasch separation reliability, fit to the model, distribution of students and items on the underpinning construct, estimates for each country and the effect of role differences are reported. This study provides evidence that collaborative problem solving can be assessed in an online environment involving human to human interaction using behavioural indicators shown to have a consistent relationship between the estimate of student ability, and the probability of demonstrating the behaviour.

  4. Examining Online College Cyber Cheating Methods and Prevention Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moten, James, Jr.; Fitterer, Alex; Brazier, Elise; Leonard, Jonathan; Brown, Avis

    2013-01-01

    Academic dishonesty in the online cheating environment of distance education learning has gained traction in the past decade. By a few simple keystrokes, students' can find a wide array of online services for hire to write research papers, complete homework assignments, or enroll on behalf of the student on record to take the entire online…

  5. Statistical Measures of Integrity in Online Testing: Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on longitudinal study regarding integrity of testing in an online format as used by e-learning platforms. Specifically, this study explains whether online testing, which implies an open book format is compromising integrity of assessment by encouraging cheating among students. Statistical experiment designed for this study…

  6. Recovery of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from complex waste effluents using membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharof, M-P; Lovitt, R W

    2014-01-01

    Waste effluents from anaerobic digesters of agricultural waste were treated with a range of membranes, including microfiltration and nanofiltration (NF), to concentrate volatile fatty acids (VFA). Microfiltration was applied successfully to produce sterile, particle-free solutions with a VFA concentration of 21.08 mM of acetic acid and 15.81 mM of butyric acid. These were further treated using a variety of NF membranes: NF270 (Dow Chemicals, USA), HL, DL, DK (Osmonics, USA) and LF10 (Nitto Denko, Japan), achieving retention ratios of up to 75%, and giving retentates of up to 53.94 mM of acetate and 28.38 mM of butyrate. DK and NF270 membranes were identified as the best candidates for VFA separation and concentration from these multicomponent effluents, both in terms of retention and permeate flux. When the effluents are adjusted to alkali conditions, the highest productivity, retention and flux were achieved at pH 7. At higher pH there was a significant reduction in flux.

  7. Online and offline video game use in adolescents: measurement invariance and problem severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smohai, Máté; Urbán, Róbert; Griffiths, Mark D; Király, Orsolya; Mirnics, Zsuzsanna; Vargha, András; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of video game playing, little is known about the similarities and differences between online and offline video game players. The aims of this study were (i) to test the applicability and the measurement invariance of the previously developed Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire (POGQ) in both online and offline gamers and to (ii) examine the differences in these groups. Video game use habits and POGQ were assessed in a sample of 1,964 (71% male) adolescent videogame players. Those gamers who played at least sometimes in an online context were considered "online gamers," while those who played videogames exclusively offline were considered "offline gamers." Confirmatory factor analysis supported the measurement invariance across online and offline videogame players. According to the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) model, online gamers were more likely to score higher on overuse, interpersonal conflict, and social isolation subscales of the POGQ. The results of the present study suggest that online and offline gaming can be assessed using the same psychometric instrument. These findings open the possibility for future research studies concerning problematic video gaming to include participants who exclusively play online or offline games, or both. However, the study also identified important structural features about how online and offline gaming might contribute differently to problematic use. These results provide important information that could be utilized in parental education and the prevention program about the possible detrimental consequences of online vs. offline video gaming.

  8. Upgraded Fast Beam Conditions Monitor for CMS online luminosity measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, Jessica Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The CMS beam and radiation monitoring subsystem BCM1F during LHC Run I consisted of 8 individual diamond sensors situated around the beam pipe within the tracker detector volume, for the purpose of fast monitoring of beam background and collision products. Effort is ongoing to develop the use of BCM1F as an online bunch-by-bunch luminosity monitor. BCM1F will be running whenever there is beam in LHC, and its data acquisition is independent from the data acquisition of the CMS detector, hence it delivers luminosity even when CMS is not taking data. To prepare for the expected increase in the LHC luminosity and the change from 50 ns to 25 ns bunch separation, several changes to the system are required, including a higher number of sensors and upgraded electronics. In particular, a new real-time digitizer with large memory was developed and is being integrated into a multi-subsystem framework for luminosity measurement. Current results from Run II preparation will be shown, including results from the January 201...

  9. Upgraded Fast Beam Conditions Monitor for CMS online luminosity measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, Jessica Lynn; Hempel, Maria; Henschel, Hans; Karacheban, Olena; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Novgorodova, Olga; Penno, Marek; Walsh, Roberval; Dabrowski, Anne; Guthoff, Moritz; Loos, R; Ryjov, Vladimir; Burtowy, Piotr; Lokhovitskiy, Arkady; Odell, Nathaniel; Przyborowski, Dominik; Stickland, David P; Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The CMS beam condition monitoring subsystem BCM1F during LHC Run I consisted of 8 individual diamond sensors situated around the beam pipe within the tracker detector volume, for the purpose of fast monitoring of beam background and collision products. Effort is ongoing to develop the use of BCM1F as an online bunch-by-bunch luminosity monitor. BCM1F will be running whenever there is beam in LHC, and its data acquisition is independent from the data acquisition of the CMS detector, hence it delivers luminosity even when CMS is not taking data. To prepare for the expected increase in the LHC luminosity and the change from 50 ns to 25 ns bunch separation, several changes to the system are required, including a higher number of sensors and upgraded electronics. In particular, a new real-time digitizer with large memory was developed and is being integrated into a multi-subsystem framework for luminosity measurement. Current results from Run II preparation will be discussed, including results from the January 201...

  10. Online monitoring of Mezcal fermentation based on redox potential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante-Minakata, P; Ibarra-Junquera, V; Rosu, H C; De León-Rodríguez, A; González-García, R

    2009-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the continuous monitoring of the biomass and ethanol concentrations as well as the growth rate in the Mezcal fermentation process. The algorithm performs its task having available only the online measurements of the redox potential. The procedure combines an artificial neural network (ANN) that relates the redox potential to the ethanol and biomass concentrations with a nonlinear observer-based algorithm that uses the ANN biomass estimations to infer the growth rate of this fermentation process. The results show that the redox potential is a valuable indicator of the metabolic activity of the microorganisms during Mezcal fermentation. In addition, the estimated growth rate can be considered as a direct evidence of the presence of mixed culture growth in the process. Usually, mixtures of microorganisms could be intuitively clear in this kind of processes; however, the total biomass data do not provide definite evidence by themselves. In this paper, the detailed design of the software sensor as well as its experimental application is presented at the laboratory level.

  11. Pemberian Pakan Serat Sisa Tanaman Pertanian (Jerami Kacang Tanah, Jerami Jagung, Pucuk Tebu Terhadap Evolusi pH, N-NH3 dan VFA Di dalam Rumen Sapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunasri Usman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available (Feeding agricultural crop residues (groundnut straw, corn straw, sugarcane straw to the pH evolution, N-NH3 and VFA in the cow rumen ABSTRACT. The goal of this study is to evaluate the condition of fermentation in the rumen of cows by administration of 3 types of feed fiber agricultural crop residues (Groundnut Straw (GS, Corn Straw (CS and Sugarcane Tops (ST. Single feeding wascarried out at 2 Holstein Friesian Crossbred (HFC cows with the age of 4-5 by fistula rumen.This study was conducted 20 days and with a 14-dayadaptation period.At the end of the adaptation period, rumen fluid was collected to measure pH, N-NH3and VFA based on feed treatment percow.Collection of rumen fluid was simultanous conducted for 24 hours at 27 time points decision.The results of the experiment showed that the level of pH for GS, CS and ST was 7.02 + 0.29; 6.54 + 0.16 and 6.54 + 0.14 respectively. The level of N-NH3 was 4.90 + 2.10 mg/100 ml of rumen fluid; 7.36 + 3.10 mg/100 ml of rumen fluid; 2.26 + 0.85 mg/100 ml of rumen fluidfor GS, CS and ST, respectively. Meanwile, the level of VFA was 57.44 + 12.75 mmol/l ml, 64.84 + 10.82 mmol/l and 44.13 + 6.66 mmol/l ml of rumen fluid, respectively.

  12. Management of various organic fractions of municipal solid waste via recourse to VFA and biogas generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khardenavis, Anshuman Arun; Wang, Jing Yuan; Ng, Wun Jern; Purohit, Hemant J

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system was used for anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) consisting of mixed food + fruit waste and vegetable waste. Hydrolysis and acidogenesis potential of the above wastes were evaluated with the aim of producing value-added products in the form of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biogas recovery. Efficient hydrolysis and acidogenesis of mixed food + fruit waste was observed at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1-3 d with a five-fold increase in soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) followed by VFA production consisting of 50-75% acetic acid. Longer time was required for hydrolysis of vegetable waste with optimum hydrolysis and SCOD generation at 9 d HRT followed by VFA synthesis consisting of 45% acetic acid. Higher inoculum:substrate ratios resulted in improved hydrolysis and acidogenesis rates for vegetable waste in shorter time of 6 d with higher VFA production and increase in acetic acid content to 70%. When acidogenic leachate was fed into methanogenic reactors, detectable biogas production was observed after 25 d with 37-53% SCOD removal from leachate from mixed food + fruit waste and methane production of 0.066-0.1 L g(-1) SCOD removed and methane content of 38%. Though biogas yield from acidogenic leachate from vegetable waste was lower, nearly 94% volatile solids (VS) removal was observed in the reactors thereby providing methane yield of 0.13-0.21 L g(-1) VS consumed. Thus, the study provided a method for generation of value-added products from an otherwise misplaced resource in the form of OFMSW.

  13. Comparison of VFA titration procedures used for monitoring the biogas process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Boe, Kanokwan; Fang, Cheng;

    2014-01-01

    Titrimetric determination of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) contents is a common way to monitor a biogas process. However, digested manure from co-digestion biogas plants has a complex matrix with high concentrations of interfering components, resulting in varying results when using different...... (GC) analysis. Two of the procedures are commonly used in biogas plants and two are discussed in literature. The results showed that the optimal titration results were obtained when 40mL of four times diluted digested manure was gently stirred (200rpm). Results from samples with different VFA...

  14. Measuring quality, reputation and trust in online communities

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Hao

    2012-01-01

    In the Internet era the information overload and the challenge to detect quality content has raised the issue of how to rank both resources and users in online communities. In this paper we develop a general ranking method that can simultaneously evaluate users' reputation and objects' quality in an iterative procedure, and that exploits the trust relationships and social acquaintances of users as an additional source of information. We test our method on two real online communities, the EconoPhysics forum and the Last.fm music catalogue, and determine how different variants of the algorithm influence the resultant ranking. We show the benefits of considering trust relationships, and define the form of the algorithm better apt to common situations.

  15. Preparation of volatile fatty acid (VFA) calcium salts by anaerobic digestion of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofen; Swan, Janis E; Nair, Giridhar R; Langdon, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially useful intermediates such as hydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are formed during the complex anaerobic digestion processes that produce methane from biomass. This study recovers VFAs from an anaerobic digester by a combination of gas stripping and absorption with calcium carbonate slurry. Glucose was used as the model substrate because it is readily available, inexpensive, and easily digested. Sludge from a meatworks anaerobic digester produced methane and carbon dioxide (and sometimes a small amount of hydrogen) when batch-fed with glucose. Conditioning the neutral anaerobic sludge to an acidic pH (below 4.8) was achieved using repeated 1 g L(-1) doses of glucose. After conditioning, mainly VFAs and hydrogen were produced. The intermediate VFAs could be stripped using headspace gas. In subsequent fed-batch digestion/stripping cycles, the pH decreased when glucose was added and then increased when the VFA was gas stripped. The predominant acids formed at low pH values were lactic, butyric, and acetic acids. Lactic acid was converted to VFAs during stripping. The VFA calcium salts recovered were 80% butyrate and 20% acetate with minor quantities of propionate and valerate.

  16. Generation of bioethanol and VFA through anaerobic acidogenic fermentation route with press mud obtained from sugar mill as a feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruti, Kranti; Gangagni Rao, A; Gandu, Bharath; Kiran, G; Mohammad, Sameena; Sailaja, S; Swamy, Y V

    2015-09-01

    Acidogenic anaerobic fermentation route was explored for the production of bioethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFA) from the press mud (PM) obtained from sugar mill. Slurry was prepared from PM having 10% of total solids and the same was hydrolyzed under acidic thermal conditions. Both press mud slurry (PMS) and pre-treated press mud slurry (PTPMS) was used as feedstock with mixed microbial consortia (MMC) and enriched mixed microbial consortia (EMMC). Mix of bioethanol and VFA were obtained in all the four cases (PMS-MMC, PMS-EMMC, PTPMS-EMC and PTPMS-EMMC), but, bioethanol and VFA yield of 0.04 g/g and 0.27 g/g, respectively obtained from PTPMS with EMMC was found to be comparatively higher. Control experiments carried out with glucose yielded bioethanol and VFA of 0.042 g/g and 0.28 g/g, respectively demonstrating that the organism was using reducible sugars in the feedstock for the generation of bioethanol by simultaneously producing the VFA from COD.

  17. How does the entering of copper nanoparticles into biological wastewater treatment system affect sludge treatment for VFA production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Chen, Yinguang; Zheng, Xiong; Li, Xiang; Luo, Jingyang

    2014-10-15

    Usually the studies regarding the effect of engineered nanoparticles (NPs), which are released to wastewater treatment plant, on sludge anaerobic treatment in the literature have been conducted by directly adding NPs to sludge treatment system. Actually, NPs must enter into the wastewater treatment facility from influent before sludge being treated. Thus, the documented results can not reflect the real situations. During sludge anaerobic treatment for producing volatile fatty acids (VFA, the preferred carbon source for wastewater biological nutrient removal), it was found in this study that the entering of CuNPs to biological wastewater treatment system had no significant effect on sludge-derived VFA generation, while direct addition of CuNPs to sludge fermentation reactor caused a much lower VFA production, when compared to the control test. Further investigation revealed that the entering of CuNPs into wastewater biological treatment system improved sludge solubilization due to the decline of sludge particle size and the increase of sludge microorganism cells breakage. In addition, there was no obvious influence on hydrolysis, while significant inhibition was observed on acidification, resulting in the final VFA production similar to the control. When CuNPs were directly added to the fermentation system, the solubilization was little influenced, however the hydrolysis and acidification were seriously inhibited, causing the ultimate VFA generation decreased. Therefore, selecting proper method close to the real situation is vital to accurately assess the toxicity of nanoparticles on sludge anaerobic fermentation.

  18. E-banking: Online Transactions and Security Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Ullah Khan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the technology involved in the more important payment systems currently available to internet users. As the field is undergoing a major upheaval by changing the traditional banking services, e-commerce is facilitating change in recent years. These programs in-returns have shown lucrative growth in internet businesses and capital generation. Transactions on an international scale are the mark of highly demanding businesses with a global consumer base. Banks around the world provide their banking services online though electronic channels, one of the most widely used is the internet channel. Many people avail internet banking services which is convenient in this day and age. On-line banking platforms allow consumers to manage their accounts globally and at their convenience. The internet banking services have to be at top level of security and risk free in order to be trusted by customers. In this study the attack models have been explained and the top risks factors that the internet banking services come to face and applications have been discussed. This study deals with experimental models that can be applied to curb cybercrime attacks and make the internet banking applications more secure to the consumer strata.

  19. Precise On-line Position Measurement for Particle Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Actis, O; König, S

    2014-01-01

    An on-line beam position monitoring and regular beam stability tests are of utmost importance for the Quality Assurance (QA) of the patient treatment at any particle therapy facility. The Gantry${0.5 mm}2$ at the Paul Scherrer Institute uses a strip ionization chamber for the on-line beam position verification. The design of the strip chamber placed in the beam in front of the patient allows for a small beam penumbra in order to achieve a high-quality lateral beam delivery. The detector granularity and the low noise allow the reconstruction of the signals offered by Gantry${0.5 mm}2$ with a precision of about 0.1 mm. The frond-end electronics and the whole data processing sequence have been optimized for minimizing the dead time between the beam applications to about 2 ms: the charge collection is performed in about 1 ms, read-out takes place in 100 $\\mu$s while data verification and logging are completed in less than 1 ms. The sub-millimeter precision of the lateral reconstruction allows the dose inhomogenei...

  20. Online measurement of the BEPC Ⅱ background using RadFET dosimeters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Hui; LI Jin; GONG Guang-Hua; LI Yu-Xiong; HOU Lei; SHAO Bei-Bei

    2009-01-01

    To monitor the integral dose deposited in the BESⅢ electromagnetic calorimeter whose perfor-mance degrades due to exposure to the BEPCⅡ background, a 400 nm IMPL RadFET dosimeter-based integral dose online monitor system is built. After calibration with the 60Co source and verification with TLD in the pulse radiation fields, an experiment was arranged to measure the BEPC Ⅱ background online. The results are presented.

  1. Vfa1 binds to the N-terminal microtubule-interacting and trafficking (MIT) domain of Vps4 and stimulates its ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vild, Cody J; Xu, Zhaohui

    2014-04-11

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) are responsible for multivesicular body biogenesis, membrane abscission during cytokinesis, and retroviral budding. They function as transiently assembled molecular complexes on the membrane, and their disassembly requires the action of the AAA-ATPase Vps4. Vps4 is regulated by a multitude of ESCRT and ESCRT-related proteins. Binding of these proteins to Vps4 is often mediated via the microtubule-interacting and trafficking (MIT) domain of Vps4. Recently, a new Vps4-binding protein Vfa1 was identified in a yeast genetic screen, where overexpression of Vfa1 caused defects in vacuolar morphology. However, the function of Vfa1 and its role in vacuolar biology were largely unknown. Here, we provide the first detailed biochemical and biophysical study of Vps4-Vfa1 interaction. The MIT domain of Vps4 binds to the C-terminal 17 residues of Vfa1. This interaction is of high affinity and greatly stimulates the ATPase activity of Vps4. The crystal structure of the Vps4-Vfa1 complex shows that Vfa1 adopts a canonical MIT-interacting motif 2 structure that has been observed previously in other Vps4-ESCRT interactions. These findings suggest that Vfa1 is a novel positive regulator of Vps4 function.

  2. Vfa1 Binds to the N-terminal Microtubule-interacting and Trafficking (MIT) Domain of Vps4 and Stimulates Its ATPase Activity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vild, Cody J.; Xu, Zhaohui

    2014-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) are responsible for multivesicular body biogenesis, membrane abscission during cytokinesis, and retroviral budding. They function as transiently assembled molecular complexes on the membrane, and their disassembly requires the action of the AAA-ATPase Vps4. Vps4 is regulated by a multitude of ESCRT and ESCRT-related proteins. Binding of these proteins to Vps4 is often mediated via the microtubule-interacting and trafficking (MIT) domain of Vps4. Recently, a new Vps4-binding protein Vfa1 was identified in a yeast genetic screen, where overexpression of Vfa1 caused defects in vacuolar morphology. However, the function of Vfa1 and its role in vacuolar biology were largely unknown. Here, we provide the first detailed biochemical and biophysical study of Vps4-Vfa1 interaction. The MIT domain of Vps4 binds to the C-terminal 17 residues of Vfa1. This interaction is of high affinity and greatly stimulates the ATPase activity of Vps4. The crystal structure of the Vps4-Vfa1 complex shows that Vfa1 adopts a canonical MIT-interacting motif 2 structure that has been observed previously in other Vps4-ESCRT interactions. These findings suggest that Vfa1 is a novel positive regulator of Vps4 function. PMID:24567329

  3. Online junction temperature measurement using peak gate current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A new method for junction temperature measurement of MOS-gated power semiconductor switches is presented. The measurement method involves detecting the peak voltage over the external gate resistor of an IGBT or MOSFET during turn-on. This voltage is directly proportional to the peak gate current...

  4. Online measurement of contents in compound fertilizer and application research using VIS-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhidan; Wang, Yubing; Wang, Rujing; Liu, Jing; Lu, Cuiping; Wang, Liusan

    2015-10-01

    The on-line measurement of the main component contents is essential for production, detection and identification of compound fertilizer. Using developed VIS-NIR sensors for on-line measurement of the main component contents in compound fertilizer, primary results about nitrogen (N), phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) and potassium oxide (K2O) were reported. A visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer (Ocean Optics), with a measurement range of 360.18-2221.53 nm was used to measure fertilizer spectra in reflectance mode. By using principal component analysis (PCA) and mahalanobis distance method, 3 outlier samples were detected and eliminated from 174 samples firstly. Then these models of three components with the 124 samples in calibration set were established using principal component regress (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS) coupled respectively with the full cross-validation technique after preprocessing the original spectrum with different methods. These models were used to estimate the contents of N, P2O5 and K2O of the other 47 samples in predicted set. The research results showed that the method could be applied to rapid measurement to the main component contents in compound fertilizer. Compared with the traditional analysis method, the on-line measurement could do it rapidly, inexpensively and pollution-freely. It suggested the potential use of the VIS-NIR sensing system for on-line measurement in the production, detection and identification process of compound fertilizer.

  5. Predicting in vitro rumen VFA production using CNCPS carbohydrate fractions with multiple linear models and artificial neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruilan Dong

    Full Text Available The objectives of this trial were to develop multiple linear regression (MLR models and three-layer Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation (BP3 neural network models using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS carbohydrate fractions as dietary variables for predicting in vitro rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA production and further compare MLR and BP3 models. Two datasets were established for the trial, of which the first dataset containing 45 feed mixtures with concentrate/roughage ratios of 10∶90, 20∶80, 30∶70, 40∶60, and 50∶50 were used for establishing the models and the second dataset containing 10 feed mixtures with the same concentrate/roughage ratios with the first dataset were used for testing the models. The VFA production of feed samples was determined using an in vitro incubation technique. The CNCPS carbohydrate fractions (g, i.e. CA (sugars, CB1 (starch and pectin, CB2 (available cell wall of feed samples were calculated based on chemical analysis. The performance of MLR models and BP3 models were compared using a paired t-test, the determination coefficient (R2 and the root mean square prediction error (RMSPE between observed and predicted values. Statistical analysis indicated that VFA production (mmol was significantly correlated with CNCPS carbohydrate fractions (g CA, CB1, and CB2 in a multiple linear pattern. Compared with MLR models, BP3 models were more accurate in predicting acetate, propionate, and total VFA production while similar in predicting butyrate production. The trial indicated that both MLR and BP3 models were suitable for predicting in vitro rumen VFA production of feed mixtures using CNCPS carbohydrate fractions CA, CB1, and CB2 as input dietary variables while BP3 models showed greater accuracy for prediction.

  6. FPGA-based smart sensor for online displacement measurements using a heterodyne interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Salas, Luis Alberto; Moreno-Tapia, Sandra Veronica; Garcia-Perez, Arturo; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Serroukh, Ibrahim; Cabal-Yepez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of small displacements on the nanometric scale demands metrological systems of high accuracy and precision. In this context, interferometer-based displacement measurements have become the main tools used for traceable dimensional metrology. The different industrial applications in which small displacement measurements are employed requires the use of online measurements, high speed processes, open architecture control systems, as well as good adaptability to specific process conditions. The main contribution of this work is the development of a smart sensor for large displacement measurement based on phase measurement which achieves high accuracy and resolution, designed to be used with a commercial heterodyne interferometer. The system is based on a low-cost Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) allowing the integration of several functions in a single portable device. This system is optimal for high speed applications where online measurement is needed and the reconfigurability feature allows the addition of different modules for error compensation, as might be required by a specific application.

  7. New Method of Online Measurement of Oil and Suspended Material Concentration In Flowing Waste Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hongwei; Xu, Guobing; Xu, Xinqiang; Zhou, Fangde

    2007-06-01

    At present, the most of the measurements of oil and suspended material concentration in waste water measuring are not online surveys. A new method of online measurement of oil and suspended material concentration in flowing waste water is presented. The room experiments and field tests showed that it is suitable to waste water treatment on line. After sampling, It needed to measure immediately the concentration in first time. Then let sample to be in still in 10 - 20 seconds. After that the bulk concentration was measured in second time. Because of the suspended solids having heavy density, they would be dropped from waster water. During ultrasonic operation, emulsify the oil in waster water, the oil and suspended solid would be depart. After that the third time measurement was done. In thus way the concentrations of oil and suspended solids can be measured. At present there are two on-site equipments operating in the Changqing oilfield, and the results are pretty well.

  8. Bondlines – Online blade measurements (October 2012 and January 2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGugan, Malcolm; Chiesura, Gabriele

    Some local deformations in an operating Wind Turbine blade (V80) have been measured during October 2012. Displacement and load values generated between the trailing edge panels at blade radius R9.2m, R10,2m, and R11,2m were obtained. A fluctuating loading of between 100 - 200N existed when the two...... panels were connected, and with a displacement of between 6.5 - 10mm when the panels were free to flex as they do in normal operating conditions. Shear distortion within the main loading spar of the blade (at approximately R10m) showed a fluctuating cross beam shear distortion of about 9mm. The trailing...... edge displacement was re-measured (during January 2013) following a reinforcement of the blade to prevent trailing edge distortion. This trial showed that the new displacement values were below 1mm during similar operating conditions. This report describes the planning for and procurement of hardware...

  9. The web-buffet--development and validation of an online tool to measure food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Tamara; Keller, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    To date, no data exist on the agreement of food choice measured using an online tool with subsequent actual consumption. This needs to be shown before food choice, measured by means of an online tool, is used as a dependent variable to examine intake in the general population. A 'web-buffet' was developed to assess food choice. Choice was measured as planned meal composition from photographic material; respondents chose preferred foods and proportions for a main meal (out of a possible 144 combinations) online and the validity was assessed by comparison of a meal composed from a web-buffet with actual food intake 24-48 h later. Furthermore, correlations of food preferences, energy needs and health interest with meals chosen from the web-buffet were analysed. Students: n 106 (Study I), n 32 (Study II). Meals chosen from the web-buffet (mean = 2998 kJ, SD = 471 kJ) agreed with actual consumption (rs = 0.63, P choice in the web-buffet agrees sufficiently well with actual intake to measure food choice as a dependent variable in online surveys. However, we found an average underestimation of subsequent consumption. High correlations of preferences with chosen amounts and an inverse association of health interest with total energy further indicate the validity of the tool. Applications in behavioural nutrition research are discussed.

  10. The Effects of Survey Timing on Student Evaluation of Teaching Measures Obtained Using Online Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelami, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    Teaching evaluations are an important measurement tool used by business schools in gauging the level of student satisfaction with the educational services delivered by faculty. The growing use of online teaching evaluations has enabled educational administrators to expand the time period during which student evaluation of teaching (SET) surveys…

  11. Online Radiation Dose Measurement System for ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Mandić, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Particle detectors and readout electronics in the high energy physics experiment ATLAS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN operate in radiation field containing photons, charged particles and neutrons. The particles in the radiation field originate from proton-proton interactions as well as from interactions of these particles with material in the experimental apparatus. In the innermost parts of ATLAS detector components will be exposed to ionizing doses exceeding 100 kGy. Energetic hadrons will also cause displacement damage in silicon equivalent to fluences of several times 10e14 1 MeV-neutrons per cm2. Such radiation doses can have severe influence on the performance of detectors. It is therefore very important to continuously monitor the accumulated doses to understand the detector performance and to correctly predict the lifetime of radiation sensitive components. Measurements of doses are important also to verify the simulations and represent a crucial input into the models used for predicting future ...

  12. Online measurement of fluence and position for protontherapy beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benati, C.; Boriano, A.; Bourhaleb, F.; Cirio, R.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cornelius, I.; Cuttone, G.; Donetti, M.; Garelli, E.; Giordanengo, S.; Guérin, L.; La Rosa, A.; Luparia, A.; Marchetto, F.; Martin, F.; Meyroneinc, S.; Peroni, C.; Pittà, G.; Raffaele, L.; Sabini, M. G.; Valastro, L.

    2004-09-01

    Tumour therapy with proton beams has been used for several decades in many centres with very good results in terms of local control and overall survival. Typical pathologies treated with this technique are located in head and neck, eye, prostate and in general at big depths or close to critical organs. The Experimental Physics Department of the University of Turin and the local Section of INFN, in collaboration with INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud Catania and Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay Paris, have developed detector systems that allow the measurement of beam position and fluence, obtained in real time during beam delivery. The centre in Catania (CATANA: Centro di AdroTerapia ed Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) has been treating patients with eye pathologies since spring 2002 using a superconducting cyclotron accelerating protons up to 62 MeV.This kind of treatments need high-resolution monitor systems and for this reason we have developed a 256-strip segmented ionisation chamber, each strip being 400 μm wide, with a total sensitive area 13×13 cm2. The Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay (CPO) has been operational since 1991 and features a synchrocyclotron used for eye and head and neck tumours with proton beams up to 200 MeV. The monitor system has to work on a large surface and for this purpose we have designed a pixel-segmented ionisation chamber, each pixel being 5×5 mm2, for a total active area of 16×16 cm2. The results obtained with two prototypes of the pixel and strip chambers demonstrate that the detectors allow the measurement of fluence and centre of gravity as requested by clinical specifications.

  13. Current practice and perspectives in CRO oversight based on a survey performed among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennig, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number and scope of outsourced activities in the pharmaceutical industry have increased heavily. In addition, also the type of outsourcing has changed significantly in that time. This raises the question of whether and how sponsors retain the capability to select and to control the contract research organizations (CROs involved and what expertise still has to be present in the development department as well as other relevant departments to ensure adequate oversight, also in line with the expectations of regulators and health authorities. In order to answer these questions, a survey was conducted among the German vfa member companies. The survey describes the latest developments and experiences in outsourcing by 18 German vfa member companies. It concentrates on measures how to implement Quality Assurance (QA when performing outsourced clinical studies.This study shows that the majority of companies apply a full-outsourcing, preferred-provider model of clinical trial services, with the clinical research department playing the major role in this process. A large amount of guiding documents, processes and tools are used to ensure an adequate oversight of the services performed by the CRO(s.Finally the guiding principles for all oversight processes should be transparent communication, a clearly established expectation for quality, a precise definition of accountability and responsibility while avoiding silo mentality, and a comprehensive documentation of the oversight’s evidence. For globally acting and outsourcing sponsors, oversight processes need to be aligned with regards to local and global perspectives. This survey shows that the current implementation of oversight processes in the participating companies covers all relevant areas to ensure highest quality and integrity of the data produced by the outsourced clinical trial.

  14. Online Dialogue Measurement Index – A Measurement of the Dialogic Orientation of Organizations in the Online Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara; Murtarelli, Grazia

    on an interdisciplinary conceptualization of dialogue that was developed through a close reading of main studies on dialogue in management, corporate communication, public relations and conversational analysis literatures. The paper presents the index, the results of a pilot test conducted to validate the index scale......Dialogue has been recognized as an important component of organization-stakeholder relations and a communicative sign of openness and responsibility towards others. Still, developing dialogic communications with stakeholders is not an easy task and can also result to be counterproductive when...... dialogic communications create conflicts or bad reputations. Organizations require public relations professionals to measure the results of their communication activities including their dialogic efforts. Yet, dialogic communication measurements are scarce and often incomplete. The purpose of this study...

  15. ELABORATING A MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENT FOR THE FLOW EXPERIENCE DURING ONLINE INFORMATION SEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caraivan Luiza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Flow is a construct imported in marketing research from social sciences in order to examine consumer behavior in the online medium. The construct describes a state of deep involvement in a challenging activity, most frequently characterized by high levels of enjoyment, control and concentration. Researchers found that the degree to which online experience is challenging can be defined, measured, and related well to important marketing variables. As shown by our extensive literature review, flow measurements include antecedents, dimensions and consequences of flow. The present paper represents a detailed description of the construct`s operationalization in the context of online information search. In this respect, our main goal is to produce a basic instrument to evaluate the flow experience of online search, in order to capitalize on the premises of an interactive, complex informational medium – the World Wide Web – and on the consequence of an exploratory informational behavior of users. The instrument is conceived to offer a primal possibility to collect data. The composition, source and significance of the 11 scales used to measure the multiple factors of the flow experience during online search are detailed in this study with the aim to ensure the compliance with scientific rigors and to facilitate correct reports of data related to the reliability and validity of measurements. For further research, we propose factor analysis to test the resulted instrument and to ensure that the measures employed are psychometrically sound. Factor analysis refers to a wide range of statistic techniques used to represent a set of variables in concordance with a reduced number of hypothetical variables called factors. Factorial analysis is used to solve two types of problems: reducing the number of variables to increase data processing speed and identifying hidden patterns in the existent data relations. However, we expect our scales to perform

  16. Online evolution reconstruction from a single measurement record with random time intervals for quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Su, Yang; Wang, Rong; Zhu, Yong; Shen, Huiping; Pu, Tao; Wu, Chuanxin; Zhao, Jiyong; Zhang, Baofu; Xu, Zhiyong

    2017-10-01

    Online reconstruction of a time-variant quantum state from the encoding/decoding results of quantum communication is addressed by developing a method of evolution reconstruction from a single measurement record with random time intervals. A time-variant two-dimensional state is reconstructed on the basis of recovering its expectation value functions of three nonorthogonal projectors from a random single measurement record, which is composed from the discarded qubits of the six-state protocol. The simulated results prove that our method is robust to typical metro quantum channels. Our work extends the Fourier-based method of evolution reconstruction from the version for a regular single measurement record with equal time intervals to a unified one, which can be applied to arbitrary single measurement records. The proposed protocol of evolution reconstruction runs concurrently with the one of quantum communication, which can facilitate the online quantum tomography.

  17. Roller Profile Online Measurement Based on Ultrasonic Circulation Pulse-echo Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Shu-hui; XU Feng-rong

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet the high precision requirement of wide steel strip in industry field, a novel online measurement of roller profile based on sonic circulation and pulse-echo technology was introduced. All kinds of the factors influencing the accuracy of roller profile online measurement were analyzed in detail and error compensation analysis of system was accordingly presented. In order to reduce count error, field program gate array(FPGA) was introduced and a highprecision data acquisition system was designed based on digital phase-shift technology. Experiments indicate that the standard deviation of measure data was 7.27 μm, which showed the feasibility and validity of the proposed method, and realized the roll profile measurement with high precision.

  18. On-Line Measurement of Heat of Combustion of Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuel Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Chaturvedi, Sushil K.; Kheireddine, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A method for the on-line measurement of the heat of combustion of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixtures has been developed and tested. The method involves combustion of a test gas with a measured quantity of air to achieve a preset concentration of oxygen in the combustion products. This method involves using a controller which maintains the fuel (gas) volumetric flow rate at a level consistent with the desired oxygen concentration in the combustion products. The heat of combustion is determined form a known correlation with the fuel flow rate. An on-line computer accesses the fuel flow data and displays the heat of combustion measurement at desired time intervals. This technique appears to be especially applicable for measuring heats of combustion of hydrocarbon mixtures of unknown composition such as natural gas.

  19. Online measurement of LHC beam parameters with the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, E.

    2012-06-01

    We present an online measurement of the LHC beamspot parameters in ATLAS using the High Level Trigger (HLT). When a significant change is detected in the measured beamspot, it is distributed to the HLT. There, trigger algorithms like b-tagging which calculate impact parameters or decay lengths benefit from a precise, up-to-date set of beamspot parameters. Additionally, online feedback is sent to the LHC operators in real time. The measurement is performed by an algorithm running on the Level 2 trigger farm, leveraging the high rate of usable events. Dedicated algorithms perform a full scan of the silicon detector to reconstruct event vertices from registered tracks. The distribution of these vertices is aggregated across the farm and their shape is extracted through fits every 60 seconds to determine the beamspot position, size, and tilt. The reconstructed beamspot values are corrected for detector resolution effects, measured in situ using the separation of vertices whose tracks have been split into two collections. Furthermore, measurements for individual bunch crossings have allowed for studies of single-bunch distributions as well as the behavior of bunch trains. This talk will cover the constraints imposed by the online environment and describe how these measurements are accomplished with the given resources. The algorithm tasks must be completed within the time constraints of the Level 2 trigger, with limited CPU and bandwidth allocations. This places an emphasis on efficient algorithm design and the minimization of data requests.

  20. Online Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation Case Studies from Higher Education, K-12 and Corporate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available With the revolution occurred in communication technologies at the beginning of 1990’s, network technologies have emerged as the challenging parameters accelerating improvements of instructional technologies. Online classrooms and management of them appeared as a new domain which necessitates a new paradigm different from the classical ones. User and instructor friendly learning context and management systems (LCMS have brought new approaches, techniques and tools for the assessment and measurement processes. These approaches, techniques and tools embedded in LCMS have redefined not only the way teachers teach but also students learn. WebCT, Blackboard and eCollege and many others as the online instructional environments have provided new opportunities to construct a coherent instructional system which has never been used as a unique environment any before. Assessment and measurement have been redefined within this framework. The successes of assessment and measurement methodologies or system inevitably depend on conceptualization and then implementation to different educational settings.

  1. MultiProbe Electrical Measurements of Carbon Nanotubes With On-line Raman Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablon, Dalia; Yeshua, Talia; Lehmann, Christian; Reich, Stephanie; Strain, Kristin; Campbell, Eleano

    2014-03-01

    A multiprobe scanning probe microscope (SPM) system has been used to perform multiprobe electrical measurement of carbon nanotubes. In this system two probes can be used across an isolated carbon nanotube. A variety of probes have been developed that are compatible with multiprobe operation. These include probes for writing single single walled carbon nanotubes which have a high degree of alignment and this is demonstrated with on-line Raman. The interconnection of the multiprobe system with the Raman System will be described in detail. The combination has the potential to cross the fabrication/measurement gap that will allow for both production and nanocharacterization of such single molecule carbon nanotube molecular devices both with chemically sensitive Raman measurements (with and without plasmonic enhancement) and with on-line electrical transport on isolated carbon nanotubes.

  2. A Discrete Event System approach to On-line Testing of digital circuits with measurement limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Biswal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present era of complex systems like avionics, industrial processes, electronic circuits, etc., on-the-fly or on-line fault detection is becoming necessary to provide uninterrupted services. Measurement limitation based fault detection schemes are applied to a wide range of systems because sensors cannot be deployed in all the locations from which measurements are required. This paper focuses towards On-Line Testing (OLT of faults in digital electronic circuits under measurement limitation using the theory of discrete event systems. Most of the techniques presented in the literature on OLT of digital circuits have emphasized on keeping the scheme non-intrusive, low area overhead, high fault coverage, low detection latency etc. However, minimizing tap points (i.e., measurement limitation of the circuit under test (CUT by the on-line tester was not considered. Minimizing tap points reduces load on the CUT and this reduces the area overhead of the tester. However, reduction in tap points compromises fault coverage and detection latency. This work studies the effect of minimizing tap points on fault coverage, detection latency and area overhead. Results on ISCAS89 benchmark circuits illustrate that measurement limitation have minimal impact on fault coverage and detection latency but reduces the area overhead of the tester. Further, it was also found that for a given detection latency and fault coverage, area overhead of the proposed scheme is lower compared to other similar schemes reported in the literature.

  3. On-line electrochemical measurements of cerebral hypoxanthine of freely moving rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZiPin; LIN YuQing; MAO LanQun

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrates an on-line method for continuous measurements of cerebral hypoxanthine in the freely moving rats with integration of selective electrochemical biosensing with in vivo microdialysis sampling. The selective electrochemical biosensing is achieved by using xanthine oxidase (XOD) as the specific sensing element and Prussian blue (PB) as the electrocatalyst for the reduction of H_2O_2 generated from the oxidase-catalyzed reaction. The method is virtually interference-free from the coexisting electroactive species in the brain and exhibits a good stability and reproducibility. Upon integrated with in vivo microdialysis, the on-line method is well suitable for continuous measurements of cerebral hypoxanthine of freely moving rats, which is illustrated by the measurements of the microdialysates after the hypoxanthine standard was externally infused into the rat brain. This study essen-tially offers a facile on-line electrochemical approach to continuous measurements of cerebral hypoxanthine and could find some interesting applications in physiological and pathological investigations associated with hypoxanthine.

  4. On-line electrochemical measurements of cerebral hypoxanthine of freely moving rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrates an on-line method for continuous measurements of cerebral hypoxanthine in the freely moving rats with integration of selective electrochemical biosensing with in vivo microdialysis sampling. The selective electrochemical biosensing is achieved by using xanthine oxidase (XOD) as the specific sensing element and Prussian blue (PB) as the electrocatalyst for the reduction of H2O2 generated from the oxidase-catalyzed reaction. The method is virtually interference-free from the co-existing electroactive species in the brain and exhibits a good stability and reproducibility. Upon integrated with in vivo microdialysis, the on-line method is well suitable for continuous measurements of cerebral hypoxanthine of freely moving rats, which is illustrated by the measurements of the microdi-alysates after the hypoxanthine standard was externally infused into the rat brain. This study essentially offers a facile on-line electrochemical approach to continuous measurements of cerebral hypoxanthine and could find some interesting applications in physiological and pathological investigations associated with hypoxanthine.

  5. The online tourist fraud: the new measures of technological investigation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Belén AIGE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article is about an examination of the new technological measures for the investigation, created by the Organic Act (Ley Orgánica 13/2015, of 5th of October. These measures will serve us to improve de criminal investigation, especially on those crimes that are done by technological means, but also for the traditional crimes. Specifically, we are going to make an especial reference to the tourist fraud, which affects both consumers and entrepreneurs. This fraud is especially notable in the online contracts, as we will see above, because those contracts have increased the number of online frauds in the last years; in the tourism I am referring to the stealing of personal data and the creation of ghost companies or non-existent offers. In first place, we are going to talk about the advantages and disadvantages of the online contracts, and also about the real necessity of new investigation means that finally have been satisfied with the introduction of the new technological measures of investigation, which we are going to analyse: the computerized undercover agent, the interception of the telematics and telephone communications, the recording of oral communications by electronic devices, the tracking, localization and recording images devices, the registry of mass storage devices and the remote registry of computer equipment. 

  6. Measuring and Improving Physician Knowledge of Safety Risks Using Traditional and Online Methods in Pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liede, Alexander; Amelio, Justyna; Bennett, James; Goodman, Helen; Peters, Pamela M; Barber, Rebecca; Kehler, Elizabeth; Michael Sprafka, J

    2017-01-01

    Traditional methods for assessing prescriber knowledge can take several years to deliver results. This study was undertaken to obtain insights into the potential for using existing online communities to educate prescribers on therapy-related safety risks. The aim of this study was to describe approaches to measuring prescribers' knowledge of safety risk (osteonecrosis of the jaw) outlined in the European Medicine Agency's summary of product characteristics for denosumab (XGEVA(®)). Short multiple-choice online instruments were administered as (1) a two-round cross-sectional survey fielded in January 2013-May 2015 (traditional, nine European countries, study duration: 3 years), (2) a survey targeting the online Medscape community (seven European countries, study duration: 3 weeks), and (3) a continuing medical education module with pre-/post-assessment in an online Medscape community (Medscape Education, USA). All respondents were oncologists; treated five or more patients with bone metastases from solid tumours in the previous 3 months; and prescribed denosumab within the previous 12 months. Medscape (a WebMD company, New York, NY, USA) is the leading online medical information resource, serving approximately 3 million physicians worldwide and 400,000 within Europe. In the traditional 29-month study, 420 (n = 210 per round; 14% of screened physicians) individuals participated. Knowledge levels exceeded 75% correct on five questions (incidence of osteonecrosis of the jaw, concomitant risk factors and prevention of osteonecrosis of the jaw during denosumab treatment, importance of ensuring oral hygiene, and care for patients who have or develop osteonecrosis of the jaw) with less awareness of optimal osteonecrosis of the jaw treatment. The Medscape survey (n = 207; 32.1% of 645 eligible) provided similar results in a 3-week post-survey launch. The Medscape Education study (n = 264) documented knowledge acquisition. Assessments that target physicians through online

  7. Towards the development of a hybrid-integrated chip interferometer for online surface profile measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Martin, H; Jiang, X

    2016-06-01

    Non-destructive testing and online measurement of surface features are pressing demands in manufacturing. Thus optical techniques are gaining importance for characterization of complex engineering surfaces. Harnessing integrated optics for miniaturization of interferometry systems onto a silicon wafer and incorporating a compact optical probe would enable the development of a handheld sensor for embedded metrology applications. In this work, we present the progress in the development of a hybrid photonics based metrology sensor device for online surface profile measurements. The measurement principle along with test and measurement results of individual components has been presented. For non-contact measurement, a spectrally encoded lateral scanning probe based on the laser scanning microscopy has been developed to provide fast measurement with lateral resolution limited to the diffraction limit. The probe demonstrates a lateral resolution of ∼3.6 μm while high axial resolution (sub-nanometre) is inherently achieved by interferometry. Further the performance of the hybrid tuneable laser and the scanning probe was evaluated by measuring a standard step height sample of 100 nm.

  8. Removal of correlated noise online for in situ measurements by using multichannel magnetic resonance sounding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Zhang, Siyuan; Zhang, Yang; Wan, Ling; Lin, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the other geophysical approaches, magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) technique is direct and nondestructive in subsurface water exploration. It provides water content distribution and estimates hydrogeological properties. The biggest challenge is that MRS measurement always suffers bad signal-to-noise ratio, and it can be carried out only far from sources of noise. To solve this problem, a series of de-noising methods are developed. However, most of them are post-processing, leading the data quality uncontrolled for in situ measurements. In the present study, a new approach that removal of correlated noise online is found to overcome the restriction. Based on LabVIEW, a method is provided to enable online data quality control by the way of realizing signal acquisition and noise filtering simultaneously. Using one or more reference coils, adaptive noise cancellation based on LabVIEW to eliminate the correlated noise is available for in situ measurements. The approach was examined through numerical simulation and field measurements. The correlated noise is mitigated effectively and the application of MRS measurements is feasible in high-level noise environment. The method shortens the measurement time and improves the measurement efficiency.

  9. FPGA-Based Smart Sensor for Online Displacement Measurements Using a Heterodyne Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cabal-Yepez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of small displacements on the nanometric scale demands metrological systems of high accuracy and precision. In this context, interferometer-based displacement measurements have become the main tools used for traceable dimensional metrology. The different industrial applications in which small displacement measurements are employed requires the use of online measurements, high speed processes, open architecture control systems, as well as good adaptability to specific process conditions. The main contribution of this work is the development of a smart sensor for large displacement measurement based on phase measurement which achieves high accuracy and resolution, designed to be used with a commercial heterodyne interferometer. The system is based on a low-cost Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA allowing the integration of several functions in a single portable device. This system is optimal for high speed applications where online measurement is needed and the reconfigurability feature allows the addition of different modules for error compensation, as might be required by a specific application.

  10. FPGA-Based Smart Sensor for Online Displacement Measurements Using a Heterodyne Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Salas, Luis Alberto; Moreno-Tapia, Sandra Veronica; Garcia-Perez, Arturo; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Serroukh, Ibrahim; Cabal-Yepez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of small displacements on the nanometric scale demands metrological systems of high accuracy and precision. In this context, interferometer-based displacement measurements have become the main tools used for traceable dimensional metrology. The different industrial applications in which small displacement measurements are employed requires the use of online measurements, high speed processes, open architecture control systems, as well as good adaptability to specific process conditions. The main contribution of this work is the development of a smart sensor for large displacement measurement based on phase measurement which achieves high accuracy and resolution, designed to be used with a commercial heterodyne interferometer. The system is based on a low-cost Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) allowing the integration of several functions in a single portable device. This system is optimal for high speed applications where online measurement is needed and the reconfigurability feature allows the addition of different modules for error compensation, as might be required by a specific application. PMID:22164040

  11. On-line adaptive line frequency noise cancellation from a nuclear power measuring channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadir Javed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On-line software for adaptively canceling 50 Hz line frequency noise has been designed and tested at Pakistan Research Reactor 1. Line frequency noise causes much problem in weak signals acquisition. Sometimes this noise is so dominant that original signal is totally corrupted. Although notch filter can be used for eliminating this noise, but if signal of interest is in close vicinity of 50 Hz, then original signal is also attenuated and hence overall performance is degraded. Adaptive noise removal is a technique which could be employed for removing line frequency without degrading the desired signal. In this paper line frequency noise has been eliminated on-line from a nuclear power measuring channel. The adaptive LMS algorithm has been used to cancel 50 Hz noise. The algorithm has been implemented in labVIEW with NI 6024 data acquisition card. The quality of the acquired signal has been improved much as can be seen in experimental results.

  12. An instrument for online measurement of structural orientation in translucent polymer sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Palanisamy; D Mangaiyarkarasi; A Ramalingam

    2000-02-01

    In many applications of polymer materials, a high tensile strength is required. There is a definite correlation between the degree of orientation of molecular chains achieved in the orientation process and the tensile strength obtained. In this work, we describe design and fabrication details of a device, `Laser based polymer orientation grader’, for online measurement of the degree of orientation to obtain a high consistent tensile strength as output. This instrument has been designed making skilful use of the optical anisotropic property of the oriented polymer strip. The principle is based on the fact that the spatial distribution of laser light passing through the translucent polymer sheet depends on the degree of orientation of long chain molecules in the sheet. The method has potential online application in monitoring and controlling of anisotropy in manufacturing processes.

  13. A Comparison of Multiscale Permutation Entropy Measures in On-Line Depth of Anesthesia Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Li, Duan; Li, Yongwang; Ursino, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Objective Multiscale permutation entropy (MSPE) is becoming an interesting tool to explore neurophysiological mechanisms in recent years. In this study, six MSPE measures were proposed for on-line depth of anesthesia (DoA) monitoring to quantify the anesthetic effect on the real-time EEG recordings. The performance of these measures in describing the transient characters of simulated neural populations and clinical anesthesia EEG were evaluated and compared. Methods Six MSPE algorithms—derived from Shannon permutation entropy (SPE), Renyi permutation entropy (RPE) and Tsallis permutation entropy (TPE) combined with the decomposition procedures of coarse-graining (CG) method and moving average (MA) analysis—were studied. A thalamo-cortical neural mass model (TCNMM) was used to generate noise-free EEG under anesthesia to quantitatively assess the robustness of each MSPE measure against noise. Then, the clinical anesthesia EEG recordings from 20 patients were analyzed with these measures. To validate their effectiveness, the ability of six measures were compared in terms of tracking the dynamical changes in EEG data and the performance in state discrimination. The Pearson correlation coefficient (R) was used to assess the relationship among MSPE measures. Results CG-based MSPEs failed in on-line DoA monitoring at multiscale analysis. In on-line EEG analysis, the MA-based MSPE measures at 5 decomposed scales could track the transient changes of EEG recordings and statistically distinguish the awake state, unconsciousness and recovery of consciousness (RoC) state significantly. Compared to single-scale SPE and RPE, MSPEs had better anti-noise ability and MA-RPE at scale 5 performed best in this aspect. MA-TPE outperformed other measures with faster tracking speed of the loss of unconsciousness. Conclusions MA-based multiscale permutation entropies have the potential for on-line anesthesia EEG analysis with its simple computation and sensitivity to drug effect

  14. Online Vce measurement method for wear-out monitoring of high power IGBT modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    A simple Vce online monitoring circuit is presented in this paper. It allows an accurate wear out prediction of IGBT modules, in high-power applications, during normal converter operation. Bipolar measurement allows monitoring of both IGBT and antiparallel diode. The circuit uses two serial...... connected diodes to sense the Vce voltage with millivolt accuracy. One diode acts as a protection to block high DC voltage present on input terminals. When the device is conducting the voltage on the second diode is measured to compensate for the voltage drop on the protection diode thus eliminating voltage...

  15. Study on an On-line Measurement System of Corrosion Rate by Linear Polarization Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jeon Soo; Lee, Jae Kun; Lee, Jae Bong; Park, Pyl Yang [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    The linear polarization resistance method is one of the widely used techniques for the corrosion rate monitoring in the water circulating systems of plants. The measurement is simple and rapid, so that a continuous on-line monitoring is possible without any shutdown of plants. A 2-electrode polarization corrosion rate measurement system was installed in a laboratory using a data acquisition board and PC. The signal processing parameters were optimized for the accurate corrosion rate measurement, and the polarization resistance was compensated with the solution resistance measured by the high frequency sine wave signal of an output channel. The precision of corrosion rate data was greatly improved by removing the initial noise signals on measuring the polarization resistance.

  16. High stability interleaved fiber Michelson interferometer for on-line precision displacement measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Chen, Xianfeng; Zhang, Lin

    2009-11-01

    A self-reference fiber Michelson interferometer measurement system, which employs fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) as in-fiber reflective mirrors and interleaves together two fiber Michelson interferometers that share the common-interferometric-optical path, is presented. One of the fiber interferometers is used to stabilise the system by the use of an electronic feedback loop to compensate the influences resulting from the environmental disturbances, while the other one is used to perform the measurement task. The influences resulting from the environmental disturbances have been eliminated by the compensating action of the electronic feedback loop, this makes the system suitable for on-line precision measurement. By means of the homodyne phase-tracking technique, the linearity of the measurement results of displacement measurements has been very high.

  17. Evaluating enhanced sulfate reduction and optimized volatile fatty acids (VFA) composition in anaerobic reactor by Fe (III) addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-02-17

    Anaerobic reactors with ferric iron addition have been experimentally demonstrated to be able to simultaneously improve sulfate reduction and organic matter degradation during sulfate-containing wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the impact of ferric iron addition on sulfate reduction and organic carbon removal as well as the volatile fatty acids (VFA) composition in anaerobic reactor. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using independent long-term experimental data sets from the anaerobic reactor with Fe (III) addition under different operational conditions. The model satisfactorily describes the sulfate reduction, organic carbon removal and VFA production. Results show Fe (III) addition induces the microbial reduction of Fe (III) by iron reducing bacteria (IRB), which significantly enhances sulfate reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and subsequently changes the VFA composition to acetate-dominating effluent. Simultaneously, the produced Fe (II) from IRB can alleviate the inhibition of undissociated H2S on microorganisms through iron sulfide precipitation, resulting in further improvement of the performance. In addition, the enhancement on reactor performance by Fe (III) is found to be more significantly favored at relatively low organic carbon/SO4(2-) ratio (e.g., 1.0) than at high organic carbon/SO4(2-) ratio (e.g., 4.5). The Fe (III)-based process of this work can be easily integrated with a commonly used strategy for phosphorus recovery, with the produced sulfide being recovered and then deposited into conventional chemical phosphorus removal sludge (FePO4) to achieve FeS precipitation for phosphorus recovery while the required Fe (III) being acquired from the waste ferric sludge of drinking water treatment process, to enable maximum resource recovery/reuse while achieving high-rate sulfate removal.

  18. Online measurements of non-organic components in flue gas; Online-maetning av oorganiska komponenter i roekgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Fredrik; Claesson, Frida; Haraldsson, Conny

    2010-03-15

    an ICP-MS instrument can be used for on-line measurements of the concentrations of alkali metals in a flue gas, although further work should be addressed the design of the gas sampling line to avoid clogging by tar and fly ash particles

  19. On-line dynamic measurement of blood viscosity, hematocrit and change of blood volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To develop an on-line system for the measurement of blood viscosity and hematocrit. The dynamic changes of the macrovascular blood volumes,microvascular blood volumes and the total blood volume were observed by means of calculating from the testing result. Methods: Applying traditional viscosity measurement principle and specific wavelength optic density measurement method, an on-line system for the measurement of blood viscosity and hematocrit was developed, and the A/D multifunctionai board and the testing circuit were designed by ourselves. The system was validated by experiments both in vitro and in vivo. Therapeutic effects of hypertonic saline dextran solution (HSD) and Lactatic Ringer's solution at the early stage after burn-blast combined injury were compared by this method. Results: The results showed that the system has attained the goal of the design. The changes of the blood viscosity and hematocrit could be detected effectively and continuously. The changes of macrovascular, microvascular and total blood volume could be calculated approximately. Conclusions: The system and the method can continuously on-line test the blood viscosity and hematocrit, and reveal the change and distribution of blood volumes more accurately and dearly in the therapy process by estimating changes of the macrovascular, microvascular and total blood volumes, respectively. It has confirmed that HSD treatment could increase blood pressure and attenuate tissue edema by significantly increasing total blood volume,improving macrocirculatory and microcirculatory blood volumes. This study suggested that it could be desirable to develop an experiment technique based on the method mentioned above.

  20. Metrological Characterization of an Improved DSP-Based On-line Integrator for Magnetic Measurements at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, P; Spiezia, G

    2007-01-01

    An improved on-line version of the self-calibrating digital instrument for flux measurements on superconductive magnets for particle accelerators, prototyped at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in cooperation with the University of Sannio, is proposed. The instrument acquires voltage arising from rotating coils transducers. Then, the samples are online integrated and suitably processed in order to achieve flux analysis time down to 2.0 ìs, with resolution of 50 ns. Details about hardware and firmware conception, on-line measurement principle, and preliminary results of metrological characterization of the prototype are provided.

  1. Online participation in climate change adaptation: A case study of agricultural adaptation measures in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojovic, Dragana; Bonzanigo, Laura; Giupponi, Carlo; Maziotis, Alexandros

    2015-07-01

    The new EU strategy on adaptation to climate change suggests flexible and participatory approaches. Face-to-face contact, although it involves time-consuming procedures with a limited audience, has often been considered the most effective participatory approach. In recent years, however, there has been an increase in the visibility of different citizens' initiatives in the online world, which strengthens the possibility of greater citizen agency. This paper investigates whether the Internet can ensure efficient public participation with meaningful engagement in climate change adaptation. In elucidating issues regarding climate change adaptation, we developed an eParticipation framework to explore adaptation capacity of agriculture to climate change in Northern Italy. Farmers were mobilised using a pre-existing online network. First they took part in an online questionnaire for revealing their perceptions of and reactions to the impacts of ongoing changes in agriculture. We used these results to suggest a portfolio of policy measures and to set evaluation criteria. Farmers then evaluated these policy options, using a multi criteria analysis tool with a simple user-friendly interface. Our results showed that eParticipation is efficient: it supports a rapid data collection, while involving high number of participants. Moreover, we demonstrated that the digital divide is decreasingly an obstacle for using online spaces for public engagement. This research does not present eParticipation as a panacea. Rather, eParticipation was implemented with well-established participatory approaches to both validate the results and, consequently, communicate meaningful messages on local agricultural adaptation practices to regional decision-makers. Feedbacks from the regional decision-makers showed their interest in using eParticipation to improve communication with farmers in the future. We expect that, with further Internet proliferation, eParticipation may allow the inclusion of

  2. Virtual Sensors for On-line Wheel Wear and Part Roughness Measurement in the Grinding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ander Arriandiaga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Grinding is an advanced machining process for the manufacturing of valuable complex and accurate parts for high added value sectors such as aerospace, wind generation, etc. Due to the extremely severe conditions inside grinding machines, critical process variables such as part surface finish or grinding wheel wear cannot be easily and cheaply measured on-line. In this paper a virtual sensor for on-line monitoring of those variables is presented. The sensor is based on the modelling ability of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs for stochastic and non-linear processes such as grinding; the selected architecture is the Layer-Recurrent neural network. The sensor makes use of the relation between the variables to be measured and power consumption in the wheel spindle, which can be easily measured. A sensor calibration methodology is presented, and the levels of error that can be expected are discussed. Validation of the new sensor is carried out by comparing the sensor’s results with actual measurements carried out in an industrial grinding machine. Results show excellent estimation performance for both wheel wear and surface roughness. In the case of wheel wear, the absolute error is within the range of microns (average value 32 μm. In the case of surface finish, the absolute error is well below Ra 1 μm (average value 0.32 μm. The present approach can be easily generalized to other grinding operations.

  3. Development of an on-line measuring and monitoring system for fouling based on Delphi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jianguo

    2010-12-01

    The presence of fouling reduced the heat transfer capability of heat transfer equipments and increased the flow resistance of the medium. Thus the resulting series of economic losses received worldwide attention of the relevant heat transfer industry and countries. For the heating system fouling, direct measurement is nearly impossible. And it is extremely difficulty of structuring mathematic model. Although there are existing monitoring methods, results are not satisfactory. This paper intends to develop a new on-line measuring and monitoring system for heating system fouling. The operating theory of this on-line measuring and monitoring system is based on the soft-sensor technology and Expert System. We select some easily measurements as primary variables, such as pressures, flow rates and temperatures. Through some algorithms, we obtained dozens of secondary variables, for example, the coefficient of flow resistance, the efficiency and cost of heating system and so on. Based on these variables, we construct the knowledge base of this System. This system mainly uses Delphi and Excel as development tools. Now, the system is running well in some heating station, and has reached the expecting result.

  4. Online measurement of LHC beam parameters with the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Strauss, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    We present an online measurement of the LHC beam parameters in ATLAS using the High Level Trigger (HLT). When a significant change is detected in the measured beamspot, it is distributed to the HLT. There, trigger algorithms like b-tagging which calculate impact parameters or decay lengths benefit from a precise,up-to-date set of beamspot parameters. Additionally, online feedback is sent to the LHC operators in real time. The measurement is performed by an algorithm running on the Level 2 trigger farm, leveraging the high rate of usable events. Dedicated algorithms perform a full scan of the silicon detector to reconstruct event vertices from registered tracks. The distribution of these vertices is aggregated across the farm and their shape is extracted through fits every 60 seconds to determine the beamspot position, size, and tilt. The reconstructed beam values are corrected for detector resolution effects, measured in situ using the separation of vertices whose tracks have been split into two collections. ...

  5. Online Measurement of LHC Beam Parameters with the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Strauss, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    We present an online measurement of the LHC beam parameters in ATLAS using the High Level Trigger (HLT). When a significant change is detected in the measured beamspot, it is distributed to the HLT. There, trigger algorithms like b-tagging which calculate impact parameters or decay lengths benefit from a precise, up-to-date set of beamspot parameters. Additionally, online feedback is sent to the LHC operators in real time. The measurement is performed by an algorithm running on the Level 2 trigger farm, leveraging the high rate of usable events. Dedicated algorithms perform a full scan of the silicon detector to reconstruct event vertices from registered tracks. The distribution of these vertices is aggregated across the farm and their shape is extracted through fits every 60 seconds to determine the beamspot position, size, and tilt. The reconstructed beam values are corrected for detector resolution effects, measured in situ using the separation of vertices whose tracks have been split into two collections....

  6. Research and application of online measurement system of tire tread profile in automobile tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengyao; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    To improve the measuring efficiency of width and thickness of tire tread in the process of automobile tire production, the actual condition for the tire production process is analyzed, and a fast online measurement system based on moving tire tread of tire specifications is established in this paper. The coordinate data of tire tread profile is acquired by 3D laser sensor, and we use C# language for programming which is an object-oriented programming language to complete the development of client program. The system with laser sensor can provide real-time display of tire tread profile and the data to require in the process of tire production. Experimental results demonstrate that the measuring precision of the system is <= 1mm, it can meet the measurement requirements of the production process, and the system has the characteristics of convenient installation and testing, system stable operation.

  7. Online Grid Measurement and ENS Detection for PV Inverter Running on Highly Inductive Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timbus, Adrian Vasile; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2004-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) and other sources of renewable energy are being used increasingly in grid-connected systems, for which stronger power quality requirements are being issued. Continuous grid monitoring should be considered so as to provide safe connections and disconnections from the grid....... This letter gives an overview of the methods used for online grid measurement with PV inverters. Emphasis is placed on a method based on the injection of a noncharacteristic harmonic in the grid. Since this injection is regarded as a disturbance for the grid, different issues, i.e., the influence on total...

  8. Advanced power cycling test for power module with on-line on-state VCE measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Ui-min; Trintis, Ionut; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    module. The proposed concept can perform various stress conditions which is valid in a real mission profile and it is using a real power converter application with small loss. The concept of the proposed test setup is first presented. Then, the on-line on-state collector-emitter voltage VCE measurement......Recent research has made an effort to improve the reliability of power electronic systems to comply with more stringent constraints on cost, safety, predicted lifetime and availability in many applications. For this, studies about failure mechanisms of power electronic components and lifetime...

  9. Probability effects in anticipation investigated with online behavioural measures (mouse tracking)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Pernille; Bærentsen, Klaus B.

    Background: Anticipation of upcoming events is an adaptive mechanism that ensures quick and accurate perception and action. Consequently, lower Reaction Time (RT) and higher accuracy is found in response to events that can be adequately anticipated. However, events in the world happen with varying......-hoc behavioural measures of the anticipatory processes involved. Methods: The present study investigates how knowledge of probability affects real-time anticipatory processes. Behaviour is monitored online by tracking the computer mouse trajectory leading to a required response (mouse-click on Target...

  10. On-line Measurement of Water-Soluble Ions in Ambient Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Combining the system of rapid collection of ambient particles and ion chromatography, the system of rapid collection of fine particles and ion chromatography (RCFP-IC) was established to automatically analyze on-line the concentrations of water-soluble ions in ambient particles. Here, the general scheme of RCFP-IC is described and its basic performance is tested. The detection limit of RCFP-IC for SO42-,NO-3, NO-2, Cl- and F- is below 0.3 μg m-3. The collection efficiency of RCFP-IC increases rapidly with increasing sized particles. For particles larger than 300 nm, the collection efficiency approaches 100%. The precision of RCFP-IC is more than 90% over 28 repetitions. The response of RCFP-IC is very sensitive and no obvious cross-pollution is found during measurement. A comparison of RCFP-IC with an integrated filter measurement indicates that the measurement of RCFP-IC is comparable in both laboratory experiments and field observations. The results of the field experiment prove that RCFP-IC is an effective on-line monitoring system and is helpful in source apportionment and pollution episode monitoring.

  11. Semi-aerobic fermentation as a novel pre-treatment to obtain VFA and increase methane yield from primary sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, M; Astals, S; Clarke, W P; Jensen, P D

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing trend to consider organic wastes as potential sources of renewable energy and value-add products. Fermentation products have emerged as attractive value-add option due to relative easy production and broad application range. However, pre-fermentation and extraction of soluble products may impact down-stream treatment processes, particularly energy recovery by anaerobic digestion. This paper investigates primary sludge pre-fermentation at different temperatures (20, 37, 55, and 70°C), treatment times (12, 24, 48, and 72h), and oxygen availability (semi-aerobic, anaerobic); and its impact on anaerobic digestion. Pre-fermentation at 20 and 37°C succeeded for VFA production with acetate and propionate being major products. Pre-fermentation at 37, 55, and 70°C resulted in higher solubilisation yield but it reduced sludge methane potential by 20%. Under semi-aerobic conditions, pre-fermentation allowed both VFA recovery (43gCODVFAkg(-1)VS) and improved methane potential. The latter phenomenon was linked to fungi that colonised the sludge top layer during pre-fermentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring on-line compliance in ventilated infants using hot wire anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baboolal, R; Kirpalani, H

    1990-10-01

    We investigated the validity of using tidal volume (VT) as measured by the neonatal volume monitor (NVM) to derive respiratory compliance. The NVM is a noninvasive device that measures VT by hot wire anemometry. The quotient of VT and the inflation pressure amplitude from the mechanical ventilator provided a measure of respiratory compliance. This was validated against the single breath occlusion technique in 15 infants (birth weight 0.9 to 4.4 kg). To ensure fully passive expiration, only paralyzed or sedated patients were studied. Only 12 of the 15 infants were analyzed because of limitations in the single breath technique. In three infants the flow-volume curves obtained were alinear, indicating inhomogeneity. In the 12 infants with acceptable single breath data, agreement between the two methods was excellent. Using the expired volume, r2 was .99. We conclude that the NVM can be used to obtain valid estimates of respiratory compliance on-line in intubated infants.

  13. A new method using orthogonal two-frequency grating in online 3D measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kuang; Cao, Yiping; Wu, Yingchun; Lu, Mingteng

    2016-09-01

    In online 3D measurement, a new method using orthogonal two-frequency grating based on Phase Measuring Profilometry(PMP) is proposed. The modulation of the entire measured object is used to match pixels and this proposed method successfully resolves the contradiction of the demand for different frequency fringes between the extraction of the modulation information and the phase unwrapping. The high-frequency fringe is used to catch the better modulation patterns for pixel matching, and the low-frequency fringe is used to calculate the phase distribution and avoid phase unwrapping error. In addition, to extract the better modulation patterns for pixel matching, the flat filtering window replaces the circular filtering window to avoid the spectrum aliasing phenomenon. The simulations and experiments show its feasibility.

  14. Online devices and measuring systems for the automatic control of newspaper printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszalec, Elzbieta A.; Heikkila, Ismo; Juhola, Helene; Lehtonen, Tapio

    1999-09-01

    The paper reviews the state-of-the-art color measuring systems used for the control of newspaper printing. The printing process requirements are specified and different off-line and on-line color quality control systems, commercially available and under development, are evaluated. Recent market trends in newspaper printing are discussed based on the survey. The study was made on information derived from: conference proceedings (TAGA, IARIGAI, SPIE and IS&T), journals (American Printer, Applied Optics), discussions with experts (GMI, QTI, HONEYWELL, TOBIAS, GretagMacbeth), IFRA Expo'98/Quality Measuring Technologies, commercial brochures, and the Internet. On the background of this review, three different measuring principles, currently, under investigation at VTT Information Technology, are described and their applicability to newspaper printing is evaluated.

  15. On-line measurements of particle-bound reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Beijing wintertime air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimer, Sarah; Wragg, Francis; Kalberer, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), present in particles or generated by particle components upon deposition of particles in the human lung, are widely thought to be one of the main contributors to particle-related toxicity. However, there is so far only relatively little data available on their concentrations in ambient air, which makes it difficult to gauge their impact on air quality. Recent studies have shown that a large fraction of particle-bound ROS in secondary organic aerosol is relatively short-lived, with lifetimes of several minutes. Traditional off-line sampling with high-volume samplers is therefore likely to severely underestimate ROS concentrations, showing the need for using on-line instrumentation. We have recently developed a compact on-line instrument for the measurement of particle-bound ROS (OPROSI). To measure ROS concentrations, particles are continuously extracted and the extract is reacted with 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) in presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). This leads to formation of a fluorescent dye, which is detected spectroscopically. The instrument allows for up to 16 h of continuous measurement with a time resolution of ≤12 min and a limit of detection of 3.85 nmol [H2O2] equivalent per m3 air. For this study, we have used the OPROSI to continuously measure the concentration of particle-bound ROS in Beijing wintertime air during the first half of the Air Pollution and Human Health in a Developing Megacity (APHH-Beijing) campaign in November and December 2016. Measured ROS data are compared with other air pollution parameters such as total particulate mass, ozone and NOx as well as with meteorological measurements such as temperature and humidity.

  16. Electrical test methods for on-line fuel cell ohmic resistance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, K. R.; Smith, M.

    The principles and trade-offs of four electrical test methods suitable for on-line measurement of the ohmic resistance (R Ω) of fuel cells is presented: current interrupt, AC resistance, high frequency resistance (HFR), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The internal resistance of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell determined with the current interrupt, HFR and EIS techniques is compared. The influence of the AC amplitude and frequency of the HFR measurement on the observed ohmic resistance is examined, as is the ohmic resistance extracted from the EIS data by modeling the spectra with a transmission line model for porous electrodes. The ohmic resistance of a H 2/O 2 PEM fuel cell determined via the three methods was within 10-30% of each other. The current interrupt technique consistently produced measured cell resistances that exceeded those of the other two techniques. For the HFR technique, the frequency at which the measurement was conducted influenced the measured resistance (i.e., higher frequency providing smaller R Ω), whereas the AC amplitude did not effect the observed value. The difference in measured ohmic resistance between these techniques exceeds that reasonably accounted for by measurement error. The source of the discrepancy between current interrupt and impedance-based methods is attributed to the difference in the response of a non-uniformly polarized electrode, such as a porous electrode with non-negligible ohmic resistance, to a large perturbation (current interrupt event) as compared to a small perturbation (impedance measurement).

  17. Metrological traceability in education: A practical online system for measuring and managing middle school mathematics instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Irribarra, D.; Freund, R.; Fisher, W.; Wilson, M.

    2015-02-01

    Computer-based, online assessments modelled, designed, and evaluated for adaptively administered invariant measurement are uniquely suited to defining and maintaining traceability to standardized units in education. An assessment of this kind is embedded in the Assessing Data Modeling and Statistical Reasoning (ADM) middle school mathematics curriculum. Diagnostic information about middle school students' learning of statistics and modeling is provided via computer-based formative assessments for seven constructs that comprise a learning progression for statistics and modeling from late elementary through the middle school grades. The seven constructs are: Data Display, Meta-Representational Competence, Conceptions of Statistics, Chance, Modeling Variability, Theory of Measurement, and Informal Inference. The end product is a web-delivered system built with Ruby on Rails for use by curriculum development teams working with classroom teachers in designing, developing, and delivering formative assessments. The online accessible system allows teachers to accurately diagnose students' unique comprehension and learning needs in a common language of real-time assessment, logging, analysis, feedback, and reporting.

  18. Assessing segmentation processes by click detection: online measure of statistical learning, or simple interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ana; Gaillard, Vinciane; Cleeremans, Axel; Destrebecqz, Arnaud

    2015-12-01

    Statistical learning can be used to extract the words from continuous speech. Gómez, Bion, and Mehler (Language and Cognitive Processes, 26, 212-223, 2011) proposed an online measure of statistical learning: They superimposed auditory clicks on a continuous artificial speech stream made up of a random succession of trisyllabic nonwords. Participants were instructed to detect these clicks, which could be located either within or between words. The results showed that, over the length of exposure, reaction times (RTs) increased more for within-word than for between-word clicks. This result has been accounted for by means of statistical learning of the between-word boundaries. However, even though statistical learning occurs without an intention to learn, it nevertheless requires attentional resources. Therefore, this process could be affected by a concurrent task such as click detection. In the present study, we evaluated the extent to which the click detection task indeed reflects successful statistical learning. Our results suggest that the emergence of RT differences between within- and between-word click detection is neither systematic nor related to the successful segmentation of the artificial language. Therefore, instead of being an online measure of learning, the click detection task seems to interfere with the extraction of statistical regularities.

  19. Introducing process analytical technology (PAT) in filamentous cultivation process development: comparison of advanced online sensors for biomass measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Nanna Petersen; Stocks, Stuart M.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The recent process analytical technology (PAT) initiative has put an increased focus on online sensors to generate process-relevant information in real time. Specifically for fermentation, however, introduction of online sensors is often far from straightforward, and online measurement of biomass...... is one of the best examples. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare the performance of various online biomass sensors, and secondly to demonstrate their use in early development of a filamentous cultivation process. Eight Streptomyces coelicolor fed-batch cultivations were run as part...... of process development in which the pH, the feeding strategy, and the medium composition were varied. The cultivations were monitored in situ using multi-wavelength fluorescence (MWF) spectroscopy, scanning dielectric (DE) spectroscopy, and turbidity measurements. In addition, we logged all of the classical...

  20. Business in the Hands of Consumers: A Scale for Measuring Online Resale Motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam ERTZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The web channel is increasingly a central aspect of the second-hand economy and, as such, favours also more sustainable post-consumption processes. This is why the field of online reselling appears increasingly important. Besides, the ever broadening scope of online reselling is key to the success of new online intermediaries that position themselves in the broader movement of collaborative consumption. While, consumers’ attachment for secondhand exchanges is not new, they have largely embraced its online declination. In response to these evolutions in the online retail environment, traditional retail companies have therefore started to create online consumer marketplaces in which consumers exchange goods by themselves. In order to best adapt such online marketplaces to consumers, it is therefore critically important to gain a better understanding of the driving forces behind online reselling. At present, knowledge about what motivates consumers to resell products online is limited. This article outlines the development and validation process of an online resale motivation (ORM scale via three studies involving 1,119 respondents. Study 1 presents the ORM scale development process and resulting multi-dimensional construct, including protester, economic, generative, recreational, practical and social facets. Study 2 replicates the scale and investigates its predictive capabilities. More specifically, the ORM scale predicts successfully online resale frequency. Consumers who are more highly motivated to resell online, will indeed resell more often online. Study 3 examines the mediating role of ORM on the relationship between planned resale intentions (PRI and online resale behaviour. The fact that consumers plan to resell a product prior to its purchase, will not directly lead them to increase the frequency at which they resell online. Rather, it is because they perceive positive economic, practical and recreational outcomes associated with

  1. Evaluation of NO+ reagent ion chemistry for online measurements of atmospheric volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Abigail R.; Warneke, Carsten; Yuan, Bin; Coggon, Matthew M.; Veres, Patrick R.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2016-07-01

    NO+ chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NO+ CIMS) can achieve fast (1 Hz and faster) online measurement of trace atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that cannot be ionized with H3O+ ions (e.g., in a PTR-MS or H3O+ CIMS instrument). Here we describe the adaptation of a high-resolution time-of-flight H3O+ CIMS instrument to use NO+ primary ion chemistry. We evaluate the NO+ technique with respect to compound specificity, sensitivity, and VOC species measured compared to H3O+. The evaluation is established by a series of experiments including laboratory investigation using a gas-chromatography (GC) interface, in situ measurement of urban air using a GC interface, and direct in situ measurement of urban air. The main findings are that (1) NO+ is useful for isomerically resolved measurements of carbonyl species; (2) NO+ can achieve sensitive detection of small (C4-C8) branched alkanes but is not unambiguous for most; and (3) compound-specific measurement of some alkanes, especially isopentane, methylpentane, and high-mass (C12-C15) n-alkanes, is possible with NO+. We also demonstrate fast in situ chemically specific measurements of C12 to C15 alkanes in ambient air.

  2. Online Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Goldfarb, Avi; Tucker, Catherine Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This chapter explores what makes online advertising different from traditional advertising channels. We argue that online advertising differs from traditional advertising channels in two important ways: measurability and targetability. Measurability is higher because the digital nature of online advertising means that responses to ads can be tracked relatively easily. Targetability is higher because data can be automatically tracked at an individual level, and it is relatively easy to show di...

  3. A Benefit Measurement Framework for an Online Contract Change Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Sun; Tejas Oza

    2008-01-01

    The contract change management (CCM) system is an online collaboration tool, which supports the contract change management process of new engineering contract (NEC) contract. It is currently used in practice on a wide range of civil, power, and building projects in the UK. The aim of this study is first to iden-tify the tangible and intangible benefits of the system through a user survey; then to develop a framework to measure these benefits. A questionnaire survey is conducted, which reveals that CCM can help project teams improve process effectiveness, reduce risk of process failures, and increase the compliance with NEC requirements. Subsequently, a spreadsheet tool is developed to allow CCM users to calculate the tan-gible cost savings as a result of using the system. For intangible benefits, a change management maturity model (CM3) is developed, which provides a measurement framework for assessing the improvement of a project team's capability in dealing with contract changes.

  4. Solving of some Problems with On-Line Mode Measurement of Partial Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Zalis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems discussing the transition from off-line diagnostic methods to on-line ones. Based on the experience with commercial partial discharge measuring equipment a new digital system for the evaluation of partial discharge measurement including software and hardware facilities has been developed at the Czech Technical University in Prague. Two expert systems work in this complex evaluating system: a rule-based expert system performing an amplitude analysis of partial discharge impulses for determining the damage of the insulation system, and a neural network which is used for a phase analysis of partial discharge impulses to determine the kind of partial discharge activity. Problem of the elimination of disturbances is also discussed.

  5. Measuring Teachers and Learners' Perceptions of the Quality of Their Online Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rey, Pilar; Barbera, Elena; Fernández-Navarro, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the quality of the online learning experience based on the Sloan-C framework and the Online Learning Consortium's (OLC) quality scorecard. The OLC index has been implemented to evaluate quality in online programs from different perspectives. Despite this, the opinions of learners are ignored, and it is built using feedback…

  6. SCOOP: A Measurement and Database of Student Online Search Behavior and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    The ability to access and process massive amounts of online information is required in many learning situations. In order to develop a better understanding of student online search process especially in academic contexts, an online tool (SCOOP) is developed for tracking mouse behavior on the web to build a more extensive account of student web…

  7. Formative evaluation: Developing measures for online family mental health recovery education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rue, Lisa A; Estrada, Samantha; Floren, Michael; MacKinnon, Krista

    2016-04-01

    Families facing mental health challenges have very limited access to ongoing support. A formative evaluation of Families Healing Together (FHT), a new online family mental health recovery program was conducted using five waves (N=108) of data. Exploratory factor analysis of the measures identified as important to the program theory found strong reliability evidence (α=.77-.86) for 6 constructs. A poor response rate (25%) did not allow for valid pre and postoutcome evaluation, however we did have enough information to assess the psychometric properties of the new measures. The new evaluation tool accounted for 34% of the variance in Capacity to Support Family Member, and nearly 50% of the variance in Hopefulness toward Recovery. New programs without existing measures require formative evaluation strategies that accurately describe program activities in order to develop outcome measures sensitive to novel aspects of program components. Most outcome measures are developed for individuals with mental health challenges not family members. These new measures may be beneficial to effectively evaluate programs that promote family recovery and wellness.

  8. Natural gas large volumes measurement: going for on-line custody transfer; Medicao de grandes volumes de gas natural: rumo a transferencia de custodia on-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercon, Eduardo G.; Frisoli, Caetano [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the structure of the natural gas flow measurement process in TRANSPETRO, and comments features and performance of existing or under-implantation equipment and systems, reviewing best practices and technology in use. This process runs through three interrelated segments: data flow measurement, strictly speaking; data transfer and acquisition; and data flow measurement certification (data consolidation to invoice). Initially, the work makes an approach to the data flow measurement segment, evaluating technical features of flow meters, and describing configurations and functions of the operating gas flow computers in TRANSPETRO's custody transfer stations. In this part it will also be presented the implantation of TRANSPETRO's system for gas chromatography data input on-line to flow computers. Further, in data transfer and acquisition, SCADA system technical aspects will be evaluated, considering communications protocols and programmable logic controllers functions in remote terminal units, and discussing their places in the measurement process. Additionally, TRANSPETRO's experience in data measurement certification tools is in discussion, as well as new upcoming tools and their potential features, from what new practices will be suggested. Finally, all the work has been conceived and carried out always aiming to the state-of-the-art technology in gas flow measurement: on-line custody transfer. (author)

  9. A comparative study for detection and measurement of voltage disturbance in online condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Gajanan Neve

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Voltage disturbance is the most important power quality problem faced by many industrial customers. It includes voltage sag, swell, spikes and harmonics. Real time detection of these voltage disturbances posed various problems. This paper compares the various methods of detection of voltage sag and swells in real time on the basis of detection time, magnitude, effect of windowing and effect of sampling frequencies. The RMS, Peak, Fourier transform and Missing Voltage algorithm are introduced and discussed in them for real time implementation. Comparative analysis reveals that quantification of voltage sag and swell is possible using these measurements. The main focus is given on to these points and all the voltage sag and swell detection technique tested online with the help of advantech card data acquisition. The voltage sag and swell events are generated by using practical experimentation in laboratory.

  10. Identifying and Measuring Ill-Structured Problem Formulation and Resolution in Online Asynchronous Discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Murphy

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper reports on a study involving the development and application of an instrument to identify and measure ill-structured problem formulation and resolution (PFR in online asynchronous discussions (OADs. The instrument was developed by first determining PFR processes relevant to ill-structured problems in professional practice. The processes were derived from a conceptual framework. Further refinement of the instrument was achieved by the addition of indicators of processes. These indicators are derived through application of the instrument to an actual discussion in which the processes are operationalized. Results of the application of the instrument indicated that participants engaged more in problem resolution than in problem formulation. The instrument can be further developed and refined through its application in other contexts by researchers or practitioners interested in the design and use of OADs.

  11. A layered modulation method for pixel matching in online phase measuring profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongru; Feng, Guoying; Bourgade, Thomas; Yang, Peng; Zhou, Shouhuan; Asundi, Anand

    2016-10-01

    An online phase measuring profilometry with new layered modulation method for pixel matching is presented. In this method and in contrast with previous modulation matching methods, the captured images are enhanced by Retinex theory for better modulation distribution, and all different layer modulation masks are fully used to determine the displacement of a rectilinear moving object. High, medium and low modulation masks are obtained by performing binary segmentation with iterative Otsu method. The final shifting pixels are calculated based on centroid concept, and after that the aligned fringe patterns can be extracted from each frame. After performing Stoilov algorithm and a series of subsequent operations, the object profile on a translation stage is reconstructed. All procedures are carried out automatically, without setting specific parameters in advance. Numerical simulations are detailed and experimental results verify the validity and feasibility of the proposed approach.

  12. Probability effects in anticipation investigated with online behavioural measures (mouse tracking)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Pernille; Bærentsen, Klaus B.

    -hoc behavioural measures of the anticipatory processes involved. Methods: The present study investigates how knowledge of probability affects real-time anticipatory processes. Behaviour is monitored online by tracking the computer mouse trajectory leading to a required response (mouse-click on Target......). The paradigm implements a probability structure that allows the participant to gain knowledge about the relative probability of the occurrence of two alternative events (target occurring at left or right side). Results: Preliminary results indicate that knowledge of probability affects both RT and mouse...... movement; both vary systematically over 4 probability conditions (100, 80, 50 and 20 %), with lower RT and mouse movements displaying more direct trajectory to the target in high probability trials....

  13. Emotional Reactions and the Pulse of Public Opinion: Measuring the Impact of Political Events on the Sentiment of Online Discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Bailon, Sandra; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses changes in public opinion by tracking political discussions in which people voluntarily engage online. Unlike polls or surveys, our approach does not elicit opinions but approximates what the public thinks by analysing the discussions in which they decide to take part. We measure the emotional content of online discussions in three dimensions (valence, arousal and dominance), paying special attention to deviation around average values, which we use as a proxy for disagreement and polarisation. We show that this measurement of public opinion helps predict presidential approval rates, suggesting that there is a point of connection between online discussions (often deemed not representative of the overall population) and offline polls. We also show that this measurement provides a deeper understanding of the individual mechanisms that drive aggregated shifts in public opinion. Our data spans a period that includes two US presidential elections, the attacks of September 11, and the start of mi...

  14. On-line measurement of mechanical, optical properties and roughness parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartman, H.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available On-line measurements become a central importance for the control of production line output. The target is to replace traditional single local destructive quality checks by a continuous survey of the product properties. Other traditional like pyrometric temperature measurements suffer of well-known but non-soluble weakness points. New methods need the unambiguous correlation with the results of traditional testing to be representative for valid proof standards.EKO Stahl GmbH introduces several methods of on-line measurements focused actually on temperature measurement means of FTIR-Spectrometer, prediction of the mechanical properties of steel strips using the information of residual magnetization after a magnetization pulse and optical roughness measurements. The correlation between the results of the new methods and the classical proof processes has been established in a satisfactory manner.

    Las medidas on line van tomando una importancia central para el control de la calidad de la producción . El objetivo es reemplazar las pruebas destructivas puntuales tradicionales por un control continuo de las características del producto. Otros métodos tradicionales, como la medida de la temperatura con pirómetros, adolecen de conocidos pero insolubles puntos débiles. Los nuevos métodos necesitan la correlación inequívoca con los resultados de los métodos corrientes clásicos para obtener la autoridad de un estándar de prueba. La EKO Stahl GmbH ha introducido varios métodos de medidas on line y actualmente concentrados en la medida de la temperatura con espectrómetro FTIR, predicción de las características mecánicas usando la información del magnetismo residual, a partir de un impulso magnético inicial así como la medida óptica de la rugosidad. La correlación entre los resultados de los nuevos métodos y los métodos clásicos ha quedado establecida de manera satisfactoria.

  15. On-line field measurements of VOC emissions from a spruce tree at SMEAR Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Noe, Steffen

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated VOC emissions from a Norway spruce tree (Picea abies) in a hemi-boreal mixed forest in September and October 2012, using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry techniques, applied in a dynamic branch enclosure system that was automatically operated with an electrical compressor. Parallel to BVOC measurements a vast amount of atmospheric (CO2, CH4, H2O, CO, particles) and meteorological (temperature, relative humidity, photosynthetic active radiation, wind speed and direction, precipitation) parameters were measured in the ambient atmosphere and inside the cuvette enclosure (temperature, relative humidity, O3). Prior to the measuring period, an innovatory experimental setup was built at Järvselja forest station, in order to accomplish the detection of BVOC and minimize sampling losses. Therefore, a new inlet line, consisting of 19.4m of heated and isolated glass tube was constructed. The new inlet system applied, allowed the on-line detection and calculation of sesquiterpene (SQT) emission rates for the first time in a hemi-boreal forest site. It total, 12 atmospheric relevant BVOCs were continuously monitored for a three week period and the emission rates were derived. Along with diurnal profiles and continuous timeless, some interesting observations showed the possibility of ozone effect on SQT emissions, the possibility of radiation effect on MT emissions, the higher induced emissions due to mechanical stress and the possibility for a valid intercomparison between different spruce trees located in mountain Kleiner Feldberg (Germany) and in Järvseja forest station (Estonia).

  16. The Corrosion Inhibition Characteristics of Sodium Nitrite Using an On-line Corrosion Rate Measurement System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mal-Yong; Kang, Dae-Jin [Korea Polytechnic University, Shiheung (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jeon-Soo [Future Technology Research Laboratory, KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    An on-line corrosion rate measurement system was developed using a personal computer, a data acquisition board and program, and a 2-electrode corrosion probe. Reliability of the developed system was confirmed with through comparison test. With this system, the effect of sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) as a corrosion inhibitor were studied on iron and aluminum brass that were immersed in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Corrosion rate was measured based on the linear polarization resistance method. The corrosion rates of aluminum brass and iron in 1% NaCl solutions were measured to be 0.290 mm per year (mmpy) and 0.2134 mmpy, respectively. With the addition of 200 ppm of NO{sub 2}{sup -}, the corrosion rates decreased to 0.0470 mmpy and 0.0254 mmpy. The addition of NO{sub 2}{sup -} caused a decrease in corrosion rates of both aluminum brass and iron, yet the NO{sub 2}{sup -} acted as a more effective corrosion inhibitor for iron. than aluminum brass.

  17. On-line non-intrusive particle size measurement of pulverised fuel through digital imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the basic principles of particle size measurement and latest industrial results recorded using an innovative optical instrumentation system designed to measure the size distribution of particles in a pneumatic suspension. The system is non-intrusive and cost-effective. A low-cost CCD camera is used to capture images of the particulate flow field, which is illuminated by a low-cost pulsed laser sheet generator. The particle size distribution is then determined by processing the particle images through the use of novel processing algorithms. Experimental results obtained in the past on a small scale particle flow test rig have demonstrated that the system is capable of measuring the size distribution of pneumatically conveyed particles with an accuracy of a few percent. For the present paper results obtained when testing the system at a 4 MW industrial test facility are presented. Comparisons are made with both off-line reference data achieved through sieving and on-line laser diffraction data recorded using an intrusive, extractive, Malvern Instruments system. In general there is good agreement between results when considering the characteristics and limitations of the individual methodologies. The novel imaging system shows itself to be rugged, practical and useful under genuine industrial conditions.

  18. A comparison of emission calculations using different modeled indicators with 1-year online measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengers, Bernd; Schiefler, Inga; Büscher, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    The overall measurement of farm level greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in dairy production is not feasible, from either an engineering or administrative point of view. Instead, computational model systems are used to generate emission inventories, demanding a validation by measurement data. This paper tests the GHG calculation of the dairy farm-level optimization model DAIRYDYN, including methane (CH₄) from enteric fermentation and managed manure. The model involves four emission calculation procedures (indicators), differing in the aggregation level of relevant input variables. The corresponding emission factors used by the indicators range from default per cow (activity level) emissions up to emission factors based on feed intake, manure amount, and milk production intensity. For validation of the CH₄ accounting of the model, 1-year CH₄ measurements of an experimental free-stall dairy farm in Germany are compared to model simulation results. An advantage of this interdisciplinary study is given by the correspondence of the model parameterization and simulation horizon with the experimental farm's characteristics and measurement period. The results clarify that modeled emission inventories (2,898, 4,637, 4,247, and 3,600 kg CO₂-eq. cow(-1) year(-1)) lead to more or less good approximations of online measurements (average 3,845 kg CO₂-eq. cow(-1) year(-1) (±275 owing to manure management)) depending on the indicator utilized. The more farm-specific characteristics are used by the GHG indicator; the lower is the bias of the modeled emissions. Results underline that an accurate emission calculation procedure should capture differences in energy intake, owing to milk production intensity as well as manure storage time. Despite the differences between indicator estimates, the deviation of modeled GHGs using detailed indicators in DAIRYDYN from on-farm measurements is relatively low (between -6.4% and 10.5%), compared with findings from the literature.

  19. PENGARUH TEPUNG DAUN GAMAL DAN DAUN KELOR DALAM UREA CASSAVA BLOK (UCB TERHADAP KECERNAAN, KADAR VFA, DAN NH3 IN-VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N M. WITARIADI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian telah dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang pengaruh tepung daun gamal dan daun kelor sebagai sumber protein dalam urea cassava blok (UCB terhadap kecernaan bahan kering, bahan organik, kadar VFA, dan NH3 cairan rumen pakan jerami padi secara invitro. Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan mempergunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan 3 perlakuan dan 5 ulangan. Sehingga secara keseluruhan terdapat 15 unit penelitian. Adapun ketiga perlakuan tersebut adalah: Perlakuan A (jerami padi + UCB yang ditambah tepung daun kelor; B (jerami padi + UCB yang ditambah tepung daun gamal, dan C (jerami padi + UCB yang ditambah tepung daun kelor dan daun gamal. Varibel yang diamati adalah kecernaan bahan kering (KCBK , kecernaan bahan organik (KCBO in-vitro, produksi vollatile fatty acid (VFA, produksi NH3, dan pH supernatan. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan bahwa KCBK, KCBO invitro, VFA, NH3, dan pH supernatan pada ketiga perlakuan berbeda nyata (P<0,05. Penggunaan daun gamal sebagai sumber protein pada UCB menghasilkan KCBK, KCBO, VFA, NH3, tertinggi dibandingkan dengan daun kelor maupun kombinasi antara daun gamal dan daun kelor. EFFECT OF USING GLIRICIDIA (Gliricidia sepium AND MORINGA (Moringa oleifera LEAVES MEALS IN UREA CASSAVA BLOCK (UCB ON DIGESTIBILITY, VOLLATILE FATTY ACID, AND NH3 IN-VITRO. ABSTRACT The experiment has been conducted in order to now the effect of Gliricidia sepium and Moringa oleifera leaves meal a source of protein in urea cassava block (UCB to the digestibility dray matter and organic matter , VFA and ammonia concentration with rice straw diet. The experiment set in completely randomized design using three treatment. The treatment are: A (rise straw + UCB with Moringa; B (rise straw + UCB with Gliricidia sepium, and C (rise straw + UCB with Moringa and Gliricidia sepium. The observed variable are: dry matter, organic matter digestibility, volatile fatty acid, ammonia concentration, and pH rumen juice

  20. Increasing of MERARG experimental performances: on-line fission gas release measurement by mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontillon, Y.; Capdevila, H.; Clement, S. [CEA, DEN, DEC, SA3C, LAMIR, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance, (France); Guigues, E.; Janulyte, A.; Zerega, Y.; Andre, J. [Aix-Marseille Universite, LISA EA 4672, 13397 MARSEILLE cedex 20, (France)

    2015-07-01

    The MERARG device - implemented at the LECASTAR Hot Laboratory, at the CEA Cadarache - allows characterizing nuclear fuels with respect to the behaviour of fission gases during thermal transients representative of normal or off normal operating nuclear power plant conditions. The fuel is heated in order to extract a part or the total gas inventory it contains. Fission Gas Release (FGR) is actually recorded by mean of both on-line gamma spectrometry station and micro gas chromatography. These two devices monitor the quantity and kinetics of fission gas release rate. They only address {sup 85}Kr radioactive isotope and the elemental quantification of Kr, Xe and He (with a relatively low detection limit in the latter case, typically 5-10 ppm). In order to better estimate the basic mechanisms that promote fission gas release from irradiated nuclear fuels, the CEA fuel study department decided to improve its experimental facility by modifying MERARG to extend the studies of gamma emitter fission gases to all gases (including Helium) with a complete isotopic distribution capability. To match these specifications, a Residual Gas Analyser (RGA) has been chosen as mass spectrometer. This paper presents a review of the main aspects of the qualification/calibration phase of the RGA type analyser. In particular, results recorded over three mass ranges 1-10 u, 80-90 u and 120-140 u in the two classical modes of MERARG, i.e. on-line and off-line measurements are discussed. Results obtained from a standard gas bottle show that the quantitative analysis at a few ppm levels can be achieved for all isotopes of Kr and Xe, as well as masses 2 and 4 u. (authors)

  1. Light scattering and transmission measurement using digital imaging for online analysis of constituents in milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Pranay; Sarma, Sanjay E.

    2015-05-01

    Milk is an emulsion of fat globules and casein micelles dispersed in an aqueous medium with dissolved lactose, whey proteins and minerals. Quantification of constituents in milk is important in various stages of the dairy supply chain for proper process control and quality assurance. In field-level applications, spectrophotometric analysis is an economical option due to the low-cost of silicon photodetectors, sensitive to UV/Vis radiation with wavelengths between 300 - 1100 nm. Both absorption and scattering are witnessed as incident UV/Vis radiation interacts with dissolved and dispersed constituents in milk. These effects can in turn be used to characterize the chemical and physical composition of a milk sample. However, in order to simplify analysis, most existing instrument require dilution of samples to avoid effects of multiple scattering. The sample preparation steps are usually expensive, prone to human errors and unsuitable for field-level and online analysis. This paper introduces a novel digital imaging based method of online spectrophotometric measurements on raw milk without any sample preparation. Multiple LEDs of different emission spectra are used as discrete light sources and a digital CMOS camera is used as an image sensor. The extinction characteristic of samples is derived from captured images. The dependence of multiple scattering on power of incident radiation is exploited to quantify scattering. The method has been validated with experiments for response with varying fat concentrations and fat globule sizes. Despite of the presence of multiple scattering, the method is able to unequivocally quantify extinction of incident radiation and relate it to the fat concentrations and globule sizes of samples.

  2. Development of an on-line radiation detection and measurements laboratory course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Derick G.

    An on-line radiation detection and measurements lab is being developed with a grant from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The on-line laboratory experiments are designed to provide a realistic laboratory experience and will be offered to students at colleges/universities where such a course is not offered. This thesis presents four web-based experiments: 1) nuclear electronics, 2) gamma-ray spectroscopy with scintillation detectors, 3) gamma-ray attenuation in matter and external dosimetry, and 4) alpha spectroscopy and absorption in matter. The students access the experiments through a broad-band internet connection. Computer-controlled instrumentation developed in National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW(TM) communicates with the URSA-II (SE International, Inc.) data acquisition system, which controls the detector bias voltage, pulse shaping, amplifier gain, and ADC. Detector and amplifier output pulses can be displayed with other instrumentation developed in LabVIEW(TM) for the digital oscilloscope (USB-5132, NI). Additional instrumentation developed in LabVIEW(TM) is used to control the positions of all sources with stepper motor controllers (VXM-1, Velmex, Inc.) and to adjust pressure in the alpha chamber with a digital vacuum regulator (Model 200, J-KEM, Inc.). Unique interactive interfaces are created by integrating all of the necessary instrumentation to conduct each lab. These interfaces provide students with seamless functionality for data acquisition, experimental control, and live data display with real-time updates for each experiment. A webcam is set up to stream the experiment live so the student can observe the physical instruments and receive visual feedback from the system in real time.

  3. SU-E-T-602: Patient-Specific Online Dose Verification Based On Transmission Detector Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoelking, J; Yuvaraj, S; Jens, F; Lohr, F; Wenz, F; Wertz, H; Wertz, H [University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy requires a comprehensive quality assurance program in general and ideally independent verification of dose delivery. Since conventional 2D detector arrays allow only pre-treatment verification, there is a debate concerning the need of online dose verification. This study presents the clinical performance, including dosimetric plan verification in 2D as well as in 3D and the error detection abilities of a new transmission detector (TD) for online dose verification of 6MV photon beam. Methods: To validate the dosimetric performance of the new device, dose reconstruction based on TD measurements were compared to a conventional pre-treatment verification method (reference) and treatment planning system (TPS) for 18 IMRT and VMAT treatment plans. Furthermore, dose reconstruction inside the patient based on TD read-out was evaluated by comparing various dose volume indices and 3D gamma evaluations against independent dose computation and TPS. To investigate the sensitivity of the new device, different types of systematic and random errors for leaf positions and linac output were introduced in IMRT treatment sequences. Results: The 2D gamma index evaluation of transmission detector based dose reconstruction showed an excellent agreement for all IMRT and VMAT plans compared to reference measurements (99.3±1.2)% and TPS (99.1±0.7)%. Good agreement was also obtained for 3D dose reconstruction based on TD read-out compared to dose computation (mean gamma value of PTV = 0.27±0.04). Only a minimal dose underestimation within the target volume was observed when analyzing DVH indices (<1%). Positional errors in leaf banks larger than 1mm and errors in linac output larger than 2% could clearly identified with the TD. Conclusion: Since 2D and 3D evaluations for all IMRT and VMAT treatment plans were in excellent agreement with reference measurements and dose computation, the new TD is suitable to qualify for routine treatment plan

  4. Word knowledge in the crowd: Measuring vocabulary size and word prevalence in a massive online experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuleers, Emmanuel; Stevens, Michaël; Mandera, Paweł; Brysbaert, Marc

    2015-01-01

    We use the results of a large online experiment on word knowledge in Dutch to investigate variables influencing vocabulary size in a large population and to examine the effect of word prevalence-the percentage of a population knowing a word-as a measure of word occurrence. Nearly 300,000 participants were presented with about 70 word stimuli (selected from a list of 53,000 words) in an adapted lexical decision task. We identify age, education, and multilingualism as the most important factors influencing vocabulary size. The results suggest that the accumulation of vocabulary throughout life and in multiple languages mirrors the logarithmic growth of number of types with number of tokens observed in text corpora (Herdan's law). Moreover, the vocabulary that multilinguals acquire in related languages seems to increase their first language (L1) vocabulary size and outweighs the loss caused by decreased exposure to L1. In addition, we show that corpus word frequency and prevalence are complementary measures of word occurrence covering a broad range of language experiences. Prevalence is shown to be the strongest independent predictor of word processing times in the Dutch Lexicon Project, making it an important variable for psycholinguistic research.

  5. On-line digital holographic measurement of size and shape of microparticles for crystallization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, Taslima; Darakis, Emmanouil; Rajendran, Arvind; Kariwala, Vinay; Asundi, Anand K.; Naughton, Thomas J.

    2008-09-01

    Crystallization is a widely used chemical process that finds applications in pharmaceutical industries. In an industrial crystallization process, it is not only important to produce pure crystals but also to control the shape and size of the crystals, as they affect the efficiency of downstream processes and the dissolution property of the drug. The effectiveness of control algorithms depend on the availability of on-line, real-time information about these critical properties. In this paper, we investigate the use of lens-less in-line digital holographic microscopy for size and shape measurements for crystallization processes. For this purpose, we use non-crystalline spherical microparticles and carbon fibers with known sizes present in a liquid suspension as test systems. We propose an algorithm to extract size and shape information for a population of microparticles from the experimentally recorded digital holograms. The measurements obtained from the proposed method show good agreement with the corresponding known size and shape of the particles.

  6. Understanding channel purchase intentions : Measuring online and offline shopping value perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, T.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation investigates consumers’ prepurchase evaluations of buying books offline and online. It synthesizes the E-Commerce and perceived value literature to develop a conceptual model that explains online and offline purchase intentions. Based on this literature review, it is proposed that

  7. Understanding channel purchase intentions : Measuring online and offline shopping value perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, T.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation investigates consumers’ prepurchase evaluations of buying books offline and online. It synthesizes the E-Commerce and perceived value literature to develop a conceptual model that explains online and offline purchase intentions. Based on this literature review, it is proposed that

  8. A Question of Interface Design: How Do Online Service GUIs Measure Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Alison J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes recent improvements in graphical user interfaces (GUIs) offered by online services. Highlights include design considerations, including computer engineering capabilities and users' abilities; fundamental GUI design principles; user empowerment; visual communication and interaction; and an evaluation of online search interfaces. (LRW)

  9. Assessment of metabolic properties and kinetic parameters of methanogenic sludge by on-line methane production rate measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Gil, G.; Kleerebezem, R.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new approach to studying the metabolic and kinetic properties of anaerobic sludge from single batch experiments. The two main features of the method are that the methane production is measured on-line with a relatively cheap system, and that the methane production data can be

  10. Measuring MFT's Mental Health Literacy and Competence: The Effects of an On-Line Introductory Workshop on Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Ellsworth, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of study: The purpose of the validity study was to establish known-groups validity of the two measures used for the main study by comparing the responses of the Eating Disorder experts and non-experts. The purpose of the main study was to develop an on-line introductory workshop on eating disorders and investigate the levels of competency…

  11. Measuring MFT's Mental Health Literacy and Competence: The Effects of an On-Line Introductory Workshop on Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Ellsworth, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of study: The purpose of the validity study was to establish known-groups validity of the two measures used for the main study by comparing the responses of the Eating Disorder experts and non-experts. The purpose of the main study was to develop an on-line introductory workshop on eating disorders and investigate the levels of competency…

  12. A system for accurate on-line measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in microbioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Michiel; Heijnen, Joseph J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Oudshoorn, Arthur; Noorman, Henk; Visser, Jan; van der Wielen, Luuk A.M.; van Gulik, Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed, based on pressure controlled gas pumping, for accurate measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in the nmol/min range, applicable for on-line monitoring of bioconversions in microbioreactors. The system was validated by carrying out a bioconversion with

  13. A system for accurate on-line measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in microbioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van Michiel; Heijnen, Joseph J.; Gardeniers, Han; Oudshoorn, Arthur; Noorman, Henk; Visser, Jan; Wielen, van der Luuk A.M.; Gulik, van Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed, based on pressure controlled gas pumping, for accurate measurement of total gas consumption or production rates in the nmol/min range, applicable for on-line monitoring of bioconversions in microbioreactors. The system was validated by carrying out a bioconversion with k

  14. Identification of imine or enamine drug metabolites using online hydrogen/deuterium exchange and exact mass measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Austin C; Yu, Erya; Ring, Steven C; Chovan, James P

    2012-04-30

    Drug metabolites that have imine or enamine partial structures cause extra mass-to-charge (m/z) increases in online hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) in addition to hydroxyl or amine protons. Online HDX and exact mass measurement were used herein to characterize this extra increase property, and to further confirm proposed metabolite structures. Metabolites of two proprietary compounds as well as two commercially available compounds were analyzed using aqueous and HDX liquid chromatography coupled with an LTQ-Orbitrap. The exact mass measurements of both the precursor ions and product ions were acquired through data-dependent acquisition and compared with theoretical values of proposed fragment ions. Analysis of exact mass measurements of metabolite product ions under both normal aqueous and HDX conditions led to the identification of the isoxazole ring opening of compound C-1, and a double-bond formation on the methylpyrrolidine ring of compound C-2 during biotransformation. In both cases, imine or enamine structures formed in the metabolites caused extra m/z increases upon HDX that contributed confirmatory information to the structure identification. The compound 3,3-diphenyl-2-ethyl-1-pyrroline also demonstrated that the methylene protons adjacent to the imine were exchanged during online HDX. The exchangeability of methylene protons adjacent to imine or enamine moieties proved to be useful to narrow down or even pinpoint the metabolism sites of parent drugs when high-resolution exact mass measurement and online HDX were used. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Optimizing the locations of the measuring points for an online calculation of the exhaust flue-gas loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobnic, B.; Oman, J.; Kustrin, I.; Rotnik, U. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Uros Rotnik Sostanj Power Plant, Sostanj (Slovenia)

    2005-03-01

    Flue gas properties are very important for evaluation of a boiler's performance. Non-homogeneity of the properties and large dimensions of flue-gas ducts require measurements with large number of measuring points to provide high accuracy of measurement results. An analysis of simpler measuring methods is presented. It is shown that high accuracy can be achieved with small number of measuring points if their positions are optimised with respect to pre-determined conditions in the flue gas duct. The methods can be used as operational measurements to monitor boiler's performance and for on-line calculation of boiler's efficiency. (orig.)

  16. A within-subjects trial to test the equivalence of online and paper outcome measures: the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prentice Philippa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Augmenting validated paper versions of existing outcome measures with an equivalent online version may offer substantial research advantages (cost, rapidity and reliability. However, equivalence of online and paper questionnaires cannot be assumed, nor can acceptability to respondents. The aim was to test whether online and written versions of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ, a standard measure of functional disability in back pain, are equivalent at both group and individual levels to establish whether they can be used interchangeably. Methods This is a within-participants equivalence study. 167 participants with back pain fully completed both the paper and online versions of the RMDQ in random order. Participants were recruited from a chiropractic clinic and patient support groups in Southern England. Limits of equivalence were pre-defined as 0.5 RMDQ points, the Bland-Altman range was calculated, and participants' comments were examined using content analysis. Results The mean score difference was 0.03 (SD = 1.43, with the 95% Confidence Interval falling entirely within our limits of equivalence (-0.19 to 0.25. The Bland-Altman range was -2.77 to 2.83 RMDQ points. Participants identified unique advantages and disadvantages associated with each version of the RMDQ. Conclusions The group and individual level data suggest that online and paper versions of the RMDQ are equivalent and can be used interchangeably. The Bland-Altman range appears to reflect the known measurement properties of the RMDQ. Furthermore, participants' comments confirmed the potential value to be had from offering them the choice of completing the RMDQ online or on paper.

  17. Online measurements of surface tensions and viscosities based on the hydrodynamics of Taylor flow in a microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanhong; Guo, Chaohong; Jiang, Yuyan; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Lei

    2016-11-01

    This paper demonstrates an online measurement technique which can measure both surface tension and viscosity for confined fluids in microfluidic systems. The surface tension and viscosity are determined by monitoring the liquid film thickness deposited in a microchannel based on the hydrodynamics of Taylor flow. Measurements were carried out for pure liquids and binary aqueous liquid mixtures. The results agreed well with reference data and theoretical models. This novel method has considerable potential for measuring dynamic interfacial tension of complex mixtures. Furthermore, it offers opportunity for integrating property measurement with two-phase flow in microchannel, opening new lines of applications.

  18. Turbidimetric Measurement for On-line Monitoring of SiO{sub 2} Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Sook; Lim, H. B. [Dankook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yang Sun [Proteonik, Inc., Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    In this work, the fundamental study of on-line monitoring of SiO{sub 2} particles in the size range of 40 nm to 725 nm was carried out using turbidimetry. The size of particle was measured using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The factors affecting on the turbidity were discussed, for example, wavelength, size, and concentration. In order to observe the dependence of turbidity on the wavelength, a turbidimetric system equipped with charged coupled detector (CCD) was built. The shape of the transmitted peak was changed and the peak maximum was shifted to the red when the concentration of particle was increased. This result indicates that the turbidity is related to the wavelength, which corresponds to the characteristic of the Mie extinction coefficient, Q, that is a function of not only particle diameter and refractive index but also wavelength. It is clear that a linear calibration curve for each particle in different size can be obtained at an optimized wavelength.

  19. Measuring Validity And Reliability of Perception of Online Collaborative Learning Questionnaire Using Rasch Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Nadiyah Razali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to generate empirical evidence on the validity and reliability of Perception of Online Collaborative Learning Questionnaire (POCLQ using Rasch model. The questionnaire was distributed to 32 (N=32 Diploma Hotel Catering students from Politeknik Ibrahim Sultan, Johor (PIS. Data obtained was analysed using WINSTEP version 3.68 software. The finding showed that POCLQ had high reliability with five categories of difficulties items. So, it can be concluded that POCLQ is reliable and strongly accepted. Meanwhile, analysis of items fit showed there were six items that are not in the specified range and based on standardised residual correlation measurement value; there were five items found to be overlapped that should be dropped. All the items that needed to be dropped based on the analysis of result had been refined and retained for the purpose of the study and based on expert's view. Therefore, all items remained after Rasch analysis. It is hoped that this study will give emphasis to other researchers about the importance of analysing items to ensure the quality of an instrument being developed.

  20. Optofluidic multi-measurement system for the online monitoring of lubricant oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschooten, Tom; Callewaert, Manly; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Vervaeke, Michael; Van Erps, Jürgen; De Malsche, Wim; Grazia Mignani, Anna; Thienpont, Hugo; Ottevaere, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    We show a detection system that simultaneously allows absorbance (ABS), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and scattering detection excited by two different laser sources at 405 nm and 450 nm. The heart of the system consists of a mass manufacturable polymer optofluidic chip. The chip is mounted in an optical detection assembly that aligns the chip to the rest of the system, seals the chip from leakage, fixes the position and connects the channels to the rest of the fluidic system. The fluidics exhibit a reduced susceptibility to perturbations caused by air bubbles, this is accomplished by making use of a serpentine channel layout. For coumarin 480, detection limits of 100 nM and 10 pM are observed for ABS and LIF respectively. An effective detection range of 4000 down to 1 nephelometric turbidity units is shown for the detection of scattered light. The viscous behaviour of the sample is analysed by a secondary FFT processing step of which the result is further processed by multivariate data analysis. This allows the identification of samples and prediction of their quality parameters. We apply this system for the monitoring of lubricant oil, demonstrating its ability to compete with spectroscopic detection techniques. The low-cost approach and multi-measurement architecture shown in this paper pave the way for miniaturized on-line monitoring of liquids in an industrial environment.

  1. Online Measurement Perspectives for Students’ Strategy Use: Tool Use within a Content Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griet Lust

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates whether students’ tool use in a Content Management Systems (CMSs for example, blackboard, WebCT, relates to students’ strategy use within a CMS-supported course. In this way, the study strives to explain the tool use differences, and furthermore, it strives to find (online behavioral indications for students’ strategy use. Data were collected within a first-year undergraduate course “Learning & Instruction”. Students (n=182 reported their strategy use as measured through the Inventory of Learning Styles (Vermunt, 1998. Students’ tool use within the CMS was logged. K-means cluster analyses revealed four clusters that were characterized by different strategies and accompanying tool use. Specifically, two clusters revealed a tool use pattern that was in line with the behavioral profile of students’-reported strategy use. Interestingly, two clusters revealed a tool use pattern that was in contrast to the reported strategy use. These results raise questions with respect to students’ tool perceptions and students’ calibration capacities.

  2. Online educative activities for solar ultraviolet radiation based on measurements of cloud amount and solar exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, A V; Downs, N; Turner, J; Amar, A

    2016-09-01

    A set of online activities for children and the community that are based on an integrated real-time solar UV and cloud measurement system are described. These activities use the functionality of the internet to provide an educative tool for school children and the public on the influence of cloud and the angle of the sun above the horizon on the global erythemal UV or sunburning UV, the diffuse erythemal UV, the global UVA (320-400nm) and the vitamin D effective UV. Additionally, the units of UV exposure and UV irradiance are investigated, along with the meaning and calculation of the UV index (UVI). This research will help ensure that children and the general public are better informed about sun safety by improving their personal understanding of the daily and the atmospheric factors that influence solar UV radiation and the solar UV exposures of the various wavebands in the natural environment. The activities may correct common misconceptions of children and the public about UV irradiances and exposure, utilising the widespread reach of the internet to increase the public's awareness of the factors influencing UV irradiances and exposures in order to provide clear information for minimizing UV exposure, while maintaining healthy, outdoor lifestyles.

  3. Processing of situational information in story problem texts. An analysis from on-line measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrantia, Josetxu; Muñez, David; Vicente, Santiago; Verschaffel, Lieven; Rosales, Javier

    2014-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the extent to which readers process information related to the construction of a situation model when they are confronted with solving word problems. Considering that generation of inferences to match actions with particular goals is part of constructing of the situation model, we constructed "rich story problems", that is, word problems included in the context of a story, in which the characters propose goals, and then these goals are followed by actions to achieve it. In Experiments 1 and 2 the story problems were designed so that the character's goal was related to the activation of a problem schema, either explicitly (Experiment 1) or implicitly (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3 the problem schema activation was clearly separated from the goal information. In all three experiments, goal information availability was assessed by on-line measures. The results showed that participants processed situational information by keeping track of characters' goals. These results fit nicely with those studies that emphasize the role of situation model construction in word problem solving.

  4. Online single particle measurements of black carbon coatings, structure and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, James; Liu, Dantong; Taylor, Jonathan; Flynn, Michael; Williams, Paul; Morgan, William; Whitehead, James; Alfarra, Rami; McFiggans, Gordon; Coe, Hugh

    2016-04-01

    The impacts of black carbon on meteorology and climate remain a major source of uncertainty, owing in part to the complex relationship between the bulk composition of the particulates and their optical properties. A particular complication stems from how light interacts with particles in response to the microphysical configuration and any 'coatings', i.e. non-black carbon material that is either co-emitted or subsequently obtained through atmospheric processing. This may cause the particle to more efficiently absorb or scatter light and may even change the sign of its radiative forcing potential. While much insight has been gained through measurements of bulk aerosol properties, either while suspended or after collection on a filter or impactor substrate, this does not provide a complete picture and thus may not adequately constrain the system. Here we present an overview of recent work to better constrain the properties of black carbon using online, in situ measurements of single particles, primarily using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). We have developed novel methods of inverting the data produced and combining the different metrics derived so as to give the most effective insights into black carbon sources, processes and properties. We have also used this measurement in conjunction with other instruments (sometimes in series) and used the data to challenge many commonly used models of optical properties such as core-shell Mie, Rayleigh-Debeye-Gans and effective medium. This work has been carried out in a variety of atmospheric environments and with laboratory-produced soots, e.g. from a diesel engine rig. Highlights include the finding that with real-world atmospheric aerosols, bulk optical measurements may be insufficient to derive brown carbon parameters without detailed morphological data. We also show that the enhancement of absorption for both ambient and laboratory generated particles only occurs after the coating mass fraction reaches a certain

  5. The online measured black carbon aerosol and source orientations in the Nam Co region, Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Ming, Jing; Li, Zhongqin; Wang, Feiteng; Zhang, Guoshuai

    2017-09-17

    Equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations were measured by an aethalometer (AE-31) in the Nam Co, central Tibet from 2010 to 2014. Different from previous filter-sampling studies (Ming et al., J Environ Sci 22(11):1748-1756, 2010; Zhao et al., Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:5827-5838, 2013), the first high-resolution online eBC measurement conducted in central Tibet is reported here, allowing to discuss the diurnal variations as well as seasonal variabilities of eBC. Average daily eBC concentration was 74 ± 50 ng/m(3), reflecting a global background level. Meteorological conditions influenced eBC concentrations largely at seasonal scale, which are higher in February-May but lower in June-January. The highest eBC concentrations (greater than 210 ng/m(3)) were more associated with the W and WSW winds smaller than 6 m/s. The diurnal variations of eBC showed plateaus from 10:00 to 15:00 with seasonal variations, associated with local anthropogenic activities, such as indigenous Tibetan burning animal waste and tourism traffic. The PBLHs showed a co-variance with eBC concentrations, implicating close sources. The aerosol optical depths derived from the MODIS data over the Nam Co Observatory Station (NCOS)-included sub-area (30° N-40° N, 90° E-100° E) showed significant relationship with eBC concentrations. This suggests that nearby or short-distance sources other than long-distance transported pollutants could be important contributors to eBC concentrations at the NCOS, different from the conclusions suggested by previous studies.

  6. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Nuyens, F; Deleuze, J; Maurage, P; Griffiths, MD; Kuss, DJ; Billieux, J

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the p...

  7. What Drives Students to Complete Online Courses? What Drives Faculty to Teach Online? Validating a Measure of Motivation Orientation in University Students and Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ruth; Stewart, Cindy; Bachman, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Although online student enrollment has shown double digit growth for almost a decade and academic leaders recognize that online education is necessary for enrollment growth, little is known about what motivates students to enroll in or faculty to teach face-to-face (F2F) versus online courses. The psychometric properties of a motivation scale were…

  8. What Drives Students to Complete Online Courses? What Drives Faculty to Teach Online? Validating a Measure of Motivation Orientation in University Students and Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ruth; Stewart, Cindy; Bachman, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Although online student enrollment has shown double digit growth for almost a decade and academic leaders recognize that online education is necessary for enrollment growth, little is known about what motivates students to enroll in or faculty to teach face-to-face (F2F) versus online courses. The psychometric properties of a motivation scale were…

  9. Process Analytical Technology and On-Line Spectroscopic Measurements of Chemical Meat Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Klavs Martin

    This thesis deals with process analytical technology and how it can be implemented in the meat industry through on-line grading of chemical meat quality. The focus will be on two applications, namely the rapid quality control of fat quality and the development of a method for on-line detection of...... quality, but also with environmental issues such as energy and water use and animal welfare. Future research into the technologies will ultimately allow broad on-line screening of biomarkers, leading to on-line metabolomics......This thesis deals with process analytical technology and how it can be implemented in the meat industry through on-line grading of chemical meat quality. The focus will be on two applications, namely the rapid quality control of fat quality and the development of a method for on-line detection...... of boar taint. The chemical makeup of fat has a large effect on meat cut quality. Fat quality has traditionally been determined by methylation of a tissue sample followed by chromatography on a GC-MS system, elucidating the composition of the individual fatty acids. As this procedure typically takes far...

  10. Online data base of satellite sounder and insitu measurements covering two solar cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza, D.; Reinisch, B.; Benson, R.; Grebowsky, J.; Papitashvili, N.; Huang, X.; Schar, W.; Hills, K.

    Accurate descriptions of the solar cycle variations of ionospheric parameters are an important goal of ionospheric modeling. Reliable predictions of these variations are of essential importance for almost all applications of ionospheric models. Unfortunately there are very few global data sources that cover a solar cycle or more. In an effort to expand the solar cycle coverage of data readily available for ionospheric modeling, we have processed a large number of satellite data sets from the sixties, seventies, and early eighties and have made them online accessible as part of NSSDC's ftp archive (http://nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacecraft data/) and it's ATMOWeb retrieval and plotting system (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/atmoweb/). We report about two data restoration efforts supported through NASA's Applied Information Systems Research Program (AISRP). The first project deals with insitu data from a large number of US, Canadian, Japanese and German satellites that measured ionospheric densities and temperatures from 1964 to 1983. The accumulated data base includes data from the BE-B, DME-A, AE-B, Alouette 2, ISIS 1, 2, OGO-6, AEROS A, AE-C, -D, -E, Hinotori, ISS-b and DE-2 satellite missions. The second project involves the production of digital topside sounder ionograms from the ISIS 1 and 2 satellites and their subsequent inversion to produce electron-density profiles. Approximately 340,000 ionograms are available from NSSDC as of July 2002. An automatic topside ionogram scaler with true height algorithm (TOPIST) was developed as part of this project and is now being used to obtain electron density profiles from these ionograms. Providing global coverage over more than two solar cycles the database established by this two projects is a valuable asset for improvements of the International Reference Ionosphere model and for ionospheric research.

  11. A realtime, online automated system for measurement of Phosphate ions in atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violaki, Kalliopi; Fang, Ting; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Weber, Rodney James; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-04-01

    Primary productivity of continental and marine ecosystems is often limited or co-limited by phosphorus. Of particular interest is the role of phosphorus in marine primary productivity, owing to its potential for affecting the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The atmosphere is considered a principal source of externally-supplied nutrients for large areas of the surface ocean, and oligotrophic open oceans in particular. Atmospheric inorganic P species (e.g. mono- or diprotonated orthophosphate) comprise the most bioavailable P form, and have been studied for many decades. Nevertheless, there are very large uncertainties in the phosphate biogeochemical budget due to the lack of observations and the poor match of the model to observations. This study presents a novel automated on-line, real-time analytical method for the analysis of water-soluble PO4-3 ions in atmospheric particles. The instrumentation consists of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) coupled with a reaction coil to allow reagents to interact with the PILS liquid flow; the composite flow is then introduced into a mini spectrophotometer, which is equipped with a long path length of 250cm Liquid Wavequide Capillary Cell (LWCC), achieving low detection limit. This new system overcomes the limitations on detection and time resolution, as the configuration presented allows for measurement with 8 minute resolution. The data, when combined with routine PILS-IC or aerosol mass spectrometry, allows for an unprecedented insight towards the drivers of phosphate solubility and its relation to acidification from atmospheric acids. We present results for concentration of PM2.5 PO4-3 in Atlanta Georgia for a 2 month period (February-March, 2015) and the Eastern Mediterranean and its relation to aerosol acidity and other meteorological parameters. The results are discussed together with future directions towards optimized performance during long periods of operation.

  12. Research on Influential Factors Analysis and Uncertainty Evaluation About Connected Liquid Level Sensor System Online Measuring Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, L.; Liu, J.

    The accuracy of damage alarming and damage identification of bridge structural and the reliability of reliability evaluation and the fatigue life evaluation depend on the data of sensor. At present, sample calibration is only done hi the initial installation of sensors of the sensing system for long-term monitoring of the bridge and generally is not done in using. So whether the system is stable and reliable is unable to be known. In this paper, on the model of connected liquid level sensor system, value traceability approach of sensor system online measuring method is studied by the field experiment and theory research based on technical index of measurement (output displacement) proposed by output parameters of integrated deflection sensing system. Applicable connected liquid level sensor system online measuring method is established and influential factors and the uncertainty are analyzed. Finally the applicable scope of the method is obtained. This paper has made the beneficial exploration on online measurement of the instrument after the installation of the bridge health monitoring system.

  13. On-line depth measurement for laser-drilled holes based on the intensity of plasma emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chao-Ching; Chiu, Chih-Mu; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Hsu, Jin-Chen; Kuo, Chia-Lung

    2014-09-01

    The direct time-resolved depth measurement of blind holes is extremely difficult due to the short time interval and the limited space inside the hole. This work presents a method that involves on-line plasma emission acquisition and analysis to obtain correlations between the machining processes and the optical signal output. Given that the depths of laser-machined holes can be estimated on-line using a coaxial photodiode, this was employed in our inspection system. Our experiments were conducted in air under normal atmospheric conditions without gas assist. The intensity of radiation emitted from the vaporized material was found to correlate with the depth of the hole. The results indicate that the estimated depths of the laser-drilled holes were inversely proportional to the maximum plasma light emission measured for a given laser pulse number.

  14. Process Analytical Technology and On-Line Spectroscopic Measurements of Chemical Meat Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Klavs Martin

    This thesis deals with process analytical technology and how it can be implemented in the meat industry through on-line grading of chemical meat quality. The focus will be on two applications, namely the rapid quality control of fat quality and the development of a method for on-line detection...... of boar taint. The chemical makeup of fat has a large effect on meat cut quality. Fat quality has traditionally been determined by methylation of a tissue sample followed by chromatography on a GC-MS system, elucidating the composition of the individual fatty acids. As this procedure typically takes far...... on surgical castration will be in effect starting 2018. With the ban, the risk of meat products with the malodorous taint reaching the consumer is highly increased, and thus, detection of boar taint is a necessity. No current on-line detection system is available; the only alternative is chemical extraction...

  15. Experimental Study on an On-Line Measurement of High Temperature Circulating Ash Flux in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Xiaofeng; Li Yourong

    2001-01-01

    A new kind of measuring method that may be used to measure high temperature circulating solid particles flux in a circulating fluidized bed boiler is studied in this paper. The measuring method is founded on the principle of thermal equilibrium. A series of cold tests and hot tests were carried to optimize the structure and collocation of water-cooling tubes and showed that the method had the advantage of simple, accurate, reliable and good applicability for on-line usage in a circulating fluidized bed boiler.

  16. Introducing process analytical technology (PAT) in filamentous cultivation process development: comparison of advanced online sensors for biomass measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnest, Nanna Petersen; Stocks, Stuart M; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Gernaey, Krist V

    2011-10-01

    The recent process analytical technology (PAT) initiative has put an increased focus on online sensors to generate process-relevant information in real time. Specifically for fermentation, however, introduction of online sensors is often far from straightforward, and online measurement of biomass is one of the best examples. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare the performance of various online biomass sensors, and secondly to demonstrate their use in early development of a filamentous cultivation process. Eight Streptomyces coelicolor fed-batch cultivations were run as part of process development in which the pH, the feeding strategy, and the medium composition were varied. The cultivations were monitored in situ using multi-wavelength fluorescence (MWF) spectroscopy, scanning dielectric (DE) spectroscopy, and turbidity measurements. In addition, we logged all of the classical cultivation data, such as the carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER) and the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Prediction models for the biomass concentrations were estimated on the basis of the individual sensors and on combinations of the sensors. The results showed that the more advanced sensors based on MWF and scanning DE spectroscopy did not offer any advantages over the simpler sensors based on dual frequency DE spectroscopy, turbidity, and CER measurements for prediction of biomass concentration. By combining CER, DE spectroscopy, and turbidity measurements, the prediction error was reduced to 1.5 g/l, corresponding to 6% of the covered biomass range. Moreover, by using multiple sensors it was possible to check the quality of the individual predictions and switch between the sensors in real time.

  17. Online Measurements of Water-Soluble Iron in Ambient Aerosols: A new Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, N.; Oakes, M.; Weber, R. J.; Majestic, B. J.; Shafer, M. M.; Snyder, D. C.; Schauer, J. J.

    2008-05-01

    Water-soluble iron, i.e. Fe(II) (hereafter, WS-Fe), is a redox active metal that can act as a catalyst in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In atmospheric aerosol particles, WS-Fe may significantly impact human health and the atmospheric oxidative capacity. Further, WS-Fe acts as a critical nutrient for marine organisms and has been hypothesized to limit phytoplankton productivity in high nitrate, low-chlorophyll ocean regions. In order to assess the role of aerosol WS-Fe on human health, atmospheric chemistry and ocean biogeochemistry, it is necessary to understand its major sources, transport, transformation processes and sinks. Filter-based measurements with several (6-24) hours integration time are predominately used to quantify WS-Fe in aerosols but provide limited insight into acute exposures that could be higher than daily averages, or sources having high temporal variability. Generally, mineral dust and its processing with acidic pollutants, is considered the dominant source of WS-Fe, however, recent studies have reported combustion emissions are also a possible source. A time-resolved data set may help in identifying WS-Fe sources, atmospheric transformations and possible sinks. We have developed a new system for online quantitative analyses of WS-Fe present in ambient aerosols with a 12-minute integration time. It mainly consists of Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler (PILS), a liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC) and a portable UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The complete system is automated so that first the liquid sample (water-extract of ambient aerosols from PILS) is mixed with ferrozine (complexing reagent) by pumping them simultaneously (10:1) through a serpentine reactor and a 100 turn mixing coil using a peristaltic pump. After holding the mixed solution in the mixing coil for three minutes, the sample is pumped through the LWCC and held there for two minutes to acquire the absorbance of the solution at 562 nm (for Fe

  18. Measuring organisational readiness for patient engagement (MORE): an international online Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostendorp, Linda J M; Durand, Marie-Anne; Lloyd, Amy; Elwyn, Glyn

    2015-02-14

    Widespread implementation of patient engagement by organisations and clinical teams is not a reality yet. The aim of this study is to develop a measure of organisational readiness for patient engagement designed to monitor and facilitate a healthcare organisation's willingness and ability to effectively implement patient engagement in healthcare. The development of the MORE (Measuring Organisational Readiness for patient Engagement) scale was guided by Weiner's theory of organisational readiness for change. Weiner postulates that an organisation's readiness is determined by both the willingness and ability to implement the change (i.e. in this context: patient engagement). A first version of the scale was developed based on a literature search and evaluation of pre-existing tools. We invited multi-disciplinary stakeholders to participate in a two-round online Delphi survey. Respondents were asked to rate the importance of each proposed item, and to comment on the proposed domains and items. Second round participants received feedback from the first round and were asked to re-rate the importance of the revised, new and unchanged items, and to provide comments. The first version of the scale contained 51 items divided into three domains: (1) Respondents' characteristics; (2) the organisation's willingness to implement patient engagement; and (3) the organisation's ability to implement patient engagement. 131 respondents from 16 countries (health care managers, policy makers, clinicians, patients and patient representatives, researchers, and other stakeholders) completed the first survey, and 72 of them also completed the second survey. During the Delphi process, 34 items were reworded, 8 new items were added, 5 items were removed, and 18 were combined. The scale's instructions were revised. The final version of MORE totalled 38 items; 5 on stakeholders, 13 on an organisation's willingness to implement, and 20 on an organisation's ability to implement patient

  19. The Additive Effects of Values Clarification Training to an Online Goal-Setting Procedure on Measures of Student Retention and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Jared A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide individuals with online tutorials to help participants generate strategies to achieve their academic goals and clarify their academic values to assess the additive effects of values clarification training to an online goal-setting training procedure on (1) measures of academic performance and (2) student…

  20. The Impact Factor: Measuring Student Professional Growth in an Online Doctoral Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Swapna; Dawson, Kara

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the impact of an online Ed.D. in educational technology based on data collected from students at regular intervals during the program. It documents how students who were working professionals applied learning from the program within their practice, enculturated into the educational technology community, and grew…

  1. Measuring Malaysia School Resource Centers' Standards through iQ-PSS: An Online Management Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Fadzliaton; Ismail, Kamarulzaman

    2010-01-01

    The Ministry of Education has come up with an innovative way to monitor the progress of 9,843 School Resource Centers (SRCs) using an online management information system called iQ-PSS (Quality Index of SRC). This paper aims to describe the data collection method and analyze the current state of SRCs in Malaysia and explain how the results can be…

  2. A New Method of Measuring Online Media Advertising Effectiveness: Prospective Meta-Analysis in Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Liberali (Gui); G.L. Urban (Glen); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); C. Tucker (Catherine); Y. Bart (Yakov); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe authors introduce a new method, prospective meta-analysis in marketing (PMM), to estimate consumer response to online advertising on a large and adaptive scale. They illustrate their approach in a field study in the U.S., China and the Netherlands, covering equivalent ad content on s

  3. A New Method of Measuring Online Media Advertising Effectiveness: Prospective Meta-Analysis in Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Liberali (Gui); G.L. Urban (Glen); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); C. Tucker (Catherine); Y. Bart (Yakov); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe authors introduce a new method, prospective meta-analysis in marketing (PMM), to estimate consumer response to online advertising on a large and adaptive scale. They illustrate their approach in a field study in the U.S., China and the Netherlands, covering equivalent ad content on s

  4. A New Method of Measuring Online Media Advertising Effectiveness: Prospective Meta-Analysis in Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Liberali (Gui); G.L. Urban (Glen); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); C. Tucker (Catherine); Y. Bart (Yakov); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe authors introduce a new method, prospective meta-analysis in marketing (PMM), to estimate consumer response to online advertising on a large and adaptive scale. They illustrate their approach in a field study in the U.S., China and the Netherlands, covering equivalent ad content on

  5. Online Searching: Measures That Discriminate among Users with Different Types of Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Carol Hansen

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study conducted to identify the differences among the searches of users of online systems who have different amounts of overall experience, and the differences between the searches of persons with and without experience on the database being searched. Twenty-five references are cited. (FM)

  6. Time-resolved SAXS measurements facilitated by online HPLC buffer exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Malene Hillerup; Toft, Katrine Nørgaard; David, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    continuous or stopped flow. In this paper a method for obtaining TR-SAXS data from systems where the reaction is triggered by removal of a species is presented. This method is based on fast buffer exchange over a short desalting column facilitated by an online HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography...

  7. Design and Test of a Low-Cost RGB Sensor for Online Measurement of Microalgae Concentration within a Photo-Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Benavides

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a low-cost RGB sensor is developed to measure online the microalgae concentration within a photo-bioreactor. Two commercially available devices, i.e., a spectrophotometer for offline measurements and an immersed probe for online measurements, are used for calibration and comparison purposes. Furthermore, the potential of such a sensor for estimating other variables is illustrated with the design of an extended Luenberger observer.

  8. Survey and online discussion groups to develop a patient-rated outcome measure on acceptability of treatment response in vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, Selina K; Thomas, Kim S; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Leighton, Paul; Yong, Adrian Sw; Batchelor, Jonathan M

    2014-06-14

    Vitiligo is a chronic depigmenting skin disorder which affects around 0.5-1% of the world's population. The outcome measures used most commonly in trials to judge treatment success focus on repigmentation. Patient-reported outcome measures of treatment success are rarely used, although recommendations have been made for their inclusion in vitiligo trials. This study aimed to evaluate the face validity of a new patient-reported outcome measure of treatment response, for use in future trials and clinical practice. An online survey to gather initial views on what constitutes treatment success for people with vitiligo or their parents/carers, followed by online discussion groups with patients to reach consensus on what constitutes treatment success for individuals with vitiligo, and how this can be assessed in the context of trials. Participants were recruited from an existing database of vitiligo patients and through posts on the social network sites Facebook and Twitter. A total of 202 survey responses were received, of which 37 were excluded and 165 analysed. Three main themes emerged as important in assessing treatment response: a) the match between vitiligo and normal skin (how well it blends in); b) how noticeable the vitiligo is and c) a reduction in the size of the white patches. The majority of respondents said they would consider 80% or more repigmentation to be a worthwhile treatment response after 9 months of treatment. Three online discussion groups involving 12 participants led to consensus that treatment success is best measured by asking patients how noticeable their vitiligo is after treatment. This was judged to be best answered using a 5-point Likert scale, on which a score of 4 or 5 represents treatment success. This study represents the first step in developing a patient reported measure of treatment success in vitiligo trials. Further work is now needed to assess its construct validity and responsiveness to change.

  9. Application of the Nordtest method for "real-time" uncertainty estimation of on-line field measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näykki, Teemu; Virtanen, Atte; Kaukonen, Lari; Magnusson, Bertil; Väisänen, Tero; Leito, Ivo

    2015-10-01

    Field sensor measurements are becoming more common for environmental monitoring. Solutions for enhancing reliability, i.e. knowledge of the measurement uncertainty of field measurements, are urgently needed. Real-time estimations of measurement uncertainty for field measurement have not previously been published, and in this paper, a novel approach to the automated turbidity measuring system with an application for "real-time" uncertainty estimation is outlined based on the Nordtest handbook's measurement uncertainty estimation principles. The term real-time is written in quotation marks, since the calculation of the uncertainty is carried out using a set of past measurement results. There are two main requirements for the estimation of real-time measurement uncertainty of online field measurement described in this paper: (1) setting up an automated measuring system that can be (preferably remotely) controlled which measures the samples (water to be investigated as well as synthetic control samples) the way the user has programmed it and stores the results in a database, (2) setting up automated data processing (software) where the measurement uncertainty is calculated from the data produced by the automated measuring system. When control samples with a known value or concentration are measured regularly, any instrumental drift can be detected. An additional benefit is that small drift can be taken into account (in real-time) as a bias value in the measurement uncertainty calculation, and if the drift is high, the measurement results of the control samples can be used for real-time recalibration of the measuring device. The procedure described in this paper is not restricted to turbidity measurements, but it will enable measurement uncertainty estimation for any kind of automated measuring system that performs sequential measurements of routine samples and control samples/reference materials in a similar way as described in this paper.

  10. A dual-frequency online PMP method with phase-shifting parallel to moving direction of measured object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kuang; Cao, Yiping; Wu, Yingchun; Chen, Cheng; Wan, Yingying

    2017-01-01

    A dual-frequency online phase measurement profilometry (PMP) method with phase-shifting parallel to moving direction of measured object is proposed in this paper. The high-frequency fringe is used for the better modulation patterns in pixel matching and it is not modified by the measured object's surface. Based on the relative positive between the moving measured object and digital light processing (DLP), the high-frequency fringe in each dual-frequency deformed pattern after pixel matching is the same. As a result, the phase can be calculated directly by the improved Stoilov algorithm without filtering out the low-frequency component containing the measured object's height information. As there is no filtering process in phase calculation, the valid information loss can be avoided so that the accuracy of the proposed method can be guaranteed. Simulations and experiments prove the method's feasibility and precision.

  11. Translating the Science of Measuring Ecosystems at a National Scale: NEON's Online Learning Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    "Big Data" are becoming increasingly common in many fields. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect data over the 30 years, using consistent, standardized methods across the United States. These freely available new data provide an opportunity for increased understanding of continental- and global scale processes such as changes in vegetation structure and condition, biodiversity and landuse. However, while "big data" are becoming more accessible and available, working with big data is challenging. New and potentially unfamiliar data types and associated processing methods, required to work with a growing diversity of available data take time and resources to learn. Analysis of these big datasets may further present a challenge given large file sizes, and uncertainty regarding best methods to properly statistically summarize and analyze results. Finally, resources that support learning these concepts and approaches, are distributed widely across multiple online spaces and may take time to find. This presentation will overview the development of NEON's collaborative University-focused online education portal. It will also cover content testing, community feedback and results from workshops using online content. Portal content is hosted in github to facilitate community input, accessibility version control. Content includes 1) videos and supporting graphics that explain key concepts related to NEON and related big spatio-temporal and 2) data tutorials that include subsets of spatio-temporal data that can be used to learn key big data skills in a self-paced approach, or that can be used as a teaching tool in the classroom or in a workshop. All resources utilize free and open data processing, visualization and analysis tools, techniques and scripts. All NEON materials are being developed in collaboration with the scientific community and are being tested via in-person workshops. Visit the portal online: www.neondataskills.org.

  12. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Billieux, Joël

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games.

  13. Online absolute pose compensation and steering control of industrial robot based on six degrees of freedom laser measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juqing; Wang, Dayong; Fan, Baixing; Dong, Dengfeng; Zhou, Weihu

    2017-03-01

    In-situ intelligent manufacturing for large-volume equipment requires industrial robots with absolute high-accuracy positioning and orientation steering control. Conventional robots mainly employ an offline calibration technology to identify and compensate key robotic parameters. However, the dynamic and static parameters of a robot change nonlinearly. It is not possible to acquire a robot's actual parameters and control the absolute pose of the robot with a high accuracy within a large workspace by offline calibration in real-time. This study proposes a real-time online absolute pose steering control method for an industrial robot based on six degrees of freedom laser tracking measurement, which adopts comprehensive compensation and correction of differential movement variables. First, the pose steering control system and robot kinematics error model are constructed, and then the pose error compensation mechanism and algorithm are introduced in detail. By accurately achieving the position and orientation of the robot end-tool, mapping the computed Jacobian matrix of the joint variable and correcting the joint variable, the real-time online absolute pose compensation for an industrial robot is accurately implemented in simulations and experimental tests. The average positioning error is 0.048 mm and orientation accuracy is better than 0.01 deg. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible, and the online absolute accuracy of a robot is sufficiently enhanced.

  14. Can we measure working memory via the Internet? The reliability and factorial validity of an online n-back task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulikowski Konrad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to check whether an online n-back task conducted in the uncontrolled environment of the Internet can yield valid and reliable data. For this purpose, 169 participants completed an online n-back task with n1, n2 and n3 blocks on their home computers. The results have shown acceptable reliability for overall accuracy and reaction time indices across n1, n2, n3 blocks, as well as for reaction time indices for each n block. Unacceptable reliability has been found for separate n levels accuracy indices and for response bias indices. Confirmatory factor analysis has revealed that, among 8 proposed measurement models, the best fit for the data collected is a model with two uncorrelated factors: accuracy consisting of n1, n2, n3 indices and reaction time consisting of n2, n3 indices. The results of this study have demonstrated for the first time that a reliable administration of online n-back task is possible and may therefore give rise to new opportunities for working memory research.

  15. Online Partial Discharge Measurement of a High-voltage Direct Current Converter Wall-bushing%Online Partial Discharge Measurement of a High-voltage Direct Current Converter Wall-bushing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nathan D. Jacob; William M. McDermid; Behzad Kordi

    2011-01-01

    An online partial discharge (PD) measurement performed on a high voltage direct current (HVDC) wall bushing successfully identified the presence of internal discharges. The wall bushing is a sulfur hexafluoride gas-insu- lated bushing, rated for 500 kV dc and terminated on a thyristor-controlled HVDC converter bridge. The measure- ment of PD within the HVDC station environment is particularly challenging due to the high levels of electromagnetic noise caused by thyristor switching events and external air-corona from the neighboring high-voltage equipment. An additional challenge is the "mixed" voltage stress on the bushing insulation, which has both ac and dc high-voltage components. There are also fast transients during the firing of thyristors in the HVDC conversion process that cause added stress to the insulation. As a result, the analysis and interpretation of PD data for HVDC equipment is more complex; PD pulses may occur in response to the ac, dc, or switching transient voltage stresses. In this paper, an on- line PD measurement strategy for noise filtering and isolation of PD sources within the bushing are discussed. The PD measurement data is plotted on a phase-resolved diagram where the line supply power cord voltage was used as a reference. The phase-resolved diagram appears to suggest that the fast transients, caused during switching, trigger some PD events. Measurements were also performed with the aid of a modern PD measurement instrument having noise separation capabilities. The findings from the online PD measurements are verified with physical evidence, found after the bushing was removed from service, suggested internal PD had occurred inside the bushing.

  16. Design of an on-line measuring system for 0.14 THz high-power terahertz pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guangqiang [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Jianguo; Li Xiaoze; Tong Changjiang; Wang Xuefeng, E-mail: wgq02@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China)

    2011-02-01

    An on-line measuring system, including an aperture-coupling structure and a novel high-power pulse detector, is proposed in this paper to measure the output pulses from high-power 0.14THz surface wave oscillator (SWO). At first a T-type coupling structure between the TM{sub 01} mode of circular waveguide with radius of 6mm and TE{sub 10} mode of rectangular waveguide WR6 is designed. Based on loose coupling theory,the coupling degree of this structure is derived and calculated, reaching about -47dB with the aperture radius of 0.4mm and length of 0.5mm. The reasonable coincidence is found between the theoretical computation and numerical simulation employing the three-dimensional finite difference time domain method. Then a novel high-power terahertz pulse detector based on hot electron effect in semiconductors is developed for the detection of output pulses from T-type coupling structure. With hot electron theory, the working principle of the detector is elucidated, also its sensitivity is simply analyzed, showing that this detector is capable of handling the pulse power as high as 2kW. The present 0.14THz on-line measuring system would be convenient to monitor the terahertz pulse shape and pulse power during the application researches of SWO besides increasing the accuracy of its pulse power measurement.

  17. On-line measurement of the supplied wind capacity for a defined supply area; Online-Ermittlung der eingespeisten Windleistung fuer definierte Versorgungsgebiete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensslin, C.; Hoppe-Kilpper, M.; Rohrig, K. [Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET), Kassel (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Apart from knowing exactly the statistic performance of the supplied wind capacity the projection of the capacity to be expected in the short and medium-term is of increasing importance for the utilisation plan of power plants and the load management of public utilities. Various approaches and methods already exist for the projection of wind capacity. These approaches are based on the capability to approximate non-linear interrelations and to use unclear, incomplete or even contradictory data with the help of artificial neuronal networks. The physical and meteorological interrelations of the problem do not need to be known during the modelling. Based upon the on-line measurement of wind energy supply the short time projection for periods of one to four hours, e.g. by means of artificial neuronal networks, is an important first step for an improved integration of wind energy into load control and utilisation plan of power plants of public utilities with a high share in wind energy. A first study carried out by the ISET (Institute for Solar Energy Supply Technology) showed the basic possibility to predict the overall capacity of widely distributed joint systems of wind power plants by means of artificial neuronal networks. (orig.) [German] Neben der genauen Kenntnis des statistischen Verhaltens der eingespeisten Windleistung ist die Vorhersage der kurz- bis mittelfristig zu erwartenden Leistung fuer die Kraftwerkseinsatzplanung und das Lastmanagement von Energieversorgungsunternehmen von zunehmender Bedeutung. Fuer die Prognose der Windleistung existieren bereits verschiedene Ansaetze und Verfahren. Dabei basieren die Ansaetze zur Windleistungsprognose mit Hilfe von Kuenstlichen Neuronalen Netzen (KNN) auf der Faehigkeit, nichtlineare Zusammenhaenge zu approximieren und verrauschte, unvollstaendige oder sogar widerspruechliche Daten zu verwenden. Weiter sind bei der Modellierung keine Kenntnisse der physikalischen oder meteorologischen Zusammenhaenge des Problems

  18. Wind turbine transformer admittance characterization based on online time-domain measurements and preliminary results from measurements done in two transformers using a SFRA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holbøll, Joachim; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of online time-domain measurements on the primary and secondary side of a wind turbine transformer in an Offshore Wind Farm (OWF), during one switching operation realized in the collection grid. The frequency characteristics up to 10 kHz of the current and voltage...... signals of each phase were compared and the transformers admittance characteristic was estimated based on these measurements. Based on the results from the previous analysis, it was decided to acquire a Sweep Frequency Response Analyzer (SFRA) to realize detailed transformer measurements. First...... the results from the measurements in a small dry-type transformer under laboratory conditions are presented, and finally the results from a large transformer measured in a in an industrial setting are shown....

  19. Online Spectrophotometric Measurements of Uranium and Nitrate Concentrations for Savannah River Site's H-Canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascola, R.

    2001-02-13

    Safe and efficient operation of the Savannah River Site's solvent extraction process for uranium purification requires accurate measurement of uranium and nitric acid concentrations. Previous operations have relied only on laboratory analysis of process samples. To improve the efficiency of the process, we have installed an online fiber optic based analyzer that uses a multiplexer and diode array spectrometer to rapidly acquire absorption spectra at multiple process locations. This paper describes the hardware and software developments we have made to handle the requirements imposed by the unique sampling methods in H-Canyon. Performance characteristics of the spectrometer are also demonstrated.

  20. High sensitive gas detection and isotopic measurement for the applications of industrial emission online monitoring and air pollution source tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fengzhong; Zhang, Zhirong; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Pang, Tao; Wu, Bian; Chen, Weidong; Sigrist, Markus

    2015-04-01

    High sensitive gas detection and isotopic measurements have been widely employed in the industrial and safety production. The recent progress made by our group on high sensitive gas detection with technologies of TDLAS, off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) will be briefly summarized in this report. Some works for field applications of industrial emission online monitoring and gas leakage detection in oil tank farm with TDLAS are first presented, and then part of our most recent researches on isotopic gas detection with OA-ICOS and CRDS for tracking of pollution sources are also introduced.

  1. Fine carbonaceous aerosol characteristics at a megacity during the Chinese Spring Festival as given by OC/EC online measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoshuang; Bi, Xiaohui; Feng, Yinchang; Dai, Qili; Xiao, Zhimei; Li, Liwei; Wu, Jianhui; Yuan, Jie; Zhang, YuFen

    2016-11-01

    The OC/EC online monitoring campaign was carried out in Tianjin of China from 8th February to 15th March 2015 during the Chinese Spring Festival period (CSFP). The concentrations of OC, EC, BC and other ambient pollutants (e.g. SO2, NO2 and PM2.5, etc.) in high time resolution were measured with related online-monitoring instruments. During the CSFP, according to the peaks of PM2.5 concentrations and number concentrations (NC) of aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameters between 0.3 and 2.5 μm, five pollution-events were generally identified and displayed. These pollution-events were closely associated with large-scale fireworks displaying, combustion activities such as heating for winter, and the stable meteorological conditions, etc. During the CSFP, EC and OC concentrations showed variations up to one order of magnitude. The uncertainty of instrument itself and the difference for measured methods, further caused the differences between thermal OC (measured OC by thermal method) and optical OC (measured OC by optical method) concentrations, as well as between thermal EC (measured EC by thermal method) and optical EC (measured EC by optical method) concentrations. The high-concentration carbonaceous aerosols could enlarge the uncertainty of measuring instrument, reducing the correlations between OC and EC, and enhance the differences among thermal EC, optical BC and optical EC. The OC/EC ratios and the percentages of SOC/OC would be declined, when the pollution-events formed during the CSFP. Due to the different sources for thermal POC and thermal SOC, the correlation of the two was relatively lower (R2 = 0.39). Thermal POC dominated over thermal OC during the CSFP.

  2. Optimal cut points of waist circumference (WC) and visceral fat area (VFA) predicting for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in elderly population in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo; Kim, Jung Hee; Yoon, Ji Won; Kang, Seon Mee; Choi, Sung Hee; Park, Young Joo; Kim, Ki Woong; Cho, Nam Han; Shin, Hayley; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul

    2012-01-01

    Optimal cut points of central obesity identifying subjects at risk for MetS were proposed ethnic-specifically, but have not been established yet. Of particular interest are the values for elderly persons, which have not been identified previously. We investigated the appropriate cut points of WC and VFA for elderly in a community-based cohort in Korea. We recruited 294 men and 313 women aged 65 or over who participated in the KLoSHA. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to estimate the optimal cut points of WC and VFA indicative of MetS. The optimal cut points for predicting MetS were 87 cm for WC, 140 cm(2) for VFA in men, and 85 cm for WC, 100 cm(2) for VFA in women with the Youden index. Similar cut points were obtained with the closest-to-(0, 1) criterion except for VFA in men, which was 122 cm(2). When adjusted for age, exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption, men with ≥122 cm(2) and women with ≥100 cm(2) of VFA had a higher risk of MetS than subjects with lower values. The cut points of VFA and WC at risk for MetS were higher in men than women. In this community-based elderly cohort, the optimal cut points of WC at risk for MetS were lower than the Western criteria. Compared with the cut points in middle-aged Koreans, the cut points for elderly were lower in men and similar in women.

  3. On-line measurement of gaseous iodine species during a PWR severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykal, I.; Doizi, D. [CEA, DEN, Departement de Physico-chimie, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, (France); Perrin, A. [CNRS-University of Paris Est and Paris 7, Laboratoire Inter-Universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, 94010 Creteil, (France); Vincent, B. [University of Burgundy, Laboratoire de physique, CNRS UMR 5027, 9, Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex, (France); Manceron, L. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, St-Aubin BP48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, (France); Mejean, G. [University of Joseph Fourier in Grenoble, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique-CNRS UMR 5588, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres, (France); Ducros, G. [CEA Cadarache, CEA, DEN, Departement d' Etudes des Combustibles, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance cedex, (France)

    2015-07-01

    A long-range remote sensing of severe accidents in nuclear power plants can be obtained by monitoring the online emission of volatile fission products such as xenon, krypton, caesium and iodine. The nuclear accident in Fukushima was ranked at level 7 of the International Nuclear Event Scale by the NISA (Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency) according to the importance of the radionuclide release and the off-site impact. Among volatile fission products, iodine species are of high concern, since they can be released under aerosols as well as gaseous forms. Four years after the Fukushima accident, the aerosol/gaseous partition is still not clear. Since the iodine gaseous forms are less efficiently trapped by the Filtered Containment Venting Systems than aerosol forms, it is of crucial importance to monitor them on-line during a nuclear accident, in order to improve the source term assessment in such a situation. Therefore, we propose to detect and quantify these iodine gaseous forms by the use of highly sensitive optical methods. (authors)

  4. Processing of Scalar Inferences by Mandarin Learners of English: An Online Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yowyu

    2016-01-01

    Scalar inferences represent the condition when a speaker uses a weaker expression such as some in a pragmatic scale like , and s/he has the intention to reject the stronger use of the other word like all in the utterance. Considerable disagreement has arisen concerning how interlocutors derive the inferences. The study presented here tries to address this issue by examining online scalar inferences among Mandarin learners of English. To date, Default Inference and Relevance Theory have made different predictions regarding how people process scalar inferences. Findings from recently emerging first language studies did not fully resolved the debate but led to even more heated debates. The current three online psycholinguistic experiments reported here tried to address the processing of scalar inferences from second language perspective. Results showed that Mandarin learners of English showed faster reaction times and a higher acceptance rate when interpreting some as some but not all and this was true even when subjects were under time pressure, which was manifested in Experiment 2. Overall, the results of the experiments supported Default Theory. In addition, Experiment 3 also found that working memory capacity plays a critical role during scalar inference processing. High span readers were faster in accepting the some but not all interpretation than low span readers. However, compared with low span readers, high span readers were more likely to accept the some and possibly all condition, possibly due to their working memory capacity to generate scenarios to fit the interpretation. PMID:26752294

  5. Influence of parental attitudes towards Internet use on the employment of online safety measures at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floros, Georgios; Siomos, Konstantinos; Dafouli, Evaggelia; Fisoun, Virginia; Geroukalis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-18 of the island of Kos and their parents, on Internet safety-related practices and attitudes towards the Internet. Total sample was 2017 students and 1214 parent responders. Research material included extended demographics and an Internet security questionnaire, the Internet Attitudes Scale (IAS) for parents and the Adolescent Computer Addiction Test (ACAT) for children and both parents. Both parents thus provided their views on their children's computer use and an estimate for their degree of computer addiction which was tested against their child's self-report. Results indicated that fathers and mothers who had negative views of the Internet, tended to encourage less their children to engage in online activities and worried more for the possibility that their child is addicted to computer use; their worries weren't correlated with their children's results. Parental views on the Internet had no effect on the level of security precautions they employed at home. Those parents who reported a low level of security knowledge and were unsure as to what their children were doing online, tended to consider their children more likely to be addicted to computer use; those views were confirmed by their children' self-reported results.

  6. Rapid online measurement method for radius of curvature of fine grinding optics based on tool setting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Zhang, Jian; Gu, Yongqiang; Miao, Erlong

    2016-10-01

    The radius of curvature (ROC) is one of the most important parameters of sphere optic components. In optic fine grinding process, radius of curvature accuracy requires up to 0.1%. We propose a method based on high precision CNC grinding machine, develop ROC online measurement method for fine grinding optics. This rapid method only takes few measurement points based on spiral route path, attaining enough accuracy and reduce the time cost, furthermore, can greatly reduce the repeated installation error. Analyzing the uncertainty sources that affect to the ROC measurement results, calculates the combined standard uncertainty 32.8 micron. Completed comparison experiments with CMM, the standard deviation of the experiment result are about 18 micron that approaches to CMM results.

  7. Controlling the feed rate of propanol to optimize erythromycin fermentation by on-line capacitance and oxygen uptake rate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Gao, Yang

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to optimize the feeding proportion of glucose and propanol for erythromycin biosynthesis by real-time monitoring and exploring its limited ratio by the on-line multi-frequency permittivity measurement. It was found that the capacitance values were sensitive to the variation of biomass concentration and microbial morphology as well as the true state of cell growth. It was most favorable to both cell growth and secondary metabolism to keep the ratio of glucose to propanol at 4.3 (g/g). The specific growth rate calculated by the capacitance measurement correctly and accurately reflected the cell physiological state. An appropriate feed rate of propanol was crucial for cell growth and secondary metabolism, as well as to improve the quality of erythromycin-A. In addition, the erythromycin production titer (10,950 U/mL) was further enhanced by 4 % when the propanol feed was regulated by step-down strategy based on both OUR (oxygen uptake rate) and the on-line monitoring capacitance.

  8. Optoelectronic system of online measurements of unburned carbon in coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Janusz; Jankowski, Henryk; Niewczas, Bogdan; Piechna, Janusz; Skiba, Antoni; Szkutnik, Wojciech; Szkutnik, Zdzislaw P.; Wartak, Ryszarda; Worek, Cezary

    2001-08-01

    Carbon-in-ash level is an important consideration for combustion efficiency as well as ash marketing. The optoelectronic analyzing system for on-line determination and monitoring of the u burned carbon content of ash samples is presented. The apparatus operates on the principle that carbon content is proportional to the reflectance of IR light. Ash samples are collected iso kinetically from the flue gas duct and placed in a sample tube with a flat glass bottom. The same is then exposed to a light. The reflectance intensity is used by the system's computer to determine residual carbon content from correlation curves. The sample is then air purged back to the duct or to the attached sample canister to enable laboratory check analysis. The total cycle time takes between 5 and 10 minutes. Real time result of carbon content with accuracy 0.3-0.7 percent are reported and can be used for boiler controlling.

  9. Translating the Science of Measuring Ecosystems at a National Scale: Developing NEON's Online Learning Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, L. A.; Gram, W.; Goehring, L.

    2014-12-01

    "Big Data" are becoming increasingly common in many fields. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be collecting data over the 30 years, using consistent, standardized methods across the United States. These freely available new data provide an opportunity for increased understanding of continental- and global scale processes such as changes in vegetation structure and condition, biodiversity and landuse. However, while "big data" are becoming more accessible and available, integrating big data into the university courses is challenging. New and potentially unfamiliar data types and associated processing methods, required to work with a growing diversity of available data, may warrant time and resources that present a barrier to classroom integration. Analysis of these big datasets may further present a challenge given large file sizes, and uncertainty regarding best methods to properly statistically summarize and analyze results. Finally, teaching resources, in the form of demonstrative illustrations, and other supporting media that might help teach key data concepts, take time to find and more time to develop. Available resources are often spread widely across multi-online spaces. This presentation will overview the development of NEON's collaborative University-focused online education portal. Portal content will include 1) videos and supporting graphics that explain key concepts related to NEON data products including collection methods, key metadata to consider and consideration of potential error and uncertainty surrounding data analysis; and 2) packaged "lab" activities that include supporting data to be used in an ecology, biology or earth science classroom. To facilitate broad use in classrooms, lab activities will take advantage of freely and commonly available processing tools, techniques and scripts. All NEON materials are being developed in collaboration with existing labs and organizations.

  10. Application of HFCT and UHF Sensors in On-Line Partial Discharge Measurements for Insulation Diagnosis of High Voltage Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge (PD measurements provide valuable information for assessing the condition of high voltage (HV insulation systems, contributing to their quality assurance. Different PD measuring techniques have been developed in the last years specially designed to perform on-line measurements. Non-conventional PD methods operating in high frequency bands are usually used when this type of tests are carried out. In PD measurements the signal acquisition, the subsequent signal processing and the capability to obtain an accurate diagnosis are conditioned by the selection of a suitable detection technique and by the implementation of effective signal processing tools. This paper proposes an optimized electromagnetic detection method based on the combined use of wideband PD sensors for measurements performed in the HF and UHF frequency ranges, together with the implementation of powerful processing tools. The effectiveness of the measuring techniques proposed is demonstrated through an example, where several PD sources are measured simultaneously in a HV installation consisting of a cable system connected by a plug-in terminal to a gas insulated substation (GIS compartment.

  11. Development of an online library of patient-reported outcome measures in gastroenterology: the GI-PRO database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Puja; Agarwal, Nikhil; Khanna, Dinesh; Hays, Ron D; Chang, Lin; Bolus, Roger; Melmed, Gil; Whitman, Cynthia B; Kaplan, Robert M; Ogawa, Rikke; Snyder, Bradley; Spiegel, Brennan Mr

    2014-02-01

    Because gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses can cause physical, emotional, and social distress, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are used to guide clinical decision making, conduct research, and seek drug approval. It is important to develop a mechanism for identifying, categorizing, and evaluating the over 100 GI PROs that exist. Here we describe a new, National Institutes of Health (NIH)-supported, online PRO clearinghouse-the GI-PRO database. Using a protocol developed by the NIH Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS(®)), we performed a systematic review to identify English-language GI PROs. We abstracted PRO items and developed an online searchable item database. We categorized symptoms into content "bins" to evaluate a framework for GI symptom reporting. Finally, we assigned a score for the methodological quality of each PRO represented in the published literature (0-20 range; higher indicates better). We reviewed 15,697 titles (κ>0.6 for title and abstract selection), from which we identified 126 PROs. Review of the PROs revealed eight GI symptom "bins": (i) abdominal pain, (ii) bloat/gas, (iii) diarrhea, (iv) constipation, (v) bowel incontinence/soilage, (vi) heartburn/reflux, (vii) swallowing, and (viii) nausea/vomiting. In addition to these symptoms, the PROs covered four psychosocial domains: (i) behaviors, (ii) cognitions, (iii) emotions, and (iv) psychosocial impact. The quality scores were generally low (mean 8.88 ± 4.19; 0 (min)-20 (max). In addition, 51% did not include patient input in developing the PRO, and 41% provided no information on score interpretation. GI PROs cover a wide range of biopsychosocial symptoms. Although plentiful, GI PROs are limited by low methodological quality. Our online PRO library (www.researchcore.org/gipro/) can help in selecting PROs for clinical and research purposes.

  12. Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Cross

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs from aircraft. Currently both the amount and chemical composition of aircraft I/SVOC emissions remain poorly characterized. Here we characterize I/SVOC emissions from aircraft, using a novel instrument for the online, quantitative measurement of the mass loading and composition of low-volatility organic vapors. Emissions from the NASA DC8 aircraft were sampled on the ground 143 m downwind of the engines and characterized as a function of engine power from idle (4% maximum rated thrust through 85% power. Results show that I/SVOC emissions are highest during engine idle operating conditions, with decreasing but non-zero I/SVOC emissions at higher engine powers. Comparison of I/SVOC emissions with total hydrocarbon (THC measurements, VOC measurements, and an established emissions profile indicates that I/SVOCs comprise 10–20% of the total organic gas-phase emissions at idle, and an increasing fraction of the total gas-phase organic emissions at higher powers. Positive matrix factorization of online mass spectra is used to identify three distinct types of I/SVOC emissions: aliphatic, aromatic and oxygenated. The volatility and chemical composition of the emissions suggest that unburned fuel is the dominant source of I/SVOCs at idle, while pyrolysis products make up an increasing fraction of the I/SVOCs at higher powers. Oxygenated I/SVOC emissions were detected at lower engine powers (≤30% and may be linked to cracked, partially oxidized or unburned fuel components.

  13. Enzyme-based online monitoring and measurement of antioxidant activity using an optical oxygen sensor coupled to an HPLC system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Michela; Nugroho Prasetyo, Endry; Koren, Klaus; Nyanhongo, Gibson S; Murkovic, Michael; Klimant, Ingo; Guebitz, Georg M

    2013-03-01

    It is estimated that up to 50% of the adult population take antioxidant products on a daily basis to promote their health status. Strangely, despite the well-recognized importance of antioxidants, currently there is no international standard index for labeling owing to the lack of standardized methods for antioxidant measurement in complex products. Here, an online high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based method to detect and measure the total antioxidant capacity of antioxidant samples is presented. In this approach, complex samples containing antioxidants are separated by the HPLC system, which is further coupled to an antioxidant measuring system consisting of an optical oxygen sensor, laccase, and tetramethoxy azobismethylene quinone (TMAMQ). The antioxidants, separated via HPLC, reduce TMAMQ to syringaldazine, which is then reoxidized by laccase while simultaneously consuming O(2). The amount of consumed oxygen is directly proportional to the concentration of antioxidants and is measured by the optical oxygen sensor. The sensor is fabricated by coating a glass capillary with an oxygen-sensitive thin layer made of platinum(II) meso-tetra(4-fluorophenyl)tetrabenzoporphyrin and polystyrene, which makes real-time analysis possible (t(90) = 1.1 s in solution). Four selected antioxidants (3 mM), namely, catechin, ferulic acid, naringenin (used as a control), and Trolox, representing flavonol, hydrocinnamic acid, flavanone, and vitamin E, respectively, were injected into the online antioxidant monitoring system, separated, and then mixed with the TMAMQ/laccase solution, which resulted in oxygen consumption. This study shows that, with the use of such a system, the antioxidant activity of individual antioxidant molecules in a sample and their contribution to the total antioxidant activity of the sample can be correctly assigned.

  14. Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Cross

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires detailed measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs from aircraft. Currently both the amount and chemical composition of aircraft I/SVOC emissions remain poorly characterized. Here we characterize I/SVOC emissions from aircraft, using a novel instrument for the online, quantitative measurement of the mass loading and composition of low-volatility organic vapors. Emissions from the NASA DC8 aircraft were sampled on the ground, 143 m downwind of the engines and characterized as a function of engine power from ground idle (~4% maximum rated thrust through 85% power. Results show that I/SVOC emissions are highest during engine-idle operating conditions, with decreasing but non-zero I/SVOC emissions at higher engine powers. Comparison of I/SVOC emissions with total hydrocarbon (THC measurements, VOC measurements, and an established emissions profile indicates that I/SVOCs comprise 10–20% of the total organic gas phase emissions at idle, and an increasing fraction of the total gas phase organic emissions at higher powers. Positive matrix factorization of online mass spectra is used to identify three distinct types of I/SVOC emissions: aliphatic, aromatic and oxygenated. The volatility and chemical composition of the emissions suggest that unburned fuel is the dominant source of I/SVOCs at idle, while pyrolysis products make up an increasing fraction of the I/SVOCs at higher powers. Oxygenated I/SVOC emissions were detected at lower engine powers (≤30% and may be linked to cracked, partially oxidized or unburned fuel components.

  15. The Occurrence of Referee Abuse in Rugby Union: Evidence and Measures Through an Online Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Rayner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many national governing bodies are experiencing difficulties retaining referees at the grass roots level, especially young referees (Warner, Tingle & Kellett, 2013. Abuse and aggression from players and spectators are the most commonly given reasons for referees leaving. Without consideration of the development, nurturing and management needs of the referee there could be a decline in the participation numbers within the sport. This research paper used an online questionnaire to explore the levels of abuse that rugby union referees are subjected to in the counties of Dorset, Wiltshire, Somerset and Hampshire. The results indicated that referees from various levels on the Rugby Football Union’s referee continuum were subjected to a significant level of abuse. The sources of this abuse ranged from the players, coaches and spectators. Furthermore, the research illustrates that the referees believe that there has been an erosion of the ‘core values’ of rugby union specifically indicating a decline in the enjoyment factor of officiating within rugby union and its effect on the retention of referees.

  16. Effect of spiking strategy and ratio on calibration of on-line visible and near infrared soil sensor for measurement in European farms

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang, Boyan Y.; Mouazen, Abdul Mounem

    2013-01-01

    A previously developed on-line visible and near infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy-based soil measurement system was implemented for the measurement of soil organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN) and moisture content (MC) in three fields at three European farms. The on-line sensor platform was coupled with a mobile, fibre type, vis-NIR spectrophotometer (AgroSpec from tec5 Technology for Spectroscopy, Germany), with a measurement range of 305-2200 nm, to acquire soil spectra in diffuse reflect...

  17. Measurable parameters analysis for designing a profile of courses online training; Analisis de parametros cuantificables para el diseno de un perfiel de cursos de formacion online

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy Anton, J. L.; Izquierdo Soriano, J. V.; Ribes Llopis, L.; Buendia Garcia, F.

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of this study is to quantify the connections and actions performed by students and teachers in online courses related to the field of ionizing radiation, analyzing the number of training hours and number of students and teachers, so that we can establish a profile of course adapted to the demands and possibilities teachers. (Author)

  18. Non-contact online thickness measurement system for metal films based on eddy current sensing with distance tracking technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Hongbo; Feng, Zhihua

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes an online, non-contact metal film thickness measurement system based on eddy current sensing. The slope of the lift-off curve (LOC) is used for characterizing target thickness. Theoretical derivation was conducted to prove that the slope is independent of the lift-off variation. In practice, the measurement has some immunity to the lift-off, but not perfect. The slope of LOC is still affected at some extent by the lift-off. Hence, a height tracking system was also proposed, which could stabilize the distance between the sensor and the target and significantly reduce the lift-off effect. The height tracking system contains a specially designed probe, which could vibrate rapidly to obtain a fast measurement speed, and its height can be adjusted up and down continuously to stabilize the lift-off. The sensor coil in the thickness measurement system was also used as the height sensor in the height tracking system. Several experiments were conducted to test the system performances under static and dynamic conditions. This measurement system demonstrated significant advantages, such as simple and clear conversion between the slope of LOC and target thickness, high resolution and stability, and minimized effect of lift-off variation.

  19. Measurement of viscosity and shear wave velocity of a liquid or slurry for on-line process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Margaret Stautberg; Bamberger, Judith Ann

    2002-08-01

    An on-line sensor to measure the density of a liquid or slurry, based on longitudinal wave reflection at the solid-fluid interface, has been developed by the staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The objective of this research is to employ shear wave reflection at the solid-fluid interface to provide an on-line measurement of viscosity as well. Both measurements are of great interest for process control in many industries. Shear wave reflection measurements were conducted for a variety of liquids. By analyzing multiple reflections within the solid (only 0.63 cm thick-similar to pipe wall thickness) we increased the sensitivity of the measurement. At the sixth echo, sensitivity was increased sufficiently and this echo was used for fluid interrogation. Shear wave propagation of ultrasound in liquids is dependent upon the viscosity and the shear modulus. The data are analyzed using the theory for light liquids (such as water and sugar water solutions) and also using the theory for highly viscous liquids (such as silicone oils). The results show that, for light liquids, the shear wave reflection measurements interrogate the viscosity. However, for highly viscous liquids, it is the shear wave modulus that dominates the shear wave reflection. Since the density is known, the shear wave velocity in the liquid can be determined from the shear wave modulus. The results show that shear wave velocities in silicone oils are very small and range from 315 to 2389 cm/s. Shear wave reflection measurements are perhaps the only way that shear wave velocity in liquids can be determined, because the shear waves in liquids are highly attenuated. These results show that, depending on the fluid characteristics, either the viscosity or the shear wave velocity can be used for process control. There are several novel features of this sensor: (1) The sensor can be mounted as part of the wall of a pipeline or tank or submerged in a tank. (2) The sensor is very compact and can be

  20. Online junction temperature measurement via internal gate resistance during turn-on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Liserre, Marco

    2014-01-01

    A new method for junction temperature measurement of power semiconductor switches is presented. The measurement exploits the temperature dependent resistance of the temperature sensitive electrical parameter (TSEP): the internal gate resistance. This dependence can be observed during the normal s...... TSEP based measurement methods, primarily being: an absence of any dependence on operating conditions such as load current, and the potential to achieve higher sensitivity (20mV/C or more) than alternative TSEPs....

  1. Development of a system for the on-line measurement of carbon dioxide production in microbioreactors; application to aerobic batch cultivations of Candida utilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Michiel; Heijnen, Joseph J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; van der Wielen, Luuk A.M.; van Gulik, Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    We developed and applied a conductometric method for the quantitative online measurement of the carbon dioxide (CO2) production during batch cultivations of Candida utilis on a 100-μL scale. The applied method for the CO2 measurement consisted of absorption of the produced CO2 from the exhaust gas

  2. Measurement of the Magnetic Moment of the First Excited State in {sup 93}Sr Using on-line TDPAC technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasanuma, T.; Taniguchi, A., E-mail: taniguti@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tanigaki, M.; Ohkubo, Y.; Kawase, Y. [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2004-12-15

    The g-factor of the first excited state of {sup 93}Sr (E = 213 keV, T{sub 1/2} 4.6 ns) was measured by an on-line TDPAC technique with use of the strong hyperfine field in Fe metal. The Larmor frequency {omega}{sub L} = (2.60 {+-} 0.15) x 10{sup 8} rad/s was obtained. The g-factor is derived as g = -0.227 {+-} 0.013 from g = -h{omega}{sub L}/B{sub hf{mu}N}. If the spin of the first excited state of {sup 93}Sr is assumed to be 3/2, the g-factor is predicted by a simple core-excitation model as g = -0.22, which is in good agreement with the present experimental result.

  3. Assessing and Measuring Statistics Cognition in Higher Education Online Environments: Emerging Research and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Justin P.; Yan, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    The ability to effective learn, process, and retain new information is critical to the success of any student. Since mathematics are becoming increasingly more important in our educational systems, it is imperative that we devise an efficient system to measure these types of information recall. "Assessing and Measuring Statistics Cognition in…

  4. Novel technology to measure dissolved anions on-site and on-line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous measurements of anions in water offers key insight in to the transport and sources of pollutants such as phosphate and nitrate. We are developing a new technology that can be deployed at remote locations to measure dissolved anions in flowing water over 15-30 minute intervals. The techn...

  5. Subjectivity of LiDAR-Based Offset Measurements: Results from a Public Online Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, J. B.; Arrowsmith, R.; Rockwell, T. K.; Haddad, D. E.; Zielke, O.; Madden, C.

    2012-12-01

    Geomorphic features (e.g., stream channels) that are offset in an earthquake can be measured to determine slip at that location. Analysis of these and other offset features can provide useful information for generating fault slip distributions. Remote analyses of active fault zones using high-resolution LiDAR data have recently been pursued in several studies, but there is a lack of consistency between users both for data analysis and results reporting. Individual investigators typically make offset measurements in a particular study area with their own protocols for measurement, assessing uncertainty, and quality rating, yet there is no coherent understanding of the reliability and repeatability of the measurements from observer to observer. We invited the participation of colleagues, interested geoscience communities, and the general public to measure ten geomorphic offsets from active faults in western North America using remote measurement methods that span a range of complexity (e.g., paper image and scale, the Google Earth ruler tool, and a MATLAB GUI for calculating backslip required to properly restore tectonic deformation) to explore the subjectivity involved with measuring geomorphic offsets. We provided a semi-quantitative quality-rating rubric for a description of offset quality, but there was a general lack of quality rating/offset uncertainty reporting. Survey responses (including mapped fault traces and piercing lines) were anonymously submitted along with user experience information. We received 11 paper-, 28 Google Earth-, and 16 MATLAB-based survey responses, though not all individuals measured every feature provided. For all survey methods, the majority of responses are in close agreement. However, large discrepancies arise where users interpret landforms differently, specifically the pre-earthquake morphologies and total offset accumulation of geomorphic features. Experienced users make more consistent measurements, whereas beginners less

  6. ONLINE CHARGE MEASUREMENTS ENABLES PROCESS OPTIMIZATION AND AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF FIXATIVE DOSAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. GRUBER; R. BERGER

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1. INTRODUCTION For two decades, electric charges have been a vital parameter for quality monitoring of pulp suspensions.Most mill laboratories conduct charge measurements as a daily routine that is considered basic to quality assurance.

  7. ONLINE CHARGE MEASUREMENTS ENABLES PROCESS OPTIMIZATION AND AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF FIXATIVE DOSAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.GRUBER; R.BERGER

    2004-01-01

    For two decades, electric charges have been a vital parameter for quality monitoring of pulp suspensions. Most mill laboratories conduct charge measurements as a daily routine that is considered basic to quality assurance.

  8. Bymixer provides on-line calibration of measurement of CO2 volume exhaled per breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, P H; Serina, E R

    1997-01-01

    The measurement of CO2 volume exhaled per breath (VCO2.br) can be determined during anesthesia by the multiplication and integration of tidal flow (V) and PCO2. During side-stream capnometry, PCO2 must be advanced in time by transport delay (TD), the time to suction gas through the sampling tube. During ventilation, TD can vary due to sample line connection internal volume or flow rate changes. To determine correct TD and measure accurate VCO2.br during actual ventilation. TD can be iteratively adjusted (TDADJ) until VCO2-br/tidal volume equals PCO2 measured in a mixed expired gas collection (PECO2) (J Appl. Physiol. 72:2029-2035, 1992). However. PECO2 is difficult to measure during anesthesia because CO2 is absorbed in the circle circuit. Accordingly, we implemented a bypass flow-mixing chamber device (bymixer) that was interposed in the expiration limb of the circle circuit and accurately measured PECO2 over a wide range of conditions of ventilation of a test lung-metabolic chamber (regression slope = 1.01: R2 = 0.99). The bymixer response (time constant) varied from 18.1 +/- 0.03 sec (12.5 l/min ventilation) to 66.7 +/- 0.9 sec (2.5 l/min). Bymixer PECO2 was used to correctly determine TDADJ (without interrupting respiration) to enable accurate measurement of VCO2.br over widely changing expiratory flow patterns.

  9. On-line measurement of electrical variables of the transducer during ultrasonic welding and cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫久春; 刘井权; 杨士勤

    2002-01-01

    A measurement system for high power electrical variables with ultrasonic frequency was established. It can measure the effective values of the voltage and the current, the active power, the phase difference of voltage and current, the frequency of the transducer during ultrasonic welding and cutting. In sampling circuits of the system, the measured current is sensed by using a no-capacitance and no-inductance precision resistor and is treated with a difference amplifier, the measured voltage is processed by using a proportional amplifier. For achieving good amplitude-frequency characteristics and rapid measurement of high frequency signals, the resistors, capacitors and amplifiers used in the system are rationally selected. Calibrating experiments show that relative errors are less than 1% for voltage and current effective values and less than 2.5% for active power, and absolute errors are ±1 Hz for frequency and ±1.7°for phase difference of voltage and current in the range of 17~23 kHz.

  10. Multi Parameter Flow Meter for On-Line Measurement of Gas Mixture Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egbert van der Wouden

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the development of a system and model to analyze the composition of gas mixtures up to four components. The system consists of a Coriolis mass flow sensor, density, pressure and thermal flow sensor. With this system it is possible to measure the viscosity, density, heat capacity and flow rate of the medium. In a next step the composition can be analyzed if the constituents of the mixture are known. This makes the approach universally applicable to all gasses as long as the number of components does not exceed the number of measured properties and as long as the properties are measured with a sufficient accuracy. We present measurements with binary and ternary gas mixtures, on compositions that range over an order of magnitude in value for the physical properties. Two platforms for analyses are presented. The first platform consists of sensors realized with MEMS fabrication technology. This approach allows for a system with a high level of integration. With this system we demonstrate a proof of principle for the analyses of binary mixtures with an accuracy of 10%. In the second platform we utilize more mature steel sensor technology to demonstrate the potential of this approach. We show that with this technique, binary mixtures can be measured within 1% and ternary gas mixtures within 3%.

  11. Detection of microbial contaminations in drinking water using ATP measurements – evaluating potential for online monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing call for fast and reliable methods for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. The potential for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements as a real-time analysis for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water...... quality was investigated through simulation of two contamination scenarios, i.e. drinking water contaminated with waste water and surface water at various concentrations. With ATP measurements it was possible to detect waste water diluted 1000-10,000 times in drinking water depending on sensitivity...... of reagent kit. Surface water diluted 100-1000 times was detected in drinking water with ATP measurements. ATP has the potential as an early warning tool, especially in the period when the contamination concentration is high. 2011 © American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights...

  12. Detection of microbial contaminations in drinking water using ATP measurements – evaluating potential for online monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing call for fast and reliable methods for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. The potential for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements as a real-time analysis for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water...... quality was investigated through simulation of two contamination scenarios, i.e. drinking water contaminated with waste water and surface water at various concentrations. With ATP measurements it was possible to detect waste water diluted 1000-10,000 times in drinking water depending on sensitivity...... of reagent kit. Surface water diluted 100-1000 times was detected in drinking water with ATP measurements. ATP has the potential as an early warning tool, especially in the period when the contamination concentration is high. 2011 © American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights...

  13. IN TURNING ON-LINE DETERMINATION OF CUTTING TOOL WEAR RATE BY MEASURING CUTTING TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KIYAK

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvements of adaptive control and computer aided manufacturing need to be sensitively determined tool wear rate during machining. Reserarchers working on this topic have developed direct and indirect methods. To determine tool wear rate during machining by measuring of cutting temperature is an indirect method. In this study, two measuring techniques, work-tool thermocouple technique and a method that is realized by using a thermocouple assambed by embeding in the tool have been used. Both of them have been tested by obtaining tool wear using hard metal insert and turning mild steel and compared one with the other using different point of views.

  14. A computer program for on-line measurement, storage, analysis and retrieval of urodynamic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Mastrigt (Ron)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractA computer program is presented which allows for direct connection of a minicomputer to a urodynamic set-up. The program stores measured pressure and flow data in a random access disc file with minimal intervention of the urodynamicist, and enables the direct application of a number of m

  15. On-line measurements of oscillating mitochondrial membrane potential in glucose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Poulsen, Allan K; Olsen, Lars Folke

    2007-01-01

    We employed the fluorescent cyanine dye DiOC(2)(3) to measure membrane potential in semi-anaerobic yeast cells under conditions where glycolysis was oscillating. Oscillations in glycolysis were studied by means of the naturally abundant nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). We found that the ...

  16. Automatic on-line analyser of microbial growth using simultaneous measurements of impedance and turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, R E; Felice, C J; Valentinuzzi, M E

    1999-11-01

    An apparatus for the measurement of bacterial growth is described. The instrument applies alternate adequate sequential currents of two different frequencies through a pair of electrodes immersed in a cultured medium. It monitors, detects and quantifies the growth of micro-organisms based on the measurement of the impedance across the two electrodes and, simultaneously, it measures the variation in the medium turbidity. The medium conductivity and the interface electrode impedance changes can be extracted from the measured impedance. The variations in turbidity can be calibrated in absorbance or optical density units. Moreover, all these parameters are also proportional to bacterial proliferation. The computer-controlled apparatus processes and displays the parameters on a monitor showing bulk resistance, electrode impedance and turbidity changes as time course events. The equipment can detect aerobic or anaerobic micro-organisms and permits the operator simultaneously to assess impedance and turbidity, or it can produce each parameter as a separate event. Time growth curves of different micro-organisms are presented in the results.

  17. Measuring organisational readiness for patient engagement (MORE): an international online Delphi consensus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostendorp, L.J.; Durand, M.A.; Lloyd, A.; Elwyn, G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Widespread implementation of patient engagement by organisations and clinical teams is not a reality yet. The aim of this study is to develop a measure of organisational readiness for patient engagement designed to monitor and facilitate a healthcare organisation's willingness and

  18. A computer program for on-line measurement, storage, analysis and retrieval of urodynamic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Mastrigt (Ron)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractA computer program is presented which allows for direct connection of a minicomputer to a urodynamic set-up. The program stores measured pressure and flow data in a random access disc file with minimal intervention of the urodynamicist, and enables the direct application of a number of

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: JMDC : JMMC Measured Stellar Diameters Catalogue (Duvert, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvert, G.

    2016-11-01

    Several star diameter compilations exist that contain a fair amount of stellar angular diameter measurements. The CADARS (2011, Cat. II/224) has entries for 6888 stars and claims completeness up to 1997. CHARM2 (2005, Cat. J/A+A/431/773) lists 8231 measurements of 3243 stars, up to 2005. However all these catalogs mix results from very direct methods, such as intensity interferometry, with indirect methods, or spectrophotometric estimates of various kind (always including some model of the star), or linear diameters from eclipsing binaries (1600 entries in CADARS), which need some modelling of the two stars, as well as a good estimate of the distance to be converted into an angular diameter. In contrary, the present catalogue, called JMDC (for JMMC Measured stellar Diameters Catalog) is focussed on direct methods only, and selects only one value of the uniform-disk diameter (UDD) and limb-darkened diameter (LDD) for each historical measurement. It should be regularly updated via a specialized submission tool that will be made available on the JMMC website (www.jmmc.fr). The current version gathers 1239 measurements that have been published since the first experiments by Michelson. Prior to 1997, our bibliography relies only on the reference list of CADARS, carefully reviewed. After this date we used NASA's ADS hosted at CDS. We retained only the measurements obtained from visible/IR interferometry, intensity interferometry and lunar occultation in the database. We always retrieved the values in the original text and used SIMBAD to properly and uniquely identify the stars. The three techniques retained share the same method of converting the measurements (squared visibilities for optical interferometry, correlation of photon-counts for intensity interferometry, fast photometry for lunar occultations) into an angular diameter: fitting a geometrical function into the values, in many cases a uniform disk, which provides a uniform disk diameter (UDD) value. This UDD is

  20. Potential of on-line visible and near infrared spectroscopy for measurement of pH for deriving variable rate lime recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Yücel; Kuang, Boyan; Mouazen, Abdul M

    2013-08-08

    This paper aims at exploring the potential of visible and near infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy for on-line measurement of soil pH, with the intention to produce variable rate lime recommendation maps. An on-line vis-NIR soil sensor set up to a frame was used in this study. Lime application maps, based on pH predicted by vis-NIR techniques, were compared with maps based on traditional lab-measured pH. The validation of the calibration model using off-line spectra provided excellent prediction accuracy of pH (R2 = 0.85, RMSEP = 0.18 and RPD = 2.52), as compared to very good accuracy obtained with the on-line measured spectra (R2 = 0.81, RMSEP = 0.20 and RPD = 2.14). On-line predicted pH of all points (e.g., 2,160) resulted in the largest overall field virtual lime requirement (1.404 t), as compared to those obtained with 16 validation points off-line prediction (0.28 t), on-line prediction (0.14 t) and laboratory reference measurement (0.48 t). The conclusion is that the vis-NIR spectroscopy can be successfully used for the prediction of soil pH and for deriving lime recommendations. The advantage of the on-line sensor over sampling with limited number of samples is that more detailed information about pH can be obtained, which is the reason for a higher but precise calculated lime recommendation rate.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES TO DETECT AND MEASURE PARTICULATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Wu; Steve Palm; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard III

    2004-07-31

    In this quarter, we have constructed the first field deployable PM measurement system. This system is retrofit from the system that we designed and tested in the lab, and by adding light blocking covers and rugged electronic boxes, we are now ready to test the instrument in our industrial collaborator's site with real engines. We have also collected tons of data on standard PM particles with our lab instrument.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES TO DETECT AND MEASURE PARTICULATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Wu; Steve Palm; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard III

    2004-10-31

    In this quarter, we have finished construction of the first field deployable multi-wavelength PM measurement system. This system is retrofit from the system that we designed and tested in the lab, and by adding light blocking covers and rugged electronic boxes, we are now testing the instrument in our industrial collaborator's site with a turbine power generator. We are collecting data on PM emissions from the engine under different load conditions and fuel/air mixing ratios.

  3. Development Of An Acoustice Sensor For On-Line Gas Temperature Measurement In Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Ariessohn; Hans Hornung

    2006-10-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-02NT41422 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 2 - Gasification Technologies. The project team includes Enertechnix, Inc. as the main contractor and ConocoPhillips Company as a technical partner, who also provides access to the SG Solutions Gasification Facility (formerly Wabash River Energy Limited), host for the field-testing portion of the research. The objective of this project was to adapt acoustic pyrometer technology to make it suitable for measuring gas temperature inside a coal gasifier, to develop a prototype sensor based on this technology, and to demonstrate its performance through testing on a commercial gasifier. The project was organized in three phases, each of approximately one year duration. The first phase consisted of researching a variety of sound generation and coupling approaches suitable for use with a high pressure process, evaluation of the impact of gas composition variability on the acoustic temperature measurement approach, evaluation of the impact of suspended particles and gas properties on sound attenuation, evaluation of slagging issues and development of concepts to deal with this issue, development and testing of key prototype components to allow selection of the best approaches, and development of a conceptual design for a field prototype sensor that could be tested on an operating gasifier. The second phase consisted of designing and fabricating a series of prototype sensors, testing them in the laboratory, and developing a conceptual design for a field prototype sensor. The third phase consisted of designing and fabricating the field prototype, and testing it in the lab and in a commercial gasifier to demonstrate the ability to obtain accurate measurements of gas temperature in an operating gasifier. This report describes all of the activities conducted during the project and

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES TO DETECT AND MEASURE PARTICULATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Wu; Steve Palm; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard III

    2005-02-18

    In this quarter, we have started the data collection process of the first field deployable multi-wavelength PM measurement system. This system is now operating in real world on PM emissions from a turbine power generator v.s. known PM standard for the system that we designed and tested in the lab. We proved that we could repeatedly collect same scattering signal under same engine load conditions. We further improved the signal to noise ratio of the system, by shortening the exposure time below 1,500 nanosecond and increasing the peak power. Here, we give detailed description on our investigation of the mechanisms in improving precision of pulsed laser timing.

  5. Measurement and Improvement of Subject Specialists Performance Searching Chemical Abstracts Online as Available on SDC Search Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Richard F.; And Others

    The first phase of a project to design a prompting system to help semi-experienced end users to search Chemical Abstracts online, this study focused on the differences and similarities in the search approaches used by experienced users and those with less expertise. Four online searches on topics solicited from chemistry professors in small…

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: DSSI observations of binaries. VI. Measures in 2014 (Horch+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horch, E. P.; van Belle, G. T.; Davidson, J. W. Jr; Ciastko, L. A.; Everett, M. E.; Bjorkman, K. S.

    2016-04-01

    We have started a new program of speckle observations of double stars at Lowell Observatory's Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT), a 4.3-m telescope. The Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI) was on the telescope on four occasions during 2014: two nights in March, two in June, eight nights from September 30 to October 7, and four more in November for a total of 16 nights, of which approximately five were used for binary star observations reported here. In Table3, we present our measures of double stars. There are a number of binaries observed that have orbits of relatively high quality in the Sixth Catalog of Visual Orbits of Binary Stars (Hartkopf et al., 2001AJ....122.3472H) that were not used in the determination of the scale. We may use these to further judge the intrinsic accuracy and precision of the measures in Table3. A listing of these objects is given in Table4, together with the orbit information. We also estimate the detection limit at 0.2'' in the cases where no companion was found (see Table5). (3 data files).

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kepler-10 RV measurements by HARPS-N (Dumusque+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumusque, X.; Bonomo, A. S.; Haywood, R. D.; Malavolta, L.; Segransan, D.; Buchhave, L. A.; Collier, Cameron A.; Latham, D. W.; Molinari, E.; Pepe, F.; Udry, S.; Charbonneau, D.; Cosentino, R.; Dressing, C. D.; Figueira, P.; Fiorenzano, A. F. M.; Gettel, S.; Harutyunyan, A.; Horne, K.; Lopez-Morales, M.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Micela, G.; Motalebi, F.; Nascimbeni, V.; Phillips, D. F.; Piotto, G.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Rice, K.; Sasselov, D.; Sozzetti, A.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Watson, C.

    2017-03-01

    We monitored the RV variation of Kepler-10 with the HARPS-N spectrograph installed on the 3.57-m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma Island, Spain (Cosentino et al. 2012SPIE.8446E..1VC). This instrument is an updated version of the original HARPS planet hunter installed on the 3.6-m telescope at the European Southern Observatory on La Silla, Chile (Mayor et al. 2003Msngr.114...20M). Just like its older brother, the HARPS-N instrument is an ultra-stable fiber-fed high-resolution (R = 115,000) optical echelle spectrograph optimized for the measurement of very precise RVs. The use of a more modern monolithic 4kx4k CCD enclosed in a more temperature stable cryostat, and the use of octagonal fibers for a better scrambling of the incoming light fed into the spectrograph should improve the precision of the instrument compared to HARPS. Scientific operations began at HARPS-N in 2012 August. Over the first two observing seasons, we obtained 157 RV measurements of Kepler-10. Four observations that were obtained during bad weather conditions had very low signal to noise (S/N, <10) and were rejected. (1 data file).

  8. Hard X-ray texture measurements with an on-line image plate detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wcislak, L; Tschentscher, T; Klein, H; Bunge, H J

    2001-01-01

    An instrument for diffraction texture measurements in polycrystalline bulk materials using hard X-ray photons from the wiggler beamline BW5 at HASYLAB is described. High-energy photons in the 100 keV regime enable high penetration power in medium-to-high Z materials and the use of Laue diffraction geometry in combination with a two-dimensional area detector allows fast and convenient data collection. Determination of quantitative, high-resolution pole figures with a better angular resolution of 0.1 deg. is attained by the instrument. Profile analysis of the diffraction pattern parameters for each (h k l)-reflection thus provides, in addition to texture data, information about other microstructural quantities, e.g. lattice strain.

  9. Evaluation of commercial probes for on-line electrical conductivity measurements during goat gland milking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gema; Díaz, Jose Ramon; Sabater, Jose Maria; Perez, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the milk electrical conductivity (EC) during mechanical milking has been widely studied for mastitis detection on cows because its improving of welfare and animal health, although research about small ruminants is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of three commercial conductimeters to be used during mechanical milking of small ruminant halves, especially Murciano-Granadina goats. The objective of this research was to integrate the probes on the milking unit and to check the suitability of the probe selected. The results presented in this research have guided authors to discard the commercial probes and to establish the requirements of a new probe design that is briefly outlined in the conclusions of this contribution.

  10. Evaluation of Commercial Probes for On-Line Electrical Conductivity Measurements during Goat Gland Milking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gema; Díaz, Jose Ramon; Sabater, Jose Maria; Perez, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the milk electrical conductivity (EC) during mechanical milking has been widely studied for mastitis detection on cows because its improving of welfare and animal health, although research about small ruminants is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of three commercial conductimeters to be used during mechanical milking of small ruminant halves, especially Murciano-Granadina goats. The objective of this research was to integrate the probes on the milking unit and to check the suitability of the probe selected. The results presented in this research have guided authors to discard the commercial probes and to establish the requirements of a new probe design that is briefly outlined in the conclusions of this contribution. PMID:22666042

  11. Adobe Flash as a medium for online experimentation: a test of reaction time measurement capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2007-08-01

    Adobe Flash can be used to run complex psychological experiments over the Web. We examined the reliability of using Flash to measure reaction times (RTs) using a simple binary-choice task implemented both in Flash and in a Linux-based system known to record RTs with millisecond accuracy. Twenty-four participants were tested in the laboratory using both implementations; they also completed the Flash version on computers of their own choice outside the lab. RTs from the trials run on Flash outside the lab were approximately 20 msec slower than those from trials run on Flash in the lab, which in turn were approximately 10 msec slower than RTs from the trials run on the Linux-based system (baseline condition). RT SDs were similar in all conditions, suggesting that although Flash may overestimate RTs slightly, it does not appear to add significant noise to the data recorded.

  12. Annular shape silver lined proportional counter for on-line pulsed neutron yield measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dighe, P. M.; Das, D.

    2015-04-01

    An annular shape silver lined proportional counter is developed to measure pulsed neutron radiation. The detector has 314 mm overall length and 235 mm overall diameter. The central cavity of 150 mm diameter and 200 mm length is used for placing the neutron source. Because of annular shape the detector covers >3π solid angle of the source. The detector has all welded construction. The detector is developed in two halves for easy mounting and demounting. Each half is an independent detector. Both the halves together give single neutron pulse calibration constant of 4.5×104 neutrons/shot count. The detector operates in proportional mode which gives enhanced working conditions in terms of dead time and operating range compared to Geiger Muller based neutron detectors.

  13. On-line measurement of raw gas elemental composition in fluidized bed biomass steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, D. [Dept. of Environment and Planning, Centre of Environmental and Marine Studies, Univ. of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, Aveiro (Portugal); Dept. of Energy and Environment, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Thunman, H.; Larsson, A.; Seemann, M. [Dept. of Energy and Environment, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Tarelho, L.; Matos, A. [Dept. of Environment and Planning, Centre of Environmental and Marine Studies, Univ. of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, Aveiro (Portugal)

    2012-11-01

    At the present stage of technology development pursuing to achieve unattended gasification processes, the available methods to determine the CHON composition of raw gas involve a great deal of laboratory tasks, making it unpractical, time-consuming and costly. For instance, there are available analyzers to measure the chemical composition of dry raw gas but offline methods are used to determine the liquids (organic compounds + water). An alternative that is investigated in this work is to convert the raw gas first into simple product species that are easily analyzed. The straightforward way to achieve this is to burn the gas with proper amount of oxygen to assure quantitative conversion into CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}. This method is demonstrated here by monitoring the CHON composition of raw gas with high temporal resolution from Chalmers 2MW{sub th} FB gasifier.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HIRES radial velocity measurements (Knutson+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, H. A.; Fulton, B. J.; Montet, B. T.; Kao, M.; Ngo, H.; Howard, A. W.; Crepp, J. R.; Hinkley, S.; Bakos, G. A.; Batygin, K.; Johnson, J. A.; Morton, T. D.; Muirhead, P. S.

    2017-06-01

    We observed our target stars using the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) (Vogt et al. 1994SPIE.2198..362V) on the 10 m Keck I telescope over a period of two years beginning in 2011; many of our targets also had existing HIRES observations taken prior to 2011 by other programs. We used the standard HIRES setup and reduction pipeline employed by the California Planet Search (CPS) consortium (Wright et al. 2004, J/ApJS/152/261; Howard et al. 2009ApJ...696...75H; Johnson et al. 2010PASP..122..149J). Observations were typically obtained with a slit width of 0.86" with integration times optimized to obtain typical signal to noise ratios of 70 per pixel. An iodine cell mounted in front of the spectrometer entrance slit provided a wavelength scale and instrumental profile for the observations (Marcy & Butler, 1992PASP..104..270M; Valenti et al. 1995PASP..107..966V). We obtained a total of approximately 270 new radial velocity measurements for our target sample, with a minimum of four observations per target separated by at least six months. (3 data files).

  15. Online Monitoring of Laser-Generated XUV Radiation Spectra by Surface Reflectivity Measurements with Particle Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hoffmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we present a wavelength-sensitive method for the detection of extreme ultraviolet (XUV photon energies between 30 eV and 120 eV. The method is based on 45° reflectivity from either a cesium iodide-coated or an uncoated metal surface, which directs the XUV beam onto an electron or ion detector and its signal is used to monitor the XUV beam. The benefits of our approach are a spectrally sensitive diagnosis of the XUV radiation at the interaction place of time-resolved XUV experiments and the detection of infrared leak light though metal filters in high-harmonic generation (HHG experiments. Both features were tested using spectrally shaped XUV pulses from HHG in a capillary, and we have achieved excellent agreement with XUV spectrometer measurements and reflectivity calculations. Our obtained results are of interest for time-resolved XUV experiments presenting an additional diagnostic directly in the interaction region and for small footprint XUV beamline diagnostics.

  16. On-Line and Off-Line Security Measurement Framework for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo M. Savola

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose an integrated security measurement architecture and framework for a dynamic self-organizing monitoring system based on mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs, structured according to currently known security challenges. The aim is to predict, as well as to monitor, the security performance, concentrating on the principal effects contributing to it. We introduce an on-thefly security level estimation mechanism for MANETs. The mechanism can be used to support node-level, network segment-level and network-level decision making. At the node level, it is possible to constantly estimate the security level when choosing applications and communication mechanisms. At the network level, democratic voting among independent estimates originating from different nodes is used to increase the level of security. Furthermore, we introduce a generic security evaluation framework based on definition and decomposition of security requirements, behaviour modelling, evidence collection, and decision making. The goal of the decision making process is to make an assessment of and form conclusions about the information security level or performance of the system under investigation.

  17. System for on-line 3D measurement of rough natural surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paar, Gerhard; Poelzleitner, Wolfgang; Bauer, A.

    1995-09-01

    3D reconstruction of highly textured surfaces like those found in roads, as well as unvegetated (rock-like) terrain is of major interest for applications like autonomous navigation, or the 3D modeling of terrain for mapping purposes. We describe a system for automatic modeling of such scenes. It is based on two frame CCD cameras, which are tightly attached to eachother to ensure constant relative orientation. One camera is used for the acquisition of photogrammetrically measure reference points, the other records the surface images. The system is moved from the first position to the next by an operator carrying it. Automatic calibration using the images acquired by the calibration camera permits the computation of exterior orientation parameters of the surface camera. A fast matching method providing dense disparities together with a robust reconstruction algorithm renders an accurate grid of 3D points. We also describe procedures to merge stereo reconstruction results from all images taken, and report on accuracy, computational complexity, and practical experience in a road engineering application.

  18. Online temperature measurement and flow analysis of hot dross in a steel plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Helmut; Sidla, Oliver

    2005-11-01

    Continuous monitoring and control of process temperature(s) is one of the cornerstones in high quality steel making. Given the very high temperatures in the liquid phase of the steel and the slag on top of the steel (approx. 1500 °C...1800 °C) and the particularly harsh environment at the manufacturing plant, only very few temperature sensors are able to cope with the process requirements, in particular a wide variety of thermocouple probes and pyrometers are commonly used. More recently thermography infrared cameras have begun to enter the scenario but are often discarded as an option mainly because of their high cost. In the high temperature range as described above a dual wavelength camera solution working in the visible part of the spectrum offers a viable alternative1. At a fraction of the cost such a system can deliver images of high spatial resolution while at the same time measuring temperature with an accuracy of better than 5 °C. The thermal camera approach is particularly beneficial in the present case where important process information can be deducted from quantitative observation of the flow patterns of the molten material which could until now only be estimated by a trained operator with all the drawbacks inherent to such an approach. The thermal camera solution thus offers a clear technological advantage for the steel manufacturer.

  19. On-line measurements of RuO{sub 4} during a PWR severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reymond-Laruinaz, S.; Doizi, D. [CEA, DEN, Departement de Physico-chimie, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, (France); Manceron, L. [Societe Civile Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, St-Aubin BP48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, (France); MONARIS, UMR 8233, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, case 49, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05, (France); Boudon, V. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Universite de Bourgogne, 9 avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex, (France); Ducros, G. [CEA, DEN, Departement d' Etudes des Combustibles, CEA/Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance cedex, (France)

    2015-07-01

    After the Fukushima accident, it became essential to have a way to monitor in real time the evolution of a nuclear reactor during a severe accident, in order to react efficiently and minimize the industrial, ecological and health consequences of the accident. Among gaseous fission products, the tetroxide of ruthenium RuO{sub 4} is of prime importance since it has a significant radiological impact. Ruthenium is a low volatile fission product but in case of the rupture of the vessel lower head by the molten corium, the air entering into the vessel oxidizes Ru into gaseous RuO{sub 4}, which is not trapped by the Filtered Containment Venting Systems. To monitor the presence of RuO{sub 4} allows making a diagnosis of the core degradation and quantifying the release into the atmosphere. To determine the presence of RuO{sub 4}, FTIR spectrometry was selected. To study the feasibility of the monitoring, high-resolution IR measurements were realized at the French synchrotron facility SOLEIL on the infrared beam line AILES. Thereafter, theoretical calculations were done to simulate the FTIR spectrum to describe the specific IR fingerprint of the molecule for each isotope and based on its partial pressure in the air. (authors)

  20. Teaching renewable energy using online PBL in investigating its effect on behaviour towards energy conservation among Malaysian students: ANOVA repeated measures approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Norfarah; Samsudin, Mohd Ali; Hadi Harun, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate whether online problem based learning (PBL) approach to teach renewable energy topic improves students’ behaviour towards energy conservation. A renewable energy online problem based learning (REePBaL) instruction package was developed based on the theory of constructivism and adaptation of the online learning model. This study employed a single group quasi-experimental design to ascertain the changed in students’ behaviour towards energy conservation after underwent the intervention. The study involved 48 secondary school students in a Malaysian public school. ANOVA Repeated Measure technique was employed in order to compare scores of students’ behaviour towards energy conservation before and after the intervention. Based on the finding, students’ behaviour towards energy conservation improved after the intervention.

  1. Mass measurements on short-lived Cd and Ag nuclides at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenfeldt, Martin

    2009-07-03

    In the present work, mass determinations of the eleven neutron-deficient nuclides {sup 99-109}Cd, of ten neutron-rich silver nuclides {sup 112,114-121,123}Ag, and seven neutron-rich cadmium nuclides {sup 114,120,122-124,126,128}Cd are reported. Due to the clean production of the neutron-deficient nuclides it was possible to reduce the experimental uncertainties down to 2 keV, whereas the measurements of neutron-rich nuclides were hampered by the presence of contaminations from more stable In and Cs nuclides. In the case of {sup 99}Cd and {sup 123}Ag the masses were determined for the first time and for the other nuclides the mass uncertainties could be reduced by up to a factor of 50 as in the case of {sup 100}Cd. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for {sup 115,117,119}Ag and {sup 123}Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for {sup 115,117,119}Ag and {sup 123}Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of the neutron-deficient Cd nuclides a conflict between the mass values obtained in the present work and those published by the JYFLTRAP group [EEH{sup +}] could be solved by performing an atomic-mass evaluation. Thus, it was revealed that reason for the conflict was a different value of the JYFLTRAP reference mass {sup 96}Mo. Furthermore, a reduction of the mass uncertainty and a slight increase of the mass of {sup 100}In were obtained. These mass measurements are an important step towards an understanding of the physics of

  2. Active on-line detector for in-room radiotherapy neutron measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, F., E-mail: faustino.gomez@usc.e [Dpt. Fisica de Particulas, Facultad de Fisica, Campus Sur, Univ. Santiago de Compostela, Santiago 15782 (Spain); Sanchez-Doblado, F. [Dpt. de Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Univ. Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Hospital Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain); Iglesias, A. [Dpt. Fisica de Particulas, Facultad de Fisica, Campus Sur, Univ. Santiago de Compostela, Santiago 15782 (Spain); Domingo, C. [Dpt. Fisica, Univ. Autonoma Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    The measurement of the neutron fluence produced inside a radiotherapy installation has been a matter of concern specially in the photon high megavoltage modalities. Until now, due to the pulsed nature of the beam and the high photon fluence inside the radiotherapy room, only passive methods were considered reliable. In this work we describe a neutron detector, based on neutron sensitive SRAM devices, that can operate inside the treatment room and is insensitive to the scattered photon fluence. This device has been used to estimate the neutron production and the patient exposure to neutrons in several clinical installations with different linac commercial models. The detection principle is based on the production of Single Event Upset (SEU) of memory states on modern sub-micron technology SRAMs. Spectral sensitivity was initially studied using low energy neutron shielding (boron and cadmium layers) and later using dedicated calibration neutron beams. With a 3 mm thick flex-boron shield, the SEU rate was reduced to around 5% of the unshielded rate, demonstrating that the dominant contribution of the SEU cross section of the chosen SRAM was due to low energy neutrons. The total memory size was scaled to obtain a response repeatability with relative typical uncertainty of about 2% for 1000 Monitor Units (MU) in a 15 MV accelerator facility with excellent linearity with MU. The sensitivity of this digital detector is around 0.3 {mu}Sv H{sup *}(10) per event and considering the signal to fluence ratio around 2 x 10{sup -4} event cm{sup 2}.

  3. Development of an Acoustic Sensor On-Line Gas Temperature Measurement in Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Ariessohn

    2008-06-30

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-02NT41422 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 2 - Gasification Technologies. The project team includes Enertechnix, Inc. as the main contractor and ConocoPhillips Company as a technical partner, who also provides access to the SG Solutions Gasification Facility (formerly Wabash River Energy Limited), host for the field-testing portion of the research. The objective of this project was to adapt acoustic pyrometer technology to make it suitable for measuring gas temperature inside a coal gasifier, to develop a prototype sensor based on this technology, and to demonstrate its performance through testing on a commercial gasifier. The project was organized in three phases, each of approximately one year duration. The first phase consisted of researching a variety of sound generation and coupling approaches suitable for use with a high pressure process, evaluation of the impact of gas composition variability on the acoustic temperature measurement approach, evaluation of the impact of suspended particles and gas properties on sound attenuation, evaluation of slagging issues and development of concepts to deal with this issue, development and testing of key prototype components to allow selection of the best approaches, and development of a conceptual design for a field prototype sensor that could be tested on an operating gasifier. The second phase consisted of designing and fabricating a series of prototype sensors, testing them in the laboratory, and developing a conceptual design for a field prototype sensor. The third phase consisted of designing and fabricating the field prototype, and testing it in the lab and in a commercial gasifier to demonstrate the ability to obtain accurate measurements of gas temperature in an operating gasifier. Following the completion of the initial 3 year project, several continuations

  4. Mass measurements on short-lived Cd and Ag nuclides at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenfeldt, Martin

    2009-07-03

    In the present work, mass determinations of the eleven neutron-deficient nuclides {sup 99-109}Cd, of ten neutron-rich silver nuclides {sup 112,114-121,123}Ag, and seven neutron-rich cadmium nuclides {sup 114,120,122-124,126,128}Cd are reported. Due to the clean production of the neutron-deficient nuclides it was possible to reduce the experimental uncertainties down to 2 keV, whereas the measurements of neutron-rich nuclides were hampered by the presence of contaminations from more stable In and Cs nuclides. In the case of {sup 99}Cd and {sup 123}Ag the masses were determined for the first time and for the other nuclides the mass uncertainties could be reduced by up to a factor of 50 as in the case of {sup 100}Cd. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for {sup 115,117,119}Ag and {sup 123}Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for {sup 115,117,119}Ag and {sup 123}Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of the neutron-deficient Cd nuclides a conflict between the mass values obtained in the present work and those published by the JYFLTRAP group [EEH{sup +}] could be solved by performing an atomic-mass evaluation. Thus, it was revealed that reason for the conflict was a different value of the JYFLTRAP reference mass {sup 96}Mo. Furthermore, a reduction of the mass uncertainty and a slight increase of the mass of {sup 100}In were obtained. These mass measurements are an important step towards an understanding of the physics of

  5. Evaluation of clinical trials by Ethics Committees in Germany – results and a comparison of two surveys performed among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: The objective of this project was to evaluate the quality and quantity of initial applications for a clinical trial according to § 7 of the German Good Clinical Practice (GCP ordinance (German: GCP-Verordnung, GCP-V, the quality of evaluations of those applications by Ethics Committees (ECs/Investigational Review Boards (IRBs in Germany as well as the pattern of EC objections in their reasoned opinions (vote. In order to identify a change over time, the results of the present survey were also compared with a survey performed in 2008.Methods: Based on reasoned opinions issued by the respective EC in charge of the coordinating principle investigator (coordinating EC in 2011, a written survey among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa was conducted in 2012. The answers to the questionnaire were analyzed descriptively. Since the data set collected in 2011 was structurally identical with the data set gained in 2007 both surveys were compared.Results: Of the 24 companies represented on the vfa Clinical Research/Quality Assurance Subcommittee, 75% (18 took part in the survey. Survey evaluation was based on a total of 251 applications of these 18 companies submitted to 43 ECs. These account for about 21% of 1,214 applications for authorization of commercial and non-commercial phase I–IV clinical trials submitted to the regulatory authorities (BfArM and PEI in 2011.In comparison to 2007, a lower amount of applications (n=251 in 2011 vs. n=288 in 2007 was submitted to a slightly higher number of ECs (43 in 2011 vs. 40 in 2007. The amount of objections increased by 21% from 1,299 (2007 to 1,574 (2011 resulting in an average of 4.5 (2007 vs. 6.3 (2011 objections per application. Overall, the analysis of both formal and content related objections revealed almost the same pattern as in the previous survey. In total, the most frequent objections applied to the patient information and consent

  6. 网上顾客满意度的隐式测评研究%Implicit Measurement on Online Customers Satisfaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传美

    2011-01-01

    There are rare implicit measurements on online customer satisfaction. A measurement method by observing the customer Web browsing activities was put forward to obtain implicit feedback information. An online customers' satisfaction implicit evaluation model was established,and the specific measurement methods were provided. The evaluation system structure was designed. Seamless connection was achieved between the implicit evaluation on online customer and normal customer satisfaction index. The work will play important role in realizing online customers' personalized information retrieval and information filtering,and it is beneficial to E - commerce websites to provide the personalized services for the online customers.%针对目前关于顾客满意度隐式测评研究还比较匮乏的问题,提出通过观察顾客对相应Web页面的浏览动作来获取隐式的反馈信息,建立网上顾客对卖家满意度隐式测评模型,并给出具体的测评方法,进一步设计了测评系统结构图,实现了网上顾客满意度隐式测评与一般顾客满意度指数模型的无缝连接.为实现个性化的信息检索或信息过滤,使电子商务网站为顾客提供个性化的服务奠定了基础.

  7. Personalized risk communication for personalized risk assessment: Real world assessment of knowledge and motivation for six mortality risk measures from an online life expectancy calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Douglas G; Abdulaziz, Kasim E; Perez, Richard; Beach, Sarah; Bennett, Carol

    2017-01-09

    In the clinical setting, previous studies have shown personalized risk assessment and communication improves risk perception and motivation. We evaluated an online health calculator that estimated and presented six different measures of life expectancy/mortality based on a person's sociodemographic and health behavior profile. Immediately after receiving calculator results, participants were invited to complete an online survey that asked how informative and motivating they found each risk measure, whether they would share their results and whether the calculator provided information they need to make lifestyle changes. Over 80% of the 317 survey respondents found at least one of six healthy living measures highly informative and motivating, but there was moderate heterogeneity regarding which measures respondents found most informative and motivating. Overall, health age was most informative and life expectancy most motivating. Approximately 40% of respondents would share the results with their clinician (44%) or social networks (38%), although the information they would share was often different from what they found informative or motivational. Online personalized risk assessment allows for a more personalized communication compared to historic paper-based risk assessment to maximize knowledge and motivation, and people should be provided a range of risk communication measures that reflect different risk perspectives.

  8. Application of an online ion-chromatography-based instrument for gradient flux measurements of speciated nitrogen and sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Ian C.; Walker, John T.

    2016-06-01

    The dry component of total nitrogen and sulfur atmospheric deposition remains uncertain. The lack of measurements of sufficient chemical speciation and temporal extent make it difficult to develop accurate mass budgets and sufficient process level detail is not available to improve current air-surface exchange models. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of continuous air sampling measurement techniques, resulting with instruments of sufficient sensitivity and temporal resolution to directly quantify air-surface exchange of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. However, their applicability is generally restricted to only one or a few of the compounds within the deposition budget. Here, the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA 2S), a commercially available online ion-chromatography-based analyzer is characterized for the first time as applied for air-surface exchange measurements of HNO3, NH3, NH4+, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-. Analytical accuracy and precision are assessed under field conditions. Chemical concentrations gradient precision are determined at the same sampling site. Flux uncertainty measured by the aerodynamic gradient method is determined for a representative 3-week period in fall 2012 over a grass field. Analytical precision and chemical concentration gradient precision were found to compare favorably in comparison to previous studies. During the 3-week period, percentages of hourly chemical concentration gradients greater than the corresponding chemical concentration gradient detection limit were 86, 42, 82, 73, 74 and 69 % for NH3, NH4+, HNO3, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-, respectively. As expected, percentages were lowest for aerosol species, owing to their relatively low deposition velocities and correspondingly smaller gradients relative to gas phase species. Relative hourly median flux uncertainties were 31, 121, 42, 43, 67 and 56 % for NH3, NH4+, HNO3, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-, respectively. Flux

  9. Online Gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Curran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer gaming is a medium by which we can entertain ourselves, a medium that has expanded to the online worldwide market as part as globalization. The growth of online gaming has close ties with the use of broadband, as a good online gaming experience requires a broadband connection. Through online gaming, people can play and communicate with each other freely in almost any country, at any given time. This paper examines the phenomenon of online gaming.

  10. On-line technique for preparingand measuring stable carbon isotopeof total dissolved inorganic carbonin water samples ( d13CTDIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Inguaggiato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A fast and completely automated procedure is proposed for the preparation and determination of d13C of total inorganic carbon dissolved in water ( d13CTDIC. This method is based on the acidification of water samples transforming the whole dissolved inorganic carbon species into CO2. Water samples are directly injected by syringe into 5.9 ml vials with screw caps which have a pierciable rubber septum. An Analytical Precision «Carbonate Prep System» was used both to flush pure helium into the vials and to automatically dispense a fixed amount of H3PO4. Full-equilibrium conditions between produced CO2 and water are reached at a temperature of 70°C (± 0.1°C in less than 24 h. Carbon isotope ratios (13C/ 12C were measured on an AP 2003 continuous flow mass spectrometer, connected on-line with the injection system. The precision and reproducibility of the proposed method was tested both on aqueous standard solutions prepared using Na2CO3 with d13C=-10.78 per mil versus PDB (1 s= 0.08, n = 11, and at five different concentrations (2, 3, 4, 5 and 20 mmol/l and on more than thirty natural samples. Mean d13CTDIC on standard solution samples is ?10.89 < per mil versus PDB (1 s= 0.18, n = 50, thus revealing both a good analytical precision and reproducibility. A comparison between average d13CTDIC values on a quadruplicate set of natural samples and those obtained following the chemical and physical stripping method highlights a good agreement between the two analytical methods.

  11. A new lithium-ion battery internal temperature on-line estimate method based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J. G.; Sun, Z. C.; Wei, X. Z.; Dai, H. F.

    2015-01-01

    The power battery thermal management problem in EV (electric vehicle) and HEV (hybrid electric vehicle) has been widely discussed, and EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) is an effective experimental method to test and estimate the status of the battery. Firstly, an electrochemical-based impedance matrix analysis for lithium-ion battery is developed to describe the impedance response of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Then a method, based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement, has been proposed to estimate the internal temperature of power lithium-ion battery by analyzing the phase shift and magnitude of impedance at different ambient temperatures. Respectively, the SoC (state of charge) and temperature have different effects on the impedance characteristics of battery at various frequency ranges in the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experimental study. Also the impedance spectrum affected by SoH (state of health) is discussed in the paper preliminary. Therefore, the excitation frequency selected to estimate the inner temperature is in the frequency range which is significantly influenced by temperature without the SoC and SoH. The intrinsic relationship between the phase shift and temperature is established under the chosen excitation frequency. And the magnitude of impedance related to temperature is studied in the paper. In practical applications, through obtaining the phase shift and magnitude of impedance, the inner temperature estimation could be achieved. Then the verification experiments are conduced to validate the estimate method. Finally, an estimate strategy and an on-line estimation system implementation scheme utilizing battery management system are presented to describe the engineering value.

  12. An Infraspec VFA-IR spectrometer analysis of Trans-fat content in glazed donuts purchased from supermarkets, convenience stores and bakeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharron Jenkins

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most packaged food products must contain trans-fat labelling; however unpackaged snacks such as cookies, donuts, and muffins at supermarkets, gas station convenience stores, and bakeries often do not have or require nutrition fact labels. Hence, consumers are not aware of the trans-fat content in unpackaged food products. It is well-known within the health and scientific community that diets high in trans-fat can lead to a host of health problems, namely coronary heart disease (CHD. The purpose of this study is to conduct a preliminary study of the trans-fat content in unpackaged baked goods, particularly unpackaged glazed donuts. To accomplish our objective, we determined the % trans-fat in oil extracted from glazed donuts obtained from several supermarkets, gas stations and bakeries across Northwest, Indiana. Variable Filter Array (VFA IR spectroscopy was used to assess the trans-fat content of oil extracted from food samples. In this paper, we present our preliminary findings.

  13. 对数控机床在线测量进行误差分析%Error Analysis of CNC Machine Tools Online Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于佃清

    2015-01-01

    The paper split CNC machine tools online measurement system into 2 parts for optimizing online measurement system, CNC machine tools body and probe measurement system. According to the analysis of the structure and working principle of CNC machine tools online system, the structure composition and measurement principle of the probe system were analysed, then the error sources and characters as well.%本文为优化数控机床在线测量系统,将数控机床在线测量系统拆分为数控机床本体和测头测量系统两部分,通过对数控机床在线系统的结构组成和工作原理分析,再对测头系统的结构组成及测量原理分析,然后对其开展深层次的分析误差来源及性质.以期能够为数控机床在线测量有效优化提供有价值的参考依据.

  14. Online measuring devices at sewage treatment plants - state of the art and future market potential; On-Line-Messtechnik auf Klaeranlagen - Aktueller Stand und Marktpotential fuer die Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, P. [Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft der Univ. Stuttgart, Abt. Abwassertechnik (Germany); Schlegel, S. [Emschergenossenschaft, Essen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    By means of a survey commissioned by ATV/GFA, the purposes of use and spheres of use as well as the operating experience with online measuring devices for the determination of ammonium, oxidized nitrogen compounds and orthophosphate were established and evaluated. In addition, data were acquired with the aid of other units for the continuous recording of chemical and physical parameters of sewage treatment. Finally, the future market potentials and development pospects of online measuring devices were evaluated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand einer im Auftrag der ATV/GFA durchgefuehrten Umfrage wurden Einsatzzweck, Einsatzbereiche und Betriebserfahrungen von On-line-Messgeraeten zur Bestimmung von Ammonium, oxidierten Stickstoffverbindungen und Orthophosphat dargestellt und bewertet. Zusaetzlich wurden auch Daten von anderen Geraeteeinheiten zur kontinuierlichen Erfassung von chemischen und physikalischen Parametern bei der Abwasserreinigung erhoben. Anschliessend wurde das zukuenftige Marktpotential und die Entwicklungsmoeglichkeiten bei der On-line-Messtechnik bewertet. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of different methods for measuring water holding capacity and juiciness of pork versus on-line screening methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oeckel, M J; Warnants, N; Boucqué, C V

    1999-04-01

    The extent to which water holding capacity (WHC) techniques: filter paper press method, drip loss and filter paper method, are related to the sensory juiciness appreciation of pork was studied. Additionally four on-line methods: pH1, FOP1 (light scattering), PQM1 (conductivity) and DDLT (Double Density Light Transmission), were evaluated for their ability to predict WHC and juiciness scores. One-hundred and twenty samples of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum, from animals of different genotypes, were involved in this study. Only WHC results, determined by the filter paper press method, were significantly correlated with juiciness scores (r=-0.24). The results of the filter paper method, either by weighing or visual judging, could not be predicted by the on-line methods. The results of the filter paper press method (F.p.p.-RZ) and drip loss were slightly better correlated with DDLT (respectively, r=0.56 and 0.45) than with PQM1 (r=0.51 and 0.36), FOP1 (r=0.48 and 0.34) and pH1 (r=0.41 and 0.34), although the standard error of estimate of the linear regressions was similar for the four on-line methods. Unfortunately, the on-line techniques incorrectly predicted several WHCs. Juiciness was slightly or not related to the on-line methods. The DDLT technique, which is analogous to the CGM (Capteur Gras/Maigre), an officially accepted carcass grading apparatus in France and Belgium, is as good or better than the classical on-line instruments: pH, FOP and PQM, in predicting WHC.

  16. Online reklama

    OpenAIRE

    Švarc, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is thematically focused on online advertising. The paper describes the history of online advertising and its advantages and disadvantages compared to other media types. There are mentioned standards of online advertising on the Czech Internet and ways to optimize the different types for better performance. Next we go over the characteristics of selected tools for assessing the success and management of online campaigns. We also compare the advertising possibilities ...

  17. A miniature condensed-phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS) probe for direct and on-line measurements of pharmaceuticals and contaminants in small, complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kyle D; Willis, Megan D; Krogh, Erik T; Gill, Christopher G

    2013-06-15

    High-throughput, automated analytical measurements are desirable in many analytical scenarios, as are rapid sample pre-screening techniques to identify 'positive' samples for subsequent measurements using more time-consuming conventional methodologies (e.g., liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)). A miniature condensed-phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS) probe for the direct and continuous, on-line measurement of pharmaceuticals and environmental contaminants in small, complex samples is presented. A miniature polydimethylsiloxane hollow fibre membrane (PDMS-HFM) probe is coupled with an electrospray ionization (ESI) triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Analytes are transported from the probe to the ESI source by a methanol acceptor phase. The probe can be autosampler mounted and directly inserted in small samples (≥400 μL) allowing continuous and simultaneous pptr-ppb level detection of target analytes (chlorophenols, triclosan, gemfibrozil, nonylphenol) in complex samples (artificial urine, beer, natural water, waste water, plant tissue). The probe has been characterized and optimized for acceptor phase flow rate, sample mixing and probe washing. Signal response times, detection limits and calibration data are given for selected ion monitoring (SIM) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) measurements of target analytes at trace levels. Comparisons with flow cell type CP-MIMS systems are given. Analyte depletion effects are evaluated for small samples (≥400 μL). On-line measurements in small volumes of complex samples, temporally resolved reaction monitoring and in situ/in vivo demonstrations are presented. The miniature CP-MIMS probe developed was successfully used for the direct, on-line detection of target analytes in small volumes (40 mL to 400 μL) of complex samples at pptr to low ppb levels. The probe can be readily automated as well as deployed for in situ/in vivo monitoring, including reaction monitoring, small sample

  18. Development of a method for fast and automatic radiocarbon measurement of aerosol samples by online coupling of an elemental analyzer with a MICADAS AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, G., E-mail: gary.salazar@dcb.unibe.ch [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry & Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Zhang, Y.L.; Agrios, K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry & Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Szidat, S. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry & Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    A fast and automatic method for radiocarbon analysis of aerosol samples is presented. This type of analysis requires high number of sample measurements of low carbon masses, but accepts precisions lower than for carbon dating analysis. The method is based on online Trapping CO{sub 2} and coupling an elemental analyzer with a MICADAS AMS by means of a gas interface. It gives similar results to a previously validated reference method for the same set of samples. This method is fast and automatic and typically provides uncertainties of 1.5–5% for representative aerosol samples. It proves to be robust and reliable and allows for overnight and unattended measurements. A constant and cross contamination correction is included, which indicates a constant contamination of 1.4 ± 0.2 μg C with 70 ± 7 pMC and a cross contamination of (0.2 ± 0.1)% from the previous sample. A Real-time online coupling version of the method was also investigated. It shows promising results for standard materials with slightly higher uncertainties than the Trapping online approach.

  19. Monitoring on-line system for the lactic fermentation measurement using the integration enzyme sensor; Shusekika koso sensa wo mochiita nyusan hakko keisokuyo onrain monitringu shisutemu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masayasu; Kumagaya, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Yoichi [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1999-04-05

    The monitoring on-line system for the lactic fermentation measurement in which the simultaneous measurement of the substrate. Generation was possible was constructed without consuming the culture medium by using soliciting small enzyme sensor and flow injection analysis system integrate. There was the linearity that anyway was also range of concentration of 70mM or less and that it is good on the calibration curve of minute glucose, lactose, and lactic acid sensor. It became clear that it proved that all range of concentration of the substrate of these three which combining with the micro diary system, breaks in the lactic fermentation measurement with the necessity can be measured and not observe the interference by medium components, etc. either. Constructed monitoring on-line system is Lactobacillus delbrueckii and, it was applied to the lactic fermentation process of Lactobacillus lactis. Through the fermentation process for 24 hours, simultaneous measurement of glucose (or lactose) and lactic acid is possible. The measured value agreed well with the result of colorimetric method using the enzyme. (translated by NEDO)

  20. Size characterization of airborne SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with on-line and off-line measurement techniques: an interlaboratory comparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motzkus, C., E-mail: charles.motzkus@lne.fr; Mace, T.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Ducourtieux, S.; Delvallee, A. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (LNE) (France); Dirscherl, K. [Danish Fundamental Metrology (DFM) (Denmark); Hodoroaba, V.-D. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany); Popov, I. [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Unit for Nanocharacterization (Israel); Popov, O.; Kuselman, I. [National Physical Laboratory of Israel (INPL) (Israel); Takahata, K.; Ehara, K. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) (Japan); Ausset, P.; Maille, M. [Universite Paris-Est Creteil et Universite Paris-Diderot, Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA), UMR CNRS 7583 (France); Michielsen, N.; Bondiguel, S.; Gensdarmes, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PSN-RES, SCA, LPMA (France); Morawska, L.; Johnson, G. R.; Faghihi, E. M. [Queensland University of Technology (QUT), International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health (ILAQH) (Australia); and others

    2013-10-15

    Results of an interlaboratory comparison on size characterization of SiO{sub 2} airborne nanoparticles using on-line and off-line measurement techniques are discussed. This study was performed in the framework of Technical Working Area (TWA) 34-'Properties of Nanoparticle Populations' of the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) in the project no. 3 'Techniques for characterizing size distribution of airborne nanoparticles'. Two types of nano-aerosols, consisting of (1) one population of nanoparticles with a mean diameter between 30.3 and 39.0 nm and (2) two populations of non-agglomerated nanoparticles with mean diameters between, respectively, 36.2-46.6 nm and 80.2-89.8 nm, were generated for characterization measurements. Scanning mobility particle size spectrometers (SMPS) were used for on-line measurements of size distributions of the produced nano-aerosols. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used as off-line measurement techniques for nanoparticles characterization. Samples were deposited on appropriate supports such as grids, filters, and mica plates by electrostatic precipitation and a filtration technique using SMPS controlled generation upstream. The results of the main size distribution parameters (mean and mode diameters), obtained from several laboratories, were compared based on metrological approaches including metrological traceability, calibration, and evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. Internationally harmonized measurement procedures for airborne SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles characterization are proposed.

  1. Study for on-line system to identify inadvertent control rod drops in PWR reactors using ex-core detector and thermocouple measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Thiago J.; Medeiros, Jose A.C.C.; Goncalves, Alessandro C., E-mail: tsouza@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: canedo@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: alessandro@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Accidental control rod drops event in PWR reactors leads to an unsafe operating condition. It is important to quickly identify the rod to minimize undesirable effects in such a scenario. In this event, there is a distortion in the power distribution and temperature in the reactor core. The goal of this study is to develop an on-line model to identify the inadvertent control rod dropped in PWR reactor. The proposed model is based on physical correlations and pattern recognition of ex-core detector responses and thermocouples measures. The results of the study demonstrated the feasibility of an on-line system, contributing to safer operation conditions and preventing undesirable effects, as its shutdown. (author)

  2. Development of a Versatile Laser-Ultrasonic System and Application to the Online Measurement for Process Control of Wall Thickness and Eccentricity of Seamless Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert V. Kolarik II

    2002-10-23

    A system for the online, non-contact measurement of wall thickness in steel seamless mechanical tubing has been developed and demonstrated at a tubing production line at the Timken Company in Canton, Ohio. The system utilizes laser-generation of ultrasound and laser-detection of time of flight with interferometry, laser-doppler velocimetry and pyrometry, all with fiber coupling. Accuracy (<1% error) and precision (1.5%) are at targeted levels. Cost and energy savings have exceeded estimates. The system has shown good reliability in measuring over 200,000 tubes in its first six months of deployment.

  3. Multifrequency permittivity measurements enable on-line monitoring of changes in intracellular conductivity due to nutrient limitations during batch cultivations of CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Sven; Esteban, Geoffrey; Schmid, Georg

    2010-01-01

    Lab and pilot scale batch cultivations of a CHO K1/dhfr(-) host cell line were conducted to evaluate on-line multifrequency permittivity measurements as a process monitoring tool. The beta-dispersion parameters such as the characteristic frequency (f(C)) and the permittivity increment (Deltaepsilon(max)) were calculated on-line from the permittivity spectra. The dual-frequency permittivity signal correlated well with the off-line measured biovolume and the viable cell density. A significant drop in permittivity was monitored at the transition from exponential growth to a phase with reduced growth rate. Although not reflected in off-line biovolume measurements, this decrease coincided with a drop in OUR and was probably caused by the depletion of glutamine and a metabolic shift occurring at the same time. Sudden changes in cell density, cell size, viability, capacitance per membrane area (C(M)), and effects caused by medium conductivity (sigma(m)) could be excluded as reasons for the decrease in permittivity. After analysis of the process data, a drop in f(C) as a result of a fall in intracellular conductivity (sigma(i)) was identified as responsible for the observed changes in the dual-frequency permittivity signal. It is hypothesized that the beta-dispersion parameter f(C) is indicative of changes in nutrient availability that have an impact on intracellular conductivity sigma(i). On-line permittivity measurements consequently not only reflect the biovolume but also the physiological state of mammalian cell cultures. These findings should pave the way for a better understanding of the intracellular state of cells and render permittivity measurements an important tool in process development and control.

  4. NaCl对餐厨垃圾厌氧发酵产VFA浓度及组分的影响%Effect of NaCl content on VFA concentration and composition during anaerobic fermentation of kitchen waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王权; 宫常修; 蒋建国; 张玉静

    2014-01-01

    通过间歇实验研究了最适反应条件(pH值为6.0、温度为35℃)下NaCl含量对餐厨垃圾厌氧发酵产挥发性脂肪酸(VFA)的影响.考察了NaCl含量为0.0,3.0,6.0,9.0,12.0g/L下的有机酸浓度及组成情况.结果表明,NaCl对厌氧发酵液中VFA浓度影响显著,随NaCl含量提高VFA浓度呈下降趋势,当NaCl含量达到12.0g/L时,VFA浓度在第114h达到最大值4.14g/L,仅为未添加NaCl条件下的10.1%.发酵液中各组分变化经历丁酸积累、乙酸积累与乙酸消耗3个阶段,NaCl对厌氧发酵类型影响不显著,各批次发酵均为丁酸型发酵,仅当NaCl含量超过6.0g/L时丁酸积累阶段时间延长.%Under the optimum reaction conditions (pH 6.0, the temperature of 35℃), sequencing batch experiments were carried out to determine the effect of NaCl content on volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and composition during anaerobic acidogenesis kitchen wastes. The NaCl content was controlled at 0.0g/L, 3.0g/L, 6.0g/L, 9.0g/L, 12.0g/L. The results showed that, the effect of NaCl on VFA concentration was significant, and VFA concentration decreased with the amount of NaCl increased. When the amount reached 12.0g/L, VFA maximum concentration reached 4.14g/L at 114h, which was only 10.1percent of that of not adding. We also found the fermentation reactions included three stages:butyric acid accumulation, acetic acid accumulation and acetic acid consumption. The product composition in the acid reactor was less depended on NaCl. Each experiment was butyric-acid-type fermentation. When NaCl exceeded more than 6.0g/L, butyric acid accumulation stage was prolonged.

  5. Model-based evaluation of an on-line control strategy for SBRs based on OUR and ORP measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Ll; Sin, G; Puig, S; Traore, A; Balaguer, M; Colprim, J; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2006-01-01

    Application of control strategies for existing wastewater treatment technologies becomes necessary to meet ever-stricter effluent legislations and reduce the associated treatment costs. In the case of SBR technology, controlling the phase scheduling is one of the key aspects of SBR operation. In this study a calibrated mechanistic model based on the ASM1 was used to evaluate an on-line control strategy for the SBR phase-scheduling and compare it with the SBR's performance using no control strategy. To evaluate the performance, reference indices relating to the effluent quality, the required energy for aeration and the treated wastewater volume were used. The results showed that it is possible to maintain optimal SBR performance in the studied system at minimal costs by on-line control of the length of the aerobic and anoxic phases.

  6. A New Measure of the Perceived Influence of Sexually Explicit Online Media on the Sexual Behaviors of Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Pantalone, David W; Gamarel, Kristi E; Simoni, Jane M

    2016-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently consume sexually explicit online media (SEOM), yet little is known about its influence on their sexual behaviors. We describe a sequence of four studies to develop and psychometrically validate a measure of the perceived influence of sexually explicit online media (PI-SEOM) on the sexual behaviors of MSM. Study 1 involved qualitative interviews (N = 28) and a quantitative survey (N = 100) to develop a preliminary measure. Using an Internet sample of MSM (N = 1,170), we assessed its factor structure and reliability in Studies 2 and 3 as well as convergent validity and associations with HIV-related sexual risk in Study 4. Based on findings the measure was divided into two subscales: influences on (1) self and (2) other MSM. Factor analyses confirmed a two-factor model for each subscale, measuring perceived influences on (a) general sexual scripts and (b) condomless sex scripts. Survey results indicated that the more men perceived SEOM influencing their own condomless sex scripts, the more likely they were to report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. The developed measure holds promise for assessing the influence of SEOM on the sexual behaviors of MSM and may prove useful for HIV-prevention research.

  7. A scintillator-based online detector for the angularly resolved measurement of laser-accelerated proton spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzkes, J.; Kraft, S. D.; Sobiella, M.; Stiller, N.; Zeil, K.; Schramm, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Karsch, L.; Schuerer, M. [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, TU Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Pawelke, J.; Richter, C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, TU Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    In recent years, a new generation of high repetition rate ({approx}10 Hz), high power ({approx}100 TW) laser systems has stimulated intense research on laser-driven sources for fast protons. Considering experimental instrumentation, this development requires online diagnostics for protons to be added to the established offline detection tools such as solid state track detectors or radiochromic films. In this article, we present the design and characterization of a scintillator-based online detector that gives access to the angularly resolved proton distribution along one spatial dimension and resolves 10 different proton energy ranges. Conceived as an online detector for key parameters in laser-proton acceleration, such as the maximum proton energy and the angular distribution, the detector features a spatial resolution of {approx}1.3 mm and a spectral resolution better than 1.5 MeV for a maximum proton energy above 12 MeV in the current design. Regarding its areas of application, we consider the detector a useful complement to radiochromic films and Thomson parabola spectrometers, capable to give immediate feedback on the experimental performance. The detector was characterized at an electrostatic Van de Graaff tandetron accelerator and tested in a laser-proton acceleration experiment, proving its suitability as a diagnostic device for laser-accelerated protons.

  8. The Development of an Instrument to Measure the Project Competences of College Students in Online Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Liang

    2017-07-01

    This study sought to develop a self-report instrument to be used in the assessment of the project competences of college students engaged in online project-based learning. Three scales of the KIPSSE instrument developed for this study, namely, the knowledge integration, project skills, and self-efficacy scales, were based on related theories and the analysis results of three project advisor interviews. Those items of knowledge integration and project skill scales focused on the integration of different disciplines and technological skills separately. Two samples of data were collected from information technology-related courses taught with an online project-based learning strategy over different semesters at a college in southern Taiwan. The validity and reliability of the KIPSSE instrument were confirmed through item analysis and confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modeling of two samples of students' online response sets separately. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient for the entire instrument was 0.931; for each scale, the alpha ranged from 0.832 to 0.907. There was also a significant correlation (r = 0.55, p < 0.01) between the KIPSSE instrument results and the students' product evaluation scores. The findings of this study confirmed the validity and reliability of the KIPSSE instrument. The confirmation process and related implications are also discussed.

  9. Follow #eHealth2011: Measuring the Role and Effectiveness of Online and Social Media in Increasing the Outreach of a Scientific Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winandy, Marcel; St Louis, Connie; Szomszor, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media promotion is increasingly adopted by organizers of industry and academic events; however, the success of social media strategies is rarely questioned or the real impact scientifically analyzed. Objective We propose a framework that defines and analyses the impact, outreach, and effectiveness of social media for event promotion and research dissemination to participants of a scientific event as well as to the virtual audience through the Web. Methods Online communication channels Twitter, Facebook, Flickr, and a Liveblog were trialed and their impact measured on outreach during five phases of an eHealth conference: the setup, active and last-minute promotion phases before the conference, the actual event, and after the conference. Results Planned outreach through online channels and social media before and during the event reached an audience several magnitudes larger in size than would have been possible using traditional means. In the particular case of eHealth 2011, the outreach using traditional means would have been 74 attendees plus 23 extra as sold proceedings and the number of downloaded articles from the online proceedings (4107 until October 2013). The audience for the conference reached via online channels and social media was estimated at more than 5300 in total during the event. The role of Twitter for promotion before the event was complemented by an increased usage of the website and Facebook during the event followed by a sharp increase of views of posters on Flickr after the event. Conclusions Although our case study is focused on a particular audience around eHealth 2011, our framework provides a template for redefining “audience” and outreach of events, merging traditional physical and virtual communities and providing an outline on how these could be successfully reached in clearly defined event phases. PMID:27436012

  10. Follow #eHealth2011: Measuring the Role and Effectiveness of Online and Social Media in Increasing the Outreach of a Scientific Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winandy, Marcel; Kostkova, Patty; de Quincey, Ed; St Louis, Connie; Szomszor, Martin

    2016-07-19

    Social media promotion is increasingly adopted by organizers of industry and academic events; however, the success of social media strategies is rarely questioned or the real impact scientifically analyzed. We propose a framework that defines and analyses the impact, outreach, and effectiveness of social media for event promotion and research dissemination to participants of a scientific event as well as to the virtual audience through the Web. Online communication channels Twitter, Facebook, Flickr, and a Liveblog were trialed and their impact measured on outreach during five phases of an eHealth conference: the setup, active and last-minute promotion phases before the conference, the actual event, and after the conference. Planned outreach through online channels and social media before and during the event reached an audience several magnitudes larger in size than would have been possible using traditional means. In the particular case of eHealth 2011, the outreach using traditional means would have been 74 attendees plus 23 extra as sold proceedings and the number of downloaded articles from the online proceedings (4107 until October 2013). The audience for the conference reached via online channels and social media was estimated at more than 5300 in total during the event. The role of Twitter for promotion before the event was complemented by an increased usage of the website and Facebook during the event followed by a sharp increase of views of posters on Flickr after the event. Although our case study is focused on a particular audience around eHealth 2011, our framework provides a template for redefining "audience" and outreach of events, merging traditional physical and virtual communities and providing an outline on how these could be successfully reached in clearly defined event phases.

  11. Bayesian online compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paulo V.; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we explore the possibilities and limitations of recovering sparse signals in an online fashion. Employing a mean field approximation to the Bayes recursion formula yields an online signal recovery algorithm that can be performed with a computational cost that is linearly proportional to the signal length per update. Analysis of the resulting algorithm indicates that the online algorithm asymptotically saturates the optimal performance limit achieved by the offline method in the presence of Gaussian measurement noise, while differences in the allowable computational costs may result in fundamental gaps of the achievable performance in the absence of noise.

  12. An On-Line Algorithm for Measuring the Translational and Rotational Velocities of a Table Tennis Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunfang; Hayakawa, Yoshikazu; Nakashima, Akira

    This paper proposes an on-line method for estimating both translational and rotational velocities of a table tennis ball by using only a few consecutive frames of image data which are sensed by two high speed cameras. In order to estimate the translational velocity, three-dimensional (3D) position of the ball's center at each instant of camera frame is obtained, where the on-line method of reconstructing the 3D position from the two-dimensional (2D) image data of two cameras is proposed without the pattern matching process. The proposed method of estimating the rotational velocity belongs to the image registration methods, where in order to avoid the pattern matching process too, a rotation model of the ball is used to make an estimated image data from an image data sensed at the previous instant of camera frame and then the estimated image data are compared with the image data sensed at the next instant of camera frame to obtain the most plausible rotational velocity by using the least square and the conjugate gradient method. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by some experimental results in the case of a ball rotated by a rotation machine as well as in the case of a flying ball shot from a catapult machine.

  13. On-line measurement of magnetic fields at GANIL; Mesures en ligne du champ magnetique du G.A.N.I.L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemarie, A

    2008-03-15

    On-line measurement of the magnetic fields of electromagnets at GANIL (France) was studied and developed. This type of measurement is necessary for it allows the adjustment and the monitoring of the parameters which control the transport of particle beams from the accelerators to the experimental vaults. The developments were based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnetometers and Hall-effect magnetometers. The limitations of operating NMR probes in inhomogeneous fields required particular solutions. Techniques of positioning and appropriate compensation for field gradients were put in place. NMR probes and Hall-effect probes are integrated into the electronics for monitoring and control according to the defined standards at GANIL. The unit comprises instrumentation which perfectly meets the needs, particularly from the point of view of the measurement and the monitoring of the magnetic parameters. (author)

  14. Measuring of moisture content in biofuel with on-line NIR, for forward control of a fluidized boiler; On-line NIR-fukthaltsmaetning foer styrning av panna i vaermekraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestander, Torbjoern; Hedman, Bjoern (Enheten foer biomassateknologi och kemi (BTK), SLU (Sweden)); Funkquist, Jonas; Lennartsson, Andreas; Svanberg, Marcus (Vattenfall Research and Development (VRD), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    Feedback control of the bed temperature in a fluidized bed boiler can be insufficient and give rise to large variations in operation parameters. This project evaluated the potential for feed forward control of the bed temperature using an online moisture measurement signal of the fuel. The target group is fluidized bed boilers using both fossil and renewable fuels. A NIR spectrometer was installed on the fuel-feed to a 47 MW circulating fluidized bed (CFB) biofuel boiler. Calibration of the signal was performed by extracting fuel samples, drying them and comparing the results with the corresponding spectra. Step tests were performed when steps in fuel moisture were implemented by spraying the fuel with water. Steps in fuel feeding, primary air, secondary air and re-circulated air were also tested. A control model of the process was constructed using the software Matlab. The potential with feed forward control of the bed temperature compared to feedback control was evaluated using the model. The possibility to improve the control of the bed temperature with respect to rapidity from changes in moisture content is considered large. The limiting factor is the reliability and sampling time of the online moisture signal. In laboratory-scale and theoretically, the importance of other fuel parameters on the combustion has also been examined. These parameters are temperature and proportions of free and bound water in frozen and non-frozen material. These studies show that local calibration models may be necessary for proper prediction of moisture in temperatures below 0 deg C. (author)

  15. An automated online instrument to quantify aerosol-bound reactive oxygen species (ROS) for ambient measurement and health-relevant aerosol studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, Francis P. H.; Fuller, Stephen J.; Freshwater, Ray; Green, David C.; Kelly, Frank J.; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-10-01

    The adverse health effects associated with ambient aerosol particles have been well documented, but it is still unclear which aerosol properties are most important for their negative health impact. Some studies suggest the oxidative effects of particle-bound reactive oxygen species (ROS) are potential major contributors to the toxicity of particles. Traditional ROS measurement techniques are labour-intensive, give poor temporal resolution and generally have significant delays between aerosol sampling and ROS analysis. However, many oxidising particle components are reactive and thus potentially short-lived. Thus, a technique to quantify particle-bound ROS online would be beneficial to quantify also the short-lived ROS components. We introduce a new portable instrument to allow online, continuous measurement of particle-bound ROS using a chemical assay of 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) with horseradish peroxidase (HRP), via fluorescence spectroscopy. All components of the new instrument are attached to a containing shell, resulting in a compact system capable of automated continuous field deployment over many hours or days. From laboratory measurements, the instrument was found to have a detection limit of ˜ 4 nmol [H2O2] equivalents per cubic metre (m3) air, a dynamic range up to at least ˜ 2000 nmol [H2O2] equivalents per m3 air and a time resolution of ≤ 12 min. The instrument allows for ˜ 16 h automated measurement if unattended and shows a fast response to changes in concentrations of laboratory-generated oxidised organic aerosol. The instrument was deployed at an urban site in London, and particulate ROS levels of up to 24 nmol [H2O2] equivalents per m3 air were detected with PM2.5 concentrations up to 28 µg m-3. The new and portable Online Particle-bound ROS Instrument (OPROSI) allows fast-response quantification; this is important due to the potentially short-lived nature of particle-bound ROS as well as fast-changing atmospheric conditions

  16. Evaluation of an on-line methodology for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOC) fluxes by eddy-covariance with a PTR-TOF-Qi-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Benjamin; Buysse, Pauline; Lafouge, Florence; Ciuraru, Raluca; Decuq, Céline; Zurfluh, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Field scale flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) are essential for improving our knowledge of VOC emissions from ecosystems. Many VOCs are emitted from and deposited to ecosystems. Especially less known, are crops which represent more than 50% of French terrestrial surfaces. In this study, we evaluate a new on-line methodology for measuring VOC fluxes by Eddy Covariance with a PTR-Qi-TOF-MS. Measurements were performed at the ICOS FR-GRI site over a crop using a 30 m long high flow rate sampling line and an ultrasonic anemometer. A Labview program was specially designed for acquisition and on-line covariance calculation: Whole mass spectra ( 240000 channels) were acquired on-line at 10 Hz and stored in a temporary memory. Every 5 minutes, the spectra were mass-calibrated and normalized by the primary ion peak integral at 10 Hz. The mass spectra peaks were then retrieved from the 5-min averaged spectra by withdrawing the baseline, determining the resolution and using a multiple-peak detection algorithm. In order to optimize the peak detection algorithm for the covariance, we determined the covariances as the integrals of the peaks of the vertical-air-velocity-fluctuation weighed-averaged-spectra. In other terms, we calculate , were w is the vertical component of the air velocity, Sp is the spectra, t is time, lag is the decorrelation lag time and denotes an average. The lag time was determined as the decorrelation time between w and the primary ion (at mass 21.022) which integrates the contribution of all reactions of VOC and water with the primary ion. Our algorithm was evaluated by comparing the exchange velocity of water vapor measured by an open path absorption spectroscopy instrument and the water cluster measured with the PTRQi-TOF-MS. The influence of the algorithm parameters and lag determination is discussed. This study was supported by the ADEME-CORTEA COV3ER project (http://www6.inra.fr/cov3er).

  17. An on-line adaptive estimation method for water holdup measurement in oil-water two-phase flow with a conductance/capacitance sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Tan, Chao; Dong, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Oil-water two-phase flow widely exists in industrial processes such as petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Accurate and real-time measurement of water holdup is an important problem requiring urgent solutions. In this work, a conductance and capacitance combination sensor (CCCS) system with four conductance rings and two concave capacitance plates was validated for its measurement performance of in situ water holdup through dynamic experiments. An online adaptive weight Kalman estimation (OAWKE) fusion algorithm for the CCCS system is proposed to fuse the conductance measurement and capacitance measurement. The algorithm has fast and dynamic response for the water holdup measurement of oil-water two-phase flow and has improved measurement precision by the adaptive data fusion method. The OAWKE fusion algorithm also has the ability to deal with the abrupt change of water holdup during the measurement process. Therefore, in the low water conductivity condition (tap water), the CCCS system with the OAWKE fusion algorithm can dynamically estimate the real-time full range water holdup of oil-water two-phase flow, which has prospects in the petroleum industry.

  18. Online stable carbon isotope ratio measurement in formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol in water by high performance liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, Keiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: k_tagami@nirs.go.jp; Uchida, Shigeo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2008-05-05

    A suitable analysis condition was determined for high performance liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC-IRMS) while making sequential measurements of stable carbon isotope ratios of {delta}{sup 13}C in formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol dissolved in water. For this online column separation method, organic reagents are not applicable due to carbon contamination; thus, water and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} at low concentrations were tested as mobile phase in combination with a HyPURITY AQUASTAR{sup TM} column. Formic acid, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol were separated when 2 mM KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} aqueous solution was used. Under the determined analysis condition for HPLC-IRMS, carbon concentrations could be measured quantitatively as well as carbon isotope ratio when carbon concentration was higher than 0.4 mM L for each chemical.

  19. Building online brand perceptual map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, I-Ping; Lin, Chih-Ying; Wang, Kaisheng M

    2008-10-01

    Many companies have launched their products or services online as a new business focus, but only a few of them have survived the competition and made profits. The most important key to an online business's success is to create "brand value" for the customers. Although the concept of online brand has been discussed in previous studies, there is no empirical study on the measurement of online branding. As Web 2.0 emerges to be critical to online branding, the purpose of this study was to measure Taiwan's major Web sites with a number of personality traits to build a perceptual map for online brands. A pretest identified 10 most representative online brand perceptions. The results of the correspondence analysis showed five groups in the perceptual map. This study provided a practical view of the associations and similarities among online brands for potential alliance or branding strategies. The findings also suggested that brand perceptions can be used with identified consumer needs and behaviors to better position online services. The brand perception map in the study also contributed to a better understanding of the online brands in Taiwan.

  20. An optical comparator for measuring two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis records using an on-line microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spragg, S P; Jones, M I; Hill, B J

    1983-03-01

    A comparator which makes it possible to compare two wet gels or photographic negatives or autoradiograms through a flickering light system has been built. The system consists of two special-purpose projectors which combine the images on a digitizing platform. When the lights are switched On and off out of phase, the positions of the common components remain unchanged, whereas those that are spatially displaced appear to jump from side to side and those present in one image but not the other switch on and off. This produces a flickering image in which differences are readily seen. Commercial camera lenses were used to construct the projectors and the overall specifications for the system are given. The coordinates of both the displaced components, as well as the selected standards from the two images, are digitized and entered automatically into an on-line microcomputer. By using an iterative procedure for collecting records from several superimposable records of the gel, it is possible to compensate for the lack of total reproducibility over the whole gels. These coordinates are then normalized and superimposed on a master map through a television display using a curser to adjust the coordinates. The whole procedure can be repeated for many gels using a common reference gel in the comparator, and the result is a set of normalized coordinates which can be plotted on a single map to provide a final record of the experiments.

  1. A comparison of hepatitis A and hepatitis B measures among vaccinated and susceptible online men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, L K; Levandowski, B A; Scanlon, K E; Peterson, R S

    2010-06-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) continue to be major health concerns among men who have sex with men (MSM). The Internet both facilitates high-risk sexual encounters and provides opportunities for promoting healthy behaviours. This study compared self-reported HAV and HBV vaccination levels, based on demographics, health characteristics, hepatitis knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviours among MSM using an online survey posted from February through June 2005. Each participant (n = 968) reported whether they were vaccinated, infected or susceptible for hepatitis A and/or for hepatitis B. Men whose health-care provider recommended vaccination were 12.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.11, 20.55) times more likely to be vaccinated against HAV and 17.93 (95% CI 10.82, 29.70) times more likely to be vaccinated against HBV than those at risk of infection, respectively. These data provide essential information for public health professionals to successfully promote vaccination among members of this population.

  2. 多导联在线阻抗检测的实现与分析%Implementation and Analysis of Multi-lead Online Bioimpedance Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫毅; 郭建平; 姚宇华; 殷学民; 张喆; 陈浩

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To propose a rapid, stabile and low-power method of online bioimpedance measurement based on multi-lead physical signal collection instrument. Methods: The two key techniques of online bioimpedance measurement such as sine wave constant-current source and digital bandpass filter are realized using software. Results: Coefficient of variation of unipolar and bipolar two modes of four groups of the measured bioimpedance does not exceed 10%, the measured values is the measurement error is fixed by repeatedly measuring average way, as the amended error is significantly better than the error before the correction. Conclusion: The actual impedance measurement shows that two modes of unipolar and bipolar measurements accurately reflect the electrode and the skin contact, this method is stable and reliable.%目的:提出了一种基于多导联生理信号采集装置平台的快速、稳定、低功耗的在线阻抗测量方法.方法:在线阻抗测量的实现主要有两个关键技术:正弦信号恒流源和数字带通滤波器,都主要是采用软件的方式实现的.结果:单极性和双极性两种模式四组测量阻值的变异系数均不超过10%,测量值的稳定性较高,可以通过多次测量求平均值的办法来修正测量误差,修正后的误差明显优于修正之前的误差.结论:由单极性和双极性两种模式实际阻抗测量值可知,测量值能够准确反映电极与人体表皮的接触情况,此种方法稳定可靠.

  3. A gamma-ray telescope for on-line measurements of low boron concentrations in a head-phantom for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbakel, W.F.A.R.

    1996-06-01

    In Boron Neutron Capture Therapy the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction is used to create a tumour destructing field by the emitted high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) particles. This reaction is accompanied by the emission of a photon of energy 478 keV. This can serve as a probe for detection of the reaction rate and thereby provide a tool to assess the boron concentration during therapy. An experimental configuration has been designed for on-line measurements of the {sup 10}B prompt gamma rays in a background of hydrogen neutron capture prompt gamma rays, neutrons and gamma rays coming from the reactor. At a facility with epithermal neutrons of the Low Flux Reactor a head phantom has been irradiated with neutorns. This phantom is filled with water and a small volume of 7.8 cm{sup 3} containing 62 ppm {sup 10}B, simulating a tumour. The experimental configuration for prompt gamma measurements has been expanded to perform tomography. The reconstruction of the position and the size of the tumour and its boron cencentration appeared to be possible. The first experiments at the therapy room in the High Flux Reactor showed that this method can probably be expanded for on-line monitoring of the total boron amount in a patients head. Next to this, Monte Carlo calculations and foil activation measurements have been performed to obtain the neutron spectrum of the epithermal beam of the LFR. With the insight achieved with these calculations it has been possible to optimize the total neutron flux. By introduction of a graphite scatter in the beam tube close to the reactr core, the flux has been rainsed with about 65%. With the computer code DORT neutron distributions over the phantom have been calculated for 47 energy groups. These calculations are necessary for ultimate boron tomography. (orig.).

  4. Online Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Making Money Privacy, Identity & Online Security Blog Video & Media Scam Alerts ... Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the nation’s consumer protection agency. ...

  5. Online dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2012-01-01

    This article initially provides a panoramic overview and a preliminary typologization of present and future online dictionaries based upon their application of the available technologies and suggests that the future of lexicography will be the development of highly sophisticated tools which may......, need, consultation, and data. The article then proceeds to the discussion of some advanced information science techniques that may contribute to the desired individualization. Upon this basis, it finally discusses the interaction between online dictionaries and external sources like the Internet...

  6. Online marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zrůst, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate pay per click marketing as suitable marketing tool for promotion and distribution of a given product. The paper describes basic vocabulary related to PPC advertising, common metrics, tools used by online marketers, and logic of running PPC campaigns. The paper also tries to quantify impact of Internet on economies. The second part applies the theory to analysis of consumers' conversion path while searching online in common search engines where PPC marketi...

  7. Toward Online Adaptive Hyperthermia Treatment Planning: Correlation Between Measured and Simulated Specific Absorption Rate Changes Caused by Phase Steering in Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, H. Petra, E-mail: H.P.Kok@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ciampa, Silvia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Kroon-Oldenhof, Rianne de; Steggerda-Carvalho, Eva J.; Stam, Gerard van; Zum Vörde Sive Vörding, Paul J.; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Geijsen, Elisabeth D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bardati, Fernando [Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Bel, Arjan; Crezee, Johannes [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Hyperthermia is the clinical application of heat, in which tumor temperatures are raised to 40°C to 45°C. This proven radiation and chemosensitizer significantly improves clinical outcome for several tumor sites. Earlier studies of the use of pre-treatment planning for hyperthermia showed good qualitative but disappointing quantitative reliability. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) can be used more reliably for online adaptive treatment planning during locoregional hyperthermia treatments. Methods and Materials: This study included 78 treatment sessions for 15 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. At the start of treatments, temperature rise measurements were performed with 3 different antenna settings optimized for each patient, from which the absorbed power (specific absorption rate [SAR]) was derived. HTP was performed based on a computed tomography (CT) scan in treatment position with the bladder catheter in situ. The SAR along the thermocouple tracks was extracted from the simulated SAR distributions. Correlations between measured and simulated (average) SAR values were determined. To evaluate phase steering, correlations between the changes in simulated and measured SAR values averaged over the thermocouple probe were determined for all 3 combinations of antenna settings. Results: For 42% of the individual treatment sessions, the correlation coefficient between measured and simulated SAR profiles was higher than 0.5, whereas 58% showed a weak correlation (R of <0.5). The overall correlation coefficient between measured and simulated average SAR was weak (R=0.31; P<.001). The measured and simulated changes in average SAR after adapting antenna settings correlated much better (R=0.70; P<.001). The ratio between the measured and simulated quotients of maximum and average SARs was 1.03 ± 0.26 (mean ± SD), indicating that HTP can also correctly predict the relative amplitude of

  8. Self-tuning wireless power transmission scheme based on on-line scattering parameters measurement and two-side power matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanting; Yang, Yongmin; Chen, Zhongsheng

    2014-04-10

    Sub-resonances often happen in wireless power transmission (WPT) systems using coupled magnetic resonances (CMR) due to environmental changes, coil movements or component degradations, which is a serious challenge for high efficiency power transmission. Thus self-tuning is very significant to keep WPT systems following strongly magnetic resonant conditions in practice. Traditional coupled-mode ways is difficult to solve this problem. In this paper a two-port power wave model is presented, where power matching and the overall systemic power transmission efficiency are firstly defined by scattering (S) parameters. Then we propose a novel self-tuning scheme based on on-line S parameters measurements and two-side power matching. Experimental results testify the feasibility of the proposed method. These findings suggest that the proposed method is much potential to develop strongly self-adaptive WPT systems with CMR.

  9. Study of On-line Real Time Measurement Technology of Absorbent Powder%吸收药在线实时计量技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕飞; 刘宏英

    2012-01-01

    On-line real time measurement of absorbent powder is the premise of realizing continuation and automation of the gunpowder manufacture process. According to the prpperty of absorbent pulp, this paper selected microwave concentration meter and electromagnetic flow meter, expounded their functions and working principlesi measured the concentration and flow rate of absorbent pulp more than once. In addition, the pulps pure weight was calculated by PLC system. The results showed that the property of this measurement system is good and the measuring error is small, which can meet the need of continuation and automation of the gunpowder manufacture process.%吸收药在线实时计量是实现火药制造工艺连续化、自动化的前提.根据吸收药浆料的特性,选择了微波浓度仪和电磁流量计,分别对它们的性能和工作原理进行了阐述,多次测量了吸收药浆料的浓度和流量,并且利用PLC系统计算了浆料的绝干量.结果表明,该计量系统性能好,测量误差小,能够满足火药制造工艺连续化、自动化的需要.

  10. Application of Neural Network in the Measuring System On-line for Water Content of Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengrong Zhao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to introduce a new way to measure the water content of Crude Oil. In this measurement system, capacitive sensor is used as sensitive element and BP neural network model is adopted to deal with data. Water content and temperature are used as input parameters to set up BP neural network model. By MATLAB simulation, a moisture content of crude oil is forecasted, so that the influence comes from temperature variation is compensated and the accuracy of the measurement result is improved.

  11. Online measurement of mass density and viscosity of pL fluid samples with suspended microchannel resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Faheem; Schmid, Silvan; Larsen, Peter Emil

    2013-01-01

    Physical characterization of viscous samples is crucial in chemical, pharma and petroleum industry. For example, in the refining industry of petroleum, water percentage is verified by measuring the density of a sample. In this article we present a suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) which uses 5...... pL of a fluid sample and measures its density with a resolution of 0.01 kg/m 3 and a sensitivity of 16 Hz/kg/m3. The resonator can also simultaneously measure viscosity of the solutions with an accuracy of 0.025 mPa s. The SMR is part of a system which contains packaging and tubing to deliver...... samples to the resonator. The system can easily handle multiple viscous fluids to measure their densities and viscosities. The SMR is transparent, facilitating visual inspection of the microchannel content. © 2013 Elsevier B.V....

  12. A three axis turntable's online initial state measurement method based on the high-accuracy laser gyro SINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunfeng; Wei, Guo; Wang, Qi; Xiong, Zhenyu; Wang, Qun; Long, Xingwu

    2016-10-01

    As an indispensable equipment in inertial technology tests, the three-axis turntable is widely used in the calibration of various types inertial navigation systems (INS). In order to ensure the calibration accuracy of INS, we need to accurately measure the initial state of the turntable. However, the traditional measuring method needs a lot of exterior equipment (such as level instrument, north seeker, autocollimator, etc.), and the test processing is complex, low efficiency. Therefore, it is relatively difficult for the inertial measurement equipment manufacturers to realize the self-inspection of the turntable. Owing to the high precision attitude information provided by the laser gyro strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) after fine alignment, we can use it as the attitude reference of initial state measurement of three-axis turntable. For the principle that the fixed rotation vector increment is not affected by measuring point, we use the laser gyro INS and the encoder of the turntable to provide the attitudes of turntable mounting plat. Through this way, the high accuracy measurement of perpendicularity error and initial attitude of the three-axis turntable has been achieved.

  13. Made to Measure: College Leaders Come Together to Strengthen Institutional Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Since the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Voluntary Framework of Accountability (VFA) in 2011, accountability measures have sprung up in just about every corner of higher education. There is the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), the National Governors Association's Complete to Compete program,…

  14. High Accuracy On-line Measurement Method of Motion Error on Machine Tools Straight-going Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏恒; 洪迈生; 魏元雷; 李自军

    2003-01-01

    Harmonic suppression, non-periodic and non-closing in straightness profile error that will bring about harmonic component distortion in measurement result are analyzed. The countermeasure-a novel accurate two-probe method in time domain is put forward to measure straight-going component motion error in machine tools based on the frequency domain 3-point method after symmetrical continuation of probes' primitive signal. Both straight-going component motion error in machine tools and the profile error in workpiece that is manufactured on this machine can be measured at the same time. The information is available to diagnose the fault origin of machine tools. The analysis result is proved to be correct by the experiment.

  15. On-line measurement of N{sub 2}O in flue gas; Die On-line-Messung von N{sub 2}O in Verbrennungsgasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberger, H.J. [TUEV-Ecoplan Umwelt-GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Fabinski, W.; Hielscher, B.; Zoechbauer, M. [Hartmann und Braun GmbH und Co. KG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Conventional on-line measurement of Nitrous Oxide (N{sub 2}O) in flue gases mainly is limited by the cross sensitivities of the used measurement technique and unwanted reactions in the sample conditioning system. Based on this state of engeneering, a simple method with a usual NDIR-analyzer and sample conditioning with the new coolertechnique is discribed. The measurement set-up has been installed in a waste incineration plant. The results of the investigations are being presented in this paper. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Grenzen der herkoemmlichen On-line-Messtechnik von Distickstoffmonoxid (N{sub 2}O) in Rauchgasen sind massgeblich durch Querempfindlichkeiten der Messverfahren und unerwuenschte Nachreaktionen in der Probenaufbereitung bestimmt. Ausgehend von diesem Stand der Technik wird eine einfache Methode der N{sub 2}O-Messung mit einem handelsueblichen NDIR-Analysator und einer Probenaufbereitung mit einer neuen Kuehlertechnik beschrieben. Zwei Messaufbauten mit dieser neuen Technik wurden an einer Muellverbrennungsanlage installiert. Ueber die Untersuchungen dazu wird hier berichtet. (orig.)

  16. An on-line measuring method of moment of inertia%一种转动惯量在线测量方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王甘牛

    2015-01-01

    针对传统物体转动惯量测量方法对鼓轮惯量测试不适应以及测量精度低的问题,引入鼓轮轴承损耗及鼓轮风阻损耗检测,利用动力学原理提出了一种系统转动惯量的在线测量方法,并介绍了这种方法测量系统的组成及测量原理与测量步骤。实验结果表明,用此方法得出的转动惯量与鼓轮制造出厂测量值有很好的一致性,因此这种方法为回转机械系统惯量测量的进一步研究提供了依据。%In view of the traditional measuring method of moment of inertia,which is not adapt to the inertia testing of the drum⁃wheel and has low measurement accuracy,the detection of the drum⁃wheel′s bearing loss and windage loss is introduced and an online measuring method of moment of inertia is presented based on the principle of dynamics. The composition,working principle and procedures of the measuring system are introduced. The experimental results show that the moment of inertia ob⁃tained by this method agrees with the drum⁃wheel′s measuring value specified in its production factory. Therefore,this method provided a basis for inertia measurement for further study on rotating mechanical system.

  17. Testing of an automated online EA-IRMS method for fast and simultaneous carbon content and stable isotope measurement of aerosol samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, István; Gyökös, Brigitta; Túri, Marianna; Futó, István; Filep, Ágnes; Hoffer, András; Molnár, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    Comprehensive atmospheric studies have demonstrated that carbonaceous aerosol is one of the main components of atmospheric particulate matter over Europe. Various methods, considering optical or thermal properties, have been developed for quantification of the accurate amount of both organic and elemental carbon constituents of atmospheric aerosol. The aim of our work was to develop an alternative fast and easy method for determination of the total carbon content of individual aerosol samples collected on prebaked quartz filters whereby the mass and surface concentration becomes simply computable. We applied the conventional "elemental analyzer (EA) coupled online with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS)" technique which is ubiquitously used in mass spectrometry. Using this technique we are able to measure simultaneously the carbon stable isotope ratio of the samples, as well. During the developing process, we compared the EA-IRMS technique with an off-line catalytic combustion method worked out previously at Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies (HEKAL). We tested the combined online total carbon content and stable isotope ratio measurement both on standard materials and real aerosol samples. Regarding the test results the novel method assures, on the one hand, at least 95% of carbon recovery yield in a broad total carbon mass range (between 100 and 3000 ug) and, on the other hand, a good reproducibility of stable isotope measurements with an uncertainty of ± 0.2 per mill. Comparing the total carbon results obtained by the EA-IRMS and the off-line catalytic combustion method we found a very good correlation (R2=0.94) that proves the applicability of both preparation method. Advantages of the novel method are the fast and simplified sample preparation steps and the fully automated, simultaneous carbon stable isotope ratio measurement processes. Furthermore stable isotope ratio results can effectively be applied in the source apportionment

  18. Out Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Tobias

    Trans people are increasingly stepping out of the shadow of pathologization and secretiveness to tell their life stories, share information and to connect with like-minded others, using YouTube as a platform. "Out Online: Trans Self-Representation and Community Building on YouTube" explores...... on the ways in which the video blog (or ’vlog’) as a multimodal medium enables trans people to tell their stories with the use of sound, text, music, and pictures - thus offering new ways to construct and archive bodily changes, and to revise the story endlessly. A groundbreaking study of the intersection...... between trans identity and technology, "Out Online" explores the transformative and therapeutic potential of the video blog as a means by which trans vloggers can emerge and develop online, using the vlog as a site for creation, intervention, community building and resistance. As such, it will appeal...

  19. Online Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vujovic, Sladjana; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2008-01-01

    ways of communicating, cooperating and coordinating during the innovation and product development process. Moreover, it challenges the traditional business model in that it forces the actors involved to shift the focus from the innovation itself to the identification of new supporting services higher...... implications for existing software manufacturers. The paper therefore includes the case of IBM, a company which has successfully integrated this new and more open way of collaboration into its business model. Findings - The paper concludes that online computer-based innovation fundamentally challenges current......  Purpose - The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of online networking during the innovation process, including its role(s) in communication, cooperation and coordination. The paper neither implicitly assumes that online computer-based networking is a prerequisite for the innovation...

  20. DL-sQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Service Quality of Online Distance Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Naj; Lowe, Sue; Pinegar, Kem

    2006-01-01

    Education is a service with multiplicity of student interactions over time and across multiple touch points. Quality teaching needs to be supplemented by consistent quality supporting services for programs to succeed under the competitive distance learning landscape. ServQual and e-SQ scales have been proposed for measuring quality of traditional…

  1. Application of an online ion chromatography-based instrument for gradient flux measurements of speciated nitrogen and sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    In North America, the dry component of total nitrogen and sulfur deposition remains uncertain due to a lack of measurements of sufficient chemical speciation and temporal extent to develop complete annual mass budgets or of sufficient process level detail to improve current air-s...

  2. An online Vce measurement and temperature estimation method for high power IGBT module in normal PWM operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    temperature for load current level is presented and a trend of change in calibration factor for the IGBT is presented. Finally, the variation in temperature for sinusoidal variation of current is presented at initial stage and after an ageing of the IGBT. The measurement technique is simple and easy...

  3. Application of an online ion chromatography-based instrument for gradient flux measurements of speciated nitrogen and sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    In North America, the dry component of total nitrogen and sulfur deposition remains uncertain due to a lack of measurements of sufficient chemical speciation and temporal extent to develop complete annual mass budgets or of sufficient process level detail to improve current air-s...

  4. Evaluation of Online Searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Richard W.

    Based on an analysis of online search evaluation forms collected from all types of U.S. libraries, and a pilot test of a draft evaluation form in selected federal research libraries, this report presents the work of the American Library Association's (ALA's) Machine-Assisted Reference Section (MARS) Committee on Measurement and Evaluation. The…

  5. Online safety

    CERN Document Server

    Healey, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Australians are increasingly connecting online through computers, mobile phones and other electronic devices to access the internet and social media. In the process, young people in particular are becoming more at risk of being exposed to fraud, identity theft, unauthorised access to personal information, stalking, harassment and exposure to illicit or offensive materials. This book presents a range of cybersafety tips to arm readers with an informed awareness of the risks online and offer advice on how to stay protected. A chapter in the book is specifically dedicated to understanding and dea

  6. Online Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Gorm Hansen, Katrine

    Online Communities” er et medie for brugere og fagfolk, hvor de kan mødes digitalt for at dele erfaringer, og dette kan anvendes som inspiration indenfor Brugerdreven Innovation. Via ”desk research” kan virksomheder opnå adgang til varierende mængder af brugere på en forholdsvist enkelt måde. I...... denne rapport beskrives eksperimentets opbygning, resultater og mulige værdi. Vi håber hermed på at kunne give praktisk indsigt i, hvorledes virksomheder fra byggematerialeindustrien kan agere i online communities....

  7. On-line measurements of proton beam current from a PET cyclotron using a thin aluminum foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghithan, S.; do Carmo, S. J. C.; Ferreira Marques, R.; Fraga, F. A. F.; Simões, H.; Alves, F.; Crespo, P.

    2013-07-01

    The number of cyclotrons capable of accelerating protons to about 20 MeV is increasing throughout the world. Originally aiming at the production of positron emission tomography (PET) radionuclides, some of these facilities are equipped with several beam lines suitable for scientific research. Radiobiology, radiophysiology, and other dosimetric studies can be performed using these beam lines. In this work, we measured the Bragg peak of the protons from a PET cyclotron using a stacked target consisting of several aluminum foils interleaved with polyethylene sheets, readout by in-house made transimpedance electronics. The measured Bragg peak is consistent with simulations performed using the SRIM/TRIM simulation toolkit. Furthermore, we report on experimental results aiming at measuring proton beam currents down to 10 pA using a thin aluminum foil (20-μm-thick). The aluminum was chosen for this task because it is radiation hard, it has low density and low radiation activity, and finally because it is easily available at negligible cost. This method allows for calculating the dose delivered to a target during an irradiation with high efficiency, and with minimal proton energy loss and scattering.

  8. A γ-ray telescope for on-line measurements of low boron concentrations in a head phantom for BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbakel, W. F. A. R.; Stecher-Rasmussen, F.

    1997-02-01

    In Boron Neutron Capture Therapy the 10B(n, α)7 Li reaction is used to create a tumour-destructing field of high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) particles. The therapy requires a high boron concentration in the tumour and a low boron concentration in the healthy tissue. The boron neutron capture reaction is accompanied by the emission of a photon of energy 478 keV. It is investigated whether measuring of these photons can serve as a tool to determine the boron concentration during therapy in the tumour as well as in the healthy tissue. Such a measurement is complicated by the presence of a large background photon field. To study the feasibility, an experimental configuration has been designed at a test facility of the Low-Flux Reactor (LFR). The LFR provides an epithermal neutron beam for irradiation of a head phantom which simulates a human head with a tumour. This paper shows that the reconstruction of the position and the size of the tumour as well as the ratio of the boron concentrations appeared to be possible. In a second stage it is shown that these measurements can be expanded to experiments with the therapy neutron beam of the High-Flux Reactor (HFR).

  9. Design of theGrain Moisture Online Measuring System%谷物干燥水分在线测量系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅庆; 金亦富; 张瑞宏; 缪宏; 袁菁芸; 赵荔

    2015-01-01

    To realize accuracy control of grain moisture in the drying process , an online measuring system applying to grain moisture measurement of the crop dryer was established .The system based on the principle of resistivity method and collect the signal by the screw type measuring resistivity mechanism .This mechanism has functions of pulverization , ex-trusion and resistivity measurement .A method that combined temperature compensation and constant circuit environment temperature was adopted to avoid the measuring accuracy influenced by temperature variation .The STC89 C52 single-chip microcomputer were used for the realization of the data acquisition , calculation , display and the control of the crop dryer .%为了实现谷物干燥过程中水分值的精确控制,建立了一种适用于干燥机的谷物干燥水分在线测量系统。该系统基于电阻法测量原理,采用具有碾碎、挤压、测阻多重作用的螺旋式测阻机构采集信号,通过温度补偿与电路环境温度恒定相结合的方法避免温度对测量精度的影响,并以 STC89 C52单片机为核心完成数据采集、运算、显示及干燥机工作状态的控制。

  10. Quantification of methane fluxes from hydrocarbon seeps to the ocean and atmosphere: Development of an in situ and online gas flux measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Pengfei; Chen, Qinghua; Chen, Duofu

    2017-06-01

    Natural hydrocarbon seeps in the marine environment are important contributors to greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Such gases include methane, which plays a significant role in global carbon cycling and climate change. To accurately quantify the methane flux from hydrocarbon seeps on the seafloor, a specialized in situ and online gas flux measuring (GFM) device was designed to obtain high-resolution time course gas fluxes using the process of equal volume exchange. The device consists of a 1.0-m diameter, 0.9-m tall, inverted conical tent and a GFM instrument that contains a solenoid valve, level transducer, and gas collection chamber. Rising gas bubbles from seeps were measured by laboratory-calibrated GFM instruments attached to the top of the tent. According to the experimental data, the optimal anti-shake time interval was 5 s. The measurement range of the device was 0-15 L min-1, and the relative error was ± 1.0%. The device was initially deployed at an active seep site in the Lingtou Promontory seep field in South China Sea. The amount of gas released from a single gas vent was 30.5 m3 during the measurement period, and the gas flow rate ranged from 22 to 72 L h-1, depending on tidal period, and was strongly negatively correlated with water depth. The measurement results strongly suggest that oceanic tides and swells had a significant forcing effect on gas flux. Low flow rates were associated with high tides and vice versa. The changes in gas volume escaping from the seafloor seeps could be attributed to the hydrostatic pressure induced by water depth. Our findings suggest that in the marine environment, especially in the shallow shelf area, sea level variation may play an important role in controlling methane release into the ocean. Such releases probably also affect atmospheric methane levels.

  11. On-line partial discharge measurements and off-line dielectric spectroscopy measurements of six 115 kV XLPE cable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which partial discharge (PD) measurements were performed on 6 underground transmission cable circuits to determine the effectiveness of PD measurements on fluid fill cables. The cables were between 37 and 56 years old. PD activity was detected from the terminations of H11L and H3L Cable 2. However, for cables from H3L Basin TS to Mill Street junction, PD activity was detected originating from within the main cable insulation.

  12. Operation related on-line measurements of low temperature fire side corrosion during co-combustion of biomass and oil; Driftrelaterad direktmaetning av laagtemperaturkorrosion i en braensleeldad kraftvaermeanlaeggning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Thomas [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-05-01

    A number of combustion plants have experienced corrosion attack on air preheaters and economisers when fired with biomass fuels. In certain plants the problems are great and reconstruction has been performed so that exposed components can be exchanged during operation. The electrochemical techniques offer on-line measurements of the changes in corrosion rate in the low temperature region in a waste incinerator. The purpose with this study was to evaluate the technique in a biomass fired boiler where the corrosion rate is considerable lower compared to a waste incinerator. Experiments were performed at the Haesselby plant, boiler 3, which was fired with pure biomass as well as a mixture of biomass and oil during the test period. It was found that the electrochemical technique is a useful tool for on-line measurements of the changes in corrosion rate in biomass fired utilities. Since the corrosion rate in the low temperature region is dependent on the boiler construction, electrochemical measurements give valuable information on the corrosion rate during optimisation of the fuel mixture, SNCR and temperature or the low temperature components. This is of special importance when introducing new fuels or fuel mixtures. Soot blowing is of prime importance for the total corrosion. During a few minutes an individual soot blower can initiate such a high corrosion rate that it represents the total corrosion. The material temperature is another important parameter. Above a certain temperature the corrosion rate is negligible. During co-combustion this temperature was found to be in the region 65-85 deg C. The influence of the SNCR with ammonia, with respect to corrosion, is dependent on the fuel mixture used. In utilities where acidic combustion products are formed, ammonia has a neutralising effect e.g. in Hoegdalen. At the Haesselby plant this neutralising effect was not found. During cocombustion with oil the ammonia forms ammoniahydrosulphate which increases the corrosion

  13. Trust and Online Reputation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Ming; Ramachandran, Deepak

    Web 2.0 technologies provide organizations with unprecedented opportunities to expand and solidify relationships with their customers, partners, and employees—while empowering firms to define entirely new business models focused on sharing information in online collaborative environments. Yet, in and of themselves, these technologies cannot ensure productive online interactions. Leading enterprises that are experimenting with social networks and online communities are already discovering this fact and along with it, the importance of establishing trust as the foundation for online collaboration and transactions. Just as today's consumers must feel secure to bank, exchange personal information and purchase products and services online; participants in Web 2.0 initiatives will only accept the higher levels of risk and exposure inherent in e-commerce and Web collaboration in an environment of trust. Indeed, only by attending to the need to cultivate online trust with customers, partners and employees will enterprises ever fully exploit the expanded business potential posed by Web 2.0. But developing online trust is no easy feat. While various preliminary attempts have occurred, no definitive model for establishing or measuring it has yet been established. To that end, nGenera has identified three, distinct dimensions of online trust: reputation (quantitative-based); relationship (qualitative-based) and process (system-based). When considered together, they form a valuable model for understanding online trust and a toolbox for cultivating it to support Web 2.0 initiatives.

  14. Evidence of increased mass fraction of NO 2 within real-world NO x emissions of modern light vehicles — derived from a reliable online measuring method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Robert; Weilenmann, Martin; Favez, Jean-Yves

    Ambient roadside concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) have stabilized in recent years while concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO x) decline. Oxidation catalytic converters of modern vehicles facilitating the formation of NO 2 in the exhaust line, especially in diesel cars equipped with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) particle filters, are assumed to be responsible. NO 2 is toxic and increased proportions of NO 2 in total NO x in the atmosphere cause higher ambient ozone concentrations. These observations lead to a need for reliable emission factors for NO and NO 2 for road vehicles, while only NO x is recorded in standard emission measurements. In this regard, it was recently shown that NO 2 needs to be detected by an adequate online measuring method. The present work provides novel insight into these topics gained from an experimental campaign carried out with modern gasoline and diesel vehicles of certification categories Euro 3 and Euro 4. Reliable emission factors for NO and NO 2 are presented for different driving situations, such as real-world driving, cold start and statutory tests, together with corresponding particle emission data. Highest emissions of NO x are recorded for diesel cars equipped with OEM particle filters with mass ratios of NO 2 within NO x of up to 70%. The NO x emissions exceed the statutory emission limit and real-world emissions are even more pronounced, especially in urban driving conditions. Their particle emissions are greatly reduced, but the contribution of NO 2 to soot oxidation is thought to be minor.

  15. The influence of specific mechanical energy on cornmeal viscosity measured by an on-line system during twin-screw extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANG Y. K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of specific mechanical energy (SME on cornmeal viscosity during the twin-screw extrusion at feed moisture contents of 25 and 30% and screw speeds in the range from 100 to 500 rpm was measured. Cornmeal was extruded in a co-rotating, intermeshing twin-screw coupled to a slit die rheometer. One approach to the on-line rheological measurement is to use a slit die with the extruder. In the present work it was show that shear viscosity decreased as a function of SME. The viscosity of cornmeal at the exit die was influenced by screw speed, rate of total mass flow, mass temperature inside the extruder and SME. An increase in screw speed resulted in an increase in SME and a decrease in viscosity. A reduction in slit die height and an increase in screw speed and mass temperature led to a remarkable macromolecular degradation of the starch, as evidenced by the decrease in viscosity.

  16. First on-line mass measurements at SHIPTRAP and mass determinations of neutron-rich Fr and Ra isotopes at ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Rahaman, Saidu

    SHIPTRAP is an ion trap facility behind the velocity filter SHIP at GSI/Darmstadt. Its aim are precision studies of transuranium nuclides produced in a fusion reaction and separated by SHIP. The current set-up for high-precision mass measurements consists of three main functional parts: (i) a gas cell for stopping the energetic ions from SHIP, (ii) radiofrequency quadrupole structures to cool and to bunch the ions extracted from the gas cell, and (iii) a superconducting magnet with two cylindrical Penning traps at a field strength of 7 T. In this work the Penning trap system has been installed and extensively characterized. The first on-line mass measurements of short-lived nuclides were carried out and the masses of $^{147}$Er and $^{148}$Er could be experimentally determined for the first time. Here a relative mass uncertainty of $\\delta$ m/m of about 1$\\times$ 10$^{-6}$ was achieved. Furthermore the masses of heavy neutron-rich $^{229-232}$Ra and $^{230}$Fr isotopes have been determined with a relative m...

  17. Online 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Morris

    This paper examines the co-existence of online and CD-ROM technologies in terms of their existing pricing structures, marketing strategies, functionality, and future roles. "Fixed Price Unlimited Usage" (FPUU) pricing and flat-rate pricing are discussed as viable alternatives to current pricing practices. In addition, it is argued that the…

  18. Online dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2012-01-01

    , need, consultation, and data. The article then proceeds to the discussion of some advanced information science techniques that may contribute to the desired individualization. Upon this basis, it finally discusses the interaction between online dictionaries and external sources like the Internet...

  19. Online Mentoring as an Extracurricular Measure to Encourage Talented Girls in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics): An Empirical Study of One-on-One versus Group Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeger, Heidrun; Hopp, Manuel; Ziegler, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Online mentoring provides an effective means of extracurricular gifted education for talented girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Comparative studies on the effectiveness of one-on-one versus group mentoring are lacking, however. The authors investigated this question in the context of a Germany-wide online mentoring…

  20. Do online assessed self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity-related constructs predict onset of substance use in adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Janssen

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Based on the present results, the added value of online behavioral assessment of impulsivity-related factors in the prediction of onset of substance use was not confirmed. We suggest that factors specific to each behavioral task underlie their lack of prediction and suggest that future research addresses limitations of current behavioral tasks to increase their validity in online testing.

  1. The Relationship between Searches Performed in Online Databases and the Number of Full-Text Articles Accessed: Measuring the Interaction between Database and E-Journal Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Alain R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a quantitative analysis exploring the interaction and relationship between the online database and electronic journal collections at the J. N. Desmarais Library of Laurentian University. A very strong relationship exists between the number of searches and the size of the online database…

  2. The Relationship between Searches Performed in Online Databases and the Number of Full-Text Articles Accessed: Measuring the Interaction between Database and E-Journal Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Alain R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a quantitative analysis exploring the interaction and relationship between the online database and electronic journal collections at the J. N. Desmarais Library of Laurentian University. A very strong relationship exists between the number of searches and the size of the online database…

  3. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang; Yizheng Zhu

    2005-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2004-March 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report.

  4. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang

    2007-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.

  5. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the first six months of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on analyzing and testing factors that impact performance degradation of the initially designed sensor prototype, including sensing element movement within the sensing probe and optical signal quality degradation. Based these results, a new version of the sensing system was designed by combining the sapphire disk sensing element and the single crystal zirconia right angle light reflector into one novel single crystal sapphire right angle prism. The new sensor prototype was tested up to 1650 C.

  6. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the second six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on evaluating corrosion effects in single crystal sapphire at temperatures up to 1400 C, and designing the sensor mechanical packaging with input from Wabash River Power Plant. Upcoming meetings will establish details for the gasifier field test.

  7. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang

    2004-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the third six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on sensor probe design and machining, sensor electronics design, software algorithm design, sensor field installation procedures, and sensor remote data access and control. Field testing will begin in the next several weeks.

  8. Online Measurement of the Energy Spread of Multi-Turn Beam in the Fermilab Booster at Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J. [Brown U.; Bhat, C. M. [Fermilab; Hendricks, B. S. [Fermilab

    2017-07-01

    We have developed a computer program interfaced with the ACNET environment of Fermilab accelerators to measure energy spread of the proton beam from the LINAC at an injection into the Booster. It uses a digitizing oscilloscope and provides users an ability to configure the scope settings for optimal data acquisition from a resistive wall current monitor. When the program is launched, a) a one shot timeline is generated to initiate beam injection into the Booster, b) a gap of about 40 ns is produced in the injected beam using a set of fast kickers, c) collects line charge distribution data from the wall current monitor for the first 200 μs from the injection and d) performs complete data analysis to extract full beam energy spread of the beam. The program also gives the option to store the data for offline analyses. We illustrate a case with an example. We also present results on beam energy spread as a function of beam intensity from recent measurements.

  9. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang

    2007-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.

  10. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang; Yizheng Zhu

    2005-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2004-March 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report.

  11. Tar formation in a steam-O2 blown CFB gasifier and a steam blown PBFB gasifier (BabyHPR): Comparison between different on-line measurement techniques and the off-line SPA sampling and analysis method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, X.; Mitsakis, P.; Mayerhofen, M.; De Jong, W.; Gaderer, M.; Verkooijen, A.H.M.; Spliethoff, H.

    2012-01-01

    Two on-line tar measurement campaigns were carried out using an atmospheric pressure 100 “”kWth steam-O2 blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier at the Delft University of Technology (TUD) and a 30–40kWth steam blown pressurized bubbling fluidized bed (PBFB) gasifier BabyHPR (Heatpipe Reforme

  12. New measuring concepts using integrated online analysis of color and monochrome digital high-speed camera sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Harald

    1997-05-01

    High speed sequences allow a subjective assessment of very fast processes and serve as an important basis for the quantitative analysis of movements. Computer systems help to acquire, handle, display and store digital image sequences as well as to perform measurement tasks automatically. High speed cameras have been used since several years for safety tests, material testing or production optimization. To get the very high speed of 1000 or more images per second, three have been used mainly 16 mm film cameras, which could provide an excellent image resolution and the required time resolution. But up to now, most results have been only judged by viewing. For some special applications like safety tests using crash or high-g sled tests in the automobile industry there have been used image analyzing techniques to measure also the characteristic of moving objects inside images. High speed films, shot during the short impact, allow judgement of the dynamic scene. Additionally they serve as an important basis for the quantitative analysis of the very fast movements. Thus exact values of the velocity and acceleration, the dummies or vehicles are exposed to, can be derived. For analysis of the sequences the positions of signalized points--mostly markers, which are fixed by the test engineers before a test--have to be measured frame by frame. The trajectories show the temporal sequence of the test objects and are the base for calibrated diagrams of distance, velocity and acceleration. Today there are replaced more and more 16 mm film cameras by electronic high speed cameras. The development of high-speed recording systems is very far advanced and the prices of these systems are more and more comparable to those of traditional film cameras. Also the resolution has been increased very greatly. The new cameras are `crashproof' and can be used for similar tasks as the 16 mm film cameras at similar sizes. High speed video cameras now offer an easy setup and direct access to

  13. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  14. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  15. Sampling and sample preparation development for analytical and on-line measurement techniques of process liquids; Naeytteenoton ja kaesittelyn kehittaeminen prosessinesteiden analytiikan ja on-line mittaustekniikan tarpeisiin - MPKT 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, K. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Main goal of the research project is to develop sampling and sample handling methods and techniques for pulp and paper industry to be used for analysis and on-line purposes. The research focus specially on the research and development of the classification and separation methods and techniques needed for liquid and colloidal substances as well as in ion analysis. (orig.)

  16. Design and implementation of power online analysis and measurement algorithm%电能在线计量分析算法设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨福刚

    2011-01-01

    Adopting TMS320F2812 DSP as core processor and combining with IQmath library provided by TI, this paper presents a practical algorithm to accurately meter and analyze power paramenters online. First, hardware phase-locked loop technology is used to achieve synchronous sampling control of the power network signal. Then, the FIR low-pass digital anti-aliasing filter is designed to filter out noise, harmonics and other high-order interference signal. Finally, the modified FFT algorithm is used in the separation of power grid voltage, current fundamental and the high-order harmonic components to carry out high-precision measurement and analysis of the relevant energy parameters. In the process of the algorithm implementation, a Q format calibration method is used to accomplish high-speed floating-point operations in the fixed-point processor, and the use of properties of real DFT can greatly reduce computational complexity and improve computing speed. The testing results show the proposed algorithm can achieve high accuracy in online power analysis and measurement.This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 60673153 and No. 60970105).%以TMS320F2812 DSP为核心处理器,结合TI公司提供的IQmath函数库,提出了一种对电力参数进行在线高精度计量分析的实用算法.采用硬件锁相环技术实现对电网信号的同步采样控制,设计了FIR低通数字抗混叠滤波器滤除高次噪声及谐波等干扰信号,并采用简化的FFT算法分离电网中的电压、电流基波和各高次谐波分量以进行相关电能参数的高精度计量和分析.算法在实现过程中,利用Q格式定标法解决了在定点处理器上进行高速浮点运算问题,利用实数DFT的性质,大大减少了运算量,提高了计算速度.试验测试结果表明该算法能够对电能进行高精度在线计量分析.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC1068 interferometric mid-IR measurements (Lopez-Gonzaga+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gonzaga, N.; Asmus, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Tristram, K. R. W.; Burtscher, L.; Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Harrison, F. A.

    2017-06-01

    Single-aperture mid-infrared images and spectra were taken with the VLT spectrometer and imager for the mid-infrared (VISIR). Interferometric measurements were obtained with the instrument MIDI at the ESO's VLTI facility. Observations with intermediate AT baselines were requested and observed during the nights of January, 10, 20, and 23, 2015 using Director's discretionary time (DDT). We additionally included published and unpublished interferometric data from our previous campaigns with the requirement that they were observed (nearly) contemporaneously to the period of X-ray variation or observed a few years before. These include observations taken on the nights of September, 21, 26, and 30, 2014, and November, 17, 2014, using Guaranteed Time Observations (GTO). For our observations we used the low-resolution NaCl prism with spectral resolution R=λ/Δλ~30 to disperse the light of the beams. A log of the observations and instrument setup can be found in Appendix A. The published data were taken from Lopez-Gonzaga et al. (2014A&A...565A..71L, Cat. J/A+A/565/A71). (2 data files).

  18. Combining pH and electrical conductivity measurements to improve titrimetric methods to determine ammonia nitrogen, volatile fatty acids and inorganic carbon concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnier, C; Latrille, E; Lardon, L; Miroux, J; Steyer, J P

    2016-05-15

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA), inorganic carbon (IC) and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) are key variables in the current context of anaerobic digestion (AD). Accurate measurements like gas chromatography and infrared spectrometry have been developed to follow the concentration of these compounds but none of these methods are affordable for small AD units. Only titration methods answer the need for small plant monitoring. The existing methods accuracy was assessed in this study and reveals a lack of accuracy and robustness to control AD plants. To solve these issues, a new titrimetric device to estimate the VFA, IC and TAN concentrations with an improved accuracy was developed. This device named SNAC (System of titration for total ammonia Nitrogen, volatile fatty Acids and inorganic Carbon) has been developed combining the measurement of electrical conductivity and pH. SNAC were tested on 24 different plant samples in a range of 0-0.16 mol.L(-1) TAN, 0.01-0.21 mol.L(-1) IC and 0-0.04 mol.L(-1) VFA. The standard error was about 0.012 mol.L(-1) TAN, 0.015 mol.L(-1) IC and 0.003 mol.L(-1) VFA. The coefficient of determination R(2) between the estimated and reference data was 0.95, 0.94 and 0.95 for TAN, IC and VFA respectively. Using the same data, current methods based on key pH points lead to standard error more than 14.5 times higher on VFA and more than 1.2 times higher on IC. These results show that SNAC is an accurate tool to improve the management of AD plant.

  19. Online cognition: factors facilitating reliable online neuropsychological test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Heleen E M; Vermeulen, Ivar E; Murre, Jaap M J; Schagen, Sanne B

    2017-01-01

    Online neuropsychological test batteries could allow for large-scale cognitive data collection in clinical studies. However, the few online neuropsychological test batteries that are currently available often still require supervision or lack proper psychometric evaluation. In this paper, we have outlined prerequisites for proper development and use of online neuropsychological tests, with the focus on reliable measurement of cognitive function in an unmonitored setting. First, we identified several technical, contextual, and psychological factors that should be taken into account in order to facilitate reliable test results of online tests in the unmonitored setting. Second, we outlined a methodology of quality assurance needed in order to obtain reliable cognitive data in the long run. Based on factors that distinguish the online unmonitored test setting from the traditional face-to-face setting, we provide a set of basic requirements and suggestions for optimal development and use of unmonitored online neuropsychological tests, including suggestions on acquiring reliability, validity, and norm scores. When properly addressing factors that could hamper reliable test results during development and use, online neuropsychological tests could aid large-scale data collection for clinical studies in the future. Investment in both proper development of online neuropsychological test platforms and the performance of accompanying psychometric studies is currently required.

  20. Self-Reported Measures Of Strength And Sport-Specific Skills Distinguish Ranking In An International Online Fitness Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Paul R; Feito, Yuri; Mangine, Gerald T

    2017-02-08

    To determine if self-reported performance measures could distinguish ranking during the 2016 CrossFit Open, data from three thousand male (n=1500; 27.2±8.4 y; 85.2±7.9 kg; 177.0±6.5 cm) and female (n=1500, 28.7±4.9 y; 63.7±5.8 kg; 163.7±6.6 cm) competitors was used for this study. Competitors were split by gender and grouped into quintiles (Q1-Q5) based upon their final ranking. Quintiles were compared for one-repetition maximum (1RM) squat, deadlift, clean and jerk (CJ), snatch, 400-m sprint, 5,000-m run, and benchmark workouts (Fran, Helen, Grace, Filthy-50, and Fight-gone-bad). Separate one-way analyses of variance revealed all competitors in Q1 reported greater (p<0.05) 1RM loads for squat (Males: 201.6±19.1 kg; Females: 126.1±13.0 kg), deadlift (Males: 232.4±20.5 kg; Females: 148.3±14.5 kg), CJ (Males: 148.9±12.1 kg; Females: 95.7±8.4 kg), and snatch (Males: 119.4±10.9 kg; Females 76.5±7.6 kg) compared to other quintiles. In addition, Males in Q1 (59.3±5.9 sec) reported faster (p<0.05) 400-m times than Q3 only (62.6±7.3 sec), but were not different from any group in the 5,000-m run. Females in Q2 (67.5 ± 8.8 sec) reported faster (p<0.05) 400-m times than Q3-Q5 (73.5-74.8 sec) and faster (21.3 ± 1.8 min, p<0.02) 5,000-m times than Q4 (22.6±2.2 min) and Q5 (22.6±1.9 min). Faster (p<0.05) Fran times were reported by Q1 (males: 138.2±13.3 sec; females: 159.4±28.3 sec) compared to other groups, while the results of other workouts were variable. These data indicate that the most successful athletes excel in all areas of fitness/skill, while lower-ranking athletes should focus on developing strength and power after achieving sufficient proficiency in sport-specific skills.

  1. Euroscepticism Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Bossetta Jr, Michael Joseph

    -criticism between Sweden and Denmark? Methodologically we combine quantitative and qualitative content analysis of the forum discussions pertaining to the EU critique taking place on the two platforms respectively. Our focus is thus not on the republished content originated in traditional media channels...... states, leading to numerous street protests. The internet is another site where EU contestation takes place.In the present paper we propose to compare two online platform consisting of user-generated content, where the exchange of ideas and opinions is unfiltered and largely unmoderated. Flashback...... is the leading online discussion forum in Sweden and one of the most popular sites of interaction for those euroskeptic voices coming from the right side of the political spectrum. 180grader is its Danish equivalent. Our research question is: Are there any differences in the discourse surrounding EU...

  2. Euroscepticism Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Bossetta Jr, Michael Joseph

    -criticism between Sweden and Denmark? Methodologically we combine quantitative and qualitative content analysis of the forum discussions pertaining to the EU critique taking place on the two platforms respectively. Our focus is thus not on the republished content originated in traditional media channels...... states, leading to numerous street protests. The internet is another site where EU contestation takes place.In the present paper we propose to compare two online platform consisting of user-generated content, where the exchange of ideas and opinions is unfiltered and largely unmoderated. Flashback...... and nationalism as the two poles on a continuum of attitudes coming out of the discourses. We discuss finally the consequences of the expected Swedish-Danish divergence of online debate content for the idea of a unified European public sphere....

  3. Online kinship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The article shows how the technology of social media sites facilitates new kinds of kinship. It ana-lyzes how ‘donor families’ – i.e., families in which the children are conceived via sperm and/or egg donations – negotiate kinship, family formations and gender when connecting with each other online....... Family formation and parenting are closely connected with gender and gender norms, and online donor families, therefore, offer an opportunity for understanding gender and gender for-mations in contemporary times and contemporary media. By analyzing commentary threads of a Facebook group connecting donor...... families as well as interviews with users of this Facebook group, the article shows how the affordances of social media, especially the Facebook application for smart phones, are central to the formation and maintenance of new kinship relations. Furthermore, the article illustrates how conventional...

  4. Description and characterization of an on-line system for long-term measurements of isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone, and methacrolein in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komenda, M; Schaub, A; Koppmann, R

    2003-05-02

    In this work we present a detailed technical description of the system that was set up for long-term on-line measurements of isoprene and two of its major degradation products, methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein in order to provide a better understanding of the role of forest stands as a complex source of reactive trace gases into the troposphere and to elucidate the role of forests as chemical reactors. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are preconcentrated on cartridges containing a package of two solid adsorbents (Tenax TA and Carbopack X). Ozone removal is performed prior to sampling by titration with nitrogen monoxide. For the calibration and characterization of the system, a diffusion source was built to produce standard gas mixtures of up to 16 different compounds with mixing ratios at tens ppt (parts per trillion) level mixing ratios and high accuracy. The developed system allows a reliable quantification of these VOCs (detection limit approximately 10 ppt, reproducibility approximately 5%) with a high temporal resolution (approximately 30 min) and has proven to be stable and run automatically without major maintainence.

  5. First on-line applications of multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator at ISOLTRAP and the mass measurement of $^{82}$Zn

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Robert

    This thesis describes the implementation and first on-line application of a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-ToF) mass analyzer for high-resolution mass separation at the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. On the one hand, the major objective was to improve ISOLTRAPs mass-measurement capabilities with respect to the ratio of delivered contaminating ions to ions of interest. On the other hand, the time necessary to purify wanted from unwanted species should be reduced as much as possible to enable access to even more exotic nuclei. The device has been set up, optimized and tested at the University of Greifswald before its move to ISOLTRAP. The achieved performance comprises mass resolving powers of up to 200000 reached at observation times of 30ms and a contamination suppression of about four orders of magnitude by use of a Bradbury-Nielsen gate. With the characteristics, it outperforms clearly the so far state-of-the-art purification method of a gas-filled Penning trap. To improve the utilization o...

  6. [On-line method for measurement of the carbon isotope ratio of atmospheric methane and its application to atmosphere of Yakela condensed gas field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jun-Hong; Bao, Zheng-Yu; Xiang, Wu; Qiao, Sheng-Ying; Li, Bing

    2006-01-01

    An on-line method for measurement of the 13C/12C ratio of methane by a gas chromatography/high-temperature conversion/ isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/MS) technique was developed. This method is less laborious, more rapid (45 min), of high precision (+/- 0.4 x 10(-3)) and by using a small amount of sample (about 200 mL of atmosphere). Its application to isotopic characterization, and hence methane source identification, was demonstrated by examination of atmosphere sample collected in Yakela condensed gas field, China. The average 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric methane in Yakela field was -45.0 x 10(-3) heavier by 1.2 x 10(-3) -2.0 x 10(-3) than the global average. This is caused by seepage and diffusing of methane from Yakela condensed gas reservoir. The concentrations of atmospheric methane in daytimes are found to be lower than those in nighttimes, and the corresponding 13C/12C ratios in daytimes are lighter compared to those in nighttimes, a phenomena probably caused by the fact that a small part of methane from Yakela condensate reservoir is consumed in soil's surface under sunlight.

  7. Optimization of HEK-293S cell cultures for the production of adenoviral vectors in bioreactors using on-line OUR measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, J; Lecina, M; Solà, C; Cairó, J J; Gòdia, F

    2012-01-01

    The culture of HEK-293S cells in a stirred tank bioreactor for adenoviral vectors production for gene therapy is studied. Process monitoring using oxygen uptake rate (OUR) was performed. The OUR was determined on-line by the dynamic method, providing good information of the process evolution. OUR enabled cell activity monitoring, facilitating as well the determination of the feeding rate in perfusion cultures and when to infect the culture. Batch cultures were used to validate the monitoring methodology. A cell density of 10×10(5)cell/mL was infected, producing 1.3×10(9) infectious viral particles/mL (IVP/mL). To increase cell density values maintaining cell specific productivity, perfusion cultures, based on tangential flow filtration, were studied. In this case, OUR measurements were used to optimize the dynamic culture medium feeding strategy, addressed to avoid any potential nutrient limitation. Furthermore, the infection protocol was defined in order to optimize the use of the viral inoculum, minimizing the uncontrolled release of particles through the filter unit mesh. All these developments enabled an infection at 78×10(5)cell/mL with the consequent production of 44×10(9)IVP/mL, representing a cell specific productivity 4.3 times higher than for the batch culture.

  8. Performance of On-line Measurements of The Global Distribution of Humidity In The Free Troposphere (0-13 Km Altitude)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helten, M.; Smit, H. G. J.; Sträter, W.; Kley, D.; Spelten, N.; Schiller, C.

    Better knowledge of the water vapor distribution would enhance the reliability and evidence of prognostic model simulations of chemistry, weather and climate of the atmosphere considerably (eg. IPCC-report, 2001), particularly in the middle/upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Only few water vapor measurements of sufficient quality in this regions of the atmosphere have been reported (Kley and Russell, 1999). The EC-programme MOZAIC has shown that in-service aircraft are an ideal platform for continuous and accurate measurements (Helten et al, 1998). In the frame of the German AFO-2000 research programme a stand alone humidity measuring system is under development, small, light weighted quasi maintenance-free on one hand and re- liable, precise, and accurate on the other, with emphasis on quality assurance of the measured data. An important aim will be to achieve on-line access of the measured data for weather services, to support meteorological synoptic and weather forecasting. Results of in-flight performance tests obtained from several flights onboard a research aircraft during SPURT campaigns, where a Lyman-alpha photofragment fluorescence hygrometer was used as a reference instrument (Zöger et al., 1999), will be presented and discussed. References: Helten, M., H. G. J. Smit, W. Sträter, D. Kley, P. Ned- elec, M. Zöger, R. Busen, Calibration and performance of automatic compact instru- mentation for the measurement of relative humidity from passenger aircraft, J. Geo- phys. Res., 103, 25,643-25,652, 1998. IPPC (=Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), Third Assessment Report - Climate Change 2001 : The Scientific Basis, Cambridge University Press, 2001 Kley, D., and J.R. Russell III, Plan for the SPARC Water Vapour Assessment (WAVAS), SPARC Newsletter, 13, 5-8,1999. Zöger, M., A. Afchine, N. Eicke, M.-T. Gerhards, E. Klein, D.S. McKenna, U. Mörschel, U. Schmidt, V. Tan, F Tuijter, T. Woyke, C. Schiller, Fast in situ stratospheric hygrom- eters: A

  9. The development and validation of a technology-integrated learning environments instrument to measure the contributions of online communications to prospective science teachers' learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Sunhee

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Technology-Integrated Learning Environments Survey (TILES) instrument to assess prospective science teachers' perceptions of their online learning environments and to provide psychometric evidence of validity and reliability for the instrument. First, the original draft instrument development started with defining the three constructs of pedagogy, technology, and practice from the hypothetical Technology-Integrated Learning Environments model. Second, 63 initial items with a five-point Likert-type scale were generated to represent the three constructs. Third, each of the initial items was reviewed for clarity and appropriateness of item content by an expert panel consisting of one faculty and four graduate students in science education. Fourth, based on the panel's judgments, 40 items were selected for the first draft instrument and revised to clearly represent the contents of the corresponding construct. Fifth, the first instrument was administered to 43 prospective elementary science teachers in two sections of SCIED 458-Teaching Elementary School Science at The Pennsylvania State University at the end (14th week) of spring semester 2000. Sixth, item analysis was conducted to select internally consistent items constituting each of the pedagogy, technology, and practice constructs. Seventh, internal consistency reliability was assessed across the three constructs. The second draft instrument development started with the extension of the Technology-Integrated Learning Environments model to fit online communications learning environments in prospective science teacher education. An online communications learning environment was hypothesized to have a hierarchical structure in that two underlying subconstructs resided in each of the three constructs: reflection and collaboration in pedagogy, multiple ideas and time flexibility in technology, and feedback and autonomy in practice. At the eighth step of the TILES instrument

  10. On-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples using elemental chromium: An extension for high temperature elemental-analyzer techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Meijer, Harro A.J.; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method may produce inaccurate δ2H results, with values deviating by more than 20 mUr (milliurey = 0.001 = 1‰) from the true value for some materials. We show that a single-oven, chromium-filled elemental analyzer coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability for hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic substances (Cr-EA method). Hot chromium maximizes the yield of molecular hydrogen in a helium carrier gas by irreversibly and quantitatively scavenging all reactive elements except hydrogen. In contrast, under TC/EA conditions, heteroelements like nitrogen or chlorine (and other halogens) can form hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) and this can cause isotopic fractionation. The Cr-EA technique thus expands the analytical possibilities for on-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples significantly. This method yielded reproducibility values (1-sigma) for δ2H measurements on water and caffeine samples of better than 1.0 and 0.5 mUr, respectively. To overcome handling problems with water as the principal calibration anchor for hydrogen isotopic measurements, we have employed an effective and simple strategy using reference waters or other liquids sealed in silver-tube segments. These crimped silver tubes can be employed in both the Cr-EA and TC/EA techniques. They simplify considerably the normalization of hydrogen-isotope measurement data to the VSMOW-SLAP (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, and their use improves accuracy of the data by eliminating evaporative loss and associated isotopic fractionation while

  11. In-situ and on-line measurement of gas flux at a hydrocarbon seep from the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Pengfei; Feng, Dong; Chen, Duofu

    2014-06-01

    Natural hydrocarbon seeps in the marine environment are important sources of methane and other greenhouse gases to the ocean and the atmosphere. Accurate quantification of methane flux at hydrocarbon seeps is therefore necessary to evaluate their influence on the global methane budget and climate change. Hydrocarbon seeps on the seabed produce a near-shore gas bubble zone along the shallow western coast of Hainan Island, northern South China Sea. An in-situ and on-line gas flux measuring device was deployed over a hydrocarbon seep to quantify the gas flux by equal volume exchange venting from the seabed offshore of Ledong Town, Hainan Island, over 19 days. The physiochemical parameters and the dissolved methane concentration of the bottom water at the hydrocarbon seep were also measured. The gas flux from the hydrocarbon seep varied from 22 to 77 l/day with the tidal period and was strongly negatively correlated with water depth. The flux data from the seep suggests that the variation in hydrostatic pressure induced by tidal forcing and ocean swell may control the variation of the gas flux. The bottom water dissolved methane concentration, ranging from 26 to 74 nmol/L, was negatively correlated with temperature and water depth at the seabed and positively with the gas flux. The total gas volume released from the hydrocarbon seep was 30.5 m3 for the 19-day period, providing an estimated gas flux of 600 m3/yr. The 120 known hydrocarbon seeps along the eastern edge of the Yinggehai Basin could vent a large quantity of methane from the seafloor, which suggests that hydrocarbon seeps on the continental margin of the northern South China Sea may be an important natural source of methane to the atmosphere.

  12. Preventing Academic Dishonesty in Online Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛淑娟; 孙童真

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:The purpose of this paper is to look into the manner of cheating in online course environment and explore the prevention measures to stop cheating. This paper is designed to address two research questions: 1) What are the types of cheating happening in online classes from the perspectives of instructors or students in online classes? 2) What are preventive measures to stop cheating in online classes? The questionnaire used in this research tests the prevalence of academic dishonesty and the methods of cheating in online courses. Data will be collected through a survey from students who take online course during the 2013 spring semester. This paper will present practical suggestions to reduce the frequency of cheating among students enrolling in online courses.

  13. Effect of pH value on VFA concentration and composition during anaerobic fermentation of kitchen waste%pH值对餐厨垃圾厌氧发酵产挥发性脂肪酸的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉静; 蒋建国; 王佳明

    2013-01-01

    Under mesophilic conditions(35 °C), batch experiments were carried out to determine the effect of pH value on volatile fatty acid(VFA) concentration and composition during anaerobic acidogenesis of kitchen wastes. The pH value was uncontrolled in one reactor and controlled at 5.0,6.0,7.0 in other reactors. The results showed that the greatest degree of hydrolysis and acidogenesis was obtained and more organic acid was produced when the pH value was controlled at 6.0. When the pH value was controlled at 6.0, the maximum VFA concentration and yields of 40.89g/L and 0.328gVFA/gVS was obtained in the 68th hour, and was 8 times of that when the pH value was not controlled. The product composition in the acid reactor strongly depended on the pH value. The pH value of the uncontrolled reactor dropped from 6.6 to 3.8 quickly within 24 hours. Ethanol was the main product, accounted for 59.8% of total end products. So the typical ethanol-type fermentation occurred when the pH value was not controlled. It was butyric acid-type fermentation when the pH value was controlled at 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0. Acetic acid was main product at pH 5.0, butyric acid was dominant at pH 6.0, proportion of acetic acid and butyric acid was similar to each other at pH 7.0. The optimum pH value of hydrolysis and acidogenesis of kitchen wastes was 6.0.%通过间歇实验研究了中温条件下pH值对餐厨垃圾厌氧发酵产挥发性脂肪酸(VFA)的影响.考察了pH值为5.0、6.0、7.0及不控制pH值下的有机酸浓度及组成情况.结果表明,当控制反应器中pH值为6.0时,餐厨垃圾水解酸化效果最好,比其他pH值条件下产生更多的有机酸.pH值为6.0时,VFA浓度与单位VS产酸量在第68h达到最大值分别为40.89g/L和0.328gVFA/gVS,是不控制pH值时的8倍.pH值对发酵产物组成影响显著.不控制pH值时,反应器内的pH值在241h内由6.6迅速下降到3.8,乙醇为主要的发酵产物,占59.8%,表现为典型的乙醇型

  14. Transformer dielectric loss factor online measurement system based on FPGA%基于FPGA的变压器介质损耗的在线监测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙醒涛; 高圣伟; 张牧

    2011-01-01

    A new digital high precision online measurement system of dielectric loss factor used FPGA for the bushing shell terminal of transformer is presented. FPGA is used as the main control unit and the functions such as frequency measurement, phase difference and error adaptive correcting can be achieved. With the functions above, the system errors, caused by hardware parameters difference, zero-floating, etc, can be avoided. Taking into account the errors caused by spectra leakage and fence effect which results in of frequency fluctuation and harmonic interference, FFT based on windows is adopted to calculate dielectric loss factor. The measuring accuracy can be improved by using hardware and software method together. And the configuration of hardware can be simplified by FPGA which can implement multiple tasks and IP core inside. The tests in laboratory and on site have shown that the performance of the measurement system is accurate.%设计了一种新型高精度的数字变压器套管末屏介质损耗在线监测系统.通过利用FPGA(现场可编程门阵列)作为主控芯片,同时实现系统测频、相位差校定等功能,可以有效消除由于硬件电路元件参数不一致及元件零点漂移等原因引起的相位测量误差,同时考虑到电源频率波动、电网谐波影响等原因引起的频谱泄漏和栅栏效应带来的误差,采用加窗FFT算法对介质损耗角进行软件计算.通过软硬件方法结合可以大大提高系统的测量精度,同时可以充分利用FPGA的并行处理能力实现多任务及内部IP核来极大的简化系统硬件结构设计.经过实验室和现场测试结果表明,该系统具有较高的测量精度.

  15. On the Instructor Role in Online Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵莹

    2013-01-01

      Under the background of the globalization and the possibility of Internet-based virtual reality, online education gradually becomes a trend of today’s teaching method. As one aspect of computer assisted language learning, online education in China has drawn the attention of educators, experts, teachers, and learners. However, the studies in the role of instructors in online education in China are still limited. So, this paper will try to research and rethink the instructor role in online education, aiming to recommend some applicable measures to improve the current situation of online education.

  16. Gorging Online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pride; Phiri

    2011-01-01

    MY introduction to social networking came in my first year of university.I had never been online before then nor used a computer extensively. The archaic machines at my high school had been good for a few rounds of solitaire and nothing more.Growing up in Zimbabwe at the turn of the century where even cell phones were a novelty,the Internet was just something you read about and then added to the list of things that while nice to have,didn’t really factor into everyday life.

  17. An online voltage stability index based on measuring information of phasor measurement unit%基于PMU量测信息的电压稳定在线评估指标

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董雷; 张昭; 蒲天骄; 于汀; 韩巍

    2015-01-01

    为实现对电压稳定的实时在线监测,亟需研究具有良好精确度、线性度和计算快速性的电压稳定在线评估指标,为此提出一种新的基于支路电压方程可行解域的静态电压稳定Lu指标。该指标可由PMU的局部量测信息快速计算获得。进而,为了消除冗余量测信息对指标精确度的影响,提出了仅利用PMU电压量测信息的Lu改进指标Lu.pro。最后,通过仿真算例验证了Lu及Lu.pro指标具有很好的准确性和线性度,并进一步验证了Lu.pro指标在三相不对称情况下的适用性和有效性。结果表明,Lu指标以及改进的Lu.pro指标能够反映系统中电压稳定的薄弱节点及区域,适用于电压稳定的在线监测与评估。%To realize online monitoring of system voltage stability, it is in urgent need of proposing a voltage stability index with ideal accuracy, linearity and computation speed. This paper proposes a new voltage stability index ofLu based on the feasible solution domain of branch voltage equation which can be fast calculated using the local measurement information of PMU. Moreover, in order to eliminate the error produced by redundant measurement information, the improved indexLu.pro is proposed which can be calculated merely with the voltage measurement information of PMU. Simulations are made to prove thatLu andLu.pro are ideal voltage stability indexes with good accuracy and linearity. Furthermore, it is also demonstrated by simulations thatLu.procan be used to evaluate the voltage stability of three-phase unbalanced system. Simulation results show that indexes ofLu andLu.pro can indicate the weak nodes and areas of voltage stability which can be used in online monitoring and evaluation of voltage stability.

  18. Who Plays Games Online?: The Relationship Between Gamer Personality and Online Game Use

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-I Teng; Shih-Ping Jeng; Henry Ker-Chang Chang; Soushan Wu

    2012-01-01

    Online games have become increasingly popular computer applications, raising the question of who plays them. Thus, the present study investigates the relationship between gamer personality and online game use as well as the potential links between online game use and gamer demographic variables. The sample consisted of 1633 Taiwanese online gamers. This study used confirmatory factor analysis to assess measurement reliability and validity. The hypotheses were tested using regression analyses....

  19. Study on the Rumen VFA and pH with the Time Changing in Cows under the Condition of TMR Feeding%TMR饲养条件下奶牛瘤胃VFA、pH变化规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛东峰; 武安泉

    2012-01-01

    为探究全混合日粮(TMR)饲养条件下奶牛瘤胃发酵参数的变化规律,以3头装有永久性瘤胃瘘管的中国荷斯坦奶牛为试验动物,采用TMR饲养,测定了瘤胃24h挥发性脂肪酸(VFA)浓度及pH值.结果表明:在TMR条件下,试验奶牛瘤胃液pH值的变化范围为5.86~6.51,各时间点之间差异不显著(P>0.05);乙酸浓度、丙酸浓度、丁酸浓度变动范围分别为69.62~85.71mmol/L、19.33~25.91mmol/L、10.44~14.02mmol/L,且3种VFA出现最高浓度和最低浓度的时间点均为20:00和08:00;乙酸/丙酸值的变动范围为3.31~3.61,且在20.00比值最小,在8:00比值最大.综合分析显示,TMR技术有利于奶牛瘤胃丙酸型发酵,提高生产效益.%A total of three China Hostain cow fitted with ruminal fistula were used to determine the vary law in 24 h of the ruminal internal environment parameters under the Total Mixed Ration (TMR) technology. The results showed that the rumen pH value changed over time and the aver-age pH was 5. 86-6. 51 but no significant changes were observed at each time point. The average concentration of acetic acid,third acid and butyric acid was 69. 62-85. 71 mrnol/L, 19. 33 - 25. 91 mmol/L and 10. 44-14. 02 mmol/L, respectively. The maximum and lowest concentrations of three VFA appeared at 20:00 and 08:00. The average of acetic acid/propionic acid varied from 3.31 to 3. 61, with the minimum and maximum levels appearing at 20; 00 and 8; 00 respectively. Comprehensive analysis showed that the TMR technology was conductive to rumen propionic acid type fermentation to improve production efficiency of cow.

  20. The impact of reliable pre-bolus T1 measurements or a fixed T1 value in the assessment of glioma patients with Dynamic Contrast Enhancing MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietze, Anna; Mouridsen, Kim; Mikkelsen, Irene Klærke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate quantification of hemodynamic parameters using Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI (DCE) requires a measurement of tissue T1 prior to contrast injection (T1). We evaluate (i) T1 estimation using the variable flip angle (VFA) and the saturation recovery (SR) techniques and (ii) investi...

  1. Online Paper Review Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Mohey El-Din

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sentiment analysis or opinion mining is used to automate the detection of subjective information such as opinions, attitudes, emotions, and feelings. Hundreds of thousands care about scientific research and take a long time to select suitable papers for their research. Online reviews on papers are the essential source to help them. The reviews save reading time and save papers cost. This paper proposes a new technique to analyze online reviews. It is called sentiment analysis of online papers (SAOOP. SAOOP is a new technique used for enhancing bag-of-words model, improving the accuracy and performance. SAOOP is useful in increasing the understanding rate of review's sentences through higher language coverage cases. SAOOP introduces solutions for some sentiment analysis challenges and uses them to achieve higher accuracy. This paper also presents a measure of topic domain attributes, which provides a ranking of total judging on each text review for assessing and comparing results across different sentiment techniques for a given text review. Finally, showing the efficiency of the proposed approach by comparing the proposed technique with two sentiment analysis techniques. The comparison terms are based on measuring accuracy, performance and understanding rate of sentences.

  2. Paarberatung online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Lang

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Auf dem Hintergrund der Fragestellungen und der Entwicklung von Beratungsangeboten im Internet generell wird das Spezifische der Paarberatung im Internet dargestellt. Die bekanntesten Angebote in deutscher Sprache werden vorgestellt. In einem Schwerpunkt wird das Konzept von „www.paarberatung.ch“ skizziert. Angebote unterscheiden sich in ihren Zielsetzungen, die auf die unterschiedlichen Erwartungen der Ratsuchenden ausgerichtet sind und auf jede Anfrage zugeschnitten werden. Methodische Leitlinien sind aus der Beratungspsychologie mit Blick auf das Medium Internet abgeleitet.Der Autor bevorzugt den systemischen Ansatz, integriert Methoden des kognitiv-verhaltenstherapeutischen Beratungsansatzes und plädiert dafür, die personspezifischen Elemente einer Anfrage für die Antwort zu nutzen. Grundsätzliches zur Psychologie der Paarberatung und zur Textinterpretation bei einer E-Mail-Beratung wird veranschaulicht mit einem konkreten Beispiel aus der Online-praxis und einer kurzen Beschreibung der Population der Ratsuchenden.

  3. Online Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vujovic, Sladjana; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2008-01-01

    on proprietary knowledge. Design/methodology/approach - The paper borrows from the theory of communities-of-practice, which takes into account social relations, contacts, and the transfer and incorporation of knowledge. Open source innovation is not the exclusive preserve of computer nerds, but also has...... implications for existing software manufacturers. The paper therefore includes the case of IBM, a company which has successfully integrated this new and more open way of collaboration into its business model. Findings - The paper concludes that online computer-based innovation fundamentally challenges current...... for practitioners directly involved in innovation and product development. Originality/value - This paper develops a conceptual framework for understanding product development based on non-proprietary knowledge, which cannot be adequately accounted for by traditional corporate innovation theory alone....

  4. Implications of Pericardial, Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue on Vascular Inflammation Measured Using 18FDG-PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Cheol Hong

    Full Text Available Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT is associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, the relative implications of PAT, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue on vascular inflammation have not been explored.We compared the association of PAT, abdominal visceral fat area (VFA, and subcutaneous fat area (SFA with vascular inflammation, represented as the target-to-background ratio (TBR, the blood-normalized standardized uptake value measured using 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18FDG-PET in 93 men and women without diabetes or CVD. Age- and sex-adjusted correlation analysis showed that PAT, VFA, and SFA were positively associated with most cardiometabolic risk factors, including systolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin resistance and high sensitive C-reactive proteins (hsCRP, whereas they were negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol. In particular, the maximum TBR (maxTBR values were positively correlated with PAT and VFA (r = 0.48 and r = 0.45, respectively; both P <0.001, whereas SFA showed a relatively weak positive relationship with maxTBR level (r = 0.31, P = 0.003.This study demonstrated that both PAT and VFA are significantly and similarly associated with vascular inflammation and various cardiometabolic risk profiles.

  5. Fermentation kinetics (in vitro of Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and Calliandra callothyrsus leaves (3 the pattern of gas production, organic matter degradation, pH, NH3 and VFA concentration; estimated CH4 and microbial biomass production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Widiawati

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In high protein feeds, plant proteins may be shielded from degradation in the rumen by lignification of the cell wall or because of the present of plant secondary compounds e.g. tannin, which is present in most of the leguminous trees/shrubs. Thus it might have an effect on organic matter degradation and the pattern of other end product of rumen microbial fermentation (VFA, NH3, microbial cell, CH4 and total gas. The in vitro method was used to determine the organic matter degradation and the pattern of rumen fermentation end product of high protein feeds, namely Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricida sepium and Calliandra calothyrsus. The results shows that Gliricidia has the highest amount of OM degraded (505 mg; microbial cell and NH3 produced (2676 g and 1.91 mmol/100 mL than followed by Leucaena (423 mg; 2656 g; 1.61 mmol/100 mL and Calliandra (340 mg; 2644 g; 1.61 mmol/100mL, but Gliricidia produced the lowest amount of gas total and CH4 (0.192 mL and 0.07 mole per mg OM deraded then Leucaena (0.249 mL and 0.097 mole per mg OM deraded and Callliandra (0.196 mL and 0.126 mole per mg OM deraded. In conclusion, Gliricidia is more efficient in term of using the dietary energy for the animals’ production compared to the Leucaena and Calliandra.

  6. Are Fast Food “Trans-Fat” Claims True? An Infraspec VFA-IR Spectrometer Analysis of Trans-fat content in select food items purchased from Long John Silver’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharron Jenkins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies linking high trans-fat diets to coronary heart disease (CHD have prompted the need to regulate, limit, or completely ban trans-fat from all commercial food products, including fast foods. Many U.S. fast food chains now claim that their food items, particularly French fries, have "no trans-fat". In a previous study, our lab tested the validity of trans-fat claims made by several popular fast food restaurants by experimentally determining the %trans-fat in oil extracted from fast food French fries. In some cases, the trans-fat content was nearly twice as high as the amount reported by the restaurant in their literature. Long John Silver's, for example, reported a trans-fat content of 25% for their French fries, while our lab actually found over 40% trans-fat. The purpose of this study is to broaden our study of Long John Silver's trans-fat claims by analyzing a variety of their food items and comparing our findings with the %trans-fat reported by the restaurant literature (nutrition fact tables. Variable Filter Array (VFA IR spectroscopy was used to assess the trans-fat content of oil extracted from food samples. Our preliminary findings suggest that nearly every food item under study contained considerably more trans-fat than the amount reported in the restaurant’s literature.

  7. One year online measurements of water-soluble ions at the industrially polluted town of Nanjing, China: Sources, seasonal and diurnal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; An, Junlin; Cheng, Mengtian; Shen, Lijuan; Zhu, Bin; Li, Yi; Wang, Yuesi; Duan, Qing; Sullivan, Amy; Xia, Li

    2016-04-01

    Half-hourly mass concentrations water-soluble ions (WSIs) and PM2.5 were measured online a Rapid Collector of Fine Particles and Ion Chromatography system (RCFP-IC) and FH62C14 Continuous Particulate Monitor in Nanjing from October 18, 2013 to November 17, 2014. The WSIs concentration ranged from 7.07 to 333.42 μg m(-3) with an annual mean of 76.32 μg m(-3). The WSIs ranked in the order of SO4(2-) > NH4(+) > NO3(-) > Cl(-) > NO2(-) > K(+) > Ca(2+) > Na(+) > Mg(2+). The PM2.5 concentration ranged from 4.00 to 400 μg m(-3) with an annual mean of 83.58 μg m(-3). The concentrations of WSIs varied in the order of winter (115.77 μg m(-3)) > spring (76.10 μg m(-3)) > autumn (63.72 μg m(-3)) > summer (59.75 μg m(-3)), with the highest level in January (123.99 μg m(-3)) and lowest level in August (43.73 μg m(-3)). Different WSIs had distinct diurnal variations. The source analysis of the WSIs in the PCA/APCS mode illustrated that the sources consisted of secondary aerosol, coal combustion, mineral dust, biomass burning, traffic emissions and sea salt. In addition, there were seasonal variations amongst the various sources. The haze formation mechanism was different in summer and winter. The winter was dominated by NH4NO3 (18.56%), (NH4)2SO4 (28.63%), NH4(+) (11.27%), SO4(2-) (18.35%) and NO3(-) (13.13%), and by NH3 (25.93%), (NH4)2SO4 (13.37%), SO4(2-) (15.74%) and NO3(-) (9.97%) in summer. Consequently, the proportions of HCl, HNO3, NH4(+), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) were much larger during haze episodes in winter, while it was dominated by NH4NO3, NH4(+), (NH4)2SO4, SO4(2-) and NO3(-) during summer haze episodes.

  8. 电容层析成像系统中传感器状态监控和检测量在线修正%Sensor monitoring and online measurement correction in electric capacitance tomography system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠良; 荣冈

    2005-01-01

    The recalibration of electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system is one of the key problems in keeping the system running steadily.However, for engineering application in solids/gas transport,online calibration can not be implemented and the data from this sensor may be unreliable due to the sensor pipe interior wall abrasion during pneumatic transport,so the solids concentration calculated from the reconstructed image based on these data will be highly inaccurate.The simulations show that, the inter-electrode relative capacitance variation of electrode pair spacing 1 is the most sensitive to the abrasion of sensor pipe interior wall, so this relative capacitance variation when the sensor is filled with air can be used as an indicator demanding offline system recalibration when the wall abrasion goes significant.Furthermore, while the pipe interior wall abrasion is not very serious, online correcting measured inter-electrode capacitance with wall capacitance variation can improve the accuracy of concentration calculation.

  9. [Online gaming. Potential risk and prevention programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malischnig, Doris

    2014-12-01

    Online gaming is more and more common and increasingly accessible. Due to a lack of social control the participation could be a potential risk for certain customers. The given article focuses on prevention measures that are provided by the Austrian online gaming operator, the Austrian Lotteries, provider of the online gaming platform win2day, in the light of the specifics of Internet gaming in order to avoid problems with gaming.

  10. University Student Online Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-mei

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study investigating university student online plagiarism. The following questions are investigated: (a) What is the incidence of student online plagiarism? (b) What are student perceptions regarding online plagiarism? (c) Are there any differences in terms of student perceptions of online plagiarism and print plagiarism? (d)…

  11. Online Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowicz, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online…

  12. University Student Online Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-mei

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study investigating university student online plagiarism. The following questions are investigated: (a) What is the incidence of student online plagiarism? (b) What are student perceptions regarding online plagiarism? (c) Are there any differences in terms of student perceptions of online plagiarism and print plagiarism? (d)…

  13. Follow #eHealth2011: Measuring the Role and Effectiveness of Online and Social Media in Increasing the Outreach of a Scientific Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Winandy, M.; Kostkova, P.; de Quincey, E; St Louis, C.; Szomszor, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social media promotion is increasingly adopted by organizers of industry and academic events; however, the success of social media strategies is rarely questioned or the real impact scientifically analyzed. Objective: We propose a framework that defines and analyses the impact, outreach, and effectiveness of social media for event promotion and research dissemination to participants of a scientific event as well as to the virtual audience through the Web. METHODS: Online com...

  14. Attitudes toward buying online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David

    2004-02-01

    A survey of 11 positive features and 10 discouraging features of online shopping was carried out on 180 students and identified certain behavioral patterns for online shoppers versus non-shoppers. It was found that online shoppers have consistently stronger positive feelings about online shopping than do non-shoppers. On the other hand, non-shoppers have more negative feelings about online shopping than do shoppers, but not consistently so. Online shoppers are aware of some of the discouraging features of online shopping, but these features do not deter them from shopping online. The implication for marketers is that they should focus on making the experience of online shopping more accommodating and more user-friendly since the positive features of online shopping ("convenience" and "efficiency") appear to be more important than the negative features ("effort/impersonality").

  15. Online Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian D. Richards

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Online archives are of increasing importance in Archaeological Informatics, but like any new genre they prompt a number of questions. What is their relationship to publication? What should go in them? How should they be delivered and indexed? Can they be preserved? Whilst their delivery requires technology, we must also consider how that technology should best be employed in the service of our discipline. This article attempts to address some of these questions but it need not be read from start to finish. The links from this summary provide one fairly linear route through the text but each section is self-contained and can also be accessed directly from the Contents page. The problems posed by effective publication of archaeological fieldwork have exercised the profession for many decades. The issues raised go to the core of discussion of whether preservation by record is a valid concept, and indeed whether archaeological data exist. There are different schools of thought about the relationship between publication and archiving, but hopefully we can accept that data are recorded observations but still agree that they have a re-use value for re-examination and re-interpretation. Since the 1960s archaeology has experienced a publication crisis point. The scenario is familiar. Excavation is destruction; it is an unrepeatable experiment and the archaeologist has a professional obligation to make a full and accessible record of his/her observations. Yet full publication is increasingly expensive and difficult, and excavation monographs are read by few people, and bought by even fewer. In England the development of post-PPG16 fieldwork has exacerbated the problem by creating a mountain of unpublished grey literature and making the work of synthesis even harder; a similar situation exists in other countries. Meanwhile museum archives are also reaching breaking point; most are running out of storage space, few can provide facilities for access, and

  16. Online Shopping Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzad, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Online shopping is a very much developed phenomena in Scandinavian countries. Different online factors impact online consumers’ behavior differently depending on the environment of different regions. Sweden is one of the developed and technologically advanced countries. To see the impact of different factors on consumers’ online shopping behavior, the purpose of this study is to analyse the factors that influence consumers’ online shopping behavior in Sweden’s context. One of the objectives o...

  17. Online Marketing Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Horecká, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with online marketing trends. Its main goal is to define the latest online marketing trends, create a website with the free online marketing trends, and analyse their effectiveness. The theoretical part brings a thorough description of the latest online marketing trends. Moreover, it provides an insight into the latest trends in the website development. The chosen online marketing trends defined in the theoretical part are subsequently applied on a newly created website. All...

  18. B2B在线支付进化系统的信息基因测度模型%Measure Model for Information Gene of B2B Online Payment Evolutionary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琦峰; 沈鑫; 宋平; 谢光萍; 王俊

    2011-01-01

    Each of the existing B2B online payment systems has its own limitation,and lack of an effective coordination mechanism for them. Based on the order parameter principle of synergy theory,participants' information genes were found as micro order parameter which decided the macro orderliness of B2B online payment evolution system. A participant information gene model was established on " identity characteristics degree + reputation degree" two - dimensional attribute; and order degree measurement algorithm was proposed. Then the cooperation mechanism of the evolutionary B2B online payment system was discussed following the information gene model.%针对现有B2B在线支付系统存在的局限性,缺乏有效协同运作机制的问题,基于协同论的序参量原理,发现参与者信息基因是决定B2B在线支付进化系统宏观有序性的微观序参量,构建了“身份特征值+信誉度”二维属性的参与者信息基因模型及有序度测度算法,讨论了B2B在线支付系统的协同进化问题.

  19. Analisis Intensi Berprestasi Mahasiswa Binus Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Putranto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of e-learning can improve learning effectiveness and flexibility. Universitas Bina Nusantara (BINUS provides an online learning program called BINUS Online learning. It offers the student to do a study through online activities, where the students are couraged to learn individually. This research was conducted to obtain a perspective of student intention from BINUS Online learning to mark good achievement. Non experimental method with quatitative approached is implemented where the respondents are students of Information System department and Marketing Management Department. The sampling techniques used is non probability purposive sampling. All variables are measured using questionnaire based on Fishbein and Ajzen model. The data of the research are analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple linier regression analysis. The results show that the intention to mark an achievement of students of BINUS Online learning is very high. It means that BINUS Online learning Program students have strong intention to get good marks and study achievements.

  20. Online Education Implementation Status and Improvement Measures%网络教育实施现状与改进措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾崧

    2013-01-01

      网络教育的实施离不开技术支持服务功能的建设。网络教学作为一种新兴的教学形式之所以能够迅速兴起并快速发展,必须承认其具有一定的优势,即只要具备上网条件,就能随时随地进行学习。通过网络教学与传统课堂教学的比较,我们不难看出它有许多优点。网络教育通过开放式学习形式,为学员提供了比较丰富的学习资源和沟通环境,对学员自身掌控学习时间,合理安排工作与学习的关系等方面的确发挥出资源共享优势,因此网络教育逐步得到了广大教师和学员的认可。但是大家又不得不一分为二的看待问题,在看到它的优点的同时也要看到其自身存在的弊端。只有在开展网络教育的过程中不断发现存在的问题,并逐步想办法解决掉这些问题,网络教育才能实现经久不衰,可持续性发展。%  The implementation of online education is inseparable from the construction of technical support services. Online teaching, as a new form of teaching, has been able to rapidly rise and develop, we must admit that it has certain advantages, namely, as long as have Internet access, you can learn at all times and all places. Through comparison between network teaching and traditional classroom teaching, we can see many advantages of network teaching. Online education provides a rich learning resources and communication environment for students through open learning form, and has indeed played out resource sharing advantages for students controlling learning time, reasonably arranging work and learning, so online education has been gradually recognized by majority of teachers and students. However, we had to look at the problem into two sides, when seeing its advantages, at the same time we should also see the drawbacks. Only to continue to find problems in the course of online education, and gradually find solutions, can the online education

  1. Designing the Online Learning Self-Efficacy Scale for Adult Learners and Its Measurement%成人在线学习自我效能感量表编制及测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jessica Li; 王辞晓; 吴峰

    2015-01-01

    In the era of internet, online learning has been increasingly popular among the learners. Self-efficacy of learners is the self-assessment of learners ’ learning achievements, and is also a way to encourage the learners ’ further study, so it is of great sig-nificance to study the elements influencing self-efficacy of learners and design the online learning self-efficacy scale. Currently, there are three self-efficacy scales that can measure face-to-face learning and online learning for undergraduates, and face-to-face learning for adult learners. There is not a self-efficacy scale that is developed for adult online learners. The study, with the methods of a network questionnaire and inquiry analysis, develops a self-efficacy scale for adult online learning after the reliability test and valid-ity test. The findings suggest that the self-efficacy scale for adult online learners is composed of three dimensions including learning ability, learning determination and learning technology. Besides, it is found that gender, education and income have significant impact on adult online learners’ self-efficacy, while age, region, occupation and position have no significant impact on adult online learners ’ self-efficacy.%互联网时代,在线学习方式的应用会越来越普遍。学习者的自我效能感既是学习者对学习效果的自我评估,又是学习者进一步学习的动力,因此,研究在线学习的自我效能感因素及编制在线学习的自我效能感量表很有必要。目前,已有的自我效能感量表局限于在校生面授学习、在校生在线学习及成人面授学习三种方式,而成人在线学习的自我效能感量表还缺乏相关研究。为此,通过采用网络问卷方法针对成人在线学习进行数据收集,并应用探究式分析方法进行因子分析,采用信度检验与效度检验,最终得到成人在线学习自我效能感量表是由学习能力、学习意志、

  2. Differentiation in online retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellner, Julian; Wagner, Gerhard; Zielke, Stephan;

    Due to the highly competitive nature of the online retail environment, differentiation strategies are of importance for online retailers to gain competitive advantages and to achieve a unique positioning in the market. However, little is known about perceptual dimensions used by consumers to make...... a distinction between online retailers. The present study addresses this research gap by using a repertory grid approach to identify points of difference between online retailers from a consumer’s perspective. The results have important implications for positioning strategies of online retailers and research...... on online store formats....

  3. Examination of Faculty Self-Efficacy Related to Online Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvitz, Brian S.; Beach, Andrea L.; Anderson, Mary L.; Xia, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Through this study we sought to gain understanding of the challenges professors face as they make the transition to teaching online. We measured professors' online teaching self-efficacy using survey research methods. Results showed that online teaching self-efficacy was high among the professors surveyed with no self-efficacy scores lower than…

  4. The Online Underworld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrogan, Len

    1988-01-01

    Discusses some of the misuses of telecommunicating using school computers, including online piracy, hacking, phreaking, online crime, and destruction boards. Suggests ways that schools can deal with these problems. (TW)

  5. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  6. Selected examples of online measuring techniques for N and P elimination at sewage treatment plants; Ausgewaehlte Beispiele fuer die Online-Messtechnik zur N- und P-Elimination in Klaeranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolffson, C.

    1997-12-31

    More stringent demands on the pollutant concentration of effluents call for stricter self-monitoring and enhanced process control. Devices for measuring ammonium, nitrate and phosphate that suit practical requirements are available. The readings continuously obtained can be additionally used by the control room, within the framework of modern sewage plant process control, for process monitoring. Apart from the financial advantages of saving ventilation energy and chemicals, control loops with continuous measurements are superior in that they enhance the process stability of sewage treatment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Verschaerfte Einleitungsbedingungen erfordern verstaerkte Eigenueberwachung und verbesserte Prozessregelung. Betriebstaugliche Dauermessgeraete fuer Ammonium, Nitrat und Phosphat stehen zur Verfuegung. Die kontinuierlich anfallenden Messwerte koennen im Rahmen der modernen Klaeranlagenleittechnik neben der Prozessregelung zusaetzlich in den Schaltwarten zur Prozessueber-wachung genutzt werden. Neben den Einsparungsmoeglichkeiten fuer Belueftungsenergie und Chemikalien, die einen finanziellen Vorteil bedeuten, liegt der entscheidende Vorzug der Regelkreise mit konti-nuierlichen Messungen in der Verbesserung der Prozessstabilitaet der Abwasserreinigung. (orig.)

  7. Implementing Online Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohnsen, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    Online physical education, although seemingly an oxymoron, appears to be the wave of the future at least for some students. The purpose of this article is to explore research and options for online learning in physical education and to examine a curriculum, assessment, and instructional model for online learning. The article examines how physical…

  8. Performance marketing online

    OpenAIRE

    Hamaďáková, Markéta

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses the online performance marketing business practices. The theoretical part contains the definition of performance marketing and presents its main components, which include the key performance indicators, the targeting of users, the pricing models of online advertising and affiliate marketing. The second part of the thesis analyzes the performance of online marketing operations for the website FFFFLASH.com.

  9. Prospective Measurement of Daily Health Behaviors: Modeling Temporal Patterns in Missing Data, Sexual Behavior, and Substance Use in an Online Daily Diary Study of Gay and Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Mustanski, Brian; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-08-01

    Daily diary and other intensive longitudinal methods are increasingly being used to investigate fluctuations in psychological and behavioral processes. To inform the development of this methodology, we sought to explore predictors of and patterns in diary compliance and behavioral reports. We used multilevel modeling to analyze data from an online daily diary study of 371 gay and bisexual men focused on sexual behavior and substance use. We found that greater education and older age as well as lower frequency of substance use were associated with higher compliance. Using polynomial and trigonometric functions, we found evidence for circaseptan patterns in compliance, sexual behavior, and substance use, as well as linear declines in compliance and behavior over time. The results suggest potential sources of non-random patterns of missing data and suggest that trigonometric terms provide a similar but more parsimonious investigation of circaseptan rhythms than do third-order polynomial terms.

  10. Impact of green algae on the measurement of Microcystis aeruginosa populations in lagoon-treated wastewater with an algae online analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thang; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2015-01-01

    Tests on the algae online analyser (AOA) showed that there was a strong direct linear correlation between cell density and in vivo Chl-a concentration for M. aeruginosa over the range of interest for a biologically treated effluent at a wastewater treatment plant (25,000-65,000 cells mL(-1), equivalent to a biovolume of 2-6 mm3 L(-1)). However, the AOA can provide an overestimate or underestimate of M. aeruginosa populations when green algae are present in the effluent, depending on their species and relative numbers. The results from this study demonstrated that the green algae (e.g., Euglena gracilis, Chlorella sp.) in the field phytoplankton population should be considered during calibration. In summary, the AOA has potential for use as an alert system for the presence of M. aeruginosa, and thus potentially of cyanobacterial blooms, in wastewater stabilization ponds.

  11. Elevated urinary levels of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in patients with urinary tract infections measured by isotope dilution online SPE LC–MS/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Chiung-Wen [Department of Public Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Shih, Ying-Ming [Department of Public Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Division of Chest Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Liu, Hung-Hsin [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Yi-Chen [Department of Public Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China); Chen, Chih-Ming [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chao, Mu-Rong, E-mail: chaomurong@gmail.com [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Occupational Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-05

    Highlights: • Nine N-nitrosamines in urine were quantified by LC–MS/MS. • N-nitrosodiphenylamine was firstly identified in human urine. • UTI patients had much higher N-nitrosamines concentrations than healthy subjects. • N-nitrosamines were dramatically decreased after antibiotic treatment. • NDMA was correlated with the pH, WBC esterase activity or nitrite in UTI patients. - Abstract: N-nitrosamines (NAms) are well-documented for their carcinogenic potential. Human exposure to NAms may arise from the daily environment and endogenous formation via the reaction of secondary amines with nitrites or from bacteria infection. We describe the use of isotope dilution online solid-phase extraction (SPE) LC–MS/MS to quantify nine NAms in human urine. This method was validated and further applied to healthy subjects and patients with urinary tract infection (UTI). N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were analyzed with an APCI source, while N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA) were quantified with an ESI source, due to their effect on the sensitivity and chromatography. NDMA was the most abundant N-nitrosamine, while NDPhA was firstly identified in human. UTI patients had three to twelve-fold higher concentrations for NDMA, NPIP, NDEA, NMOR and NDBA in urine than healthy subjects, and the NAms were significantly decreased after antibiotics treatment. NDMA concentrations were also significantly correlated with the pH value, leukocyte esterase activity or nitrite in urines of UTI patients. Our findings by online SPE LC–MS/MS method evidenced that UTI patients experienced various NAms exposures, especially the potent carcinogen NDMA, which was likely induced by bacteria infection.

  12. Online weight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, John M; Swalm, Ricky L; Stearne, David J; Covassin, Tracey M

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how a traditional weight training class compared to nontraditional classes that were heavily laden with technology. Could students learn resistance exercises by watching video demonstrations over the Internet? Three university weight training classes, each lasting 16 weeks, were compared. Each class had the same curriculum and workout requirements but different attendance requirements. The online group made extensive use of the Internet and was allowed to complete the workouts on their own at any gym that was convenient for them. Seventy-nine college-aged students were randomized into 3 groups: traditional (n = 27), hybrid (n = 25), and online (n = 27). They completed pretest and posttest measures on upper-body strength (i.e., bench press), lower-body strength (i.e., back squat), and knowledge (i.e., written exam). The results indicated that all 3 groups showed significant improvement in knowledge (p students to attend class and may have resulted in significantly lower scores on the bench press (p motivation, low accountability, and the possibility that the self-reported workouts were not accurate. These results suggest that there is a limit to how much technology can be used in a weight training class. If this limit is exceeded, some type of monitoring system appears necessary to ensure that students are actually completing their workouts.

  13. Comparing Online Algorithms for Bin Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, Leah; Favrholdt, Lene Monrad; Kohrt, Jens Svalgaard

    2012-01-01

    -order ratio to online algorithms for several common variants of the bin packing problem. We mainly consider pairs of algorithms that are not distinguished by the competitive ratio and show that the relative worst-order ratio prefers the intuitively better algorithm of each pair.......The relative worst-order ratio is a measure of the quality of online algorithms. In contrast to the competitive ratio, this measure compares two online algorithms directly instead of using an intermediate comparison with an optimal offline algorithm. In this paper, we apply the relative worst...

  14. Comparing Online Algorithms for Bin Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, Leah; Favrholdt, Lene Monrad; Kohrt, Jens Svalgaard

    2012-01-01

    The relative worst-order ratio is a measure of the quality of online algorithms. In contrast to the competitive ratio, this measure compares two online algorithms directly instead of using an intermediate comparison with an optimal offline algorithm. In this paper, we apply the relative worst-ord......-order ratio to online algorithms for several common variants of the bin packing problem. We mainly consider pairs of algorithms that are not distinguished by the competitive ratio and show that the relative worst-order ratio prefers the intuitively better algorithm of each pair....

  15. Comorbidity structure of psychological disorders in the online e-PASS data as predictors of psychosocial adjustment measures: psychological distress, adequate social support, self-confidence, quality of life, and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asadi, Ali M; Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny

    2014-10-28

    A relative newcomer to the field of psychology, e-mental health has been gaining momentum and has been given considerable research attention. Although several aspects of e-mental health have been studied, 1 aspect has yet to receive attention: the structure of comorbidity of psychological disorders and their relationships with measures of psychosocial adjustment including suicidal ideation in online samples. This exploratory study attempted to identify the structure of comorbidity of 21 psychological disorders assessed by an automated online electronic psychological assessment screening system (e-PASS). The resulting comorbidity factor scores were then used to assess the association between comorbidity factor scores and measures of psychosocial adjustments (ie, psychological distress, suicidal ideation, adequate social support, self-confidence in dealing with mental health issues, and quality of life). A total of 13,414 participants were assessed using a complex online algorithm that resulted in primary and secondary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) diagnoses for 21 psychological disorders on dimensional severity scales. The scores on these severity scales were used in a principal component analysis (PCA) and the resulting comorbidity factor scores were related to 4 measures of psychosocial adjustments. A PCA based on 17 of the 21 psychological disorders resulted in a 4-factor model of comorbidity: anxiety-depression consisting of all anxiety disorders, major depressive episode (MDE), and insomnia; substance abuse consisting of alcohol and drug abuse and dependency; body image-eating consisting of eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorders; depression-sleep problems consisting of MDE, insomnia, and hypersomnia. All comorbidity factor scores were significantly associated with psychosocial measures of adjustment (P<.001). They were positively related to psychological distress and

  16. 透平油微水含量在线检测方法研究综述%A Survey on the Method of the On-line Measurement of the Water Content in the Turbine Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪波; 张志强; 于达仁; 徐基豫

    2001-01-01

    论述了透平油中的水分对机组产生的危害,综述了国内外微水含量检测方法的现状,指出了目前开展透平油含水量在线检测研究的必要性及发展方向。%This paper discussed the imperiling of the water in the turbine oil, introduced the present status of the water content measurement method,pointed out the necessity and the way of developing the method of the on-line measurement of the water content in the turbine oil.

  17. Online Cake Cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Toby

    2010-01-01

    We propose an online form of the cake cutting problem. This models situations where players arrive and depart during the process of dividing a resource. We show that well known fair division procedures like cut-and-choose and the Dubins-Spanier moving knife procedure can be adapted to apply to such online problems. We propose some desirable properties that online cake cutting procedures might possess like online forms of proportionality and envy-freeness, and identify which properties are in fact possessed by the different online cake procedures.

  18. Differentiation in online retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellner, Julian; Wagner, Gerhard; Zielke, Stephan

    Due to the highly competitive nature of the online retail environment, differentiation strategies are of importance for online retailers to gain competitive advantages and to achieve a unique positioning in the market. However, little is known about perceptual dimensions used by consumers to make...... a distinction between online retailers. The present study addresses this research gap by using a repertory grid approach to identify points of difference between online retailers from a consumer’s perspective. The results have important implications for positioning strategies of online retailers and research...

  19. Online radicalization: the net or the netizen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femi Richard Omotoyinbo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - Radicalization has gained some unusual prominence in the academic circles; maintaining a generic existence not only in the political sector. And with the advent of the Information Communication Technology (ICT, radicalization has begun to have some virtual dimension even in the remotest of human communities. This study seeks to mobilize a universal awareness on the collective urgency to oppose Online Radicalization (a radicalization that happens through the internet due to its propensity to engendering conflicts. It also aims at identifying the principal cause of online radicalization and steer a clear course for a practical reversal in the systems of online radicalization.Design/methodology/approach - The study is divided into three primary parts. The general notion of radicalization is the focus of the first part; which is further analysed into the levels of online radicalization with its accompanying developments and segments. The second part utilizes analytic and historical method to pinpoint the principal cause of online radicalization amidst the suspected causal factors (the Net and the Netizen. The final part analytically focuses on the Netizen (a user/citizen of the internet as the primary cause of online radicalization, and how the global community can bring about a corresponding change in the Net by the application of some measures on the Netizen.Findings - By virtue of the analytic plus historical methods employed by this study; it was initially identified that radicalization is basically having two versions which are online and offline. Further emphasis on the online version reveals that its existence is only made possible by the availability of the internet (the Net. Since the Net is a global phenomenon online radicalization is considered to be worldwide: a menace of globalization. However, the study later indicated that the Net is a facilitator and a cause of online radicalization. A view was deduced that the Netizen is

  20. Evolution properties of online user preference diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Ji, Lei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Han, Jingti

    2017-02-01

    Detecting the evolution properties of online user preference diversity is of significance for deeply understanding online collective behaviors. In this paper, we empirically explore the evolution patterns of online user rating preference, where the preference diversity is measured by the variation coefficient of the user rating sequence. The statistical results for four real systems show that, for movies and reviews, the user rating preference would become diverse and then get centralized finally. By introducing the empirical variation coefficient, we present a Markov model, which could regenerate the evolution properties of two online systems regarding to the stable variation coefficients. In addition, we investigate the evolution of the correlation between the user ratings and the object qualities, and find that the correlation would keep increasing as the user degree increases. This work could be helpful for understanding the anchoring bias and memory effects of the online user collective behaviors.

  1. Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection for on-line enrichment in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry: a sensitive method for measurement of ten haloacetic acids in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Zhu, Jiping; Aranda-Rodriguez, Rocio; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2011-11-07

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are by-products of the chlorination of drinking water containing natural organic matter and bromide. A simple and sensitive method has been developed for determination of ten HAAs in drinking water. The pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection (PAEKI), an on-line enrichment technique, was employed to introduce the sample into a capillary electrophoresis (CE)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry system (ESI-MS/MS). HAAs were monitored in selected reaction monitoring mode. With 3 min of PAEKI time, the ten major HAAs (HAA10) in drinking water were enriched up to 20,000-fold into the capillary without compromising resolution. A simple solid phase clean-up method has been developed to eliminate the influence of ionic matrices from drinking water on PAEKI. Under conditions optimized for mass spectrometry, PAEKI and capillary electrophoresis, detection limits defined as three times ratio of signal to noise have been achieved in a range of 0.013-0.12 μg L(-1) for ten HAAs in water sample. The overall recoveries for all ten HAAs in drinking water samples were between 76 and 125%. Six HAAs including monochloro- (MCAA), dichloro- (DCAA), trichloro- (TCAA), monobromo- (MBAA), bromochloro- (BCAA), and bromodichloroacetic acids (BDCAA) were found in tap water samples collected.

  2. Application Trend of On-line Measuring and Testing Technology in Engine Plants Adopted Flexible Production Model%汽车发动机厂柔性生产方式下的现场检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱正德

    2012-01-01

    The paper points out that modern plants must adopt a multi-line production, namely flexible production model to meet the car market demand of diversity products, especially for power train plants. It is well known that on-line measuring and test technology is an important part of the manufacturing technology. Therefore, in order to acclimatize to flexible production, online testing technique and equipment should possess some features, including flexible inspection between process, Coordinate measuring machine (CMM) in the production site, establishing exclusive measuring room and general utilization and flexible gauge. The paper introduces and explains based on a series of targeted examples.%为满足轿车市场对产品需求的多样性,现代企业必须采取多品种混线生产,即柔性化生产模式,尤其对于动力总成类企业。众所周知,检测技术是制造工艺的一个重要组成。据此,文章提出为适应柔性化生产,在线检测工艺与装备需要具备的一些特点,如:工序间检验夹具的柔性化、坐标测量机配置在生产现场、建立专用的生产测量室以及量规的通用化和柔性化等。文章通过针对性的实例进行了介绍和说明。

  3. 饲料添加尿素对羊瘤胃液pH、CH4、VFA和产气量的影响%The Influence of Adding Urea to Feed on pH, CH4,VFA and Gas-production in Sheep Rumen Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张苏江; L Cheng; 谭青; 郭雪峰; 陈庆霖; 张美玲

    2012-01-01

    模拟羊瘤胃内环境条件,采用瘤胃液体外发酵技术,在发酵底物中添加不同质量分数的尿素,测定发酵过程pH、甲烷(CH4)、挥发性脂肪酸(VFA)体积分数和产气量.结果表明:瘤胃发酵液pH随饲料添加尿素质量分数的增加而增加;甲烷体积分数随尿素质量分数增加呈降低趋势;尿素质量分数可明显影响瘤胃发酵液的产气量和VFA体积分数;20和30 g/kg的尿素添加水平可提高发酵液的产气量和VFA产量,40和50 g/kg的尿素添加水平抑制产气量和VFA的产量.可见,适宜的尿素添加量可促进瘤胃微生物的发酵过程.%Using rumen fluid fermentation technology in vitro, an experiment was conducted to determine pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and Gas-production produced by rumen fermentation fluid after adding different amount of urea as substrate to feed under the similar sheep rumen environment condition. The results showed that: Urea added in feed as substrate could increase pH in the liquid of rumen fermentation. At the same time, pH in rumen fermentation fluid increased constantly as increasing urea concentration. Urea added to feed as substrate could significantly affect gas-production and VFA volume fraction in the liquid of rumen fermentation. The gas-production and VFA volume fraction were improved significantly by adding 20 or 30 g/kg urea to feed in the liquid of rumen fermentation, but that figures were decreased significantly by adding 40 or 50 g/kg urea to feed. These results suggest that a suitable urea addition to feed is beneficial for improving rumen fluid fermentation.

  4. Ispitivanje tačnosti online besplatnih GNSS PPP servisa, kao funkcije vremena opažanja i proteklog vremena od epohe mjerenja do epohe računanja : Accuracy testing of the online free GNSS PPP services, as a funcion of observation duration and the elapsed time from measurement epoch to epoch of measurement computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Tabučić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Korištenje PPP metode postalo je moguće nakon što je IGS ostvario napredak u računaju i publiciranju preciznih efemerida i popravke sata satelita. Ovaj rad predstavlja istraživanje tačnosti i pouzdanosti online GNSS PPP servisa (APPS, CSRS, GAPS, magicGNSS, koje je provedeno u okviru diplomskog rada na Građevinskom fakultetu u Sarajevu. : Use of PPP has become possible since the advent of precise satellite ephemerides and clock corrections from IGS. This work represents a research in attainable accuracy and reliability of the free online GNSS services (APPS, CSRS, GAPS, magicGNSS, carried out in the frame of diploma work at Faculty of Civil Engineering in Sarajevo.

  5. On-Line and Off-Line Assessment of Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraç, Seda; Karakelle, Sema

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the interrelationships between different on-line and off-line measures for assessing metacognition. The participants were 47 fifth grade elementary students. Metacognition was assessed through two off-line and two on-line measures. The off-line measures consisted of a teacher rating scale and a self-report questionnaire. The…

  6. From Bricks to Clicks: Building Quality K-12 Online Classes through an Innovative Course Review Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huett, Kim C.; Huett, Jason B.; Ringlaben, Ravic

    2011-01-01

    Using an explanatory mixed methods design, this study uses the National Standards of Quality for Online Courses to measure the extent to which teachers in a blended middle school and a fully online supplemental high school are designing quality online learning environments for students. As a part of fully online graduate coursework, graduate…

  7. Observation of online communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana V.; Rask, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the application of observation to online settings with a special focus on observer roles. It draws on a study of online observation of a virtual community, i.e. an open source software (OSS) community. The paper examines general and specific advantages and disadvantages...... of the observer roles in online settings by relating these roles to the same roles assumed in offline settings. The study suggests that under the right circumstances online and offline observation may benefit from being combined as they complement each other well. Quality issues and factors important to elicit...... trustworthy observational data from online study settings, such as OSS communities, are discussed. A proposition is made concerning how threats to credibility and transferability in relation to online observation (i.e. lack of richness and detail, risk of misunderstandings) can be diminished, while...

  8. Online Measurement of Effective Bulk Modulus in Hydraulic System by the Soft-sensing Model%液压系统油液有效体积模量的在线软测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫小乐; 谷立臣

    2011-01-01

    Effective bulk modulus of hydraulic oil is an important factor of dynamic characters in a hydraulic control system and it's regarded as one of the essential parameter for monitoring the condition of the sets at real operation.Based on transient flow theory and gas-liquid two-phase flow theory, a novel soft-sensing model is suggested for the online measurement of the effective bulk modulus and numerical simulations of the model are carried out.The model represents the relationship among natural frequency,pressure, bubble volume fraction and effective bulk modulus of oil in a straight pipe.The key problem of using this model in practice is how to measure the natural fiequency online.The feasible solution is installing piezoelectricity type pressure sensors at two oil pressure fluctuation monitoring points selected in the hydraulic power system, and through online excitation, the oil pressure frequency response function is dynamically measured, thus the natural frequency of oil is identified.Moreover, the effective bulk modulus may be estimated by the above model.This model is tested on the experiment platform of multi-source information acquisition of the hydraulic system.The results indicate that the model can be used successfully in the online measurement of the effective bulk modulus of hydraulic oil.%液压油的有效体积模量不仅是影响液压控制系统性能的重要参数,也是反映液压设备运行状态的特征参数.以液压油有效体积模量的在线监测为研究目的,利用瞬变流理论和气液两相流理论,在频域内建立液压系统管路中油液的固有频率、压力、气泡体积分数与有效体积模量关系的软测量模型,并对其进行数值仿真分析.该模型应用的关键问题是如何在线测量油液的同有频率,可行的解决方案是在液压动力系统选定的两个油液压力波动监测点安装压电式压力传感器,通过在线激励动态测量油液的压力频率响应函数,从

  9. Do online assessed self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity-related constructs predict onset of substance use in adolescents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Tim; Larsen, Helle; Peeters, Margot; Boendermaker, Wouter; Vollebergh, Wilma; Wiers, Reinout

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction To prospectively predict the onset of use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana among Dutch adolescents, using behavioral and self-report measures of impulsivity-related facets. Specifically, we investigated whether behavioral measures of impulsivity predicted the onset of subst

  10. Highlighting the Vulnerabilities of Online Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith T Khrais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the growing use of the Internet and developing advanced technology systems globally, there has been an apparent increase in the usage of online banking system across the world, accompanied by widespread incidents of fraud and attack. This paper gives a simple description of the online banking mechanism and the nature of the attacks that involved in the process of conducting an online transaction through a computer, along with the security models and measures that can be used to block the threats.

  11. An algorithm for online optimization of accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaobiao [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Corbett, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Safranek, James [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wu, Juhao [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We developed a general algorithm for online optimization of accelerator performance, i.e., online tuning, using the performance measure as the objective function. This method, named robust conjugate direction search (RCDS), combines the conjugate direction set approach of Powell's method with a robust line optimizer which considers the random noise in bracketing the minimum and uses parabolic fit of data points that uniformly sample the bracketed zone. Moreover, it is much more robust against noise than traditional algorithms and is therefore suitable for online application. Simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to demonstrate the strength of the new algorithm.

  12. Interactive online brain shape visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Keshavan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The open-source Mindboggle package improves the labeling and morphometry estimates of brain imaging data. At the 2015 Brainhack event, we developed a web-based, interactive, brain shape visualization of Mindboggle outputs. The application links a 3D brain visualization with boxplots that describe shape measures across a selected cortical label. The code is freely available at http://www.github.com/akeshavan/roygbiv and a demo is online at http://roygbiv.mindboggle.info.

  13. ONLINE PUBLISHING CURRENT SCENARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to unravel the current scenario in online publishing. Advent of internet has brought with it tremendous changes in the publishing industry. What was hither to an industry dominated by publisher has been thrown open to one and sundry. Online publishing has brought with it a reach which was hitherto never been imagined. In the normal course it would take at least a year to publish a manuscript. Online publishing has managed to bring this time down to a few weeks / at most a month. This article attempts to discusses the positives and perils of online publishing scenario.

  14. Online shopping hesitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chang-Hoan; Kang, Jaewon; Cheon, Hongsik John

    2006-06-01

    This study was designed to understand which factors influence consumer hesitation or delay in online product purchases. The study examined four groups of variables (i.e., consumer characteristics, contextual factors perceived uncertainty factors, and medium/channel innovation factors) that predict three types of online shopping hesitation (i.e., overall hesitation, shopping cart abandonment, and hesitation at the final payment stage). We found that different sets of delay factors are related to different aspects of online shopping hesitation. The study concludes with suggestion for various delay-reduction devices to help consumers close their online decision hesitation.

  15. Observation of online communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana V.; Rask, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the application of observation to online settings with a special focus on observer roles. It draws on a study of online observation of a virtual community, i.e. an open source software (OSS) community. The paper examines general and specific advantages and disadvantages...... of the observer roles in online settings by relating these roles to the same roles assumed in offline settings. The study suggests that under the right circumstances online and offline observation may benefit from being combined as they complement each other well. Quality issues and factors important to elicit...

  16. Online Shopping Woes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Weili

    2011-01-01

    AS a frequent online shopper,Zhou Fangjie,a 28-year-old white-collar worker,was annoyed when she could not open Hanyidushe,an online shop selling Korean-style clothing on Taobao Mall.Her experience resulted from the online protest initiated by small vendors on Taobao Mall,China's largest business to consumer online platform.Thousands of small vendors started the protest against larger established vendors by discrediting them through False orders,forming an anti-Taobao Union and setting up a chat room to devise ways to disrupt operations on Taobao Mall.

  17. Online organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowicz, Philip A.

    This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online office hours were found to be effective, and discussion sessions can be placed online as well. A model was created that explains 36.1% of student performance based on GPA, ACT Math score, grade in previous chemistry course, and attendance at various forms of discussion. Online exams have been created which test problem-solving skills and is instantly gradable. In these exams, students can submit answers until time runs out for different numbers of points. These facets were combined effectively to create an entirely online organic chemistry course which students prefer over the in-person alternative. Lastly, there is a vision for where online organic chemistry is going and what can be done to improve education for all.

  18. Information Fusion of Online Oil Monitoring System Using Multiple Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高慧良; 周新聪; 程海明; 赵春华; 严新平

    2004-01-01

    Machine lubrication contains abundant information on the equipment operation.Nowadays, most measuring methods are based on offline sampling or on online measuring with a single sensor.An online oil monitoring system with multiple sensors was designed.The measurement data was processed with a fuzzy intelligence system.Information from integrated sensors in an oil online monitoring system was evaluated using fuzzy logic.The analyses show that the multiple sensors evaluation results are more reliable than online monitoring systems with single sensors.

  19. The Measurement and Comparison of Students' Learning Motivations Among Five Different Online Learning Modes%五种不同模式下学习者在线学习动机测量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴峰; 王辞晓

    2016-01-01

    信息技术正在快速推动教育变革与学习创新,在线学习将成为终身学习的主要方式.从心理学的视角看,学习动机是影响在线学习质量和效果的重要因素.我国目前主要有高校网络教育、高校MOOC、企业MOOC、企业E-Learning和政府E-Learning五种不同模式的在线学习,不同模式下学习者的在线学习动机是否存在差异及其原因值得探索.以"非约束条件下成人在线学习动机量表"为问卷调查工具,针对上述五种不同模式的在线学习者进行研究,主要得出四点结论:第一,从学历性质的差异看,高校网络教育属于学历性质,高校MOOC属于非学历性质,两种模式下学习者在线学习动机整体存在显著性差异.第二,从范式的差异看,高校MOOC是基于学习范式,企业MOOC是基于绩效范式,两种模式下学习者在线学习动机整体不存在显著性差异.第三,从学习方式的差异看,企业E-Learning是企业中的正式学习方式,企业MOOC是企业中的非正式学习方式,两种模式下学习者在线学习动机整体存在显著性差异.第四,从组织性质的差异看,企业E-Learning属于企业组织,政府E-Learning属于政府组织,两种模式下学习者在线学习动机整体存在显著性差异.%Information technology takes a great role in promoting education reform and learning innovation in China, and online learning is becoming the main way of lifelong education. From the perspective of psychology, learning motivation is an important factor affecting the quality and effectiveness of the online learning. At present, there are five modes of online learning in China, including the distance education, MOOC, corporate MOOC, corporate e-learning and government e-learning. The differences of students' learning motivations among these five learning modes as well as the reasons are worth exploring. With the Assessment Scale to Measure Adult Learners' Motivation in Online Learning

  20. Online mass measurements with a Multiple-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) at the FRS Ion Catcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Jens; Greiner, Florian; Jesch, Christian; Lang, Johannes; Petrick, Martin; Reiter, Moritz P.; Rink, Ann-Kathrin; Diwisch, Marcel [JLU Giessen (Germany); Dickel, Timo; Plass, Wolfgang R.; Geissel, Hans; Haettner, Emma; Knoebel, Ronja; Scheidenberger, Christoph [JLU Giessen (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Ayet, Samuel; Estrade, Alfredo; Farinon, Fabio; Kurcewicz, Jan; Mukha, Ivan; Nociforo, Chiara; Pfutzner, Marek; Pietri, Stephane; Prochazka, Andrej; Purushothaman, Sivaji; Takechi, Maya; Weick, Helmut; Winfield, John [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Dendooven, Peter; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, Nasser [KVI, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Moore, Iain [University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Yavor, Mikhail I. [Russian Academy of Sci., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    At the Low-Energy-Branch (LEB) of the Super-FRS at FAIR experiments with-slowed down exotic nuclei will be performed. The FRS Ion Catcher experiment at the FRS serves a test facility for the LEB. The relativistic ions are thermalized in a novel cryogenic stopping cell, extracted and transported to a MR-TOF-MS for high precision mass measurements or decay-spectroscopy. In summer 2012 direct mass measurements of U projectile fragments have been performed for the first time with a MR-TOF-MS, among then {sup 213}Rn with a half-life of only 19.5 ns.

  1. Consumers' Online Brand Endorsements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernritter, S.F.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Smit, E.G.; De Pelsmacker, P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose and Approach This Chapter has three central goals: First, it aims to introduce the concept of consumers’ online brand endorsements, which we define as consumers’ intentional, public, and positive online affiliations with brands (e.g., liking a brand page on Facebook). Second, it pro

  2. Quality online personalisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Li (Ting); T. Unger (Till)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhen done right, personalisation online can be an effective way to enhance the buying or consuming experience, thus stimulating purchasing. However, it can also rely heavily on customers’ private details, a very sensitive and currently hot issue. So, how do online marketeers deal with th

  3. Framework for online teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    The following framework for online teaching is a guidance to inspire you on how to to use e-learning in your teaching. Maybe you want to make a whole online course (distance learning) or maybe you want to use e-learning as a part of a course (blended learning). If you want to go further or have...

  4. StuDIY Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    StuDIY Online er kurser i akademisk argumentation, problemformulering, analyse og akademisk sprog. Kurserne er frit tilgængelige for alle via Blackboard på AU......StuDIY Online er kurser i akademisk argumentation, problemformulering, analyse og akademisk sprog. Kurserne er frit tilgængelige for alle via Blackboard på AU...

  5. Consumers' Online Brand Endorsements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernritter, S.F.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Smit, E.G.; De Pelsmacker, P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose and Approach This Chapter has three central goals: First, it aims to introduce the concept of consumers’ online brand endorsements, which we define as consumers’ intentional, public, and positive online affiliations with brands (e.g., liking a brand page on Facebook). Second, it provides an

  6. Online Reading Test Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鸣

    2011-01-01

    Language test has been used as a scientific assessment tool in providing valuable information for teaching and learning. In fact,lots of online reading tests are not designed with validity. This paper analyzes those online reading tests from the aspects o

  7. Online consumer contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.

    2014-01-01

    The new Consumer Rights Directive introduced some changes to the level of consumers’ protection online. However, just like with its predecessor, the Distance Selling Directive, the main focus of the protection that consumers have been granted online is to provide them with transparent and salient

  8. Consumers' Online Brand Endorsements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernritter, S.F.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Smit, E.G.; De Pelsmacker, P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose and Approach This Chapter has three central goals: First, it aims to introduce the concept of consumers’ online brand endorsements, which we define as consumers’ intentional, public, and positive online affiliations with brands (e.g., liking a brand page on Facebook). Second, it provides an

  9. Online Readiness Rijscholen 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weltevreden, J.W.J.; Boels, D.H.H.

    2013-01-01

    In dit onderzoek is de online readiness van rijscholen in 2013 in kaart gebracht. In totaal hebben 115 rijscholen deelgenomen aan het onderzoek. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd door het lectoraat Online Ondernemen samen met studenten van de minor Marketing Tomorrow van de Hogeschool van Amsterdam.

  10. Quality online personalisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Li (Ting); T. Unger (Till)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhen done right, personalisation online can be an effective way to enhance the buying or consuming experience, thus stimulating purchasing. However, it can also rely heavily on customers’ private details, a very sensitive and currently hot issue. So, how do online marketeers deal

  11. Framework for online teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    The following framework for online teaching is a guidance to inspire you on how to to use e-learning in your teaching. Maybe you want to make a whole online course (distance learning) or maybe you want to use e-learning as a part of a course (blended learning). If you want to go further or have...

  12. 改进的 Sage-Husa 算法及其在工业在线检测中的应用%Improved Sage-Husa algorithm and its application in industrial online measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宪; 谭建平; 陈国强; 成小乐

    2013-01-01

    针对工业在线检测环境复杂多变的特点,在现有方法的基础上,提出了一种改进的Sage-Husa自适应滤波算法。该算法在获得新的观测值后,先通过滤波发散判据判断滤波器状态是否正常,若异常,进一步采用一种一步延时方法判别新的观测值是否为野值,依据判别结果分别采取不同的对策,从而提高Sage-Husa算法在工业检测中的性能。将新算法应用于模拟工业环境的激光束中心定位检测,结果表明:新算法能对系统状态做出准确判断,与传统方法相比,滤波精度较高、实用性好、鲁棒性强,能满足工业在线检测的要求。%An improved Sage-Husa adaptive filter algorithm is proposed based on the existing methodologies in light of the complex and changing environment of the industrial online measurement .This algorithm , after a new observed value is obtained ,first judges whether the filter is in a normal state by the filtering divergence criterion ,if not ,it judges w hether the new observed value is an outlier and takes countermeasures varying with the judgment so as to improve the performance of the Sage-Husa algorithm in industrial measurement . The result indicates that compared with traditional methodologies ,this new algorithm is applicable to measure the location of the center point of laser beam in a simulated industrial environment ,makes accurate judgment about the system status ,features better precision ,practicality and robustness and thus can satisfy the requirements of industrial online measurement .

  13. Research on optical fiber dual-interferometry for on-line and absolute measurement%光纤双干涉在线绝对测量技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马森; 谢芳; 刘义秦; 李恒鹤

    2013-01-01

    研究了一种新的兼融低相干干涉和高相干干涉的光纤在线绝对测量技术,可对能转换成位移变化的静态及准静态任意物理量进行测量.利用宽带光谱光源作为光源,以及光纤光栅只反射布拉格波长的特性,使光纤迈克尔逊干涉仪同时工作于低相干干涉和高相干干涉状态.用低相干干涉信号决定被测量的幅值,使测量的最大跨距不受光波波长限制,并且实现绝对测量;同时,用高相干干涉信号测量被测量的量值,使测量结果保持高相干干涉测量的高精度.利用高相干干涉信号对环境干扰进行修正,使该测量技术适合在线测量.分别研究并实验了单光源光纤测量系统以及由双光源组成的复合光源光纤测量系统,利用这两种系统对位移进行测量,测量结果的线性相关性分别为0.996和0.999 9,测量量程均为6 mm,均可对0~6 mm范围内任意跨距的位移进行测量.%A novel on-line and absolute measurement technology with optical fiber, which has both low coherence inter-ferometry and high coherence interferometry, is presented. The technology is suitable for the measurement of any mea-surand that can be converted into the variation of displacement. Using broadband light sources and based on the characteristic of a fiber Bragg grating that reflects Bragg wavelength, the optical fiber Michelson interferometer is working in both modes of low coherence interferometry and high coherence interferometry. The signal of low coherence interferometry is used to determine the amplitude of the measurand and absolute measurement can be realized, while the signal of high coherence interferometry is used to measure the value of the measurand precisely. The maximum step of the measurand is no longer limited by the optical wavelength. The signal of high coherence interferometry is also used to correct the errors resulting from the environmental disturbances, therefore the technology is suitable

  14. Sistema portátil para medida on-line da distribuição de tempo de residência na extrusão Portable system for on-line measurement of the residence time distribution in twin-screw extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denilson M. Santos

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A Curva de Distribuição de Tempos de Residência - CDTR tem sido largamente usada para caracterização do tipo de fluxo em extrusoras, sendo que medidas "on-line" permitem diagnosticar de modo muito rápido problemas como desgaste entre a rosca e o barril da extrusora, estagnação do material e outros. A CDTR pode ser determinada fazendo-se uso da técnica de estímulo de pulso único, onde um traçador é introduzido no sistema em um dado instante e sua concentração é estimada na saída. Este artigo propõe um sistema portátil de medida "on-line" feito através da variação da luz transmitida medida com um detector constituído por uma fonte de radiação visível e uma célula fotoelétrica e um software de coleta e tratamento de dados. Usando-se este sistema em uma extrusora de dupla rosca co-rotacional interpenetrante, pode-se verificar que a CDTR é muito mais sensível à variações na taxa de alimentação do que da velocidade de rotação da rosca e que as frações mais lentas do traçador podem demorar quatro vezes mais que as mais rápidas para saírem. Aumento na velocidade de rotação da rosca e/ou redução na taxa de alimentação aumenta o fluxo axial alargando a CDTR.The residence time distribution curve (RTDC is largely used to characterize extruder and continuous mixers flow types and on-line measurements allow quick diagnosis of their related problems. The RTDC can be obtained by the single impulse technique, where the tracer is fed into the system at one time and its concentration is estimated at the exit. This paper presents a portable on-line system consisting of a detector which has a light source, an photoelectric cell and a software to collect and analyze the data. Using this system in an intermeshing co-rotating double screw extruder one can verify that the RTDC is much more sensitive to changes of the feeding rate than the screw speed and that the slower tracer fractions may take four times longer than the

  15. Online Advertising in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherjeiran, Abraham; Bhatt, Rushi P.; Parekh, Rajesh; Chaoji, Vineet

    Online social networks offer opportunities to analyze user behavior and social connectivity and leverage resulting insights for effective online advertising. This chapter focuses on the role of social network information in online display advertising.

  16. Review on Effect and Management Measures of Online Comment Emotional Tendency%在线评论情感倾向的影响效应及管理措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 王琳

    2015-01-01

    In order to form a unified research framework, literature from home and abroad has been reviewed, and a research integration model of online comment emotional tendency is put forward, which better shows the existing research results of its leading factors, resulting factors and moderating factors.Based on the strong effect of negative comments on purchase decision, the study of the management measures to online comment emotional tendency is summarized from the perspective of enterprises'marketing management.In addition, the shortage of the existing research and further research direction are presented.%为了形成一个统一的研究框架,综合国内外多年的研究结果,提出了一个在线评论情感倾向的研究整合模型,更好地展现了在线评论情感倾向的前导因素、结果因素和调节因素的研究成果,并基于负面评论对购买决策的“强”影响效应,从商家的营销管理角度,对在线评论情感倾向的管理措施研究进行了归纳总结。此外,给出了目前研究在研究方法成熟性、研究内容深入性和研究成果实践性等方面的不足和进一步的研究方向。

  17. Security Risks and Protection in Online Learning: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a survey of online learning which attempts to determine online learning providers’ awareness of potential security risks and the protection measures that will diminish them. The authors use a combination of two methods: blog mining and a traditional literature search. The findings indicate that, while scholars have identified diverse security risks and have proposed solutions to mitigate the security threats in online learning, bloggers have not discussed security in online learning with great frequency. The differences shown in the survey results generated by the two different methods confirm that online learning providers and practitioners have not considered security as a top priority. The paper also discusses the next generation of an online learning system: a safer personal learning environment which requires a one-stop solution for authentication, assures the security of online assessments, and balances security and usability.

  18. Health Professionals' Use of Online Information Retrieval Systems and Online Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lialiou, Paschalina; Pavlopoulou, Ioanna; Mantas, John

    2016-01-01

    Across-sectional survey was designed to determine health professionals' awareness and usage of online evidence retrieval systems in clinical practice. A questionnaire was used to measure professionals' behavior and utilization of online evidences, as well as, reasons and barriers on information retrieval. 439 nurses and physicians from public and private hospitals in Greece formulate the study's sample. The two most common reasons that individuals are using online information systems were for writing scientific manuscripts or filling a knowledge gap. A positive correlation was found between participants with postgraduate studies and information system usage. The majority of them (90,6%) believe that online information systems improves patient care and 67,6% of them had their own experiences on this. More support is needed to nurses and physicians in order to use the online evidence and as a result to improve the provided care and practices.

  19. The Leipzig Ice Nucleation chamber Comparison (LINC): An overview of ice nucleation measurements observed with four on-line ice nucleation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Monika; Wex, Heike; Grawe, Sarah; Hartmann, Susan; Hellner, Lisa; Herenz, Paul; Welti, André; Stratmann, Frank; Lohmann, Ulrike; Kanji, Zamin A.

    2016-04-01

    Mixed-phase clouds (MPCs) are found to be the most relevant cloud type leading to precipitation in mid-latitudes. The formation of ice crystals in MPCs is not completely understood. To estimate the effect of aerosol particles on the radiative properties of clouds and to describe ice nucleation in models, the specific properties of aerosol particles acting as ice nucleating particles (INPs) still need to be identified. A number of devices are able to measure INPs in the lab and in the field. However, methods can be very different and need to be tested under controlled conditions with respect to aerosol generation and properties in order to standardize measurement and data analysis approaches for subsequent ambient measurements. Here, we present an overview of the LINC campaign hosted at TROPOS in September 2015. We compare four ice nucleation devices: PINC (Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber, Chou et al., 2011) and SPIN (SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei) are operated in deposition nucleation and condensation freezing mode. LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator, Hartmann et al., 2011) and PIMCA (Portable Immersion Mode Cooling chamber) measure in the immersion freezing mode. PIMCA is used as a vertical extension to PINC and allows activation and droplet growth prior to exposure to the investigated ice nucleation temperature. Size-resolved measurements of multiple aerosol types were performed including pure mineral dust (K-feldspar, kaolinite) and biological particles (Birch pollen washing waters) as well as some of them after treatment with sulfuric or nitric acid prior to experiments. LACIS and PIMCA-PINC operated in the immersion freezing mode showed very good agreement in the measured frozen fraction (FF). For the comparison between PINC and SPIN, which were scanning relative humidity from below to above water vapor saturation, an agreement was found for the obtained INP concentration. However, some differences were observed, which may result from ice

  20. On-line slurry viscosity and concentration measurement as a real-time waste stream characterization tool. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.L. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (US). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Shekarriz, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (US)

    1997-01-01

    'The main scope of this work is to: (1) develop a novel tomographic ultrasonic technique to obtain the real-time distribution of acoustic velocity and flow velocity; (2) use nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) to measure velocity profiles and rheological properties of complex fluids and suspensions; (3) establish a facility for making laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements that can be The overall goal is to obtain real-time rheology and solids concentration within a solid-liquid suspension flowing in a pipeline. To nondestructively obtain the rheology of the fluid flowing in a pipe, accurate measurement of local shear rate distribution is required. This objective was met by using two real-time tomographic techniques: an ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry system and an NMRI system. The first method combines the existing state-of-the-art ultrasonic velocimetry technology base with a novel tomographic concept to non-intrusively obtain high resolution acoustic and flow velocity profile at a section of the flow field. The acoustic velocity profile provides a means of improving the flow velocity measurement accuracy. These data are also, used to yield the profile of solids concentration. In addition, the volumetric flow rate was determined from integration of the velocity profile. From the knowledge of the concentration profile the mass flow rate can also be determined, Similar work was undertaken for the NMNRI system. In this case, single phase Newtonian fluids have been used to model complex rheological behavior. Finally, a LDV system has been purchased and set - up in the laboratory at UC Davis.'

  1. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  2. Online Sellers’ Website Quality Influencing Online Buyers’ Purchase Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea Lee, Tan; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Zakuan, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad

    2016-05-01

    The increase adoption of Internet among young users in Malaysia provides high prospect for online seller. Young users aged between 18 and 25 years old are important to online sellers because they are actively involved in online purchasing and this group of online buyers is expected to dominate future online market. Therefore, examining online sellers’ website quality and online buyers’ purchase intention is crucial. Based on the Theory of planned behavior (TPB), a conceptual model of online sellers’ website quality and purchase intention of online buyers was developed. E-tailQ instrument was adapted in this study which composed of website design, reliability/fulfillment, security, privacy & trust, and customer service. Using online questionnaire and convenience sampling procedure, primary data were obtained from 240 online buyers aged between 18 to 25 years old. It was discovered that website design, website reliability/fulfillment, website security, privacy & trust, and website customer service positively and significantly influence intention of online buyers to continuously purchase via online channels. This study concludes that online sellers’ website quality is important in predicting online buyers’ purchase intention. Recommendation and implication of this study were discussed focusing on how online sellers should improve their website quality to stay competitive in online business.

  3. Online Stochastic Ad Allocation: Efficiency and Fairness

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Jon; Korula, Nitish; Mirrokni, Vahab S; Stein, Cliff

    2010-01-01

    We study the efficiency and fairness of online stochastic display ad allocation algorithms from a theoretical and practical standpoint. In particular, we study the problem of maximizing efficiency in the presence of stochastic information. In this setting, each advertiser has a maximum demand for impressions of display ads that will arrive online. In our model, inspired by the concept of free disposal in economics, we assume that impressions that are given to an advertiser above her demand are given to her for free. Our main theoretical result is to present a training-based algorithm that achieves a (1-\\epsilon)-approximation guarantee in the random order stochastic model. In the corresponding online matching problem, we learn a dual variable for each advertiser, based on data obtained from a sample of impressions. We also discuss different fairness measures in online ad allocation, based on comparison to an ideal offline fair solution, and develop algorithms to compute "fair" allocations. We then discuss sev...

  4. Online Friendship, Romance, and Sex: Properties and Associations of the Online Relationship Initiation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Keith M; Aboujaoude, Elias

    2016-08-01

    Online relationships are increasingly central to many people's lives. As a result, there is a growing need to scientifically examine their psychosocial implications. This study developed and tested the Online Relationship Initiation Scale (ORIS) through classical and item response theory analyses to address this need. An anonymous online survey included 713 adults, aged 18-71 years. The ORIS was tested on psychometric properties and examined for associations with gender and several standardized psychosocial measures. Results demonstrated unidimensionality of nine items, strong factor loadings, and high internal consistency (α = 0.90, ωt = 0.94). All items captured significant information on the latent trait and none showed differential item functioning by sex, age group, or ethnicity. General linear modeling confirmed hypotheses that men were more likely than women to initiate online relationships. Online relationship initiation was not strongly associated with perceived social support, but was positively related to financial distress, and willingness to engage in infidelity or unprotected sex. The ORIS was negatively associated with age and satisfaction with life and showed modest interactions with ethnicity and hours online. This study provided empirical evidence for an interpersonal relationship initiation construct. The ORIS was shown to be a psychometrically sound instrument for evaluating online interpersonal behaviors and their associations with psychosocial and demographic factors. Such psychometrically sound instruments can be useful in exploring online interpersonal behaviors and their significance.

  5. Hygrometric measurement for on-line monitoring of PWR vessel head penetrations; Detection de fuites de traversees de couvercles de cuve par surveillance hygrometrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germain, J.L.; Loisy, F.; Apolzan, S.

    1994-06-01

    In September 1991, a small leak was found on one of the reactor`s upper vessel head penetrations. After inspection, other non-throughwall cracks were localized in the lower part of the vessel head adapter in questions. The same type of crack was later found inside some adapters on other French PWR units. After repairs, the safety authorities granted approval to continue unit operation, with the specific provision that a system for ongoing monitoring of the penetrations be set up. Two types of system were selected to detect leaks through any potential cracks: the first is based on nitrogen-13 detection and the second on steam detection. Both systems call for sampling the air in a confined space above the vessel head. The number and distribution of sampling taps in the circuit, and the balancing of their respective flow rates, are factors in proper monitoring of all vessel head penetrations. Gas-injection holes are also installed in the confined space. These holes are used during the sampling system qualification tests to simulate leaks in various positions and calculate the effective performance of the sampling system. Leaks are simulated using a helium-base gas tracer and measuring tracer concentrations in the sampling system. The system for measuring steam levels in air samples uses chilled-mirror hygrometers. A microcomputer takes regular readings, drives the various automatic functions of the measurement system and automatically analyses the readings so as to monitor operations and trigger an alarm at the first sign of a leak. This system has now been installed for a year and a half on three French PWR units and is functioning satisfactorily. (authors). 5 figs.

  6. Characterization and optimization of an online system for the simultaneous measurement of atmospheric water-soluble constituents in the gas and particle phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Milos Z; VandenBoer, Trevor C; Murphy, Jennifer G

    2012-07-01

    In this work we present the results of extensive characterization and optimization of the Ambient Ion Monitor-Ion Chromatograph (AIM-IC) system, an instrument developed by URG Corp. and Dionex Inc. for simultaneous hourly measurements of the water-soluble chemical composition of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and associated precursor gases. The sampling assembly of the AIM-IC consists of an inertial particle size-selection assembly, a parallel-plate wet denuder (PPWD) for the collection of soluble gases, and a particle supersaturation chamber (PSSC) for collection of particles, in series. The analytical assembly of the AIM-IC consists of anion and cation IC units. The system detection limits were determined to be 41 ppt, 5 ppt, and 65 ppt for gas phase NH(3(g)), SO(2(g)), and HNO(3(g)) and 29 ng m(-3), 3 ng m(-3), and 45 ng m(-3) for particle phase NH(4)(+), SO(4)(2-), and NO(3)(-) respectively. From external trace gas calibrations with permeation sources, we determined that the AIM-IC is biased low for NH(3(g)) (11%), SO(2(g)) (19%), and HNO(3(g)) (12%). The collection efficiency of SO(2(g)) was found to strongly depend on the composition of the denuder solution and was found to be the most quantitative with 5 mM H(2)O(2) solution for mixing ratios as high as 107 ppb. Using a cellulose membrane in the PPWD, the system responded to changes in SO(2(g)) and HNO(3(g)) within an hour, however for NH(3(g)), the timescale can be closer to 20 h. With a nylon membrane, the instrument response time for NH(3(g)) was significantly improved, becoming comparable to the responses for SO(2(g)) and HNO(3(g)). Performance of the AIM-IC for collection and analysis of PM(2.5) was evaluated by generating known number concentrations of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate particles (with an aerodynamic diameter of 300 nm) under laboratory conditions and by comparing AIM-IC measurements to measurements from a collocated Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) during a field

  7. Effects of environmental parameters and irrigation on the turgor pressure of banana plants measured using the non-invasive, online monitoring leaf patch clamp pressure probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, U; Rüger, S; Shapira, O; Westhoff, M; Wegner, L H; Reuss, R; Gessner, P; Zimmermann, G; Israeli, Y; Zhou, A; Schwartz, A; Bamberg, E; Zimmermann, D

    2010-05-01

    Turgor pressure provides a sensitive indicator for irrigation scheduling. Leaf turgor pressure of Musa acuminate was measured by using the so-called leaf patch clamp pressure probe, i.e. by application of an external, magnetically generated and constantly retained clamp pressure to a leaf patch and determination of the attenuated output pressure P(p) that is highly correlated with the turgor pressure. Real-time recording of P(p) values was made using wireless telemetric transmitters, which send the data to a receiver base station where data are logged and transferred to a GPRS modem linked to an Internet server. Probes functioned over several months under field and laboratory conditions without damage to the leaf patch. Measurements showed that the magnetic-based probe could monitor very sensitively changes in turgor pressure induced by changes in microclimate (temperature, relative humidity, irradiation and wind) and irrigation. Irrigation effects could clearly be distinguished from environmental effects. Interestingly, oscillations in stomatal aperture, which occurred frequently below turgor pressures of 100 kPa towards noon at high transpiration or at high wind speed, were reflected in the P(p) values. The period of pressure oscillations was comparable with the period of oscillations in transpiration and photosynthesis. Multiple probe readings on individual leaves and/or on several leaves over the entire height of the plants further emphasised the great impact of this non-invasive turgor pressure sensor system for elucidating the dynamics of short- and long-distance water transport in higher plants.

  8. Complementary online aerosol mass spectrometry and offline FT-IR spectroscopy measurements: Prospects and challenges for the analysis of anthropogenic aerosol particle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Peter; Drewnick, Frank; Bierl, Reinhard; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-10-01

    The aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) is well established in investigating highly time-resolved dynamics of submicron aerosol chemical composition including organic aerosol (OA). However, interpretation of mass spectra on molecular level is limited due to strong fragmentation of organic substances and potential reactions inside the AMS ion chamber. Results from complementary filter-based FT-IR absorption measurements were used to explain features in high-resolution AMS mass spectra of different types of OA (e.g. cooking OA, cigarette smoking OA, wood burning OA). Using this approach some AMS fragment ions were validated in this study as appropriate and rather specific markers for a certain class of organic compounds for all particle types under investigation. These markers can therefore be used to get deeper insights in the chemical composition of OA based on AMS mass spectra in upcoming studies. However, the specificity of other fragment ions such as C2H4O2+ (m/z 60.02114) remains ambiguous. In such cases, complementary FT-IR measurements allow the interpretation of highly time-resolved AMS mass spectra at the level of molecular functional groups. Furthermore, this study discusses the challenges in reducing inorganic interferences (e.g. from water and ammonium salts) in FT-IR spectra of atmospheric aerosols to decrease spectral uncertainties for better comparisons and, thus, to get more robust results.

  9. An Architecture for On-Line Measurement of the Tip Clearance and Time of Arrival of a Bladed Disk of an Aircraft Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Gil-García

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Safety and performance of the turbo-engine in an aircraft is directly affected by the health of its blades. In recent years, several improvements to the sensors have taken place to monitor the blades in a non-intrusive way. The parameters that are usually measured are the distance between the blade tip and the casing, and the passing time at a given point. Simultaneously, several techniques have been developed that allow for the inference—from those parameters and under certain conditions—of the amplitude and frequency of the blade vibration. These measurements are carried out on engines set on a rig, before being installed in an airplane. In order to incorporate these methods during the regular operation of the engine, signal processing that allows for the monitoring of those parameters at all times should be developed. This article introduces an architecture, based on a trifurcated optic sensor and a hardware processor, that fulfills this need. The proposed architecture is scalable and allows several sensors to be simultaneously monitored at different points around a bladed disk. Furthermore, the results obtained by the electronic system will be compared with the results obtained by the validation of the optic sensor.

  10. Online trapping and enrichment ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for sensitive measurement of 'arginine-asymmetric dimethylarginine cycle' biomarkers in human exhaled breath condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Gangi, Iole Maria, E-mail: giordano@pediatria.unipd.it [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Pirillo, Paola [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Carraro, Silvia [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Gucciardi, Antonina; Naturale, Mauro [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Baraldi, Eugenio [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Giordano, Giuseppe [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy)

    2012-11-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous quantification of 'arginine-ADMA cycle' metabolites developed in EBC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC is a non-invasive matrix highly useful in patients with respiratory diseases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Method, fast, precise and accurate, is suitable in the pediatric clinical studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity is increased using on-line trapping and enrichment-UPLC-MS/MS method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC measurements in asthmatic adolescents confirm that ADMA is increased in asthma. - Abstract: Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a biofluid collected non invasively that, enabling the measurement of several biomarkers, has proven useful in the study of airway inflammatory diseases, including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report of any analytical method to detect ADMA in EBC. Objectives: Aim of this work was to develop an online sample trapping and enrichment system, coupled with an UPLC-MS/MS method, for simultaneous quantification of seven metabolites related to 'Arginine-ADMA cycle', using the isotopic dilution. Methods: Butylated EBC samples were trapped in an online cartridge, washed before and after each injection with cleanup solution to remove matrix components and switched inline into the high pressure analytical column. Multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode was used for analyte quantification by tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Validation studies were performed in EBC to examine accuracy, precision and robustness of the method. For each compound, the calibration curves showed a coefficient of correlation (r{sup 2}) greater than 0.992. Accuracy (%Bias) was <3% except for NMMA and H-Arg (<20%), intra- and inter-assay precision (expressed as CV%) were within {+-}20% and recovery ranged from 97.1 to 102.8% for all analytes. Inter-day variability analysis on 20 EBC of adult subjects did

  11. Aerosol and trace gas vehicle emission factors measured in a tunnel using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and other on-line instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Roberto; Prevot, Andre S. H.; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Heringa, Maarten F.; Richter, Rene; Weingartner, Ernest; Baltensperger, Urs

    2011-04-01

    In this study we present measurements of gas and aerosol phase composition for a mixed vehicle fleet in the Gubrist tunnel (Switzerland) in June 2008. PM 1 composition measurements were made with a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP). Gas-phase measurements of CO, CO 2, NO x and total hydrocarbons (THC) were performed with standard instrumentation. Weekdays had a characteristic diurnal pattern with 2 peaks in concentrations for all traffic related species corresponding to high vehicle density (˜300 ± 30 vehicles per 5 min) in the morning rush hour between 06:00 and 09:00 and in the afternoon rush hours from approximately 15:30 to 18:30. The emission factors (EF) of OA were heavily influenced by the OA mass loading. To exclude this partitioning effect, only organic aerosol mass concentrations from 60 μg m -3 to 90 μg m -3 were considered and for these conditions the EF(OA) value for HDV was 33.7 ± 2.3 mg km -1 for a temperature inside the tunnel of 20-25 °C. This value is not directly applicable to ambient conditions because it is derived from OA mass concentrations that are roughly a factor of 10 higher than typical ambient concentrations. An even higher EF(OA) HDV value of 47.4 ± 1.6 mg km -1 was obtained when the linear fit was applied to all data points including OA concentrations up to 120 μg m -3. Similar to the increasing EF, the OA/BC ratio in the tunnel was also affected by the organic loading and it increased by a factor of ˜3 over the OA range 10-120 μg m -3. This means that also the OA emission factors at ambient concentrations of around 5-10 μg m -3 would be 2-3 times lower than the emission factor given above. For OA concentrations lower than 40 μg m -3 the OA/BC mass ratio was below 1, while at an OA concentration of 100-120 μg m -3 the OA/BC ratio was ˜1.5. The AMS mass spectra (MS) acquired in the tunnel were highly correlated with the primary organic aerosol

  12. Unwanted online sexual solicitation and online sexual risk behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.E.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.; Yan, Z.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there have been growing concerns about online sexual solicitations and online sexual risk behaviors. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of adolescents is confronted with online sexual solicitations or engages in online sexual risk behavior. Whereas more girls encounter

  13. First Online Mass Measurements of Isobar Chains via Multi-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrograph Coupled with GARIS-II

    CERN Document Server

    Schury, P; Ito, Y; Kaji, D; Soderstrom, P-A; Takamine, A; Arai, F; Haba, H; Jeong, S; Kimura, S; Koura, H; Miyatake, H; Morimoto, K; Morita, K; Ozawa, A; Reponen, M; Sonoda, T; Tanaka, T; Wollnik, H

    2015-01-01

    Using a mulit-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph (MRTOF-MS) located after a gas cell coupled with the gas-filled recoil ion separator GARIS-II, the masses of several heavy nuclei have been directly and precisely measured. The nuclei were produced via fusion-evaporation reactions and separated from projectile-like and target-like particles using GARIS-II before being stopped in a helium-filled gas cell. Time-of-flight spectra for three isobar chains, 205Fr-205Rn-205At-205Po, 206Fr-206Rn-206At and 201Rn-201At-201Po-201Bi, were observed. Precision atomic mass values were determined for 205,206Fr, 201At, and 201Po.

  14. First online multireflection time-of-flight mass measurements of isobar chains produced by fusion-evaporation reactions: Toward identification of superheavy elements via mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schury, P.; Wada, M.; Ito, Y.; Kaji, D.; Arai, F.; MacCormick, M.; Murray, I.; Haba, H.; Jeong, S.; Kimura, S.; Koura, H.; Miyatake, H.; Morimoto, K.; Morita, K.; Ozawa, A.; Rosenbusch, M.; Reponen, M.; Söderström, P.-A.; Takamine, A.; Tanaka, T.; Wollnik, H.

    2017-01-01

    Using a multireflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph located after a gas cell coupled with the gas-filled recoil ion separator GARIS-II, the masses of several α -decaying heavy nuclei were directly and precisely measured. The nuclei were produced via fusion-evaporation reactions and separated from projectilelike and targetlike particles using GARIS-II before being stopped in a helium-filled gas cell. Time-of-flight spectra for three isobar chains, 204Fr-204Rn-204At-204Po , 205Fr-205Rn-205At-205Po-205Bi , and 206Fr-206Rn-206At , were observed. Precision atomic mass values were determined for Fr-206204, Rn,205204, and At,205204. Identifications of 205Bi, Po,205204, 206Rn, and 206At were made with N ≲10 detected ions, representing the next step toward use of mass spectrometry to identify exceedingly low-yield species such as superheavy element ions.

  15. Online derivatization for hourly measurements of gas- and particle-phase semi-volatile oxygenated organic compounds by thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography (SV-TAG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacman, G.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Yee, L. D.; Worton, D. R.; Chan, A. W. H.; Moss, J. A.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory oxidation studies have identified a large number of oxygenated organic compounds that can be used as tracers to understand sources and oxidation chemistry of atmospheric particulate matter. Quantification of these compounds in ambient environments has traditionally relied on low-time-resolution collection of filter samples followed by offline sample treatment with a derivatizing agent to allow analysis by gas chromatography of otherwise non-elutable organic chemicals with hydroxyl groups. We present here an automated in situ instrument for the measurement of highly polar organic semi-volatile and low-volatility compounds in both the gas- and particle-phase with hourly quantification of mass concentrations and gas-particle partitioning. The dual-cell semi-volatile thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (SV-TAG) with derivatization collects particle-only and combined particle-plus-vapor samples on two parallel sampling cells that are analyzed in series by thermal desorption into helium saturated with derivatizing agent. Introduction of MSTFA (N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide), a silylating agent, yields complete derivatization of all tested compounds, including alkanoic acids, polyols, diacids, sugars, and multifunctional compounds. In laboratory tests, derivatization is found to be highly reproducible (regularly injected internal standard is used to correct for variability in detector response, consumption of the derivatization agent, desorption efficiency, and transfer losses. Error in quantification from instrument fluctuations is found to be less than 10% for hydrocarbons and less than 15% for all oxygenates for which a functionally similar internal standard is available, with an uncertainty of 20-25% in measurements of particle fraction. After internal standard corrections, calibration curves are found to be linear for all compounds over the span of 1 month, with comparable response on both of the parallel sampling cells.

  16. From emissions to ambient mixing ratios: on-line seasonal field measurements of volatile organic compounds over a Norway spruce dominated forest in central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtsoukidis, E.; Williams, J.; Kesselmeier, J.; Jacobi, S.; Bonn, B.

    2013-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are substantial contributors to atmospheric chemistry and physics and demonstrate the close relationship between biosphere and atmosphere. Their emission rates are highly sensitive to meteorological and environmental changes with concomitant impacts on atmospheric chemistry. We have investigated seasonal isoprenoid and oxygenated VOC (oxVOC) fluxes from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) tree in Central Germany and explored the emission responses under various atmospheric conditions. Emission rates were quantified by using dynamic branch enclosure and Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) techniques. Additionally, ambient mixing ratios were derived through application of a new box model treatment on the dynamic chamber measurements. These are compared in terms of abundance and origin with the corresponding emissions. Isoprenoids govern the BVOC emissions from Norway spruce, with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes accounting for 50.8 ± 7.2% and 19.8 ± 8.1% respectively of the total emissions. Normalizing the VOC emission rates, we have observed a trend of reduction of carbon containing emissions from April to November, with an enhancement of oxVOC. Highest emission rates were observed in June for all measured species, with the exception of sesquiterpenes that were emitted most strongly in April. We exploit the wide range of conditions experienced at the site to filter the dataset with a combination of temperature, ozone and absolute humidity values in order to derive the emission potential and temperature dependency development for the major chemical species investigated. A profound reduction of monoterpene emission potential (E30) and temperature dependency (β) was found under low temperature regimes, combined with low ozone levels (E30MT, LTLO3=56 ± 9.1 ng g(dw)-1 h-1, βMT,LTLO3=0.03±0.01 K-1) while a combination of both stresses was found to alter their emissions responses with respect to temperature

  17. Online Measurement of Real-Time Cytotoxic Responses Induced by Multi-Component Matrices, such as Natural Products, through Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyary Fallarero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are complex matrices of compounds that are prone to interfere with the label-dependent methods that are typically used for cytotoxicity screenings. Here, we developed a label-free Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS-based cytotoxicity assay that can be applied in the assessment of the cytotoxicity of natural extracts. The conditions to measure the impedance using ECIS were first optimized in mice immortalized hypothalamic neurons GT1-7 cells. The performance of four natural extracts when tested using three conventional cytotoxicity assays in GT1-7 cells, was studied. Betula pendula (silver birch tree was found to interfere with all of the cytotoxicity assays in which labels were applied. The silver birch extract was also proven to be cytotoxic and, thus, served as a proof-of-concept for the use of ECIS. The extract was fractionated and the ECIS method permitted the distinction of specific kinetic patterns of cytotoxicity on the fractions as well as the extract’s pure constituents. This study offers evidence that ECIS is an excellent tool for real-time monitoring of the cytotoxicity of complex extracts that are difficult to work with using conventional (label-based assays. Altogether, it offers a very suitable cytotoxicity-screening assay making the work with natural products less challenging within the drug discovery workflow.

  18. Online Measurement of Real-Time Cytotoxic Responses Induced by Multi-Component Matrices, such as Natural Products, through Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallarero, Adyary; Batista-González, Ana E; Hiltunen, Anna K; Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Vuorela, Pia M

    2015-11-12

    Natural products are complex matrices of compounds that are prone to interfere with the label-dependent methods that are typically used for cytotoxicity screenings. Here, we developed a label-free Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS)-based cytotoxicity assay that can be applied in the assessment of the cytotoxicity of natural extracts. The conditions to measure the impedance using ECIS were first optimized in mice immortalized hypothalamic neurons GT1-7 cells. The performance of four natural extracts when tested using three conventional cytotoxicity assays in GT1-7 cells, was studied. Betula pendula (silver birch tree) was found to interfere with all of the cytotoxicity assays in which labels were applied. The silver birch extract was also proven to be cytotoxic and, thus, served as a proof-of-concept for the use of ECIS. The extract was fractionated and the ECIS method permitted the distinction of specific kinetic patterns of cytotoxicity on the fractions as well as the extract's pure constituents. This study offers evidence that ECIS is an excellent tool for real-time monitoring of the cytotoxicity of complex extracts that are difficult to work with using conventional (label-based) assays. Altogether, it offers a very suitable cytotoxicity-screening assay making the work with natural products less challenging within the drug discovery workflow.

  19. The Online Bookstore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Yunkai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the network plays an import role in people’s life. In the process of the improvement of the people’s living standard, people’s demands of the life’s quality and efficiency is more higher, the traditional bookstore’s inconvenience gradually emerge, and the online bookstore has gradually be used in public. The online bookstore is a revolution of book industry. The traditional bookstores’ operation time, address and space is limited, so the types of books and books to find received a degree of restriction. But the online bookstore broke the management mode of traditional bookstore, as long as you have a computer, you can buy the book anywhere, saving time and effort, shortening the time of book selection link effectively. The online bookstore system based on the principle of provides convenience and service to people.

  20. Online learning for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Simon

    2015-05-30

    Last year, Simon Doherty, president of the North of Ireland Veterinary Association and the BVA's NI Branch, completed a number of MOOCs (massive open online courses) having read about them in Vet Record Careers; here, he describes his experiences.

  1. Varieties of online gatekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    News media organizations like newspapers and broadcasters have long functioned as gatekeepers between news and audiences, but with the rise of digital media, the search engines and social networking sites that are central to how most people navigate online increasingly complement news media......) and where non-journalistic actors too serve as gates between news and audiences. In this paper, I adopt such a broader approach and outline three varieties of online gatekeeping that each integrate different technologies in the gatekeeping process, but do so in different ways and for different purposes...... media websites remain amongst the most important gateways to news online. But they are increasingly supplemented by other, second-order online gatekeepers like search engines and social networking sites that, while rarely producing original content defined as “news”, increasingly serve as alternative...

  2. Conserveermiddelen on-line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Top, J.L.; Ketelaars, N.J.J.P.; Hulzebos, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Antimicrobials Online is een Engelstalige database die wetenschappelijke informatie over natuurlijke conserveermiddelen via internet beschikbaar stelt aan de levensmiddelenindustrie. Het project is uitgevoerd door Wageningen UR-Agrotechnology & Food Innovations. Er volgt uitbreiding met traditio

  3. Doing recovery online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudry, Tanya E; Strong, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Although problem gambling is becoming more prevalent, research shows that many problem gamblers do not seek help. Online social support forums have become an increasingly popular option for receiving support for problem gambling. Few researchers have explored how participants within these forums interact, or what is supportive about participation in online communities. Melding netnography (ethnographic approaches online), discourse analysis, and ethnomethodology, we analyzed the discursive interactions of self-identified problem gamblers on an online forum. We report on the characteristics of this unique setting, the common discourses that members used, and how they discursively accomplished various interactional tasks, including constructing identities, and negotiating membership, legitimacy, and support. We conclude with recommendations for practitioners and researchers interested in better understanding people trying to overcome problem gambling and other behavioral concerns.

  4. Exploring Online Purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Examines the setup of American University's electronic procurement system and explains how it works and the benefits it brings to the school. Cautionary advice on setting up an online purchasing system is also offered. (GR)

  5. Conserveermiddelen on-line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Top, J.L.; Ketelaars, N.J.J.P.; Hulzebos, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Antimicrobials Online is een Engelstalige database die wetenschappelijke informatie over natuurlijke conserveermiddelen via internet beschikbaar stelt aan de levensmiddelenindustrie. Het project is uitgevoerd door Wageningen UR-Agrotechnology & Food Innovations. Er volgt uitbreiding met

  6. Research of on-line film thickness measurement system based on infrared dual-light path%基于红外双光路的薄膜在线测厚系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹智颖; 赵斌

    2014-01-01

    Infrared thickness measurement is one of the main methods of online film thickness measurement , but traditional infrared thickness measurement method still has such defects that it is sensitive to the stability of light source and it is not applicable to high-speed film production line .In order to solve these problems , a dual-light path reference measurement method was used and a dual-light path infrared thickness measurement system was presented .In the system, the light source is divided into measurement light path and reference light path , using a single CCD connecting both the measurement light and the reference light as light intensity sensor . The imaging principle was described and the applicability of the system for Lambert law was discussed . Finally, calibration experiments for polyethylene and polytetrafluoroethylene film were conducted to demonstrate the accuracy .The experimental results show that the method has high precision and good robustness , and can effectively avoid the impact of the unstable of light source .%红外测厚是薄膜在线测厚的主要方法之一,为了解决传统的红外测厚方法中尚存在的易受光源稳定性的影响、不适用于高速薄膜生产线等缺点,采用双光路参比测量的方法设计了一种双光路红外测厚系统,系统将光源的光分成测量路和参考路两路,并使用单个CCD同时收集两路光作为光强传感器。描述了系统的成像原理,讨论了系统对朗伯定律的适用性,最后通过对聚乙烯和聚四氟乙烯薄膜的标定实验论证了系统的精度。结果表明,该方法精度高、鲁棒性好,且能够有效避免光源不稳定带来的影响。

  7. TU Delft en online media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speekenbrink, R.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Dit boek behandelt een visie op online media bij Nederlandse universiteiten. Daarbij beperk ik me tot die aspecten waarin online communicatie en/of online marketing een rol speelt. Dit boek behandelt niet de onderwijsgerelateerde aspecten van online media. Elektronische leeromgevingen, sociale medi

  8. TU Delft en online media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speekenbrink, R.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Dit boek behandelt een visie op online media bij Nederlandse universiteiten. Daarbij beperk ik me tot die aspecten waarin online communicatie en/of online marketing een rol speelt. Dit boek behandelt niet de onderwijsgerelateerde aspecten van online media. Elektronische leeromgevingen, sociale medi

  9. TU Delft en online media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speekenbrink, R.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Dit boek behandelt een visie op online media bij Nederlandse universiteiten. Daarbij beperk ik me tot die aspecten waarin online communicatie en/of online marketing een rol speelt. Dit boek behandelt niet de onderwijsgerelateerde aspecten van online media. Elektronische leeromgevingen, sociale

  10. Using online tone generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Online tone generators are free, user friendly, and can make for engaging and meaningful study of many topics in the areas of interference, waves, and the physics of music. By using a website such as OnlineToneGenerator.com, and through opening multiple windows simultaneously, students can immediately perform several experiments. In this article, I highlight five lesson ideas that come naturally from these types of websites.

  11. Building online worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    The fantasy genre has proven to be extremely durable in creating blockbuster successes across multiple media platforms, such as books, films, tabletop and especially online computer games. Currently 85 % of all Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) are situated in fantasy univ....... This paper will examine the genre function of fantasy drawing on both literary theory and computer game theory, through both textual analysis and reception analysis....

  12. Online Digital Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician Alecu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the main options a digital content creator has in order to obtain money by online trading of digital works. There are multiple ways to get paid for the digital products, like licensing, for example, however this article tries to present the most successful business models targeting the online market. The exclusive rights stated by the copyright laws are helping the authors to maximize to potential advantages coming from their digital creations.

  13. Dual-lifetime referencing (DLR: a powerful method for on-line measurement of internal pH in carrier-bound immobilized biocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniello Caterina

    2012-03-01

    conditions of continuous measurement. During hydrolysis of cephalosporin C by the immobilizate in a stirred reactor with bulk pH maintained at 8.0, the intraparticle pH dropped initially by about 1 pH unit and gradually returned to the bulk pH, reflecting the depletion of substrate from solution. These results support measurement of intraparticle pH as a potential analytical processing tool for proton-forming/consuming biotransformations catalyzed by carrier-bound immobilized enzymes. Conclusions Fluorescein and Ru(dpp constitute a useful pair of luminophores in by DLR-based intraparticle pH monitoring. The pH range accessible by the chosen DLR system overlaps favorably with the pH ranges at which enzymes are optimally active and stable. DLR removes the restriction of working with static immobilized enzyme particles, enabling suspensions of particles to be characterized also. The pH gradient developed between particle and bulk liquid during reaction steady state is an important carrier selection parameter for enzyme immobilization and optimization of biocatalytic conversion processes. Determination of this parameter was rendered possible by the presented DLR method.

  14. On-line derivatization for hourly measurements of gas- and particle-phase Semi-Volatile oxygenated organic compounds by Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatography (SV-TAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Isaacman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory oxidation studies have identified a large number of oxygenated organic compounds that can be used as tracers to understand sources and oxidation chemistry of atmospheric particulate matter. Quantification of these compounds in ambient environments has traditionally relied on low time-resolution collection of filter samples followed by offline sample treatment with a derivatizing agent to allow analysis by gas chromatography of otherwise non-elutable organic chemicals with hydroxyl groups. We present here an automated in situ instrument for the measurement of highly polar organic semi-volatile and low-volatility compounds in both the gas- and particle-phase with hourly time-resolution. The dual-cell Semi-Volatile Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatograph (SV-TAG with derivatization collects particle-only and combined particle-plus-vapor samples on two parallel sampling cells that are analyzed in series by thermal desorption into helium saturated with derivatizing agent. Introduction of MSTFA, a silylating agent, yields complete derivatization of all tested compounds, including alkanoic acids, polyols, diacids, sugars, and multifunctional compounds. In laboratory tests, derivatization is found to be highly reproducible (< 3% variability. During field deployment, a regularly injected internal standard is used to correct for variability in detector response, derivatization efficiency, desorption efficiency, and transfer efficiency. Error in quantification from instrument fluctuations is found to be less than 10% for hydrocarbons and less than 15% for all oxygenates for which a functionally similar internal standard is available. After internal standard corrections, calibration curves are found to be linear for all compounds over the span of one month with comparable response on both of the parallel sampling cells.

  15. On-line derivatization for hourly measurements of gas- and particle-phase Semi-Volatile oxygenated organic compounds by Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatography (SV-TAG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacman, G.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Yee, L. D.; Worton, D. R.; Chan, A. W. H.; Moss, J. A.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-07-01

    Laboratory oxidation studies have identified a large number of oxygenated organic compounds that can be used as tracers to understand sources and oxidation chemistry of atmospheric particulate matter. Quantification of these compounds in ambient environments has traditionally relied on low time-resolution collection of filter samples followed by offline sample treatment with a derivatizing agent to allow analysis by gas chromatography of otherwise non-elutable organic chemicals with hydroxyl groups. We present here an automated in situ instrument for the measurement of highly polar organic semi-volatile and low-volatility compounds in both the gas- and particle-phase with hourly time-resolution. The dual-cell Semi-Volatile Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatograph (SV-TAG) with derivatization collects particle-only and combined particle-plus-vapor samples on two parallel sampling cells that are analyzed in series by thermal desorption into helium saturated with derivatizing agent. Introduction of MSTFA, a silylating agent, yields complete derivatization of all tested compounds, including alkanoic acids, polyols, diacids, sugars, and multifunctional compounds. In laboratory tests, derivatization is found to be highly reproducible (regularly injected internal standard is used to correct for variability in detector response, derivatization efficiency, desorption efficiency, and transfer efficiency. Error in quantification from instrument fluctuations is found to be less than 10% for hydrocarbons and less than 15% for all oxygenates for which a functionally similar internal standard is available. After internal standard corrections, calibration curves are found to be linear for all compounds over the span of one month with comparable response on both of the parallel sampling cells.

  16. Evaluating Online Dialogue on “Security” Using a Novel Instructional Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: This paper explores evaluation strategies to gauge the impact of a novel instructional design on international community participation online. This is done by conceptualizing and devising indicators for measuring “engagement” online amongst marginalized adult communities

  17. Suicidality, psychopathology, and the internet: Online time vs. online behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Keith M; Starcevic, Vladan; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Aboujaoude, Elias

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated whether several psychopathology variables, including suicidality, could predict the time people spend using the internet (hours online). Next, we examined a specific at-risk population (suicidal individuals) by their online behaviors, comparing suicidal individuals who went online for suicide-related purposes with suicidal individuals who did not go online for suicide-related purposes. An anonymous online sample of 713 (aged 18-71) reported hours online, psychiatric histories, and completed several standardized scales. After accounting for age and education, hierarchical regression modeling showed that the assessed psychopathology variables, including suicidality, did not explain significant variance in hours online. Hours online were better predicted by younger age, greater willingness to develop online relationships, higher perceived social support, higher curiosity, and lower extraversion. Suicidal participants, who did or did not go online for suicide-related purposes, did not differ on hours online. Multiple regression modeling showed that those who went online for suicide-related purposes were likely to be younger, more suicidal, and more willing to seek help from online mental health professionals. These findings revealed that hours online are not a valid indicator of psychopathology. However, studying online behaviors of specific at-risk groups could be informative and useful, including for suicide prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The impact of reliable prebolus T{sub 1} measurements or a fixed T{sub 1} value in the assessment of glioma patients with dynamic contrast enhancing MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietze, Anna [Aarhus University Hospital, Dept. of Neuroradiology, Aarhus (Denmark); Aarhus University, Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus (Denmark); Mouridsen, Kim; Mikkelsen, Irene Klaerke [Aarhus University, Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2015-03-06

    Accurate quantification of hemodynamic parameters using dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI requires a measurement of tissue T{sub 1} prior to contrast injection (T{sub 1}). We evaluate (i) T{sub 1} estimation using the variable flip angle (VFA) and the saturation recovery (SR) techniques and (ii) investigate if accurate estimation of DCE parameters outperform a time-saving approach with a predefined T{sub 1} value when differentiating high- from low-grade gliomas. The accuracy and precision of T{sub 1} measurements, acquired by VFA and SR, were investigated by computer simulations and in glioma patients using an equivalence test (p > 0.05 showing significant difference). The permeability measure, K{sub trans}, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and - volume, V{sub p}, were calculated in 42 glioma patients, using fixed T{sub 1} of 1500 ms or an individual T{sub 1} measurement, using SR. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were used as measures for accuracy to differentiate tumor grade. The T{sub 1} values obtained by VFA showed larger variation compared to those obtained using SR both in the digital phantom and the human data (p > 0.05). Although a fixed T{sub 1} introduced a bias into the DCE calculation, this had only minor impact on the accuracy differentiating high-grade from low-grade gliomas, (AUC{sub fix} = 0.906 and AUC{sub ind} = 0.884 for K{sub trans}; AUC{sub fix} = 0.863 and AUC{sub ind} = 0.856 for V{sub p;} p for AUC comparison > 0.05). T{sub 1} measurements by VFA were less precise, and the SR method is preferable, when accurate parameter estimation is required. Semiquantitative DCE values, based on predefined T{sub 1} values, were sufficient to perform tumor grading in our study. (orig.)

  19. Online cross-validation-based ensemble learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkeser, David; Ju, Cheng; Lendle, Sam; van der Laan, Mark

    2017-05-04

    Online estimators update a current estimate with a new incoming batch of data without having to revisit past data thereby providing streaming estimates that are scalable to big data. We develop flexible, ensemble-based online estimators of an infinite-dimensional target parameter, such as a regression function, in the setting where data are generated sequentially by a common conditional data distribution given summary measures of the past. This setting encompasses a wide range of time-series models and, as special case, models for independent and identically distributed data. Our estimator considers a large library of candidate online estimators and uses online cross-validation to identify the algorithm with the best performance. We show that by basing estimates on the cross-validation-selected algorithm, we are asymptotically guaranteed to perform as well as the true, unknown best-performing algorithm. We provide extensions of this approach including online estimation of the optimal ensemble of candidate online estimators. We illustrate excellent performance of our methods using simulations and a real data example where we make streaming predictions of infectious disease incidence using data from a large database. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. On-line characterization of a hybridoma cell culture process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W; Hu, W S

    1994-06-20

    The on-line determination of the physiological state of a cell culture process requires reliable on-line measurements of various parameters and calculations of specific rates from these measurements. The cell concentration of a hybridoma culture was estimated on-line by measuring optical density (OD) with a laser turbidity probe. The oxygen uptake rate (OUR) was determined by monitoring dynamically dissolved oxygen concentration profiles and closing oxygen balances in the culture. The base addition for neutralizing lactate produced by cells was also monitored on-line via a balance. Using OD and OUR measurements, the specific growth and specific oxygen consumption rates were determined on-line. By combining predetermined stoichiometric relationships among oxygen and glucose consumption and lactate production, the specific glucose consumption and lactate production rates were also calculated on-line. Using these on-line measurements and calculations, the hybridoma culture process was characterized on-line by identifying the physiological states. They will also facilitate the implementation of nutrient feeding strategies for fed-batch and perfusion cultures. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.