WorldWideScience

Sample records for onions

  1. Onion dehydration: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, S L; Rao, P S

    2012-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a very commonly used vegetable, ranks third in the world production of major vegetables. Apart from imparting a delicious taste and flavour due to its pungency in many culinary preparations, it serves several medicinal purposes also. Processing and preservation of onion by suitable means is a major thrust area since a long time. The various kinds of treatments followed for dehydration of onion such as convective air drying, solar drying, fluidized bed drying, vacuum microwave drying, infrared drying and osmotic drying are reviewed here. These techniques are mainly used for preservation and value addition of onion. Several researchers have tried for decades to model the drying kinetics and quality parameters, which are also compiled here briefly.

  2. Onion artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  3. Onion structure and network robustness

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.026106

    2011-01-01

    In a recent work [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3838 (2011)], Schneider et al. proposed a new measure for network robustness and investigated optimal networks with respect to this quantity. For networks with a power-law degree distribution, the optimized networks have an onion structure-high-degree vertices forming a core with radially decreasing degrees and an over-representation of edges within the same radial layer. In this paper we relate the onion structure to graphs with good expander properties (another characterization of robust network) and argue that networks of skewed degree distributions with large spectral gaps (and thus good expander properties) are typically onion structured. Furthermore, we propose a generative algorithm producing synthetic scale-free networks with onion structure, circumventing the optimization procedure of Schneider et al. We validate the robustness of our generated networks against malicious attacks and random removals.

  4. INTERNATIONAL TRADE WITH ONIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the global trade situation with onion, 2008-2010. Besides presenting the existing situation of the five units continents (Africa, America, Asia, Europe and Oceania study shows worldwide level of imports and exports, as well as its contribution to the performing acts of international exchange. Quantitative aspects of trade are filled with values data, that allowed the preparation of trade exchanges for this product. The main importer (in quantitative terms is represented by Asia, followed by Europe and at greater distance by the America, while the value of imports was dominated by operations performed in Europe, Asia and America - weights of 39.7 , 38.1 and 18.6% respective (of the world total. Concerning the quantity, the major players on the market exports are represented by Asia and Europe. They have dominated the world market, achieving 45.6 and respective 30.8% of world exports. America ranks third with a share of 17.4%. In terms of value, world exports were dominated by Asia, Europe and America (33.5, 32.7 and respective 26.7%, with a downward trend in the share of Asia and increasing European weights and American (compared to the specific situation of the quantities exported

  5. ``Peeling the Onion''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Héla; den Besten, Matthijs; de Loupy, Claude; Dalle, Jean-Michel

    According to the now widely accepted “onion-model” of the organization of open source software development, an open source project typically relies on a core of developers that is assisted by a larger periphery of users. But what does the role of the periphery consist of? Raymond’s Linus’s Law which states that “given enough eyeballs all bugs are shallow” suggests at least one important function: the detection of defects. Yet, what are the ways through which core and periphery interact with each other? With the help of text-mining methods, we study the treatment of bugs that affected the Firefox Internet browser as reflected in the discussions and actions recorded in Mozilla’s issue tracking system Bugzilla. We find various patterns in the modes of interactions between core and peripheral members of the community. For instance, core members seem to engage more frequently with the periphery when the latter proposes a solution (a patch). This leads us to conclude that Alan Cox’s dictum “show me the code”, perhaps even more than Linus’s law, seems to be the dominant rule that governs the development of software like Firefox.

  6. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid...

  7. Biological parameters of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman on onion cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraiet Maher Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological parameters of the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman were studied on the following onion (Allium cepa L. cultivars: Nasik Red Plus N-53, Onion Dr-301 (Krishna, Onion White, and Nasik Red, at 25±1°C and 65±5% RH. Significant (p < 0.05 differences were found in the life stages and fertility life tables on different cultivars except in the pupal stages. More information about the biological parameters of T. tabaci on onion cultivars can help in designing Integrated Pest Management programs for onion thrips.

  8. The Chemistry of Garlic and Onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Eric

    1985-01-01

    Discusses structures and characteristics of sulfur compounds which cause the odor of garlic and the crying which may result from an onion. These compounds are dependent on conditions of extraction and account for medical properties long ascribed to garlic and onions. (DH)

  9. Acetic acid: Crop injury and onion yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Organic herbicides for sweet onions are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research at Lane, Oklahoma has shown...

  10. Acetic acid and weed control in onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Although corn gluten meal shows great promise as an organic preemergent herbicide for onions, research has shown the need for supplemental, postemergen...

  11. The Chemistry of Garlic and Onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Eric

    1985-01-01

    Discusses structures and characteristics of sulfur compounds which cause the odor of garlic and the crying which may result from an onion. These compounds are dependent on conditions of extraction and account for medical properties long ascribed to garlic and onions. (DH)

  12. GARLIC AND ONION IN DENTISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Sudarshan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Onion and garlic are the commonly used ingredients in the kitchen. We are still completely unaware that its health benefits are numerous. They have been tried in vivo in the treatment of deadly diseases like cancer, HIV etc. and are proved to be successful. They both belong to same family of Allium genus. They provide benefit even in morphine withdrawal, diabetes and are known to confer significant immunity to humans. Here, in this review, we discuss the constituents, properties; medicinal uses, Dental applications, adverse effects and contraindications of these naturally available herbs.

  13. Irradiation of onions on a large scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Koji; Hayashi, Toru; Uozumi, J.; Sugimoto, Toshio; Aoki, Shohei

    1984-03-01

    A large number of onions of var. Kitamiki and Ohotsuku were irradiated in September followed by storage at 0 deg C or 5 deg C. The onions were shifted from cold-storage facilities to room temperature in mid-March or in mid-April in the following year. Their sprouting, rooting, spoilage characteristics and sugar content were observed during storage at room temperature. Most of the unirradiated onions sprouted either outside or inside bulbs during storage at room temperature, and almost all of the irradiated ones showed small buds with browning inside the bulb in mid-April irrespective of the storage temperature. Rooting and/or expansion of bottom were observed in the unirradiated samples. Although the irradiated materials did not have root, they showed expansion of bottom to some extent. Both the irradiated and unirradiated onions spoiled slightly unless they sprouted, and sprouted onions were easily spoiled. There was no difference in the glucose content between the unirradiated and irradiated onions, but the irradiated ones yielded higher sucrose content when stored at room temperature. Irradiation treatment did not have an obvious effect on the quality of freeze-dried onion slices. (author).

  14. Identification and onion pathogenicity of Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates from the onion rhizosphere and onion field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Janette L; Fasi, Anthony C; Ramette, Alban; Smith, James J; Hammerschmidt, Raymond; Sundin, George W

    2008-05-01

    Burkholderia cepacia complex strains are genetically related but phenotypically diverse organisms that are important opportunistic pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF,) as well as pathogens of onion and banana, colonizers of the rhizospheres of many plant species, and common inhabitants of bulk soil. Genotypic identification and pathogenicity characterization were performed on B. cepacia complex isolates from the rhizosphere of onion and organic soils in Michigan. A total of 3,798 putative B. cepacia complex isolates were recovered on Pseudomonas cepacia azelaic acid tryptamine and trypan blue tetracycline semiselective media during the 2004 growing season from six commercial onion fields located in two counties in Michigan. Putative B. cepacia complex isolates were identified by hybridization to a 16S rRNA gene probe, followed by duplex PCR using primers targeted to the 16S rRNA gene and recA sequences and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the recA sequence. A total of 1,290 isolates, 980 rhizosphere and 310 soil isolates, were assigned to the species B. cepacia (160), B. cenocepacia (480), B. ambifaria (623), and B. pyrrocinia (27). The majority of isolates identified as B. cepacia (85%), B. cenocepacia (90%), and B. ambifaria (76%) were pathogenic in a detached onion bulb scale assay and caused symptoms of water soaking, maceration, and/or necrosis. A phylogenetic analysis of recA sequences from representative B. cepacia complex type and panel strains, along with isolates collected in this study, revealed that the B. cenocepacia isolates associated with onion grouped within the III-B lineage and that some strains were closely related to strain AU1054, which was isolated from a CF patient. This study revealed that multiple B. cepacia complex species colonize the onion rhizosphere and have the potential to cause sour skin rot disease of onion. In addition, the onion rhizosphere is a natural habitat and a potential environmental source

  15. Onion skin as a radiation monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Marc F.; McLaughlin, William L.

    The ESR spectra of the dry, outer skin of onion, red onion, garlic, and shallot were measured before and after irradiation. In all spectra only a single resonance (g = 2.00) was observed. The ESR signal intensity increased with absorbed dose, however, the radiation-induced signal decayed slowly with time. It was concluded that the outer skin of these foods are not suitable as a long-term postirradiation monitor.

  16. Guard Sets for Onion Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Jamie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available “Entry” guards protect the Tor onion routing system from variants of the “predecessor” attack, that would allow an adversary with control of a fraction of routers to eventually de-anonymize some users. Research has however shown the three guard scheme has drawbacks and Dingledine et al. proposed in 2014 for each user to have a single long-term guard. We first show that such a guard selection strategy would be optimal if the Tor network was failure-free and static. However under realistic failure conditions the one guard proposal still suffers from the classic fingerprinting attacks, uniquely identifying users. Furthermore, under dynamic network conditions using single guards offer smaller anonymity sets to users of fresh guards. We propose and analyze an alternative guard selection scheme by way of grouping guards together to form shared guard sets. We compare the security and performance of guard sets with the three guard scheme and the one guard proposal. We show guard sets do provide increased resistance to a number of attacks, while foreseeing no significant degradation in performance or bandwidth utilization.

  17. Onion thiosulfinates: some like them hot, others not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion (Allium cepa) efficiently acquires and accumulates sulfur. In most plants, the majority of sulfur is located in proteins in the amino acids cysteine and methionine; however in onion a significant proportion of the sulfur is found in non-protein amino-acid derivatives. In onion, sulfur is most ...

  18. Evaluation of onion germplasm for resistance to Iris yellow spot (Iris yellow spot virus) and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is the most economically important monocot outside of the grasses. This important crop suffers severe damage from onion thrips (Thrips tabaci), a cosmopolitan and polyphagous insect pest. In addition to direct feeding damages, onion thrips has emerged as the principal vector o...

  19. Genetics of carbohydrate accumulation in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructans are soluble carbohydrates composed of fructose chains attached to a basal sucrose molecule and act both as health-enhancing pro- and pre-biotics. In onion, higher fructan concentrations are correlated with greater soluble solids content, dry weights, and pungency. We analyzed dry weights ...

  20. Garlic and onions: their cancer prevention properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Holly L; Ross, Sharon A; Milner, John A

    2015-03-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiologic studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer-preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biologic processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer-preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of carbon onions and nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J. J.; Liu, G. H.; Wang, X. M.; Fujita, T.; Xu, B. S.; Chen, M. W.

    2009-08-01

    We report high-pressure Raman spectra of carbon onions and nanocapsules investigated by diamond anvil cell experiments. The pressure coefficient and elastic behavior of carbon onions and nanocapsules are found to be very similar to those of multiwall carbon nanotubes. Additionally, detectable structure changes, particularly the collapse of the concentric graphite structure, cannot been seen at pressures as high as ˜20 GPa, demonstrating that carbon onions and nanocapsules have significant hardness and can sustain very high pressures.

  2. HPLC-DAD determination of imidacloprid in onion

    OpenAIRE

    Mandić Aljoša; Lazić Sanja; Inđić Dušanka

    2003-01-01

    Imidacloprid is an insecticide most commonly used on vegetables, potato sugar beet, fruit, cereal, maize and rice. Imidacloprid residue has been determined in spiked onion and in onion samples. Sample preparation consisted of dichlormethane extraction of imidacloprid from onion, followed by purification of the obtained extract on a LC-Florisil disposable cartridge. The HPLC-DAD method bas been developed on reversed-phase for separation of imidacloprid with a mixture of 0.01 M phosphate buffer...

  3. Genetic and Pathogenic Variability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae Isolated from Onion and Welsh Onion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Nakahara, Katsuya; Tanaka, Shuhei; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae causes Fusarium basal rot in onion (common onion) and Fusarium wilt in Welsh onion. Although these diseases have been detected in various areas in Japan, knowledge about the genetic and pathogenic variability of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae is very limited. In this study, F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae was isolated from onion and Welsh onion grown in 12 locations in Japan, and a total of 55 F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates (27 from onion and 28 from Welsh onion) were characterized based on their rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) and translation elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) nucleotide sequences, vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), and the presence of the SIX (secreted in xylem) homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of IGS sequences showed that these isolates were grouped into eight clades (A to H), and 20 onion isolates belonging to clade H were monophyletic and assigned to the same VCG. All the IGS-clade H isolates possessed homologs of SIX3, SIX5, and SIX7. The SIX3 homolog was located on a 4 Mb-sized chromosome in the IGS-clade H isolates. Pathogenicity tests using onion seedlings showed that all the isolates with high virulence were in the IGS-clade H. These results suggest that F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates belonging to the IGS-clade H are genetically and pathogenically different from those belonging to the other IGS clades.

  4. Unions of Onions: Preprocessing Imprecise Points for Fast Onion Layer Decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löffler, Maarten|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836710; Mulzer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Let D be a set of n pairwise disjoint unit disks in the plane. We describe how to build a data structure for D so that for any point set P containing exactly one point from each disk, we can quickly nd the onion decomposition (convex layers) of P. Our data structure can be built in O(n log n) time

  5. Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control in organic onion production is often difficult and expensive, requiring numerous cultivations and extensive hand-weeding. Onion safety and weed control with mustard seed meal (MSM) derived from Sinapis alba was evaluated in greenhouse and field trials. MSM applied at 110, 220, and 440 g...

  6. Production and characterization of tearless and non-pungent onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masahiro; Masamura, Noriya; Shono, Jinji; Okamoto, Daisaku; Abe, Tomoko; Imai, Shinsuke

    2016-04-06

    The onion lachrymatory factor (LF) is produced from trans-S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (PRENCSO) through successive reactions catalyzed by alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) and lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS), and is responsible for the tear inducing-property and the pungency of fresh onions. We developed tearless, non-pungent onions non-transgenically by irradiating seeds with neon-ion at 20 Gy. The bulbs obtained from the irradiated seeds and their offspring bulbs produced by selfing were screened by organoleptic assessment of tear-inducing property or HPLC analysis of LF production. After repeated screening and seed production by selfing, two tearless, non-pungent bulbs were identified in the third generation (M3) bulbs. Twenty M4 bulbs obtained from each of them showed no tear-inducing property or pungency when evaluated by 20 sensory panelists. The LF production levels in these bulbs were approximately 7.5-fold lower than those of the normal onion. The low LF production levels were due to reduction in alliinase activity, which was a result of low alliinase mRNA expression (less than 1% of that in the normal onion) and consequent low amounts of the alliinase protein. These tearless, non-pungent onions should be welcomed by all who tear while chopping onions and those who work in facilities where fresh onions are processed.

  7. Acetic acid: Crop injury and onion (Allium cepa L.) yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Organic herbicides for sweet onions are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research at Lane, Oklahoma has shown...

  8. Acetic acid and weed control in onions (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Although corn gluten meal shows great promise as an organic preemergent herbicide for onions, research has shown the need for supplemental, postemergen...

  9. Broadcast applications of acetic acid: Crop injury and onion yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The organic herbicides for sweet onions (Allium cepa L.) are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research in Oklahoma has shown that corn gluten meal can be an affective early season pre-emergence herbicide for onion transplants, but once the residual impact of...

  10. Nitrogen Effects on Onion Yield Under Drip and Furrow Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is a high cash value crop with a very shallow root system that is frequently irrigated and fertilized with high N rates to maximize yield. Converting from furrow-irrigated to drip-irrigated onion production may reduce N fertilizer needs, water inputs, and NO3-N leaching poten...

  11. Pentatricopeptide Repeat Genes in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production of hybrid-onion seed depends on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS). The most commonly used CMS in onion requires the presence of male-sterile (S) cytoplasm and recessive alleles at one nuclear male-fertility restoration (Ms) locus. Male-sterile lines are seed propagated using maintain...

  12. 78 FR 45898 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ...; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a referendum be conducted among eligible producers of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia... Vidalia onions produced in the production area. DATES: The referendum will be conducted from September 9...

  13. Shelf life and microbial profile of peeled onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased usage of peeled onions over the past ten years by food service operations and fast-food restaurants has been plagued by black mold decay during cold-chain storage. This study examined the epiphytic microbiological distribution on onions and what effects various processing steps have on...

  14. Vinegar as a broadcast herbicide for spring-transplanted onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The weed control challenges for onion production are formidable; however, these challenges are even greater for those considering organic crop production. Organic onion producers need additional organic herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Field research was conducted...

  15. Growth limit of carbon onions – A continuum mechanical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todt, Melanie; Bitsche, Robert; Hartmann, Markus A.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of carbon onions is simulated using continuum mechanical shell models. With this models it is shown that, if a carbon onion has grown to a critical size, the formation of an additional layer leads to the occurrence of a structural instability. This instability inhibits further growth...... of carbon onions and, thus, can be a reason for the limited size of such particles. The loss of stability is mainly evoked by van der Waals interactions between misfitting neighboring layers leading to self-equilibrating stress states in the layers due to mutual accommodation. The influence of the curvature...... model gives insight into mechanisms which are assumed to limit the size of carbon onions and can serve as basis for further investigations, e.g., of the formation of nanodiamonds in the center of carbon onions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  16. Occurrence of Anthracnose on Welsh Onion Caused by Colletotrichum circinans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Kim, Jin Hee

    2008-12-01

    Anthracnose occurred frequently on leaf sheaths of Welsh onions grown in Gangwha island, Korea in November, 2007. The disease incidence was as high as 30% in five fields investigated. A total of 20 single spore isolates of Colletotrichum species were obtained from the affected plants, and all the isolates were identified as Colletotrichum circinans based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Three isolates of the fungus caused anthracnose symptoms on the leaf sheaths of Welsh onions by artificial inoculation, which were similar to those observed during the field survey. In this study, the mycological and pathological characteristics of C. circinans identified as causing anthracnose of Welsh onions are clarified.

  17. Peeling the onion: understanding others' lived experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Maureen; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Society and some healthcare professionals often marginalise pregnant women who take illicit substances. Midwives who care for these women are often viewed as working on the edge of society. This research aimed to examine the lived experiences of midwives who care for pregnant women who take illicit drugs. A phenomenological study informed by Heidegger, Gadamer and Merleau-Ponty was chosen to frame these lived experiences. Using face-to-face interviews, data were collected from 12 midwives making a difference, establishing partnerships and letting go and refining practice. Lived experiences are unique and can be difficult, intangible and couched in metaphor and difficult to grasp. This paper aims to discuss lived experience and suggests that like an onion, several layers have to be peeled away before meaning can be exposed; each cover reveals another layer beneath that is different from before and different from the next. The study provides exemplars that explain lived experiences.

  18. Onion-peeling inversion of stellarator images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, K. C.; Diaz-Pacheco, R. R.; Kornbluth, Y.; Volpe, F. A.; Wei, Y.

    2016-11-01

    An onion-peeling technique is developed for inferring the emissivity profile of a stellarator plasma from a two-dimensional image acquired through a CCD or CMOS camera. Each pixel in the image is treated as an integral of emission along a particular line-of-sight. Additionally, the flux surfaces in the plasma are partitioned into discrete layers, each of which is assumed to have uniform emissivity. If the topology of the flux surfaces is known, this construction permits the development of a system of linear equations that can be solved for the emissivity of each layer. We present initial results of this method applied to wide-angle visible images of the Columbia Neutral Torus (CNT) stellarator plasma.

  19. Onion-peeling inversion of stellarator images

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, K C; Kornbluth, Y; Volpe, F A; Wei, Y

    2016-01-01

    An onion-peeling technique is developed for inferring the emissivity profile of a stellarator plasma from a two-dimensional image acquired through a CCD or CMOS camera. Each pixel in the image is treated as an integral of emission along a particular line-of-sight. Additionally, the flux surfaces in the plasma are partitioned into discrete layers, each of which is assumed to have uniform emissivity. If the topology of the flux surfaces is known, this construction permits the development of a system of linear equations that can be solved for the emissivity of each layer. We present initial results of this method applied to wide-angle visible images of the CNT stellarator plasma.

  20. The core structure of presolar graphite onions

    CERN Document Server

    Fraundorf, P B; Wackenhut, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Of the ``presolar particles'' extracted from carbonaceous chondrite dissolution residues, i.e. of those particles which show isotopic evidence of solidification in the neighborhood of other stars prior to the origin of our solar system, one subset has an interesting concentric graphite-rim/graphene-core structure. We show here that single graphene sheet defects in the onion cores (e.g. cyclopentane loops) may be observable edge-on by HREM. This could allow a closer look at models for their formation, and in particular strengthen the possibility that growth of these assemblages proceeds atom-by-atom with the aid of such in-plane defects, under conditions of growth (e.g. radiation fluxes or grain temperature) which discourage the graphite layering that dominates subsequent formation of the rim.

  1. Comparative profitability of onions harvested as green and dry (mature in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Baliyan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt to calculate and compare the profitability of onions harvested as green and dry (mature in Botswana. Half of the planted onions were harvested and sold as green and half were harvested and sold as dry onions. The cost of production of green onions was 32.78% higher than the cost of production of dry onions. The irrigation and marketing expenses contributed the highest difference in the cost of production of green and dry onions. The major cost item contributing to the cost of green onions production was marketing cost (32.86% followed by irrigation cost (23.77% and harvesting cost (18.53% whereas the highest cost of production for dry onions was contributed by irrigation (38.58% followed by marketing (19.45% and planting (11.96%. The marketing cost for green onions was almost double (35.6% as compare to the dry onions (18.2%. The total return from green onions was 50.90% higher than the returns from dry onions. Gross margin of onions harvested as green was 63% higher than the gross margin from dry onions, which indicated that the production of green onions is more profitable as compare to production of dry onions. The farmers preferred onion harvested as green because it generates regular and higher returns than onions harvested as mature. Government should support farmers through some policies such as Minimum Support Price (MSP for dry onions, distribution of Mini Ferti–Seed Kit (Seeds of improved varieties and fertilizer package, construction of storages and formation of cooperatives.

  2. The Origin of the Name "Onion's Fusible Alloy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, William B.

    2010-01-01

    In response to a reader query, this article traces the history of fusible alloys, including Newton's metal, D'Arcet's metal, Rose's metal, Onion's fusible alloy, and Wood's metal. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  3. Dynamic susceptibility of onion in ferromagnetic elliptical nanoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Congpu; Song, Jiefang; Xu, Jianghong; Wen, Fusheng

    2016-06-01

    Micromagnetic simulation was performed to investigate the equilibrium state and dynamic susceptibility spectra of magnetic elliptical nanoring. There are two equilibrium states (onion and vortex) obtained in elliptical nanoring. The onion state can be used to record information in MRAM. And it is important to investigate the dynamic susceptibility spectra of onion state, which is closely related to writing and reading speed of magnetic memory devices. Those results show that two or three resonance peaks are found under different thickness of elliptical nanoring with onion state, respectively. The low resonance frequency of two resonance peaks is increasing with the arm width of the elliptical ring, but is decreasing with the thickness. However, the high frequency of two resonance peaks is decreasing with the arm width of the elliptical ring.

  4. Dynamic susceptibility of onion in ferromagnetic elliptical nanoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congpu Mu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Micromagnetic simulation was performed to investigate the equilibrium state and dynamic susceptibility spectra of magnetic elliptical nanoring. There are two equilibrium states (onion and vortex obtained in elliptical nanoring. The onion state can be used to record information in MRAM. And it is important to investigate the dynamic susceptibility spectra of onion state, which is closely related to writing and reading speed of magnetic memory devices. Those results show that two or three resonance peaks are found under different thickness of elliptical nanoring with onion state, respectively. The low resonance frequency of two resonance peaks is increasing with the arm width of the elliptical ring, but is decreasing with the thickness. However, the high frequency of two resonance peaks is decreasing with the arm width of the elliptical ring.

  5. Efficiency of onions marketing Ikeduru rural markets of Owerri area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficiency of onions marketing Ikeduru rural markets of Owerri area, Imo State, ... Trading stock and transportation contributed the highest to total variable cost with ... low profit in the structurally inefficient rural markets with its attendant poverty ...

  6. Soil covering in organic cultivation of onion cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Barreto Tavella; Regina Lúcia Felix Ferreira; Sebastião Elviro de Araújo Neto; Antônio Jussie da Silva Solino; Eliana Mara Napoli Corrêa de Paula da Silva; Maísa Pinto Bravin

    2015-01-01

    The soil preparation in horticulture, including organic, is characterized by intense soil tillage, which increases energy costs and unbalanced the environment. The organic system in onion cultivation has shown satisfactory results, however the soil covering use tends to improve the cultivation environment and may result in higher yields. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of onion cultivars in organic cultivation under different soil coverages. The experiment was co...

  7. Weed infestation of onion in soil reduced cultivation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażej-Woźniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the years 1998-2000 in GD Felin. The influence of no-tillage cultivation and conventional tillage with spring ploughing on weed infestation of onion was compared. In experiment four cover crop mulches (Sinapis alba L., Vicia sativa L., Phacelia tanacetifolia B., Avena sativa L. were applied. From annual weeds in weed infestation of onion in great number Matricaria chamomilla L., and Senecio vulgaris L. stepped out. and from perennial - Agropyron repens (L.P.B. Reduced soil cultivation system (no-tillage caused the significant growth of primary weed infestation of onion in comparison with conventional tillage. In all years of investigations the executed pre-sowing ploughing limited significantly the annual weeds' number in primary weed infestation. The applied mulches from cover plants limited in considerable degree the number of primary weed infestation. In all years of investigations the most weeds stepped out on control object. Among investigated cover crop mulches Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L. had a profitable effect on decrease of onion`s primary weed infestation. Soil cultivation system and cover crop mulches had no signi ficant residual influence on the secondary weed infestation of onion.

  8. Microbial diversity and flavor formation in onion fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lili; Luo, Jianfei; Li, Pan; Yu, Hang; Huang, Jianfei; Luo, Lixin

    2014-09-01

    Fermented onion products are popular in many countries. We conducted fermentation with and without salt to identify the microorganisms responsible for onion fermentation and the unique taste of fermented onion. The results of PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) revealed that lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus zymae, L. malefermentans, L. plantarum), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter pasteurianus, A. orientalis), citric acid bacteria (Citrobacter sp., C. freundii), and yeasts (Candida humilis, Kazachstania exigua, Saccharomyces boulardii) were the dominant microorganisms involved in onion fermentation. Organic acid analysis indicated that lactic acid and acetic acid significantly increased after fermentation. There were no significant changes in the types of amino acids after fermentation, but the total concentration of amino acids significantly decreased after fermentation with salt. The increase in esters, alcohols, and aldehydes after fermentation was responsible for the unique flavor of fermented onion. Fermentation with salt inhibited the accumulation of organic acids and limited the conversion of proteins into amino acids but maintained the unique odor of onion by limiting the degradation of sulfur-containing compounds.

  9. OEM--a new medium for rapid isolation of onion-pathogenic and onion-associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Ali M; Bonasera, Jean M; Beer, Steven V

    2012-12-01

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are plagued by a number of bacterial pathogens including Pantoea ananatis, P. agglomerans, Burkholderia cepacia, Enterobacter cloacae, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. axonopodis and several Pseudomonas spp. We developed a semi-selective medium, termed onion extract medium (OEM), to selectively and rapidly isolate bacteria pathogenic to and associated with onions and onion-related samples including bulbs, seeds, sets, transplant seedlings, soil and water. Most strains of interest grow sufficiently on OEM in 24h at 28°C for tentative identification based on colony morphology, facilitating further characterization by microbiological and/or molecular means. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative profitability of onions harvested as green and dry (mature) in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    S.P. Baliyan

    2013-01-01

    This study was an attempt to calculate and compare the profitability of onions harvested as green and dry (mature) in Botswana. Half of the planted onions were harvested and sold as green and half were harvested and sold as dry onions. The cost of production of green onions was 32.78% higher than the cost of production of dry onions. The irrigation and marketing expenses contributed the highest difference in the cost of production of green and dry onions. The major cost item contributing to t...

  11. Spherulites: onion-like vesicles as nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crauste-Manciet, Sylvie; Khawand, Karel; Mignet, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Spherulites are onion-like structures composed of phospholipids and excipients. Initially discovered in an academic laboratory, these autoassembled nano-objects have been developed further by the start-up Capsulis (Bordeaux, France), and commercialized for veterinary and dermatological applications. Owing to economical strategies, the development of these objects have not been pursued, however, they are very interesting systems, which should be exploited further. The autoassembly of amphiphiles followed by a shear stress allows the formation of nano- to micrometer range nanoparticles, which could be interesting either for systemic or local delivery. Small molecules to macromolecules have been encapsulated in spherulites in the nanometer range. All have shown promising results. Hence, spherulite-encapsulated oligonucleotides have shown increased cell internalization. DNA was shown to be encapsulated in these neutral nanoparticles. Proof-of-concept of protein encapsulation was obtained leading to immune stimulation. This review summarizes the different ways to obtain spherulites, the results of the various investigations performed to date and indicates the limits and the interests of theses nanocarriers and proposes future prospects.

  12. The organic fertilization in the onion cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Llorente Villa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was developed in the UBPC “The Coast”, belonging to the Miscellaneous Crops Enterprise of Campechuela municipality, Granma province, during the period from November to March of the year 2010 – 2011. It was carried out in a reddish brown fersialitic soil, according with the new genetic classification of the soils of Cuba MINAGRI, (2000, with the objective of studying and evaluating the influence of different organic fertilizers in the growth, development and yield in the cultivation of onion, variety Texas Early Grain. For this reason it was necessary to work on blocks with 4 treatments and 4 replies. The treatments applied were: treatment 1 (vermicompost, treatment 2 (cow dung, treatment 3 (cachaça and treatment 4 (control, those were applied in a solid way. The growth variables that were evaluated were number of leaves, height of the plant, equatorial diameter, polar diameter and fresh weight of the bulb. The yield was also evaluated in t.ha-1 per treatment. High yields are achieved with the application of organic fertilizer, among 27 and 30 t.ha-1, this is an alternative for the sustainable production of this product which is highly demanded by the population.

  13. Morphological and chemical characteristics of onion plants (Allium cepa L. associated with resistance to onion thrips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Cezar Pacheco da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thrips tabaci Lindeman is the main pest of onion crops, and chemical control is the main method adopted by farmers. Alternative control methods should be prioritised to reduce the amount of insecticides used. Resistant cultivars are one efficient way to control thrips in the field. Our aim was to assess the influence of morphological and chemical characteristics of seven onion cultivars and their resistance to T. tabaci. The number of thrips and the morphological and chemical characteristics of the plants were assessed. Among the evaluated cultivars, Alfa São Francisco RT, BR 29 and Sirius showed resistance to T. tabaci, as indicated by the lower number of thrips observed during the cycle (64, 87, and 74 thrips, respectively. Morphological and chemical characteristics were associated with onion’s resistance to T. tabaci. For the cultivar Alfa São Francisco RT, a wider central angle (16.4°, a thinner cuticle, a larger amount of epicuticular waxes, and stomata on the surface of leaves accounted for resistance. For the cultivars BR 29 and Sirius, the resistance was likely due to the presence of resistance-conferring substances or high amounts of some component in the chemical composition of plants.

  14. 77 FR 13961 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Onion Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... flavor than storage onions. Due to a higher moisture and sugar content, they are subject to deterioration... in color than non- storage onions. They are more pungent, have a lower sugar content, and can...

  15. Study of Nutrient Content Variation in Bulb And Stalk of Onions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Keywords: Onion bulbs and stalks, proximate, nutrient elements, vitamins A and C; oxalate. INTRODUCTION ... In addition, onion is among the food plants to which moderate ..... by change of colour or taste and cost of fortified iron products, the ...

  16. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on growth and development of onion and wild relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.M.; Galvan-Vivero, G.; Burger-Meijer, K.; Baar, J.; Kik, C.

    2006-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in the uptake of nutrients and water from soil. Onions, Allium cepa L., are plants with a shallow root system. As a result, onion plants need a lot of fertiziler for their growth. Furthermore, onion plants are sensitive to drought. The aim of the

  17. Determinants of Adoption of Improved Onion Variety in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Reza Anik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Through exploring data collected from 300 Bangladeshi onion growers this article suggests options for widespread adoption of modern onion varieties. Cultivation of modern variety enables farmers to produce more and earn higher profit than the traditional variety growing farmers, though farmers requires more capital for cultivating modern variety. Quality of extension service and access to credit are two of the most important factors to contribute in adoption. Farmers practicing crop diversification are more likely to adopt, but when they adopt they devote relatively lower share of their available land for modern onion varieties since they are characterized to cultivate different crops. With increasing off-farm income farmers tend to adopt less. Level of adoption is likely to be higher among the experienced and educated farmers. Number of fragmented land reduces adoption probabilities.

  18. Non-convex onion peeling using a shape hull algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Fadili, Jalal M.; Melkemi, Mahmoud; Elmoataz, Abderrahim

    2004-01-01

    International audience; The convex onion-peeling of a set of points is the organization of these points into a sequence of interpolating convex polygons. This method is adequate to detect the shape of the “center” of a set of points when this shape is convex. However it reveals inadequate to detect non-convex shapes. Alternatively, we propose an extension of the convex onion-peeling method. It consists in representing a set of points with a sequence of non-convex polylines which are computed ...

  19. High dilutions of Sulphur and relationship with the onion thrips, downy mildew incidence and yield of onion in organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antonio de Souza Gonçalves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate high dilutions of Sulphur on the incidence of onion thrips, downy mildew, chlorophyll content and yield of onion under organic production system. The study was carried out at Ituporanga Experiment Station of Epagri, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, from August to December of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Treatments were foliar sprays of 0.5% Sulphur at high dilutions 6, 12 and 30 CH (CH, hahnemannian centesimal scale and untreated plot as control check. The experimental design was a randomized block design with four replications. The incidence and damage of onion thrips, reduction of the severity of downy mildew, chlorophyll index, total and commercial yield, bulb weight, postharvest conservation were not influenced by the treatments.

  20. Striking differences in the biological and molecular properties of onion and garlic isolates of onion yellow dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, M G; Torrico, A K; Kiehr, M; Conci, V C

    2013-06-01

    Complete nucleotide (nt) and deduced amino acid sequences of two onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) isolates showing mild and severe symptoms in onion but being unable to infect garlic were determined. The genomes consisted of 10,459 and 10,461 nt (without the 3' poly(A) tail) and were 92.2 % identical. Comparison of their whole genomes, polyproteins and P1, HC-Pro, P3, CI, VPg and NIa-Pro regions with those of garlic isolates previously identified as OYDV gave percentage values below that proposed as the molecular threshold for potyvirus species demarcation. This and the striking differences in host range between onion and garlic isolates suggest that they represent different virus species.

  1. Structural transition and melting of onion-ring Pd Pt bimetallic clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Daojian; Cao, Dapeng

    2008-08-01

    We use canonical Monte Carlo simulations to study the melting of icosahedral and decahedral onion-ring Pd-Pt bimetallic clusters consisting of 147 atoms. Structural transition from decahedron to icosahedron-like is found for the decahedral onion-ring 147-atom Pd-Pt cluster before melting. Also, the melting point of the decahedral onion-ring 147-atom Pd-Pt cluster is lower than the corresponding icosahedral cluster. In addition, at the higher temperatures after melting, the four-shell onion-ring structure becomes unstable, and can be transformed into the three-shell onion-like structure.

  2. 7 CFR 955.101 - Vidalia Onion Handler Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... covered by the report; (3) total quantity of Vidalia onions received; (4) total fresh market shipments of... with the Committee not later than 5 p.m. on the fifth day of each month following the month in...

  3. Controlled Trapping of Onion-Like Carbon (OLC) via Dielectrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olariu, Marius; Arcire, Alexandru; Plonska-Brzezinska, Marta E.

    2016-09-01

    Manipulation of onion-like carbon (OLC), also known as carbon nano-onions (CNOs), at the level of various arrays of microelectrodes is vital in practical applications such as biological and chemical sensing, ultracapacitors (supercapacitors), electromagnetic shielding, catalysis, tribology, optical limiting and molecular junctions in scanning tunneling microscopy, and field-effect transistors. In spite of technological developments in this area, rigorous handling of carbon nano-onions towards desired locations within a device remains a challenge, and the quantity of OLC required significantly influences the price of the final electrical or electronic device. We present herein an experimental study on electromanipulation and trapping of onion-like carbon (OLC) at the level of gold-patterned interdigitated microelectrodes through dielectrophoresis. The influence of the magnitude as well as frequency of the alternating-current (AC) voltage employed for OLC trapping is discussed in detail. The effects of tuning the AC field strength and frequency on the OLC trapping behavior are also considered.

  4. Integrated systems of weed management in organic "Vidalia" onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidalia® dry-bulb onion are a multi-million dollar crop grown exclusively in a twenty county region in southeastern Georgia, as defined by a Federal Marketing Order issued in 1989. Plantings in 2009 were 11,500 harvested acres, with an estimated gross value of $9,440/A. Acreage of certified organi...

  5. Integrated Systems of Weed Management in Organic 'Vidalia' Onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trials were conducted in southeastern Georgia to develop integrated systems of weed management in organic Vidalia® onion. Treatments were a factorial arrangement of summer solarization, cultivation, and herbicides appropriate for use in certified organic production systems. Plots were solarized wi...

  6. Genetic Analyses of Soluble Carbohydrate Concentrations in Onion Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructans are the primary soluble carbohydrate in onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs and show significant correlations with dry weights and pungency. In this research, we estimated the genetic effects and interactions between two chromosome regions associated with higher amounts of soluble carbohydrates i...

  7. Translational Genomics of Onion: Challenges of an Enormous Nuclear Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of high throughput DNA sequencing to address important production constraints has been termed “translational genomics”. Classical breeding of onion (Allium cepa) is expensive and slow due to a long generation time and the high costs of crossing with insects. Translational genomics should r...

  8. Effectiveness of Onion Extract Gel on Surgical Scars in Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumutnart Chanprapaph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Onion extracts have been shown in vitro to accelerate wound healing. Results from clinical studies on surgical scars in Caucasians were disappointing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of onion extract gel in improving the cosmetic and symptoms of surgical scars in Asians. Patients/Methods. Twenty Asians who had new Pfannenstiel’s cesarean section scars were recruited in this prospective double-blinded, split-scar study. Each side was randomly assigned treatment with onion extract gel or placebo at 7 days after surgery. The product was applied three times daily for 12 weeks. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and 4th and 12th weeks. Scar redness was assessed by calorimeter, scar height and pliability were assessed by blinded investigators, and scar symptoms and overall cosmetic improvement were assessed by subjects. Results. Sixteen subjects completed the study. A statistically significant difference between two sides of scar in terms of scar height and scar symptoms was found. There was no statistically significant difference in scar redness, scar pliability, and overall cosmetic appearance between two sides. Conclusions. The early use of topical 12% onion extract gel on Pfannenstiel’s cesarean section scar in Asians resulted in the improvement of scar height and scar symptoms.

  9. Proteomic analyses of male-fertility restoration in CMS onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using a proteomics ...

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Male-Fertility Restoration in CMS Onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using proteomics ...

  11. Controlled Trapping of Onion-Like Carbon (OLC) via Dielectrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olariu, Marius; Arcire, Alexandru; Plonska-Brzezinska, Marta E.

    2017-01-01

    Manipulation of onion-like carbon (OLC), also known as carbon nano-onions (CNOs), at the level of various arrays of microelectrodes is vital in practical applications such as biological and chemical sensing, ultracapacitors (supercapacitors), electromagnetic shielding, catalysis, tribology, optical limiting and molecular junctions in scanning tunneling microscopy, and field-effect transistors. In spite of technological developments in this area, rigorous handling of carbon nano-onions towards desired locations within a device remains a challenge, and the quantity of OLC required significantly influences the price of the final electrical or electronic device. We present herein an experimental study on electromanipulation and trapping of onion-like carbon (OLC) at the level of gold-patterned interdigitated microelectrodes through dielectrophoresis. The influence of the magnitude as well as frequency of the alternating-current (AC) voltage employed for OLC trapping is discussed in detail. The effects of tuning the AC field strength and frequency on the OLC trapping behavior are also considered.

  12. Evaluation of botanicals for onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Field studies were conducted for two consecutive years (2013 and 2014) to ... effective botanical insecticides against onion thrips from different plant ... Neem leaves were dried in the lab for three days and grounded using electrical blender to make ... Effect of Botanicals and Chemical Insecticides on Population Dynamics of ...

  13. Are specific testing protocols required for organic onion varieties? Analysis of onion variety testing under conventional and organic growing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Osman, A.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Struik, P.C.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Broek, van den R.C.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic growers need information on variety performance under their growing conditions. A 4-year onion variety research project was carried out to investigate whether setting up a variety testing system combining conventional and organic variety trials is feasible and efficient rather than organizin

  14. Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus associated with onion transplants, onion volunteers, and weeds in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrips tabaci infestation was determined on onion transplants received in Colorado during March and April from out of state sources (Imperial Valley, near Phoenix Arizona, and southern Texas) during 2004 to 2008. In the five years of the study, 50% to 100% of the transplant lots sampled were found ...

  15. Steam-cooking rapidly destroys and reverses onion-induced antiplatelet activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Emilie A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foods in the diet that can aid in the prevention of diseases are of major interest. Onions are key ingredients in many cuisines around the world and moreover, onion demand has trended higher over the past three decades. An important pharmacological aspect of onion is the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. Raw onions inhibit platelet aggregation; however, when onions are boiled or heated, antiplatelet activity may be abolished. Methods Onion quarters were steamed for 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, and 15 min. The in vitro antiplatelet activity of a yellow hybrid storage onion was examined at these times on the blood of 12 human subjects using in vitro whole blood aggregometry. Results Contrary to findings reported for boiling, antiplatelet activity was destroyed between 3 and 6 min of steaming, and at 10 min of steaming, cooked onions stimulated platelet activity. Extracts from cooked onion had the potential to reverse the inhibitory effect on blood platelets by 25%. Responses were consistent across all donors. Total polyphenolic concentration and soluble solids were not affected by steaming time. Conclusions The potential value of cooked onion preparations may result in destruction or reversal of antiplatelet activity, without affecting the polyphenolic concentration.

  16. Growth of Graphene Nanoribbons and Carbon Onions from Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiao-Song; LU Bing-An; XIE Er-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Graphene nanoribbons and carbon onions are directly prepared by electron beam irradiation of polyacrylonitrile and expanded polystyrene nanofibers,respectively.By controlling the irradiation process in a high resolution transmission electron microscope,the number of layers of the graphene nanoribbons,as well as the dimension of the carbon onions,can be controlled.It is found that the initial diameter of the nanofiber has a strong effect on the final results.A mechanism is proposed to explain the transformation of polymer nanofibers to carbon nanostructures under electron beam irradiation.This supposes that the polymer nanofibers are first carbonized and then graphitized as a result of the high energy electrons.According to the mechanism,it is believed that all polymer nanofibers could be carbonized and then converted to graphene nanoribbons by proper electron beam irradiation.

  17. Microbiological Aspects Considering the Production of Nutraceutical Curd Containing Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dumuţa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The curd is a traditional Romanian dairy product highly appreciated by the consumers. The purpose of this study was to produce and analyze from the microbiological point of view a nutraceutical curd containing onion, as a prebiotic source. The synbiotics generate among the organoleptic benefits also health improvement due to the different actions taken by probiotics and prebiotics, working together. The curd was produced by the traditional method using buffalo milk with reduced cholesterol content due to the treatment with crosslinked β-ciclodextrin with adipic acid.The curd prepared by rennet adding and coagulation at 30°C during 30-45 minutes was subjected to the maturation at a temperature of 12-16°C. Considering the microbiological tests, the curd recorded a pozitive evolution, being characterized by a lower microbial load compared with a control curd, prepared without onion.

  18. Fusarium rot of onion and possible use of bioproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klokočar-Šmit Zlata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Fusarium are causal agents of onion rot in field and storage. Most prevalent are F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae and F. solani, and recently F. proliferatum, a toxigenic species. Most frequently isolated fungi in our field experiments were F. solani and F. proliferatum with different pathogenicity. Certain differences in antagonistic activity of Trichoderma asperellum on different isolates of F. proliferatum and F. solani have been found in in vitro study in dual culture, expressed as a slower inhibition of growth of the former, and faster of the latter pathogen. Antagonistic abilities of species from genus Trichoderma (T. asperellum are important, and have already been exploited in formulated biocontrol products in organic and conventional production, in order to prevent soil borne pathogens inducing fusarium wilt and rot. The importance of preventing onion infection by Fusarium spp., possible mycotoxin producers, has been underlined.

  19. Cover Crops Effects on Soil Chemical Properties and Onion Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Assis de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops contribute to nutrient cycling and may improve soil chemical properties and, consequently, increase crop yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate cover crop residue decomposition and nutrient release, and the effects of these plants on soil chemical properties and on onion (Allium cepa L. yield in a no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out in an Inceptisol in southern Brazil, where cover crops were sown in April 2012 and 2013. In July 2013, shoots of weeds (WD, black oats (BO, rye (RY, oilseed radish (RD, oilseed radish + black oats (RD + BO, and oilseed radish + rye (RD + RY were cut at ground level and part of these material from each treatment was placed in litter bags. The litter bags were distributed on the soil surface and were collected at 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days after distribution (DAD. The residues in the litter bags were dried, weighed, and ground, and then analyzed to quantify lignin, cellulose, non-structural biomass, total organic carbon (TOC, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. In November 2012 and 2013, onion crops were harvested to quantify yield, and bulbs were classified according to diameter, and the number of rotted and flowering bulbs was determined. Soil in the 0.00-0.10 m layer was collected for chemical analysis before transplanting and after harvesting onion in December 2012 and 2013. The rye plant residues presented the highest half-life and they released less nutrients until 90 DAD. The great permanence of rye residue was considered a protection to soil surface, the opposite was observed with spontaneous vegetation. The cultivation and addition of dry residue of cover crops increased the onion yield at 2.5 Mg ha-1.

  20. Onion seed vigor in relation to plant growth and yield

    OpenAIRE

    Rodo Angélica B.; Marcos-Filho Julio

    2003-01-01

    Research has emphasized the relationship of laboratory germination and vigor to seedling emergence and stand establishment, but information relating seed vigor to plant performance is less available. The reliable procedures to evaluate onion (Allium cepa L.) seed vigor and decided the differences between seed physiological potential influence plant performance in field conditions were identified in two experimental years. Six seed lots of Petroline cultivar were evaluated for germination and ...

  1. Production of guard cell protoplasts from onion and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, E; Hepler, P K

    1976-10-01

    Guard cell protoplasts (GCP) from young cotyledons of onion and tobacco were isolated in culture microchambers where optimal isolating and culture conditions could be determined in situ. The digestion course was quantified by following under polarized light the loss of.retardation of the birefringent cellulose of the guard cells. The assay showed that driselase has a 5-fold higher cellulytic activity than cellulysin. Driselase is, however, harmful to the GCP. Calcofluor staining was less adequate for establishing digestion courses because it increases sharply after exposing guard cells to cellulysin.Osmotic conditions were crucial for GCP survival. Onion guard cells fragment in the presence of strong plasmolyticum (>0.45 m) indicating cytoplasmic connections between neighboring guard cells and/or cytoplasmic attachments to the wall. Tobacco guard cells plasmolyzed with 0.7 m mannitol revealed several areas of strong attachment to the wall which resulted in severe damage to the cells. Healthy tobacco GCP are obtained by an initial digestion with 4% (w/v) cellulysin in 0.23 m mannitol for 2 to 3 hours followed by an increase in the osmoticum to 0.7 m to stabilize the forming protoplasts.Onion GCP were obtained by digesting paradermal slices with 4% (w/v) cellulysin in 0.23 m mannitol. Protoplasts can be osmotically released by replacing the enzyme solution with 0.23 m mannitol at early stages of digestion. They are also available after prolonged digestion (6-12 hours). Paradermal slices also yield mesophyll and epidermal cell protoplasts but they can be selectively washed away if a pure preparation of GCP is desired. Onion GCP have been kept alive in a simple culture solution for up to 10 days.

  2. Production of Guard Cell Protoplasts from Onion and Tobacco 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Eduardo; Hepler, Peter K.

    1976-01-01

    Guard cell protoplasts (GCP) from young cotyledons of onion and tobacco were isolated in culture microchambers where optimal isolating and culture conditions could be determined in situ. The digestion course was quantified by following under polarized light the loss of.retardation of the birefringent cellulose of the guard cells. The assay showed that driselase has a 5-fold higher cellulytic activity than cellulysin. Driselase is, however, harmful to the GCP. Calcofluor staining was less adequate for establishing digestion courses because it increases sharply after exposing guard cells to cellulysin. Osmotic conditions were crucial for GCP survival. Onion guard cells fragment in the presence of strong plasmolyticum (>0.45 m) indicating cytoplasmic connections between neighboring guard cells and/or cytoplasmic attachments to the wall. Tobacco guard cells plasmolyzed with 0.7 m mannitol revealed several areas of strong attachment to the wall which resulted in severe damage to the cells. Healthy tobacco GCP are obtained by an initial digestion with 4% (w/v) cellulysin in 0.23 m mannitol for 2 to 3 hours followed by an increase in the osmoticum to 0.7 m to stabilize the forming protoplasts. Onion GCP were obtained by digesting paradermal slices with 4% (w/v) cellulysin in 0.23 m mannitol. Protoplasts can be osmotically released by replacing the enzyme solution with 0.23 m mannitol at early stages of digestion. They are also available after prolonged digestion (6-12 hours). Paradermal slices also yield mesophyll and epidermal cell protoplasts but they can be selectively washed away if a pure preparation of GCP is desired. Onion GCP have been kept alive in a simple culture solution for up to 10 days. Images PMID:16659703

  3. Development of a disposable pyruvate biosensor to determine pungency in onions (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Abayomi, Louise Anike; Terry, Leon A.; White, S. F.; Warner, P J

    2006-01-01

    A disposable prototype pyruvate biosensor was constructed using pyruvate oxidase immobilised on mediated meldolas blue electrodes to determine pungency in onions (Allium cepa L.). The optimum operating potential was +150 mV (versus Ag/AgCl). A strong correlation between the biosensor response and untreated onion juice of known pyruvate concentration 2–12 μmol/g fresh weight (FW) was demonstrated. The biosensor was able to differentiate between low and high pungency onions. The detection limit...

  4. No Reported Species, Botrytis aclada Causing Gray Mold Neck Rot Disease on Onion Bulbs in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Sun–Kyoung; Lee, Seung–Yeol; Back, Chang–Gi; Kang, In–Kyu; Lee, Hyang–Burm; Jung, Hee-Young; Ohga, Shoji; Oga, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Gray mold neck rot was observed on onion bulbs (Allium cepa L.) in low–temperature warehouses in Changnyeong–gun, Korea. The causative pathogen was isolated from rotted onion bulb lesions and identified as Botrytis aclada based on morphological and culture characteristics, the sequences of three nuclear genes (G3PDH, HSP60, and RPB2), and polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) for Botrytis spp. identification. Although onion gray mold disease caused by B...

  5. Radioinhibition process in Argentinian garlic and onion bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzio, O. A.; Croci, C. A.

    Technological aspects of garlic and onion bulbs subjected to the radioinhibition process and extended storage under warehouse conditions were studied. Garlic and onion of the "Colorado" and "Valenciana sintética 14" varieties respectively, were irradiated in dormancy period with an average dose of 50.0 Gy of 60Co gamma rays and kept in storage up to ten months post-harvest. Throughout the control period (180-300 days post-harvest) obvious benefits were attained as to reducing the weight loss and increasing the percentage of marketable bulbs. In general, the irradiated bulbs were superior to the non-irradiated ones with regard to the external aspect, firmness and internal aspect, while the odor of the bulbs was not affected by the process. The radioinhibition process does not seem to affect adversely the levels of dry matter, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid as well as the acidity in onion bulbs. In two marketing trials a very favourable reception was perceived in the consumer public regarding the quality of the products. These studies have promoted the construction of a multipurpose irradiation facility in the Universidad Nacional del Sur for the development of the radiation processing technology.

  6. Micropropagation of onion (Allium cepa L.) from immature inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro plant production by direct organogenesis from immature flower heads is an ideal approach for clonal propagation of onions (Allium cepa L.). This technique ensures genetic stability, high propagation rate, and maintains donor plant of explants with an advantage over other means of in vitro regeneration. Onion micropropagation is usually applied in breeding programs, maintenance, and multiplication of cytoplasmic-male sterile lines for hybrid production, germplasm conservation, and as a tool for the application of other biotechnologies. For in vitro culture, mature onion bulbs are induced to reproductive phase by vernalization and forced to inflorescence initiation. Immature umbels are dissected from bulbs or cut directly when they appear from the pseudostem among the leaves. Disinfected inflorescences are cultivated in BDS basal medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg/L N (6)-benzyladenine, and 8 g/L agar, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod white fluorescent light (PPD: 50-70 μmol/m(2)s) for 35 days. The regenerated shoot clumps are divided and subculture under the same conditions. For bulbification phase, the individual shoots are cultured in BDS basal medium containing 90 g/L sucrose, without plant growth regulators, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod. Microbulbs can be directly cultivated ex vitro without acclimation.

  7. Impact of agricultural practices on onion Banao system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Valdivia Pérez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present article was carried out a descriptive statistical study in which different tools like non structured interviews, revision of files and the use of the SIG are integrated. The investigation was developed in 2010 - 2011. The population of Banao showed a high sense of ownership to the area and 70% is in labour age highlighting the range of 25 - 39 years, out of them 24,1% of the producers have been devoted to the agriculture for 10 and 20 years. 45,8% presents problems with the supply source, 71,8% should drive the water to more than 200 m to water. When analyzing the degradation of the soil it is appreciated that 97% of the soil that is dedicated to the cultivation of the onion is eroded, existing areas where the cultivation should not be fomented, for the excessive exploitation of its soils. Among the interviewed producers 59.7% knows that there is degradation of the soils in its property, however 51.7% doesn't apply any alternative of protection of the soil. The current production of onion compromises the stability of the ecosystem considerably. This study constitutes an indispensable premise to advance toward a sustainable model of the local onion system.

  8. Quality evaluation of onion bulbs during low temperature drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaeni, M.; Asiah, N.; Wibowo, Y. P.; Yusron, D. A. A.

    2016-06-01

    A drying technology must be designed carefully by evaluating the foods' final quality properties as a dried material. Thermal processing should be operated with the minimum chance of substantial flavour, taste, color and nutrient loss. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the quality parameters of quercetin content, color, non-enzymatic browning and antioxidant activity. The experiments showed that heating at different temperatures for several drying times resulted in a percentage of quercetin being generally constant. The quercetin content maintained at the value of ±1.2 % (dry basis). The color of onion bulbs was measured by CIE standard illuminant C. The red color (a*) of the outer layer of onion bulbs changed significantly when the drying temperature was increased. However the value of L* and b* changed in a fluctuating way based on the temperature. The change of onion colors was influenced by temperature and moisture content during the drying process. The higher the temperature, the higher it affects the rate of non-enzymatic browning reaction. The correlation between temperature and reaction rate constant was described as Arrhenius equation. The rate of non-enzymatic browning increases along with the increase of drying temperature. The results showed that higher drying temperatures were followed by a lower IC10. This condition indicated the increase of antioxidant activity after the drying process.

  9. Monitoring of substrate and product concentrations in acetic fermentation processes for onion vinegar production by NIR spectroscopy: value addition to worthless onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sáiz, J M; Esteban-Díez, I; Sánchez-Gallardo, C; Pizarro, C

    2008-08-01

    Wastes and by-products of the onion-processing industry pose an increasing disposal and environmental problem and represent a loss of valuable sources of nutrients. The present study focused on the production of vinegar from worthless onions as a potential valorisation route which could provide a viable solution to multiple disposal and environmental problems, simultaneously offering the possibility of converting waste materials into a useful food-grade product and of exploiting the unique properties and health benefits of onions. This study deals specifically with the second and definitive step of the onion vinegar production process: the efficient production of vinegar from onion waste by transforming onion ethanol, previously produced by alcoholic fermentation, into acetic acid via acetic fermentation. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), coupled with multivariate calibration methods, has been used to monitor the concentrations of both substrates and products in acetic fermentation. Separate partial least squares (PLS) regression models, correlating NIR spectral data of fermentation samples with each kinetic parameter studied, were developed. Wavelength selection was also performed applying the iterative predictor weighting-PLS (IPW-PLS) method in order to only consider significant spectral features in each model development to improve the quality of the final models constructed. Biomass, substrate (ethanol) and product (acetic acid) concentration were predicted in the acetic fermentation of onion alcohol with high accuracy using IPW-PLS models with a root-mean-square error of the residuals in external prediction (RMSEP) lower than 2.5% for both ethanol and acetic acid, and an RMSEP of 6.1% for total biomass concentration (a very satisfactory result considering the relatively low precision and accuracy associated with the reference method used for determining the latter). Thus, the simple and reliable calibration models proposed in this study suggest that they

  10. Heinz body formation in cats fed baby food containing onion powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J E; Christopher, M M; Rogers, Q R

    1998-04-15

    To determine whether cats fed baby food with onion powder develop Heinz bodies and anemia and to establish a dose-response relation between dietary onion powder content and Heinz body formation. Prospective study. 42 healthy, adult, specific-pathogen-free cats. Commercial baby food with and without onion powder was fed to 2 groups of 6 cats for 5 weeks. Heinz body percentage, PCV, reticulocyte percentage, turbidity index, and methemoglobin and reduced glutathione concentrations were determined twice weekly and then weekly for 4 weeks following removal of the diet. For the dose-response study, 5 groups of 6 cats were fed a canned diet for 2 months that contained 0, 0.3, 0.75, 1.5, or 2.5% onion powder. Heinz body percentage, PCV, and reticulocyte percentage were determined twice weekly. Compared with cats fed baby food without onion powder, cats ingesting baby food with onion powder had significantly higher Heinz body percentages that peaked at 33 to 53%. Methemoglobin concentration also significantly increased but did not exceed 1.2%. Glutathione concentration, PCV, and food intake did not differ between the 2 groups. Rate and degree of Heinz body formation differed significantly between various onion powder concentrations fed. Compared with 0% onion powder, the diet with 2.5% onion powder caused a significant decrease in PCV and an increased punctate reticulocyte percentage. Baby food or other foods containing similar amounts of onion powder should be avoided for use in cats because of Heinz body formation and the potential for development of anemia, particularly with high food intake. Cats with diseases associated with oxidative stress may develop additive hemoglobin damage when fed baby food containing onion powder.

  11. 78 FR 52131 - United States Standards for Grades of Creole Onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... Marketing Service (AMS) is proposing to amend the similar varietal characteristic requirement to allow mixed... specialty or mixed pack will facilitate the marketing of onions by aligning the standards with current... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Creole Onions AGENCY: Agricultural...

  12. Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulation of Onion Phase in Star-block Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shao-gui; DU Ting-ting

    2013-01-01

    A dissipative particle dynamics simulation technique was used to investigate the effect of molecular architecture of star-block copolymer on the patterned structure in a nanodroplet.With increasing the ratio of solvophilic to block length to solvophobic block length(RH/T),solvophobic sphere,ordered hexagonal phase,onion phase,perforated onion phase and flocculent phase are formed,respectively.Since onion phase has potential application in controlled drug release,it has received wide attention experimentally and theoretically.Our simulation indicates onion phase forms at a certain RH/T(close to but less than 1).A star-block copolymer molecule has two conformations in onion phase:either fully located in a shell or shared by two neighboring shells.Central structure affects onion's final shape.The molecular number of the copolymer in each shell is a quadratic function of the shell's radius.The arm number of star-block copolymer has little influence on onion's structure,but slightly affects the solvent content.Additionally,we studied the influence of arm length on onion's structure.

  13. SNP-markers in Allium species to facilitate introgression breeding in onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Olga E.; Kaauwen, van Martijn P.W.; Shahin, Arwa; Hendrickx, Patrick M.; Keizer, Paul; Burger-Meijer, Karin; Heusden, van Sjaak; Linden, van der Gerard; Vosman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Background: Within onion, Allium cepa L., the availability of disease resistance is limited. The identification of sources of resistance in related species, such as Allium roylei and Allium fistulosum, was a first step towards the improvement of onion cultivars by breeding. SNP markers linked to

  14. Pressurised liquid extraction of flavonoids in onions. Method development and validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Malene; Christensen, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

    2009-01-01

    A rapid and reliable analytical method for quantification of flavonoids in onions was developed and validated. Five extraction methods were tested on freeze-dried onions and subsequently high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection was used for quantification of seven flavonoids...

  15. Towards a framework PCR-based map of onion (Allium cepa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCallum, J.; Pither-Joyce, M.; Clarke, A.; Kik, C.; Heusden, van A.W.; Jakse, J.; Havey, M.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic analysis of onion has been hampered by a lack of portable co-dominant markers based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The public release of a relatively large set of non-redundant onion expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in 2003 has provided the opportunity to develop such markers for use

  16. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Rajkumar

    Full Text Available Allium cepa (onion is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb. Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  17. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion) Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Ramagoni, Ramesh Kumar; Anchoju, Vijayendra Chary; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Syed, Arshi Uz Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Allium cepa (onion) is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb). Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  18. Genetic variation for epicuticular waxes in onion: a thrips-avoidance mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion (Allium cepa) is the second most valuable vegetable crop in the world and the third most valuable in the USA. Thrips are one of the main insect pests of onion, causing damage to leaves and stored bulbs as well as transmitting serious diseases such as Iris Yellow Spot Virus and bacterial bulb r...

  19. Corn gluten meal as an alternative organic preemergence herbicide for onions (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are a potential alternative crop for Oklahoma and northeast Texas and corn gluten meal (CGM) is an alternative organic preemergence herbicide. Successful onion production is dependent on reliable weed control because of the onion’s slow growth rate, short height, non-branchin...

  20. Relations between the physiological state of onions and an effective sprout inhibition by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlhelm, H.; Matejko, C.

    The mitotic activity in shoot meristem was examined during the entire storage period of onions ( Allium cepa L.) and was compared with the growth of the inner bud of the bulbs unirradiated and after irradiation. The meaning of cell division at the shoot apex for the sprouting of onions and the effect of γ-irradiation are discussed.

  1. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  2. Broadcast applications of Acetic Acid: Weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma producers are interested in sweet onion (Allium cepa L.) as an alternative crop for farm diversification, but weed control continues to be a primary obstacle. The weed control challenges for onion production are even greater for those considering organic crop production. The few organic h...

  3. First report of Serratia plymuthica causing onion bulb rot in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Beata; Smolińska, Urszula; Oskiera, Michał

    2011-01-01

    Specific bacterial disease symptoms were observed on onion bulbs in almost all regions in Poland. For the purpose of identification of agents causing disease, bacteria were isolated from the symptomatic plants. Their pathogenicity was confirmed by using pathogenicity test on onion scales. These bacteria were identified biochemically and molecularly as Serratia plymuthica.

  4. 76 FR 31575 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... from American Frozen Food Institute (AFFI), requesting the development of new standards for frozen... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Onions AGENCY: Agricultural... United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Onions. USDA has received additional industry comments...

  5. Relations between the physiological state of onions and an effective sprout inhibition by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlhelm, H.; Matejko, C. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig (Germany, F.R.). Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1990-01-01

    The mitotic activity in shoot meristem was examined during the entire storage period of onions (Allium cepa L.) and was compared with the growth of the inner bud of the bulbs unirradiated and after irradiation. The meaning of cell division at the shoot apex for the sprouting of onions and the effect of {gamma}-irradiation are discussed. (author).

  6. 78 FR 52099 - Onions Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano/Creole; Bermuda-Granex-Grano

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 51 Onions Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano/Creole; Bermuda-Granex- Grano AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... Type Onions which were issued under the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946. The Agricultural...

  7. Does an onion-enriched diet beneficially affect the microbiotal composition in healthy human subjects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Borg, Birgitte; Marin, Eduvigis Roldán

    are considered to have beneficial effects on the intestinal environment. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of onion consumption on the gut microbiotal profile. In this project, five male and five female subjects were randomized to two 14 days intervention periods including one onion...

  8. Interactions among cultivation, weeds, and a bio-fungicide in organic Vidalia sweet onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed management in organic Vidalia® sweet onion (Allium cepa) is largely dependent on multiple cultivations with a tine weeder. Earlier research suggested cultivation with a tine weeder did not predispose onion bulbs to infection during storage. Trials were conducted from 2012 through 2014 near Ly...

  9. Effect of onion flavonoids on colorectal cancer with hyperlipidemia: an in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Y

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yongshan He,1,* Heiying Jin,1,* Wei Gong,2,* Chunxia Zhang,1 Acheng Zhou1 1National Center of Colorectal Surgery, Third Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Surgery, Jiangyin Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jiangyin, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: This study aims to find the effect of onion's extraction on the colorectal cancer with hyperlipidemia. Method: We established a hyperlipidemia-subcutaneously heterotopic colorectal cancer orthotopic transplant model and fed mice a high fat diet and performing transplantation. Animal models were treated with capecitabine and/or simvastatin and low-, middle-, high- dose of onion's extraction and both tumor growth rate and blood lipid levels were monitored. Results: We found that colorectal cancer in onion's extraction groups was significantly inhibited, and the effect of high dose of onion's extraction was equivalent to capecitabine. Onion's extraction effectively decreased levels of apoB and TC. Conclusion: Our study established a hyperlipidemia colon tumor model involving subcutaneous colon translocation and orthotopic transplantation, this model was an ideal research model for mutual influence of hyperlipidemia and colorectal cancer. Onion's extraction could inhibit the proliferation of colorectal cancer; the function of the high-dose of onion's extraction was fairly to capecitabine, which provided a new direction in protecting and treating colorectal cancer. Keywords: colorectal cancer, hyperlipidemia, onion flavonoids, capecitabine, simvastatin

  10. Mechanical grading in PGI Tropea red onion post harvest operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bernardi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest expressed by consumers toward food products quality as well as toward their linkage to the territory, has led producers to fit to the continuous rising demand for “typical products”, and to look for new and more efficient production and marketing strategies. An emblematic case is represented by Tropea red onion that, as a typical product, plays an important role in economical and rural development of the territory to which it is linked. The organoleptic features offered by “Tropea Red Onion”, PGI certified (Calabria, have to be associated as well to the quality of services that accompanies its processing. Technology application in post-harvest operations, has certainly contributed to make faster and less tiring all processing tasks. The main problem related to the mechanization of Tropea red onion post-harvest operations lies in the removal of the various layers of the external tunic, making it impossible for optical or electronic grader to achieve this task in a satisfactory way since the sensors are not able yet to separate the “bulb” from its involucre. In this context, the current study aims to assess the productivity of three different machines used for round Tropea red onion grading, and determine their work efficiency. The carried out analysis highlighted the ability of the studied machines to ensure a high work capacity, while maintaining a high level of precision during calibration process. Such precision allows to decrease laborer employment and increase processing chain speed, rising as well the annual use of the machines, allowing consequently processing cost savings. For a more profitable employment of such graders, it is, however, necessary from one hand, to properly form the technicians responsible of processing plants management, and from the other hand, to be able to take advantage of a technical assistance network, able to serve users in a short time.

  11. Detection of irradiated onion by means of the comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Alvarez, Damaris L.; Prieto Miranda, Enrique Fco.; Carro Palacio, Sandra [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear. (CEADEN), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: damaris@ceaden.edu.cu; efprieto@ceaden.edu.cu; Iglesia Enriquez, Isora [Instituto de Investigacion para la Industria Alimenticia (IIIA), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba)

    2007-07-01

    The ionizing radiations are used as a harmless alternative treatment that it substitutes the employment of chemical treatments, which after their application in the food products can remain residuals not desired that they come to be carcinogenic. With the food irradiation is eliminated microorganisms and the storage time is prolonged, which produces benefits for the Food Industry and the consumers. In many countries the search of sensitive detecting methods of irradiated foods is promoted by the necessity of the assurance of the consumption of foods with nutritional quality and to test directly the radiation processing, for which several techniques have been developed, these are based on the changes that induce the ionizing radiations in the food products. A recommended method is the Comet Assay of DNA, it is approved by the European Committee of Standardization (EN 13784). The DNA molecule is very sensitive to gamma radiations even at low radiation dose, where the modifications produced in the molecule can be monitored for this analytical technique well-known as Comet Assay of DNA or Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the modifications of the DNA molecule of irradiated onions with the Comet Assay for several dose values, the onions were conserved at environment and refrigeration temperatures. The samples were irradiated in a self-shielding irradiator with {sup 60}Co source, dose rate of 20.45 Gy/min and absorbed dose values of 0.5; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.0 kGy. This detection method demonstrates to be one sensitive and quick technique for the qualitative detection of irradiated onions. (author)

  12. Soil covering in organic cultivation of onion cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barreto Tavella

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The soil preparation in horticulture, including organic, is characterized by intense soil tillage, which increases energy costs and unbalanced the environment. The organic system in onion cultivation has shown satisfactory results, however the soil covering use tends to improve the cultivation environment and may result in higher yields. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of onion cultivars in organic cultivation under different soil coverages. The experiment was conducted in the period of April to October of 2009, under protected cropping, in the experimental area of the horticulture sector of the Universidade Federal do Acre (UFAC, in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. A randomized block design was adopted, in a split-plot arrangement, the plots being comprised of soil coverings: coffee bean husks, grass straw (Brachiaria decumbens; dessicated bamboo leaves (Bambusa spp. and uncovered soil (control treatment, and the subplots comprised of three onion cultivars (IPA 10, IPA 11 and IPA 12, with four repetitions. The variables analyzed were total bulb yield (t ha-1, marketable bulb yield (t ha-1, fresh mass of the bulb (g bulb-1, classification of the bulbs and loss of mass as a function of storage time. There was no interaction effect between the soil coverings and the cultivars. Cultivars IPA 10 and IPA 11 showed greater agronomic performance of the studied variables. The soil coverings did not affect the yield and average mass of the bulbs under organic cultivation. The three cultivars presented more than approximately 70% of the bulbs in class 2 and a maximum of 5% of unmarketable bulbs. The loss of mass after 49 days of storage was 10% independent of the cultivar or soil covering.

  13. Economical and environmentally-friendly approaches for usage of onion (Allium cepa L.) waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavita; Mahato, Neelima; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Lee, Eul Tal; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-08-10

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most commonly cultivated crops across the globe, and its production is increasing every year due to increasing consumer demand. Simultaneously, huge amounts of waste are produced from different parts of the onion, which ultimately affect the environment in various ways. Hence, proper usage as well as disposal of this waste is important from the environmental aspect. This review summarizes various usage methods of onion waste material, and processes involved to achieve maximum benefits. Processing industries produce the largest amount of onion waste. Other sources are storage systems, domestic usage and cultivation fields. Particular emphasis has been given to the methods used for better extraction and usage of onion waste under specific topics: viz. organic synthesis, production of biogas, absorbent for pollutants and value added products.

  14. Variability in spectrophotometric pyruvate analyses for predicting onion pungency and nutraceutical value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Vanesa H; Bannoud, Florencia; Insani, Marina; Galmarini, Claudio R; Cavagnaro, Pablo F

    2017-06-01

    Onion pyruvate concentration is used as a predictor of flavor intensity and nutraceutical value. The protocol of Schwimmer and Weston (SW) (1961) is the most widespread methodology for estimating onion pyruvate. Anthon and Barret (AB) (2003) proposed modifications to this procedure. Here, we compared these spectrophotometry-based procedures for pyruvate analysis using a diverse collection of onion cultivars. The SW method always led to over-estimation of pyruvate levels in colored, but not in white onions, by up to 65%. Identification of light-absorbance interfering compounds was performed by spectrophotometry and HPLC analysis. Interference by quercetin and anthocyanins, jointly, accounted for more than 90% of the over-estimation of pyruvate. Pyruvate determinations according to AB significantly reduced absorbance interference from compounds other than pyruvate. This study provides evidence about the mechanistic basis underlying differences between the SW and AB methods for indirect assessment of onion flavor and nutraceutical value.

  15. Bio-ethanol Production from Green Onion by Yeast in Repeated Batch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robati, Reza

    2013-09-01

    Considered to be the cleanest liquid fuel, bio-ethanol can be a reliable alternative to fossil fuels. It is produced by fermentation of sugar components of plant materials. The common onions are considered to be a favorable source of fermentation products as they have high sugar contents as well as contain various nutrients. This study focused on the effective production of ethanol from Green onion (Allium fistulosum L.) by the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" in repeated batch. The results showed that the total sugar concentration of onion juice was 68.4 g/l. The maximum rate of productivity, ethanol yield and final bio-ethanol percentage was 7 g/l/h (g ethanol per liter of onion juice per hour), 35 g/l (g ethanol per liter of onion juice) and 90 %, respectively.

  16. Genotoxic effects of sodium nitrate in onion roots

    OpenAIRE

    Maria-Mihaela ANTOFIE; Doroftei, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to assess cyto- and genotoxic effects of sodium nitrate on Allium cepa root tips by using different concentrations (i.e. 0,1%; 1% and 5%) for treating uniform healthy onion bulbs for three different periods of time: 6, 24 and 72 hours. In the end of the experiment the harvested root tips were prepared according to Feulgen’s squash technique using Schiff reagent and the investigations were realized according to Allium test. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of nitr...

  17. Prospects for geothermal commercialization in the potato and onion industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressler, S.E.; Hanemann, W.M.

    1980-03-01

    A number of areas considered directly relevant to a particular potato or onion processor's decision to use or not to use geothermal energy for its commercial needs are emphasized. These areas include: current fuel uses and problems, and future fuel concerns; firm decision-making processes, including managerial and financing conventions; perceived commercial potential for geothermal energy in the industry; the potential institutional framework for user involvement in geothermal development; and the role that government might most effectively play in stimulating user development. The results are based upon extensive personal interviews with decision-makers in the industry. (MHR)

  18. Effects of an onion by-product on bioactivity and safety markers in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Marín, Eduvigis; Krath, Britta N; Poulsen, Morten; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Nielsen, Tom H; Hansen, Max; Barri, Thaer; Langkilde, Søren; Cano, M Pilar; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Dragsted, Lars O

    2009-12-01

    Onions are excellent sources of bioactive compounds including fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and polyphenols. An onion by-product was characterised in order to be developed as a potentially bioactive food ingredient. Our main aim was to investigate whether the potential health and safety effects of this onion by-product were shared by either of two derived fractions, an extract containing the onion FOS and polyphenols and a residue fraction containing mainly cell wall materials. We report here on the effects of feeding these products on markers of potential toxicity, protective enzymes and gut environment in healthy rats. Rats were fed during 4 weeks with a diet containing the products or a control feed balanced in carbohydrate. The onion by-product and the extract caused anaemia as expected in rodents for Allium products. No other toxicity was observed, including genotoxicity. Glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) activities in erythrocytes increased when rats were fed with the onion extract. Hepatic gene expression of Gr, Gpx1, catalase, 5-aminolevulinate synthase and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase was not altered in any group of the onion fed rats. By contrast, gamma-glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit gene expression was upregulated but only in rats given the onion residue. The onion by-products as well as the soluble and insoluble fractions had prebiotic effects as evidenced by decreased pH, increased butyrate production and altered gut microbiota enzyme activities. In conclusion, the onion by-products have no in vivo genotoxicity, may support in vivo antioxidative defence and alter the functionality of the rat gut microbiota.

  19. Transmission of Pantoea ananatis and P. agglomerans, causal agents of center rot of onion (Allium cepa), by onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) through feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, B; Barman, A K; Srinivasan, R; Avci, U; Ullman, D E; Langston, D B; Gitaitis, R D

    2014-08-01

    Frankliniella fusca, the tobacco thrips, has been shown to acquire and transmit Pantoea ananatis, one of the causal agents of the center rot of onion. Although Thrips tabaci, the onion thrips, is a common pest of onions, its role as a vector of P. ananatis has been unknown. The bacterium, P. agglomerans, is also associated with the center rot of onion, but its transmission by thrips has not been previously investigated. In this study, we investigated the relationship of T. tabaci with P. ananatis and P. agglomerans. Surface-sterilized T. tabaci were provided with various acquisition access periods (AAP) on onion leaves inoculated with either P. ananatis or P. agglomerans. A positive exponential relationship was observed between thrips AAP duration and P. ananatis (R² = 0.967; P = 0.023) or P. agglomerans acquisition (R² = 0.958; P = 0.017). Transmission experiments conducted with T. tabaci adults indicated that 70% of the seedlings developed center rot symptoms 15 days after inoculation. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to P. ananatis revealed that the bacterium was localized only in the gut of T. tabaci adults. Mechanical inoculation of onion seedlings with fecal rinsates alone produced center rot but not with salivary secretions. Together these results suggested that T. tabaci could efficiently transmit P. ananatis and P. agglomerans.

  20. Towards onions and shallots (Allium cepa L.) resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) by transgenesis and conventional breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Onion ( Allium cepa L. group Common Onion) and shallot ( A. cepa L. group Aggregatum) are two subspecies of A. cepa . Both onion and shallot together with other Allium species like garlic ( A. sativum ), leek ( A. porrum ) and bunching onion ( A. fistulosum ) are very important vegetable crops on a

  1. Effective onion leaf fleck management and variability of storage pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasiukevičiūtė Neringa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis spp. cause several diseases in Allium crops and depending on meteorological conditions economic losses can exceed 50%. Forecasting models improve plant protection and sometimes reduce consumption of fungicides, because applications are made precisely during the favourable periods for disease development. Our aim was to evaluate the iMETOS®sm B. cinerea forecasting model as an effective onion leaf fleck management system and estimate the variability of onion bulb pathogens during storage. Assessment of forecasting model data showed that favourable conditions for leaf fleck development arise in July, but greatly depend on that year’s meteorological conditions. During an experimental year the first sprayings with fungicides were applied as forecasted from the model, which resulted in application 19, 6 and 23 days earlier than conventional treatment application times. In 2012-2014 iMETOS®sm treatment yield increased by 3.51 t ha-1, 3.87 t ha-1 and3.40 t ha-1 relative to the control. During storage most frequent injuries were fungal (44% and bacterial (41%, followed by insects (7% and physiological (9%. The highest prevalence of injuries was detected after 2 months of storage.

  2. Pantoea allii sp. nov., isolated from onion plants and seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Carrie L; Goszczynska, Teresa; Venter, Stephanus N; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Vos, Paul; Gitaitis, Ronald D; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2011-04-01

    Eight yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, oxidase-negative, motile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria were isolated from onion seed in South Africa and from an onion plant exhibiting centre rot symptoms in the USA. The isolates were assigned to the genus Pantoea on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical tests. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), based on gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD sequences, confirmed the allocation of the isolates to the genus Pantoea. MLSA further indicated that the isolates represented a novel species, which was phylogenetically most closely related to Pantoea ananatis and Pantoea stewartii. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis also placed the isolates into a cluster separate from P. ananatis and P. stewartii. Compared with type strains of species of the genus Pantoea that showed >97 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with strain BD 390(T), the isolates exhibited 11-55 % whole-genome DNA-DNA relatedness, which confirmed the classification of the isolates in a novel species. The most useful phenotypic characteristics for the differentiation of the isolates from their closest phylogenetic neighbours are production of acid from amygdalin and utilization of adonitol and sorbitol. A novel species, Pantoea allii sp. nov., is proposed, with type strain BD 390(T) ( = LMG 24248(T)).

  3. Multi-scale structure and topological anomaly detection via a new network statistic: The onion decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Grochow, Joshua A.; Allard, Antoine

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a network statistic that measures structural properties at the micro-, meso-, and macroscopic scales, while still being easy to compute and interpretable at a glance. Our statistic, the onion spectrum, is based on the onion decomposition, which refines the k-core decomposition, a standard network fingerprinting method. The onion spectrum is exactly as easy to compute as the k-cores: It is based on the stages at which each vertex gets removed from a graph in the standard algorithm for computing the k-cores. Yet, the onion spectrum reveals much more information about a network, and at multiple scales; for example, it can be used to quantify node heterogeneity, degree correlations, centrality, and tree- or lattice-likeness. Furthermore, unlike the k-core decomposition, the combined degree-onion spectrum immediately gives a clear local picture of the network around each node which allows the detection of interesting subgraphs whose topological structure differs from the global network organization. This local description can also be leveraged to easily generate samples from the ensemble of networks with a given joint degree-onion distribution. We demonstrate the utility of the onion spectrum for understanding both static and dynamic properties on several standard graph models and on many real-world networks.

  4. Effects of Purple Blotch Infection on the Proximate and Mineral Contents of Onion Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Aliero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Alternaria porri Ell. ( Ciferri associated with purple blotch disease in onion on the proximate and mineral composition of onion leaves was investigated. Samples of both healthy and purple blotch - infected onion leaves were dried and analyzed for the nutritional components except moisture content. The mineral contents ( Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe , Zn were determined by flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The infected leaf showed a significant (p < 0.05 decrease in the quantity of the crudeprotein, fat, fibre and ash. The moisture content was. significantly (p < 0.05 lower in healthy onion leaves (88.0% than in the infected leaves (94.7%. Similarly, carbohydrate content was lower in diseased leaves than in healthy onion leaves. The levels of minerals were ignificantly (p < 0.05 lower in diseased leaves compared to the healthy (control leaves indicating that the infection of onion leaves by purple blotch pathogen (Alternaria porri had a significant impact in reducing the nutritional value of the onion leaves. It is important to avoid fungal contamination with a view to enhance nutrient bioavailability for human consumption.

  5. Anti-Obesity Effects of Onion Extract in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiharu Igarashi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Anti-obesity effects of onion extract were determined in obesity and diabetes-prone Zucker diabetic fatty rats by measuring the efficacy of markers concerned with diabetes and obesity. Body and adipose tissue weights in 5% of onion extract-fed group were found to be significantly lower than the control group without onion extract. Fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR levels were also improved, although the serum insulin and leptin levels did not show any remarkable difference. Serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in both the 3% and 5%-fed group were found to be reduced compared to the control group. Additionally the feeding of the onion extract increased the glucose tolerance. These results suggest that dietary onion extract is beneficial for improving diabetes by decreasing lipid levels. We also examined differentiation ability of rat white preadipocyte cells using the onion extract and its sulfur-containing components. Cycloalliin, S-methyl-l-cysteine, S-propyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, dimethyl trisulfide, especially S-methyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide were reported to be effective in inhibiting formation of oil drop in the cells, suggesting that these compounds may be involved in the anti-obesity effect of the onion extract.

  6. Comparative sequence and genetic analyses of asparagus BACs reveal no microsynteny with onion or rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakse, Jernej; Telgmann, Alexa; Jung, Christian; Khar, Anil; Melgar, Sergio; Cheung, Foo; Town, Christopher D; Havey, Michael J

    2006-12-01

    The Poales (includes the grasses) and Asparagales [includes onion (Allium cepa L.) and asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)] are the two most economically important monocot orders. The Poales are a member of the commelinoid monocots, a group of orders sister to the Asparagales. Comparative genomic analyses have revealed a high degree of synteny among the grasses; however, it is not known if this synteny extends to other major monocot groups such as the Asparagales. Although we previously reported no evidence for synteny at the recombinational level between onion and rice, microsynteny may exist across shorter genomic regions in the grasses and Asparagales. We sequenced nine asparagus BACs to reveal physically linked genic-like sequences and determined their most similar positions in the onion and rice genomes. Four of the asparagus BACs were selected using molecular markers tightly linked to the sex-determining M locus on chromosome 5 of asparagus. These BACs possessed only two putative coding regions and had long tracts of degenerated retroviral elements and transposons. Five asparagus BACs were selected after hybridization of three onion cDNAs that mapped to three different onion chromosomes. Genic-like sequences that were physically linked on the cDNA-selected BACs or genetically linked on the M-linked BACs showed significant similarities (e < -20) to expressed sequences on different rice chromosomes, revealing no evidence for microsynteny between asparagus and rice across these regions. Genic-like sequences that were linked in asparagus were used to identify highly similar (e < -20) expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of onion. These onion ESTs mapped to different onion chromosomes and no relationship was observed between physical or genetic linkages in asparagus and genetic linkages in onion. These results further indicate that synteny among grass genomes does not extend to a sister order in the monocots and that asparagus may not be an appropriate smaller genome

  7. Determination of elasticity modulus and Poisson ratio of two onion varieties under different loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jafari Malekabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poisson ratio and modulus of elasticity are two fundamental properties of elastic and viscoelastic solids that use in solving all contact problems, including the calculation of stress, the contact surfaces and elastic deformation (Mohsenin, 1986; Gentle and Halsall, 1982. There are many published literature on Poisson ratio and elasticity modulus of fruit and vegetables. Shitanda et al. (2002 calculated Poisson ratio of rice by considering Boussinesq’s theory. They showed that the Poisson ratio is greater for shorter varieties. In another study, researchers used the instrumented bending beam to measure the lateral expansion of red beans. They were considered Poisson ratio as the ratio of transverse strain to the longitudinal strain (regardless of the geometry of the sample and were calculated modulus of elasticity with Hertz theory for convex bodies (Kiani Deh Kiani et al., 2009. Cakir et al. (2002 was determined the Poisson ratio and elastic modulus of some onion varieties. They used a simple formula to determine the transverse strain that developed by Sitkei (1986 for prism-shaped rod, regardless of the geometry of the product. Reviewed scientific literature shows that these parameters have not been studied according to the geometric shape of onions and was not used by a more accurate method, such as image processing to determine these parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of two varieties of onions. Poisson ratio was determined with image processing. Considering shape of the onions and deformation value, and using Hertz’s theory with Poisson ratio, modulus of elasticity was calculated. The effects of loading directions (polar or equatorial, deformation value (5, 10 and 15 mm, loading speed (15 or 25 mm min-1 and onion varieties (Red and Yellow on the modulus of elasticity and apparent Poisson’s ratio were examined. Materials and Methods: The onions harvested in autumn, 20 days

  8. A non-destructive method for estimating onion leaf area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córcoles J.I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area is one of the most important parameters for characterizing crop growth and development, and its measurement is useful for examining the effects of agronomic management on crop production. It is related to interception of radiation, photosynthesis, biomass accumulation, transpiration and gas exchange in crop canopies. Several direct and indirect methods have been developed for determining leaf area. The aim of this study is to develop an indirect method, based on the use of a mathematical model, to compute leaf area in an onion crop using non-destructive measurements with the condition that the model must be practical and useful as a Decision Support System tool to improve crop management. A field experiment was conducted in a 4.75 ha commercial onion plot irrigated with a centre pivot system in Aguas Nuevas (Albacete, Spain, during the 2010 irrigation season. To determine onion crop leaf area in the laboratory, the crop was sampled on four occasions between 15 June and 15 September. At each sampling event, eight experimental plots of 1 m2 were used and the leaf area for individual leaves was computed using two indirect methods, one based on the use of an automated infrared imaging system, LI-COR-3100C, and the other using a digital scanner EPSON GT-8000, obtaining several images that were processed using Image J v 1.43 software. A total of 1146 leaves were used. Before measuring the leaf area, 25 parameters related to leaf length and width were determined for each leaf. The combined application of principal components analysis and cluster analysis for grouping leaf parameters was used to reduce the number of variables from 25 to 12. The parameter derived from the product of the total leaf length (L and the leaf diameter at a distance of 25% of the total leaf length (A25 gave the best results for estimating leaf area using a simple linear regression model. The model obtained was useful for computing leaf area using a non

  9. Effect of sowing dates and planting density on the infestation of onion maggot (Delia alliaria fonseca in onion (Allium cepa L. crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feryal B. Hermize

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Onion maggot (Delia alliaria Fonseca is an important pest of onion in Iraq, it is responsible for causing serious quantitative and qualitative losses to the onion crops. Nursery and field studies were conducted at college of Agriculture, Abu Ghraib, Iraq to evaluate the effects of sowing date and plant density on onion infestation with onion maggot. Onion seeds were sowing in nursery at three dates viz 5th & 20th September and 3rd October, 2010 with two plants density i.e. 10seed/2m² and 15 seeds /2m². From Nursery, the plants were transplanted to the field at three dates viz 14th & 24th December, 2010 and 3rd January, 2011 with two density i.e. 10seed/2m² and 15 seeds /2m2 with 10 cm and 6 cm plant spacing. Result of the study showed that the lowest infestation of onion maggot was manifested at the lower plants density and first date of cultivation at both nursery and field level. At nursery level 6.16, 6.83 and 7.50 % infestation was reported for three dates of showing respectively at 10g seeds / 2 m² while this infestation was 8.61, 7.50 and 11.5 % respectively for the three sowing dates at 15 g/2 m² densities. Similar types of results were reported in the field study but with slightly higher infestation, here 8.81, 12.54 and 14.04 % infestation was reported on the three plantings dates at 10 cm plant spacing respectively while this infestation was much higher 12.13, 16.81 and 19.04 % respectively for three sowing dates on the 6 cm plant spacing. Higher yield was obtained from the plants of the 1st date of sowing for both the plant densities with best quality. The mean bulb weights were 252.90, 228.30 and 172.00g for the plants growing at 10 cm spacing while this weights was 213.5 , 167.0 and 153.7 g for the plants growing at 6 cm spacing for all the three dates of cultivation respectively. Results of the study revealed that cultivation onion at early date with suitable spaces between the plants may be promising to manage the infestation

  10. Aspects of gametogenesis and radiation pathology in the onion fly, Hylemya antiqa (Meigen), I. Gametogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, J.A.B.M.

    1976-01-01

    In the scope of a genetic control research project gametogenesis of the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen), is studied as a base for investigations on radiation histopathology of the gonads.Various cytological, histological, electronmicroscopical and autoradiographical methods, including investigat

  11. Ozone and Botrytis interactions in onion-leaf dieback: open-top chamber studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wukasch, R.T.; Hofstra, G.

    1977-09-01

    Paired open-top chambers were used to study interactions between Botrytis spp. and ozone in field-grown onions. Charcoal filters removed 35 to 65% of the ambient ozone, resulting in six-fold reduction of onion leaf dieback and a 28% increase in onion yield compared with unfiltered chambers. Symptoms of leaf injury appeared soon after ozone levels exceeded 294 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.15 ppm) for 4 hr. Lesions caused by Botrytis were few because no dew formed in the chambers. However, when leaves were wetted with foggers, inoculation with mycelial suspensions of B. sauamosa in late August produced significantly more lesions and leaf dieback in the unfiltered chamber. Botrytis squamosa, B. cinerea, B. allii, and several genera of secondary fungi were isolated from these lesions. Botrytis squamosa was recovered from lesions only, whereas B. cinerea and B. allii were associated more generally with onion leaf tissue regardless of lesions. 25 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  12. Facile synthesis of water-soluble carbon nano-onions under alkaline conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaber Hashem Gaber Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbonization of tomatoes at 240 °C using 30% (w/v NaOH as catalyst produced carbon onions (C-onions, while solely carbon dots (C-dots were obtained at the same temperature in the absence of the catalyst. Other natural materials, such as carrots and tree leaves (acer saccharum, under the same temperature and alkaline conditions did not produce carbon onions. XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, UV–vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence analyses were performed to characterize the as-synthesized carbon nanomaterials. Preliminary tests demonstrate a capability of the versatile materials for chemical sensing of metal ions. The high content of lycopene in tomatoes may explain the formation of C-onions in alkaline media and a possible formation mechanism for such structures was outlined.

  13. Facile synthesis of water-soluble carbon nano-onions under alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Gaber Hashem Gaber; Laíño, Rosana Badía; Calzón, Josefa Angela García; García, Marta Elena Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Carbonization of tomatoes at 240 °C using 30% (w/v) NaOH as catalyst produced carbon onions (C-onions), while solely carbon dots (C-dots) were obtained at the same temperature in the absence of the catalyst. Other natural materials, such as carrots and tree leaves (acer saccharum), under the same temperature and alkaline conditions did not produce carbon onions. XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, UV-vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence analyses were performed to characterize the as-synthesized carbon nanomaterials. Preliminary tests demonstrate a capability of the versatile materials for chemical sensing of metal ions. The high content of lycopene in tomatoes may explain the formation of C-onions in alkaline media and a possible formation mechanism for such structures was outlined.

  14. ESTIMATING THE PREVALENCE OF POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN ONIONS (ALLIUM CEPA L. AND THEIR PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Lachowicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Onion is vegetable with good nutrition and its growth could stand different kinds condition. It’s medical properties attract researchers attention. The author characterized the preparations and the phenolic compounds from fresh onions (red, yellow, white and shallots mild pickles in brine and syrup using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (UPLC-PDA-MS. The results are reasonable and analysis is acceptable. The test material was identified: quercetin, isorhamnetin and derivatives of these compounds. The total content of phenolic compounds in fresh onions ranged from 0.72 to 89.47 mg.100g-1 dry weight, mild pickles in brine from 5.39 to 0.31 mg.100g-1, syrup from 2.85 to 0.31 mg.l-1. Polyphenol content was highest in fresh onions, and much lower in the material subjected marinating process.

  15. Incidence of Thrips tabaci on Onion ( Allium cepa L.) and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence of Thrips tabaci on Onion ( Allium cepa L.) and their Control in Sokoto and Kebbi States, ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... However, some combine ash with chemicals, probably to minimize production cost.

  16. POTASSIUM AND ITS EFFECT ON THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Petra Kavalcová; Judita Bystrická; Tomáš Tóth; Beáta Volnová; Miriama Kopernická; Ľuboš Harangozo

    2015-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is rich of chemoprotective compounds as polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins, sulphur compounds which have potential beneficial properties for human health. Potassium as important mineral abundant plays many vital roles in plant nutrition (reduces respiration, activates enzyme). In generally, potassium increases crop yield and improves quality of onion bulbs. The objectives of this work were to compare and evaluate the impact of potassium on the content of to...

  17. Strip Tillage and Early-Season Broadleaf Weed Control in Seeded Onion (Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gegner-Kazmierczak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Oakes, North Dakota (ND, USA, to evaluate if strip tillage could be incorporated into a production system of seeded onion (Allium cepa to eliminate the standard use of a barley (Hordeum vulgare companion crop with conventional, full width tillage, yet support common early-season weed control programs. A split-factor design was used with tillage (conventional and strip tillage as the main plot and herbicide treatments (bromoxynil, DCPA, oxyfluorfen, and pendimethalin as sub-plots. Neither tillage nor herbicide treatments affected onion stand counts. Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album densities were lower in strip tillage compared to conventional tillage up to three weeks after the post-emergence applied herbicides. In general, micro-rate post-emergence herbicide treatments provided greater early-season broadleaf weed control than pre-emergence herbicide treatments. Onion yield and grade did not differ among herbicide treatments because the mid-season herbicide application provided sufficient control/suppression of the early-season weed escapes that these initial weed escapes did not impact onion yield or bulb diameter. In 2007, onion in the strip tillage treatment were larger in diameter resulting in greater total and marketable yields compared to conventional tillage. Marketable onion yield was 82.1 Mg ha−1 in strip tillage and 64.9 Mg ha−1 in conventional tillage. Results indicate that strip tillage use in direct-seeded onion production was beneficial, especially when growing conditions were conducive to higher yields and that the use of strip tillage in onion may provide an alternative to using a companion crop as it did not interfere with either early-season weed management system.

  18. Pectic Enzyme Activities of Bacteria Associated with Rotted Onions (Allium cepa)

    OpenAIRE

    Obi, Samuel K. C.; Umezurike, Gabriel M.

    1981-01-01

    The aerobic bacteria associated with soft rot in onions (Allium cepa) were isolated and identified as a Vibrio sp., Micrococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas cepacia, an Acinetobacter sp., a Xanthomonas sp., Bacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium. With the cup-plate assay method, no pectin hydrolase could be detected from any of these isolates when they were cultured in pectin medium, but lyase and pectinesterases were detectable. Onion tissue cultures showed pectin hydrolase activity for P. c...

  19. Correlations between colonization of onion thrips and leaf reflectance measures across six cabbage varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Bálint

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to reveal if the UV-A, and visible light reflection of leaves of white cabbage varieties is correlated to resistance against onion thrips. The antixenotic resistance (AR against onion thrips and thrips damage differed between varieties Balashi, Bloktor, Riana - considered resistant - and Green Gem, Hurricane, Quisor - considered susceptible. The solar UV-A (340-400 nm and visible (401-650 nm light reflection of white cabbage leaves were recorded. Correlation between AR against onion thrips and reflection of leaves in UV-A and visible range of the studied white cabbage varieties were computed. According to the AR evaluation onion thrips density was always higher on susceptible than on resistant varieties. The UV-A light reflection of head forming leaves and the contrast between head and exterior leaves (H/E was negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference at an early stage of cabbage head formation. The visible light reflection of both head forming and exterior leaves was also negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference. Susceptible varieties had greater damage ratings at harvest than resistant ones and positive correlations were observed between AR and damage. AR against onion thrips may be affected by differences in reflection of cabbage leaves at an early growth stage. It is suggested that more intensive reflection of leaves and/or higher contrast values between the reflectance intensity of head versus outer leaves made the resistant varieties less attractive to onion thrips. Our results reported here provide the first evidence of negative correlation between UV-A and visible reflection of leaves and AR of white cabbage against a dangerous insect pest, opening new perspectives for understanding the role of reflection by plant leaves in pest management.

  20. Interactions involving ozone, Botrytis cinerea, and B. squamosa on onion leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rist, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Interactions involving Botrytis cinerea Pers., B. squamosa Walker, and ozone on onion (alium cepae L.) were investigated. Initially, threshold dosages of ozone required to predispose onion leaves to greater infection by B. cinerea and B. squamosa were determined under controlled conditions in an ozone-exposure chamber. Subsequent experiments supported the hypothesis that nutrients leaking out of ozone-injured cells stimulated lesion production by B. cinerea. The electrical conductivity of, and carbohydrate concentration in, dew collected from leaves of onion plants which had been exposed to ozone were greater than the electrical conductivity of, and carbohydrate concentration in, dew collected from leaves of other, non-exposed onion plants. When conidia of B. cinerea were suspended in dew collected from leaves of plants which had been exposed to ozone and the resulting suspension atomized onto leaves of non-exposed plants, more lesions were induced than on leaves of other non-exposed plants inoculated with conidia suspended in dew collected from plants which had not been exposed to ozone. EDU protected onion leaves from ozone-induced predisposition to these fungi under controlled conditions. Experiments designed to detect interaction between B. cinerea and B. squamosa in onion leaf blighting indicated that such interaction did not occur. Leaves were blighted rapidly when inoculated with B. squamosa whether B. cinerea was present or absent.

  1. Effect of drying, freezing and storage of dried and frozen onion (Allium cepa L. on its pungency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of studies of drying and freezing effects, as well as storage of dried and frozen onion on its pungency. The effect of onion bulbs preparation on pungency was estimated as well. The pungency measurements were based on determination of pyruvate produced enzymatically by alliinase. Storage at 20°C of skinned onion decreases sligthly pungency, however three weeks storage at 0-2°C did not change it. Other results indicate that freezing at -25°C, and followed thawing led to large losses - reaching 75% of pungency found in the onion taken to the process. Storage of the frozen onion caused further decrease its pungency. Decrease of pungency during drying was depended on temperature of the process. Low drying temperature (40 and 50°C, 20 hours caused only 15-20% decline of pungency. Higher temperature drying (60°C resulted in 50% losses of onion pungency.

  2. Screening and incorporation of rust resistance from Allium cepa into bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) via alien chromosome addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, Tadayuki; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Shimazaki, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Naoko; Sakai, Takako; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; 2n = 16), bulb onion (Allium cepa L. Common onion group), and shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) cultivars were inoculated with rust fungus, Puccinia allii, isolated from bunching onion. Bulb onions and shallots are highly resistant to rust, suggesting they would serve as useful resources for breeding rust resistant bunching onions. To identify the A. cepa chromosome(s) related to rust resistance, a complete set of eight A. fistulosum - shallot monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) were inoculated with P. allii. At the seedling stage, FF+1A showed a high level of resistance in controlled-environment experiments, suggesting that the genes related to rust resistance could be located on shallot chromosome 1A. While MAAL, multi-chromosome addition line, and hypoallotriploid adult plants did not exhibit strong resistance to rust. In contrast to the high resistance of shallot, the addition line FF+1A+5A showed reproducibly high levels of rust resistance.

  3. Onion Inbred Line ‘B8667 A&B’ and Synthetic Populations ‘Sapporo-Ki-1 A&B’ and ‘Onion Haploid-1’

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, announces the release of onion inbred ‘B8667 A&B’ and synthetic population ‘Sapporo-Ki (SKI) -1 A&B’. Both of these releases represent a cytoplasmic male-sterile (A) line with its maintainer (B) for seed propagation of male...

  4. Pressure-induced transformations in carbon nano-onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mingguang; Zhang, Weiwei; Dong, Jiajun; Liu, Ran; Liu, Bingbing

    2016-06-01

    Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) with an average diameter of 43 nm have been studied under pressure. The interlayer d-spacings of the CNOs are expanded by about 3% compared to those of the larger CNOs with average diameter of 150 nm studied earlier. High pressure study on the G-band of the small CNOs indicates that a bonding change was initiated at 23.4 GPa, which is higher than that of the larger CNOs. The small CNOs were destroyed into amorphous fragments at above 48 GPa with a large applied deviatoric stress, showing a lower high pressure stability compared with the larger CNOs. These features are qualitatively similar to the size effects observed in the compression behavior of some nanocrystalline materials, showing that a reduced cluster size gives similar physical effects in the two classes of materials. The present results for CNOs can be rationalized by the interlayer expansion and the highly turbostratic layer structure of the studied material. The fact that CNOs with different diameters behave differently upon compression is important when selecting materials for applications.

  5. Genotoxic effects of sodium nitrate in onion roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mihaela ANTOFIE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to assess cyto- and genotoxic effects of sodium nitrate on Allium cepa root tips by using different concentrations (i.e. 0,1%; 1% and 5% for treating uniform healthy onion bulbs for three different periods of time: 6, 24 and 72 hours. In the end of the experiment the harvested root tips were prepared according to Feulgen’s squash technique using Schiff reagent and the investigations were realized according to Allium test. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of nitrate were investigated by calculating the mitotic index and observing all chromosomes’ complement alterations during the mitosis. The phase rate of cells undergoing mitosis is also studied. For microscopy investigations a Novex Holland B microscope with digital camera included was used. The cytogenetic analysis of nitrate effects revealed a strong decrease in the mitotic index which is more intense with the concentration and time of exposure. Moreover, this effect is associated in case of the variant treated with 5% sodium nitrate acting for more than 24 hours, with the appearance of genotoxic effects such as chromosomal alterations, highly condensed chromatin expression easily identified during mitosis stages, sticky chromosomes and chromosomal bridges and laggards.

  6. Protective Effect of Onion Extract on Bleomycin-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Human Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hee Cho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Following one of the world’s largest nuclear accidents, occured at Fukushima, Japan in 2011, a significant scientific effort has focused on minimizing the potential adverse health effects due to radiation exposure. The use of natural dietary antioxidants to reduce the risk of radiation-induced oxidative DNA damage is a simple strategy for minimizing radiation-related cancer rates and improving overall health. The onion is among the richest sources of dietary flavonoids and is an important food for increasing their overall intake. Therefore, we examined the effect of an onion extract on cyto- and geno-toxicity in human lymphocytes treated with bleomycin (BLM, a radiomimetic agent. In addition, we measured the frequency of micronuclei (MN and DNA damage following treatment with BLM using a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and a single cell gel electrophoresis assay. We observed a significant increase in cell viability in lymphocytes treated with onion extract then exposed to BLM compared to cells treated with BLM alone. The frequency of BLM induced MN and DNA damage increased in a dose-dependent manner; however, when lymphocytes were pretreated with onion extract (10 and 20 μL/mL, the frequency of BLM-induced MN was decreased at all doses of BLM and DNA damage was decreased at 3 μg/mL of BLM. These results suggest that onion extract may have protective effects against BLM-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in human lymphocytes.

  7. Economical feasibility of irradiation method for the preservation of onions and potatoes in Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.M. (Tajoura Nuclear Research Center, Tripoli (Libya))

    1990-01-01

    Gamma irradiation of onions and potatoes in order to increase their storage life, offers an alternative method to the conventional cold-storage (refrigeration) method. In this paper we discuss economical feasibility of this gamma irradiation method for commercial use. Gamma radiation emitted from source Co-60 (wet type 651) was used to irradiate onions and potatoes. Simultaneously, a cold-storage study was conducted using refrigeration (Fiocchetti Luzzary, CBE, Italy). The efficiency of the two methods, in the preservation of onions and potatoes for a storage period of 8 months, was compared by estimating the cost incurred for irradiation and refrigeration. The preservation cost by the irradiation method is estimated at 0.550 and 0.520 Libyan Dinars (1 L.D. = 3.30 US $) per Kg material for potatoes and onions respectively. In comparison with these costs, the refrigeration method works out at a higher cost of 0.730 and 0.960 Libyan Dinars per Kg material for potatoes and onions respectively. (author).

  8. Nitrogen Transfer from Cover Crop Residues to Onion Grown under Minimum Tillage in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoncio de Paula Koucher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen derived from cover crop residues may contribute to the nutrition of onion grown under minimum tillage (MT and cultivated in rotation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the N transferred from different cover crop residues to the onion crop cultivated under MT in southern Brazil. In June 2014, oilseed radish, black oat, and oilseed radish + black oat residues labeled with 15N were deposited on the soil surface before transplanting onions. During the growth season and at harvest, young expanded onion leaves, complete plants, and samples from different soil layers were collected and analyzed for recovery of 15N-labeled residue. Oilseed radish decomposed faster than other residues and 4 % of residue N was recovered in leaves and bulbs at harvest, but in general, N in plant organs was derived from sources other than the cover crop residues. In addition, leaf N was in the proper range for all treatments and was adequately mobilized to the bases for bulbing. The N derived from decomposing residues contributed little to onion development and the use of these plants should be chosen based on their advantages for physical and biological soil quality.

  9. Network structure at multiple scales via a new network statistic: the onion decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Allard, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new network statistic that measures diverse structural properties at the micro-, meso-, and macroscopic scales, while still being easy to compute and easy to interpret at a glance. Our statistic, the onion spectrum, is based on the onion decomposition, which refines the k-core decomposition, a standard network fingerprinting method. The onion spectrum is exactly as easy to compute as the k-cores: it is based on the stages at which each vertex gets removed from a graph in the standard algorithm for computing the k-cores. But the onion spectrum reveals much more information about a network, and at multiple scales; for example, it can be used to quantify node heterogeneity, degree correlations, centrality, and tree- or lattice-likeness of the whole network as well as of each k-core. Furthermore, unlike the k-core decomposition, the combined onion-degree spectrum immediately gives a clear local picture of the network around each node which allows the detection of interesting subgraphs whose topolog...

  10. Impact of Pretreatment and Drying Methods on Quality Attributes of Onion Shreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar R. Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted on dry untreated onion shreds (2 mm thickness or treated with salt (5 % solution and potassium metabisulphite (0.5 % solution in convective drier at 50 °C ((46±4 % relative humidity (RH, 55 °C ((35±4 % RH, 60 °C ((28±4 % RH and 65 °C ((20±4 % RH, heat pump-assisted convective drier at 35 °C ((32±2 % RH, 40 °C ((26±2 % RH, 45 °C ((19±2 % RH and 50 °C ((15±2 % RH and microwave-assisted convective drier at four microwave power levels, i.e. 120, 240, 360 and 480 W. The quality parameters of the dried onion shreds, namely rehydration ratio, colour diff erence, pyruvic and ascorbic acid contents and sensory scores were evaluated. The quality of dehydrated onion shreds was observed to be comparatively better when treated in heat pump drier at 50 °C, followed by that in microwave-assisted convective drier at 240 W and 50 °C, and last in convective drier at 60 °C. The onion shreds pretreated with potassium metabisulphite retained better colour of the dried product irrespective of drying methods. Therefore, heat pump drying may be recommended as one of the best drying methods for onion shreds, because it maintains the fi nal product quality, which has practical importance for the food industry.

  11. Variation of quercetin glycoside derivatives in three onion (Allium cepa L. varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Ho Kwak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify the contents of individual quercetin glycosides in red, yellow and chartreuse onion by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis. Acid hydrolysis of individual quercetin glycosides using 6 M hydrochloric acid guided to identify and separate quercetin 7,4′-diglucoside, quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 4′-glucoside, and quercetin. The contents of total quercetin glycosides varied extensively among three varieties (ranged from 16.10 to 103.93 mg/g DW. Quercetin was the predominant compound that accounted mean 32.21 mg/g DW in red onion (43.6% of the total and 127.92 mg/g DW in chartreuse onion (78.3% of the total followed by quercetin 3-glucoside (28.83 and 24.16 mg/g DW respectively. Quercetin 3-glucoside levels were much higher in yellow onion (43.85 mg/g DW followed by quercetin 30.08 mg/g DW. Quercetin 4′-glucoside documented the lowest amount that documented mean 2.4% of the total glycosides. The varied contents of glycosides present in the different onion varieties were significant.

  12. Plant response of onion cultivars developed from greenhouse-grown transplants to plant density and fertilizer rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) can be established from seed or transplants. The latter planting material can be dormant or actively growing when transplanted to the field. Onion transplants can be produced in a greenhouse, but there are gaps in the knowledge of the cultural requirements for these plants ...

  13. Plant density and N fertilizer rate on yield and nutrient content of onion developed from greenhouse grown transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) can be established from seed or transplants. The latter planting material can be dormant or actively growing when transplanted to the field. Onion transplants can be produced in a greenhouse, but additional information is needed regarding the cultural requirements for these...

  14. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in onion roots from organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvan Vivero, G.A.; Paradi, I.; Burger, K.; Baar, J.; Kuyper, T.W.; Scholten, O.E.; Kik, C.

    2009-01-01

    Diversity and colonization levels of naturally occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in onion roots were studied to compare organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands. In 2004, 20 onion fields were sampled in a balanced survey between farming systems and between two regions,

  15. Genotypic variation in sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) III. Characterization of sulfite reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic and cDNA sequences corresponding to a ferredoxin-sulfite reductase (SiR) have been cloned from bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) and the expression of the gene and activity of the enzyme characterised with respect to sulfur (S) supply. Cloning, mapping and expression studies revealed that onion ha...

  16. Effects of postharvest onion curing parameters on bulb rot caused by Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea ananatis, and Pantoea allii in storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop loss of onion bulbs during storage carries an exceptionally high economic impact since a large portion of the production expenses have been expended before storage occurs. Because of this, it is important to define practices that can reduce onion bulb losses caused by storage rots. This study...

  17. 7 CFR 980.501 - Safeguard procedures for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes exempt from grade, size, quality, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... “Importer's Exempt Commodity Form” to the U.S. Customs Service Regional Director or District Director, as... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... relief agencies; (2) Potatoes, onions, or tomatoes for processing; (3) Potatoes or onions for...

  18. Dose estimations of fast neutrons from a nuclear reactor by micronuclear yields in onion seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, K; Endo, S; Itoh, T; Yonezawa, Y; Hoshi, M

    1999-12-01

    Irradiations of onion seedlings with fission neutrons from bare, Pb-moderated, and Fe-moderated 252Cf sources induced micronuclei in the root-tip cells at similar rates. The rate per cGy averaged for the three sources, , was 19 times higher than rate induced by 60Co gamma-rays. When neutron doses, Dn, were estimated from frequencies of micronuclei induced in onion seedlings after exposure to neutron-gamma mixed radiation from a 1 W nuclear reactor, using the reciprocal of as conversion factor, resulting Dn values agreed within 10% with doses measured with paired ionizing chambers. This excellent agreement was achieved by the high sensitivity of the onion system to fast neutrons relative to gamma-rays and the high contribution of fast neutrons to the total dose of mixed radiation in the reactor's field.

  19. Development of Biocomposites with Antioxidant Activity Based on Red Onion Extract and Acetate Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol López de Dicastillo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant biocomposites have been successfully developed from cellulose acetate, eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer and onion extract as a source of natural antioxidants. First, an onion extraction process was optimized to obtain the extract with highest antioxidant power. Extracts under absolute ethanol and ethanol 85% were the extracts with the highest antioxidant activity, which were the characterized through different methods, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ABTS (2,2ʹ-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate, that measure radical scavenger activity, and polyphenolic and flavonoid content. Afterwards, the extract was incorporated in cellulose acetate as polymer matrix owing to develop an active material intended to oxidative sensitive food products packaging. Different concentrations of onion extract and plasticizer were statistically studied by using response surface methodology in order to analyze the influence of both factors on the release of active compounds and therefore the antioxidant activity of these materials.

  20. Development of a disposable pyruvate biosensor to determine pungency in onions (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayomi, L A; Terry, L A; White, S F; Warner, P J

    2006-05-15

    A disposable prototype pyruvate biosensor was constructed using pyruvate oxidase immobilised on mediated meldolas blue electrodes to determine pungency in onions (Allium cepa L.). The optimum operating potential was +150 mV (versus Ag/AgCl). A strong correlation between the biosensor response and untreated onion juice of known pyruvate concentration 2-12 micromol/g fresh weight (FW) was demonstrated. The biosensor was able to differentiate between low and high pungency onions. The detection limit using 1 unit of pyruvate oxidase was 1-2 micromol/g FW. Optimum concentrations of co-factors TPP, FAD and MgSO4 comprising the enzyme cocktail were determined as being 0.04, 0.1 and 30 mM, respectively.

  1. The onion-ring structure for Pd-Pt bimetallic clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Daojian; Wang, Wenchuan; Huang, Shiping

    2006-08-24

    The onion-ring structure is validated in the Pd-Pt bimetallic clusters of total atom numbers 147 and 309 through the Monte Carlo method by using the second-moment approximation of the tight-binding (TB-SMA) potentials, which is conceived in predicting the possible structures of the bimetallic clusters by He et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 11034] and Hwang et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 11140]. In the onion-ring structure, Pd atoms and Pt atoms occupy alternate layers of the clusters. The formation of the onion-ring structure can be associated with the fact that the single Pt impurity is favorable to stay in the subsurface layer and the central part of bimetallic clusters.

  2. Effect of. gamma. -irradiation in the keeping quality of Nigerian onion cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbaji, A.S.; Ogbadu, G.H.; van Amstel, H. (Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria). Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1981-01-01

    Onion of variety Ds x Ws'78 and Ds'79 harvested 14 days prior to the experiment were treated with 5, 8 and 15 krad doses of ..gamma..-irradiation from a /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-irradiator and stored. Onions were weekly investigated for sprouting and rotting. Chemical analyses were carried out monthly for dry matter, flavour, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and protein. In comparison, a local method of storage was carried out. Irradiation dose of 5-15 krad completely inhibited sprouting throughout the whole storage period. Irradiated bulbs however, showed a higher tendency to rot. In comparison with the control, irradiation did not have any significant effect on dry matter, flavour component and ascorbic acid but the protein content was significantly lower in the irradiated bulbs. The compositional differences found between irradiated and untreated onions seem to be of no nutritional or organoleptic significance. Almost 100% loss was recorded for local storage trial.

  3. Process engineering aspects and the further development of the onion irradiator GBZ 81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, G.; Winkler, E.; Schuemichen, P.; Luther, Th.

    The gamma irradiator GBZ 81 is a specific onion irradiator and easy to use for all types of bulk-cargo irradiation. It largely works automatically. The irradiator may be integrated into the storing line of onions from the field to the warehouse. Its output is about 7.5-8.0 ton/h, corresponding to 2000-3000 ton per harvest period. The efficiency of the gamma irradiator is about 13%. Considering the low building cost, the simple design and the automatic operation of the irradiation plant this comparatively low efficiency is acceptable, especially if the cobalt-60 sources are used during the remaining times of the year in another facility, e.g. a multipurpose irradiator of a higher efficiency. This programme is realized at present by the combination of a new multipurpose gamma-irradiation facility and some onion irradiators of the type GBZ 81.

  4. Production of elastic onion sausage%洋葱弹力香肠的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩; 袁书林

    2015-01-01

    Pork and onion were taken as main raw materials to produce elastic onion sausage. The new type products were improved based on the processing technology and formula of traditional sausage meat products. The elastic onion sausage was of good sensory and physical and chemical properties. And it had high nutritive value.%试验以洋葱和猪肉为主要原料制作香肠,在传统香肠肉制品的加工工艺和配方基础之上进行改进,制作出洋葱弹力香肠。洋葱弹力香肠具有较好的感官和理化指标,营养价值较高。

  5. Protection of the Geographical Indication Right and New Plant Variety Right of Green Chinese Onion in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zai; HU; Shuting; WANG; Zhiguo; SUN; Wanzhen; XIONG; Limin; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Geographical indication right and new plant variety right are important agricultural intellectual property.This article researches the current situation on protection of geographical indication right of green Chinese onion resources and new plant variety right.And it puts forward the following measures for improvement:(i)Promoting the implementation of geographical indication product protection based on the national quality system;(ii)Establishing the national quality standards of geographical indication green Chinese onion,in order to improve quality standardization;(iii)Encouraging more enterprises within the scope of protection of geographical indication to use special signs of geographical indication;(iv)Unifying the green Chinese onion brands within the scope of protection of geographical indication;(v)Achieving the dual protection of geographical indication right and new variety right of green Chinese onion;(vi)Developing the tourism resources on geographical indication green Chinese onion,to develop tourism agriculture.

  6. Cellular and Molecular Changes Associated with Onion Skin Formation Suggest Involvement of Programmed Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galsurker, Ortal; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Daus, Avinoam; Fridman, Yael; Lers, Amnon; Eshel, Dani

    2017-01-01

    Skin formation of onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb involves scale desiccation accompanied by scale senescence, resulting in cell death and tissue browning. Understanding the mechanism of skin formation is essential to improving onion skin and bulb qualities. Although onion skin plays a crucial role in postharvest onion storage and shelf life, its formation is poorly understood. We investigated the mode of cell death in the outermost scales that are destined to form the onion skin. Surprisingly, fluorescein diacetate staining and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the outer scale desiccates from the inside out. This striking observation suggests that cell death in the outer scales, during skin formation, is an internal and organized process that does not derive only from air desiccation. DNA fragmentation, a known hallmark of programmed cell death (PCD), was revealed in the outer scales and gradually decreased toward the inner scales of the bulb. Transmission electron microscopy further revealed PCD-related structural alterations in the outer scales which were absent from the inner scales. De novo transcriptome assembly for three different scales: 1st (outer), 5th (intermediate) and 8th (inner) fleshy scales identified 2,542 differentially expressed genes among them. GO enrichment for cluster analysis revealed increasing metabolic processes in the outer senescent scale related to defense response, PCD processes, carbohydrate metabolism and flavonoid biosynthesis, whereas increased metabolism and developmental growth processes were identified in the inner scales. High expression levels of PCD-related genes were identified in the outer scale compared to the inner ones, highlighting the involvement of PCD in outer-skin development. These findings suggest that a program to form the dry protective skin exists and functions only in the outer scales of onion. PMID:28119713

  7. RNA-Seq reveals leaf cuticular wax-related genes in Welsh onion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianchun Liu

    Full Text Available The waxy cuticle plays a very important role in plant resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses and is an important characteristic of Welsh onions. Two different types of biangan Welsh onions (BG were selected for this study: BG, a wild-type covered by wax, which forms a continuous lipid membrane on its epidermal cells, and GLBG, a glossy mutant of BG whose epidermal cells are not covered by wax. To elucidate the waxy cuticle-related gene expression changes, we used RNA-Seq to compare these two Welsh onion varieties with distinct differences in cuticular wax. The de novo assembly yielded 42,881 putative unigenes, 25.41% of which are longer than 1,000 bp. Among the high-quality unique sequences, 22,289 (52.0% had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. A total of 798 genes, representing 1.86% of the total putative unigenes, were differentially expressed between these two Welsh onion varieties. The expression patterns of four important unigenes that are related to waxy cuticle biosynthesis were confirmed by RT-qPCR and COG class annotation, which demonstrated that these genes play an important role in defense mechanisms and lipid transport and metabolism. To our knowledge, this study is the first exploration of the Welsh onion waxy cuticle. These results may help to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying the waxy cuticle and will be useful for waxy gene cloning, genetics and breeding as well as phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of the Welsh onion.

  8. Pt/onion-like fullerenes as catalyst for direct methanol fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Junjie; YANG Xiaowei; YAO Yanli; WANG Xiaomin; LIU Xuguang; XU Bingshe

    2006-01-01

    Onion-like fullerenes synthesized by arc discharge in water were used as support of Pt nanoparticles as electrocatalytic materials for direct methanol fuel cell. Uniform platinum nanoparticles with the average diameter of about 4.3 nm were well dispersed on the surface of onion-like fullerenes by impregnation-reduction method. The morphologies and microstructures of the as-prepared composites were studied by means of XRD and TEM. Electrochemical analysis shows that this kind of nano material may be an excellent candidate to be used as the support of catalyst for methanol electrochemical oxidation.

  9. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 2. Onions and other bulb crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    The various factors contributing to post harvest losses in onions and other bulb crops are briefly outlined in terms of the current storage methods. The present status of research on sprout inhibition by irradiation is reviewed in detail with respect to dose requirements, effect of time interval between harvest and irradiation, and the influence of environment on sprouting during storage. Biochemical mechanisms of sprout inhibition, metabolic and compositional changes (particularly sugars, anthocyanins, flavor and lachrymatory principles), and the culinary and processing qualities of irradiated onions are discussed. The future prospects for the commercial irradiation for sprout inhibition of bulb crops are considered.

  10. Comparison of Antioxidative Capacity for Onion Wine and Onion Vinegar and Analysis of Aroma Components%洋葱酒、醋抗氧化能力比较及其香气物质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐怀德; 李升升; 李钰金

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidative activity of onion wine and vinegar were studied through the determination of DPPH radicals, hydroxyl radicals and reducing capacity. The results showed that onion wine and onion vinegar both have the stronger antioxidative capacity, and presented a quantity-effect relation with the concentration of flavonoids. The relative contents of aromatic compounds in onion wine and onion vinegar were analyzed by GC-MS. 40 and 43 kinds of aromatic compounds from onion wine and onion vinegar were identified. These constituents represented 95.02% and 96.72% of the total peak areas. There were mainly esters, sulfur compounds, alcohols, acids and other chemical groups. And preliminary analysed the change of aroma substances in onion wine and onion vinegar.%通过测定洋葱酒和洋葱醋对DPPH、羟基自由基的清除率和还原力,研究洋葱酒和洋葱醋的体外抗氧化能力.结果表明,洋葱酒和洋葱醋均有较强的抗氧化能力,且与黄酮类物质存在明显的量效关系.采用GC-MS分析洋葱酒和洋葱醋的香气物质及其相对含量,分别鉴定出40个和43个香气化学成分,占其色谱流出组分总量的95.02%和96.72%,它们主要是酯类、含硫化合物、醇类和酸类等物质.另对洋葱酒和洋葱醋香气物质的变化情况进行了分析.

  11. Comparative study of the sensitivities of onion and broad bean root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... test. All chemicals were genotoxic (P < 0.05) to onion but only CPF, HgCl2 and EMS were genotoxic to. BB. ... Over the past decade, issues of animal use and care in ... Emphasis has been given to the use of alternatives to.

  12. Timing of Glyphosate Applications to Wheat Cover Crops to Reduce Onion Stunting Caused by Rhizoctonia solana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is economically important in irrigated onion bulb crops in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, where cereal winter cover crops commonly are planted the previous fall to prevent wind erosion of soil. The cover crop is killed with herbicide applic...

  13. Genecology and seed zones for tapertip onion in the US Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Johnson; Barbara C. Hellier; Ken W. Vance-Borland

    2013-01-01

    The choice of germplasm is critical for sustainable restoration, yet seed transfer guidelines are lacking for all but a few herbaceous species. Seed transfer zones based on genetic variability and climate were developed using tapertip onion (Allium acuminatum Hook.) collected in the Great Basin and surrounding areas in the United States. Bulbs from 53 locations were...

  14. POTASSIUM AND ITS EFFECT ON THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kavalcová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Onion (Allium cepa L. is rich of chemoprotective compounds as polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins, sulphur compounds which have potential beneficial properties for human health. Potassium as important mineral abundant plays many vital roles in plant nutrition (reduces respiration, activates enzyme. In generally, potassium increases crop yield and improves quality of onion bulbs. The objectives of this work were to compare and evaluate the impact of potassium on the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of onion (Allium cepa L.. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. The absorbance was measured at 765 nm of wave length against blank. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm in the spectrophotometer. The content of total polyphenols in samples of onion during vegatation period moved in the range from 505.6 mg GAE/kg ±25.18 to 621.49 mgGAE/kg ±13.41. In this work was watched also the influence of potassium on antioxidant activity, where values were in interval from 32.20 %± 0.58 to 44.67 % ±0.68.

  15. Agronomic efficiency of polymer-coated triple superphosphate in onion cultivated in contrasting texture soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantuir Filipe Teixeira Chagas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Information related to phosphate fertilization and coated phosphate fertilizer in onion is scarce. Thus, this study was carried out to evaluate agronomic efficiency, production and nutritional characteristics of triple superphosphate coated with polymers in onion cultivated in contrasting texture soils. Two experiments were carried out under protected conditions in pots containing 5 kg soil. The experimental design was completely randomized with treatments arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial: triple superphosphate (TSP and polymer-coated triple superphosphate (TSP+P applied in five phosphorus rates: Dystroferric Red Latosol (LVdf (clayey = 0; 100; 200; 400; 800 mg P2O5 kg-1, and Quartzarenic Neosol (sandy = 0; 75; 150; 300; 600 mg P2O5 kg-1, with three replications. Results indicated that polymer-coated TSP showed no difference for bulb mass and agronomic efficiency for phosphorus fertilization. Agronomic efficiency of phosphorus fertilization decreased with the increase in the amount of phosphorus applied. Phosphorus accumulation for onion bulb cultivated in Dystroferric Red Latosol (LVdf was higher with the use of polymer-coated triple superphosphate. Growth, production and nutritional characteristics in onion were affected by phosphorus. The highest bulbs mass production and phosphorus accumulation occurred at the doses of 783; 629 mg kg-1 P2O5 (Dystroferric Red Latosol - LVdf, and of 406; 600 mg kg-1 P2O5 (Quartzarenic Neosol -RQ.

  16. Light Intensity and Carbon Dioxide Availability Impact Antioxidant Activity in Green Onions (Allium fistulosumm L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang; Bisbee, Patricia; Pare, Paul

    The prospect of long-duration manned space missions poses many challenges, including the development of a sustainable life support system and effective methods of space-radiation protection. To mitigate the risk of increased space-radiation, functional foods rich in antioxidant properties such as green onions are of particular interest. However it has yet to be established whether antioxidant properties can be preserved or enhanced in space environment where carbon dioxide, lighting intensity, gravity and pressure differ from which plants have acclimated to on earth. In this study, green onions (Allium fistulosumm L. cultivar Kinka) rich in antioxidant flavonoids are used as a model system to investigate variations in antioxidant capacity with plants grown under varying light intensities and CO2 concentrations. The antioxidant potential is determined using both radical cation scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance assays. For all light intensities assayed, antioxidant potential in water extract of green onions per gram biomass declined with CO2 increases up to 1200 ppm, and then leveled off with further CO2 increase to 4000 ppm. This inverse carbon dioxide versus antioxidant activity correlation suggests lower accumulation rates for water soluble antioxidant compounds compared to total biomass under increasing CO2 concentrations. The effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts were light intensity dependent. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of traditional plant antioxidants including vitamin C and the major onion flavonoid quercetin.

  17. "Peeling an onion": Layering as a methodology to understand learning as an embodied assemblage of practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Liv Kondrup

    2017-01-01

    in relation to identity and well-being afford different kinds of experiences of learning situations to students. To encompass the multilayered nature of embodied assemblages of practices I propose to look at interactions as essentially an onion, where each layers provides a particular theoretical insight...

  18. Vinegar (20% acetic acid) broadcast application for broadleaf weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic weed control research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma to determine the effect of broadcast over-the-top applications of acetic acid (vinegar) on weed control efficacy, crop injury and onion yields. The experiment included 6 weed control treatments (2 application volumes, 2 hand-weeding ...

  19. Onion decreases the ovariectomy-induced osteopenia in young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsang-Hai; Mühlbauer, Roman C; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Hsiun-Ing; Chang, Guan-Liang; Huang, Yi-Wei; Lai, Yu-Ting; Lin, Hsin-Shi; Yang, Wei-Ting; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2008-06-01

    It has been suggested that fruit and vegetable consumption are associated with good bone health. Onion, in particular, has been verified in its efficacy in bone resorption activity. In this study, we further investigated the effects of an onion-containing diet on ovariectomy-induced bone loss using methods of serum marker assay, histomorphometric analysis and biomechanical tests. Sixty-four female Wistar rats (14-week-old) with sham operations or ovariectomy were assigned to 6 groups: CON, sham-operated control group; OVX, ovariectomized group; ALN, ovariectomized rats treated with alendronate (1 mg/kg/day, p.o.); and 3% ON, 7% ON and 14% ON, ovariectomized rats fed with diets containing 3%, 7% and 14% (wt/wt) onion powder, respectively. Animals were sacrificed after a six-week treatment course. In the serum marker assay, alendronate and all three onion-enriched diets significantly decreased serum calcium level (pbone turnover. The histomorphometric analysis showed that ovariectomy markedly decrease bone trabeculae. The ALN and 14% ON rats were 80% and 46% higher, respectively, in BV/TV than the OVX rats (povariectomy-induced bone loss in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, both ALN and 14% ON groups had significantly more trabecular number, less separated trabeculae, and fewer osteoclasts (pOvariectomy also significantly decreased tissue weight and biomechanical strength in the OVX group (povariectomy-induced decrease in bending load and bending energy (povariectomy-induced bone loss and deterioration of biomechanical properties.

  20. Integrated systems of weed management in organic transplated vidalia sweet onion production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted from 2008 through 2010 near Lyons, GA to develop integrated weed management systems for organic Vidalia® sweet onion production. Treatments were a factorial arrangement of summer solarization, cultivation with a tine weeder, and a clove oil herbicide. Plots were so...

  1. Estimation of optical constants of a bio-thin layer (onion epidermis), using SPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Saif-ur-; Mumtaz, Huma; Hayashi, Shinji; Shaukat, S. F.; Sekkat, Zouheir

    2014-12-01

    We estimate the optical constants of a biological thin layer (Allium cepa) by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. For this study, the fresh inner thin epidermis of an onion bulb was used and stacked directly on gold (Au) and silver (Ag) film surfaces in order to identify the shift in SPR mode of each metal film at an operating wavelength of 632.8 nm. The thickness and dielectric constants of the biological thin layer were determined by matching the experimental SPR curves to theoretical ones. The thickness and roughness of bare Au and Ag thin films were also measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM); the results of which are in good agreement with those obtained through experiment. Due to the high surface roughness of the natural onion epidermis layer, AFM could not measure the exact thickness of an onion epidermis. It is estimated that the value of the real part of the dielectric constant of an onion epidermis is between the dielectric constants of water and air.

  2. Economics of supplemental weed control applications on spring-transplanted onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field research conducted to determine the relative benefits among alternative herbicides for weed control in onions (Allium cepa L.) measured weed control efficacy, impact of herbicides on crop injury, and the resulting weed competition on crop yields and marketable bulb size. Weed competition produ...

  3. Nitrogen requirements at bulb initiation for production of intermediate-day onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of nitrogen application on growth, nitrogen (N) uptake, yield, and quality of intermediate-day onion (Allium cepa L. ‘Guimar’) was evaluated in the field in southern Portugal. Plants were fertilized with 30 kg/ha N at transplanting, 10 kg/ha N at 29 days after transplanting (DAT) during ...

  4. Pectic Enzyme Activities of Bacteria Associated with Rotted Onions (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, S K; Umezurike, G M

    1981-10-01

    The aerobic bacteria associated with soft rot in onions (Allium cepa) were isolated and identified as a Vibrio sp., Micrococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas cepacia, an Acinetobacter sp., a Xanthomonas sp., Bacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium. With the cup-plate assay method, no pectin hydrolase could be detected from any of these isolates when they were cultured in pectin medium, but lyase and pectinesterases were detectable. Onion tissue cultures showed pectin hydrolase activity for P. cepacia and B. polymyxa and lyase and pectinesterase activities for all of the isolates, usually at higher levels of activity than those of the pectin medium culture filtrates. In both culture media, Vibrio sp. showed the highest lyase and pectinesterase activities. In the viscometric test, all of the isolates achieved at least a 50% decrease in viscosity for lyase enzyme, with M. epidermidis and Vibrio sp. recording viscosity decreases as high as 83%. The ability to cause soft rot in onion bulbs was demonstrated by P. cepacia and Xanthomonas sp. Benzoic acid at a concentration of 0.8 mg/ml caused total suppression of enzyme production, whereas sodium benzoate at this concentration reduced pectinesterase production by 71% and lyase production by 72%. The possible use of these preservatives in the control of soft rot in onions is noted.

  5. Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of Allium cepa L.: the production of transgenic onions and shallots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Khrustaleva, L.I.; Henken, G.; Sofiari, E.; Jacobsen, E.; Kik, C.; Krens, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation protocol for onion and shallot (Allium cepa L.) which can be used year-round. It is based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector, with three-week old callus, induced from mature zygotic embryos, as target tissue. For the development

  6. Effect of Planting Methods on Maturity and Yield of Onion (Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melkassa Agriculture Research Center, Nazareth, Ethiopia1. Hawassa University ... However, the productivity of onion in Ethiopia is lower than the world and ... the world, Europe, Asia, American, Africa and Ethiopia are 17.05, 15.7, 20.64,. 10.47 ... as well as quantity and quality of the produce (Warid and Loaiza, 1993;.

  7. Effects of fertilisation and irrigation practices on yield, maturity and storability of onions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SUOJALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to establish whether a high onion yield and good storage performance could be obtained with low fertilisation rates if irrigation was applied when necessary. Two-year experiments investigated the effects of three NPK fertiliser levels (N 50, 100, 125/150 kg/ha, with and without irrigation, on yield, advancement of maturity, storage losses and shelf life. High fertilisation advanced maturity but irrigation had no effect. High fertilisation increased yield only in 1996 (5B7%, but irrigation increased the yield noticeably: by 33.5% in 1995 and 8.5% in 1996. There was no interaction between fertilisation and irrigation. The low fertilisation optimum is attributed to the mineralisation of soil nitrogen, as the soil was rich in organic matter. At the low fertilisation level, plants took up twice as much nitrogen as present in the fertiliser, and with increased fertilisation the nitrogen uptake increased markedly. The foliage nitrogen content was low, evidently as a result of late harvesting. Treatments had only a minor effect on the storage performance and shelf life of onions. The results suggest that fertilisation rates could be reduced in onion production. Irrigation during warm and dry periods is essential to achieve the maximum yield potential and does not impair the storage quality of onions.;

  8. Genetic analyses of anthocyanin concentrations and the intensity of red color in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher concentrations of anthocyanins in vegetables are important for attractive appearance and may offer health benefits for consumers. The red color of onion bulbs is due primarily to the accumulation of anthocyanins. Segregating haploid plants from the cross of yellow and red inbreds were asexual...

  9. Isolation of flavonoids from onion skins and their effects on K562 cell viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qing Shi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the anti-proliferative activity of flavonoids from onion skins, extraction by 50% ethanol (v/v, soxhlet polar fractionation, pH gradient separation, thin-layer chromatography, and recrystallization methods were used to isolate and purify flavonoids from dry onion skins. Anti-proliferative activities of some flavonoids obtained on leukemia K562 cell line were deter-mined by MTT assay. Results showed that flavonoids of onion skins were mainly in form of quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and rutin. Quercetin and kaempferol decreased K562 cell viability, and quercetin had stronger effect. However, isorhamnetin and rutin exhibited certain proliferation-promoting effects. It suggests that ortho hydroxyl groups on B ring of onion flavonoids might be the key structural elements of their cytotoxic effects on K562 cells, and hydroxyl groups in position 3 or carbonyl groups in position 4 might be one of the structural effect elements.

  10. Broadcast application of vinegar for broadleaf weed control in spring-transplanted onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar (acetic acid) is a non-selective contact herbicide used in organic crop production. Research was conducted to determine if vinegar could be successfully applied over the top of onion plants to control broadleaf weeds. The experiment included 6 weed control treatments (2 application volumes...

  11. Effects of an onion by-product on bioactivity and safety markers in healthy rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan-Marin, Eduvigis; Krath, Britta; Poulsen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    environment in healthy rats. Rats were fed during 4 weeks with a diet containing the products or a control feed balanced in carbohydrate. The onion by-product and the extract caused anaemia as expected in rodents for Allium products. No other toxicity was observed, including genotoxicity. Glutathione...

  12. Weed control using ammonium nonanoate and cultivation in organic Vidalia sweet onion production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonium nonanoate is registered for weed control in certified organic crop production and may be useful to control cool-season weeds in organic Vidalia® sweet onion. Cultivation with a tine weeder has been identified as a cost-effective means of weed control, but delays in cultivation cause some w...

  13. A Chemo Attractant in Onion Root Exudates Recognized by Ditylenchus dipsaci in Laboratory Bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Y; Burrows, P M; Bar-Eyal, M

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT A quantitative bioassay that translates preferences of axenically cultured and field population of Ditylenchus dipsaci, observed in vitro, into relative attractiveness of sterile root exudates preparations and their components is described. Onion (Allium cepa cv. White Lisbon) root exudates (ORE) are consistently and significantly much more attractive than the buffer control in all these assays. Exudates from oat cv. Lodi, mustard cv. Albatross and tomato cv. Rehovot 13 are significantly more attractive than the buffer but less attractive than ORE; Arabidopsis sp. cv. Landsberg erecta, oil seed rape cv. Cetes and wheat cv. Bet Hashita are as attractive as the buffer, but canary grass and clover exudates are less attractive than the buffer and, therefore, are classified as repellent. No significant differences in relative attractiveness were detected among exudates from other two cultivars of onion (Texas Grano 502 and Granex Hybrid) and one cultivar of leek (Large American Flag), but exudates from one onion (cv. Evergreen Long White Bunching) and one leek (cv. Broad London) were less attractive than ORE. Relative attractiveness is linear in relation to dilution exponent and therefore log-linear in relation to ORE concentration. Host (onion) penetration study reveals that penetration preferences by D. dipsaci follow the same pattern as those predicted by relative attractiveness coefficients estimated in the bio-assays. Preliminary characterization of the chemo attractant from ORE, using the behavioral bioassay, demonstrated that it was stable to heat and to proteolytic enzymes, nonvolatile and water soluble with a molecular mass <700 kDa.

  14. Evaluation of the Tribological Behavior of Krytox 143AB with Nano-onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Kenneth W.; Marchetti, Mario; VanderWal, Randy L.; Tomasek, Aaron J.

    2003-01-01

    Nanoparticles have been widely developed over the past ten years and have found several applications. This work presents the use of carbon nano-onions, i.e. nanoparticles, as a potential additive in an oil for aerospace application. It was shown that these particles can provide adequate lubrication very similar to graphitic material.

  15. Identification and Quantification of Flavonoids from Two Southern Italian Cultivars of Allium cepa L., Tropea (Red Onion) and Montoro (Copper Onion), and Their Capacity to Protect Human Erythrocytes from Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Idolo; Carbone, Virginia; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Minasi, Paola; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2015-06-03

    Onions (Allium cepa) are consumed worldwide and represent an important source of dietary phytochemicals with proven antioxidant properties, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, thiosulfinates, and anthocyanins. Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that regular consumption of onions is associated with a reduced risk of degenerative disorders. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the biological properties of different varieties of onions. Here, we characterized for the first time a variety of onion, called Ramata di Montoro (coppery onion from Montoro), grown in a niche area in southern Italy, and compared its phenolic profile and antioxidant properties to a commercial ecotype of red onion, Tropea, also present in southern Italy. An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection and mass spectrometry was used to separate and characterize the phenolic fraction (anthocyanins and flavonols) extracted from both coppery and red types. The main compounds detected in the two ecotypes were quercetin and quercetin glucosides, isorhamnetin glucosides, kaempferol glucoside, and, among anthocyanins, cyanidin glucosides. Tropea ecotype onion showed a higher content of flavonols (632.82 mg/kg fresh weight) than Montoro type onion (252.91 mg/kg fresh weight). Accordingly, the antioxidant activity of the former was 2.8-fold higher compared to the latter. More pronounced were the differences existing between the four anthocyanins detected in the two ecotypes, with those in the Tropea ecotype onion present at concentrations 20-230-fold higher than in the Montoro type onion. Both extracts reduced LDL oxidation about 6-fold and protected human erythrocytes from oxidative damage induced by HClO by about 40%. In addition, as a consequence of HClO treatment, glutathione concentration in erythrocytes was reduced about 50% and pretreatment with onion extracts induced a recovery of glutathione level by about 15-22%. Qualitative

  16. Influence of hydrogel on germination of lettuce and onion seed at different moisture levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Pazderů

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Agrisorb (water solution 1, 3, 5 g/l on lettuce and onion seed germination was tested in different moisture conditions (30 ml and 15 ml of water in germination box. Variants with reduced water level germinated much more slowly (MGT parameter than standard variants, though differences in total germination at the end of the test were insignificant. Treated variants of lettuce seeds showed a statistically significant increase in germination energy (GE on the first day (GE1, both water levels, but a significant decrease on the second day (columns GE2, 15 ml. Higher doses of Agrisorb slowed lettuce seed germination (GE2, 30 ml, dose 5 g significantly, similarly see GE2 (15 ml, doses 1, 3, 5 g. This slowdown was apparent for GE3 (both water amount as well. A similar but insignificant effect was evident for onions. There was an influence of cultivar and seed vigour on sensitivity to water stress. The hydrogel application influenced germination of lettuce and onion seeds. Treated lettuce seeds germinated faster than non-treated control in the beginning of germination process. This effect was not recorded in case of slowly germinated onion seed lots. Although influence of Agrisorb was positive in the beginning, higher doses of hydrogel reduced germination energy of treated seed lots (for example GE2, GE4 of both crops in comparison with non-treated control. Higher doses of hydrogel caused longer MGT of lettuce and onion as well.

  17. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Kathy E; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A; Albert, Nick W; McCallum, John A; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species.

  18. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Kathy E.; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A.; Albert, Nick W.; McCallum, John A.; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species. PMID:28018399

  19. Effect of drying, freezing and storage of dried and frozen onion (Allium cepa L.) on its pungency

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Horbowicz; Józef Bąkowski

    2013-01-01

    The paper contains results of studies of drying and freezing effects, as well as storage of dried and frozen onion on its pungency. The effect of onion bulbs preparation on pungency was estimated as well. The pungency measurements were based on determination of pyruvate produced enzymatically by alliinase. Storage at 20°C of skinned onion decreases sligthly pungency, however three weeks storage at 0-2°C did not change it. Other results indicate that freezing at -25°C, and followed thawing led...

  20. The effects of fungicide benomyl (benlate) on growth and mitosis in onion (Allium cepa L.) root apical meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, F; Dalgiç, O

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the effects of benomyl, a systemic fungicide were investigated in the mitotic cell division in onion (Allium cepa) root tip cells during germination. For this aim, different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 mM) of benomyl solutions were used. All the concentrations used caused several abnormalities in mitotic cell divisions and the mitotic frequency in the onion root tip cells decreased as the concentration of benomyl solution increased. Based on our findings, it is reported that benomyl has some negative effects on mitotic divisions in onion root tip cells.

  1. Towards an improved variety assortment for the Dutch organic sector : case studies on onion and spring wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Key words: organic farming; principles of organic agriculture; food production chain; plant breeding; genetic correlation; plant traits; farmers’ preferences; variety testing; Value for Cultivation and Use; EU seed legislation; onion; Allium cepa; spring wheat; Triticum aestivum; baking qualit

  2. Towards an improved variety assortment for the Dutch organic sector : case studies on onion and spring wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Key words: organic farming; principles of organic agriculture; food production chain; plant breeding; genetic correlation; plant traits; farmers’ preferences; variety testing; Value for Cultivation and Use; EU seed legislation; onion; Allium cepa; spring wheat; Triticum aestivum; baking qualit

  3. Exploring genetic diversity and quality traits in a collection of onion (Allium cepa L landraces from north-west Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Pérez Susana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen onion landraces from North-West Spain were evaluated using microsatellites markers. Eleven polymorphic markers identified 32 alleles in the whole collection, with an average of 2.9 alleles per locus. High values of observed (mean of 0.45 and expected heterozigosity (mean of 0.51 were detected for the majority of loci. Wright’s fixation index confirmed an excess of heterozygotes and a low level of inbreeding within the collection. Multivariate analyses revealed that Oimbra was the most distinctive genotype. The remaining 16 onion genotypes were in part assorted according to some morphological traits of bulbs. Pungency and solid soluble content highly varied among landraces and bulbs. Five landraces were classified as sweet, whereas 9 possessed medium pungency and 3 were recorded as pungent. This onion collection represents a useful source of genetic heterogeneity that might be exploited in breeding programs for the generation of new onion varieties that satisfy consumer demands.

  4. Laser-induced transformation of GaS and GaSe nanosheets to onion structures with closed cages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Vasu

    2014-10-01

    Experimental evidence for the transformation of nanosheets of GaS and GaSe into onion structures on UV excimer pulsed laser irradiation is presented. Few-layer GaS and GaSe on Si substrates were exposed to KrF pulsed laser with wavelength of 248 nm and the effect was studied as a function of number of laser pulses. Laser-induced dewetting of the layers results in the formation of spherical nanoparticles after 50 laser pulses. HREM images of these particles reveal the formation of onions with several concentric layers. The initial thickness of the layers controls the size of the onion cages. A mechanism of transformation of few layers to closed cage onions on UV pulsed laser irradiation is presented.

  5. 75 FR 44946 - Spirotetramat; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Dry Bulb Onions in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... application is that onion thrips are sucking insects which both directly damage the crop and also vector the... areas experiencing thrips resistance to available alternatives and, in particular, where 6-8...

  6. Enhancing shelf life of minimally processed multiplier onion using silicone membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Ravindra; Ambrose, Dawn C P; Raghavan, G S Vijaya; Annamalai, S J K

    2014-12-01

    The aim of storage of minimal processed product is to increase the shelf life and thereby extend the period of availability of minimally processed produce. The silicone membrane makes use of the ability of polymer to permit selective passage of gases at different rates according to their physical and chemical properties. Here, the product stored maintains its own atmosphere by the combined effects of respiration process of the commodity and the diffusion rate through the membrane. A study was undertaken to enhance the shelf life of minimally processed multiplier onion with silicone membrane. The respiration activity was recorded at a temperature of 30 ± 2 °C (RH = 60 %) and 5 ± 1 °C (RH = 90 %). The respiration was found to be 23.4, 15.6, 10 mg CO2kg(-1)h(-1) at 5 ± 1 °C and 140, 110, 60 mg CO2kg(-1) h(-1) at 30 ± 2° for the peeled, sliced and diced multiplier onion, respectively. The respiration rate for the fresh multiplier onion was recorded to be 5, 10 mg CO2kg(-1) h(-1) at 5 ± 1 °C and 30 ± 1 ° C, respectively. Based on the shelf life studies and on the sensory evaluation, it was found that only the peeled multiplier onion could be stored. The sliced and diced multiplier onion did not have the required shelf life. The shelf life of the multiplier onion in the peel form could be increased from 4-5 days to 14 days by using the combined effect of silicone membrane (6 cm(2)/kg) and low temperature (5 ± 1 °C).

  7. Varietal differences in phenolic content and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Meyers, Katherine J; van der Heide, Jan; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-11-03

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk for the development of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, including phenolics and flavonoids, are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds contributing to the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Onions are a major source of dietary flavonoids; however, there may exist varietal differences in composition, concentration, and beneficial activities. To characterize these differences, shallots and 10 onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties commonly available in the United States (Western Yellow, Northern Red, New York Bold, Western White, Peruvian Sweet, Empire Sweet, Mexico, Texas 1015, Imperial Valley Sweet, and Vidalia) were evaluated for total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Shallots contained the highest total phenolic content (114.7 +/- 10.0 mg/100 g of sample) among the varieties tested, with a 6-fold difference observed when compared to the variety with the lowest phenolic content (Vidalia, p Western Yellow onion variety exhibited the highest total flavonoid content (69.2 +/- 3.7 mg/100 g of onion) of the varieties tested, with an 11-fold difference when compared to the variety with the lowest flavonoid content (Western White, p Western Yellow, New York Bold, Northern Red, Mexico, Empire Sweet, Western White, Peruvian Sweet, Texas 1015, Imperial Valley Sweet, and Vidalia. For all varieties, both total phenolic and flavonoid contents were strongly correlated with total antioxidant activity (R (2) = 0.9668, p fashion after exposure to the Western Yellow, shallots, New York Bold, and Northern Red extracts, with Western Yellow, shallots, and New York Bold exhibiting the highest antiproliferative activity against HepG(2) cells and New York Bold and Western Yellow exhibiting the highest antiproliferative activity against Caco-2 cells. However, the varieties

  8. Underestimation of pyruvic acid concentrations by fructose and cysteine in 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-mediated onion pungency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Eun Jin; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2011-10-01

    Onion pungency has been routinely measured by determining pyruvic acid concentration in onion juice by reacting with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) since 1961. However, the absorbency of the color adduct of the reaction rapidly decreased in onion samples as compared to that of the pyruvic acid standards, resulting in underestimations of the pyruvic acid concentrations. By measuring the absorbency at 1 min, we have demonstrated that accuracy could be substantially improved. As a continuation, the causes of degradation of the color adduct after the reaction and pyruvic acid itself before the reaction were examined in this study. Alliinase action in juice (fresh or cooked) and bulb colors did not influence the degradation. Some organic acids indigenously found in onion, such as ascorbic acid, proline, and glutamic acid, did not reduce the absorbency. However, fructose within the onion juice or supplemented caused the degradation of the color adduct, whereas sucrose and glucose had a lesser effect. Degradation rates increased proportionally as fructose concentrations increased up to 70 mg/mL. Cysteine was found to degrade the pyruvic acid itself before the pyruvic acid could react with DNPH. Approximately 90% of the pyruvic acid was degraded after 60 min in samples of 7 mM pyruvic acid supplemented with 10 mg/mL cysteine. Spectral comparisons of onion juice containing fructose naturally and pyruvic acid solution with supplemented fructose indicated identical patterns and confirmed that the color-adduct degradation was caused by fructose. Our study elucidated that fructose, a major sugar in onion juice, caused the degradation of color adduct in the onion pungency test and resulted in underestimation of the pyruvic acid concentration.

  9. Improved consistency in DNPH-mediated pyruvic acid analysis of onion juice by modifying the sample processing order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Eun Jin; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2011-01-01

    Onion pungency is commonly measured on absorbency of the wine pink color that results from adding NaOH to the heated mixture of dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and onion juice. However, significant variation exists among several modifications of the original Schwimmer and Weston (SW) method. We observed differences in pyruvic acid concentrations of 20%-30% between our automated method and a batch method with manual absorbency readings. To determine the source of the differences, we examined the heating time and waiting time of the sample-DNPH mixtures and found no differences. The differences were caused by differential color degradation between the pyruvic acid standards and onion juice samples. These differences could be minimized by reading the absorbency within 1 min of NaOH addition. Using this information, we devised the one-by-one method to control the reading time at 30 s. We compared 5 different analysis methods of 40 onion samples representing 4 onion colors. The automated, high-performance liquid chromatography, and SW methods had similar results, with only about a 5% difference. However, the batch method resulted in differences of approximately 24% as compared to the automated method. The one-by-one method produced very comparable results, within 5%, to the automated method. By modifying the procedure to ensure a uniform and fast reading time, we increased the consistency between the pungency analysis methods. Therefore, fast and uniform absorbency reading time is essential for an accurate measurement of pungency in undiluted onion juice.

  10. Molecular characterization of black Aspergillus species from onion and their potential for ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherbawy, Youssuf; Elhariry, Hesham; Kocsubé, Sándor; Bahobial, Abdulaziz; Deeb, Bahig El; Altalhi, Abdulla; Varga, János; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

    2015-05-01

    Onion bulbs can become contaminated with various molds during the storage period, the most important causal agents being black aspergilli (Aspergillus section Nigri). Taxonomic studies have revealed that this group of Aspergillus contains many species that cannot be reliably identified using standard morphological methods. Therefore, it is necessary to define the fungus causing this problem in the onion exactly, especially since some species assigned to section Nigri are well known as ochratoxin and/or fumonisin producers. Sixty fungal isolates belonging to 10 fungal genera were isolated from 40 onion samples originated from the Taif region in Saudi Arabia. Black aspergilli were detected in 37 onion samples. Using primer pairs (awaspec and Cmd6) designed based on partial calmodulin gene sequence data, 37 isolates were identified as A. welwitschiae. The ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 contents of the onion samples were examined. No ochratoxins were detected in the collected samples, while fumonisin B2 was detected in 37.5% of the onion samples. Eighteen of 37 isolates of Aspergillus welwitschiae were recognized as potential producers for fumonisin B2. Multiplex polymerase chain reactions designed to detect biosynthetic genes of fumonisins confirmed these results.

  11. A rapid, highly efficient and economical method of Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transient transformation in living onion epidermis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedong Xu

    Full Text Available Transient transformation is simpler, more efficient and economical in analyzing protein subcellular localization than stable transformation. Fluorescent fusion proteins were often used in transient transformation to follow the in vivo behavior of proteins. Onion epidermis, which has large, living and transparent cells in a monolayer, is suitable to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins. The often used transient transformation methods included particle bombardment, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Particle bombardment in onion epidermis was successfully established, however, it was expensive, biolistic equipment dependent and with low transformation efficiency. We developed a highly efficient in planta transient transformation method in onion epidermis by using a special agroinfiltration method, which could be fulfilled within 5 days from the pretreatment of onion bulb to the best time-point for analyzing gene expression. The transformation conditions were optimized to achieve 43.87% transformation efficiency in living onion epidermis. The developed method has advantages in cost, time-consuming, equipment dependency and transformation efficiency in contrast with those methods of particle bombardment in onion epidermal cells, protoplast transfection and Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in leaf epidermal cells of other plants. It will facilitate the analysis of protein subcellular localization on a large scale.

  12. Pungent spices, ground red pepper, and synthetic capsaicin as onion fly ovipositional deterrents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, R S; Keller, J E; Miller, J R

    1989-02-01

    In laboratory choice experiments, the spices dill, paprika, black pepper, chili powder, ginger, and red pepper deterredDelia antiqua oviposition by 88-100%. Dose-response choice tests demonstrated that 1 mg of ground cayenne pepper (GCP) placed within 1 cm of artificial onion foliage reduced oviposition by 78%. A synthetic analog of capsaicin, the principal flavor ingredient of red peppers, deterred oviposition by 95% when present at 320 ppm in the top centimeter of sand (the ovipositional substrate). However, in no-choice conditions 10 mg GCP was not an effective deterrent. Sevana Bird Repellent and Agrigard Insect Repellent both use red pepper as a principal ingredient; at recommended field rates, neither of these materials was an effective ovipositional deterrent either in laboratory or field. Capsaicin-based materials do not appear to be candidates for onion maggot control via behavioral modification.

  13. Peeling the Onion of Order and Chaos in a High-dimensional Hamiltonian System

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, K; Kaneko, Kunihiko; Konishi, Tetsuro

    1993-01-01

    Abstract: Coexistence of various ordered chaotic states in a Hamiltonian system is studied with the use of a symplectic coupled map lattice. Besides the clustered states for the attractive interaction, a novel chaotic ordered state is found for a system with repulsive interaction, characterized by a dispersed state of particles. The dispersed and clustered states form an onion-like structure in phase space. The degree of order increases towards the center of the onion, while chaos is enhanced at the edge between ordered and random chaotic states. For a longer time scale, orbits itinerate over ordered and random states. The existence of these ordered states leads to anomalous long-time correlation for many quantifiers such as the global diffusion.

  14. Peeling the onion of order and chaos in a high-dimensional Hamiltonian system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kunihiko; Konishi, Tetsuro

    1994-02-01

    Coexistence of various ordered chaotic states in a Hamiltonian system is studied with the use of a symplectic coupled map lattice. Besides the clustered states for the attractive interaction, a novel chaotic ordered state is found for a system with repulsive interaction, characterized by a dispersed state of particles. The dispersed and clustered states form an onion-like structure in phase space. The degree of order increases towards the center of the onion, while chaos is enhanced at the edge between ordered and random chaotic states. For a longer time scale, orbits itinerate over ordered and random states. The existence of these ordered states leads to anomalous long-time correlation for many quantifiers such as the global diffusion.

  15. Peeling the Onion: How to Promote Pharmaceutical Innovation and Access to Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    As mentioned in my earlier blog post, I decided to conclude this year by publishing a introductory speech that I gave on April 14th, 2015 at the 2015 Broad Institute Innovation & Intellectual Property Symposium. The speech was part of the session “Bringing Therapies to the Patients” and introduced...... in pharmaceutical innovation, sometimes feels like – to lend the words of the late German Nobel Prize winner Günter Grass – “peeling an onion:” First you are amazed by the number of overlapping layers of interacting laws and regulations and the many aspects of the debate. However, once you peeled long enough you...... to be found outside the world of patent law. [.....] Continued at: http://blogs.harvard.edu/billofhealth/2015/12/31/peeling-the-onion-how-to-promote-pharmaceutical-innovation-and-access-to-medicine-part-i/...

  16. Production of excitons in grazing collisions of protons with LiF surfaces: An onion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miraglia, J. E.; Gravielle, M. S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, (C1428EGA) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    In this work we evaluate the production of excitons of a lithium fluoride crystal induced by proton impact in the intermediate and high energy regime (from 100 keV to 1 MeV). A simple model is proposed to account for the influence of the Coulomb grid of the target by dressing crystal ions to transform them in what we call onions. The excited states of these onions can be interpreted as excitons. Within this model, total cross section and stopping power are calculated by using the first Born and the continuum distorted-wave (CDW) eikonal initial-state (EIS) approximations. We found that between 7 and 30 excitons per incident proton are produced in grazing collisions with LiF surfaces, becoming a relevant mechanism of inelastic transitions.

  17. Field assessment of the susceptibility of onion cultivars to thrips attack – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pobożniak Maria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments on the susceptibility of onion to thrips infestation were carried out in 2012 and 2013. The investigation used 18 cultivars and 5 breeding lines of Allium cepa, and the species A. fistulosum and A. roylei. In 2012 A. fistulosum was one of the most infested plants, whereas in 2013 infestation was no more than average. The most infested cultivars of A. cepa were ‘Efekt’, ‘Alonso F1’, ‘Alibaba’ and ‘Wama’ and the ‘NOE5’ breeding line. In 2012 the extent of damage ranged from 12 to 55%, in 2013 from 20 to 30%. The ‘NOE2’, ‘NOE3’ and ‘Wama’ cultivars were the most seriously damaged by thrips. Leaf damage to A. fistulosum was minimal. No damage was caused to the wild species A. roylei by feeding onion thrips.

  18. Optimizing map labeling of point features based on an onion peeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Wan D.; Shayma Alkobaisi; Sada Narayanappa; Petr Vojtechovsky; Kye Y. Bae

    2011-01-01

    Map labeling of point features is the problem of placing text labels to corresponding point features on a map in a way that minimizes overlaps while satisfying basic rules for the quality. This is a critical problem in the application of cartography and geographical information systems (GIS). In this paper we study the fundamental issues related to map labeling of point features and develop a new genetic algorithm to solve this problem. We adopt a method called convex onion peeling and utiliz...

  19. Carbon nano-onions (multi-layer fullerenes): chemistry and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Juergen Bartelmess; Silvia Giordani

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the development of multi-layer fullerenes, known as carbon nano-onions (CNOs). First, it briefly summarizes the most important synthetic pathways for their preparation and their properties and it gives the reader an update over new developments in the recent years. This is followed by a discussion of the published synthetic procedures for CNO functionalization, which are of major importance when elucidating future applications and addressing drawbacks for possible appli...

  20. The impact of onions and figs extracts on Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad AliDabighian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to spread of infectious diseases and increase of bacterial resistance to antibiotics and side effects of chemical drugs which have expiration date, using herbal and organic drugs with faster effectiveness without side effects and limitation are proper replacement. Maceration to extraction was used to conduct this research in four methods using distilled water and alcohol as solvent and finally these extractions was used to measuring halos of blight. Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria were standard and the impact of extractions using impregnating discs on bacteria in Muller-Hinton agar in plate was conducted and their influence compared with required antibiotics and measuring halos of blight were accomplished, which were confirmed by MIC, MBC and FIC. The required extractions from onions and figs obtained by maceration which surveyed as synthetic and single on standard S. pyogenes bacteria and their impact on the tested bacteria in some resulted methods were logical compared to 8 used antibiotics and compared with some antibiotics was more, equal and less. Onions and figs extracts, both singly and specially synthetically by maceration on S. pyogenes bacteria are the causes of lung infections which have antibacterial feature. Onions and figs extracts synthetically with distilled water traditionally and the extant of drench for 10 days is more influential and has big halo of blight than 8 kinds of antibiotics such as gentamicin, neomycin, azithromycin and erythromycin. Also hypothesizes have been offered to explain the mechanism of their antibiotics feature. The FIC parameter result showed that, combination of figs and onions extractions had synergistic effect. Therefore the combinations of the two extractions are more effective.

  1. An approach for the evaluation of efficiency of onion packinghouse operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelo Andrés F.Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The onion is a major export crop in Argentina and obtaining consistent quality is a matter of concern to remain competitive internationally. Grading is generally done according to Mercosur standards but quality assurance programs are necessary at the packinghouse level. The objective of this study was to develop a first approach for characterizing sorting and sizing efficiency. During the 1998 season five onion packinghouses located in the Valle Bonaerense del Río Colorado (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina were randomly selected. In all of them, variables measured were: sorting table width, bulb transport and rotation speed as well as number of bulbs/sorter/hour. Before and after sorting, samples of 100 bulbs of each size category were randomly taken and closely inspected and their diameters were measured. Sizing efficiency was determined and a Chi-square test was performed to compare observed frequencies of defects with the expected ones within each category. All the studied packinghouses failed to meet the established limits for slight defects and only one of them was able to comply with the standards for basic requirements when preparing Extra class onions. Even when equipment and operational setup were different among packinghouses, the operational flux (bulbs/sorter/hour was similar for all of them. Differences in sorting performance can be attributed mainly to the sequence of operations and speed of belt conveyors. Equipment and its calibration affected sizing efficiency, with better results obtained with the diverging roller system. The proposed methodology for characterizing efficiency could be considered as a simple and useful tool for monitoring quality at onion packinghouses.

  2. Separation and identification of flavonoids from fistular onion stalk (Allium fisturosum L. var. Caespitosum Makio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qinqin; Liu, Jingyou; Zhang, Changgong; Zhou, Yinbo; Zhang, Geng; Ma, Dan; Yang, Xinzhou

    2010-04-01

    The chemical constituents of fistular onion stalk obtained by supercritical CO(2) extraction were separated and purified by silica gel and sephadex LH-20 gel column chromatography and the preparative TLC method and four flavonoids were obtained. On the basis of the spectral data, they were structurally identified as (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, astragalin, and 3-O-beta-D(2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-glucopyranosides of kaempferol.

  3. Wild onion (Asphodelus tenuifolius) competition in rainfed chickpea-chickpea cropping system

    OpenAIRE

    SIBTAIN,M.; Tanveer,A.; Javaid,M.M; Ali,H.H.

    2015-01-01

    Chickpea yield potential is limited by weed competition in typical chickpea growing areas of Pakistan where zero tillage crop grown on moisture conserved from rains received during the months of September and August. The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and yield characteristics of chickpea grown in coexistence with increasing densities of wild onion (Asphodelus tenuifolius). The experiment was comprised of six density levels viz. zero, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 plants m-2 of A...

  4. Pressure-induced transformations of onion-like carbon nanospheres up to 48 GPa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Yao, Mingguang; Fan, Xianhong; Zhao, Shijia; Chen, Shuanglong; Gong, Chen; Yuan, Ye; Liu, Ran; Liu, Bingbing

    2015-01-21

    Raman spectra of onion-like carbon nanospheres (OCNSs) have been studied under pressure up to 48 GPa. A transformation related to a change from sp(2) to sp(3) bonding of carbons in OCNSs was observed at pressures above 20 GPa. The Raman spectra exhibit some vibrational features similar to those of the theoretically proposed Z-carbon phase of cold-compressed graphite, while the transition pressure is obviously higher than that for graphite. In contrast to the transformations in compressed graphite, interlayer bonds are formed on the nanoscale between buckled layers in OCNSs under pressure due to the concentric configuration, and sp(2)-sp(3) conversion is incomplete even up to 48 GPa. This is confirmed by TEM observations on the decompressed samples. Moreover, the onion-like carbon structure is extremely stable and can be recovered even after a compression cycle to 48 GPa. This high stability, beyond that of other sp(2) carbon materials, is related to the unique onion-like configuration and to the interlayer bonding. The transformed material should have excellent mechanical properties so that it can sustain very high pressure.

  5. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Five White Onion (Allium cepa L. Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Liguori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Five onion landraces belonging to Bianca di Pompei cv., cultivated in Campania region (Italy, were characterized for their main quality parameters. The onion landraces were harvested at the end of the growth cycle corresponding to the ripening time and harvest month, respectively: February, March, April, May, and June. The total content of volatile compounds as well as the sulfur-containing compounds in Aprilatica was significantly (p≤0.05 higher than the other landraces investigated. The nutraceutical feature investigated through the total phenols, phenols profile, and antioxidant activity showed higher values for the samples harvested in spring months. High pungency values ranging from 9 to 14 μmol/g FW were found in all onion landraces investigated as enzymatically (alliinase produced pyruvate (EPY. The organic acids profile (malic, citric, succinic, pyruvic, oxalic, ascorbic, and tartaric acids highlighted malic and citric acids in higher amounts in all landraces. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose were found as soluble sugars and fructose was the most abundant. Generally, the results highlighted the growth temperature influence on the investigated quality parameters.

  6. SELENIUM AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOL COMPOUNDS IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita Bystrická

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Onions (Allium cepa L. are important source of bioactive compounds including polyphenols and have potential beneficial properties for human health. Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient that is required in small amounts. The aim of the research was to find out how selenium (Se treatment affects on the quality of onion (Allium cepa L.. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl.The Se treatment increased the content of total polyphenols (TCA and antioxidant activity (AA. The content of total polyphenols in samples of onion during vegatation period moved in the range from 508.16±27.59 to 607.56±23.15. In this work was watched also the influence of potassium on antioxidant activity, where values were in interval from 25.90±0.47 to 39.72±2.64.

  7. Effect of γ-irradiation in the keeping quality of Nigerian onion cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaji, A. S.; Ogbadu, G. H.; Van Amstel, H.

    Onion of variety Ds × Ws'78 and Ds'79 harvested 14 days prior to the experiment were treated with 5, 8 and 15 krad doses of γ-irradiation from a 60Co γ-irradiator. Bulbs were stored in a well ventilated room at ambient temperature (20-25°C) and RH 20-82% in vegetable mesh bags on wooden shelves for 7 months. Onions were weekly investigated for sprouting and rotting. Chemical analyses were carried out monthly for dry matter, flavour, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar and protein. In comparison, a local method of storage was carried out. Irradiation dose of 5-15 krad completely inhibited sprouting throughout the whole storage period. Irradiated bulbs however, showed a higher tendency to rot. In comparison with the control, irradiation did not have any significant effect on dry matter, flavour component and ascorbic acid but the protein content was significantly lower in the irradiated bulbs. The compositional differences found between irradiated and untreated onions seem to be of no nutritional or organoleptic significance. Almost 100% loss was recorded for local storage trial.

  8. Drying kinetics and quality aspects during heat pump drying of onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Ranjan Sahoo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A prototype heat pump dryer has been developed for drying of fruits and vegetables at low temperature and relative humidity to maintain the quality of dried product. Onions, of Nasik red variety were peeled, trimmed and sliced to 2 mm thickness. The onion slices were dried in the heat pump dryer at 35ºC (32 % R.H., 40ºC (26 % R.H., 45ºC (19 % R.H. and 50ºC (15 % R.H.. Samples were also dried in a hot air dryer at 50ºC (52 % R.H. for comparison. The drying rate increased with increase in drying air temperature, associated with reduced R.H., in the heat pump dryer. Drying took place mainly under the falling rate period. The Page equation, resulting in a higher coefficient of determination and lower root mean square error, better described the thin-layer drying of onion slices than the Henderson and Pabis equation. Heat pump drying took less drying time of 360 min and yielded better quality dried product, with higher retention of ascorbic acid and pyruvic acid and lower colour change, as compared to a hot air dryer at the same drying air temperature of 50ºC.

  9. The onion universe: all sky light-cone simulations in shells

    CERN Document Server

    Fosalba, P; Castander, F; Manera, M

    2007-01-01

    Very large scale surveys will provide a view of the universe with good angular resolution but in many cases poorer redshift information. We will see the universe as a set of concentric radial shells around the observer, with a onion like structure. We build maps that mimic this onion like structure from a light-cone output of a new N-body simulation. The simulation is run with GADGET-2 on the MareNostrum supercomputer and has N = 2048^3 particles in a cubical box of 3072 \\Mpc on a side, representing one of the largest N-body simulations run to date. These onion maps can be used to interpret observations and also represent a very large (>1000) data compression. We present the angular density power spectrum of the maps, which shows the characteristic features in linear theory that we expect to measure in future surveys: the matter-radiation equality and the baryon acoustic wiggles. We use the maps to determine the smallest scale (largest multipoles) where linear theory and the Gaussianity of the error analysis ...

  10. Interactions Between Frankliniella fusca and Pantoea ananatis in the Center Rot Epidemic of Onion (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Bhabesh; Gitaitis, Ronald; Barman, Apurba; Avci, Utku; Marasigan, Kathleen; Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu

    2016-09-01

    An Enterobacteriaceae bacterium, Pantoea ananatis (Serrano) Mergaert, is the causal agent of an economically important disease of onion, center rot. P. ananatis is transmitted by an onion-infesting thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds). However, interactions between F. fusca and P. ananatis as well as transmission mechanisms largely remain uncharacterized. This study investigated P. ananatis acquisition by thrips and transstadial persistence. Furthermore, the effects of bacterial acquisition on thrips fitness were also evaluated. When thrips larvae and adults were provided with acquisition access periods (AAP) on peanut leaflets contaminated with the bacterium, an exponentially positive relationship was observed between AAP and P. ananatis acquisition (R(2) ≥ 0.77, P = 0.01). P. ananatis persisted in thrips through several life stages (larvae, pupae, and adult). Despite the bacterial persistence, no significant effects on thrips fitness parameters such as fecundity and development were observed. Immunofluorescence microscopy of adult thrips with P. ananatis-specific antibody after 48 h AAP on contaminated food revealed that the bacterium was localized only in the gut. These results suggested that the pathogen is not circulative and could be transmitted through feces. Mechanical inoculation of onion seedlings with fecal rinsates produced center rot symptoms, whereas inoculation with rinsates potentially containing salivary secretions did not. These results provide evidence for stercorarian transmission (transmission through feces) of P. ananatis by F. fusca.

  11. Microstructure characterization of onion (A.cepa) peels and thin films for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abodunrin, T.; Boyo, A.; Usikalu, M.; Obafemi, L.; Oladapo, O.; Kotsedi, L.; Yenus, Z.; Maaza, M.

    2017-03-01

    A.cepa peels are obtained from mature onion bulbs. Because of the continuous need for energy, alternative avenues for producing energy are gaining importance. The motivation for this work is based on an urgent need to source energy from readily available waste materials like domestic onion peels. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated via doctor blade method and high temperature sintering from waste (onion peels) are investigated for their ability to convert solar to electrical energy. The charge carriers were revealed under phytochemical screening. Functional groups of compounds present in A.cepa peel were analyzed with Fourier transform in infrared (FTIR). The influence of different electrolyte sensitizer is observed on the DSSCs under standard air mass conditions of 1.5 AM. The microstructure properties of these A.cepa DSSCs were explored using scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), x-ray diffraction and Fluorecence spectroscopy (XRF). The interfacial boundary between A.cepa dye, TiO2 framework of TiO2 and indium doped tin oxide (ITO) reveals several prominent anatase and rutile peaks. Photoelectric results, revealed dye-sensitized solar cells with a maximum power output of 126 W and incident photon to conversion energy (IPCE) of 0.13%.This work has established that A.cepa peels can be used as a source of micro-energy generation.

  12. Phenotypic diversity of basic characteristics of genotypes from the Serbia onion collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdanović-Varga Jelica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The onion is a widely distributed vegetable crop, which takes an important place in the vegetable production in Serbia. The traditional planting method is the one from sets. Old cultivars and populations and, in recent years, foreign cultivars are grown. The large variety of genotypes, including both domestic populations and cultivars, comprises the significant gene pool of this region. The onion collection of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad is based on the populations and cultivars from the territory of the former Yugoslavia. This paper reviews 30 onion genotypes on the basic IPGRI descriptors (ANNEX I. Variability of the reviewed characteristics was determined by PC analysis. High variability values have been established for bulb skin color, bulb flesh color, bulb hearting and bulb skin thickness. The genotypes varied in bulb skin color as well as in bulb flesh color from white to dark violet. These two characteristics had the largest impact on clustering, with a single genotype being heterogeneous exactly for these two characteristics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31030

  13. Tribological Behavior of Nano-Onions in Krytox 143AB Evaluated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Kenneth W.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Marchetti, Mario; Tomasek, Aaron J.

    2005-01-01

    Nanoparticles have been developed over the past 10 years and have found several applications. This work presents the use of carbon nano-onions as a potential oil additive for aerospace applications. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center tested lubricant lifetimes in ambient air and ultrahigh vacuum and characterized the breakdown products of the friction and wear. These carbon nanoparticles can provide adequate lubrication very similar to that of graphitic material when run in air. Soot represents one of the very first nanostructured materials, although it has rarely been considered as such. Changes in the carbon nanostructure, resulting in increased graphitic layer plane length, correlate with reactivity loss. Upon heating spherically shaped nanometer-sized carbon black in the absence of oxidant, graphene sheets form, and the initial soot particle templates the growth of a graphitic particle into what is best described as a sphere with many flat sides having a hollow interior. Because there are no edge sites, these polygonal graphitic particles, or nano-onions, are relatively resistant to oxidation. Graphite is used as a solid lubricant because of its stability at moderately high temperatures. However, the temperature at which graphite oxidizes rapidly is strongly influenced by surface area. With the size of particles typically employed in lubrication, a great amount of thermal stability is lost because of size reduction either during preparation or during lubrication of contacting parts. Therefore, we have undertaken a study of the lubricating ability of graphitic nano-onions (ref. 1).

  14. Effects of Intercropping with Potato Onion on the Growth of Tomato and Rhizosphere Alkaline Phosphatase Genes Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Wu, Fengzhi; Zhou, Xingang; Fu, Xuepeng; Tao, Yue; Xu, Weihui; Pan, Kai; Liu, Shouwei

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: In China, excessive fertilization has resulted in phosphorus (P) accumulation in most greenhouse soils. Intercropping can improve the efficiency of nutrient utilization in crop production. In this study, pot experiments were performed to investigate the effects of intercropping with potato onion (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum G. Don) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings growth and P uptake, the diversity of rhizosphere phosphobacteria and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes in phosphorus-rich soil. Methods: The experiment included three treatments, namely tomato monoculture (TM), potato onion monoculture (OM), and tomato/potato onion intercropping (TI-tomato intercropping and OI-potato onion intercropping). The growth and P uptake of tomato and potato onion seedlings were evaluated. The dilution plating method was used to determine the population of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and phosphate-mineralizing bacteria (PMB). The genomic DNAs of PSB and PMB in the rhizosphere of tomato and potato onions were extracted and purified, and then, with the primer set of 338f /518r, the PCR amplification of partial bacterial 16S rDNA sequence was performed and sequenced to determine the diversities of PSB and PMB. After extracting the total genomic DNAs from the rhizosphere, the copy numbers and diversities of ALP genes were investigated using real-time PCR and PCR-DGGE, respectively. Results: Intercropping with potato onion promoted the growth and P uptake of tomato seedlings, but inhibited those of potato onion. After 37 days of transplanting, compared to the rhizosphere of TM, the soil pH increased, while the electrolytic conductivity and Olsen P content decreased (p < 0.05) in the rhizosphere of TI. The populations and diversities of PSB, PMB, and ALP genes increased significantly in the rhizosphere of TI, compared to the rhizosphere of TM. Conclusion: The results indicated that intercropping with potato onion promoted the growth and P

  15. Free-radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant properties of some selected onions (Allium cepa L. and garlic (Allium sativum L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Benkeblia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The radical scavenging activity (RAS, chain-breaking activity, H2O2-scavenging, reducing capacity and total phenolics of four types of onions (Green onion, Yellow, Red and Purple and garlic were investigated. Total phenolics varied from 30 mg (green onion to 49 mg.100 g-1 fresh weight (garlic. Garlic extract showed the highest RAS, while green onion showed the lowest one. The chain-breaking activity of green onion extract was higher (0.48 than garlic extract (0.029. Chain-breaking activity of yellow, red and purple onion extracts was 0.19, 0.048 and 0.032 respectively. However, heating treatment (90 ºC, 3h caused an increase in this activity. Low ability of green onion extract to scavenge hydrogen peroxide was noted (35%, whereas high ability was noted in other onion and garlic extracts and ranged from 60 to 90%. The lowest reducing capacity was noted in green onion extract (18%, whereas the highest in garlic extract (196%. Statistically, high significant correlations were observed between total phenolics content and reducing power, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and chain-breaking activity of extract

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation with onion (Allium cepa L. on performance, carcass traits and intestinal microflora composition in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Goodarzi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the effect of onion (Allium cepa L. as an antibiotic growth promoter substitute on growth performance, carcass traits, and microflora composition in broiler chickens. Methods: A total of 192 one-day old mixed sex broiler chicks (Ross 308 were weighed and randomly allocated to four treatment groups, each with 4 replicate pens of 12 chicks. The dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control, antibiotic (15 mg virginiamycin/kg, and control+10 or 30 g fresh onions bulb/kg diet. Body weights of broilers were determined at Day 1, 21, and 42, feed intake was determined at the same periods, and feed conversion ratio was calculated accordingly. At Day 42, two birds per replicate were slaughtered for determination of carcass and organ weights. The populations of Lactobacilli spp. and Escherichia coli were enumerated in ileum by conventional microbiological techniques using selective agar media. Results: Dietary supplementation of 30 g/kg onion increased final body weight of broilers at 42 d of age compared to that of the other treatments (P<0.05. Birds fed 30 g onion/kg in the diet had the highest feed intake than other treatments at different growth periods (P<0.05. Feed conversion ratio, carcass yield and internal organ weights were not affected by the dietary treatments at Day 42. The Lactobacilli spp. population in birds supplemented with onion at the level of 30 g/ kg significantly was higher than other groups at 42 d of age (P<0.05. The lowest Escherichia coli loads were detected in broilers fed diets containing 15 mg virginiamycin/kg. The Escherichia coli loads significantly decreased in broilers fed diets containing 10 or 30 g onion/kg (P<0.05. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results of the current study indicated that supplementing broiler diet with 30 g onion/kg could induce favorable influences on performance and ileum microflora composition.

  17. Energy Efficiency Evaluation and Economical Analysis of Onion(Allium Cepa L. Production in Khorasan Razavi Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hassanzadeh Aval

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Current conventional agricultural systems using intensive energy have to be revitalized through new integrated approaches relying on renewable energy resources, which can allow farmers to stop dependence on fossil resources. The aim of this study was determining the amount of input–output energy used in onion (Allium cepa L. production in Khorasan Razavi province. For this purpose, the data was collected from 55 onion farm workers in Khorasan Razavi. Inquiries were conducted in face-to-face interviews in April-May 2011. Farm workers were selected based on random sampling method. The results indicated that total energy input was 98479 MJ.ha-1. The share of electricity and nitrogen fertilizer was 50.9 and 14.7%, respectively out of total energy input. The average onion yield under normal conditions was 73227 kg.ha-1 on irrigated farms. The net energy and energy productivity values were estimated to be 18684 MJ.ha-1 and 0.74 kg.MJ-1, respectively, and the ratio of energy output to energy input was found to be 1.19. This indicated an intensive use of input in onion production, which is not parallel to the increase in the final yield. Approximately 77.3% of the total energy input used in onion production was non-renewable (machinery, diesel, fertilizers, chemicals and electricity and only 22.7% was renewable energy form (human labor, manure, water for irrigation, seeds. Cost analysis revealed that total cost of onion production for one hectare was 79262908 Rials. Benefit–cost ratio was calculated as 1.65. Although energy efficiency of onion production in Khorasan Razavi province is low, it is economically justified.

  18. Onion seedling production in styrofoam trays under controlled environment, as summer-planted onions Plantas de cebola produzidas em bandejas sob cultivo protegido, no verão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Veiga De Vincenzo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Summer-planted onion (Allium cepa L. can increase grower profits, but the production of seedlings for transplant is difficult. This experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, with the objective of studying the behavior of the short-day onion hybrid Mercedes, in its initial stage, under controlled greenhouse environment, as summer-planted onions. Four formulated substrates, two different numbers of plants per cell were tested, and 288-cell styrofoam trays used. Trials were set up in split-plot design (n=3. Substrate and number of plants per cell represented main plots, and N application (2 and 3 times a week the subplots. The number of three plants per cell decrease the earlier onset of bulbing and increase plant height; substrates did not show differences; and the N application 3 times a week increased plant height and leaf dry weight, but did not result in earlier onset of bulbing.Uma das dificuldades do cultivo do verão da cebola (Allium cepa L., que permite maior lucro pois esta é a época de entressafra, é a produção de plantas para o transplante. Com o objetivo de verificar o comportamento na fase de muda do híbrido Mercedes, sob cultivo protegido como cultura de verão, o experimento foi instalado em estufa, em Piracicaba, SP com bandejas de isopor de 288 células. Foram testados quatro substratos. e dois números de plantas por células (3 e 4 plantas/célula, sendo sub-plot a suplementação mineral com nitrogênio 2 e 3 vezes por semana com nitrato de cálcio + nitrato de potássio. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com fatorial 4 x 2 em parcelas subdivididas, e três repetições. A densidade de três plantas por célula apresentou menor taxa de bulbificação precoce e maior altura da planta; não houve diferença quanto aos substratos e que a aplicação de nitrogênio três vezes por semana apresentou os maiores valores de altura da planta e peso da matéria seca da parte aérea, n

  19. Proteomic Characterization of Differential Abundant Proteins Accumulated between Lower and Upper Epidermises of Fleshy Scales in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop. The scales of an onion bulb are a modified type of leaf. The one-layer-cell epidermis of onion scales is commonly used as a model experimental material in botany and molecular biology. The lower epidermis (LE) and upper epidermis (UE) of onion scales display obvious differences in microscopic structure, cell differentiation and pigment synthesis; however, associated proteomic differences are unclear. LE and UE can be easily sampled as single-layer-cell tissues for comparative proteomic analysis. In this study, a proteomic approach based on 2-DE and mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to compare LE and UE of fleshy scales from yellow and red onions. We identified 47 differential abundant protein spots (representing 31 unique proteins) between LE and UE in red and yellow onions. These proteins are mainly involved in pigment synthesis, stress response, and cell division. Particularly, the differentially accumulated chalcone-flavanone isomerase and flavone O-methyltransferase 1-like in LE may result in the differences in the onion scale color between red and yellow onions. Moreover, stress-related proteins abundantly accumulated in both LE and UE. In addition, the differential accumulation of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase 1-like protein and β-1,3-glucanase in the LE may be related to the different cell sizes between LE and UE of the two types of onion. The data derived from this study provides new insight into the differences in differentiation and developmental processes between onion epidermises. This study may also make a contribution to onion breeding, such as improving resistances and changing colors. PMID:28036352

  20. Non-destructive flavour evaluation of red onion (Allium cepa L.) ecotypes: an electronic-nose-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mariateresa; di Sanzo, Rosa; Cefaly, Vittoria; Carabetta, Sonia; Serra, Demetrio; Fuda, Salvatore

    2013-11-15

    This work reports preliminary results on the potential of a metal oxide sensor (MOS)-based electronic nose, as a non-destructive method to discriminate three "Tropea Red Onion" PGI ecotypes (TrT, TrMC and TrA) from each other and the common red onion (RO), which is usually used to counterfeit. The signals from the sensor array were processed using a canonical discriminant function analysis (DFA) pattern recognition technique. The DFA on onion samples showed a clear separation among the four onion groups with an overall correct classification rate (CR) of 97.5%. Onion flavour is closely linked to pungency and thus to the pyruvic acid content. The e-nose analysis results are in good agreement with pyruvic acid analysis. This work demonstrated that artificial olfactory systems have potential for use as an innovative, rapid and specific non-destructive technique, and may provide a method to protect food products against counterfeiting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Customized Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Based Gas Sensor Array for Onion Quality Evaluation: System Development and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharun Konduru

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas sensor array, consisting of seven Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS sensors that are sensitive to a wide range of organic volatile compounds was developed to detect rotten onions during storage. These MOS sensors were enclosed in a specially designed Teflon chamber equipped with a gas delivery system to pump volatiles from the onion samples into the chamber. The electronic circuit mainly comprised a microcontroller, non-volatile memory chip, and trickle-charge real time clock chip, serial communication chip, and parallel LCD panel. User preferences are communicated with the on-board microcontroller through a graphical user interface developed using LabVIEW. The developed gas sensor array was characterized and the discrimination potential was tested by exposing it to three different concentrations of acetone (ketone, acetonitrile (nitrile, ethyl acetate (ester, and ethanol (alcohol. The gas sensor array could differentiate the four chemicals of same concentrations and different concentrations within the chemical with significant difference. Experiment results also showed that the system was able to discriminate two concentrations (196 and 1964 ppm of methlypropyl sulfide and two concentrations (145 and 1452 ppm of 2-nonanone, two key volatile compounds emitted by rotten onions. As a proof of concept, the gas sensor array was able to achieve 89% correct classification of sour skin infected onions. The customized low-cost gas sensor array could be a useful tool to detect onion postharvest diseases in storage.

  2. A Customized Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Based Gas Sensor Array for Onion Quality Evaluation: System Development and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, Tharun; Rains, Glen C.; Li, Changying

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor array, consisting of seven Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) sensors that are sensitive to a wide range of organic volatile compounds was developed to detect rotten onions during storage. These MOS sensors were enclosed in a specially designed Teflon chamber equipped with a gas delivery system to pump volatiles from the onion samples into the chamber. The electronic circuit mainly comprised a microcontroller, non-volatile memory chip, and trickle-charge real time clock chip, serial communication chip, and parallel LCD panel. User preferences are communicated with the on-board microcontroller through a graphical user interface developed using LabVIEW. The developed gas sensor array was characterized and the discrimination potential was tested by exposing it to three different concentrations of acetone (ketone), acetonitrile (nitrile), ethyl acetate (ester), and ethanol (alcohol). The gas sensor array could differentiate the four chemicals of same concentrations and different concentrations within the chemical with significant difference. Experiment results also showed that the system was able to discriminate two concentrations (196 and 1964 ppm) of methlypropyl sulfide and two concentrations (145 and 1452 ppm) of 2-nonanone, two key volatile compounds emitted by rotten onions. As a proof of concept, the gas sensor array was able to achieve 89% correct classification of sour skin infected onions. The customized low-cost gas sensor array could be a useful tool to detect onion postharvest diseases in storage. PMID:25587975

  3. A customized metal oxide semiconductor-based gas sensor array for onion quality evaluation: system development and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, Tharun; Rains, Glen C; Li, Changying

    2015-01-12

    A gas sensor array, consisting of seven Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) sensors that are sensitive to a wide range of organic volatile compounds was developed to detect rotten onions during storage. These MOS sensors were enclosed in a specially designed Teflon chamber equipped with a gas delivery system to pump volatiles from the onion samples into the chamber. The electronic circuit mainly comprised a microcontroller, non-volatile memory chip, and trickle-charge real time clock chip, serial communication chip, and parallel LCD panel. User preferences are communicated with the on-board microcontroller through a graphical user interface developed using LabVIEW. The developed gas sensor array was characterized and the discrimination potential was tested by exposing it to three different concentrations of acetone (ketone), acetonitrile (nitrile), ethyl acetate (ester), and ethanol (alcohol). The gas sensor array could differentiate the four chemicals of same concentrations and different concentrations within the chemical with significant difference. Experiment results also showed that the system was able to discriminate two concentrations (196 and 1964 ppm) of methlypropyl sulfide and two concentrations (145 and 1452 ppm) of 2-nonanone, two key volatile compounds emitted by rotten onions. As a proof of concept, the gas sensor array was able to achieve 89% correct classification of sour skin infected onions. The customized low-cost gas sensor array could be a useful tool to detect onion postharvest diseases in storage.

  4. Evaluation of whether the ultrasonographic onion skin sign is specific for the diagnosis of an appendiceal mucocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Toru; Kawai, Fukiko; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Omoto, Kiyoka; Kobori, Yasuyuki; Arakawa, Kazukiyo

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate whether the onion skin sign on ultrasonography (US) of the lower abdomen is specific for the diagnosis of an appendiceal mucocele. Our study included 231 lesions from 229 patients in whom transabdominal US detected lesions in the lower abdomen and who had definitive pathological diagnoses in the small bowel, ileocecal valve, cecum, appendix, mesentery, adnexa uteri or pelvic cavity outside the major organs. Patients with metastatic tumors were excluded. We reviewed the reports and images from transabdominal US and checked for the presence of the onion skin sign. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the sign for the diagnosis of an appendiceal mucocele were calculated. Five (2.2 %) of the 231 lesions showed the onion skin sign on US and all were diagnosed with an appendiceal mucocele. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the sign for the diagnosis of an appendiceal mucocele were 63, 100, and 99 %, respectively. The onion skin sign in the lower abdomen appears to be specific for the diagnosis of an appendiceal mucocele. In cases where the onion skin sign is obviously present in the lower abdomen on US, an appendiceal mucocele should be considered as the leading diagnosis.

  5. Conventional curing practices reduce generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. on dry bulb onions produced with contaminated irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emch, Alexander W; Waite-Cusic, Joy G

    2016-02-01

    Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) has emphasized microbial risks associated with irrigation water. Treasure Valley (eastern Oregon/western Idaho) has the highest yield of dry bulb onions in the country; however, their irrigation water is often non-compliant with current industry and proposed federal standards for fresh produce. Conventional curing practices may provide a mechanism to mitigate irrigation water quality to comply with FSMA regulations. Dry bulb onions were grown in Owyhee silt loam and Semiahmoo muck soils in greenhouses and irrigated with water containing a cocktail of rifampicin-resistant generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. (4.80 log CFU/ml). To mimic conventional practices, mature onions remained undisturbed in soil without irrigation for 12 days prior to being lifted and cured for 16 additional days. Surviving generic E. coli and Salmonella spp. were selectively enumerated on using standard plating (Hektoen Enteric Agar with rifampicin; HE + rif) or most probable number (lactose broth with rifampicin; HE + rif) methods. Generic E. coli and Salmonella spp. on onions decreased 0.19-0.26 log CFU/g·d during the initial 12 days of finishing. At lifting, generic E. coli and Salmonella spp. had been reduced to <1 CFU/g and persisted through the end of curing. This study demonstrates conventional curing practices as an effective mitigation strategy for dry bulb onions produced with water of poor microbiological quality.

  6. The aqueous garlic, onion and leek extracts release nitric oxide from S-nitrosoglutathione and prolong relaxation of aortic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grman, Marian; Misak, Anton; Cacanyiova, Sona; Kristek, Frantisek; Tomaskova, Zuzana; Bertova, Anna; Ondrias, Karol

    2011-12-01

    Garlic, onion and leek have beneficial effects in treatment of numerous health disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms. To test the potency of the aqueous garlic, onion and leek extracts to release NO from GSNO we have measured NO oxidation product, NO(2)-, by the Griess reagent method. Further, we studied the ability of garlic extract to relax noradrenaline-precontracted rat aortic rings in the presence of GSNO and effects of garlic extract on electrical properties of rat heart intracellular chloride channels. We have observed that: i) garlic, onion and leek extracts released NO from GSNO in the order: garlic > onion > leek; ii) the ability of garlic extract to release NO was pH-dependent (8.0 > 7.4 > 6.0) and potentiated by thiols (Cys > GSH = N-acetyl-cysteine > oxidized glutathione) at concentration 100 µmol/l; iii) the garlic extract (0.045 mg/ml) prolonged relaxation time of aortic rings induced by GSNO (50 nmol/l) and inhibited intracellular chloride channels. We suggest that NO-releasing properties of the garlic, onion and leek extracts and their interaction with Cys and GSH are involved in NO-signalling pathway which contributes to some of its numerous beneficial biological effects.

  7. Pharmacological and antioxidant actions of garlic and.or onion in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Din, Sayed H Seif; Sabra, Abdel-Nasser A; Hammam, Olfat A; Ebeid, Fatma A; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M

    2014-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a broad spectrum of fat-induced liver injury, ranging from mild steatosis to cirrhosis and liver failure. This study investigates the hepatoprotective properties of garlic and onion in NAFLD rat model. Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 9 groups; normal (I), NAFLD induced with high fat diet (HFD; II), NAFLD switched to regular diet (RD; III), NAFLD-HFD or NAFLD-RD treated with garlic (IV, V), onion (VI, VII) or the combined garlic+onion (VIII, IX) respectively. A NAFLD rat model was established by feeding the animals with a high-fat diet for 12 wk. These animals were then treated with garlic or/and onion or vehicle for 8 wk (weeks 13-20) and then killed to obtain serum samples and liver tissues. Liver histology, lipids, parameters of oxidative stress, TNF-α and TGF-β were measured. The liver in NAFLD-HFD showed typical steatosis, accompanied with mild to moderate lobular inflammatory cell infiltration. Serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, leptin, cholesterol, triglycerides, TNF-α, TGF-β and hepatic MDA' were significantly increased (P garlic+onion produced a better and significant decrease in liver steatosis, serum liver enzymes, oxidative markers and lipid peroxidation versus each one alone. In the same time, NAFLD-induced inflammation was also mitigated via reduction of TNF-α and TGF-β. In addition, these results were better in the group IX versus group VIII.

  8. Interactions between sanitizers and packaging gas compositions and their effects on the safety and quality of fresh-cut onions (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Natalie; González-Buesa, Jaime; Ryser, Elliot T; Harte, Janice; Almenar, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Onions are one of the most widely utilized vegetables worldwide, with demand for fresh-cut onions steadily increasing. Due to heightened safety concerns and consumer demand, the implications of sanitizing and packaging on fresh-cut onion safety and quality need to be better understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of produce sanitizers, in-package atmospheres, and their interactions on the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold, and the physico-chemical quality of diced onions to determine the best sanitizer and in-package atmosphere combination for both safety and quality. Diced onions were inoculated or not with S. Typhimurium, sanitized in sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, or liquid chlorine dioxide, and then packaged in either polylactic acid bags containing superatmospheric O2, elevated CO2/reduced O2, or air, or in polyethylene terephthalate snap-fit containers. Throughout 14 days of storage at 7 °C, packaged diced onions were assessed for their safety (S. Typhimurium), and quality (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds, physico-chemical analyses, and descriptive and consumer acceptance sensory panels). While sanitizer affected (Ppackage atmosphere had a significant (Ppackage atmosphere combination for enhancing the safety and quality of packaged diced onions. In addition, this combination led to diced onions acceptable for purchase after 2 weeks of storage by trained and consumer panels.

  9. Pilot Sequencing of Onion Genomic DNA Reveals Fragments of Transposable Elements, Low Gene Densities, and Significant Gene Enrichment After Methyl Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion (Allium cepa) is a diploid (2n=2x=16) monocot with one of the largest nuclear genomes among cultivated plants, over 6 and 16 times that of maize and rice, respectively. In this study, we sequenced onion BACs to estimate gene densities and investigate the nature and distribution of repetitive ...

  10. New report of Lolium multiflorum and Rumex crispus as weed hosts of epiphytic populations of Psuedomonas sp., causal agent of yellow bud in onion in Geogia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow bud, an emerging bacterial disease of onion (Allium cepa L.), has been spreading throughout the Vidalia onion-growing region in Georgia since 2007. Symptoms of yellow bud include intense chlorosis in emerging leaves and severe blight in the older leaves leading to stand loss and reduced bulb ...

  11. A prospective cohort study on the relationship between onion and leek consumption, garlic supplement use and the risk of colorectal carcinoma in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The association between onion and leek consumption, garlic supplement use and colon and rectum carcinoma among men and women was evaluated in the Netherlands Cohort Study, a large-scale prospective cohort study on diet and cancer. Onions, leeks, and garlic belong to the Allium genus and contain larg

  12. Effect of diets fortified with tomatoes or onions with variable quercetin-glycoside content on azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in the colon of rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Femia, A.P.; Caderni, G.; Ianni, M.; Salvadori, M.; Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Collins, G.; Bovy, A.G.; Dolara, P.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Onion and tomato are vegetables widely consumed by humans and epidemiological studies show an inverse association between vegetable consumption and colon cancer risk; however, the effect on colon cancer of diets containing high levels of vegetables like onion and tomato are not clear. Ai

  13. Quercetin and isorhamnetin in sweet and red cultivars of onion (Allium cepa L.) at harvest, after field curing, heat treatment, and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Marie E; Gustavsson, Karl-Erik; Vågen, Ingunn M

    2010-02-24

    Effects of heat treatment and storage on quercetin and isorhamnetin content, major and minor components of isorhamnetin, and quercetin glucosides and aglycone, were investigated in onion (Allium cepa L.). The sweet onion 'Recorra' and red onions 'Hyred' and 'Red Baron' were cultivated in the south part of Norway and thereafter stored for eight months. The onions were either not field dried, but stored directly, or field dried and then stored, or field dried and then heat treated before storage. Neither storage nor heat treatment caused any major differences in total flavonol content in the investigated sweet onion as well as in the red onion cultivars. The two major quercetin glucosides differed in their changes in content during storage; quercetin-4'-glucoside did not show any consistent changes during storage in the two red cultivars, independent of treatment, whereas quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside increased significantly by 30 or 51%, respectively, during storage in 'Hyred' and 'Red Baron' in the 24 h heat treated onions. Isorhamnetin-4'-glucoside, which might possibly be of special interest from a human health point of view, was present at 2-3 times higher amount in the sweet onion cultivar than in the two red cultivars. Some of the quercetin glucosides present at lower concentrations, isorhamnetin-3,4'-diglucoside, quercetin-3,7,4'-triglucoside, and quercetin-7,4'-diglucoside, increased during storage in all treatments in both 'Hyred' and 'Red Baron', though sometimes a decrease was found at the end of storage.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Protein Content in Purple Onion and Yellow Onion%紫皮洋葱与黄皮洋葱中蛋白质含量的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向艳娥; 回瑞华; 侯冬岩

    2011-01-01

    Kjeldahl method and spectrophotometry method are used for the determination of protein in onion.There is a trend that the purple onion has more content protein.%采取凯式定氮法和光谱分析法测定洋葱中蛋白质的含量,比较紫皮洋葱与黄皮洋葱的蛋白质含量差异.结果表明紫皮洋葱中蛋白质含量较高.

  15. The role of gamma irradiation on the extraction of phenolic compounds in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun In; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Young Soo; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the content of total phenolic compounds, especially quercetin (Q), in onion (Allium cepa L.) skin was investigated. Onion skin extracts contained two predominant flavonoid compounds, Q and quercetin-4'-glucoside (Q4'G). After 10 kGy gamma irradiation, the yield of Q in the extracts increased significantly from 36.8 to 153.9 μg/ml of the extract, and the Q4'G content decreased slightly from 165.0 to 134.1 μg/ml. In addition, the total phenolic compound content also increased after irradiation at 10 kGy, from 228.0 μg/g of fresh weight to 346.6 μg/g; negligible changes (237.1-256.7 μg/g) occurred at doses of up to 5 kGy. As we expected, radical-scavenging activity was enhanced remarkably (by 88.8%) in the 10 kGy irradiated sample. A dose-dependent increase in the peak intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra was observed in all irradiated samples, with a maximum increase at 10 kGy. The intensity relative to that of the control was 0.15, and it increased to 1.10 in 10 kGy irradiated samples. The optimum gamma irradiation dose, which is sufficient to break the chemical or physical bonds and release soluble phenols of low molecular weight in onion skin, is about 10 kGy.

  16. Semen quality characteristics of Koekoek breeder cocks influenced by supplemental inclusion levels of onion and garlic mixture at 35-41 weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mela Obinna Okoro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of varying dietary supplemental inclusion levels of onion and garlic mixture on semen quality characteristics of Koekoek breeder cocks aged 35-41 weeks. The experimental diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous but with different supplemental inclusion levels of onion and garlic. A complete randomized design was used for the experiment. The three dietary supplemental levels based on garlic and onion supplemental inclusion levels were Q0 (0 g onion and 0 g garlic per 600 g DM feed, Q1 (2.5 g onion and 2.5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed, and Q2 (5 g onion and 5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed with each treatment having three replicates. A quadratic type equation was used to determine the onion and garlic levels for optimum semen quality characteristics. Daily supplementation with 5 g onion and 5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed increased progressive motile cells (%, actual life sperm count (×106/nl, and live sperm (% by 221.20%, 301.51%, and 352.43%, while 2.5 g onion and 2.5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed reduced them by 28.67%, 12.69%, and 19.00%, respectively. However, daily supplementation with 2.5 g onion and 2.5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed increased sperm count (×106/nl by 12.82%, whereas daily supplementation with 5 g onion and 5 g garlic per 600 g DM feed reduced it by 10.26% in Koekoek breeder cocks. Dietary onion and garlic supplemental inclusion levels of 3.009, 3.191, 4.621, 6.601, 6.719, 2.327, 2.385, and 2.247 g per 600 g DM feed supported optimum progressive motile cells (%, immotile sperm cells (%, actual dead sperm count (×106/nl, actual live sperm count (×106/nl, live sperm (%, acrosome morphology defects (%, acrosome detachment (%, and acrosome swelling (%, with probability values ranging from 0.003 to 0.783, whereas minimum progressive motile cells (% increase was achieved at an optimum onion and garlic supplementation levels of 3.009 g per 600 g DM feed. These findings have a lot of

  17. Carbon nano-onions (multi-layer fullerenes: chemistry and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Bartelmess

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the development of multi-layer fullerenes, known as carbon nano-onions (CNOs. First, it briefly summarizes the most important synthetic pathways for their preparation and their properties and it gives the reader an update over new developments in the recent years. This is followed by a discussion of the published synthetic procedures for CNO functionalization, which are of major importance when elucidating future applications and addressing drawbacks for possible applications, such as poor solubility in common solvents. Finally, it gives an overview over the fields of application, in which CNO materials were successfully implemented.

  18. A safe potential juice clarifying pectinase from Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing Egyptian onion skins

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Mohsen S. Ismail; Heba I. Abo-Elmagd; Manal M. Housseiny

    2016-01-01

    The production of a notable, safe and highly active pectinase by the local fungal strain Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing the abundant pigmented Egyptian onion (Allium cepa L.) skins (6.5%, w/v) was achieved in 4 days submerged fermentation (SMF) cultures, at temperature and pH of 30 °C and 4.0, respectively. The indigenously produced pectinase was partially purified by 50% batch ethanol precipitation and its general properties were studied following the standard procedures. The lyophilized ...

  19. Comparative analysis of cesium and potassium uptake in onion Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, P. Ł.; Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, G.

    2003-01-01

    Cesium uptake in onion (from 0.3 mM CsCl solution traced with 137CsCl) has been examined. The highest uptake occurred at pH 4-5 and it decreased with increasing pH. The intensity of Cs translocation depended on acidity of the solution. For acidic solutions, translocation of cesium into bulbs and leaves was greater than in case of alkaline solutions, where most of the cesium remained in the roots. Addition of potassium into the solutions (millimolar K concentrations) inhibits Cs uptake. The potassium pH-influx/efflux characteristic does not coincide with the Cs uptake.

  20. Atomic force microscopy based nanoindentation study of onion abaxial epidermis walls in aqueous environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Xiaoning; Tittmann, Bernhard [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Kim, Seong H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-01-14

    An atomic force microscopy based nanoindentation method was employed to study how the structure of cellulose microfibril packing and matrix polymers affect elastic modulus of fully hydrated primary plant cell walls. The isolated, single-layered abaxial epidermis cell wall of an onion bulb was used as a test system since the cellulose microfibril packing in this cell wall is known to vary systematically from inside to outside scales and the most abundant matrix polymer, pectin, can easily be altered through simple chemical treatments such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and calcium ions. Experimental results showed that the pectin network variation has significant impacts on the cell wall modulus, and not the cellulose microfibril packing.

  1. Application of high hydrostatic pressure to decontaminate green onions from Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neetoo, Hudaa; Nekoozadeh, Sanaz; Jiang, Zheng; Chen, Haiqiang

    2011-10-01

    Consumption of fecally contaminated green onions has been implicated in several major outbreaks of foodborne illness. The objectives of this study were to investigate the survival and growth of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in green onions during storage and to assess the application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) to decontaminate green onions from both pathogens. Bacterial strains resistant to nalidixic acid and streptomycin were used to inoculate green onions at low (∼1logcfu/g) and high (∼2logcfu/g) inoculum levels which were then kept at 4 or 22°C for up to 14 days. Both pathogens grew to an average of 5-6logcfu/g during storage at 22°C and the bacterial populations were fairly stable during storage at 4°C. High-pressure processing of inoculated green onions in the un-wetted, wetted (briefly dipped in water) or soaked (immersed in water for 30min) conditions at 250-500MPa for 2min at 20°C reduced the population of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 by 0.6 to >5logcfu/g, depending on the pressure level and sample wetness state. The extent of pressure inactivation increased in the order of soaked>wetted>un-wetted state. The pressure sensitivity of the pathogens was also higher at elevated treatment temperatures. Overall, after pressure treatment at 400-450MPa (soaked) or 450-500MPa (wetted) for a retention time of 2min at 20-40°C, wild-type and antibiotic-resistant mutant strains of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on green onions were undetectable immediately after treatment and throughout the 15-day storage at 4°C. The pressure treatments also had minimal adverse impact on most sensorial characteristics as well as on the instrumental color of chopped green onions. This study highlights the promising applications of HHP to minimally process green onions in order to alleviate the risks of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 infections associated with the consumption of this commodity.

  2. Pesticide Residues in Commercial Lettuce, Onion, and Potato Samples From Bolivia—A Threat to Public Health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Marlene; Renjel, Susana; Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2017-01-01

    Bolivia does not have a surveillance program for pesticide residues in food. The few published studies have suggested that pesticide contamination in food may present a public health problem. Data are lacking for all foods except tomatoes and breast milk. In this study 10 potato, 10 onion, and 10...... lettuce samples from La Paz were sampled on August 15, 2015 at a local market and screened for 283 pesticides. Residues of cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, difenoconazol, or/and λ-cyhalothrin were detected in 50% of the lettuce samples, whereas no pesticides were found in potatoes and onions. In 20...

  3. Detection of starch adulteration in onion powder by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohumi, Santosh; Lee, Sangdae; Lee, Wang-Hee; Kim, Moon S; Mo, Changyeun; Bae, Hanhong; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2014-09-24

    Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1-35 wt % starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and prediction sets. A multivariate calibration model of partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was executed on the pretreated spectra to predict the presence of starch. The PLSR model predicted adulteration with an R(p)2 of 0.98 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 1.18% for the FT-NIR data and an R(p)2 of 0.90 and SEP of 3.12% for the FT-IR data. Thus, the FT-NIR data were of greater predictive value than the FT-IR data. Principal component analysis on the preprocessed data identified the onion powder in terms of added starch. The first three principal component loadings and β coefficients of the PLSR model revealed starch-related absorption. These methods can be applied to rapidly detect adulteration in other spices.

  4. Model system for plant cell biology: GFP imaging in living onion epidermal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A.; Wyatt, S.; Tsou, P. L.; Robertson, D.; Allen, N. S.

    1999-01-01

    The ability to visualize organelle localization and dynamics is very useful in studying cellular physiological events. Until recently, this has been accomplished using a variety of staining methods. However, staining can give inaccurate information due to nonspecific staining, diffusion of the stain or through toxic effects. The ability to target green fluorescent protein (GFP) to various organelles allows for specific labeling of organelles in vivo. The disadvantages of GFP thus far have been the time and money involved in developing stable transformants or maintaining cell cultures for transient expression. In this paper, we present a rapid transient expression system using onion epidermal peels. We have localized GFP to various cellular compartments (including the cell wall) to illustrate the utility of this method and to visualize dynamics of these compartments. The onion epidermis has large, living, transparent cells in a monolayer, making them ideal for visualizing GFP. This method is easy and inexpensive, and it allows for testing of new GFP fusion proteins in a living tissue to determine deleterious effects and the ability to express before stable transformants are attempted.

  5. Morphological, nutritional and chemical description of "Vatikiotiko", an onion local landrace from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Spyridon A; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ntatsi, Georgia

    2015-09-01

    "Vatikiotiko" is an onion local landrace from Greece with special quality features, such as strong and pungent taste and storability. In this study, we tried for the first time to describe this landrace and record its morphological traits and nutritional value in comparison with commercially cultivated genotypes ("Creamgold", "Red Cross F1" and "Sivan F1"). Nutritional value of "Vatikiotiko" was higher than commercial genotypes, whereas total sugars, fructose and glucose content were lower in "Vatikiotiko" and "Creamgold" onions. Fatty acids composed mostly from polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and α-linolenic acid), whereas for "Vatikiotiko" saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were detected in equal amounts (29.79% and 30.60%, respectively). "Vatikiotiko" and "Creamgold" had low antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity), especially when comparing with "Sivan F1" and "Red Cross F1", whereas no flavonoids were detected in "Vatikiotiko". The overview of "Vatikiotiko" landrace supported its special character regarding its nutritional value (sugar content, mineral composition and fatty acids profile) and the necessity to revalorize and protect its traditional culture. The potential of introducing it as Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) product has also been discussed.

  6. Flight movement and spatial distribution of immunomarked thrips in onion, potato, and tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial distribution of thrips in different crops, and the correlation between meterological parameters and the flight movements of this pest, using immunomarking. The experiment was conducted in cultivated areas, with tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, potato (Solanum tuberosum, and onion (Allium cepa; and non-cultivated areas, with weedy plants. The areas with tomato (100 days, potato (20 days, and weeds were sprayed with casein, albumin, and soy milk, respectively, to mark adult thrips; however, the areas with onion (50 days and tomato (10 days were not sprayed. Thrips were captured with georeferenced blue sticky traps, transferred into tubes, and identified by treatment area with the Elisa test. The dependence between the samples and the capture distance was determined using geostatistics. Meteorlogical parameters were correlated with thrips density in each area. The three protein types used for immunomarking were detected in different proportions in the thrips. There was a correlation between casein-marked thrips and wind speed. The thrips flew a maximum distance of 3.5 km and dispersed from the older (tomato to the younger crops (potato. The immunomarking method is efficient to mark large quantities of thrips.

  7. Accelerated aging and controlled deterioration for the determination of the physiological potential of onion seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodo Angelica Brod

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available International research on vegetable seed vigor is not at the same level attained for grain crops species. This study was conducted to identify reliable procedures for the accelerated aging and controlled deterioration tests to rank onion (Allium cepa L. seed lots according to their physiological potential. Six seed lots of the cultivars Aurora and Petroline were evaluated in the laboratory for germination, first count, seedling vigor classification, traditional and saturated salt accelerated aging (41masculineC / 48 and 72 h, controlled deterioration (24% of water / 45masculineC / 24 h and seedling emergence tests. Seed moisture content after the saturated salt accelerated aging test was lower and uniform, which is considered an important advantage in comparison to the traditional procedure. The saturated salt accelerated aging (41masculineC / 48 and 72 h and controlled deterioration (moisture content adjusted to 24% / 45masculineC / 24 h tests were the best procedures to assess the physiological potential of onion seeds, and are indicated for use in quality control programs.

  8. Indirect Effects of Field Management on Pollination Service and Seed Set in Hybrid Onion Seed Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Williams, Neal

    2015-12-01

    Pollination in crops, as in native ecosystems, is a stepwise process that can be disrupted at any stage. Healthy pollinator populations are critical for adequate visitation, but pollination still might fail if crop management interferes with the attraction and retention of pollinators. Farmers must balance the direct benefits of applying insecticide and managing irrigation rates against their potential to indirectly interfere with the pollination process. We investigated these issues in hybrid onion seed production, where previous research has shown that high insecticide use reduces pollinator attraction. We conducted field surveys of soil moisture, nectar production, pollinator visitation, pollen-stigma interactions, and seed set at multiple commercial fields across 2 yr. We then examined how management actions, such as irrigation rate (approximated by soil moisture), or insecticide use could affect the pollination process. Onions produced maximum nectar at intermediate soil moisture, and high nectar production attracted more pollinators. Insecticide use weakly affected pollinator visitation, but when applied close to bloom reduced pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Ultimately, neither soil moisture nor insecticide use directly affected seed set, but the high correlation between pollinator visitation and seed set suggests that crop management will ultimately affect yields via indirect effects on the pollination process. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A safe potential juice clarifying pectinase from Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing Egyptian onion skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Mohsen S. Ismail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of a notable, safe and highly active pectinase by the local fungal strain Trichoderma viride EF-8 utilizing the abundant pigmented Egyptian onion (Allium cepa L. skins (6.5%, w/v was achieved in 4 days submerged fermentation (SMF cultures, at temperature and pH of 30 °C and 4.0, respectively. The indigenously produced pectinase was partially purified by 50% batch ethanol precipitation and its general properties were studied following the standard procedures. The lyophilized enzyme preparation was free of any ochra or aflatoxins. The optimum conditions for the partially purified enzyme form were 2 mg/mL and 1% (w/v enzyme protein and substrate (citrus pectin concentrations, reaction pH and temperature of 7.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The results presented the low cost onion skins waste as the major substrate for the fungal pectinase production and its subsequent use in perfect fruit (apple, lemon and orange juices clarification with remarkable stability during and after this process, which certainly enhance fruit juices processing in the tropics.

  10. Effects of indole amides on lettuce and onion germination and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgati, Thiago F; Boaventura, Maria Amelia D

    2011-01-01

    Auxins, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), are important in plant germination and growth, while physiological polyamines, such as putrescine, are involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, and their concentrations increase during germination. In this work, novel indole amides were synthesized in good yields by monoacylation of morpholine and unprotected symmetrical diamines with indole-3-carboxylic acid, a putative metabolite of IAA, possessing no auxin-like activity. These amides were tested for their effects on seed germination and growth of the radicles and shoots of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Allium cepa (onion) seedlings, at 100.0, 1.0, and 0.01 microM concentrations. Germination was generally stimulated, with the exception of amide 3, derived from morpholine, at 100 microM. On radicle and shoot growth, the effect of these compounds was predominantly inhibitory. Compound 3 was the best inhibitor of growth of lettuce and onion, at the highest concentration. Amides, such as propanil, among others, are described as having herbicidal activity.

  11. Garlic and Onion Attenuates Vascular Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Prieto, Marcela Alejandra; Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; Lembo, Carina; Galmarini, Claudio Rómulo; Miatello, Roberto Miguel

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the antioxidant and the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic (G) and onion (O) in fructose-fed rats (FFR). Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were assigned to control (C), F (10% fructose in drinking water), F+T (tempol 1 mM as control antioxidant), F+G, and F+O. Aqueous G and O extracts were administered orally in doses of 150 and 400 mg/kg/d respectively, and along with tempol, were given during the last 8 weeks of a 14-week period. At the end of the study, FFR had developed insulin resistance, aortic NADPH oxidase activity, increased SBP, plasma TBARS and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in mesenteric arteries, and a decrease in heart endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Garlic and onion administration to F rats reduced oxidative stress, increased eNOS activity, and also attenuated VCAM-1 expression. These results provide new evidence showing the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of these vegetables. PMID:21876795

  12. Model system for plant cell biology: GFP imaging in living onion epidermal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A.; Wyatt, S.; Tsou, P. L.; Robertson, D.; Allen, N. S.

    1999-01-01

    The ability to visualize organelle localization and dynamics is very useful in studying cellular physiological events. Until recently, this has been accomplished using a variety of staining methods. However, staining can give inaccurate information due to nonspecific staining, diffusion of the stain or through toxic effects. The ability to target green fluorescent protein (GFP) to various organelles allows for specific labeling of organelles in vivo. The disadvantages of GFP thus far have been the time and money involved in developing stable transformants or maintaining cell cultures for transient expression. In this paper, we present a rapid transient expression system using onion epidermal peels. We have localized GFP to various cellular compartments (including the cell wall) to illustrate the utility of this method and to visualize dynamics of these compartments. The onion epidermis has large, living, transparent cells in a monolayer, making them ideal for visualizing GFP. This method is easy and inexpensive, and it allows for testing of new GFP fusion proteins in a living tissue to determine deleterious effects and the ability to express before stable transformants are attempted.

  13. Quantitative analysis of flavonoids, sugars, phenylalanine and tryptophan in onion scales during storage under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavita; Assefa, Awraris D; Ko, Eun Young; Lee, Eul Tai; Park, Se Won

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive quantitative analysis of flavonoids, sugars, phenylalanine, and tryptophan have been carried out in different onion scales during storage at ambient temperature (20-23 °C) and relative humidity (60-80 %). Depending on the length of storage, dry matter content and composition shows variation inside the onion bulbs. Inner sprouts were observed on longitudinally cut bulbs after 2 months and visible sprouts appeared after 5 months of storage. The bulbs lost 20 to 30 % of their weight at the end of the storage. Higher dry matter content was observed in the inner scales. Significantly high content of quercetin in inner scales and high level of quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside and quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside in outer scales was observed during a 7 months storage. During storage period, high content of fructose and glucose was observed in the middle scales while sucrose was high in the inner scales. There was no particular trend observed within analyzed amino acids. However, the content of phenylalanine was higher than tryptophan.

  14. Effect of onion extract on corneal haze suppression after air assisted lamellar keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohyun; Park, Young Woo; Lee, Euiri; Park, Sang Wan; Park, Sungwon; Noh, Hyunwoo; Kim, Jong Whi; Seong, Je Kyung; Seo, Kangmoon

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of onion extract on corneal haze suppression after applying the air assisted lamellar keratectomy. The air assisted lamellar keratectomy was performed on 24 canine eyes. They were treated with an artificial tear (group C), prednisolone acetate (group P), onion extract (group O) and TGF-β1 (group T) three times per day from 7 to 28 days after the surgery. Corneal haze occurred on the all eyes and was observed beginning 7 days after the surgery. The haze was significantly decreased in groups P and O from day 14 compared with the group C using the clinical (group P; P=0.021, group O; P=0.037) and objective evaluation method (group P; P=0.021, group O; P=0.039). In contrast, it was significantly increased in group T from day 14 compared with group C based on the clinical (P=0.002) and objective evaluation method (Phaze development by suppressing the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts.

  15. Cultural, Morphological and Pathogenic Characterization of Alternaria porri Causing Purple Blotch of Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad MOHSIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty seven (27 isolates of Alternaria porri were isolated from diseased leaf samples collected from different onion growing regions of Bangladesh and characterized for cultural, morphological and pathogenic variabilities. A. porri colonies colony colour ranged between light to dark olivacious and grayish white with irregular, regular with concentric ring and regular without concentric ring shape. Margin of colonies were entire, irregular and wavy with effuse, fluffy and velvety texture. Isolates impregnated media with colour ranged between grey to brown on the reverse of the plates. Growth rate of isolates ranged between 2.433 and 3.950 mm/day with fast growth in isolate DSTR 02 and least in MMBH. Morphological variation in conidia production was between 7.720×103 to 47.02×103 per mm2 with sporulation time 3.33 to 11.00 days. The conidial shape was straight to curve with light to deep brown colour. The number of horizontal and vertical separation in the conidia ranged from 3.00 to 6.00 × 1.00 to 2.00 with size from 11.20 to 39.20 × 4.76 to 11.43 µm. In pathogenicity test isolates also exhibited variations in size of the lesions (2.77 to 7.55 mm produced on onion leaves. The results demonstrate existence of considerable variation in cultural, morphological, and pathogenic characters of A. porri isolates prevalent in Bangladesh environment.

  16. Garlic and Onion Attenuates Vascular Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Alejandra Vazquez-Prieto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the antioxidant and the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic (G and onion (O in fructose-fed rats (FFR. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were assigned to control (C, F (10% fructose in drinking water, F+T (tempol 1 mM as control antioxidant, F+G, and F+O. Aqueous G and O extracts were administered orally in doses of 150 and 400 mg/kg/d respectively, and along with tempol, were given during the last 8 weeks of a 14-week period. At the end of the study, FFR had developed insulin resistance, aortic NADPH oxidase activity, increased SBP, plasma TBARS and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 expression in mesenteric arteries, and a decrease in heart endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. Garlic and onion administration to F rats reduced oxidative stress, increased eNOS activity, and also attenuated VCAM-1 expression. These results provide new evidence showing the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of these vegetables.

  17. Valorization of onion waste and by-products: MCR-ALS applied to reveal the compositional profiles of alcoholic fermentations of onion juice monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sáiz, José-María; Esteban-Díez, Isabel; Rodríguez-Tecedor, Sofía; Pizarro, Consuelo

    2008-11-01

    The overall purpose of the project, of which this study is a part, was to examine the feasibility of onion waste as a support-substrate for the profitable production of food-grade products. This study focused on the efficient production of ethanol from worthless onions by transforming the onion juice into onion liquor via alcoholic fermentation with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The onion bioethanol produced could be later used as a favorable substrate for acetic fermentation to finally obtain onion vinegar. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), coupled with the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method, has been used to reveal the compositional and spectral profiles for both substrates and products of alcoholic fermentation runs, that is, total sugars, ethanol, and biomass concentration. The ambiguity associated with the ALS calculation was resolved by applying suitable inequality and equality constraints. The quality of the results provided by the NIR-based MCR-ALS methodology adopted was evaluated by several performance indicators, including the variance explained by the model, the lack of fit and the agreement between the MCR-ALS achieved solution and the results computed by applying previously validated PLS reference models. An additional fermentation run was employed to test the actual predictive ability of the ALS model developed. For all the components resolved in the fermentation system studied (i.e., total sugars, ethanol, and biomass), the final model obtained showed a high predictive ability and suitable accuracy and precision, both in calibration and external validation, confirmed by the very good agreement between the ALS responses and the reference values (the coefficient of determination was, in all cases, very close to 1, and the statistics confirmed that no significant difference was found between PLS reference models and the MCR-ALS methodology applied). Thus, the proven reliability of the MCR-ALS model presented

  18. Dissection of Trichoderma longibrachiatum-induced defense in onion (Allium cepa L.) against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa by target metabolite profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Abdel-Motaal, Fatma; El-Sayed, Magdi; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-05-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts that can cause substantial changes in the metabolism of host plants, thereby increasing plant growth and activating plant defense to various diseases. Target metabolite profiling approach was selected to demonstrate that Trichoderma longibrachiatum isolated from desert soil can confer beneficial agronomic traits to onion and induce defense mechanism against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa (FOC), through triggering a number of primary and secondary metabolite pathways. Onion seeds primed with Trichoderma T1 strain displayed early seedling emergence and enhanced growth compared with Trichoderma T2-treatment and untreated control. Therefore, T1 was selected for further investigations under greenhouse conditions, which revealed remarkable improvement in the onion bulb growth parameters and resistance against FOC. The metabolite platform of T1-primed onion (T1) and T1-primed onion challenged with FOC (T1+FOC) displayed significant accumulation of 25 abiotic and biotic stress-responsive metabolites, representing carbohydrate, phenylpropanoid and sulfur assimilation metabolic pathways. In addition, T1- and T1+FOC-treated onion plants showed discrete antioxidant capacity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) compared with control. Our findings demonstrated the contribution of T. longibrachiatum to the accumulation of key metabolites, which subsequently leads to the improvement of onion growth, as well as its resistance to oxidative stress and FOC.

  19. Performance of arrhenotokous and thelytokous Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion and cabbage and its implications on evolution and pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Fail, Jozsef; Wang, Ping; Feng, Ji-Nian; Shelton, A M

    2014-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest on onion and cabbage. Two reproductive modes--arrhenotoky and thelytoky--are found in this species and co-occur in the field. We compared life table traits between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci on cabbage and onion. Experiments were conducted in cages to determine which reproductive mode is more competitive. Additionally, host adaption of the arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci between onion and cabbage was investigated. On onion, arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better than thelytokous T. tabaci, while on cabbage the opposite occurred. When comparing life table and demographic growth parameters (net reproductive rates R(o), mean generation time T, the intrinsic rate of natural increase r(m), finite rate of increase A, and population doubling time T(d)) on different host plants, we found that arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better on onion than on cabbage, whereas thelytokous T. tabaci performed better on cabbage than on onion. Host-related performance differences in this species suggest that the divergence between two reproductive modes might be associated with host adaption. Pest management strategies for this global pest should recognize that the two reproductive modes can impact population dynamics on different crops.

  20. Physicochemical properties, and antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of garlic and onion powder in fresh pork belly and loin during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S Y; Yoo, S S; Shim, J H; Chin, K B

    2008-10-01

    Pork loin and belly cuts were pumped to 110% of their original weight with solutions containing 5% of various ingredients (sodium ascorbate, garlic, and onion powder), and evaluated the physicochemical properties, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities during refrigerated storage at 8 degrees C. The addition of garlic and onion powder tended to increase redness (a) and yellowness (b) in both the belly lean and loin with the exception of a few cases. Free fatty acid values in both pork belly and loin cuts were reduced with the addition of these ingredients, as compared to the control. Significant differences in peroxide values were observed in sodium ascorbate and garlic-injected belly, and in sodium ascorbate and onion-injected loin, as compared to the control. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values in the pork belly with garlic or onion powder were significantly lower than in the belly without these ingredients or with sodium ascorbate (P garlic and onion powder, as compared to the control. In both the belly and loin cuts, the content of oxidative products (volatile compounds) was reduced with the addition of garlic and onion powder, particularly the aldehydes (hexanal). Overall, garlic and onion in enhanced meats showed an antioxidant activity as effective as that of sodium ascorbate and also an antimicrobial effect to inhibit the growth of total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae.

  1. Temperature Dependence of Electroresistivity, Negative and Positive Magnetoresistivity of Graphite/Diamond Nanocomposites and Onion-Like Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    of graphite/diamond nanocomposites (GDNC) and onion-like carbon (OLC) prepared by vacuum annealing of nanodiamond (ND) at various fixed temperatures...properties of carbon materials is of interest due to wide practical applications and provides information on their structural perfection and

  2. Plant odours with potential for a push-pull strategy to control the onion thrips (Thrips tabaci)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; James, D.E.; Kogel, de W.J.; Teulon, D.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of four plant essential oils to repel onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in the presence of an attractive odour, ethyl iso-nicotinate in a pasture field. Four horizontal white sticky plates were placed adjacent to (directions: N, S, E, W) a cen

  3. 76 FR 67317 - Onions Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, OR; Modification of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... producers and handlers within the order's production area are at a competitive disadvantage, relative to... sustainable by the Committee, the Committee could then recommend changes to the handling regulation... already shipping onions from the 2011-2012 crop and handlers want to take advantage of the revision as...

  4. Nutrient content and yield in relation to top breakover in onion developed from greenhouse-grown transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) generally are harvested based on percentage of tops broken over. Since plant metabolism changes over time, percentage of tops broken over may be used to determine a harvest time to deliver marketable bulbs with the best nutrient content. The cultivars Candy and Texas Grano ...

  5. Low levels of H2S may replace sulfate as sulfur source in sulfate-deprived onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, Mark; De Kok, LJ

    2005-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) was exposed to low levels of H2S in order to investigate to what extent H2S could be used as a sulfur source for growth under sulfate-deprived conditions. Sulfate deprivation for a two-week period resulted in a decreased biomass production of the shoot, a subsequently

  6. Improved fructan accumulation in perennial ryegrass transformed with the onion fructosyltransferase genes 1-SST and 6G-FFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, Gitte; Didion, Thomas; Foiling, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    value of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) by increasing the fructan content through expression of heterologous fructan biosynthetic genes. We developed perennial ryegrass Lines expressing sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase genes from onion (Allium cepa) which...

  7. The root systems of onion and Allium fistulosum in the context of organic farming: a breeding approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, de P.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Allium cepa , Allium roylei , Japanese bunching onion, introgression breeding, organic agriculture, linkage map, AFLP, QTL analysis, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, in vitro multiplication

    Development of greenhouse grown onion transplants and effect of plant density and fertilizer rate on marketable yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse grown onion (Allium cepa L.) transplants may have potential for use in production systems, but how they respond to cultural practices needs clarification. Seedlings of ‘Candy' and ‘Texas Grano 1015Y' were raised in a greenhouse. ‘Candy' seedlings were heavier than ‘Texas Grano 1015Y' se...

  8. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in onion roots from organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Guillermo A; Parádi, István; Burger, Karin; Baar, Jacqueline; Kuyper, Thomas W; Scholten, Olga E; Kik, Chris

    2009-06-01

    Diversity and colonization levels of naturally occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in onion roots were studied to compare organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands. In 2004, 20 onion fields were sampled in a balanced survey between farming systems and between two regions, namely, Zeeland and Flevoland. In 2005, nine conventional and ten organic fields were additionally surveyed in Flevoland. AMF phylotypes were identified by rDNA sequencing. All plants were colonized, with 60% for arbuscular colonization and 84% for hyphal colonization as grand means. In Zeeland, onion roots from organic fields had higher fractional colonization levels than those from conventional fields. Onion yields in conventional farming were positively correlated with colonization level. Overall, 14 AMF phylotypes were identified. The number of phylotypes per field ranged from one to six. Two phylotypes associated with the Glomus mosseae-coronatum and the G. caledonium-geosporum species complexes were the most abundant, whereas other phylotypes were infrequently found. Organic and conventional farming systems had similar number of phylotypes per field and Shannon diversity indices. A few organic and conventional fields had larger number of phylotypes, including phylotypes associated with the genera Glomus-B, Archaeospora, and Paraglomus. This suggests that farming systems as such did not influence AMF diversity, but rather specific environmental conditions or agricultural practices.

  9. Dietary onion and ginger enhance growth, hemato-immunological responses, and disease resistance in brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane S. Apines-Amar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week (September to December 2009 feeding trial was conducted to evaluate theimmunostimulatory effects of different substances administered orally through the diet in the brownmarbledgrouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. Five experimental diets containing either onion, ginger, β–glucan, or vitamin C and a control diet (without immunostimulants were fed to the fish weighing about44 g for 12 weeks. Onion-fed fish showed significantly increased weight gain, hematocrit, and total Igcompared to the control group; however, leukocyte differential count and ROS production wereunaffected. Ginger-fed fish likewise significantly increased total Ig, ROS production and lysozymeactivity. However, it did not affect growth and hematocrit value. β-glucan significantly increased growthand total Ig but had no effect on the other parameters. Vitamin C significantly increased hematocrit, totalIg and ROS production but did not increase growth. Upon challenge with a bacterial pathogen Vibrioharveyi, mortality was significantly reduced in the onion, ginger and vitamin C-fed fish but not in the β–glucan-fed fish. This study demonstrated that onion and ginger could positively affect the innate immuneresponses and protect grouper against Vibrio harveyi infection.

  10. Genetic analyses of anthocyanin concentrations and intensity of red bulb color among segregating haploid progenies of onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher concentrations of anthocyanins in vegetables are important for attractive appearance and may offer health benefits for consumers. The red color of onion bulbs is due primarily to the accumulation of anthocyanins. The goals of this study were to identify chromosome regions that condition yello...

  11. Low levels of H2S may replace sulfate as sulfur source in sulfate-deprived onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, Mark; De Kok, LJ

    2005-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) was exposed to low levels of H2S in order to investigate to what extent H2S could be used as a sulfur source for growth under sulfate-deprived conditions. Sulfate deprivation for a two-week period resulted in a decreased biomass production of the shoot, a subsequently decrease

  12. Plant odours with potential for a push-pull strategy to control the onion thrips (Thrips tabaci)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; James, D.E.; Kogel, de W.J.; Teulon, D.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of four plant essential oils to repel onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in the presence of an attractive odour, ethyl iso-nicotinate in a pasture field. Four horizontal white sticky plates were placed adjacent to (directions: N, S, E, W) a

  13. Metabolomic Fingerprinting in the Comprehensive Study of Liver Changes Associated with Onion Supplementation in Hypercholesterolemic Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Peña, Diana; Dudzik, Danuta; García, Antonia; de Ancos, Begoña; Barbas, Coral; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of functional ingredients has been suggested to be a complementary tool for the prevention and management of liver disease. In this light, processed onion can be considered as a source of multiple bioactive compounds with hepatoprotective properties. The liver fingerprint of male Wistar rats (n = 24) fed with three experimental diets (control (C), high-cholesterol (HC), and high-cholesterol enriched with onion (HCO) diets) was obtained through a non-targeted, multiplatform metabolomics approach to produce broad metabolite coverage. LC-MS, CE-MS and GC-MS results were subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses, providing a list of significant metabolites. All data were merged in order to figure out the most relevant metabolites that were modified by the onion ingredient. Several relevant metabolic changes and related metabolic pathways were found to be impacted by both HC and HCO diet. The model highlighted several metabolites (such as hydroxybutyryl carnitine and palmitoyl carnitine) modified by the HCO diet. These findings could suggest potential impairments in the energy−lipid metabolism, perturbations in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle and β-oxidation modulated by the onion supplementation in the core of hepatic dysfunction. Metabolomics shows to be a valuable tool to evaluate the effects of complementary dietetic approaches directed to hepatic damage amelioration or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prevention. PMID:28134852

  14. White rot of garlic and onion (Causal agent, Sclerotium cepivorum): A status report from the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is evidence from literature, state department of agriculture documents, and recent diagnoses that Sclerotium cepivorum, causal agent of white rot of garlic and onion, is spreading and/or becoming more established in the Pacific Northwest. Previously documented distributions are summarized, an...

  15. Onion and garlic extracts as potential antidotes for cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in prostate glands of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola-Mudathir, F K; Suru, S M

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has been implicated in increased prostate gland malignancy risk in both wildlife and humans. This study examines the chemoprotective roles of onion and garlic extracts on Cd-induced biochemical alterations in the prostate glands of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups: control group received double distilled water; Cd group received Cd alone (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day); extract-treated groups were pre-treated with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract (0.5 ml and 1.0 ml/100 g bwt per day) for 1 week and then co-treated with Cd (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day) for additional 3 weeks. Oxidant/antioxidant status and acid phosphatase (ACPtotal and ACPprostatic ) activity were examined in prostate glands. Cd intoxication caused a marked (P garlic extract significantly minimised these alterations. The onion extract offered a dose-dependent protection. Our findings suggest a chemoprotective capability for onion and garlic extracts against Cd-induced biochemical alteration in the prostate glands.

  16. Evaluation of Gynogenic Responsiveness and Pollen Viability of Selfed Doubled Haploid Onion Lines and Chromosome Doubling via Somatic Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although haploid induction has been practiced in onions for the last 20 years, several obstacles limit its use in plant breeding programmes. To overcome some of them, we investigated three parameters: efficiency of doubled haploid (DH) lines and their selfed progeny as sources of high responsiveness...

  17. Characterization of shortday onion cultivars of 3 pungency levels with flavor precursor, free amino acid, sulfur, and sugar contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Jifon, John; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to characterize shortday onions of 3 pungency levels with regard to the composition of flavor related compounds. A total of 9 onion breeding lines/cultivars were selected, per each of low, medium, and high pungency level, with pyruvic acid contents of 1.9 to 2.8, 4.8 to 5.4, and 7.2 to 8.3 micromoles/mL, respectively. The contents of flavor precursors (S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide [1-PeCSO] and S-methyl-L-cysteine-sulfoxide [MCSO]), free amino acids, free sugars, soluble solids (SSC), and total sulfur (S) in onion bulbs were measured. The flavor precursor contents ranged from 0.03 to 0.16 mg/g fresh weight (FW) for MCSO, 0.07 to 0.65 mg for 1-PeCSO, and 0.12 to 0.77 mg in total, and precursor contents increased with the pungency levels. Onions of different pungency levels did not differ in the contents of individual or total free amino acids, and the most abundant amino acids were glutamine and arginine. The total sugar contents ranged from 50 to 75 mg/g FW, and total S contents (3.5 to 5.1 mg/g dry weight) were not correlated with the pungency levels. However, pungency levels were correlated inversely with bulb weight and positively with SSC, presumably by the effect of dilution. This study indicates that onion pungency is primarily determined by the content of flavor precursor compounds and not by total S, total sugars, or individual/total free amino acids in shortday bulbs.

  18. Nematode population densities and yield of sweet potato and onion as affected by nematicides and time of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M R; Johnson, A W; Smittle, D A

    1988-10-01

    Nematode population densities and yield of sweet potato and onion as affected by nematicides and time of application were determined in a 3-year test. Population densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 in untreated plots of sweet potato increased each year, but Helicotylenchus dihystera and Criconemella ornata did not. Ethoprop (6.8 kg a.i./ha) incorporated broadcast in the top 15-cm soil layer each spring before planting sweet potato reduced population densities of nematodes in the soil and increased marketable yield in 1982, but not in 1983 and 1984. When DD, fenamiphos, and aldicarb were applied just before planting either sweet potato or onion, nematode population densities at harvest were lower in treated than in untreated plots. No additional benefits resulted when the nematicides were applied immediately before planting both sweet potato and onion. Correlation coefficients (P onion crops. Correlation coefficients for marketable yield of onion seeded in 1982 and harvested in 1983 vs. densities of M. incognita juveniles and H. dihystera in the soil at harvest were r = -0.42 and r = -0.31 (P

  19. Temperature-dependent studies on the total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activities, and sugar content in six onion varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Sharma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heating effect on total phenol, flavonoids, antioxidant activity, and sugar content of six onion varieties has been quantitatively investigated to explore the effect of different temperatures. The onion varieties comprised one red-skinned variety, two white-skinned varieties, and three yellow-skinned varieties. The heating temperature was scanned at 80°C, 100°C, 120°C, and 150°C for 30 minutes each, and quantitative analysis was performed relative to the powdered onion at ambient temperature. Quercetin, glucosides and sugar content were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic and antioxidant content increased in all six varieties. The total flavonoid levels showed a considerable change. On heating the onion samples at 120°C for 30 minutes, the red-skinned variety showed the highest level of total phenolic content [13712.67 ± 1034.85 μg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight (μg GAE/g DW] and total flavonoids [3456.00 ± 185.82 μg of quercetin equivalents/g dry weight (μg Q/g DW], whereas the content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were 13611.83 ± 341.61 μg GAE/g DW and 3482.87 ± 117.17 μg Q/g DW, respectively, for the yellow-skinned (Sunpower variety. Quercetin and its glucoside contents increased up to 120°C and then decreased at 150°C, whereas the sugar content continuously decreased with heating. All cultivars showed the same pattern in the heating effect, and the predominant flavonoids were destroyed at higher temperatures. Therefore, it is improper to expose onion powder to a temperature higher than 120°C.

  1. Carbon nanotubes and carbon onions for modification of styrene-acrylate copolymer based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merijs-Meri, Remo; Zicans, Janis; Ivanova, Tatjana; Bitenieks, Juris [Institute of Polymer Materials, Riga Technical University, Azenes street 14/24, LV-1048, Riga (Latvia); Kuzhir, Polina; Maksimenko, Sergey [Institute of Nuclear Problems, Belarus State University, Bobruiskaya str. 11, 220030, Minsk (Belarus); Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Moseenkov, Sergey [Boreskov Institute of Catalyst Siberian branch of RAS, pr. Lavrentieva 5, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-15

    Styrene acrylate polymer (SAC) nanocomposites with various carbon nanofillers (multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNTs and onion like carbon OLC) are manufactured by means of latex based routes. Concentration of the carbon nanofillers is changed in a broad interval starting from 0.01 up to 10 wt. %. Elastic, dielectric and electromagnetic properties of SAC nanocomposites are investigated. Elastic modulus, electrical conductivity and electromagnetic radiation absorption of the investigated SAC nanocomposites increase along with rising nanofiller content. The effect of the addition of anisometric MWCNTs on the elastic properties of the composite is higher than in the case of the addition of OLC. Higher electrical conductivity of the OLC containing nanocomposites is explained with the fact that reasonable agglomeration of the nanofiller can promote the development of electrically conductive network. Efficiency of the absorption of electromagnetic radiation depends on the development of conductive network within the SAC matrix.

  2. Phytosterols in onion contribute to a sensation of lingering of aroma, a koku attribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Toshihide; Egusa, Ai Saiga; Nagao, Akira; Odahara, Tsutomu; Sugise, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Noriko; Nosho, Yasuharu

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to examine the substance in a precipitate of heat-treated onion concentrate (HOC) that contributes to a sensation of lingering of aroma, a koku attribute induced by the sensing of richness and persistence in terms of taste, aroma and texture. Adding precipitate, separated from HOC, to consommé enhanced the lingering sensation of aroma in the consommé more than adding the supernatant from HOC. After the precipitate was washed with hot water and ethanol its enhancing effect disappeared. Analysis of the HOC precipitate showed that it contained phytosterols, such as beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Tests of binding to aroma compounds showed that both sterols, as well as the washed precipitate, were able to bind methyl propyl disulfide and N-hexanal. Thus phytosterols in the HOC precipitate seemed to bind and hold the aroma compounds and gradually release them, inducing a lingering sensation of aroma under the koku concept during consumption.

  3. An improved method of preparing onion bulbs for the Alium test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Wierzbicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tests on storage and preparation of onion (Allium cepa L. bulbs presented in this paper were performed in order to obtain the highest possible number of roots of similar length, which would be suitable for performing the Allium test. The results were subject to a detailed statistical analysis and allowed the following procedure to be recommended: 1 Store the bulbs at room temperature rather than in a refrigerator for two weeks before starting the experiments. 2 Do not use the biggest bulbs (over 80-100 g; use medium and small bulbs with the largest possible diameter of the reduced stem. 3 Just before starting the culture, wash the bottom part of the bulb, cut out the central part of the reduced stem and cut off the upper part of the bulb. At least 70% of bulbs prepared this way are expected to be suitable for cytological tests.

  4. Biocompatibility and biodistribution of functionalized carbon nano-onions (f-CNOs) in a vertebrate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’ Amora, Marta; Rodio, Marina; Bartelmess, Juergen; Sancataldo, Giuseppe; Brescia, Rosaria; Cella Zanacchi, Francesca; Diaspro, Alberto; Giordani, Silvia

    2016-09-01

    Functionalized carbon nano-onions (f-CNOs) are of great interest as platforms for imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic applications due to their high cellular uptake and low cytotoxicity. To date, the toxicological effects of f-CNOs on vertebrates have not been reported. In this study, the possible biological impact of f-CNOs on zebrafish during development is investigated, evaluating different toxicity end-points such as the survival rate, hatching rate, and heart beat rate. Furthermore, a bio-distribution study of boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) functionalized CNOs in zebrafish larvae is performed by utilizing inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (iSPIM), due to its intrinsic capability of allowing for fast 3D imaging. Our in vivo findings indicate that f-CNOs exhibit no toxicity, good biocompatibility (in the concentration range of 5–100 μg mL‑1) and a homogenous biodistribution in zebrafish larvae.

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhiza improves yield and nutritional properties of onion (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Rąpała-Kozik, Maria; Wężowicz, Katarzyna; Grandin, Anna; Karlsson, Stefan; Ważny, Rafał; Anielska, Teresa; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    Improving the nutritional value of commonly cultivated crops is one of the most pending problems for modern agriculture. In natural environments plants associate with a multitude of fungal microorganisms that improve plant fitness. The best described group are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These fungi have been previously shown to improve the quality and yield of several common crops. In this study we tested the potential utilization of Rhizophagus irregularis in accelerating growth and increasing the content of important dietary phytochemicals in onion (Allium cepa). Our results clearly indicate that biomass production, the abundance of vitamin B1 and its analogues and organic acid concentration can be improved by inoculating the plant with AM fungi. We have shown that improved growth is accompanied with up-regulated electron transport in PSII and antioxidant enzyme activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on the mitotic activity of onion root tips apical meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Lechowicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various concentrations of 5-FU on the mitotic activity of onion root tips apical meristem were investigated during 24-hour incubation in 5-FU and postincubation in water. The incubation in 5-FU caused a reversible inhibition of mitotic activity, and waves of the partially synchronised mitoses were observed during the period of postincubation. The most pronounced synchronisation of mitoses was obtained after incubation in 100 mg/l. 5-FU but the mitotic index of the resumed mitotic activity amounted to only one half of the control value. 5-FU was found to cause some cytological changes in meristematic cells such as enlargement of the nucleoli, change in the interphasic nuclei structure, appearance of subchromatid and chromatid aberrations and micronuclei. The effects of 5-FU on nucleic acids and the cell division cycle ace discussed and compared with the effects of 5-FUdR.

  7. Plant photonics: application of optical coherence tomography to monitor defects and rots in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meglinski, I. V.; Buranachai, C.; Terry, L. A.

    2010-04-01

    The incidence of physiological and/or pathological defects in many fresh produce types is still unacceptably high and accounts for a large proportion of waste. With increasing interest in food security their remains strong demand in developing reliable and cost effective technologies for non-destructive screening of internal defects and rots, these being deemed unacceptable by consumers. It is well recognized that the internal defects and structure of turbid scattering media can be effectively visualized by using optical coherence tomography (OCT). In the present study, the high spatial resolution and advantages of OCT have been demonstrated for imaging the skins and outer laminae (concentric tissue layers) of intact whole onion bulbs with a view to non-invasively visualizing potential incidence/severity of internal defects.

  8. Biocompatibility and biodistribution of functionalized carbon nano-onions (f-CNOs) in a vertebrate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D' Amora, Marta; Rodio, Marina; Bartelmess, Juergen; Sancataldo, Giuseppe; Brescia, Rosaria; Cella Zanacchi, Francesca; Diaspro, Alberto; Giordani, Silvia

    2016-09-27

    Functionalized carbon nano-onions (f-CNOs) are of great interest as platforms for imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic applications due to their high cellular uptake and low cytotoxicity. To date, the toxicological effects of f-CNOs on vertebrates have not been reported. In this study, the possible biological impact of f-CNOs on zebrafish during development is investigated, evaluating different toxicity end-points such as the survival rate, hatching rate, and heart beat rate. Furthermore, a bio-distribution study of boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) functionalized CNOs in zebrafish larvae is performed by utilizing inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (iSPIM), due to its intrinsic capability of allowing for fast 3D imaging. Our in vivo findings indicate that f-CNOs exhibit no toxicity, good biocompatibility (in the concentration range of 5-100 μg mL(-1)) and a homogenous biodistribution in zebrafish larvae.

  9. Biocompatibility and biodistribution of functionalized carbon nano-onions (f-CNOs) in a vertebrate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    d’ Amora, Marta; Rodio, Marina; Bartelmess, Juergen; Sancataldo, Giuseppe; Brescia, Rosaria; Cella Zanacchi, Francesca; Diaspro, Alberto; Giordani, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Functionalized carbon nano-onions (f-CNOs) are of great interest as platforms for imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic applications due to their high cellular uptake and low cytotoxicity. To date, the toxicological effects of f-CNOs on vertebrates have not been reported. In this study, the possible biological impact of f-CNOs on zebrafish during development is investigated, evaluating different toxicity end-points such as the survival rate, hatching rate, and heart beat rate. Furthermore, a bio-distribution study of boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) functionalized CNOs in zebrafish larvae is performed by utilizing inverted selective plane illumination microscopy (iSPIM), due to its intrinsic capability of allowing for fast 3D imaging. Our in vivo findings indicate that f-CNOs exhibit no toxicity, good biocompatibility (in the concentration range of 5–100 μg mL−1) and a homogenous biodistribution in zebrafish larvae. PMID:27671377

  10. Verification of alternatives for sustainable onion production (Allium cepa L. in Cucaita, Boyaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viteri R. Silvio Edgar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    In Cucaita, onion production represents the basis of the economy and is concentrated in the valley but as yield declines due to deterioration of the soil, cultivation is shifting to the slopes, where unsustainability is more prominent. The aim of this study was to verify the potential of three alternatives for sustainable farming, using a split plot design on two farms. The alternatives were: 1 bocashi chicken manure, super broth four, fertilizer (BCmSB4F, 2 bocashi cow manure, rhizosphere broth, super broth four, fertilizer (BCmRBSB4F, 3 green manure, rhizosphere broth, super broth four, fertilizer (Gm- RBSB4F and 4 regional control (RC. This study determined disease incidence, plant height, stem and bulb diameter, healthy and diseased bulb weight and yield. The results indicated that regardless of the alternative, the agro-ecological conditions of the farm are critical to plant health and consequently to crop production. In El Arenal, where disease incidence was lower, the highest values for healthy bulb weight, bulb diameter and yield were revealed. The alternatives only differed in disease incidence at 30 and 45 days after transplant, with the lowest percentages corresponding to the green manure alternative. For revenue, the three alternatives were favorable, especially the BCmRBSB4F alternative which exceeded the RC. The results show that the alternatives GmRBSB4F and BCmRBSB4F have the most potential and are the most viable for sustainable onion production in Cucaita, Boyaca.

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunsha; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhan, Zongxiang; Liu, Bingjiang; Chen, Zhentai; Liang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, "starch and sucrose metabolism" (147, 2.40%) constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters (SUTs) participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase, and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose, and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS), both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research.

  12. The Effect of Onion Peel Extract on Inflammatory Mediators in Korean Overweight and Obese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, found abundantly in onion peel, has been known to have antioxidant and anti-obesity effects and improves endothelial function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) on the inflammatory mediators in overweight and obese women. This study was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Thirty-seven healthy overweight and obese women were randomly assigned to two groups, and one group was given a soft capsuled OPE (100 mg quercetin/day, n = 18) and the other group a same capsuled placebo (n = 19) for 12 weeks. Fat mass was measured by bioimpendance method at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured with colorimetric assay kits. The concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-4 in plasma were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Baseline characteristics of anthropometric indicators and blood metabolic profiles were not significantly different between placebo and OPE groups. Compared with baseline value, both placebo and OPE supplementation significantly decreased the percent of body fat mass and induced plasma adiponectin levels while ALT and AST activities as well as leptin, visfatin, TNF-α, and IL-4 levels in plasma were not significantly different between two groups after 12 weeks of the supplementation. These findings suggest that 12-week supplementation of OPE do not affect modulators of systemic inflammation in overweight and obese women. PMID:27812515

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunsha; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhan, Zongxiang; Liu, Bingjiang; Chen, Zhentai; Liang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, “starch and sucrose metabolism” (147, 2.40%) constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters (SUTs) participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase, and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose, and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS), both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research. PMID:27713754

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database, starch and sucrose metabolism (147, 2.40% constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS, both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research.

  15. AMMI model in the analysis of genotype by environment interaction of conventionally and organically grown onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdar-Jokanović Milka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess the stability of direct yield components (bulb weight and number plot-1 and other yield contributing characteristics (bulb diameter, height and index, neck diameter and length, plant height, emergence and vegetation period in five commercial onion cultivars grown in conventional and organic environments, by employing additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI statistical model in data analysis. The two-year field trial organized in complete randomized blocks included the plots maintained in four regimes: mineral fertilization (conventional, without fertilization, fertilization with farmyard manure and with bacterial fertilizer (organic. Each treatment by year combination was considered as an environment. Analysis of variance of AMMI model calculated for the investigated traits showed that all sources of variation (genotypes, environments, genotype by environment interaction were highly significant. The largest proportions of the total sum of squares were encompassed by environments, except for emergence and bulb index with the pronounced effect of genotypes (67.26 and 52.54%, respectively and neck length with the genotype by environment interaction amounting 44.59%. Generally, the effects of the interactions were in the common range. The AMMI model with two axes was concluded as the best model for the investigated traits. Onions grown in conventional system outperformed the organic ones. However, good performance of the genotypes was accompanied with low stability across the environments and vice versa. Therefore breeding programs intended to develop cultivars adapted to alternative production systems should rely on the experiments set in the corresponding environments that include various combinations of genotypes and agro-technical procedures based on the principles of organic agriculture. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31059

  16. Changes in flavonoids of sliced and fried yellow onions (allium cepa L. var. zittauer) during storage at different atmospheric, temperature and light conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islek, Merve; Nilufer-Erdil, Dilara; Knuthsen, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoid changes in sliced and fried onions which were packed and stored at different atmospheric conditions (air, nitrogen and vacuum), temperatures (ambient, +5 and -18C) and light (dark or light) were investigated. Flavonoids were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction and analyzed...... using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector. Total flavonoid content, quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside and quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside contents in sliced reference onion samples were found as 1,570±176, 926±105 and 564±64μg q.e./g d.w., respectively. Frying did...... not result in significant losses of flavonoids. At room temperature, total flavonoid losses were significant, besides conversion of quercetin glycosides into aglycons. Dark conditions better retained flavonoids of sliced onions at all atmospheric conditions. For sliced onions; +5C, air or vacuum atmosphere...

  17. Templated green synthesis of plasmonic silver nanoparticles in onion epidermal cells suitable for surface-enhanced Raman and hyper-Raman scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palanco, Marta Espina; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Guehlke, Marina

    2016-01-01

    We report fast and simple green synthesis of plasmonic silver nanoparticles in the epidermal cells of onions after incubation with AgNO3 solution. The biological environment supports the generation of silver nanostructures in two ways. The plant tissue delivers reducing chemicals for the initial...... formation of small silver clusters and their following conversion to plasmonic particles. Additionally, the natural morphological structures of the onion layers, in particular the extracellular matrix provides a biological template for the growth of plasmonic nanostructures. This is indicated by red glowing...... images of extracellular spaces in dark field microscopy of onion layers a few hours after AgNO3 exposure due to the formation of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanostructures generated in the extracellular space of onion layers and within the epidermal cell walls can serve as enhancing plasmonic structures...

  18. 洋葱雪梨复合饮料的研制%Compound Beverage of Onion and Pear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素; 党超; 刘晨; 祝传望; 王跃猛

    2014-01-01

    为了提高洋葱和雪梨的利用率并增加其附加值,进一步拓宽洋葱和雪梨的市场,以洋葱和雪梨为主要原材料,通过正交试验和感官评价的方法确定最佳生产工艺及配方,复合形成一种风味独特、营养丰富的洋葱雪梨复合饮料。先将洋葱和雪梨分别按料液比为1∶2的比例加水榨汁,并添加0.2%的异抗坏血酸护色,然后按雪梨汁∶洋葱汁5∶1、白砂糖3%、黄原胶0.5%、柠檬酸0.5%的配方制成洋葱雪梨饮料,产品呈乳白色,组织状态均匀,洋葱和雪梨复合出独特的风味,清香爽口。%Compound beverage of onion and pear was made to improve utilization efficiency and increase the additional value of onions and pear, also, broaden the market of onion and pear. With onion and pear as main raw materials, the processing technology and formula were studied by the method of orthogonal test and sensory evaluation. The optimum formula of the compound beverage was that onion juice: pear juice = 5∶1, sugar 3%, xanthan gum 0.5%, citric acid 0.5%, the onion juice and pear juice were made with the water than expected for the 1∶2, added 0.2% ascorbic acid to protect the color. The beverage was of rich nutrition, white, and with unique compound flavor.

  19. Decontamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on green onions using pulsed light (PL) and PL-surfactant-sanitizer combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenqing; Chen, Haiqiang; Huang, Yaoxin; Wu, Changqing

    2013-08-16

    Imported green onion has been associated with three large outbreaks in the USA. Contamination has been found on both domestic and imported green onions. The objective of our study was to investigate Escherichia coli O157:H7 inactivation efficacy of pulsed light (PL) as well as its combination with surfactant and/or sanitizers on green onions. Green onions were cut into two segments, stems and leaves, to represent two different matrixes. Stems were more difficult to be decontaminated. Spot and dip inoculation methods were compared and dipped inoculated green onions were found to be more difficult to be decontaminated. Results showed that 5s dry PL (samples were not immersed in water during PL treatment) and 60s wet PL (samples were immersed in water and stirred during PL treatment) treatments provided promising inactivation efficacy (>4log10CFU/g) for spot inoculated stems and leaves. For dip inoculated green onions, 60s wet PL treatment was comparable with 100ppm chlorine washing, demonstrating that PL could be used as an alternative to chlorine. To further increase the degree of microbial inactivation, combined treatments were applied. PL combined with surfactant (SDS) was found to be more effective than single treatments of PL, SDS, chlorine, citric acid, thymol, and hydrogen peroxide, and binary combined treatments of PL with one of those chemicals. Addition of chlorine or hydrogen peroxide to the PL-SDS combination did not further enhanced its microbial inactivation efficacy. The combination of PL and 1000ppm of SDS reduced the E. coli O157:H7 populations dip inoculated on the stems and leaves of green onions by 1.4 and 3.1log10CFU/g, respectively. Our findings suggest that PL could potentially be used for decontamination of E. coli O157:H7 on green onions, with wet PL added with SDS being the most effective PL treatment. © 2013.

  20. Identification of candidate amino acids involved in the formation of pink-red pigments in onion (Allium cepa L.) juice and separation by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2010-10-01

    The formation of pink-red pigments ("pinking") by various amino acids was investigated by reacting amino acids with compounds present in onion juice. The unknown pink-red pigments were generated and separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a diode array detector (DAD) in the range of 200 to 700 nm. To generate pink-red pigments, we developed several reaction systems using garlic alliinase, purified 1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1-PeCSO), onion thiosulfinate, natural onion juice, and 21 free amino acids. The compound 1-PeCSO was a key compound associated with pinking in the presence of both the alliinase and amino acids. Numerous naturally occurring pink-red pigments were detected and separated from pink onion juice using the HPLC-DAD system at 515 nm. Most free amino acids, with the exceptions of histidine, serine, and cysteine, formed various pink-red pigments when reacted with onion thiosulfinate. This observation indicated that onion pinking is caused not by a single pigment, but by many. Furthermore, more than one color compound could be produced from a single amino acid; this explains, in part, why there were many pink-red compound peaks in the chromatogram of discolored natural onion juice. We presumed that the complexity of the pink-red pigments was due to the involvement of more than 21 natural amino acids as well as several derivatives of the color products produced from each amino acid. We observed that the pinking process in onion juice is very similar to that of the greening process in crushed garlic, emphasizing that both thiosulfinate from flavor precursors and free amino acids are absolutely required for the discoloration.

  1. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous Extracts of Onion and some Antibiotics on a Number of Important Bacteria in Terms of Food Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzabi Younes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of edible onion plant and a number of common antibiotics in the case of some important bacteria regarding food hygiene. Materials and Methods: The sensitivity or resistance of standard strains of 9 important species of transmissible pathogenic bacteria, through food in laboratory Mueller Hinton agar medium and using blank paper discs containing onion extract, 9 standard synthetic chemicals, and antibiotics by agar disk diffusion method (disk diffusion agar, were investigated. Results: The findings of this study showed that, of the 9 species of bacteria tested, the aqueous extract of onion only has relatively small antibacterial activity on the 2 species of Staphylococcus aureus and clostridium perfringens. Statistical analysis of the results also indicated that there was no significant relationship among the different antibiotics used and the edible onion aqueous extract, and the resistance or susceptibility of isolates. Moreover, there was a difference between different antibiotics tested in this study and aqueous extract of onion, regarding the number of resistant bacteria, and intermediate and moderate susceptibility, and susceptibility to the antibacterial compounds. Conclusion: It seems that the aqueous extract of onions cannot be used as an alternative to commonly used antibiotics to fight important bacteria in terms food hygiene.

  2. Mutation of the zebrafish glass onion locus causes early cell-nonautonomous loss of neuroepithelial integrity followed by severe neuronal patterning defects in the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujic, Z; Malicki, J

    2001-06-15

    Mutation of the glass onion locus causes drastic neuronal patterning defects in the zebrafish retina and brain. The precise stratified appearance of the wild-type retina is absent in the mutants. The glass onion phenotype is first visible shortly after the formation of optic primordia and is characterized by the rounding of cells and disruption of the ventricular surface in the eye and brain neuroepithelia. With exception of the dorsal- and ventral-most regions of the brain, neuroepithelial cells lose their integrity and begin to distribute ectopically. At later stages, the laminar patterning of retinal neurons is severely disrupted. Despite the lack of lamination, individual retinal cell classes differentiate in the glass onion retina. Mosaic analysis reveals that the glass onion mutation acts cell nonautonomously within the retina and brain, as neuroepithelial cell morphology and polarity in these tissues are normal when mutant cells develop in wild-type hosts. We conclude that the glass onion mutation affects cell-cell signaling event(s) involved in the maintenance of the neuroepithelial cell layer shortly after its formation. The disruption of neuroepithelial integrity may be the cause of the neuronal patterning defects following neurogenesis. In addition, the expression of the glass onion phenotype in a subset of neuroepithelial cells as well as its onset following the initial formation of the neuroepithelial sheets indicate the presence of genetically distinct temporal and spatial subdivisions in the development of this histologically uniform tissue.

  3. EVALUATION OF BIOAGENTS FOR MANAGEMENT OF THE ONION PURPLE BLOTCH AND BULB YIELD LOSS ASSESSMENT UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. YADAV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the several diseases, purple blotch diseases of onion (Allium cepa L. caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis Cif. is one of the most destructive disease causing accountable losses of about 80 to 90 per cent. The results obtained on the field efficacy of different bioagents tested, Pseudomonas fluorescens--I (0.5% was found most antifungal against A. porri and recorded significantly least mean disease intensity (37.19% and gave maximum bulb yield (27183 kg/ha. Both the fungal and bacterial antagonists tested were also found effective against A. porri and recorded significantly reduced mean disease intensity thereby increased the bulb yield over unsprayed control. Based on incremental cost:benefit ratio (ICBR of the bioagents spray treatments, P. fluorescens--I (ICBR, 1:13.87 was found economical and effective for the management of purple blotch of onion followed by Bacillus subtilis (ICBR, 1:12.93.

  4. Long-term storage effect on chemical composition, nutritional value and quality of Greek onion landrace "Vatikiotiko".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, S A; Ntatsi, G; Fernandes, Â; Barros, L; Barreira, J C M; Ferreira, I C F R; Antoniadis, V

    2016-06-15

    The effect of storage at two temperatures (5±1 and 25±1 °C and 60-70±5% RH for both temperatures) on marketability and quality features of dry bulbs of local landrace "Vatikiotiko", "Sivan F1", "Red Cross F1" and "Creamgold" was examined. During storage measurements for fresh and dry weight of bulbs, tunic and flesh color, bulb firmness, nutritional value and mineral composition were taken at regular intervals. Storage concluded when either bulbs lost marketable quality or sprouting occurred. "Vatikiotiko" onion can be stored for at least 7months at 25±1 °C, whereas at 5±1 °C storage could be prolonged without significant marketability and quality loss. The fact that "Vatikiotiko" landrace can be considered a "storage" onion has to be capitalized in order to increase total production and yield, since storage could cover the market needs that arise throughout the year.

  5. Addition of a combination of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) to food of sheep stops gastrointestinal helminthic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy

    2011-04-01

    Sheep with gastrointestinal nematodes and cestodes were fed on three farms with a combination of specially prepared extracts of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) for 8 days containing each 60 g coconut and onion extract, combined with milk powder and/or polyethylene glycol (PEG) propylencarbonate (PC). In all cases, the worm stages disappeared from the feces and were also not found 9 and 20 days after the end of the feeding with this plant combination. Since all treated animals increased their body weight considerably (when compared to untreated animals), worm reduction was apparently as effective as it was shown in previous laboratory trials with rats and mice (Klimpel et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; Abdel-Ghaffar et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; in this volume).

  6. Remarkable cycle-activated capacity increasing in onion-like carbon nanospheres as lithium battery anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiajun; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhang, Huafang; Liu, Ran; Yao, Mingguang; Liu, Bingbing

    2017-01-01

    Onion-like carbon nanospheres (OCNSs) with an average diameter of 43 nm were produced on a large scale via a combustion method and examined as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The OCNSs exhibit a remarkable electrochemical cycling behavior and a capacity much higher than that of graphite. The capacity increases significantly with increasing charge-discharge cycles and reaches a value of 178% of the initial value (from 586 mA h g-1to 1045 mA h g-1) after 200 cycles. Further investigation provides unambiguous experimental evidence that such a remarkable capacity increase is related to the stable onion-like structure of the OCNSs and to the existence of large numbers of disordered/short graphitic fragments, which gradually provide more active sites for Li ion storage. The unique electrochemical performance of OCNSs provides a new way to design a high-performance anode material for rechargeable batteries.

  7. Cytotoxic and mutagenic in vitro assessment of two organosulfur compounds derived from onion to be used in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, María; Maisanaba, Sara; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Prieto, Ana I; Pichardo, Silvia; Jos, Angeles; Moreno, F Javier; Cameán, Ana María

    2015-01-01

    Edible members of the Allium family are widely used since they exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial related to the organosulphur compounds. One the most promising use of Allium species, hence, onion essential oil, could be in the packaging food industry. The present work aims to assess the safety of two organosulphur compounds present in onion essential oil; dipropyl disulphide, dipropyl sulphide and their mixture. For this purpose, cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species and glutathione contents, and ultrastructural cellular damages were studied in the human intestinal cells, Caco-2, exposed to these organosulphur compounds. Moreover, their potential mutagenicity was also assessed. The results revealed no significant adverse effects. Additionally, reactive oxygen species scavenger activity was observed for both compounds. Therefore, they could be a good natural alternative to other synthetic antioxidant and antibacterial substances used in the food industry.

  8. In Situ Raman Spectroscopy of the Nanodiamond-to-Carbon Onion Transformation During Thermal Annealing of Detonation Nanodiamond Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    micrographs and their visible and ultraviolet absorption spectra. Their similarity to the 217.5 nm interstellar absorption feature was also...Rayleigh and Raman scattered light is emitted from the Raman active material back through the objective. The scattered light then travels a new path... INTERSTELLAR ABSORPTION FEATURE. Chemical Physics Letters, 1993. 207(4-6): p. 480–486. [27] Obraztsova, E.D., et al., Raman identification of onion-like

  9. Genotoxicity test of Maytenus rigida and Aristolochia birostris in the radicular meristem of the onion, Allium cepa

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes,Sandra S.; Andrade,Josivaldo A.; Maria Aldirene Xavier; Secundo Junior,José A.; Silmara M. Pantaleão; Charles S. Estevam; Garcia,Carlos A. B.; Ferrari, Stephen F.

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are an important source of treatment for many ailments, although little is known of the potential genotoxic effects of most species. In the present study, two species from diverse and medicinally important genera - Maytenus rigida Mart., Celastraceae, and Aristolochia birostris Ducht, Aristolochiaceae - were analyzed to identify potentially significant secondary metabolites and the possible effects of their aqueous and alcoholic extracts on cell division in the onion root ste...

  10. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Bulb Onion (Allium cepa L.) during Cold Acclimation Using Contrasting Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeongsukhyeon; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Park, Jong-In; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Bulb onion (Allium cepa) is the second most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crop in the world. During winter, cold injury can limit the production of bulb onion. Genomic resources available for bulb onion are still very limited. To date, no studies on heritably durable cold and freezing tolerance have been carried out in bulb onion genotypes. We applied high-throughput sequencing technology to cold (2°C), freezing (-5 and -15°C), and control (25°C)-treated samples of cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) genotypes of A. cepa lines. A total of 452 million paired-end reads were de novo assembled into 54,047 genes with an average length of 1,331 bp. Based on similarity searches, these genes were aligned with entries in the public non-redundant (nr) database, as well as KEGG and COG database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using log10 values with the FPKM method. Among 5,167DEGs, 491 genes were differentially expressed at freezing temperature compared to the control temperature in both CT and CS libraries. The DEG results were validated with qRT-PCR. We performed GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of all DEGs and iPath interactive analysis found 31 pathways including those related to metabolism of carbohydrate, nucleotide, energy, cofactors and vitamins, other amino acids and xenobiotics biodegradation. Furthermore, a large number of molecular markers were identified from the assembled genes, including simple sequence repeats (SSRs) 4,437 and SNP substitutions of transition and transversion types of CT and CS. Our study is the first to provide a transcriptome sequence resource for Allium spp. with regard to cold and freezing stress. We identified a large set of genes and determined their DEG profiles under cold and freezing conditions using two different genotypes. These data represent a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies of Allium spp.

  11. Characterization of onion lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin) as an immunomodulatory protein inducing Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Vaddi K; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2015-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a bulb crop of economic importance, is known to have many health benefits. The major objective of the present study is to address the immunomodulatory properties of onion lectin (A. cepa agglutinin; ACA). ACA was purified from onion extract by D-mannose-agarose chromatography (yield: ~1 mg/kg). ACA is non-glycosylated and showed a molecular mass of ~12 kDa under reducing/non-reducing SDS-PAGE; glutaraldehyde cross-linking indicated that ACA is a non-covalent tetramer of ~12 kDa subunits. Its N-terminal sequence (RNVLLNNEGL; UniProt KB Accn. C0HJM8) showed 70-90% homology to mannose-specific Allium agglutinins. ACA showed specific hemagglutination activity of 8200 units/mg and is stable in the pH range 6-10 and up to 45° C. The immunomodulatory activity of ACA was assessed using the macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages; at 0.1 μg/well, it showed a significant increase (6-8-fold vs. control) in the production of nitric oxide at 24h, and significantly stimulated (2-4-fold vs. control) the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-12) at 24h. ACA (0.1 μg/well) enhanced the proliferation of murine thymocytes by ~4 fold (vs. control) at 24h; however, ACA does not proliferate B cell-enriched rat splenocytes. Further, it significantly elevated the expression levels of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) over the control in murine thymocytes. Taken together, purified ACA induces a Th1-type immune response in vitro. Though present in low amounts, ACA may contribute to the immune-boosting potential of the popular spice onion since considerable amounts are consumed on a daily basis universally.

  12. Separation and Identification of Flavonoids from Fistular Onion Stalk(Allium fisturosum L.var.Caespitosum Makio)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付琴琴; 刘静幽; 张长弓; 周银波; 张耕; 马丹; 杨新洲

    2010-01-01

    The chemical constituents of fistular onion stalk obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction were separated and purified by silica gel and sephadex LH-20 gel column chromatography and the preparative TLC method and four flavonoids were obtained.On the basis of the spectral data,they were structurally identified as(+)-catechin,(-)-epicatechin,astragalin,and 3-O-β-D(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-glucopyranosides of kaempferol.

  13. Isolation and Structural Analysis In Vivo of Newly Synthesized Fructooligosaccharides in Onion Bulbs Tissues (Allium cepa L. during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Fujishima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructooligosaccharides are involved in physiological activities and quality attributes of onion bulbs. This work describes structures of newly synthesized oligosaccharides formed by fructose moieties in onion bulb tissues during storage. Onion bulbs were stored for four weeks at 10∘C. HPAEC-PAD analysis showed that saccharide 1 was eluted after 1-kestose while saccharide 2 was eluted after nystose (a. Saccharides 1 and 2 have R-sucrose values of 1.55 and 2.15 by HPAEC, a reducing terminal, a reducing sugar-to-fructose ratio of 0.5 and 0.3, and a degree of polymerization of 2 and 3 by TOF-MS, respectively. GLC analysis of the methyl derivatives and NMR measurement of the saccharides confirmed the presence of two different structures: the structure of saccharide 1 is composed by two fructose moieties and linked by (2→1 linkage and was identified as inulobiose [-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1--D-fructopyranose]. The structure of saccharide 2 consists of three units of fructose linked by (2→1 linkage and was identified as inulotriose [-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1--D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1--D-fructopyranose]. The spectra also showed that 70 to 80% of the terminal fructose residue of the two saccharides is of pyranosyl form, while 20 to 30% is of furanosyl form. This finding demonstrated that these newly produced saccharides, catalyzed by onion-purified 6G-FFT, were synthesized by the action of 1-FFT fructosyltransfer from 1-kestose to free fructopyranose yielding inulobiose and sucrose, while elongation of fructofuranosyl units occurs at this transferred fructofuranosyl residue to produce inulooligosaccharide having an additional unit of fructofuranose.

  14. Role of temperature and free moisture in onion flower blight. [Botrytis squamosa; Botrytis cinerea; and Botrytis allii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, G.R.; Lorbeer, J.W.

    1986-06-01

    The cardinal temperatures at which onion umbels were blighted (after inoculation when two-thirds of the florets were open) with Botrytis squamosa, B. cinerea, and B. allii (isolated from blighted onion florets) were near 9, 21, and 27 C for B. squamosa, near 12, 21, and 30 C for B. cinerea, and near 9, 24, and 30 C for B. allii. The cardinal temperatures for mycelial growth (potato-dextrose agar) of B. squamosa, B. cinerea, and B. allii were near 5, 22, and 30 C for each fungus. The cardinal temperatures for conidial germination (on purified water agar) were near 6, 15, and 30 C for B. squamosa; 3, 18, and 33 C for B. cinerea; and 6, 24, and 33 C for B. allii. When the duration of free moisture on umbels after inoculation with the three pathogens was increased from 0 to 96 hr. the percentages of unopened florets, open florets, and immature seed capsules blighted at 21 C were increased significantly. Free moisture durations of 12-24, 6-12, and 6-12 hr were necessary for blighting of unopen florets, open florets, and immature seed capsules, respectively, by each pathogen at 21 C. A positive correlation between the amount of July rainfall and the natural incidence of onion flower blight was observed in Orange County, New York, from 1976 to 1981. 10 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  15. EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION AND FREQUENCY CROCOBER PLUS AS ORGANIC LIQUID FERTILIZER GIVING ON THE ONION CROPS (Allium ascalonicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilah Munir Munir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on the effect of liquid organic fertilizer (POC Crocober plus and frequency of application to the crop of onion (Allium ascalonicum L. had been conducted in Sub Kajai, District lemur, Solok regency for 3 months starting from May to July 2015. The goal was to get the POC concentration and Crocober plus frequency to increase growth and yield of onion. Experiments using a randomized block design in a factorial form that consists of 2 factors. Factor 1 was 5 degree of concentration POC was 0% (P0, 2.5% (P1, 5% (P3, 7.5% (P4 and 10% (P5 while Factor 2, was the frequency of POC consists of two levels ie ; The data obtained and analyzed variance. If the F count larger than F table 5% followed by a test of Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The experimental results indicated that application of 5% POC Crocober plus concentration given weekly was the exact interaction to improve the growth and yield of onion with the result reached 13.83 tons/ha.Doi: 10.22216/jit.2014.v8i2.340

  16. Flavonol Glucoside and Antioxidant Enzyme Biosynthesis Affected by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Cultivars of Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollavali, Mohanna; Bolandnazar, Saheb Ali; Schwarz, Dietmar; Rohn, Sascha; Riehle, Peer; Zaare Nahandi, Fariborz

    2016-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of mycorrhizal symbiosis on qualitative characteristics of onion (Allium cepa L.). For this reason, five onion cultivars with different scale color and three different strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis, Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae) were used. Red cultivars, mainly 'Red Azar-shahr', showed the highest content in vitamin C, flavonols, and antioxidant enzymes. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased total phenolic, pyruvic acid, and vitamin C of onion plants. Considerable increase was observed in quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-4'-O-monoglucoside content in plants inoculated with Diversispora versiformis, but quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside was not significantly influenced. Analyses for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxiodant enzyme activities such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) revealed that all except PPO were enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Overall, these findings suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation influenced biosynthesis of flavonol glucosides and antioxidant enzymes by increasing nutrient uptake or by induction of the plant defense system.

  17. Physiological response and sulfur metabolism of the V. dahliae-infected tomato plants in tomato/potato onion companion cropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xuepeng; Li, Chunxia; Zhou, Xingang; Liu, Shouwei; Wu, Fengzhi

    2016-01-01

    Companion cropping with potato onions (Allium cepa var. agrogatum Don.) can enhance the disease resistance of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) to Verticillium dahliae infection by increasing the expressions of genes related to disease resistance. However, it is not clear how tomato plants physiologically respond to V. dahliae infection and what roles sulfur plays in the disease-resistance. Pot experiments were performed to examine changes in the physiology and sulfur metabolism of tomato roots infected by V. dahliae under the companion cropping (tomato/potato onion). The results showed that the companion cropping increased the content of total phenol, lignin and glutathione and increased the activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots of tomato plants. RNA-seq analysis showed that the expressions of genes involved in sulfur uptake and assimilation, and the formation of sulfur-containing defense compounds (SDCs) were up-regulated in the V. dahlia-infected tomatoes in the companion cropping. In addition, the interactions among tomato, potato onion and V. dahliae induced the expression of the high- affinity sulfate transporter gene in the tomato roots. These results suggest that sulfur may play important roles in tomato disease resistance against V. dahliae. PMID:27808257

  18. Creation of carbon onions and coils at low temperature in near-critical benzene irradiated with an ultraviolet laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Takahiro [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Watabe, Nami [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Whitby, Raymond [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Cockroft Building, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Maekawa, Toru [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2007-10-17

    Gas-liquid coexistence curves terminate at their critical points, where second-order phase transitions occur. The specific heat and compressibility increase greatly as the fluid systems approach their critical points. As a result, thermal diffusion is suppressed and the perturbations of the temperature, pressure and density propagate as acoustic waves. In this paper, we irradiate near-critical benzene with a laser beam of 266 nm in wavelength, the energy flux of which is 1.3 and 3.9 mW mm{sup -2}, and show that benzene is dissociated and various carbon nano/microstructures such as carbon onions and coils are created. Carbon onions are produced in both subcritical (200 deg. C) and supercritical (290 deg. C) benzene, whereas carbon coils are produced on an alloy catalyst composed of (Fe:Cr:Ni = 74:18:8) in supercritical benzene irradiated with a laser beam of 3.9 mW mm{sup -2}. The operational temperature of the present method is much lower than that used in conventional carbon structure synthesizing methods and a large number of carbon structures, such as carbon onions and coils, are produced in supercritical benzene.

  19. Creation of carbon onions and coils at low temperature in near-critical benzene irradiated with an ultraviolet laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takahiro; Watabe, Nami; Whitby, Raymond; Maekawa, Toru

    2007-10-01

    Gas-liquid coexistence curves terminate at their critical points, where second-order phase transitions occur. The specific heat and compressibility increase greatly as the fluid systems approach their critical points. As a result, thermal diffusion is suppressed and the perturbations of the temperature, pressure and density propagate as acoustic waves. In this paper, we irradiate near-critical benzene with a laser beam of 266 nm in wavelength, the energy flux of which is 1.3 and 3.9 mW mm-2, and show that benzene is dissociated and various carbon nano/microstructures such as carbon onions and coils are created. Carbon onions are produced in both subcritical (200 °C) and supercritical (290 °C) benzene, whereas carbon coils are produced on an alloy catalyst composed of (Fe:Cr:Ni = 74:18:8) in supercritical benzene irradiated with a laser beam of 3.9 mW mm-2. The operational temperature of the present method is much lower than that used in conventional carbon structure synthesizing methods and a large number of carbon structures, such as carbon onions and coils, are produced in supercritical benzene.

  20. Onion-like carbon coated CuO nanocapsules: A highly reversible anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xianguo, E-mail: liuxianguohugh@gmail.com [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Bi, Nannan; Feng, Chao [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Or, Siu Wing [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Sun, Yuping [Center for Engineering practice and Innovation Education, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Jin, Chuangui; Li, Weihuo; Xiao, Feng [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China)

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • Onion-like carbon–coated CuO nanocapsules have been synthesized. • Onion-like carbon leads to the improved stability and electric conductivity. • CuO/C nanocapsules maintain a reversible capacity of 628.7 mA h g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. -- Abstract: The synthesis and characterization of CuO/C nanocapsules for application as anode material in lithium ion batteries are reported. Introduction of onion-like carbon shell on the CuO nanoparticles leads to the improved stability, electric conductivity and electrochemical performance. When evaluated as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the novel CuO/C nanocapsules deliver an initial discharge capacity of 1043.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1} and maintain a high reversible capacity of 628.7 mA h g{sup −1} after 50 charge–discharge cycles, much higher than those of the CuO nanoparticles. A postmortem analysis of the CuO and CuO/C anodes subjected to prolonged cycling reveals the existence of a lower degree of surface cracking and particle breakage in the CuO/C anode than the CuO anode.

  1. Boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) functionalized carbon nano-onions for high resolution cellular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelmess, Juergen; de Luca, Elisa; Signorelli, Angelo; Baldrighi, Michele; Becce, Michele; Brescia, Rosaria; Nardone, Valentina; Parisini, Emilio; Echegoyen, Luis; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Giordani, Silvia

    2014-10-01

    Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) are an exciting class of carbon nanomaterials, which have recently demonstrated a facile cell-penetration capability. In the present work, highly fluorescent boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes were covalently attached to the surface of CNOs. The introduction of this new carbon nanomaterial-based imaging platform, made of CNOs and BODIPY fluorophores, allows for the exploration of synergetic effects between the two building blocks and for the elucidation of its performance in biological applications. The high fluorescence intensity exhibited by the functionalized CNOs translates into an excellent in vitro probe for the high resolution imaging of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. It was also found that the CNOs, internalized by the cells by endocytosis, localized in the lysosomes and did not show any cytotoxic effects. The presented results highlight CNOs as excellent platforms for biological and biomedical studies due to their low toxicity, efficient cellular uptake and low fluorescence quenching of attached probes.Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) are an exciting class of carbon nanomaterials, which have recently demonstrated a facile cell-penetration capability. In the present work, highly fluorescent boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes were covalently attached to the surface of CNOs. The introduction of this new carbon nanomaterial-based imaging platform, made of CNOs and BODIPY fluorophores, allows for the exploration of synergetic effects between the two building blocks and for the elucidation of its performance in biological applications. The high fluorescence intensity exhibited by the functionalized CNOs translates into an excellent in vitro probe for the high resolution imaging of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. It was also found that the CNOs, internalized by the cells by endocytosis, localized in the lysosomes and did not show any cytotoxic effects. The presented results highlight CNOs as excellent platforms for biological and biomedical

  2. Effects of plant density and cultivar on yield responses in onions (Allium cepa L. grown from seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rumpel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were conducted to study the effect of plant density on yield, size grading and maturity of onion bulbs grown from seeds. In the first experiment carried out during 1991-1993, three onion cultivars (Hysam F1 , Mercato F1 and Sochaczewska were sown for intended densities of 20, 40, 60, 80,100 and 140 plants m-2, whereas in the second one, in 1996, six onion cultivars (Spirit F1, Summit F1, Hyduro F1, Armstrong F1, Renate F1 and Robusta were sown for intended densities of 40, 60 and 80 plants m-2. The onions were grown on beds, 1,35 m wide, in 4 rows per bed (27+27+27+54 cm. Marketable yield increased with plant density, and depending on year was highest at 80 or 100 plants m-2. The average marketable yield of the 1991-1993 experiment increased from 20.5 t·ha-1 at 20 plants m-2 to 32.8 t·ha-1 at 80 plants m-2, whereas that of the 1996 experiment increased from 48,9 t-ha-1 at 40 plants m-2 to 59.0 t·ha-1 at 80 plants m-2, respectively. Yield of large bulbs decreased with density and was highest at 20-40 plants m-2, oposite to the yield of small bulbs, which was highest at the highest density of 140 plants·m-2. The medium bulb yield increased with density, at the some way as compared the total marketable yield. No greater effect of cultivar on bulb size grades was found and the existing differences were proportional to the total marketable yield . Plant density hastened maturity of onions, and at density of 140 plants m-2 the leaf fall-over occurred 9-10 days earlier as compared at density of 20 plants m-2. The cultiwars used. can be placed in the following order of decreasing productivity: 1 . Mercato F1, 2. Hysam F1 and 3. Sochaczewska, - in the first expeiiment (1991-93 and 1. Annstrong F1, 2. Spirit F1, 3. Robusta, 4. Renate F1, 5. Hyduro F1 and 6. Summit F1 - in the second experiment (1996, respectively.

  3. In Vitro Evaluation Of Selected Plant Extracts As Biocontrol Agents Against Black Mold Aspergillus Niger Van Tieghem Of Onion Bulbs Allium Cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifeldin A. F. El-Nagerabi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Black mold disease caused by Aspergillus niger V. Tiegh. is the most devastating infection occurs in onions Allium cepa L. under field and store conditions. The use of biocontrol agents is ecofriendly approach for controlling seedborne and soilborne diseases compared to the use of toxic synthetic fungicides. This study has been designed to assess the contamination levels of onion seeds with A. niger and its effect on seed germination and to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Prunus mahaleb seeds Commiphora myrrha resin 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 g100 ml Syzygium aromaticum dry buds clove and Panax ginseng roots extracts 0.5 1.0 2.0 2.5 g100 ml against black mold of onion bulbs. The fungus is seedborne pathogen which significantly contaminated onion seeds 89-100 and reduced seed germination 39-83. The extracts of clove caused 43-96 inhibition in spore germination followed by mahaleb 37-96 myrrha 33-88 and ginseng 34-87. The highest concentration of these extracts 3.0 did not affect seed germination but significantly reduced seed contamination by A. niger up to 84 80 71 and 65 for Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium aromaticum Panax ginseng and Prunus mahaleb respectively. The extracts apparently inhibited the fungal growth and mold development on stored onion bulbs which indicates the antifungal property of these extracts against A. niger. Therefore they can be recommended as effective biocontrol agents to reduce seed contamination and enhance the storability of onion bulbs. Thus the use of healthy and certified seeds for onion production is a priority.

  4. Pathogenicity for onion and genetic diversity of isolates of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Phyllachoraceae) from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova, M X Vila; Borges, L R; de Sousa, A C B; Brasileiro, B T R V; Lima, E A L A; da Costa, A F; de Oliveira, N T

    2011-02-22

    Onion anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is one of the main diseases of onions in the State of Pernambuco. We examined the pathogenicity of 15 C. gloeosporioides strains and analyzed their genetic variability using RAPDs and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the rDNA region. Ten of the strains were obtained from substrates and hosts other than onion, including chayote (Sechium edule), guava (Psidium guajava), pomegranate (Punica granatum), water from the Capibaribe River, maracock (Passiflora sp), coconut (Cocus nucifera), surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora), and marine soil; five isolates came from onions collected from four different regions of the State of Pernambuco and one region of the State of Amazonas. Pathogenicity tests were carried out using onion leaves and bulbs. All strains were capable of causing disease in leaves, causing a variable degree of lesions on the leaves; four strains caused the most severe damage. In the onion bulb tests, only three of the above strains caused lesions. Seven primers of arbitrary sequences were used in the RAPD analysis, generating polymorphic bands that allowed the separation of the strains into three distinct groups. The amplification products generated with the primers ITS1 and ITS4 also showed polymorphism when digested with three restriction enzymes, DraI, HaeIII and MspI. Only the latter two demonstrated genetic variations among the strains. These two types of molecular markers were able to differentiate the strain from the State of Amazonas from those of the State of Pernambuco. However, there was no relationship between groups of strains, based on molecular markers, and degree of pathogenicity for onion leaves and bulbs.

  5. Effects of band placement and nitrogen rate on dry matter accumulation, yield and nitrogen uptake of cabbage, carrot and onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SALO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nitrogen (N nutrition is essential for producing high vegetable yields of good quality. Fertilizer N not taken up by the plants is, however, economically wasteful and can be lost to the environment. Therefore the efficient use of N fertilizer, involving accurate estimation of crop N demand, choice of application method and timing of N fertilization, is an important research area. The effects of band placement and rate of N fertilization on inorganic N in the soil and the dry matter accumulation, yield and N uptake of cabbage, carrot and onion were studied in a three-year field experiment between 1993 and 1995. The plants were sampled during the growing season to determine the dry matter accumulation and plant N concentration. The inorganic N in the soil was determined during the growing period and after harvest. The N uptake was 3.8 kg, 1.6 kg and 2.5 kg per ton of edible yield of cabbage, carrot and onion, respectively. At the highest yield levels the N uptake including crop residues was 300 kg ha-1, 150 kg ha-1 and 120 kg ha-1 in cabbage, carrot and onion, respectively. In cabbage, almost 50% of N was in crop residues, whereas in carrot and onion only about 30% of N was in crop residues. Nitrogen uptake from non-fertilized soil varied from 29 to 160 kg ha-1, depending on the growing season and the crop. Cabbage and carrot utilised soil N efficiently, usually taking up more than 100 kg ha-1 from non-fertilized soil. Onion, on the contrary, utilised soil N relatively poorly, usually less than 50 kg ha-1 from non-fertilized soil. The rate of N uptake was low with all crops in early summer. After one month, N uptake increased in cabbage and onion. This uptake continued until harvest, i.e. mid-August for onion and early September for cabbage. Nitrogen uptake by carrot started rapidly only two months after sowing and continued until harvest at the end of September. High N rates often resulted in high N concentrations and N uptakes, but

  6. Impact of Carbon Nano-Onions on Hydra vulgaris as a Model Organism for Nanoecotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Marchesano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The toxicological effects of pristine and chemically modified carbon nano-onions (CNOs on the development of the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris were investigated in order to elucidate the ecotoxicological effects of CNOs. Chemical modifications of the CNOs were accomplished by surface functionalization with benzoic acid, pyridine and pyridinium moieties. thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the covalent surface functionalization of CNOs. Hydra specimens were exposed to the carbon nanomaterials by prolonged incubation within their medium. Uptake was monitored by optical microscopy, and the toxicological effects of the CNOs on Hydra behavior, morphology, as well as the long-term effects on the development and reproductive capability were examined. The obtained data revealed the absence of adverse effects of CNOs (in the range 0.05–0.1 mg/L in vivo at the whole animal level. Together with previously performed in vitro toxicological analyses, our findings indicate the biosafety of CNOs and the feasibility of employing them as materials for biomedical applications.

  7. Comparative study of reflectance properties of nanodiamonds, onion-like carbon and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, V.L. [Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova St. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Moseenkov, S.I. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, SB RAS, Lavrentiev Ave. 5, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, Lavrentiev Ave. 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Elumeeva, K.V. [Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova St. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, SB RAS, Lavrentiev Ave. 5, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Larina, T.V.; Anufrienko, V.F. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, SB RAS, Lavrentiev Ave. 5, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Romanenko, A.I.; Anikeeva, O.B.; Tkachev, E.N. [Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova St. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, Lavrentiev Ave. 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    Carbon nanomaterials are the promising candidates for potential broadband limiting applications and extremely low reflectance coatings, particularly in the infrared, visible and UV spectral regions. In this paper we have performed the comparative study of diffuse reflectance of nanodiamond (ND), sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} composites, onion-like carbon (OLC) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in visible and UV regions. ND, sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} composites and OLC produced via high temperature annealing of the same set of NDs allow us to vary sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} carbon ratio, size of primary particle agglomerates and concentration of defects while MWNT set provides possibility to vary NT diameters and length, order/disorder degree (via high temperature MWNTS annealing). The diffuse reflectance of carbon nanomaterials depends mainly on the electronic configuration, defect concentration, size of graphene-like ordered fragments and agglomerates of nanoparticles along with their morphology. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. The effectiveness evaluation of indigenous microorganism (IMO preparations in the growth of onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Liriano González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was done at the Credit and Services Cooperative (CCS “Juan de Mata Reyes”, in Pedro Betancourt municipality, Matanzas. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of indigenous microorganisms (IMO preparations on the growth of onion (Allium cepa L., variety Texas Early Grano. Five treatments were studied (control, a 2 mL.m2 treatment before transplantion, a 4 mL.m2 treatment before transplantation, and both 2 and 4 mL.m2 treatments 20 days after transplantion. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design. The professional statistical pack STATISTICA, version 6.0 for WINDOWS was used for data processing. The results were statistically processed using simple analysis of variance and the Duncan´s multiple comparison Test for media with a level of significance of pd”0.05. The native microorganisms in the preparations were characterized. 60 days after transplantation, the parameters height of plant, number of leaves and diameter of the false stem were evaluated; and at harvest time, the total yield (t.ha-1 and the number of bulbs in diameter category were determined. The best results concerning the height of the plant (cm, diameter of false stem (mm and total yield (t.ha-1.were obtained with the preparation of 2 mL.m2 at the moment of transplantion, and 20 days after the application.

  9. A potent antimicrobial protein from onion seeds showing sequence homology to plant lipid transfer proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammue, B P; Thevissen, K; Hendriks, M; Eggermont, K; Goderis, I J; Proost, P; Van Damme, J; Osborn, R W; Guerbette, F; Kader, J C

    1995-10-01

    An antimicrobial protein of about 10 kD, called Ace-AMP1, was isolated from onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds. Based on the near-complete amino acid sequence of this protein, oligonucleotides were designed for polymerase chain reaction-based cloning of the corresponding cDNA. The mature protein is homologous to plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs), but it shares only 76% of the residues that are conserved among all known plant nsLTPs and is unusually rich in arginine. Ace-AMP1 inhibits all 12 tested plant pathogenic fungi at concentrations below 10 micrograms mL-1. Its antifungal activity is either not at all or is weakly affected by the presence of different cations at concentrations approximating physiological ionic strength conditions. Ace-AMP1 is also active on two Gram-positive bacteria but is apparently not toxic for Gram-negative bacteria and cultured human cells. In contrast to nsLTPs such as those isolated from radish or maize seeds, Ace-AMP1 was unable to transfer phospholipids from liposomes to mitochondria. On the other hand, lipid transfer proteins from wheat and maize seeds showed little or no antimicrobial activity, whereas the radish lipid transfer protein displayed antifungal activity only in media with low cation concentrations. The relevance of these findings with regard to the function of nsLTPs is discussed.

  10. Effects of Different Mordants on Silk Fabric Dyed with Onion Outer Skin Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gias Uddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, a higher demand is put towards the use of natural dyes due to increased awareness of the environmental and health hazards associated with the synthesis and use of synthetic dyes. This research was conducted using onion outer skins as a potential source of natural plant dyes. In this study, extraction of dye was carried out in aqueous boiling method. Premordanting technique was followed using different mordants, namely alum, ferrous sulphate, tin, tannic acid, tartaric acid, and their combinations on silk fabric. Fabric samples dyed without using any mordant were then compared with the dyed samples pretreated with the mordants. The range of colors developed on dyed materials was evaluated by measuring the color values with respect to K/S values and color coordinates. It was concluded that the color values were found to be influenced by the addition of mordants, and thus different fashion hues were obtained from the same amount of dye extract using different mordants. Ferrous sulphate was found as the most influential mordant. ΔEcmc values between unmordanted (Reference dyed and metallic mordanted fabric samples were found higher than those between unmordanted and nonmetallic mordanted fabric samples. The dyed samples were evaluated for color fastness to washing, light, drycleaning, rubbing, and perspiration. The color fastness properties were found to be satisfactory and improved in many cases. From the fastness results, it was obvious that these dyes can also be applied on silk fabric without using any mordant if required.

  11. The onion fly modulates the adult eclosion time in response to amplitude of temperature cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Watari, Yasuhiko

    2011-08-01

    To confirm whether the amplitude of diel temperature cycles causes a phase shift of adult eclosion rhythm of the onion fly, Delia antiqua, the peak time ( Ø E) of adult eclosion was determined under various thermoperiods with a fixed temperature either in the warm or cool phase and temperature differences ranging from 1°C to 4°C between the two phases. Irrespective of the temperature level during the warm or cool phase, Ø E occurred earlier with decreasing amplitude of the temperature cycle. The results strongly support the previous conclusion of Tanaka and Watari (Naturwissenschaften 90:76-79, 2003) that D. antiqua responds to the amplitude of temperature cycle as a cue for the circadian adult eclosion timing. The phase advance was larger in thermoperiods with a fixed warm-phase temperature than in those with a fixed cool-phase temperature. This might be ascribed to the interaction between the amplitude and level of temperature in the thermoperiodic regimes.

  12. Genetic mapping of sulfur assimilation genes reveals a QTL for onion bulb pungency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, John; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Shaw, Martin; Kenel, Fernand; Davis, Sheree; Butler, Ruth; Scheffer, John; Jakse, Jernej; Havey, Michael J

    2007-03-01

    Onion exhibits wide genetic and environmental variation in bioactive organosulfur compounds that impart pungency and health benefits. A PCR-based molecular marker map that included candidate genes for sulfur assimilation was used to identify genomic regions affecting pungency in the cross 'W202A' x 'Texas Grano 438'. Linkage mapping revealed that genes encoding plastidic ferredoxin-sulfite reductase (SiR) and plastidic ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) are closely linked (1-2 cM) on chromosome 3. Inbred F(3) families derived from the F(2 )population used to construct the genetic map were grown in replicated trials in two environments and bulb pungency was evaluated as pyruvic acid or lachrymatory factor. Broad-sense heritability of pungency was estimated to be 0.78-0.80. QTL analysis revealed significant associations of both pungency and bulb soluble solids content with marker intervals on chromosomes 3 and 5, which have previously been reported to condition pleiotropic effects on bulb carbohydrate composition. Highly significant associations (LOD 3.7-8.7) were observed between ATPS and SiR Loci and bulb pungency but not with bulb solids content. This association was confirmed in two larger, independently derived F(2) families from the same cross. Single-locus models suggested that the partially dominant locus associated with these candidate genes controls 30-50% of genetic variation in pungency in these pedigrees. These markers may provide a practical means to select for lower pungency without correlated selection for lowered solids.

  13. Antispasmodic saponins from bulbs of red onion, Allium cepa L. var. Tropea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A

    2005-02-23

    A phytochemical analysis of the polar extract from the red bulbs of Allium cepa L. var. Tropea, typical of Calabria, a southern region of Italy, was performed extensively for the first time, leading to the isolation of four new furostanol saponins, named tropeoside A1/A2 (1a/1b) and tropeoside B1/B2 (3a/3b), along with the respective 22-O-methyl derivatives (2a/2b and 4a/4b), almost certainly extraction artifacts. High concentrations of ascalonicoside A1/A2 (5a/5b) and ascalonicoside B (6), previously isolated from Allium ascalonicum Hort., were also found. This is the first report of furostanol saponins in this A. cepa variety. The chemical structures of the new compounds were established through a combination of extensive nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and chemical analyses. High concentrations of quercetin, quercetin 4(I)-glucoside, taxifolin, taxifolin 7-glucoside, and phenylalanine were also isolated. The new saponins were found to possess antispasmodic activity in the guinea pig isolated ileum; such an effect might contribute to explaining the traditional use of onion in the treatment of disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Surface analysis of zinc-porphyrin functionalized carbon nano-onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Valentina; Ceccone, Giacomo; Giordani, Silvia

    2015-03-10

    Multishell fullerenes, known as carbon nano-onions (CNOs), are an interesting class of carbon-based nanomaterials. They display several unique properties, such as a large surface area to volume ratio, a low density, and a graphitic multilayer morphology, which have made them appealing for several applications in many fields, including biology. Chemical functionalization of CNOs dramatically enhances their solubility and attenuates their inflammatory properties, thereby increasing their applicability especially in the fields of biology and medicine. CNOs functionalized with fluorescent probes can be used for cellular imaging. In this article, detailed surface characterization of CNOs functionalized with a zinc porphyrin (ZnTPP) as the fluorescent probe is presented. In particular, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provide a detailed surface characterization of the organic functionalities introduced via "click chemistry" and clearly demonstrate the success of the CNOs functionalization process. XPS data reveal the presence of Zn and N, whilst ToF-SIMS is able to identify specific fragments related to the presence of the ZnTPP, such as the quasimolecular mass peak [C32N4H20Zn](+) and the molecular mass peak [C44N4H28Zn](+). Moreover, ions fragments deriving from the triazole ring formed by the click chemistry reaction have been identified by ToF-SIMS analysis, proving unambiguously the covalent binding of the fluorescent molecules to the CNOs surfaces.

  15. Highly surface functionalized carbon nano-onions for bright light bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasconi, Marco; Maffeis, Viviana; Bartelmess, Juergen; Echegoyen, Luis; Giordani, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials functionalized with fluorescent and water-soluble groups have emerged as platforms for biological imaging because of their low toxicity and ability to be internalized by cells. The development of imaging probes based on carbon nanomaterials for biomedical studies requires the understanding of their biological response as well as the efficient and safety exposition of the nanomaterial to the cell compartment where it is designed to operate. Here, we present a fluorescent probe based on surface functionalized carbon nano-onions (CNOs) for biological imaging. The modification of CNOs by chemical oxidation of the defects on the outer shell of these carbon nanoparticles results in an extensive surface functionalization with carboxyl groups. We have obtained fluorescently labelled CNOs by a reaction involving the amide bond formation between fluoresceinamine and the carboxylic acids groups on the surface of the CNOs. The functionalized CNOs display high emission properties and dispersability in water due to the presence of high surface coverage of carboxylic acid groups that translate in an efficient fluorescent probe for in vitro imaging of HeLa cells, without significant cytotoxicity. The resulting nanomaterial represents a promising platform for biological imaging applications due to the high dispersability in water, its efficient internalization by cancer cells and localization in specific cell compartments.

  16. Ultrahigh-power micrometre-sized supercapacitors based on onion-like carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech, David; Brunet, Magali; Durou, Hugo; Huang, Peihua; Mochalin, Vadym; Gogotsi, Yury; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice

    2010-09-01

    Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, store energy in two closely spaced layers with opposing charges, and are used to power hybrid electric vehicles, portable electronic equipment and other devices. By offering fast charging and discharging rates, and the ability to sustain millions of cycles, electrochemical capacitors bridge the gap between batteries, which offer high energy densities but are slow, and conventional electrolytic capacitors, which are fast but have low energy densities. Here, we demonstrate microsupercapacitors with powers per volume that are comparable to electrolytic capacitors, capacitances that are four orders of magnitude higher, and energies per volume that are an order of magnitude higher. We also measured discharge rates of up to 200 V s(-1), which is three orders of magnitude higher than conventional supercapacitors. The microsupercapacitors are produced by the electrophoretic deposition of a several-micrometre-thick layer of nanostructured carbon onions with diameters of 6-7 nm. Integration of these nanoparticles in a microdevice with a high surface-to-volume ratio, without the use of organic binders and polymer separators, improves performance because of the ease with which ions can access the active material. Increasing the energy density and discharge rates of supercapacitors will enable them to compete with batteries and conventional electrolytic capacitors in a number of applications.

  17. Ultrahigh-Power Micrometre-Sized Supercapacitors Based on Onion-Like Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pech, D.; Brunet, M.; Durou, H.; Huang, P.; Mochalin, V.; Gogotsi, Y.; Taberna, P. L.; Simon, P.

    2010-08-15

    Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, store energy in two closely spaced layers with opposing charges, and are used to power hybrid electric vehicles, portable electronic equipment and other devices. By offering fast charging and discharging rates, and the ability to sustain millions of cycles, electrochemical capacitors bridge the gap between batteries, which offer high energy densities but are slow, and conventional electrolytic capacitors, which are fast but have low energy densities. Here, we demonstrate microsupercapacitors with powers per volume that are comparable to electrolytic capacitors, capacitances that are four orders of magnitude higher, and energies per volume that are an order of magnitude higher. We also measured discharge rates of up to 200 V s-1, which is three orders of magnitude higher than conventional supercapacitors. The microsupercapacitors are produced by the electrophoretic deposition of a several-micrometre-thick layer of nanostructured carbon onions with diameters of 6–7 nm. Integration of these nanoparticles in a microdevice with a high surface-to-volume ratio, without the use of organic binders and polymer separators, improves performance because of the ease with which ions can access the active material. Increasing the energy density and discharge rates of supercapacitors will enable them to compete with batteries and conventional electrolytic capacitors in a number of applications.

  18. Integrative structural annotation of de novo RNA-Seq provides an accurate reference gene set of the enormous genome of the onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungill; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kim, Yong-Min; Yeom, Seon-In; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jeon, Jongbum; Kim, Sunggil; Kim, Do-Sun; Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2015-02-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crops in the world. Although a considerable amount of onion transcriptome data has been deposited into public databases, the sequences of the protein-coding genes are not accurate enough to be used, owing to non-coding sequences intermixed with the coding sequences. We generated a high-quality, annotated onion transcriptome from de novo sequence assembly and intensive structural annotation using the integrated structural gene annotation pipeline (ISGAP), which identified 54,165 protein-coding genes among 165,179 assembled transcripts totalling 203.0 Mb by eliminating the intron sequences. ISGAP performed reliable annotation, recognizing accurate gene structures based on reference proteins, and ab initio gene models of the assembled transcripts. Integrative functional annotation and gene-based SNP analysis revealed a whole biological repertoire of genes and transcriptomic variation in the onion. The method developed in this study provides a powerful tool for the construction of reference gene sets for organisms based solely on de novo transcriptome data. Furthermore, the reference genes and their variation described here for the onion represent essential tools for molecular breeding and gene cloning in Allium spp.

  19. Investigation of Volatiles Emitted from Freshly Cut Onions (Allium cepa L. by Real Time Proton-Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Marie Løkke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs in cut onions (Allium cepa L. were continuously measured by PTR-MS during the first 120 min after cutting. The headspace composition changed rapidly due to the very reactive volatile sulfurous compounds emitted from onion tissue after cell disruption. Mass spectral signals corresponding to propanethial S-oxide (the lachrymatory factor and breakdown products of this compound dominated 0–10 min after cutting. Subsequently, propanethiol and dipropyl disulfide predominantly appeared, together with traces of thiosulfinates. The concentrations of these compounds reached a maximum at 60 min after cutting. Propanethiol was present in highest concentrations and had an odor activity value 20 times higher than dipropyl disulfide. Thus, propanethiol is suggested to be the main source of the characteristic onion odor. Monitoring the rapid changes of VOCs in the headspace of cut onion necessitates a high time resolution, and PTR-MS is demonstrated to be a very suitable method for monitoring the headspace of freshly cut onions directly after cutting without extraction or pre-concentration.

  20. Superior Electrochemical Properties of Nanofibers Composed of Hollow CoFe2 O4 Nanospheres Covered with Onion-Like Graphitic Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Young Jun; Cho, Jung Sang; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-12-07

    Nanofibers composed of hollow CoFe2 O4 nanospheres covered with onion-like carbon are prepared by applying nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion to the electrospinning process. Amorphous carbon nanofibers embedded with CoFe2 @onion-like carbon nanospheres are prepared by reduction of the electrospun nanofibers. Oxidation of the CoFe2 -C nanofibers at 300 °C under a normal atmosphere produces porous nanofibers composed of hollow CoFe2 O4 nanospheres covered with onion-like carbon. CoFe2 nanocrystals are transformed into the hollow CoFe2 O4 nanospheres during oxidation through a well-known nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process. The discharge capacities of the carbon-free CoFe2 O4 nanofibers composed of hollow nanospheres and the nanofibers composed of hollow CoFe2 O4 nanospheres covered with onion-like carbon are 340 and 930 mA h g(-1) , respectively, for the 1000th cycle at a current density of 1 A g(-1) . The nanofibers composed of hollow CoFe2 O4 nanospheres covered with onion-like carbon exhibit an excellent rate performance even in the absence of conductive materials.

  1. Critical electric field strengths of onion tissues treated by pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavasanti, Suvaluk; Ersus, Seda; Ristenpart, William; Stroeve, Pieter; Barrett, Diane M

    2010-09-01

    The impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on cellular integrity and texture of Ranchero and Sabroso onions (Allium cepa L.) was investigated. Electrical properties, ion leakage rate, texture, and amount of enzymatically formed pyruvate were measured before and after PEF treatment for a range of applied field strengths and number of pulses. Critical electric field strengths or thresholds (E(c)) necessary to initiate membrane rupture were different because dissimilar properties were measured. Measurement of electrical characteristics was the most sensitive method and was used to detect the early stage of plasma membrane breakdown, while pyruvate formation by the enzyme alliinase was used to identify tonoplast membrane breakdown. Our results for 100-μs pulses indicate that breakdown of the plasma membrane occurs above E(c)= 67 V/cm for 10 pulses, but breakdown of the tonoplast membrane is above either E(c)= 200 V/cm for 10 pulses or 133 V/cm for 100 pulses. This disparity in field strength suggests there may be 2 critical electrical field strengths: a lower field strength for plasma membrane breakdown and a higher field strength for tonoplast membrane breakdown. Both critical electric field strengths depended on the number of pulses applied. Application of a single pulse at an electric field up to 333 V/cm had no observable effect on any measured properties, while significant differences were observed for n≥10. The minimum electric field strength required to cause a measurable property change decreased with the number of pulses. The results also suggest that PEF treatment may be more efficient if a higher electric field strength is applied for a fewer pulses.

  2. Upgrade of neutron energy spectrometer with single multilayer bonner sphere using onion-like structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizukpshi, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Uritan, Akira [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Iguchi, Tetsuo; Ogata, Tomohiro; Muramatsu, Takashi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe(Japan)

    2016-09-15

    In order to measure neutron energy spectra, the conventional Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSS) are widely used. In this spectrometer, several measurements with different size Bonner spheres are required. Operators should, therefore, place these spheres in several times to a measurement point where radiation dose might be relatively high. In order to reduce this effort, novel neutron energy spectrometer using an onion-like single Bonner sphere was proposed in our group. This Bonner sphere has multiple sensitive spherical shell layers in the single sphere. In this spectrometer, a band-shaped thermal neutron detection medium, which consists of a LiF-ZnS mixed powder scintillator sheet and a wavelength-shifting (WLS) fiber readout, was looped to each sphere at equal angular intervals. Amount of LiF neutron converter is reduced near polar region, where the band-shaped detectors are concentrated, in order to uniform the directional sensitivity. The LiF-ZnS mixed powder has an advantage of extremely high light yield. However, since it is opaque, scintillation photons cannot be collect uniformly. This type of detector shows no characteristic shape in the pulse height spectrum. Subsequently, it is difficult to set the pulse height discrimination level. This issue causes sensitivity fluctuation due to gain instability of photodetectors and/or electric modules. In order to solve this problem, we propose to replace the LiF-ZnS mixed powder into a flexible and Transparent RUbber SheeT type LiCaAlF6 (TRUST LiCAF) scintillator. TRUST LiCAF scintillator can show a peak shape corresponding to neutron absorption events in the pulse height spectrum. We fabricated the prototype detector with five sensitive layers using TRUST LiCAF scintillator and conducted basic experiments to evaluate the directional uniformity of the sensitivity. The fabricated detector shows excellent directional uniformity of the neutron sensitivity.

  3. Waterlogging tolerance of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) enhanced by exogenous spermidine and spermine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Jinn-Chin; Liu, Cheng-Wei; Fang, Denise Yi-Tan; Lai, Yu-Shen

    2009-08-01

    Soil flooding is a seasonal factor that negatively affects plant performance and crop yields. In order to investigate the effects of spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) on the waterlogging stress, it was checked that the content of relative water content (RWC), proline, chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA), net photosynthesis, the rate of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and superoxide radicals (O(2)(-)) generation and the antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT) (EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (GR) (EC 1.6.4.2) in Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L) plants. Pretreatment with 2 mM of Spd and Spm effectively maintained the balance of water content in plant leaves and roots under flooding stress. In addition, the data indicate that the protective role of proline should be considered minimal, as its accumulation was found to be inversely correlated with tolerance to stress; it also significantly retarded the loss of chlorophyll, enhanced photosynthesis, decreased the rate of O(2)(-) generation and H(2)O(2) content, and prevented flooding-induced lipid peroxidation. Spd and Spm helped to maintain antioxidant enzyme activities under flooding; however, APX activity was found to increase slightly in response to Spm. The antioxidant system, an important component of the water-stress-protective mechanism, can be changed by PAs, which are able to moderate the radical scavenging system and to lessen in this way the oxidative stress. The results suggest that pretreatment with Spd and Spm prevents oxidative damage, and the protective effect of Spd was found to be greater than that of Spm.

  4. Laboratory evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi against larvae and adults of onion maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, G; Chandler, D

    2005-12-01

    Laboratory experiments were done to measure the susceptibility of larvae and adults of the onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Muscidae: Anthomyiidae) to 27 isolates of entomopathogenic fungi from four genera [Beauveria Vuillemin, Lecanicillium (Petch) Zare & W. Gams, Metarhizium Sorokin, and Paecilomyces Bainier]. A novel bioassay was developed for D. antiqua larvae by using a diet based on mixed vegetable powder. When evaluated in a virulence screen, the fungal isolates caused less mortality of D. antiqua larvae than adults. Only three isolates caused > 50% mortality of larvae, whereas 12 isolates caused > 50% mortality of adults. Fungal species was a statistically significant factor affecting the mortality of larvae but not of adults. The fungal isolates causing the most mortality of larvae tended to belong to Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin. Two M. anisopliae isolates (389.93 and 392.93) were evaluated in dose-response bioassays. The median lethal concentrations of the isolates against larvae were 6.1 x 10(7) conidia ml(-1) for isolate 389.93 and 7.6 x 10(7) conidia ml(-1) for isolate 392.93. The emergence of adult flies from pupae was reduced at high concentrations of conidia (3.0 x 10(8) and 1.0 x 10(8) conidia ml(-1)). The median lethal concentrations of the isolates against adults were 1.7 x 10(7) and 4.0 x 10(7) conidia ml(-1), respectively. Some of the fungal isolates examined may have potential as biological control agents of larvae of D. antiqua and related species.

  5. Onion-like surface design of upconverting nanophosphors modified with polyethylenimine: shielding toxicity versus keeping brightness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guller, Anna; Nadort, Annemarie; Generalova, Alla; Kornienko, Inna; Petersen, Elena; Qian, Yi; Shekhter, Anatoly; Goldys, Ewa; Zvyagin, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    Background: Upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) represent a unique class of nanomaterials, able to convert infrared excitation light into long lifetime visible and infrared photoluminescence, within the "optical transparency window" of biological tissues. This makes UCNPs an attractive contrast agent for background-free bioimaging. However, assynthesized UCNPs are hydrophobic and need additional surface coating for stability in water-based solutions and further functionalization. Polyethylenimine (PEI), a polycationic amphiphilic polymer, is a well-known transfection agent for gene delivery and a popular material for UCNPs surface hydrophilization. Combining the functional properties of UCNPs and PEI is extremely useful for precise visualization of genetic manipulations and intracellular drug delivery. At the same time, PEI is toxic to cells, while the photoluminescent properties of UCNPs are very sensitive to surface chemistry and environment. Then, creation of hydrophilic, biocompatible and simultaneously bright UCNPs, modified by PEI (UCNP-PEI), is a challenging task. Objectives: To analyze the effects of multilayer shielding coatings on cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and photoluminescent properties of UCNP-PEI. Methods and results: UCNP-PEI were modified with additional two or three layers of various polymers and characterized by size, surface charge and photophysical properties. HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to the particles for 24 or 120 h to study the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake. The results show that onion-like coatings of UCNP-PEI simultaneously decrease cytotoxicity and relative luminescence of the particles, depending on structure and method of formation of multilayer coating. Conclusions: Rational design of UCNP-PEI using extra coatings layers can help to keep acceptable levels of biocompatibility and photoluminescence intensity.

  6. Comparison of the ability of fifteen onion (Allium cepa L. cultivars to accumulate nitrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wojciechowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of a two-year study was to characterise selected Allium cepa L. genotypes with regard to their ability to accumulate nitrates in bulbs as well as to search for a possible relation between NO3- concentration and dry matter content. Fifteen cultivars of edible onion, mostly of long-day genotype with different growing periods, bulb size and skin colour, were taken for the experiment. Seeds of particular cultivars were obtained from the following seed companies: Spójnia Nochowo (‘Labrador’, ‘Takstar F1’,‘Tęcza’, ‘Warna’, ‘Zorza’, Polan (‘Polanowska’, ‘Topolska’, PlantiCo Gołębiew (‘Alibaba’, ‘Efekt’, ‘Kristine’, ‘Niagara F1’,and PlantiCo Zielonki (‘Bila’, ‘Irka’, ‘Wenta’, ‘Zeta’. Plants produced from seedlings were grown in the experimental field of the University of Agriculture in Kraków. After crop harvesting and additional drying, nitrate and dry matter content in bulbs of all cultivars were measured. The following cultivars: ‘Efekt’, ‘Labrador’ and red-skinned ‘Wenta’, were characterized by the lowest ability to accumulate NO3- in bulbs. The highest nitrate content was noted in bulbs of ‘Takstar F1’ (a very early-season cultivar, followed by ‘Bila’ and ‘Tęcza’. A weak, yet statistically significant negative correlation between nitrate and dry matter content was observed. The highest dry matter content was determined in bulbs of white-skinned ‘Alibaba’, while the lowest – in brown-skinned ‘Labrador’.

  7. Effects of Organic and Conventional Growth Systems on the Content of Flavonoids in Onions and Phenolic Acids in Carrots and Potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltoft, M.; Nielsen, J.; Lauren, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    are affected by, for example, plant nutrient availability, climate, pathogen infection, and pest attack. In the current study, onions, carrots, and potatoes were cultivated in two-year field trials in three different geographical locations, comprising one conventional and two organic agricultural systems....... The contents of flavonoids and phenolic acids in plants were analyzed by pressurized liquid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet quantification. In onions and carrots, no statistically significant differences between growth systems were found for any of the analyzed polyphenols....... On the basis of the present study carried out under well-controlled conditions, it cannot be concluded that organically grown onions, carrots, and potatoes generally have higher contents of health-promoting secondary metabolites in comparison with the conventionally cultivated ones....

  8. Synthesis of nano onion-like fullerenes by using Fe/Al2O3 as catalyst by chemical vapor deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XuGuang; WANG CunJing; YANG YongZhen; GUO XingMei; WEN HaiRong; XU BingShe

    2009-01-01

    Nano-carbon materials were synthesized by the catalytic decomposition of acetylene at 400℃ by using Fe/Al2O3 as catalyst. The product was refiuxed in 36% concentrated HCI at 60℃ for 48 h in order to re-move the catalyst support. The samples were examined by scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results show that nano onion-like fullerenes encapsulating a Fe3C core were obtained. These had a structure of stacked graphitic fragments, with diameters ranging from 15-50 nm. When the product was further heat-treated at 1100℃ for 2 h, nano onion-like fullerenes with a clear concentric graphitic layer structure were obtained. The growth mechanism of nano onion-like fullerenes encapsulating metal cores is suggested to follow a vapor-solid growth model.

  9. A comparison study on the anti-leech effects of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahmani Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leech may indwell in mucosa of the pharynx, tonsil, esophagus, nose, nasopharyngeal and rarely in larynx of hosts, however, the effective drugs against this parasite is scarce. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion (Allium cepa L and ginger (Zingiber officinale with levamisole and triclabendazole. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 leeches (Limnatis nilotica were collected from south of Ilam. The anti-leech effect of methanolic extract of onion and ginger in comparison with levamisole and triclabendazole drugs (positive controls were evaluated. Distilled water was used as negative control. Paralysis and death of leeches were recorded in 720 minutes. Results: Lethal effect of methanolic extract of ginger against Limnatis nilotica was equal to levamisole and more than triclabendazole and methanolic extract of onion. Conclusion: Ginger equal to levamisole has anti-leech activity and its methanolic extract might be used against Limnatis nilotica.

  10. Pesticide Residues in Commercial Lettuce, Onion, and Potato Samples From Bolivia—A Threat to Public Health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Marlene; Renjel, Susana; Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2017-01-01

    Bolivia does not have a surveillance program for pesticide residues in food. The few published studies have suggested that pesticide contamination in food may present a public health problem. Data are lacking for all foods except tomatoes and breast milk. In this study 10 potato, 10 onion, and 10...... or together would lead to exposures that exceeded the acceptable daily intake or the acute reference dose. To protect consumers from pesticide poisonings and chronic effects, the development of measures for prevention, control, and monitoring of food contamination by pesticides in Bolivia is suggested....

  11. Onion peel tea ameliorates obesity and affects blood parameters in a mouse model of high-fat-diet-induced obesity

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUNAGA, SHOGO; Azuma, Kazuo; Watanabe, Mayumi; Tsuka, Takeshi; IMAGAWA, TOMOHIRO; OSAKI, TOMOHIRO; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of onion peel tea (OPT) in a mouse model of high-fat-diet-induced obesity. BALB/c mice were fed a high-fat diet for three weeks, followed by a normal diet with or without OPT for 28 days. OPT suppressed the increases in body weight and level of epididymal fat tissue; it also significantly reduced the serum concentrations of total cholesterol on day 14 and those of glucose and leptin on day 28. The results indicate that OPT has anti-obesity effects in an ...

  12. Agronomic and economic viability of intercropping onion and lettuce Viabilidade agroeconômica do cultivo consorciado de cebola e alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner F da Mota

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the agronomic and economic performance of intercropping onion and lettuce on four plant densities of each species. The experiment was set up in completely randomized blocks, with four replications and treatments arranged in a 4 x 4 factorial. Treatments resulted from a combination of four (100, 80, 60, and 40% of recommended plant densities in monoculture plant densities for both lettuce and onion. Intercropping did not affect the agronomic performance of onion or lettuce. Higher plant densities (100% for both vegetables resulted in higher lettuce and onion yields. The best economic results were observed using (a onion at 80% of plant density combined with lettuce at 40 and 100% and (b onion at 100% and lettuce at all densities (40 to 100%.O trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o desempenho agroeconômico do consórcio de cebola e alface em quatro densidades populacionais de cada espécie. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação de quatro populações (100, 80, 60 e 40% das populações recomendadas nos cultivos solteiros tanto de alface, quanto de cebola. O consórcio não afetou o desempenho agronômico da cebola, tampouco o da alface, e a densidade populacional de 100% para ambas as hortaliças propiciou maior produtividade de cebola e de alface. Do ponto de vista econômico, os melhores resultados foram observados nos consórcios (a cebola a 80% da densidade de plantas em consórcio com alface a 40 e 100% e (b cebola a 100% com alface em qualquer densidade (40 a 100%.

  13. Aktivitas Penyembuhan Luka Sediaan Topikal Ekstrak Bawang Merah (Allium cepa terhadap Luka Sayat Kulit Mencit (Mus Musculus (THE ACTIVITY OF TOPICAL EXTRACT OF ONIONS (ALLIUM CEPA ON WOUND HEALING PROCESS IN MICE (MUS MUSCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visa Yunanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a physiological response of the body to restore continuity, structure and function ofthe injured tissue. Onion is one of the plants that are empirically used by the community to heal wounds.The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of topical extract of onions (Allium cepa on woundhealing process in mice (Mus musculus strain BalbC. This study used the posttest-only control groupdesign with completely randomized design (CRD. The samples were 12 male mice with weight ranged of22-32 g divided into four treatments; i.e.: Vaseline, topical extract of onion 5%, topical extract of onion30% and topical extract of onion 55% with 3 replications. Wound healing evaluated macroscopically toobserve hyperemia, wound contraction, granulation, crusting and pus production; and microscopically bycounting the number of fibroblasts on day 10. Hyperemia, granulation, crusting and pus production wereanalyzed descriptively. Wound contraction and the number of fibroblasts were analyzed using ANOVA(p<0.05 and followed with Duncan’s test (p<0,05. Descriptive observations obtained hyperemia lasteduntil day 3, granulation in wounds used topical extract of onion 30% and 55% were faster than the other,crusting lasted until day 6 and the production of pus was not found in any treatment. Statistical testresults showed that topical extract of onion 55% significantly affected wound contraction and topicalextract of onion 30% and 55% significantly affected maturation, which characterized by the decreasednumber of fibroblasts. The results of this study showed that topical extract of onion had significant effect(p<0.05 on wound healing and the effect was in line with the increased concentration of the onion extract.

  14. Purification, amino acid sequence, and cDNA cloning of trypsin inhibitors from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshimaru, Masanobu; Watanabe, Akira; Suematsu, Keiko; Hatano, Maki; Terada, Shigeyuki

    2003-08-01

    Three protease inhibitors (OTI-1-3) have been purified from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs. Molecular masses of these inhibitors were found to be 7,370.2, 7,472.2, and 7,642.6 Da by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), respectively. Based on amino acid composition and N-terminal sequence, OTI-1 and -2 are the N-terminal truncated proteins of OTI-3. All the inhibitors are stable to heat and extreme pH. OTI-3 inhibited trypsin, chymotrypsin, and plasmin with dissociation constants of 1.3 x 10(-9) M, 2.3 x 10(-7) M, and 3.1 x 10(-7) M, respectively. The complete amino acid sequence of OTI-3 showed a significant homology to Bowman-Birk family inhibitors, and the first reactive site (P1) was found to be Arg17 by limited proteolysis by trypsin. The second reactive site (P1) was estimated to be Leu46, that may inhibit chymotrypsin. OTI-3 lacks an S-S bond near the second reactive site, resulting in a low affinity for the enzyme. The sequence of OTI-3 was also ascertained by the nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding a 101-residue precursor of the onion inhibitor.

  15. Effects of the plant steroidal hormone, 24-epibrassinolide, on the mitotic index and growth of onion (Allium cepa) root tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, W M; Keller, G E; Kirkpatrick, J D; Jenkins, R L; Hunsinger, R N; McLaughlin, E W

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of the steroidal plant hormone, 24-epibrassinolide (BL), on the mitotic index and growth of onion (Allium cepa) root tips. The classical Allium test was used to gather and quantify data on the rate of root growth, the stages of mitosis, and the number of mitoses in control and BL-treated groups of onions. Low doses of BL (0.005 ppm) nearly doubled the mean root length and the number of mitoses over that of controls. Intermediate doses of BL (0.05 ppm) also produced mean root lengths and number of mitoses that were significantly greater than those of the controls. The highest dose of BL (0.5 ppm) produced mean root lengths and number of mitoses that were less than control values, but the differences were not statistically significant. Examination of longitudinally sectioned root tips produced relatively similar results. This study confirms the suppositions of previous authors who have claimed that exogenously applied BL can increase the number of mitoses in plants, but failed to show cytogenetic data. This is the first report detailing the effects of BL on chromosomes and the cell cycle.

  16. Genotypic variation in the sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) I. Plant composition and transcript accumulation

    KAUST Repository

    McCallum, John A.

    2011-06-01

    Organosulfur compounds are major sinks for assimilated sulfate in onion (Allium cepa L.) and accumulation varies widely due to plant genotype and sulfur nutrition. In order to better characterise sulfur metabolism phenotypes and identify potential control points we compared plant composition and transcript accumulation of the primary sulfur assimilation pathway in the high pungency genotype \\'W202A\\' and the low pungency genotype \\'Texas Grano 438\\' grown hydroponically under S deficient (S-) and S-sufficient (S+) conditions. Accumulation of total S and alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxide flavour precursors was significantly higher under S+ conditions and in \\'W202A\\' in agreement with previous studies. Leaf sulfate and cysteine levels were significantly higher in \\'W202A\\' and under S+. Glutathione levels were reduced by S- treatment but were not affected by genotype, suggesting that thiol pool sizes are regulated differently in mild and pungent onions. The only significant treatment effect observed on transcript accumulation in leaves was an elevated accumulation of O-acetyl serine thiol-lyase under S-. By contrast, transcript accumulation of all genes in roots was influenced by one or more treatments. APS reductase transcript level was not affected by genotype but was strongly increased by S-. Significant genotype × S treatment effects were observed in a root high affinity-sulfur transporter and ferredoxin-sulfite reductase. ATP sulfurylase transcript levels were significantly higher under S+ and in \\'W202A\\'. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Flavonol content and biometrical traits as a tool for the characterization of "Cipolla di Giarratana": a traditional Sicilian onion landrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggi, Ezio; Avola, Giovanni; Siracusa, Laura; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2013-10-15

    "Cipolla di Giarratana", a locally cultivated white onion landrace, is listed as an item in the 'List of Traditional Agro-food Products' of the Italian Department for Agriculture and itemised as 'slow food presidium' by the Slow Food Foundation. Ten local accessions were investigated for their biomorphological and biochemical characteristics in five experimental locations. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electron spray-mass spectrometry (HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS) was used to identify the phenolic profile and quantify phenolic content in bulbs: quercetin, quercetin 3,4' di-O-glucoside and quercetin 4'-O-glucoside were detected as major components. The 'Cipolla di Giarratana' landrace is characterised by a high bulb weight (436g) and high diameter (11cm). The total flavonols content ranged between 68 and 408mgkg(-1) bulb fresh weight in nine of the 10 collected accessions. The opportunity of considering flavonol patterns as chemotaxonomic descriptors in order to characterise onion germplasm is also discussed.

  18. Dyeing of γ-irradiated cotton with natural flavonoid dye extracted from irradiated onion shells (Allium cepa) powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Shahid, Muhammad; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Nasir, Faiza; Akhtar, Nasim; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2013-11-01

    Powder of Onion shells as a source of natural flavonoid dye (Quercetin) and cotton fabrics were exposed to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Irradiated and un-irradiated dye powder was used for extraction of quercetin as well as antibacterial, hemolytic and antioxidant activities were also determined to observe the effect of radiation. Furthermore, color strength and colourfastness of irradiated fabrics were improved by using pre and post-mordants such as alum and iron. It is found that 4 kGy is the optimal absorbed dose for extraction of natural quercetin extracted from onion shells while maximum color strength and acceptable fastness properties are obtained on dyeing of irradiated fabric at 60 °C keeping M:L of 1:30 using 10% alum as pre-mordant and 6% alum as post-mordant. Gamma irradiation has not only improved the color strength of the dye using irradiated cotton but also that of colourfastness properties.

  19. Detection of GLV, OYDV and LYSV in potato onion (Allium cepa L.,Aggregatum group) by RT-PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qijiang; CHEN Dian; TONG Youli; LI Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    Three pairs of primers were designed and synthesized from nucleotide sequences of garlic latent virus (GLV), onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), and leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV) by using PCR primer design software. The expected fragments about 170 bp,287 bp, and 191 bp were amplified by RT-PCR for GLV, OYDV, and LYSV, respectively in disease-infected plants of potato onion(Allium cepa L., Aggregatum group), but such fragments were not obtained from healthy-looking plants and virus-free seedlings of shoot-tips. The amplified products ofGLV, OYDV and LYSV were cloned into pGEM-T vectors, and transformed into Escherichia coli.JM109. The recombinant plasmids were obtained and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank by performing a NCBI BLAST. The analysis showed that their homology attained 75% toplants was diluted to a series of 10-1 to 10-5 and the detection sensitivity of RT-PCR was 10-4 (about 4 ng). Thus, a method of identification and detection by RT-PCR of GLV, OYDV, and SLYV was established.

  20. In vitro control of the camel nasal botfly, Cephalopina titillator, with doramectin, lavender, camphor, and onion oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Hanem F; Ramadan, Mohamed Y; Mageid, Abla D Abdel

    2013-07-01

    Camels are very important livestock particularly in arid and semiarid lands. The oestrid fly, Cephalopina titillator (Clark), causes nasopharyngeal myiasis in camels, and it is widely distributed in many camel breeding areas triggering health hazards and severe economic losses in camels. The prevalence of infestation of camels (slaughtered at Tokh's slaughterhouse, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, during the period from September 2011 to March 2012) was 41.67 % (100 out of 240). Most infested camels developed clinical signs of nasal discharge, restlessness, loss of appetite, difficulty in breathing, frequent sneezing, and snoring. Postmortem examination of infested camels explained that breathing of the animal is greatly impaired because of blockage of the nasopharynx by larvae and/or mucofibrinous secretions. The larval count per camel ranged from 1 to 250 (mean 28.45 ± 6.48). In vitro larval immersion tests were carried out to determine the efficacy of doramectin (0.003 %) as well as some essential oils (50 % each) such as lavender, camphor, and onion oils against the second and third larval stages (L2 and L3) of C. titillator. Another trial had been done for imitating what could happen if the area around camels were treated with an insecticide or an insect repellent. All treated L2 died 18 h posttreatment (PT) with both doramectin and lavender, and 100 % mortality was reached for L3 after 24 and 30 h PT with lavender and doramectin, respectively. Doramectin and lavender induced the highest response against C. titillator as their lethal time (LT50) values after treatment of L2 were 3.40 and 3.60 h, respectively, and those of L3 were 4.99 and 5.53 h, respectively. Against both L2 and L3 of C. titillator and based on LT50 values of onion oil and those of other applied materials, doramectin and lavender oil were four times more effective than onion oil, and camphor oil was two times more effective than onion oil. Based on LT50 values of essential oils and those of

  1. High temperature stability of onion-like carbon vs highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Latini

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic stability of onion-like carbon (OLC nanostructures with respect to highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG was determined in the interval 765-1030 K by the electromotive force (emf measurements of solid electrolyte galvanic cell: (Low Pt|Cr3C2,CrF2,OLC|CaF2s.c.|Cr3C2,CrF2,HOPG|Pt (High. The free energy change of transformation HOPG = OLC was found positive below 920.6 K crossing the zero value at this temperature. Its trend with temperature was well described by a 3rd degree polynomial. The unexpected too high values of [Formula: see text] jointly to the HR-TEM, STEM and EELS evidences that showed OLC completely embedded in rigid cages made of a Cr3C2/CrF2 matrix, suggested that carbon in the electrodes experienced different internal pressures. This was confirmed by the evaluation under constant volume of [dP/dT by the α/κ ratio for OLC (0.5 MPa K(-1 and HOPG (8 Pa K(-1 where α and κ are the isobaric thermal expansion and isothermal compressibility coefficients, respectively. The temperature dependency of the pressure was derived and utilized to calculate the enthalpy and entropy changes as function of temperature and pressure. The highest value of the internal pressure experienced by OLC was calculated to be about 7 GPa at the highest temperature. At 920.6 K, ΔrH and ΔrS values are 95.8 kJ mol(-1 and 104.1 JK(-1 mol(-1, respectively. The surface contributions to the energetic of the system were evaluated and they were found negligible compared with the bulk terms. As a consequence of the high internal pressure, the values of the enthalpy and entropy changes were mainly attributed to the formation of carbon defects in OLC considered as multishell fullerenes. The change of the carbon defect fraction is reported as a function of temperature.

  2. High temperature stability of onion-like carbon vs highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, Alessandro; Tomellini, Massimo; Lazzarini, Laura; Bertoni, Giovanni; Gazzoli, Delia; Bossa, Luigi; Gozzi, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic stability of onion-like carbon (OLC) nanostructures with respect to highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) was determined in the interval 765-1030 K by the electromotive force (emf) measurements of solid electrolyte galvanic cell: (Low) Pt|Cr3C2,CrF2,OLC|CaF2s.c.|Cr3C2,CrF2,HOPG|Pt (High). The free energy change of transformation HOPG = OLC was found positive below 920.6 K crossing the zero value at this temperature. Its trend with temperature was well described by a 3rd degree polynomial. The unexpected too high values of [Formula: see text] jointly to the HR-TEM, STEM and EELS evidences that showed OLC completely embedded in rigid cages made of a Cr3C2/CrF2 matrix, suggested that carbon in the electrodes experienced different internal pressures. This was confirmed by the evaluation under constant volume of [dP/dT by the α/κ ratio for OLC (0.5 MPa K(-1)) and HOPG (8 Pa K(-1)) where α and κ are the isobaric thermal expansion and isothermal compressibility coefficients, respectively. The temperature dependency of the pressure was derived and utilized to calculate the enthalpy and entropy changes as function of temperature and pressure. The highest value of the internal pressure experienced by OLC was calculated to be about 7 GPa at the highest temperature. At 920.6 K, ΔrH and ΔrS values are 95.8 kJ mol(-1) and 104.1 JK(-1) mol(-1), respectively. The surface contributions to the energetic of the system were evaluated and they were found negligible compared with the bulk terms. As a consequence of the high internal pressure, the values of the enthalpy and entropy changes were mainly attributed to the formation of carbon defects in OLC considered as multishell fullerenes. The change of the carbon defect fraction is reported as a function of temperature.

  3. Research Advances: Onions Battle Osteoporosis; New Weapon in War on TB; Smokers Beware: Study Shows Increased Cadmium Levels in the Brain May Cause Severe Neurological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2005-08-01

    This Report from Other Journals surveys articles of interest to chemists that have been recently published in other science journals. Topics surveyed include reports that a compound in onions reduces bone loss; a new diarylquinone inhibits tuberculosis in vitro; and cadium in tobacco influences amphetamine effects.

  4. Ternary effects on the optical interface phonons in onion-like GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wen Deng, E-mail: wdhuang2005@163.com [MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China); Chen, Guang De; Ye, Hong Gang [MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Ren, Ya Jie [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China)

    2014-06-27

    The interface optical phonons and its ternary effects in onion-like quantum dots are studied by using dielectric continuum model and the modified random-element isodisplacement model. The dispersion relations, the electron–phonon interactions and ternary effects on the interface optical phonons are calculated in the GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N onion-like quantum dots. The results show that aluminium concentration has important influence on the interface optical phonons and electron–phonon interactions in GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N onion-like quantum dots. The frequencies of interface optical phonons and electron–phonon coupling strengths change linearly with increase of aluminium concentration in high frequency range, and do not change linearly with increasing aluminium concentration in low frequency range. - Highlights: • The random-element isodisplacement model and dielectric continuum model are used. • The ternary effects on IO phonons in onion-like GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N QDs are studied. • The ternary effects on electron–IO phonon coupling in QDs are studied.

  5. Application of porcine gastric mucin-conjugated magnetic beads and polyethylene glycol goncentration and detection of human noroviruses from green onion and grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To set up detection methods for norovirus in fruits and vegetables by using porcine gastric mucin-conjugated magnetic beads (PGM-MB) and polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG8000) concentrating and detecting the norovirus in green onion and grape. Methods: The highest virus dilution given a posit...

  6. Quercetin and isorhamnetin glycosides in onion (Allium cepa L.): varietal comparison, physical distribution, coproduct evaluation, and long-term storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2011-02-09

    During onion processing, the outer dried protective layer (outer paper layer) and first two fleshy leaf layers are removed. This coproduct material is a potential commercial source of flavonoids especially quercetin. In the following study, the flavonoid composition was determined in coproduct materials and the press cake (material generated after juice extraction) in several commercially important onion varieties grown in California. Flavonoids were characterized and quantified using LC-(ESI)MS/MS and HPLC. The long-term stability of quercetin glycosides was assessed in dried coproduct materials stored at 4 and 22 °C over a 12 month period. In all varieties, the predominant forms of quercetin were the quercetin 3,4'-O-glucoside and 4'-O-glucoside. The first layer had significantly higher levels of flavonoids than the outer paper, second, and inner flesh layers on a DW basis (p < 0.05). Allium cepa "Milestone" contained the highest levels (p < 0.05) of flavonoids (1703 mg/100 g on a dry weight basis (DW). Onion press cake had significantly higher levels of total quercetin as compared with fresh onions (p < 0.05). The levels of 4'-O-glucoside significantly decreased during the first month of storage and remained stable for 12 months of storage at either 4 or 22 °C (p < 0.05).

  7. Super-resolution imaging with Pontamine Fast Scarlet 4BS enables direct visualization of cellulose orientation and cell connection architecture in onion epidermis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liesche, Johannes; Ziomkiewicz, Iwona; Schulz, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    approaches have been developed; in this paper we explore the potential of such approaches for the direct visualization of cellulose. Results To ensure optimal imaging we determined the spectral properties of PFS-stained tissue. PFS was found not to affect cell viability in the onion bulb scale epidermis. We...

  8. Templated green synthesis of plasmonic silver nanoparticles in onion epidermal cells suitable for surface-enhanced Raman and hyper-Raman scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Espina Palanco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report fast and simple green synthesis of plasmonic silver nanoparticles in the epidermal cells of onions after incubation with AgNO3 solution. The biological environment supports the generation of silver nanostructures in two ways. The plant tissue delivers reducing chemicals for the initial formation of small silver clusters and their following conversion to plasmonic particles. Additionally, the natural morphological structures of the onion layers, in particular the extracellular matrix provides a biological template for the growth of plasmonic nanostructures. This is indicated by red glowing images of extracellular spaces in dark field microscopy of onion layers a few hours after AgNO3 exposure due to the formation of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanostructures generated in the extracellular space of onion layers and within the epidermal cell walls can serve as enhancing plasmonic structures for one- and two-photon-excited spectroscopy such as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS and surface enhanced hyper-Raman scattering (SEHRS. Our studies demonstrate a templated green preparation of enhancing plasmonic nanoparticles and suggest a new route to deliver silver nanoparticles as basic building blocks of plasmonic nanosensors to plants by the uptake of solutions of metal salts.

  9. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization and Soil Inoculation of Sulfur-Oxidizing or Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria on Onion Plant Growth and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat M. Awad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in a newly reclaimed soil at El-Saff region, El-Giza Governorate, Egypt to study the effects of different rates of nitrogen (N: 62 to 248 kg ha-1 with or without soil inoculation of sulfur- (S- oxidizing bacteria (SoxB and combined inoculation of SoxB and N-fixing bacteria (NFxB on yield, quality and nutritional status of onion (Allium cepa L., “Giza 20”. Elemental S at 620 kg ha-1 was applied to all treatments. Application of N at 62, 124, and 248 kg ha-1 rates increased onion yield, plant height, and N uptake by 28 to 76%, 32 to 53%, and 61 to 145%, as compared to those of the plants that received no N. Inoculation of SoxB at various N rates increased onion yields by 47 to 69% and N uptake by 76 to 93%, as compared to those of the plants which received the respective rates of N but no SoxB inoculation. Inoculation with SoxB and NFxB increased onion yield by 221%, plant height by 62%, and N uptake by 629%, as compared to those of the plants grown without inoculation and no N applied.

  10. An Authenticated Scheme of Onion Routing%可靠洋葱路由方案的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵福祥; 王育民; 王常杰

    2001-01-01

    Onion Routing on public computer networks is much like a physical envelope. The simple application of cryptography within a packet-switched network provides anonymous connections by using the loose source routing protocol that are strongly resistant to both eavesdropping and traffic analysis so that it hides not only the contents of message being sent but also who is talking whom, and how often. Onion Routing is a general-purpose infrastructure for private communication over a public network and the connections are bi-directional, near real-time, and can be used for both connection-based and connectionless traffic. However, Onion Routing schemes available can hide informationbut can not prevent attacker form subversive attacks such as disturbing data packages, that is, the attacker do not want to know the contents of message being sent but make them confusion. When the contents of data packages have been disturbed, the data packages become message garbage. On the occasion, if the Onion Routing server continues to transmit the packages, it will reduce the whole network efficiency. To the worse, because the addresses in the package headers are also encrypted, the Onion Routing servers will disturb the whole network when they obtain wrong addresses. To solve this, a new scheme that hides information and prevents from disturbing data packages is proposed by using the efficient signcryption technique combined with the group signature technique and trust mark technique based on David's Onion Routing scheme. The goal of the new scheme is to enhance security and reliability of Onion Routing and to make it easy to integrate into existing systems (including IP v4 or IP v6). Finally, analysis of security on the proposed scheme is given.%在公开的计算机网络中采用洋葱路由能提供隐蔽网络连接,使得攻击者既不能窃听到机密也不能实施流量分析.然而现有的洋葱路由方案只能隐藏信息,并不能保证抵御

  11. Development of a Genetic Map for Onion (Allium cepa L. Using Reference-Free Genotyping-by-Sequencing and SNP Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkwan Jo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs play important roles as molecular markers in plant genomics and breeding studies. Although onion (Allium cepa L. is an important crop globally, relatively few molecular marker resources have been reported due to its large genome and high heterozygosity. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS offers a greater degree of complexity reduction followed by concurrent SNP discovery and genotyping for species with complex genomes. In this study, GBS was employed for SNP mining in onion, which currently lacks a reference genome. A segregating F2 population, derived from a cross between ‘NW-001’ and ‘NW-002,’ as well as multiple parental lines were used for GBS analysis. A total of 56.15 Gbp of raw sequence data were generated and 1,851,428 SNPs were identified from the de novo assembled contigs. Stringent filtering resulted in 10,091 high-fidelity SNP markers. Robust SNPs that satisfied the segregation ratio criteria and with even distribution in the mapping population were used to construct an onion genetic map. The final map contained eight linkage groups and spanned a genetic length of 1,383 centiMorgans (cM, with an average marker interval of 8.08 cM. These robust SNPs were further analyzed using the high-throughput Fluidigm platform for marker validation. This is the first study in onion to develop genome-wide SNPs using GBS. The resulting SNP markers and developed linkage map will be valuable tools for genetic mapping of important agronomic traits and marker-assisted selection in onion breeding programs.

  12. DNA-carbon nano onion aggregate: triangle, hexagon, six-petal flower to dead-end network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Dipak Gorakh; Pakhira, Bholanath; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2017-08-01

    The interaction between calf-thymus (CT) dsDNA and water soluble carbon nano onion (wsCNO) in water follows denaturation of dsDNA (double stranded) to ssDNA (single stranded) as monitored by optical spectroscopy. The ssDNA concomitantly wraps the spiky surface of wsCNO to create triangular aggregate as the building block as observed by time-dependent SEM images. These triangles further aggregate leading to six-petal flower arrangement via hexagon and finally reach a dead end network as imaged by SEM and optical fluorescence microscopy. The dead-end network aggregate lost the intrinsic optical property of DNA suggesting complete loss of its activity.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF SELENIUM ON CONTENT OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kavalcová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential element, which is located in soil and stones, accumulated in plants and input them the food chain. Selenium significantly influences the function nearly of all the components of the immune system. Is also protects the body from the toxic effects of some metals. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The content of total polyphenols in samples onion moved in the range from 575.25±33.90 to 695.07±59.91. In this work was watched the influence of selenium on antioxidant activity, where values were in interval from 37.09±1.72 to 63.29±5.14.

  14. Occurrence of photoluminescence and onion like structures decorating graphene oxide with europium using sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, V. J.; Rangel, R.; Cervantes, J. L.; Lara, J.; Alvarado, J. J.; Galván, D. H.

    2017-07-01

    Graphene oxide decoration with europium was carried out using SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) as the surfactant. The reaction was performed in a microwave oven and subsequently underwent thermal treatment under hydrogen flow. The results found in the present work demonstrate that through the use of SDS surfactant aggregates of hemi-cylindrical and onion-like structures could be obtained; which propitiate an enhanced synergistic photoluminescence located at the red wavelength. On the other hand, after thermal treatment the aggregates disappear providing a good dispersion of europium, however a decrease in the photoluminescence signal is observed. The graphene oxide decorated with europium was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier infrared transform spectroscopy (FTIR), RAMAN spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, showing the characteristic features of graphene oxide and europium.

  15. Comparison of cellular toxicity between multi-walled carbon nanotubes and onion-like shell-shaped carbon nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seunghyon [Seoul National University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji-Eun [Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science, Center for NanoSafety Metrology, Division of Convergence Technology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daegyu [LG Electronics (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Chang Gyu [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Environmental and Energy Systems Research Division (Korea, Republic of); Pikhitsa, Peter V. [Seoul National University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Myung-Haing, E-mail: mchotox@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Laboratory of Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Mansoo, E-mail: mchoi@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    The cellular toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and onion-like shell-shaped carbon nanoparticles (SCNPs) was investigated by analyzing the comparative cell viability. For the reasonable comparison, physicochemical characteristics were controlled thoroughly such as crystallinity, carbon bonding characteristic, hydrodynamic diameter, and metal contents of the particles. To understand relation between cellular toxicity of the particles and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we measured unpaired singlet electrons of the particles and intracellular ROS, and analyzed cellular toxicity with/without the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Regardless of the presence of NAC, the cellular toxicity of SCNPs was found to be lower than that of MWCNTs. Since both particles show similar crystallinity, hydrodynamic size, and Raman signal with negligible contribution of remnant metal particles, the difference in cell viability would be ascribed to the difference in morphology, i.e., spherical shape (aspect ratio of one) for SCNP and elongated shape (high aspect ratio) for MWCNT.

  16. Modeling of Drying Process and Energy Consumption of Onion (Ex-gidankwanoSpp. Slices in a Hybrid Crop Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Nwakuba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High consumption of energy in the drying industry has prompted extensive research regarding various aspects of crop drying energy consumption. Specific energy consumption, moisture ratio and thermal efficiency in drying of fresh ex-gidankwano onions variety were determined using a hybrid electric-gas dryer at air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70oC, and at air velocities of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5m/s. Thin layer models were selected by carrying out statistical analyses to fit the drying rate data to themodels. The Page drying model was found more suitable to describe the drying behaviour of onions slices based on its highest average R2 -values of 0.99 and lowest average RMSE of 3.91for all temperatures and air velocitiesirrespective of the heat source. Records of drying rates and energy consumption were made using electronic weighing balances and the Arduino microprocessor respectively. Results obtained show that the specific energy consumption decreases with increase in air temperature but increases with increase in air velocity in both heat sources. The minimum and maximum specific energies for the electric and gas heat sources were 48.73MJ/kg and 90.21MJ/kg, and 36.83MJ/kg and64.65MJ/kg of moisture evaporated respectively.The thermal efficiency of the heat sources increased proportionally with increasing drying air temperature and decreased with increase in drying air velocity with maximum values of 54.8% and 68.2% for the electric and gas heaters respectively. The gas heat source performed more efficiently in terms of energy consumption and thermal efficiency at different temperatures and air velocities.

  17. Formation, characterization and dynamics of onion like carbon structures from nanodiamonds using reactive force-fields for electrical energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, Panchapakesan [ORNL; Kent, Paul R [ORNL; Mochalin, Vadym N [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We simulate the experimentally observed graphitization of nanodiamonds into multi-shell onion-like carbon nanostructures, also called carbon onions, at different temperatures, using reactive force fields. The simulations include long-range Coulomb and van der Waals interactions. Our results suggest that long-range interactions play a crucial role in the phase-stability and the graphitization process. Graphitization is both enthalpically and entropically driven and can hence be controlled with temperature. The outer layers of the nanodiamond have a lower kinetic barrier toward graphitization irrespective of the size of the nanodiamond and graphitize within a few-hundred picoseconds, with a large volume increase. The inner core of the nanodiamonds displays a large size-dependent kinetic barrier, and graphitizes much more slowly with abrupt jumps in the internal energy. It eventually graphitizes by releasing pressure and expands once the outer shells have graphitized. The degree of transformation at a particular temperature is thereby determined by a delicate balance between the thermal energy, long-range interactions, and the entropic/enthalpic free energy gained by graphitization. Upon full graphitization, a multi-shell carbon nanostructure appears, with a shell-shell spacing of about {approx}3.4 {angstrom} for all sizes. The shells are highly defective with predominantly five- and seven-membered rings to curve space. Larger nanodiamonds with a diameter of 4 nm can graphitize into spiral structures with a large ({approx}29-atom carbon ring) pore opening on the outermost shell. Such a large one-way channel is most attractive for a controlled insertion of molecules/ions such as Li ions, water, or ionic liquids, for increased electrochemical capacitor or battery electrode applications.

  18. Formation, characterization, and dynamics of onion-like carbon structures for electrical energy storage from nanodiamonds using reactive force fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Kent, P. R. C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Mochalin, V. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2011-10-01

    We simulate the experimentally observed graphitization of nanodiamonds into multi-shell onion-like carbonnanostructures, also called carbon onions, at different temperatures, using reactive force fields. The simulations include long-range Coulomb and van der Waals interactions. Our results suggest that long-range interactions play a crucial role in the phase-stability and the graphitization process. Graphitization is both enthalpically and entropically driven and can hence be controlled with temperature. The outer layers of the nanodiamond have a lower kinetic barrier toward graphitization irrespective of the size of the nanodiamond and graphitize within a few-hundred picoseconds, with a large volume increase. The inner core of the nanodiamonds displays a large size-dependent kinetic barrier, and graphitizes much more slowly with abrupt jumps in the internal energy. It eventually graphitizes by releasing pressure and expands once the outer shells have graphitized. The degree of transformation at a particular temperature is thereby determined by a delicate balance between the thermal energy, long-range interactions, and the entropic/enthalpic free energy gained by graphitization. Upon full graphitization, a multi-shell carbonnanostructure appears, with a shell-shell spacing of about ~3.4 Å for all sizes. The shells are highly defective with predominantly five- and seven-membered rings to curve space. Larger nanodiamonds with a diameter of 4 nm can graphitize into spiral structures with a large (~29-atom carbon ring) pore opening on the outermost shell. Such a large one-way channel is most attractive for a controlled insertion of molecules/ions such as Li ions, water, or ionic liquids, for increased electrochemical capacitor or battery electrode applications.

  19. Effects of levels of potassium and nitrogen on yields and post-harvest conservation of onions in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Milanez de Resende

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Potassium and nitrogen are the elements present in the highest percentage in the onion dry matter. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate yield and post-harvest conservation of Vale Ouro IPA-11 onion cultivar regarding to nitrogen and potassium levels. The experiment was carried out in Petrolina-PE, Brazil, from June to September 2009. The experimental design was a completely randomized block in a 4 x 3 factorial design, composed of four nitrogen levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 and three potassium levels (0, 90 and 180 kg ha-1 with three replications. The highest yield of commercial bulbs was achieved at an estimated N level of 172.6 kg ha-1. The lowest yield of noncommercial bulbs was estimated at N level of 147.0 kg ha-1. Lower percentage of smaller bulbs (class 2 were obtained by increasing levels of N x K, with a quadratic effect at the dose of 90 kg ha-1 K2O and minimum production point with 127.6 kg N ha-1 (20.3%. Regarding larger caliber bulbs (class 4, linear effects were found both in the absence and for the level of 90 kg ha-1 of K2O as levels of N were increased. When the highest level of 180 kg ha-1 K2O was applied, the level of 92.8 kg ha-1 of N was estimated as the one that would promote the highest bulb yield of this class (35.4%, and 5.3% was found in the lack of potassium fertilization.

  20. Quercetin and Quercetin-Rich Red Onion Extract Alter Pgc-1α Promoter Methylation and Splice Variant Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarshi, Prasad P.; Jones, Aarin D.; Taylor, Erin M.; Stefanska, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Pgc-1α and its various isoforms may play a role in determining skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations in response to diet. 8 wks of dietary supplementation with the flavonoid quercetin (Q) or red onion extract (ROE) in a high fat diet (HFD) ameliorates HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/J mice while upregulating Pgc-1α and increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and function. Here, mice were fed a low fat (LF), high fat (HF), high fat plus quercetin (HF + Q), or high fat plus red onion extract (HF + RO) diet for 9 wks and skeletal muscle Pgc-1α isoform expression and DNA methylation were determined. Quantification of various Pgc-1α isoforms, including isoforms Pgc-1α-a, Pgc-1α-b, Pgc-1α-c, Pgc-1α4, total NT-Pgc-1α, and FL-Pgc-1α, showed that only total NT-Pgc-1α expression was increased in LF, HF + Q, and HF + RO compared to HF. Furthermore, Q supplementation decreased Pgc-1α-a expression compared to LF and HF, and ROE decreased Pgc-1α-a expression compared to LF. FL-Pgc-1α was decreased in HF + Q and HF + RO compared to LF and HF. HF exhibited hypermethylation at the −260 nucleotide (nt) in the Pgc-1α promoter. Q and ROE prevented HFD-induced hypermethylation. −260 nt methylation levels were associated with NT-Pgc-1α expression only. Pgc-1α isoform expression may be epigenetically regulated by Q and ROE through DNA methylation.

  1. Evaluation of the effect of efficient microorganisms and Trichoderma harzianum application on the production of onion plantlets (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Liriano González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was done in the intensive-farming areas of the Cooperative of Credits and Services “Ramón Ruiz del Sol”, in Los Arabos, Matanzas. The objective was to evaluate the application effects of effective microorganism (EM and Trichoderma harzianum on the main growth indexes of onion seedlings (Allium cepa L. during nursery stage. Six treatments were studied ( control, organic matter at 24 kg.m-2, T. harzianum at 30 g.m-2, Effective Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at the moment of sowing and 15 and 30 days after the germination of the seeds, organic matter at 24 kg.m-2 + T. harzianum 30 g.m-2 + Efficient Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at 15 and 30 days after germination of the seeds, and T. harzianum 30 g.m-2 + Efficient Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at 15 and 30 days after the germination of the seeds. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design. 55 days after seed germination, the height of the seedlings, number of leaves per seedlings, diameter of the false stem, root length, as well as the fresh and dry weight of the radical system and the foliate area were evaluated. The results proved that the Effective Microorganisms (EM and T. harzianum application improved the production of quality onion seedlings. The treatment 5 (organic matter 24 kg.m-2 + T. harzianum 30 g.m-2 + Efficient Microorganisms at 15 mL.m-2 at 15 and 30 days after germination had better results in the evaluated variables.

  2. Study on the Microencapsulation of Onion Oil%洋葱精油微胶囊化工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 韦杰; 郑二丽; 许彩虹

    2015-01-01

    The spray-drying and microencapsulation technology is used to embed the onion oil into certain wall materials.Take encapsulation rate as the main evaluation index,the optimum processing conditions of microencapsulation of onion oil are optimized by single-factor experiment and the orthogonal experiment as follows:the ratio of core material and wall material is 1∶4 ,the ratio of arabic gum and malt dextrin is 4∶3 ,the dosage of emulsifier is 0 .4%,the solids concentration is 20%.Based on the optimized conditions,the average encapsulation rate can reach 79.69%.%以洋葱精油为研究对象,采用微胶囊技术和喷雾干燥技术对洋葱精油进行包埋,以包埋率为主要指标,通过单因素实验和正交试验对影响洋葱精油微胶囊包埋效果的主要因素进行优化,得到最佳工艺条件:芯材与壁材比例1∶4、壁材配比4∶3、乳化剂用量0.4%、总固形物含量20%,在此工艺条件下,洋葱精油微胶囊包埋效果最好,平均包埋率为79.69%。

  3. The efficacy and safety of a proprietary onion-pumpkin extract (OPtain120 on blood pressure: an open-label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orie Yoshinari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutraceuticals and functional foods are increasingly being used to help manage hypertension. Treatment with either pumpkin or onion can significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in animal studies. Traditionally, pumpkin has been used to support healthy blood pressure, glucose tolerance and lipid levels. Onion contains high levels of flavonoids, including quercetin, which decreases blood pressure and promotes restoration of healthy endothelial function. However, human trials on these food sources are limited, and the combined effects of pumpkin and onion have not been examined yet. Objective: We performed an open-label clinical study to evaluate the effects of a proprietary onion-pumpkin extract (OPtain120 on systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Methods: Healthy adults with systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP in the elevated range of 140-159 and 80-90 mmHg, respectively, were enrolled in this study. Subjects consumed one capsule of onion-pumpkin extract twice daily for 12 weeks. Daily Home Blood Pressure Measurement (HBPM was taken upon waking and before bed. Office Blood Pressure Measurement (OBPM was taken in-clinic at Week 0, 6, and 12. Results: 52 subjects were screened and 12 were enrolled in the study, with a total of 10 subjects completing the study. Systolic HBPM taken before bed demonstrated a statistically significant reduction from baseline (147.23 mmHg to Week 12 (138.14 mmHg, representing a reduction of 9.09 mmHg (6.17%, p=0.021. Diastolic HBPM taken before bed demonstrated a decrease of 4.06 mmHg (4.46%, p=0.085, a significant reduction from baseline (91.07 mmHg at Week 12 (87.02 mmHg. Non-statistically significant reductions were seen in the early morning Systolic (3.14% and Diastolic (2.57% HBPM and in the Systolic (1.36% OBPM. Conclusion: OPtain120 was safely consumed over a 12-week period. OPtain120 appears to be effective in lowering Systolic Blood Pressure at bedtime in

  4. Desafios e oportunidades para o agronegócio da cebola no Brasil The challenges and the oportunities for the onion agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirlene J. Vilela

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo descrever alguns aspectos socioeconômicos relacionados à cebola no Brasil e detectar os principais desafios e oportunidades que o produto apresenta para o agronegócio. A cultura, de caráter tipicamente "familiar" (88%, gera cerca de 250 mil empregos somente no setor de produção. O consumo é estável em 85 mil t por mês. A consolidação do Mercosul e a conseqüente importação de cebola da Argentina somada à produção nacional tem causado excesso de oferta em alguns meses, gerando perdas e conseqüentes prejuízos para os produtores. O setor produtivo brasileiro necessita elevar o nível tecnológico para alcançar maior eficiência técnica e econômica. No entanto, é necessário que as regiões produtoras do Brasil e da Argentina tenham estabilidade de produção e que a quantidade ofertada seja suficiente para atender às necessidades de abastecimento em determinados períodos do ano, sem causar desequilíbio no mercado.The main objective of this work was to describe some socieconomic aspects of the onion production in Brazil and to detect the principal challenges and opportunities for the onion agribusiness. The onion cultivation in Brazil is a family activity (88%, generating about 250 thousand jobs directly involved in the production. The onion consumption in Brazil is nearly 85 thousand t per month. With the consolidation of the MERCOSUL, the onion import from Argentina and the national production has caused excess of supply in some months, generating losses and consequent damages for the producers. The Brazilian productive sector needs to improve the technological level of the onion production to reach greater technical and economic efficiency. However, it is necessary that Brazilian and Argentinian producers look for a better production forecast to avoid excess of supply during some periods of the year.

  5. Intoxicação experimental por cebola, Allium cepa (Liliaceae, em gatos Experimental onion Allium cepa (Liliaceae poisoning in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Fighera

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A intoxicação por cebola é relatada em várias espécies animais em muitas partes do mundo. O princípio tóxico (n-propil dissulfito presente na cebola causa a transformação da hemoglobina em metemoglobina. Para estudar os achados laboratoriais, de necropsia e histopatológicos da intoxicação por cebola em gatos, cinco gatos de quatro meses de idade receberam cada um uma dose única de 10g/kg de cebola desidratada por via oral. Um outro gato de mesma idade não recebeu a refeição com cebola e serviu como controle. Todos os cinco gatos desenvolveram sinais clínicos da toxicose; um deles morreu dentro de 24 horas após a ingestão da cebola. Os sinais clínicos incluíram apatia, taquicardia, taquipnéia e cianose. Os achados laboratoriais se caracterizavam por anemia hemolítica associada a corpúsculos de Heinz e metemoglobinemia. Os principais achados de necropsia foram esplenomegalia e sangue de cor marrom. Os achados histopatológicos foram hemossiderose e hematopoese extramedular no baço e fígado.Onion poisoning is reported worlwide in several animal species. The toxic principle (n-propyl dissulfide present in onions causes the transformation of hemoglobin in methemoglobin. In order to study the laboratory, gross and histopathological findings in onion poisoning in cats, five 4-month-old cats were fed a single dose of 10g/kg of dried-onion each. Another cat of the same age did not receive the onion meal and served as control. All five cats developed clinical signs of the toxicosis; one of them died within 24 hours of the ingestion of the onion meal. Clinical signs included apathy, tachycardia, tachypnea, and cyanosis. Laboratory findings included hemolytic anemia associated with Heinz bodies and methemoglobinemia. Main necropsy findings were splenomegaly and brown discoloration of blood. Histopathological findings included splenic and hepatic hemosiderosis and multifocal extramedullary hematopoiesis.

  6. Biocontrol of Botrytis allii Munn the Causal Agent of Neck Rot, the Post Harvest Disease in Onion, by use of a New Iranian Isolate of Streptomyces

    OpenAIRE

    Jorjandi, M.; G. H.S. Bonjar; A. Baghizadeh; G. R. S. Sirchi; H. Massumi; F. Baniasadi; S. Aghighi; P. R. Farokhi

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Soil actinomycetes particularly Streptomyces spp. showed antagonistic activity against wide range of plant pathogens. In the recent decades they have attracted high interests as biocontrol agents. Onion neck rot or gray mold caused by Botrytis allii have imposed economic post harvest damages to onion bulbs and decreased its storage durability and market value. Approach: To investigate for biocontrol means against the pathogen, antagonisti...

  7. Research Progress of Extraction Techniques of Essential Oils from Onion%洋葱精油提取技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石鑫光; 廖传华; 陈海军; 朱跃钊

    2014-01-01

    The principles of water extraction,solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction techniques are expounded;the application of various methods for onion essential oils extraction is introduced.Aiming at the existing problems of various extraction methods,the relevant intensified extraction techniques are put forward to achieve the efficient extraction of onion essential oils.%阐述了水提法、溶剂提取法、超临界流体萃取技术的原理,介绍了各种方法在洋葱精油提取中的应用。针对各提取方法存在的问题,提出了相关的强化提取技术,为实现洋葱精油的高效提取提供指导。

  8. Produtividade de cebola influenciada pela aplicação de micronutrientes Onion yield influenced by micronutrient application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Kurtz

    2010-02-01

    ção da exigência da cultura.The excessive use of fertilizers and liming as well as monoculture is rather common in the onion-producing region of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Such practices have resulted in visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiency, mainly of micronutrients. This study aimed to measure the effect of B, Zn and Mn fertilizers on yield and quality of onion bulbs. Three individual trials, one for each nutrient, were carried out in the field, in Ituporanga, southern Brazil, from 2006 until 2009. In each experiment, treatments consisted of increasing rates of each micronutrient applied to the soil before planting and also of a single rate sprayed onto the leaves six times per season. Rates applied to the soil varied from 0 to 4 kg ha-1 for Zn, from 0 to 4.4 kg ha-1 for B, and from 0 to 15.6 kg ha-1 for Mn. The spray solutions contained zinc sulfate, boric acid and manganese sulfate, at concentrations of 0.5, 0.25 and 1.0 %, respectively. The application of Mn or B, regardless of the form, and Zn sprays, had no effect on onion yield in any growing season. The application of Zn to the soil increased onion yield in all three years, by 10-14.5 %. Maximum yield was obtained with Zn rates of 2.7 kg ha-1 in 2006/2007 (22.3 t ha-1, up to an estimated quantity of 4.5 kg ha-1 in 2008/2009 (35.6 t ha-1. The bulb quality was not affected by micronutrient application (Mn, B, or Zn, regardless of the form. It is therefore important to apply Zn to the soil for onion production in the State of Santa Catarina, even where Zn concentration exceeds the critical level established for the region, which is probably due to the requirement of this crop.

  9. Binding of 1-nitro-9- (3-dimethylaminopropylamino-acridine to the DNA of the apical meristem cells of adventitious onion (Allium cepa L. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Antosiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It was established that one half of the ledakrin (I-nitro-9-(3-dimethylaminopropylamino-acridine bound to the DNA in the cells of the studied onion root tips (Allium cepa L., forms labile complexes with it, the remaining half is covalently attached to only one strand of the DNA. One molecule of covalently bound ledakrin falls on average to 104-2X104 pairs of bases.

  10. Biocontrol of Botrytis allii Munn the Causal Agent of Neck Rot, the Post Harvest Disease in Onion, by use of a New Iranian Isolate of Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jorjandi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Soil actinomycetes particularly Streptomyces spp. showed antagonistic activity against wide range of plant pathogens. In the recent decades they have attracted high interests as biocontrol agents. Onion neck rot or gray mold caused by Botrytis allii have imposed economic post harvest damages to onion bulbs and decreased its storage durability and market value. Approach: To investigate for biocontrol means against the pathogen, antagonistic activity of 50 isolates of soil Actinomycetes were assayed through agar disk method and dual culture bioassays. Active isolates were exposed to chloroform for detection of antibiotic. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC value and solubility of active crude extract in organic solvents were determined for Streptomyces isolate No. 347 which showed a unique and stable property of inhibiting Botrytis allii. To investigate the antagonistic effect of Streptomyces isolate No. 347 on control of onion gray mold, 4 different treatments were tested by means of Tukey HSD test. Results: From the tested isolates, 13 showed anti gray mold activities. Exposure of active isolates to chloroform revealed that Streptomyces isolates No. 347, 263 and 350 retained their antifungal activities. The active metabolite(s of Streptomyces isolate No. 347 was polar, soluble in H2O but insoluble in chloroform and methanol. MIC of the crude was determined as 0.05 mg mL-1 against B. allii. Stability of the active crude in distilled water at room temperature (12-30°C was about 6 months. Statistical studies indicated that Streptomyces isolates No. 347 can decrease losses of neck rot with significant level (pConclusion: The future goals include investigation of the antifungal genes in active isolates as candidates for genetic engineering of onion for increased tolerance against B. allii.

  11. Erwinia chrysanthemi Burkholder, McFadden and Dimock and other Phytobacteria Causal Agents of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulb Decay, and their Detection

    OpenAIRE

    María de Jesús Yáñez; Leopold Fucikovsky; James W. Lorbeer; Armando González; Sergio Aranda

    2003-01-01

    For the first time, a severe soft rot of onion bulbs in commercial fields was detected in southern Tamaulipas and eastern San Luis Potosi States, Mexico, in 1989. To identify the causal agent, 50 rotten bulbs were analyzed. Commercial seed lots, soil, and irrigation water were also investigated as a potential sources of inoculum. Pathogenic bacteria isolated from bulbs were identified by the biolog microplate system (BMS), Ouchterlony double diffusion serology, physiological tests, and only b...

  12. Nutritional Value and Development Prospects of Chinese Onion of Zhangqiu%章丘大葱的营养价值及开发前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文亮; 程安玮; 刘丽娜; 徐同成; 陶海腾; 杜方岭

    2011-01-01

    This paper analysed the nutritional composition about Chinese Onion of Zhangqiu,evaluated its nutritinal value and health protection,and illustrated its expansive development prospects.%对章丘大葱的营养价值及其保健作用作出了评价,阐明了章丘大葱在食品开发方面的广阔前景。

  13. Bio-fortification and isotopic labelling of Se metabolites in onions and carrots following foliar application of Se and 77Se

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kápolna, Emese; Laursen, Kristian H.; Husted, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    that foliar application of Se(IV) gave rise to bio-synthesis of a higher fraction of the desired organic Se species and was better tolerated by the plants than Se(VI). Based on these findings onions and carrots were bio-fortified by foliar application of a solution of 77Se(IV) that was enriched to 99.7% as 77...

  14. Enhancing effect of lipids and emulsifiers on the accumulation of quercetin metabolites in blood plasma after the short-term ingestion of onion by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Keiko; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Ito, Hidekazu; Horie, Hideki; Terao, Junji

    2003-12-01

    The effects of co-ingested lipids and emulsifiers on the accumulation of quercetin metabolites in blood plasma after the short-term ingestion of onion by rats were investigated. Plasma extracts of rats that had been fed onion-containing diets for one and two weeks were analyzed by HPLC with electrochemical detection after a treatment with sulfatase/beta-glucuronidase. Almost all of the quercetin metabolites in the plasma were sulfate/glucuronide conjugates of quercetin and isorhamnetin. More than 4.6% (w/w) of soybean oil in the diets significantly enhanced the accumulation of quercetin metabolites in the plasma. Fish oil and beef tallow increased this to an extent similar to that with soybean oil, and lecithin was more effective than the other three lipids. Two emulsifiers, sodium caseinate and sucrose fatty acid ester, also showed an enhancing effect on the accumulation of quercetin metabolites. These results indicate that co-ingested lipids and emulsifiers could enhance the bioavailability of quercetin glucosides in onion.

  15. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of quercetin-rich onion on cognitive function in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Nishimura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quercetin, a phenolic compound, exhibits various functional effectsthat includeanti-oxidant, anti-dyslipidemic, and anti-dysglycemic activities, in addition tobeneficial effects on cognitive function. We evaluated the effects of a powder made from quercetin-rich onions (‘Quergold’ and ‘Sarasara-gold’ on cognitive function.Methods:In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we randomized 50 adults (25 males and 25 females, aged 65–84 years and made them consume products made from quercetin-rich (active test food group or quercetin-free(placebo food group onions. Cognitive function,hematological, and biological examinations were performed at the beginning (week 0 of the study and at weeks 12 and 24 after the start of the study. Results:There were no differences in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and cognitive impairment rating scale scores between the two groups. However, in younger subjects, the MMSE scores were significantly higher in the active test food group than in the placebo food group at week 24 (p = 0.019. Conclusion: These results suggest that the ingestion of quercetin-rich onions improves cognitive function and reduce cognitive declinein elderly people.

  16. Rizobactérias no crescimento e na produtividade da cebola Rhizobacteria on the production and yield of onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Emilio Ludtke Harthmann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A associação de plantas com rizobactérias pode promover o crescimento vegetal, reduzindo custos de produção. As rizobactérias benéficas podem ser uma alternativa para a produção de cebola. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da aplicação de rizobactérias no crescimento e na produtividade da cebola da cultivar 'Bola Precoce'. A aplicação foi realizada na Estação Experimental da Epagri, em Ituporanga, Santa Catarina (SC, no ano de 2008. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, sendo utilizadas as rizobactérias Pseudomonas spp. W6, Bacillus megaterium W19 e Bacillus cereus UFV40, microbiolizadas isoladamente nas sementes ou em mistura, juntamente com uma testemunha não tratada. Os tratamentos com aplicação de rizobactérias proporcionaram maior altura, diâmetro de pseudocaule e número de folhas nas plantas avaliadas aos 90 dias após o transplante. Plantas que receberam os tratamentos com rizobactérias apresentaram maior rendimento de bulbos em relação à testemunha. A massa dos bulbos foi afetada positivamente pelos tratamentos, com destaque para Bacillus megaterium W19.The association of plants with rhizobacteria can enhance plant growth, reducing production costs. Benefic rhizobacteria can stimulate plant growth being an alternative for production of onions. This research assesses the impact of applying rhizobacteria in the growth and productivity of cv. Bola Precoce onions. The study was conducted in the Experimental Station of Epagri, Ituporanga, SC, Brazil in 2008. The experimental design was in random blocks with five repetitions using Pseudomonas spp. W6, B Bacillus megaterium W19 e Bacillus cereus UFV40 rhizobacteria, microbiolized singly in seeds or in a formula together with non-treated control. The treatments involving rhizobacteria application yielded higher heights, diameter of pseudo-trunk and number of leaves in the plants assessed at 90 days after transplant. All the

  17. Relations between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Guvenc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine relations occurring between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. seeds. In this study, seeds of six lots ('Kalem', 'Ala', 'Ínegöl-A, B, C and D' from three cultivars of leek and seven onion cultivars ('Early Texas Grano' (ETG, 'Panku', 'Storm', 'Banko', 'Aki', 'Kisagün' and 'Banka' seeds were used as plant material and their viability was evaluated in boiling water test (BWT, standard germination test (SGT and field emergence (FE. The percentage of field emergence was evaluated at three sowing times: 20 May (FE-I, 10 June (FE-II and 20 July (FE-III. The mean germination of leek seeds varied from 77.5% to 100.0% and from 36.0% to 61.0% in SGT and BWT, respectively. While the range of results obtained in the boiling water test was from 38.5% to 60.0%, the range of results of the standard germination test was from 81.0% to 100.0% in onion seeds. The range of field emergence was between 18.5% ('Kisagün', FE-III and 72.0% (İnegöl-C', FE-II. Besides, the boiling water test was correlated highly significantly with SGT (r = 0.670**, FE-I (r = 0.923**, FE-II (r = 0.906** and FE-III (r = 0.939** in leek seeds. Similarly, BWT showed positive correlation with SGT (r = 0.568**, FE-I (r = 0.844**, FE-II (r = 0.933** and FE-III (r = 0.858** in onion seeds. In conclusion, the boiling water test is a new and reliable technique to test seed viability and it has a great potential to test rapidly germination and field emergence of leek and onion seeds at different sowing times.

  18. Effects of Onion (Allium cepa L. Extract Administration on Intestinal α-Glucosidases Activities and Spikes in Postprandial Blood Glucose Levels in SD Rats Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ho Kim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diets high in calories and sweetened foods with disaccharides frequently lead to exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose. This state induces immediate oxidant stress and free radicals which trigger oxidative stress-linked diabetic complications. One of the therapeutic approaches for decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia is to retard absorption of glucose by the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes,α-amylase and α-glucosidases, in the digestive organs. Therefore, the inhibitory activity of Korean onion (Allium cepa L. extract against rat intestinal α-glucosidases, such as sucrase, maltase, and porcine pancreatic α-amylase were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The content of quercetin in ethyl alcohol extract of onion skin (EOS was 6.04 g/100 g dried weight of onion skin. The in vitro half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 of EOS and quercetin, a major phenolic in onion, on rat intestinal sucrase were 0.40 and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. The postprandial blood glucose lowering effects of EOS and quercetin were compared to a known type 2 diabetes drug (Acarbose, a strong α-glucosidase inhibitor in the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat model. In rats fed on sucrose, EOS significantly reduced the blood glucose spike after sucrose loading. The area under the blood glucose-time curve (AUClast in EOS-treated SD rats (0.5 g-EOS/kg was significantly lower than in untreated SD rats (259.6 ± 5.1 vs. 283.1 ± 19.2 h·mg/dL. The AUClast in quercetin-treated SD rats (0.5 g-quercetin/kg was similar to in EOS-treated group (256.1 ± 3.2 vs. 259.6 ± 5.1 h·mg/dL. Results from this study indicates that although quercetin does have blood glucose lowering potential via α-glucosidase inhibition, there are other bioactive compounds present in onion skin. Furthermore, the effects of two weeks administration of EOS in a high carbohydrate-dietary mixture (Pico 5053 on sucrase and maltase activities in intestine were evaluated in SD rat model

  19. Efeito de preparados caseiros no controle da queima-acinzentada, na cultura da cebola Alternative formulations for control of Botrytis squamosa on onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Boff

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultores do Alto Vale do Itajaí (SC, vem utilizando preparados caseiros no tratamento fitossanitário da cebola, cuja principal doença, durante a fase de muda, é a queima-acinzentada, causada pelo fungo Botrytis squamosa. Neste trabalho, realizado nos anos de 1993, 94 e 95, no período de muda da cebola, durante a fase de canteiro, avaliou-se o efeito de extratos alcóolicos de Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha glacilis, alho e própolis; cinza vegetal e cal; soluções de B+Zn, KMnO4, NaClO, Sílica-gasil, creolina, formalina; calda sulfocálcica, calda bordalesa, cânfora, enxofre, enxofre+silicato+propólis e o fungo antagonista, Gliocladium roseum, sobre o desenvolvimento da queima-acinzentada. A aplicação dos produtos foi semanal e as concentrações foram ajustadas em ensaio preliminar. O estudo de eficiência mostrou que Gliocladium roseum (108 esporos/ml igualou-se ao fungicida vinclozolin (0,075%, no controle da queima-acinzentada em 1994/95. No ciclo de 1995/96, maior sobrevivência de plantas e/ou maior número de plantas aptas ao transplante foram obtidos nos tratamentos com cinza vegetal, calda bordalesa (0,5% e a mistura de enxofre + silicato + extrato de própolis, comparados com o tratamento padrão, com fungicida. As soluções de KMnO4, NaClO, cânfora, enxofre e sílica-gasil não mostraram diferença com a testemunha não tratada. A adubação orgânica de base, em 1995, proporcionou mudas com menor intensidade de B. squamosa e maior índice de sobrevivência das mesmas do que adubação mineral, independentemente da formulação.Santa Catarina State farmers in the "Alto Vale do Itajaí" region are using several home-made products to control onion pests, where leaf blight of onion (Botrytis squamosa is the main nursery disease. This research was carried out during the nursery period in 1993, 94 and 95, in order to evaluate traditional formulations against leaf blight of onion. The formulations studied were alcoholic

  20. Study on Brewing Technique of Onion Vinegar%洋葱醋的酿造工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建华

    2014-01-01

    This experiment takes the onion juice as the main raw material,using the grape wine yeast 1450 and acetic acid bacteria As1.41 to carry out the liquid-state alcohol fermentation and the acetic fermentation.The result shows that the optimum condition of alcohol fermentation is the initial sugar concentration of 1 1%,the fermentation temperature of 26 ℃,the yeast vaccination quantity of 5%;the optimum condition of acetic acid fermentation is the initial alcoholicity of 6% (V/V ), the fermentation temperature of 30 ℃,the acetic acid bacteria vaccination quantity of 10%.%以洋葱汁为主要原料,分别采用葡萄酒酵母1450和醋酸菌 As1.41进行液态酒精发酵和醋酸发酵。试验结果表明:酒精发酵的最佳条件为起始糖浓度11%,发酵温度26℃,酵母接种量5%;醋酸发酵起始酒精度6%(V/V),发酵温度30℃,醋酸菌培养液接种量10%。

  1. Inherently-Forced Tensile Strain in Nanodiamond-Derived Onion-like Carbon: Consequences in Defect-Induced Electrochemical Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young-Jin; Cho, Jung-Min; Kim, Inho; Jeong, Doo Seok; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Park, Jong-Keuk; Baik, Young-Joon; Choi, Heon-Jin; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Wook-Seong

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed the nanodiamond-derived onion-like carbon (OLC) as function of synthesis temperature (1000~1400 °C), by high-resolution electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, visible-Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. The temperature dependences of the obtained properties (averaged particle size, tensile strain, defect density, density of states, electron transfer kinetics, and electrochemical oxidation current) unanimously coincided: they initially increased and saturated at 1200 °C. It was attributed to the inherent tensile strains arising from (1) the volume expansion associated with the layer-wise diamond-to-graphite transformation of the core, which caused forced dilation of the outer shells during their thermal synthesis; (2) the extreme curvature of the shells. The former origin was dominant over the latter at the outermost shell, of which the relevant evolution in defect density, DOS and electron transfer kinetics determined the electrochemical performances. In detection of dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) using the OLC as electrode, their oxidation peak currents were enhanced by factors of 15~60 with annealing temperature. Their limit of detection and the linear range of detection, in the post-treatment-free condition, were as excellent as those of the nano-carbon electrodes post-treated by Pt-decoration, N-doping, plasma, or polymer.

  2. Influence of 1-p-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine on mitotic activity of apical meristem of onion (Allium cepa L. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kuraś

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of increasing cytosine arabinoside (ara-C concentration (50, 100, 300 and 500 μg/ml on the mitotic activity of the apical meristem of onion adventitious roots was investigated during 24-h incubation in ara-C and postincubation in water. Incubation in ara-C inhibits reversibly mitosis, the degree of inhibition being dependent on the concentration used. 50 μg/ml ara-C causes only a slight and transitional mitotic depression, while 100—500 μg/ml reduces the per cent of mitoses in various degrees after 12-h incubation whereas after 24 h all concentrations (100—500 reduce mitosis to the same level of about 2 per cent (80% inhibition. During postincubation in water there occurs after treatment with 100—500 μg/ml ara-C, a wave of highly synchronized mitoses with a peak after 12 h. The highest frequency of synchronized mitoses (60°/o appeared in roots treated with 300 μg/ml ara-C. The main wave is preceded by a small one with a peak after 2-4 h of postincubation. This seems to be the consequence of phases S and G2 inhibition by ara-C. It was found that under the influence of ara-C the per cent of mitoses with chromosome aberration and of cells with micronuclei increased only slightly.

  3. Price Transmission Process in Vertical Markets: an Empirical Analysis of Onion Markets in Tamil Nadu State (India

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    Srinivasulu Rajendran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to examine price transmission process between wholesale and retail markets by adopting Asymmetric Price Transmission (APT Model.  The paper has taken a case of Onion ((Allium cepa L. wholesale and retail markets in Tamil Nadu state, India.   The paper used wholesale and retail prices data from secondary sources.  The results show that high margin at retail and wholesale levels of prices points to possibility of distortion in prices which may lead to an asymmetric process in the vertical market. The speed and magnitude of price changes and also the type of asymmetry in the vertical market system has identified the presence of both positive and negative asymmetry. With respect to speed, where the markets have shown negative asymmetry, there is evidence of retail prices responding much faster to decrease in wholesale prices than to increases in wholesale prices. Where a positive asymmetry holds, the result is the opposite. Keywords: Vegetables, Asymmetry, Efficiency, Market Integration and Symmetry 

  4. Combined effect of organic manure and potassium on growth and yield of onion cv. BARI piaz-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Barman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to find out the combined effect of cowdung and potassium on the growth and yield of onion cv. BARI piaz-I at Horticulture Farm, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period from December 2010 to March 2011. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The two factors experiment had four levels of cowdung, viz., 0, 5, 10 and 20 tons ha-1 and four levels of potassium, viz. 0, 50, 150 and 250 kg K ha-1. Doses of cowdung and potassium showed significant variation in respect of all the parameters studied. The combination of 10 tons cowdung and 250 kg K ha-1 gave the tallest plant (46.60 cm, the highest number of leaves plant-1 (6.40, the highest length of bulb (3.27 cm, the highest diameter of bulb (4.83 cm, individual weight of bulb (51.23 g, dry matter content (12.66% and yield of bulb ha-1 (12.83 tons; whereas the control treatment gave the shortest plant (38.15 cm, lowest number of leaves plant-1 (5.68, diameter of bulb (3.41, individual weight of bulb (35.65g and gave lowest bulb yield ha-1 (9.16 tons.

  5. The diversity and abundance of small arthropods in onion, Allium cepa, seed crops, and their potential role in pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M K; Howlett, B G; Wallace, A R; McCallum, J A; Teulon, D A J

    2011-01-01

    Onion, Allium cepa L. (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae), crop fields grown for seed production require arthropod pollination for adequate seed yield. Although many arthropod species visit A. cepa flowers, for most there is little information on their role as pollinators. Small flower visiting arthropods (body width cepa seed fields in the North and South Islands of New Zealand using window traps revealed that small arthropods were highly abundant among all except one field. Insects belonging to the orders Diptera and Thysanoptera were the most abundant and Hymenoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera were also present. To test whether small arthropods might contribute to pollination, seed sets from umbels caged within 3 mm diameter mesh cages were compared with similarly caged, hand-pollinated umbels and uncaged umbels. Caged umbels that were not hand-pollinated set significantly fewer seeds (average eight seeds/umbel, n = 10) than caged hand-pollinated umbels (average 146 seeds/umbel) and uncaged umbels (average 481 seeds/umbel). Moreover, sticky traps placed on umbels within cages captured similar numbers of small arthropods as sticky traps placed on uncaged umbels, suggesting cages did not inhibit the movement of small arthropods to umbels. Therefore, despite the high abundance of small arthropods within fields, evidence to support their role as significant pollinators of commercial A. cepa seed crops was not found.

  6. Synthesis of SrCrO4 nanostructures by onion inner-coat template and their optical properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ping Chen; Qing-Sheng Wu; Ya-Ping Ding; Pin-Shi Yuan

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes a bio-template method of the squama inner coat of onion for preparing the SrCrO4 nanostructures including nanospheres, nanorods and dumbbell-shaped superstructure. The method is able to make SrCrO4 nanoparticles with average diameters in the range of 90–170 nm, SrCrO4 nanorods with length in the range 0.70–2 m, width in the range of 80–180 nm, and SrCrO4 dumbbell-shaped superstructure with length in the range 10–14 m. The dumbbell-shaped superstructures are assembled by many SrCrO4 nanowires with length in the range 10–14 m and width in the range 30–50 nm. The products were characterized by transmission electron microscope, powder X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy and luminescence spectrophotometer. A possible formation mechanism was also proposed. In the preparation, the SrCrO4 nanostructures were synthesized at room temperature without any surfactants. This new bio-template method will have potential applications in preparation of the nanoscale materials with different morphologies.

  7. Evaluation Of Onion Production On Sandy Soils By Use Of Reduced Tillage And Controlled Traffic Farming With Wide Span Tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Hans Henrik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing of vegetables is often characterised by intensive field traffic and use of heavy machines. By implementing controlled traffic farming (CTF, compaction of the growth zone can be avoided. An experiment was established in an onion field on a coarse sandy loam. Treatments were applied in the field that for five years had been managed by seasonal CTF (SCTF, where harvest is performed by random traffic due to lack of suitable harvest machines. The main treatment was compaction with a fully loaded potato harvester. The split treatment in the crossed split plot design was mechanical loosening. Bulk density, macroporosity, penetration resistance, water retention characteristics and yield were measured. Mechanical loosening caused improvements in the physical soil measurements and more roots were found in the upper soil layers. The highest yield was however found in the CTF simulation plots (19% higher than in the SCTF simulated plots. Using wide span tractors as a harvest platform will enable CTF in vegetable production. Avoidance of compaction will enable reduced tillage intensity and productivity can be improved both through higher yield of the area that is cropped and by a larger percentage of fields can be cropped area as less area will be needed for tracks.

  8. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Elberry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red onion scales (ROS contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4′-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

  9. Insects' RNA Profiling Reveals Absence of "Hidden Break" in 28S Ribosomal RNA Molecule of Onion Thrips, Thrips tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, Rosaline Wanjiru; Ombura, Fidelis Levi; Aroko, Erick Onyango

    2015-01-01

    With an exception of aphids, insects' 28S rRNA is thought to harbor a "hidden break" which cleaves under denaturing conditions to comigrate with 18S rRNA band to exhibit a degraded appearance on native agarose gels. The degraded appearance confounds determination of RNA integrity in laboratories that rely on gel electrophoresis. To provide guidelines for RNA profiles, RNA from five major insect orders, namely, Diptera, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, was compared under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. This study confirmed that although present in most of insect's RNA, the "hidden break" is absent in the 28S rRNA of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci. On the other hand, presence of "hidden break" was depicted in whiteflies' 28S rRNA despite their evolutionary grouping under same order with aphids. Divergence of 28S rRNA sequences confirms variation of both size and composition of gap region among insect species. However, phylogeny reconstruction does not support speciation as a possible source of the hidden break in insect's 28S rRNA. In conclusion, we show that RNA from a given insect order does not conform to a particular banding profile and therefore this approach cannot be reliably used to characterize newly discovered species.

  10. Completion of the mitochondrial genome sequence of onion (Allium cepa L.) containing the CMS-S male-sterile cytoplasm and identification of an independent event of the ccmF N gene split.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongju; Kim, Kyunghee; Yang, Tae-Jin; Kim, Sunggil

    2016-11-01

    Cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS) conferred by the CMS-S cytoplasm has been most commonly used for onion (Allium cepa L.) F1 hybrid seed production. We first report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence containing CMS-S cytoplasm in this study. Initially, seven contigs were de novo assembled from 150-bp paired-end raw reads produced from the total genomic DNA using the Illumina NextSeq500 platform. These contigs were connected into a single circular genome consisting of 316,363 bp (GenBank accession: KU318712) by PCR amplification. Although all 24 core protein-coding genes were present, no ribosomal protein-coding genes, except rps12, were identified in the onion mitochondrial genome. Unusual trans-splicing of the cox2 gene was verified, and the cox1 gene was identified as part of the chimeric orf725 gene, which is a candidate gene responsible for inducing CMS. In addition to orf725, two small chimeric genes were identified, but no transcripts were detected for these two open reading frames. Thirteen chloroplast-derived sequences, with sizes of 126-13,986 bp, were identified in the intergenic regions. Almost 10 % of the onion mitochondrial genome was composed of repeat sequences. The vast majority of repeats were short repeats of Allium species. The complete onion mitochondrial genome sequence reported in this study would be fundamental information for elucidation of onion CMS evolution.

  11. Características qualitativas de genótipos de cebola Qualitative characteristics of onion genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson Costa Grangeiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o trabalho, avaliar alguns atributos de qualidade de diferentes genótipos de cebola (Allium cepa L., cultivados em Mossoró-RN. O experimento foi realizado na horta experimental no Departamento de Ciências Vegetais da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, em delineamento de blocos casualizados completos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos genótipos de cebola CNPH 6415, CNPH 6047, CNPH 6244, CNPH 6400 Chata, CNPH 6400 Redonda, CPACT 1, CPACT 2, CPACT 3, Granex 429, Belém IPA 9, BRS Cascata, Crioula Alto Vale, Bola Precoce, Primavera, Régia, Valeouro IPA-11, Brisa e Alfa São Francisco. As características avaliadas foram teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável, teor de vitamina C e teor de ácido pirúvico (pungência. Foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os genótipos para todas as características avaliadas. Os genótipos apresentaram uma variação significativa para todas as características avaliadas, confirmando dessa forma que o fator genético é determinante na caracterização de cada material. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais variou de 6,67 a 11,63 (º Brix, vitamina C de 22,7 a 46,81 (mg ácido ascórbico/100 ml de suco e a acidez total titulável de 0,19 a 0,45 (% de ácido pirúvico. Os genótipos apresentaram pungência intermediária com variação de 5,0 a 12,73 (µmol/g, sendo os menos pungentes Granex 429, CNPH 6047, Régia, Primavera e Belém IPA 9.The aim of this work was to evaluate some attributes of quality of different genotypes of onion (Allium cepa L., cultivated in Mossoró-RN. The experiment was carried out in the vegetable garden of Plant Science Department at Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido. The experimental outline was of randomized complete blocks with four replications. The treatments were constituted by the genotypes of onion CNPH 6415, CNPH 6047, CNPH 6244, CNPH 6400 Chata, CNPH 6400 Redonda, CPACT 1, CPACT 2

  12. Studies on the endoplasmic reticulum. IV. Its form and distribution during mitosis in cells of onion root tip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PORTER, K R; MACHADO, R D

    1960-02-01

    Cells of onion and garlic root tips were examined under the electron and phase contrast microscopes after fixation in KMnO(4). Special attention was focused on the distribution and behavior of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during the several phases of mitosis. Slender profiles, recognized as sections through thin lamellar units of the ER (most prominent in KMnO(4)-fixed material), are distributed more or less uniformly in the cytoplasm of interphase cells and show occasional continuity with the nuclear envelope. In late prophase the nuclear envelope breaks down and its remnants plus cytoplasmic elements of the ER, which are morphologically identical, surround the spindle in a zone from which mitochondria, etc., are excluded. During metaphase these ER elements persist and concentrate as two separate systems in the polar caps or zones of the spindle. At about this same time they begin to proliferate and to invade the ends of the spindle. The invading lamellar units form drape-like partitions between the anaphase chromosomes. In late anaphase, their advancing margins reach the middle zone of the spindle and begin to fray out. Finally, in telophase, while elements of the ER in the poles of the spindle coalesce around the chromosomes to form the new envelope, the advancing edges of those in the middle zone reticulate at the level of the equator to form a close lattice of tubular elements. Within this, which is identified as the phragmoplast, the earliest signs of the cell plate appear in the form of small vesicles. These subsequently grow and fuse to complete the separation of the two protoplasts. Other morphological units apparently participating in mitosis are described. Speculation is provided on the equal division or not of the nuclear envelope and the contribution the envelope fragments make to the ER of the new cell.

  13. Peeling the onion: an heuristic overview of hit-to-kill missile defense in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCroix, Len; Kurzius, Shelby

    2005-03-01

    Researchers engaged in the development of infrared detector technologies may well benefit from a broader understanding of their products from the perspective of the end-user. An appreciation of how this technology is to be used by system designers, many of whom possess only a rudimentary understanding of quantum physics, is highly germane. Answers to questions like: "What device technology will be employed," "How will the device be used?" and "What are the impacts on signal-to-noise?" are of critical importance. In this paper, some of the fundamentals of hit-to-kill missile defense technology are examined in a largely non-mathematical context. From its "Star Wars" inception during the Reagan administration, to today"s Missile Defense Agency, the core requirement of missile defense has not changed - find the threat and destroy it before it reaches its destination. This fundamental requirement, while conceptually straightforward, is extraordinarily difficult to satisfy, and is almost exclusively dependent on our ability to detect and designate a relatively small, very fast-moving, room-temperature object, at great distances, and usually in a severe environment of shock and vibration further clouded by error and uncertainty. With an obvious bias toward passive IR detection and associated focal plane array characteristics, the flight of a fictitious interceptor is followed from launch to impact. At various points along the interceptor"s trajectory, a "peel the onion" approach is utilized to expose increasingly detailed layers of behavior, including the eventual release of the kinetic kill vehicle, and its autonomous flight to a body-to-body impact with its target. Various sources of error and their impact on the success of the mission are examined, and an overall understanding of the key features of the infrared seeker and its critical role in missile defense are ultimately developed.

  14. Doubled haploid production from Spanish onion (Allium cepa L. germplasm: embryogenesis induction, plant regeneration and chromosome doubling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreto eFayos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of doubled haploids in onion breeding is limited due to the low gynogenesis efficiency of this species. Gynogenesis capacity from Spanish germplasm, including the sweet cultivar Fuentes de Ebro, the highly pungent landrace BGHZ1354 and the two Valenciana type commercial varieties Recas and Rita, was evaluated and optimized in this study. The OH-1 population, characterized by a high gynogenesis induction, was used as control. Growing conditions of the donor plants were tested with a one-step protocol and field plants produced a slightly higher percentage of embryogenesis induction than growth chamber plants. A one-step protocol was compared with a two-step protocol for embryogenesis induction. Spanish germplasm produced a 2 to 3 times higher percentage of embryogenesis with the two-step protocol, Recas showing the highest percentage (2.09% and Fuentes de Ebro the lowest (0.53%. These percentages were significantly lower than those from the OH-1 population, with an average of 15% independently of the protocol used. The effect of different containers on plant regeneration was tested using both protocols. The highest percentage of acclimated plants was obtained with the two-step protocol in combination with Eco2box (70%, whereas the lowest percentage was observed with glass tubes in the two protocols (20-23%. Different amiprofos-methyl (APM treatments were applied to embryos for chromosome doubling. A similar number of doubled haploid plants were recovered with 25 or 50 µM APM in liquid medium. However, the application of 25 µM in solid medium for 24 h produced the highest number of doubled haploid plants. Somatic regeneration from flower buds of haploid and mixoploid plants proved to be a successful approach for chromosome doubling, since diploid plants were obtained from the 4 regenerated lines. In this study, doubled haploid plants were produced from the four Spanish cultivars, however further improvements are needed to increase their

  15. A facile method for high yield synthesis of carbon nano onions for designing binder-free flexible supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Debananda; Badrayyana, Subramanya; Parida, Smrutiranjan

    2017-05-01

    Carbon nano onion (CNO) is a promising material for diverse application areas such as energy devices, catalysis, lubrication, biology and gas storage, etc. However, its implementation is fraught with the production of high-quality powders in bulk quantity. Herein, we report a facile scalable and one-step "wick-and-oil" flame synthesis of pure and water dispersible CNO nanopowder. Other forms of carbon did not contaminate the as-prepared CNO; hence, a post processing purification procedure was not necessary. Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) specific surface area of as-prepared CNO was 218 m2/g, which is higher as compared to other reported flame synthesis methods. Locally available daily used cotton wipe has been used for fabrication of such an ideal electrode by "dipping and drying" process providing outstanding strechability and mechanical flexibility with strong adhesion between CNOs and porous wipe. The specific capacitance 102.16 F/g, energy density 14.18 Wh/kg and power density 2448 W/kg at 20 mV/s scan rate are the highest values that ever recorded and reported so far in symmetrical two electrode cell configuration with 1M Na2SO4 electrolyte; indicating a very good synthesis conditions employed with optimum pore size in agreement with electrolyte ion size. This free standing CNOs electrode also showed an excellent cyclic performance and stability retaining 95% original capacity after 5000 charge -discharge cycles. Simple preparation of high-purity CNOs and excellent electrochemical behavior of functionalized CNOs make them a promising electrode material for supercapacitor applications. Furthermore, this unique method not only affords binder free - freestanding electrode, but also provide a general way of fabricating such multifunctional promising CNOs based nanocomposites for their potential device applications in flexible solar cells and lithium ion batteries.

  16. Preparation, characterization, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy study on carbon nanotubes, graphene nano-sheets, and onion like carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouelsayed, A., E-mail: as.abouelsayed@gmail.com [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth St. (fromer El Tahrir St.), Dokki, P.O. 12622, Giza (Egypt); Anis, Badawi [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth St. (fromer El Tahrir St.), Dokki, P.O. 12622, Giza (Egypt); Hassaballa, Safwat [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884 (Egypt); Khalil, Ahmed S.G. [Center for Environmental and Smart Technology, Fayoum University, Fayoum (Egypt); Egypt Nanotechnology Center, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, Smart Village Campus, Giza (Egypt); Rashed, Usama M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884 (Egypt); Eid, Kamal A.; Al-Ashkar, Emad; El hotaby, W. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth St. (fromer El Tahrir St.), Dokki, P.O. 12622, Giza (Egypt)

    2017-03-01

    We present the optical properties of carbon nanotubes, graphene nanosheets, and onion like carbon (OLC) samples with different cages size in wide frequency range from 0.06 to 1650 THz. The samples were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Raman, and UV–Vis-IR-THz spectroscopy. The broad absorption bands centered at around 10, 3, 2.5, 1.5, and 1.8 THz for SWCNTs, MWCNTs, graphene nanosheets, large cages (OLC{sub 1}), and small cages (OLC{sub 2}) samples, respectively, are assigned to plasmon resonance due to the localization of free carriers in a finite length. For SWCNTs, both the plasmon band position and the Drude weight (D) are located at higher values as compared with MWCNTs, graphene nanosheets, and OLC sample, suggesting that the dimensionality of the system plays a major role regarding the carrier mobility of the graphene structure. The differences in the estimated values of D, the Fermi energy (E{sub f}), and density of carriers (N) in case of OLC samples can be due to the variation in sizes of the cages and the variation of the defects in the structure of the outermost layers of cages, where each cages consist of multi-layers of graphene enclosed one into another. - Highlights: • Preparation and spectroscopic studies on carbonaceous materials were performed. • Drude-Lorentz model were used for fitting the optical conductivity spectra. • The plasmonic resonances have been observed in THz frequency range. • The charge density N has been effected by disordered of the grapheme structure. • The σ{sub DC} values is decreased in case of 2D carbonaceous materials.

  17. Study on Summer Cultivation of Zhangqiu Green Onion%章丘大葱夏季栽培研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣亭; 黄韫晔; 夏玉兰; 袁圆圆

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the impact of covering wheat straw , dried or wet planting and shading on the growth characters such as plant height and the individual fresh weight of Zhangqiu green onion Dawutong in summer cultivation .The results showed that during June ~September ,covering wheat straw was disadvantage to the increase of plant height and yield , while reasonable dried or wet cultivation and shading treatment were benefit to their increase .The mode of shading with sunshade net for 30 days, not cov-ered with wheat straw and dried cultivation could promote the plant growth and increase the individual weight , so it had higher potential to increase yield .%以章丘大葱大梧桐品种为试材,研究了夏季栽培中铺麦草、干湿栽和遮光对大葱株高﹑单株重等生长指标的影响。结果表明,章丘大葱在7~9月的夏季栽培中,铺麦草不利于大葱长高及产量增加,而合理的干湿栽及遮光处理可促进大葱长高和增重。利用遮光率30%的遮阳网遮荫30天、不铺麦草、干栽的栽培模式,可促进大葱生长,显著提高大葱单株重,具有较大增产潜力。

  18. 洋葱对草鱼细菌性烂鳃病的治疗效果试验%The Therapeutic Effect of Onion on the Pathogenic Bacteria of Gill Rot Disease in Grass Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐大勇; 韦汉群; 张文丽

    2008-01-01

    [Objective]The curative effect of onion on bacterial rotted gill disease in grass carp was researched[Method]The combination method of taking medicine through oral and spraying was used to cure sick grass carp for I period of treatment in room under artificial conditions.[Result]Different concentrations of onion generated different cure rates.When the combinatien was adding 1.0%-2.0% medicine into feed and spraying 2.0g/m3-5.0g/m3,the curative result was the best with cure rote was 70%-90%[Conclusion]The onion was effective on curing bacterial rotted gill disease in grass carp and could be taken as curative medicine.

  19. Development of a TaqMan real-time PCR assay for quantification of airborne conidia of Botrytis squamosa and management of botrytis leaf blight of onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carisse, O; Tremblay, D M; Lévesque, C A; Gindro, K; Ward, P; Houde, A

    2009-11-01

    The use of a DNA-based method for quantifying airborne inoculum of Botrytis squamosa, a damaging pathogen of onion, was investigated. A method for purifying DNA from conidia collected using rotating-arm samplers and quantifying it using a TaqMan real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay is described. The sensitivity of the qPCR assay was high, with a detection limit of 2 conidia/rod. A linear relationship between numbers of conidia counted with a compound microscope and those determined with the qPCR assay was obtained. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate the reliability of the two methods of conidia quantification (microscope examination and qPCR assay) to predict the risk of disease being below or above a damage threshold (D(th)). In total, 142 field samples from commercial onion fields were analyzed. At damage thresholds of 5 or 10 lesions/leaf, conidia quantification with the qPCR assay was more reliable at predicting disease risk than conidia quantification based on microscope counts. The proportion of decisions where the disease was present and predicted was higher for the qPCR assay than for the microscope counts, with values of 0.95 and 0.89 compared with 0.79 and 0.81 for D(th) of 5 and 10 lesions/leaf, respectively. The proportion of decisions where the disease was present but not predicted was lower for the qPCR assay than for microscope counts, with values of 0.05 and 0.11 compared with 0.20 and 0.19 for D(th) of 5 and 10 lesions/leaf, respectively. The results demonstrated that this new qPCR assay was reliable for quantifying B. squamosa airborne inoculum in commercial onion fields and that molecular conidia quantification could be used as a component of a risk management system for Botrytis leaf blight.

  20. Changes in flavor precursors, pungency, and sugar content in short-day onion bulbs during 5-month storage at various temperatures or in controlled atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kil S; Lee, Eun J; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2012-02-01

    Short-day onion bulbs (cv. TG 1015Y) were stored in 1% O(2,) 99% N(2) air at 5 °C (controlled atmosphere [CA]), or in ambient air at 5, 24, or 30 °C, for 5 mo. Changes in flavor precursors, pungency, and sugar content were investigated. After 5 mo of storage, 1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide concentrations increased continuously at 5 °C, gradually decreased in CA, slightly increased for 3 mo, and returned to initial levels at 24 °C and decreased below initial levels at 34 °C. Methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide concentrations remained unchanged in all storage conditions. Onion pungency levels significantly increased at 5 °C, and decreased at 30 °C. Storage in CA and at 24 °C resulted in some fluctuations in pungency but the levels remained similar to initial levels. The calculated pyruvic acid concentrations were approximately 1.0 μmole/mL higher than the measured concentrations, and showed an increase at 5 °C and a slight reduction at 30 °C, consistent with the pungency results. Storage at 5 °C and in CA resulted in slight increases in fructose and glucose concentrations for 3 to 4 mo with subsequent rapid decreases, while sucrose concentrations remained unchanged. However, at 24 and 30 °C, fructose and glucose concentrations continuously decreased, accompanied by a continuous increase in sucrose concentrations. Storage in CA maintained the quality of onions best, as evidenced by the smallest changes in flavor precursors, pungency, and sugar concentrations, while storage at 5 °C resulted in increased pungency. Storage at 24 and 30 °C was tested for the purpose of comparison only; these temperatures are not recommended for commercial storage.

  1. Pungency evaluation of onion cultivars from the Venezuelan West-Center region by flow injection analysis-UV-visible spectroscopy pyruvate determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Pineda; Lué-Merú, Marcó P; Ricardo, Rivas; Máximo, Gallignani; Maribel, Valero; Luis, Burguera José; Marcela, Burguera

    2004-12-15

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) method was developed for the determination of pyruvate in onion cultivars (Allium cepa L.) from the West-Center region of Venezuela. The reference Schwimmer and Weston (1961) (J. Agric. Food Chem. 9 (1961) 301) Batch method was modified and adapted to FIA conditions. The formation kinetic of the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-pyruvate complex was evaluated at room temperature and at 37 degrees C. It was demonstrated the suitability of the chromopher formation at room temperature. The optimal values for the FIA parameters were: sample injection volume 3mL, flow rate 6mLmin(-1), reactor length 1.5m, sodium hydroxide concentration 1.0molL(-1) and hydrochloric acid concentration 0.5molL(-1). The working calibration range was extended from 80mgL(-1) (Batch method) to 700mgL(-1) with the FIA set up. The sample dilution step is thus avoided, simplifying the whole analysis process. The pungency in representative samples of the cultivars Yellow granex 438, Ultra Hybrid and Red onion "Sangre de Toro" was evaluated by the flow injection analysis (FIA)-pyruvate method and the results were compared to the reference Batch pyruvate method and to the taste panel test. Non-significant differences were found at the 95% of confidence level between the FIA method and the Batch reference method. Correlation coefficient when comparing the FIA results to the taste panel test was r(2) = 0.8353. Significant differences (P pungency of the cultivars, the Ultra Hybrid having the highest pungency. The pungency order from minor to major was: Red onion, Texas Grano 438 and Ultra Hybrid.

  2. Relative biological effectiveness of fission neutrons for producing micronuclei in the root-tip cells of onion seedlings after irradiation as dry seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Ishikawa, Masayori; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine; Endo, Satoru [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Ikeda, Hideo [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Education

    2002-12-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of mixed neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted at a {sup 252}Cf source at the Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, compared with {sup 60}Co gamma-ray radiation was determined. The tissue-absorbed dose contribution of the accompanying gamma radiation was about 35.7% to the total tissue-absorbed dose from the {sup 252}Cf mixed radiation. The {sup 252}Cf mixed radiation and {sup 60}Co gamma rays produced approximate linear changes in the frequency of micronuclei induced in root-tip cells of Allium cepa L. onion seedlings after irradiation as dry dormant seeds with varying absorbed doses in onion seeds. Therefore, the RBE for radiation-induced micronuclei was calculated as the ratio of the slopes for the {sup 252}Cf mixed radiation and the {sup 60}Co gamma rays. The deduced RBE value of {sup 252}Cf mixed radiation of {sup 60}Co gamma rays to induce micronuclei in dry dormant onion seed cells was about 90.5{+-}3.6 ({+-}1{sigma}); the RBE of neutrons from the {sup 252}Cf mixed radiation was about 150{+-}6 ({+-}1{sigma}). Furthermore, the sensitivity ratio of the induction rate of micronuclei in dry dormant seeds to that in seedlings by neutrons from {sup 252}Cf mixed radiation was significantly different from that by {sup 60}Co gamma rays. From these results, we concluded that the repair efficiency of DNA damage induced by neutrons may be different from that by gamma rays. (author)

  3. 洋葱碳的制备与应用研究进展%Development on the Preparation and Application of Onion-like Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑艳彬; 姜志刚; 朱品文

    2015-01-01

    洋葱碳独特的结构,使其具有优异的物理化学性能。本文首先介绍了洋葱碳的分类和结构,对几种传统的制备方法(包括电弧放电法、等离子体、电子束辐射、化学气相沉积、纳米金刚石真空退火、热解法)的优缺点进行归纳、总结。其次,介绍了近年来发展起来的制备方法。随后,对近年来洋葱碳在锂离子二次电池负极、染料敏化太阳能电池对电极、电化学储氢电极、超级电容器电极、摩擦和磨损、催化领域的应用做一概述。最后,指出了目前洋葱碳在制备和应用方面的不足,对今后的研究做了展望。%Due to unique structure, onion-like carbon has excellent physical and chemical properties that brodens the application in carbon and carbon-based composite materials. The classification and the structure of onion-like carbon were firstly introduced. Its advantages and disadvantages of traditional preparation methods, including arc discharge, plasma, electron-beam radiation, chemical vapor deposition, nanodiamond annealing in vacuum, thermolysis, were summarized. Then, some new synthetic methods developed in recent years were also presented. Subsequently, the ap-plication of onion-like carbon on anode materials of lithium ion secondary battery, counter electrode materials of dye-sensitized solar cell, electrodes materials of electrochemical hydrogen storage and super capacitor, friction and wear, and catalyst fields was summarized. Finally, deficiencies of preparation and application on onion-like carbon were pointed out and future research were put forward.

  4. Study on microcut and vacuum drying technology in onion powder%洋葱粉微切、真空干燥工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭涛; 殷欣; 路宏科; 马文锦; 刘琦; 张怀予; 金明; 陈兴叶

    2013-01-01

    以金昌优质洋葱为原料,采用单因素对比分析结合响应面法研究微切、真空低温干燥技术对洋葱粉营养成分(芦丁、槲皮素、维生素的含量)及综合感官指标的影响.结果表明:在微切转速9000r/min(即颗粒直径0.00127mm)、干燥前浓度50%、干燥真空度23mbar、五段真空干燥温度为38、35、30、25、5℃的最优条件下,产品感官指标最优,且芦丁含量为0.57mg/g,槲皮素含量达到4.033mg/g,比市售喷雾干燥法生产的洋葱粉中芦丁高26倍,槲皮素高42倍,维生素E、维生素A含量也高出一倍左右.%Jinchang local excellent onion as the raw material,the effect of microcut and vacuum low-temperature on nutritional components (especially rutin,quercetin and vitamins) and comprehensive evaluation value were studied by contrast analysis of single factors and Box-Behnken Design.The results showed that the best technological parameters were: microcut speed 9000r/min (microcut grain size 0.00127mm), concentrated hydrolysates 45% ~ 50% before drying,drying vacuum 23mbar and with the five drying temperature of 38,35,30,25, 5℃.Under this condition,the sensory indexes of onion power products were the best.With the rutin and quercetin content of 0.57mg/g and 4.033mg/g,which was twenty-six times and fouty-two times higher than the onion power product for sale in market produced by spray drying, separately.The content of vitamin A and vitamin E in onion powder increased more than one time compared with spray drying products.

  5. Minor crops for export: a case study of boscalid, pyraclostrobin, lufenuron and lambda-cyhalothrin residue levels on green beans and spring onions in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, Ahmad; Garau, Vincenzo L; Caboni, Pierluigi; Sarais, Giorgia; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-08-01

    Dissipation rates of boscalid [2-chloro-N-(4' -chlorobiphenyl-2-yl)nicotinamide], pyraclostrobin [methyl 2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl) pyrazol-3-yloxymethyl]-N-methoxycarbanilate], lufenuron [(RS)-1-[2,5-dichloro-4-(1,1,2,3,3,3-hexafluoropropoxy)phenyl]-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea] and lambda-cyhalothrin [(R)-cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl (1S,3S)-rel-3-[(1Z)-2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl]-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate] in green beans and spring onions under Egyptian field conditions were studied. Field trials were carried out in 2008 in a Blue Nile farm, located at 70 kilometer (km) from Cairo (Egypt). The pesticides were sprayed at the recommended rate and samples were collected at pre-determined intervals. After treatment (T(0)) the pesticide residues in green beans were 7 times lower than in spring onions. This is due to a different structure of vegetable plant in the two crops. In spring onions, half-life (t(1/2)) of pyraclostrobin and lufenuron was 3.1 days and 9.8 days respectively. At day 14th (T(14)) after treatment boscalid residues were below the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) (0.34 versus 0.5 mg/kg), pyraclostrobin and lambda -cyhalothrin residues were not detectable (ND), while lufenuron residues were above the MRL (0.06 versus 0.02 mg/kg). In green beans, at T(0), levels of boscalid, lufenuron and lambda -cyhalothrin were below the MRL (0.28 versus 2 mg/kg; ND versus 0.02 mg/kg; 0.06 versus 0.2 mg/kg, respectively) while, after 7 days treatment (T(7)) pyraclostrobin residues were above the MRL (0.03 versus 0.02 mg/kg). However, after 14 days the residue level could go below the MRL (0.02 mg/kg), as observed in spring onions.

  6. Genetic variation for bulb size, soluble solids content and pungency in the Spanish sweet onion variety Fuentes de Ebro. Response to selection for low pungency

    OpenAIRE

    Mallor Giménez, Cristina; Balcells Oliván, María; Mallor, F.; Sales, E.

    2011-01-01

    The cultivar ‘Fuentes de Ebro’ is a long-day onion grown in the northeast of Spain, which is characterized by its succulence and low pungency. However, to match the market demand the size, pungency, and storability need to be improved. We have evaluated these quality-related bulb traits in 15 grower’s open-pollinated lines of this cultivar. Phenotypic variation observed for bulb weight, size and soluble solids content was significantly affected by location, growing season and line, while pung...

  7. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization and Soil Inoculation of Sulfur-Oxidizing or Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria on Onion Plant Growth and Yield

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in a newly reclaimed soil at El-Saff region, El-Giza Governorate, Egypt to study the effects of different rates of nitrogen (N: 62 to 248 kg ha-1) with or without soil inoculation of sulfur- (S-) oxidizing bacteria (SoxB) and combined inoculation of SoxB and N-fixing bacteria (NFxB) on yield, quality and nutritional status of onion (Allium cepa L., “Giza 20”). Elemental S at 620 kg ha-1 was applied to all treatments. Application of N at 62, 124, and 248 kg ha...

  8. Efeito de espécies vegetais em bordadura em cebola sobre a densidade populacional de tripes e sirfídeos predadores Effect of different species of border plants on the population density of thrips and syrphids predators in onion crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antonio de Souza Gonçalves

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a relação entre o efeito do plantio de diferentes espécies vegetais, em bordadura, na cultura da cebola, Allium cepa L, na incidência de Thrips tabaci Lind. e sirfídeos predadores, Toxomerus spp. O experimento foi conduzido na Epagri, EE de Ituporanga, de agosto a dezembro de 1998. Os tratamentos foram cebola em monocultivo; cebola + trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; cebola + nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg.; cebola + cenoura (Daucus carota L., cv. Nantes e cv. Brasília; cebola + milho (Zea mays L.; cebola + rúcula (Eruca sativa L. + vegetação espontânea. O plantio de diferentes espécies vegetais em bordadura não provocou diferenças significativas na incidência de tripes e sirfídeos predadores. A produtividade comercial de bulbos de cebola foi similar em sistema de monocultivo e diversificado, sugerindo ser possível adotar tais sistemas sem perdas em rendimento.The effect of planting different species of border plants on the population density of thrips (Thrips tabaci Lind, and syrphid predators (Toxomerus spp., population density were evaluated at EPAGRI, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The research was carried out from August to December 1998. The treatments were onion monoculture; onion intercropped with buck wheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Poligonaceae; onion intercropped with fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg.; onion intercropped with carrots (Daucus carota L. Nantes and Brasília cultivars; onion intercropped with maize (Zea mays L.; onion intercropped with Eruca sativa and weed. The onion thrips and syrphid predators population density were similar in onion monoculture and policulture. The yields were similar in onion monoculture and policulture, suggesting the possibility to intercrop onion without losses.

  9. Viabilidade agronômica de consórcios entre cebola e alface no sistema orgânico de produção Agronomic viability of onion and lettuce intercropped in the organic cultivation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia D de Paula

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparados três consórcios de cebola (cv. Alfa Tropical e alface (cv. Regina 2000, variando o intervalo de tempo entre transplantios de cada espécie para o campo. O experimento, no delineamento de blocos casualizados, constou dos tratamentos monocultivos de cebola e de alface e três consórcios entre as olerícolas, em seis repetições, mantendo-se o espaçamento da cebola e transplantando- se a alface no mesmo dia, 15 dias e 30 dias depois da cebola. A alface ocupou as entrelinhas alternadas da cebola, representando, em todos os consórcios, metade da densidade populacional do respectivo monocultivo. Com exceção do último tratamento (alface 30 dias após a cebola, os consórcios mostraram-se vantajosos em termos de elevação de renda por unidade de área cultivada. A introdução da alface não reduziu a produtividade da cebola, em bulbos de padrão comercial e o crescimento da folhosa foi comparável ao do seu monocultivo. Os índices de equivalência de área confirmaram a viabilidade do cultivo consorciado, o qual, a par do adequado desempenho agronômico, possibilita um melhor aproveitamento de insumos e serviços no manejo orgânico adotado.Three intercrops of onion (cv. Alfa Tropical and lettuce (cv. Regina 2000 were compared, varying the time intervals between transplants of each one in the field. The experiment was made in a complete randomized block design with the treatments (replicated six times: monocrops of onion and of lettuce, and intercrops of the two vegetables keeping the same onion spacing arrangement, with lettuce transplanted on the same day, 15 days, and 30 days after onion. Lettuce seedlings were placed between onion rows in an alternating manner, thus corresponding to half of its monocrop population density. Except for the last treatment (lettuce 30 days after onion planting the intercropping system was advantageous in terms of increased income by cultivated area unit. Introducing lettuce into the system

  10. Performance of down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor coupled with up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for treatment of onion dehydration wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kamah, Hala; Mahmoud, Mohamed; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    In this study, a promising system consisting of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was investigated for onion dehydration wastewater treatment. Laboratory experiments were conducted at two different phases, i.e., phase (1) at overall hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 11h (UASB reactor: 6h and DHS reactor: 5h) and phase (2) at overall HRT of 9.4h (UASB reactor: 5.2h and DHS reactor: 4.2h). Long-term operation results of the proposed system showed that its overall TCOD, TBOD, TSS, TKN and NH(4)-N removal efficiencies were 92 ± 5, 95 ± 2, 95 ± 2, 72 ± 6 and 99 ± 1.3%, respectively (phase 1). Corresponding values for the 2nd phase were 85.4 ± 5, 86 ± 3, 87 ± 6, 65 ± 8 and 95 ± 2.8%. Based on the available results, the proposed system could be more viable option for treatment of wastewater generated from onion dehydration industry in regions with tropical or sub-tropical climates and with stringent discharge standards.

  11. Effectiveness of household natural sanitizers in the elimination of Salmonella typhimurium on rocket (Eruca sativa Miller) and spring onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel Sengun, Ilkin; Karapinar, Mehmet

    2005-02-15

    Experiments were done with fresh lemon juice, vinegar and their mixture (1:1) to evaluate their efficacy in reducing the numbers of Salmonella typhimurium on fresh salad vegetables. Fresh whole rocket leaves and shredded spring onion samples were inoculated with S. typhimurium suspensions to provide initial populations of approximately 6 and 3 log cfu/g. After inoculation, vegetables were treated with the test solutions for 0, 15, 30 and 60 min, and pathogens were enumerated by using direct plating on Bismuth Sulphite Agar (BSA). Prior to this work, it was shown that BSA was not toxic for acid injured Salmonella cells by statistical analysis applied to enriched and non-enriched samples (P>0.05). Treatment of rocket leaves with fresh lemon juice and vinegar caused a significant reduction ranging between 1.23 and 4.17 log cfu/g and between 1.32 and 3.12 log cfu/g, respectively, while the maximum reduction reached by using lemon juice-vinegar mixture (1:1) for 15 min, which reduced the number of pathogens to an undetectable level. In the spring onion samples, lemon juice, vinegar and their mixture caused 0.87-2.93, 0.66-2.92 and 0.86-3.24 log cfu/g reductions, respectively.

  12. 洋葱转录组SSR信息分析及其多态性研究%Analysis on SSR Information in Transcriptome of Onion and the Polymorphism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李满堂; 张仕林; 邓鹏; 侯喜林; 王建军

    2015-01-01

    Bioinformatics methods were used to analyze the onion(Allium cepa L.)transcriptome SSR loci information and designed simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers,so as to provide a powerful tool for screening onion molecular marker assisted breeding.Five thousand nine hundred and fifty-nine SSR loci (5.10%) were obtained from 106 932 unigenes (84.04 Mb) by using MISA software to screen the onion transcriptome sequencing,and its frequency was 1/14.1 kb.Trinucleotide repeat was the main type,accounted for as much as 37.27% of all SSRs.The AAG/CTT were the predominant repeat types (10.20%),followed by mononucleotide repeat motif (30.91%) and dinucleotide repeat motif (24.75%).Five thousand two hundred and fifty-eight pairs of SSR primers were designed using Primer 5.Randomly 20 pairs of primers were selected for PCR amplification,12 amplified on clear and reproducible bands,9 in 24 different types showed polymorphism in onion material.Twenty-four onions plants were divided into 4 groups by UPGMA.%采用生物信息学方法分析洋葱(Allium cepa L.)转录组中的SSR位点信息,并设计简单重复序列(SSR)引物,以期为洋葱分子标记辅助育种提供有力工具.利用MISA工具筛选了洋葱转录组测序获得的106 932条unigenes (84.04 Mb),并对其SSR位点信息进行了分析,共筛选得到5 959个SSR位点(占总unigenes的5.10%),其发生频率为1/14.1 kb.SSRs位点中主导类型是以AAG/CTT(占总SSRs的10.20%)为主的三核苷酸重复,占总SSRs的37.27%;其次是单、二核苷酸重复,其出现频率分别为30.91%和24.75%.利用Primer5共设计出5 258对SSR引物.随机选择20对引物进行PCR扩增,其中12对扩增出清晰可重复的条带,9对在24个不同类型洋葱材料中表现出多态性.利用UPGMA作图,将24个洋葱材料分为4类.

  13. Genotypic variation in sulphur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.). II: Characterisation of ATP sulphurylase activity

    KAUST Repository

    Thomas, Ludivine

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the regulation of sulphur (S)-assimilation in onion further at the biochemical level, the pungent cultivar W202A and the milder cultivar Texas Grano 438 PVP (TG) have been grown in S-sufficient (S +; 4 meq S -1) or S-deficient (S -; 0.1 meq S -1) growth conditions, and tissues excised at the seedling stage (pre-bulbing; ca. 10-weeks-old) and at the mature stage (bulbing; ca. 16-weeks-old). S-supply negatively influenced adenosine-5′-phosphosulphate (APS) reductase (APR) enzyme activity in both cultivars at bulbing only, and a higher abundance of APR was observed in both cultivars at bulbing in response to low S-supply. In contrast, S-supply significantly influenced ATP sulphurylase (ATPS) activity in leaf tissues of W202A only, and only at bulbing, while an increase in abundance in response to high S-supply was observed for both cultivars at bulbing. To investigate the regulation of the ATPS enzyme activity and accumulation further, activity was shown to decrease significantly in roots at bulbing in the S-deficient treatment in both cultivars, a difference that was only supported by western analyses in W202A. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AcATPS1 groups in a broad monocot clade with the closest sequences identified in Sorghum bicolour, Zea mays and Oryza sativa, but with some support for a divergence of AcATPS1. Detection of ATPS in leaf extracts after two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed that the protein may undergo post-translational modification with a differential pattern of ATPS accumulation detected in both cultivars over the developmental progression from the seedling to the bulbing stage. Treatment of leaf extracts of W202A to dephosphorylate proteins resulted in the loss of immuno-recognised ATPS spots after 2-DE separation, although enzyme activity was not influenced. These results are discussed in terms of the tiers of control that operate at the biochemical level in the reductive S-assimilation pathway in a S

  14. Chromosal rearrangements in the onion fly Hylemya antiqua (Meigen), induced and isolated for genetic insect control purposes : studies on cytogenetics and fertility, with emphasis on an X-linked translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemert, van C.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to isolate structural chromosome mutations causing "semi"-sterility which can be used for genetic control of the onion fly Hylemya antiqua (Meigen). For the induction, X-rays or fast neutrons were applied in different doses on males and females. "Semi"-sterile famil

  15. Onion is a host for two phytoplasma lineages, subgroups 16SrI-A and 16SrI-L, in Lithuania: a HinfI site revealed a SNP marking divergent branches of evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onions (Allium cepa.L) being grown for seed production in the Kaunas region of Lithuania exhibited symptoms including mild yellowing of leaves and stems, stunting of plants, phyllody, and proliferation of flowers. RFLP and sequence analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA, ribosomal protein, and secY gen...

  16. Efeito de diferentes herbicidas nas culturas de alho e cebola Effect of different herbicides on garlic and onion crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Deuber

    1983-01-01

    ório.O oxadiazon em PRÉ e o linuron em PÓS foram os mais eficientes no controle de gramíneas. Não houve diferenças entre as produções de cebola nos diferentes tratamentos.Two field trials with garlic 'Lavínia' and onion 'Monte Alegre' and 'Roxa do Traviú' were performed on a loamy soil to study herbicide selectivity and their efficiency on weed control. The following treatments were studied on garlic: pendimethalin at 1.50 kg/ha; linuron at 1.00 kg/ha and oxadiazon at 1.00 kg/ha, applied in pre-emergence at the planting day; ioxynil at 0.50 and 0.75 kg/ha, ioxynil + oxadiazon at 0.75 + 0,25 kg/ha and 0.50 + 0.50 kg/ha, applied 35 days after, weeded and hoed checks and a check with mulch. The weed population was a mixture of various types of weeds; predominated by Portucala oleracea L. Weed control was evaluated at 48 and 84 days. All treatments controlled very well the dicotyledons. Ioxynil alone or mixed with oxadiazon in post-emergence did not control grasses. None of the herbicide treatments reduced the garlic stand, occurring the lowest number on the checks with weeds and mulch. The yields occurred in the following: hoed check > oxadiazon > ioxynil + oxadiazon at 0.50 + 0.50 kg/ha = pendimethalin = mulch = ioxynil + oxadiazon at 0.75 + 0.25 kg/ha > linuron > ioxynil at 0.75 kg/ha > ioxynil at 0.50 kg/ha > weeded check. On the onion crop the following treatments were studied: pendimethalin at 1.50 kg/ha, linuron at 1.00 kg/ha, oxadiazon at 1.00 kg/ha, and chloroxuron at 4.00 kg/ha, applied in pre-emergence on the day of transplanting; ioxynil at 0.50 and 0.75 kg/ha, oxadiazon + ioxynil at 0.75 + 0.25 kg/ha, at 1.00 + 0.25 kg/ha and at 1.00 + 1.00 kg/ha and linuron at 1.00 kg/ha, all applied 32 days after, weeded and hoed checks. The weeds occurring were predominantly dicotyledons being Portulaca oleracea L. and Chenopodium album L. the most dominant. Control evaluation was done at 48 days showing an excelent control of dicotyledons (over 95% by all treatments. Ioxynil

  17. Disintegration efficiency of pulsed electric field induced effects on onion (Allium cepa L.) tissues as a function of pulse protocol and determination of cell integrity by ¹H-NMR relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersus, Seda; Oztop, Mecit Halil; McCarthy, Michael J; Barrett, Diane M

    2010-09-01

    The influence of electrical pulse protocol parameters on cell rupture of onion tissues was investigated in order to improve fundamental understanding and to enhance the processing of plant tissues with pulsed electric fields (PEFs). The impact of PEF parameters on cell integrity of 20 mm dia, 4-mm thick disks of Don Victor onions (Allium cepa L.) was determined by ion leakage measurements. Electric field strength, pulse width, total pulse duration, and frequency effects were determined in relation to their effects on cell damage as a function of pulse protocol. Electric field strengths up to 500 V/cm increased the damage efficiency but there was no significant difference in efficiency beyond this field strength. Larger pulse widths increased the degree of tissue disintegration at a constant pulse number. Higher PEF efficiency was achieved with shorter pulse widths and a larger number of pulses at a constant total treatment time. Lower frequencies caused a greater degree of disintegration at constant number of pulses. ¹H-NMR experiments were performed to determine the proton relaxation components of the PEF-treated onion samples and to obtain cell damage information nondestructively. Paramagnetic ion uptake by the onion sample was used to identify different proton relaxation components. Five different proton relaxation components were observed and changes in the 2 components representing different proton environments showed high correlations with ion leakage results (R²= 0.99), indicating that T(2) distributions can be used to obtain information about cell membrane integrity in PEF-treated samples. 1H-NMR proved to be an effective method for nondestructive quantification of cell membrane rupture in onions.

  18. Eficácia de herbicidas no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da cebola em semeadura direta Efficacy of herbicides on weed control in onion direct sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino R. Ferreira

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available As plantas de cebola provenientes da semeadura direta no campo são mais danificadas pelo cultivo mecânico e são mais sensíveis aos herbicidas, principalmente os latifolicidas, do que quando transplantadas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia dos herbicidas oxyfluorfen, ioxynil-octanoato e fluazifop-p-butil, aplicados em pós-emergência, isoladamente ou em mistura no tanque, com ou sem aplicação de paraquat, antes da emergência das plantas de cebola, conduziu-se este trabalho no município de Monte Alto, SP. Nenhum dos herbicidas aplicados isoladamente foi eficiente no controle de todas as espécies daninhas presentes na área experimental. As misturas no tanque de fluazifop-p-butil com oxyfluorfen ou ioxynil-octanoato, independente da aplicação ou não de paraquat aos cinco dias após a semeadura, controlaram eficientemente Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus lividus, Echinochloa crusgalli, Eragrostis pilosa, Digitaria horizontalis, Eleusine indica e Brachiaria plantaginea, com produção de bulbos semelhante à da testemunha capinada.Onion plants, from direct sowing to the field, are more damaged by mechanical cultivation and more sensitive to herbicides, especially to broadleaf herbicides, than transplanted onions. With the purpose of evaluating the efficacy of the herbicides oxyfluorfen, ioxynyl-octanoato and fluazifop-p-butyl, applied in post-emergence, alone or tank mix, with or without paraquat application, before onion plants emergence, this investigation was carried out at Monte Alto County, São Paulo State, Brazil. None of the herbicides sprayed alone were efficient in the control of all the weeds present in the experimental area. The tank mix of fluazifop-p-butyl plus oxyfluorfen or ioxynyl-octanoato, regardless of paraquat application, at five days after sowing, controlled efficiently Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus lividus, Echinoclhoa crusgalli, Eragrostis pilosa, Digitaria horizontalis, Eleusine indica and Brachiaria

  19. Efeito de diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na produtividade da cultura da cebola Effect of different weed control periods on onion crop yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Soares

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento em Monte Alto-SP, visando estudar os efeitos de diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas sobre a produção de bulbos da cultura da cebola (Allium cepa, cultivar 'Mercedes', no sistema de transplantio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Parte dos tratamentos experimentais foi disposta num esquema fatorial 4 x 6, em que constituíram variáveis quatro períodos em que se fez o controle (0-0, 0-7, 0-14 e 0-21 DAT e seis períodos em que se reiniciou o controle das plantas daninhas prolongando até a colheita: 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 DAT. Duas testemunhas foram adotadas: uma com controle e outra sem controle das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo da cultura. Lycopersicon esculentum, Portulaca oleracea, Eragrostis pilosa e Galinsoga parviflora foram as plantas daninhas mais importantes na área. Não houve interação entre os diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas. O controle inicial destas plantas deve se prolongar até 14 DAT e ser reiniciado aos 28 DAT, a fim de prevenir reduções significativas na produtividade em relação à testemunha no limpo A convivência com as plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo da cebola reduziu a produtividade em 94,5%.An experiment was carried out in Monte Alto, SP to study the effects of different of weed control periods on the yield of onion (Allium cepa bulb, 'Mercedes' cultivar, under the transplanting system. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design, with four replications. The treatments were arranged in 4 x 6 factorial design with four initial weed removal periods (after transplanting until 0, 7, 14 and 21 days and six final weed removal periods (from 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 or 98 days after transplanting until harvest. Two controls were adapted with and without weed control throughout the onion cycle. Lycopersicon esculentum, Portulaca oleracea, Eragrostis pilosa and

  20. Tratamento de sementes com rizobactérias na produção de cebola Seed treatment with rhizobacteria the onion production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Emilio Ludtke Harthmann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A associação de plantas com rizobactérias benéficas pode promover o crescimento vegetal e o biocontrole de doenças, reduzindo custos de produção e diminuindo o impacto dos agrotóxicos no meio ambiente. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de rizobactérias aplicadas às sementes de cebola 'Bola Precoce' no desenvolvimento de plantas e na produção de bulbos, foi conduzido um estudo na Estação Experimental da Epagri de Ituporanga, Santa Catarina, em 2007. Foram avaliadas as rizobactérias Pseudomonas spp. (W1, W2, W5, W6, Bacillus megaterium (W7, W19, Pseudomonas alcaligenes (W15, Paenibacillus polymyxa (W18, Bacillus cereus (UFV 040 e Pseudomonas putida (UFV 043, juntamente com uma testemunha não microbiolizada. Verificou-se que existe influência das rizobactérias testadas no desenvolvimento da cebola. Os isolados que apresentaram melhor rendimento de bulbos foram Pseudomonas spp. W6 e Bacillus cereus UFV40. Os aumentos de rendimento de bulbos em razão das rizobactérias variaram entre 3% e 48%. Essas bactérias promotoras de crescimento apresentam-se promissoras como bioinoculantes para serem utilizados na produção de cebola.Plant association with benefic rhizobacteria can enhance plant growth and diseases biocontrol, reducing production costs and environment pesticides impact. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Station of the Epagri, Ituporanga, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil in 2007 to evaluate the effect of microbiolization with rhizobacteria on onion seed 'Bola Precoce' in plants development and bulb yield. The rhizobacteria Pseudomonas spp. (W1, W2, W5, W6, Bacillus megaterium (W7, W19, Pseudomonas alcaligenes (W15, Paenibacillus polymyxa (W18, Bacillus cereus (UFV 040, Pseudomonas putida (UFV 043, were used as inoculants and compared with non treated check. There was influence of rhizobacteria tested on the onion development. The treatment with Pseudomonas spp. (W6 and Bacillus cereus (UFV40 showed

  1. Effect of Low Frequency Magnetic Field (LFMF on the Germination of Seeds and Selected Useful Characters of Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman HOŁUBOWICZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fields (MF have been reported widely as pre-sowing seeds treatment to increase their vigour, seedling growth and the plants’ yield. Although, it has been shown that MF could affect seed germination and the seedling root growth, still their further effect on plant’s life has been found to be inconsistent, especially under field conditions. Commercial seed lots of onion (Allium cepa L. of the cultivars ‘Octavia’ and ‘Eureka’ were soaked for 12 hours in the distilled water at 20 °C. Next, they were exposed to low frequency magnetic field (LFMF of magnetic induction B=20 mT, for 10, 30 and 60 minutes. The LFMF was generated using a standard medical device for magnetostimulation VIOFOR JPS. Next, the seeds were evaluated for germination and received bulbs were analysed for the selected useful characters including the root length, maximal diameters, dry matter and quercetin content. For the LFMF treatment of 60 minutes, for the cultivars ‘Octavia’ and ‘Eureka’, the energy of germination increased from 75.8% and 65% (control to 88.3% and 87.5%, respectively. For the LFMF treatment of 60 minutes, the germination capacity, for the same cultivars, increased from 85% and 76.3% (control to 92% and 90%, respectively, Treated for 60 minutes with LFMF onion seeds had longer seedlings than the ones from the control seeds. These values, for both cultivars, increased from 5.3 cm and 4.2 cm (control to 8.4 cm and 5.7 cm, respectively. LFMF used for 60 minutes on the ‘Octavia’ onion seeds, increased their emergences in the field and length of the roots on the bulbs. LFMF used had no effect on the dry matter of bulbs grown out from the seeds when exposing them for 10 and 30 minutes. However, when exposing them for 60 minutes, LFMF decreased the dry matter and increased the amount of quercetin.

  2. 直流磁场对洋葱细胞冻结过程的影响%Effect of DC Magnetic Field on Freezing Process of Onion Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋健飞; 刘斌; 关文强; 张德权

    2016-01-01

    为探究不同场强的直流电磁场对植物组织细胞在冻结相变过程中细胞及冰晶形状和大小的影响,本文取洋葱第三层果肉为研究对象,切成0�5 cm ×0�5 cm的方块,在低温冷台上放置样品切片进行细胞冻结实验,采用的降温速率:0℃之前为10℃/min;0℃之后为3℃/min;终温为-25℃。直流磁场强度分别为0 Gs(对比组)、4�6 Gs、18 Gs、36 Gs、72 Gs。实验过程中观察了不同场强作用下洋葱细胞及冰晶形态的变化,并提出“细胞二维保持率ζ”这一指标对果蔬细胞冻结效果进行评价,利用Au⁃toCAD软件对显微图像进行数据计算得出ζ值。结果表明:磁场辅助冻结洋葱细胞冰晶形成趋向于雾化,沙粒化,抑制冰晶生长,从而减小冰晶尺寸,有利于保持细胞原有形态,使细胞损害率降低;随着磁场强度的增强,洋葱细胞相变时间逐渐缩短,过冷度逐渐降低,但始终高于无磁场下的过冷度。%In order to explore the effect of DC electromagnetic field of different field strengths on the shape and size of cells and ice crys⁃tals during the freezing phase transformation process of plant tissue cells, the third layers of onion cut into squares of 0. 5 cm × 0. 5 cm were studied. Put the onion slices on the cold platform and the cooling rate of the experiment was:10℃/min before 0℃, 3℃/min after 0 ℃, and the final temperature was -25 ℃, the DC magnetic field strengths were 0 Gs (the control group) , 4. 6 Gs, 18 Gs, 36 Gs, 72 Gs respectively. In the experiment, the changes of morphology of the cells and ice crystals under different strengths were observed, and the index of"two-dimensional cell retention rateζ" was put forward to evaluate fruit and vegetable cells′freezing effect. AutoCAD soft⁃ware was used to calculate the micrograph and the value ofζ. The results show that the magnetic field assisted freezing of the onion cells

  3. 洋葱块茎中还原糖测定方法对比研究%Comparison between determination methods of reducing sugar in onion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任永新; 马耀宏; 杨俊慧; 孟庆军

    2011-01-01

    本文采用DNS比色法、还原糖测定仪两种方法对洋葱块茎中的还原糖含量进行测定.结果表明,还原糖测定仪法的标准偏差和变异系数均小于DNS法,其回收率为101.7%.%We employed DNS reagent and reducing sugar analyzer methods to determine the content of reducing sugar in onion. The results show that the standard deviation and variation coefficient of reducing sugar analyzer method are less than those of DNS reagent method. The recovery rate of reducing sugar analyzer method is 101.7%.

  4. First-principle study of geometries, electronic structures and vibrational spectra of neutral and anionic onion-like [As@Ni12@As20

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hai-Tao; Li Jia-Ming

    2005-01-01

    We present results of first-principle study for both neutral and anionic onion-like [As@Ni12@As20]. The groundstates of singly-charged and doubly-charged anions deviate from ideal Ih symmetrical geometry because of Jahn-Teller effect, whereas the triply-charged singlet and neutral quartet have similar stable geometries of Ih symmetry. The infrared and Raman spectra may provide a way to determine various charge states of this molecule with the same symmetry.Based on our systematical calculations, we suggest additional experimental measurements in order to determine the appropriate functional with great confidence, which should be important in the research for future quantum dot devices.

  5. Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, K.; Carrillo, S.; Gutierrez, L.

    2014-06-01

    Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at "La Primavera" farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done.

  6. Tuning shades of white light with multi-color quantum-dot quantum-well emitters based on onion-like CdSe ZnS heteronanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Mutlugun, Evren; Ozel, Tuncay; Sapra, Sameer; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2008-08-01

    We present white light generation controlled and tuned by multi-color quantum-dot-quantum-well emitters made of onion-like CdSe/ZnS/CdSe core/shell/shell heteronanocrystals integrated on InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We demonstrate hybrid white LEDs with (x, y) tristimulus coordinates tuned from (0.26, 0.33) to (0.37, 0.36) and correlated color temperatures from 27 413 to 4192 K by controlling the number of their integrated red-green-emitting heteronanocrystals. We investigate the modification of in-film emission from these multi-layered heteronanocrystals with respect to their in-solution emission, which plays a significant role in hybrid LED applications. Our proof-of-principle experiments indicate that these complex heteronanocrystals hold promise for use as nanoluminophors in future hybrid white LEDs.

  7. Tuning shades of white light with multi-color quantum-dot-quantum-well emitters based on onion-like CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Mutlugun, Evren; Ozel, Tuncay; Sapra, Sameer; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2008-08-20

    We present white light generation controlled and tuned by multi-color quantum-dot-quantum-well emitters made of onion-like CdSe/ZnS/CdSe core/shell/shell heteronanocrystals integrated on InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We demonstrate hybrid white LEDs with (x, y) tristimulus coordinates tuned from (0.26, 0.33) to (0.37, 0.36) and correlated color temperatures from 27 413 to 4192 K by controlling the number of their integrated red-green-emitting heteronanocrystals. We investigate the modification of in-film emission from these multi-layered heteronanocrystals with respect to their in-solution emission, which plays a significant role in hybrid LED applications. Our proof-of-principle experiments indicate that these complex heteronanocrystals hold promise for use as nanoluminophors in future hybrid white LEDs.

  8. Effect of Ni, Fe and Fe-Ni alloy catalysts on the synthesis of metal contained carbon nano-onions and studies of their electrochemical hydrogen storage properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenguang Zhang; Jiajun Li; Chunsheng Shi; Chunnian He; Enzuo Liu; Naiqin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Three types of carbon nano-onions (CNOs) including Ni@CNOs, Fe3C@CNOs and Fe0.64Ni0.36@CNOs nanoparticles have been synthesized by catalytic decomposition of methane at 850◦C using nickel, iron and iron-nickel alloy catalysts. Comparative and systematic studies have been carried out on the morphology, structural characteristics and graphitic crystallinity of these CNOs products. Furthermore, the electro-chemical hydrogen storage properties of three types of CNOs have been investigated. Measurements show that the Ni@CNOs have the highest discharge capacity of 387.2 mAh/g, corresponding to a hydrogen storage of 1.42%. This comparison study shows the advantages of each catalyst in the growth of CNOs, enabling the controllable synthesis and tuning the properties of CNOs by mediating different metals and their alloy for using in the fuel cell system.

  9. Ferromagnetic Property and Synthesis of Onion-Like Fullerenes by Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Fe and Co Catalysts Supported on NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhen Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-encapsulating onion-like fullerenes (M@OLFs were synthesized by CVD at relatively low temperature (420C∘ using Fe and Co nanoparticles impregnated into NaCl as catalyst. The morphology and structure of the products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that Fe@OLFs and Co@OLFs with stacked graphitic fragments were prepared using Fe/NaCl or Co/NaCl as catalysts; after Co@OLFs were immersed in concentrated HCl for 48 hours, Co nanoparticles encapsulated by carbon shells were not removed, meaning that carbon shells can protect the encapsulated Co cores against environmental degradation. The coercivity value (750.23 Oe of Co@OLFs showed an obvious magnetic property.

  10. Resonant excitation of precursor molecules in improving the particle crystallinity, growth rate and optical limiting performance of carbon nano-onions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Y; Zhou, Y S; Park, J B; Wang, H; He, X N; Lu, Y F [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511 (United States); Luo, H F; Jiang, L, E-mail: ylu2@unl.edu [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 10008 (China)

    2011-04-22

    A catalyst-free and highly efficient synthetic method for growing carbon nano-onions (CNOs) in open air has been developed through the laser resonant excitation of a precursor molecule, ethylene, in a combustion process. Highly concentric CNO particles with improved crystallinity were obtained at a laser wavelength of 10.532 {mu}m through the resonant excitation of the CH{sub 2} wagging mode of the ethylene molecules. A higher growth rate up to 2.1 g h{sup -1} was obtained, compared with that without a laser (1.3 g h{sup -1}). Formation of the CNOs with ordered graphitic shells is ascribed to the decomposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into C{sub 2} species. The optical limiting performances of the CNOs grown by the combustion processes were investigated. CNOs grown at 10.532 {mu}m laser excitation demonstrated improved optical limiting properties due to the improved crystallinity.

  11. Keratinolytic and keratinophilic fungi of mangrove's soil and air in the city of Qena and their response to garlic extract and onion oil treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssuf A. Gherbawy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight species and l variety belonging to 25 genera were collected from 50 soil samples (41 species and l variety and 21 genera and the atmosphere (27 species and l variety and 14 genera of mangrove in the city Qena using hair baiting technique at 28"C. Twenty of these species was dermatophytes and closely related fungi. The most common and frequent species of the latter fungi were Aphanoascus fulvescens (telemorph of Chrysosporium keratinophilum, A. terreus (C. indicum. Aphanoascus sp. (C. tropicum and Chrysosporium xerophilum. Sixty-eight isolates were tested for the abilites for growth on hair - sand medium. Most (73.5 % had moderate growth rate. All keratinophilie fungi recovered in the present investigation were sensitive to garlic extract and onion oil.

  12. Predicting the current potential and future world wide distribution of the onion maggot, Delia antiqua using maximum entropy ecological niche modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinian

    2017-01-01

    Climate change will markedly impact biology, population ecology, and spatial distribution patterns of insect pests because of the influence of future greenhouse effects on insect development and population dynamics. Onion maggot, Delia antiqua, larvae are subterranean pests with limited mobility, that directly feed on bulbs of Allium sp. and render them completely unmarketable. Modeling the spatial distribution of such a widespread and damaging pest is crucial not only to identify current potentially suitable climactic areas but also to predict where the pest is likely to spread in the future so that appropriate monitoring and management programs can be developed. In this study, Maximum Entropy Niche Modeling was used to estimate the current potential distribution of D. antiqua and to predict the future distribution of this species in 2030, 2050, 2070 and 2080 by using emission scenario (A2) with 7 climate variables. The results of this study show that currently highly suitable habitats for D.antiqua occur throughout most of East Asia, some regions of North America, Western Europe, and Western Asian countries near the Caspian sea and Black Sea. In the future, we predict an even broader distribution of this pest spread more extensively throughout Asia, North America and Europe, particularly in most of European countries, Central regions of United States and much of East Asia. Our present day and future predictions can enhance strategic planning of agricultural organizations by identifying regions that will need to develop Integrated Pest Management programs to manage the onion maggot. The distribution forecasts will also help governments to optimize economic investments in management programs for this pest by identifying regions that are or will become less suitable for current and future infestations. PMID:28158259

  13. The Application of Red Pigments from Streptomyces K-4B and Dayak Onions (Eleutherine palmifolia (L.) Merr.) In Colouring Glycerine Soap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlina; Asnani, A.; Diastuti, H.

    2017-02-01

    Glycerin soap has been colored with red pigment from Streptomyces K-4 B and Dayak onion (Eleutherine palmifolia (L.) Merr). Both red pigments from Streptomyces K-4B and Dayak onion were extracted with ethanol by maceration method, followed with soxhlet extraction. The concentration of red pigment added was varied (0, 200, 300, 400 μL) to evaluate the best product. The resulted glycerine soaps were characterized and analyzed based on SNI 06-3532-1994. The research results indicated that the glycerine soap has water content ranged from 0.36% to 12.56%; the amount of fatty acid ranged from 14% to 36.75%; the amount of free fatty acids ranged from 0% to 0.37%; the non-saponifiable fat ranged from 0.001 to 0.019%; the pH ranged from 10.33 to 11.06; the foam stability ranged from 0.61% to 89.09%. The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect between treatments significantly different at 95% confidence level (α = 0.05) on the characteristics of glycerine soap. The results of an organoleptic test with parameters observed were color, aroma, texture, foam, rough impression upon usage and rough impression after usage, gave “like to very like soap” with a maximum score of 4.67 (1 to 5 scale). Based on the color assessment, the organoleptic panelists preferred the glycerine soap of SK-4B3 (red pigment from Streptomyces K-4B, 200 μL) with the score of 4.30 (like to very like).

  14. Bioassay and Scanning Electron Microscopic Observations Reveal High Virulence of Entomopathogenic Fungus, Beauveria bassiana, on the Onion Maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wu, Shengyong; Xing, Zhenlong; Wang, Xiaoqing; Lei, Zhongren

    2016-12-01

    When flies were dipped in 1 × 10(8) conidia/ml conidia suspensions and then kept in the incubator (22 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 5% RH), scanning electron microscope observations revealed that, at 2 h, the majority of adhering Beauveria bassiana conidia were attached to either the wing surface or the interstitial area between the macrochaetae on the thorax and abdomen of the onion maggot adults. Germ tubes were being produced and had oriented toward the cuticle by 18 h. Penetration of the insect cuticle had occurred by 36 h, and by 48 h, germ tubes had completely penetrated the cuticle. Fungal mycelia had emerged from the insect body and were proliferating after 72 h. The superficial area and structure of the wings and macrochaetae may facilitate the attachment of conidia and enable effective penetration. The susceptibility of adults to 12 isolates, at a concentration of 1 × 10(7) conidia/ml, was tested in laboratory experiments. Eight of the more potent strains caused in excess of 85% adult mortality 8 d post inoculation, while the median lethal time (LT50) of these strains was <6 d. The virulence of the more effective strains was further tested, and the median lethal concentrations (LC50) were calculated by exposing adults to doses ranging from 10(3)-10(7) conidia/ml. The lowest LC50 value, found in the isolate XJWLMQ-32, for the adults was 3.87 × 10(3) conidia/ml. These results demonstrate that some B. bassiana strains are highly virulent to onion maggot adults and should be considered as potential biocontrol agents against the adult flies.

  15. Evaluation Effects of Different Planting Systems on Water Use Efficiency, Relative Water Content and some Plant Growth Parameters in Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa IZADKHAH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different sowing methods on water use efficiency, relative water content and some vegetative growth parameters of onion a study was carried out in the Agriculturalr research Center of East Azarbayjan in 2007-2008 cropping season. The experiment was a factorial by using the randomized complete block design with 4 treaments and 4 replications. The first factor was consistting of two sowing methods, dirct sowing (DS and the transplanting method (TM, the second factor was including two onion cultivars �Azarshahr� (red hull and later maturing and �Gooli-Ghesseh Zanjan� (bright-red, early maturing. Analysis of variance for the measured traits indicated that except for the relative water content (RWC, other traits were significant influenced by the sowing methods. TM had higher values of water use efficiency (WUE, bulbing ratio (BR, aerial leaves length (ALL, leaf area (LA, leaf area index (LAI, leaves dry weight (LDW, leaves fresh weight (LFW and leaves saturation weight (LSW than the DS methods. Maximum WUE (6.07 kg m3 and minimum WU (9381 m3 ha-1 were obtained in TM. However, the lowest WUE (4.19 kg m3 and the highest WU (115921 m3 ha-1 was obtained with DS. In other words, in TM water economizing was 1.5 tim, amount of yield was increased up 15% (in comparison with DS. Also among the cultivars except for the RWC, WUE and BR other traits were significantly. The sowing method x cultivar interaction were not significant. For the studied traits, TM and red �Azarshahr� cv. were better than the DS and �Gooli-Ghesseh Zanjan�, thus thy were identified the best treatments for experiment therefore it is recommended for the places with the same environmental conditions of this experiment.

  16. An epidemiological investigation of onion growers with Fungal Keratitis%洋葱种植者与真菌性角膜炎的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文和; 刘辉

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨民勤县洋葱种植者与真菌性角膜炎的发病关系.方法 通过对甘肃民勤县52例真菌性角膜炎的临床观察及微生物培养及对洋葱采挖现场的土壤、腐烂洋葱及采挖者手指采样的微生物培养分析.结果 52例患者真菌培养,25例培养出真菌,菌种以尖孢镰刀菌最多(48%);洋葱采挖现场调查发现,洋葱刺激气味造成60%的作业者角膜上皮糜烂;现场采样真菌培养,3类标本中均培养出多种真菌,腐烂洋葱中尖孢镰刀菌最多,土壤中黄曲霉菌、茄病镰刀菌居多,作业者手指尖孢镰刀菌最多.结论 采挖洋葱的农民因洋葱刺激性气味造成角膜上皮糜烂,为真菌感染创造有利条件;农民接触腐烂的洋葱及土壤,手上污染了大量真菌,在擦拭眼泪时将真菌带入结膜囊造成感染.大多数致病菌是尖孢镰刀菌,主要来源于腐烂的洋葱.%Objective To probe into the causes for the onion farmers of Minqin County who vulnerable to fungal keratitis with the main pathogenic fungi and sources. Method Through the 52cases with clinical observation of fungal keratitis and microorganism cultivation,the clinical features and main pathogenic Fungi were analyzed on site investigation of onion excavation at the scene,and found out it's etiology.Examination on the spot of the onion excavating places to search for the etiological agent,sample the scene soil,rotten onion and workers' fingers,to discover the pathogenic bacteria origins. Results Retrospectively analyzed fungal culture in the 52 cases of the patients.The most strains were Fusarium oxysporum (48%).Sixty percent excavators suffered from erosion of corneal epithelium caused by stimulating taste of onions.With Scene sampling fungal culture,a variety of fungal species were raised from three kinds of samples,what the content were most of Fusarium oxysporums in rotten onions,Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium solan in soil,and Fusarium oxysporums

  17. 洋葱皮对肉脯品质及抗氧化性能的影响%The Effect of Onion Skin on Sensory Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Dried Meat Slice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉邯; 王维坚; 陈宇飞; 杨柳; 王磊

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of onion skin on the sensory value and antioxidant properties of dried meat slice.The taste,aroma and overall acceptability of dried meat slice at adding levels of 1%~3% have the accepted score.Higher levels of onion skin addition cause sharp aroma and taste.Onion skin addition strongly influences the antioxidant activity of dried meat slice.The antioxidant potential of dried meat slice with onion skin is significantly higher than that without adding onion skin.Comprehensive sensory evaluation and antioxidant test show that adding 2%~3% of onion skin can make meat have better taste and improve the antioxidant capacity of products.%通过感官评定、抗氧化性能测试和脂肪氧化程度测定实验来考察洋葱皮的添加对肉脯品质、抗氧化性能和储存稳定性的影响。感官实验表明洋葱皮的最高添加量不可超过3%,否则过重的刺激性气味会影响肉脯的品质。抗氧化和脂肪氧化程度测定实验结果显示洋葱皮能够明显提高肉脯的抗氧化能力和储存稳定性,肉脯的抗氧化能力随着洋葱皮含量的增大而增大。综合感官评定、抗氧化性能测试和脂肪氧化程度测定实验的结果,向肉脯中添加2%~3%洋葱皮,可显著提高肉脯的抗氧化能力,从而提高肉脯的储存稳定性,延长肉脯的保质期。

  18. Radioprotective Effect of Alk(enyl Thiosulfates Derived from Allium Vegetables against DNA Damage Caused by X-Ray Irradiation in Cultured Cells: Antiradiation Potential of Onions and Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sook Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate a radioprotective effect of sodium n-propyl thiosulfate (NPTS and sodium 2-propenyl thiosulfate (2PTS derived from onions and garlic, respectively, rat hepatoma H4IIE cells and mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells were preincubated with each of these compounds for 48 hours at 37°C before receiving 10 Gy of X-ray irradiation. Cell damage caused by the irradiation was quantified as comet tail moment, which represents the degree of DNA damage. X-ray-induced DNA damage was significantly decreased in both H4IIE and L5178Y cells by micromolar concentrations of NPTS and 2PTS compared with the control without the compounds. The protective effect was more potent with 2PTS than NPTS. Onions and garlic have antiradiation potential.

  19. Enhanced rate capability and cycling stability of core/shell structured CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/onion-like C nanocapsules for lithium-ion battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xianguo, E-mail: liuxianguohugh@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Wu, Niandu; Cui, Caiyun; Zhou, Pingping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Sun, Yuping [Center for Engineering Practice and Innovation Education, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243032 (China)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Core/shell-structured CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/onion-like carbon nanocapsules have been prepared. • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/C nanocapsules possess good reversibility even when the current density is up to 4C. • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/C nanocapsules obtain a discharge capacity of 914.2 mA h g{sup −1} after 500 cycles at 0.1C. - Abstract: In this work, core/shell structured CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/onion-like C nanocapsules have been successfully fabricated by the arc discharge method and air-annealing process and confirmed by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The core/shell structure effectively withstands the volume change of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles during the cycling process. Moreover, the onion-like C shells reduce the charge transfer resistance and facilitate electron and ion transport throughout the electrode. As a result, CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/onion-like C nanocapsules exhibit excellent performance as a potential anode material for lithium ion batteries and deliver a reversible capacity of 914.2 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1C, even after 500 cycles and recover its original capacity when the rate returns from 4C to the initial 0.1C after 120 cycles.

  20. Doubled Haploid ‘CUDH2107’ as a Reference for Bulb Onion (Allium cepa L.) Research: Development of a Transcriptome Catalogue and Identification of Transcripts Associated with Male Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosa, Jiffinvir S.; Lee, Robyn; Bräuning, Sophia; Lord, Janice; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; McCallum, John; Macknight, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers working on model plants have derived great benefit from developing genomic and genetic resources using ‘reference’ genotypes. Onion has a large and highly heterozygous genome making the sharing of germplasm and analysis of sequencing data complicated. To simplify the discovery and analysis of genes underlying important onion traits, we are promoting the use of the homozygous double haploid line ‘CUDH2107’ by the onion research community. In the present investigation, we performed transcriptome sequencing on vegetative and reproductive tissues of CUDH2107 to develop a multi-organ reference transcriptome catalogue. A total of 396 million 100 base pair paired reads was assembled using the Trinity pipeline, resulting in 271,665 transcript contigs. This dataset was analysed for gene ontology and transcripts were classified on the basis of putative biological processes, molecular function and cellular localization. Significant differences were observed in transcript expression profiles between different tissues. To demonstrate the utility of our CUDH2107 transcriptome catalogue for understanding the genetic and molecular basis of various traits, we identified orthologues of rice genes involved in male fertility and flower development. These genes provide an excellent starting point for studying the molecular regulation, and the engineering of reproductive traits. PMID:27861615

  1. Qualidade de cebola minimamente processada e armazenada sob refrigeração Quality of minimally processed onions stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina A. Miguel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do armazenamento refrigerado em cebolas, na vida útil e na qualidade de seu produto minimamente processado (PMP. Cebolas ´Superex', tipo comercial, foram armazenadas em câmara fria a 10°C e 60% UR, por 1; 16; 31; 61 e 91 dias. Nestas datas, amostras de bulbos foram minimamente processados e armazenados a 11°C e 61% UR. Estes produtos foram avaliados em dias alternados quanto à massa fresca e a aparência e a cada 2-3 dias quanto à coloração instrumental (luminosidade, ângulo Hue ou de cor e cromaticidade, teores de sólidos solúveis (SS e de acidez titulável (AT e atividade da aliinase. O armazenamento dos bulbos levou os PMP a menor perda de massa, até o agravamento da senescência, observada nos bulbos armazenados por 91 dias. Os produtos dos bulbos armazenados mantiveram aparência adequada até o 12°-13 dia, exceção feita aos bulbos armazenados por 91 dias que conservaram-na por apenas 9 dias. Os PMP tornaram-se mais amarelados, com ligeira redução nos teores de SS, aumento inicial nos de AT e redução na atividade da aliinase. As cebolas 'Superex' podem ser armazenadas a 10ºC e 60% UR por até 61 dias, com produção de produtos minimamente processados com vida útil de até 13 dias, a 11ºC e 61% UR.The effect of refrigerated storage was evaluated on onion shelf-life and quality of fresh-cut products. ´Superex´ onions, commercial type, were stored in a cold room at 10°C and 60% RH for 1; 16; 31; 61, and 91 days. During these days, samples of bulbs were minimally processed and stored at 11°C and 61% RH. These products were evaluated on alternated days, for loss of fresh mass and appearance and every 2-3 days for color (luminosity, Hue angle, and chromaticity, soluble solids (SS and titratable acidy (TA contents and alliinase activity. Bulbs storage reduced the fresh-cut weight loss during storage, until the senescence aggravating, observed in bulbs stored for 91 days. Minimally processed products

  2. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura de cebola (Allium cepa transplantada Periods of weed interference with transplanted onion crop (Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Soares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de períodos de convivência (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias após o transplantio de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas sobre a produtividade de quatro cultivares de cebola (Mercedes, Granex 33, Superex e Serrana, em sistema de transplantio de mudas. O experimento foi instalado em Jaboticabal-SP, de abril a outubro de 2000, utilizando delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 8. As principais populações de plantas daninhas no final dos períodos de convivência foram de Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus e Cyperus rotundus. Os cultivares Mercedes (2,90 kgm-2 e Granex 33 (2,64 kgm-2 foram os mais produtivos, independentemente da interferência das plantas daninhas. A convivência com as plantas daninhas durante os primeiros 98 dias reduziu a produtividade da cebola em 95% e o peso médio de bulbos em 91%. O período anterior à interferência (PAI foi de 42 dias, não havendo diferença entre os cultivares de cebola.This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of weed coexistence periods (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after transplanting on the productivity of four onion cultivars (Mercedez, Granex 33, Superex and Serrana. The experiment was installed in Jaboticabal - SP - Brazil, from April to October 2000, arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications, in a factorial design 4 x 8. The main weed populations at the end of the coexistence periods were Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus and Cyperus rotundus. The cultivars Mercedez (2.90 kg m-2 and Granex-33 (2.64 kg m-2 were the most productive, under the conditions of weed interference.Weed interference during the first 98 days reduced production weight around 95% and the average weight of bulbs was reduced by 91%. For all the cultivars, weed coexistence the during the first 42 days after transplanting did not reduce the total

  3. Qualidade de bulbos de cebola em consequência de tratamentos pré-colheita Onion bulb quality due to pre-harvest treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos David Ferreira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se avaliar o efeito de tratamentos pré-colheita na qualidade de bulbos de cebola, através dos parâmetros perda de peso, espessura e coloração da casca, diâmetro e firmeza do bulbo, foi conduzido experimento em Paulínia, Estado de São Paulo, em 1997. Foram utilizados quatro tratamentos: testemunha; oxicloreto de cobre (250 g 100 L-1 de água; ácido bórico (250 g 100 L-1 de água; e a combinação dos dois últimos e seis cultivares: Serrana, Régia, Crioula e três híbridos da SVS, HT, HS-1 e HS-2. Os tratamentos foram aplicados durante a bulbificação. Os bulbos foram armazenados à temperatura ambiente (25ºC e analisados periodicamente para os parâmetros citados. Os resultados permitiram observar que a aplicação pré-colheita do oxicloreto de cobre, nas quatro últimas semanas do ciclo, aumentou significativamente a resistência da casca dos bulbos, reduziu a perda de peso e incrementou a coloração dos mesmos, para todas as cultivares. Cultivares com casca mais escura apresentaram melhor resposta aos tratamentos pré-colheita para a coloração, do que as de casca mais clara. A firmeza dos bulbos, não foi influenciada pelos tratamentos pré-colheita.Pre-harvest treatments were evaluated to enhance onion bulb quality in different onion cultivars adapted to tropical conditions. Parameters used were weight loss, skin color and thickness, bulb and firmness. Trials were carried out in 1997. Four treatments were used: control, copper oxicloride (250 g 100 L-1; boric acid (250 g 100 L-1, and a combination of the two chemical treatments (250 g 100 L-1 of each. Treatments were applied at bulbing stage. The six cultivars were Serrana, Régia, Crioula, and the hybrids HT, HS-1 and HS-2. Bulbs were stored at room temperature prior to evaluations. Results showed that copper oxicloride (250 g 100 L-1 induced an increase in skin thickness, decreased weight loss and enhanced color in cultivars. Dark skin cultivars had a

  4. Establishment of High-frequency in Vitro Regeneration System of Onion%洋葱高频离体再生体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建军; 刘照坤; 侯喜林; 杨学东; 孔敏; 李满堂

    2012-01-01

    以洋葱(Allium cepa L.)品种‘W465’的幼嫩花序和不同发育时期的幼蕾为外植体材料,研究激素配比对其愈伤组织诱导、再生和生根驯化的影响,以建立洋葱高频离体再生体系。研究结果表明,洋葱幼嫩花序为最佳外植体材料,在含有1.0mg.L^-12,4-D+1.0mg.L^-16-BA的B5培养基上愈伤诱导率为100%,在添加1.0mg.L^-1TDZ的B5培养基上再生芽分化率为78.13%,在1/2MS+0.01mg.L^-1NAA培养基上可诱导生根,驯化移栽成活率达到95%。%With the young umbels and buds of onion (Allium cepa L.) at different development stage, a high frequency regeneration system of onion in vitro was established by analysis the effects of explant type and plant growth regulator combination on callus' induction, shoot regeneration and rooting. The optimum condition was showed as with young umbels on B5 medium with 1.0 mg. L^-1 2,4-D + 1.0mg. L^-1 6-BA, with the callus induction rate reaching 100%. The optimum hormone concentration of getting high-frequency regeneracy shoot, with 78.13%, from callus was 1.0 mg·L^-1 thidiazuron (TDZ) on B5 medium. All shoots rooted on 1/2MS medium with 0.01 mg · L^-1 NAA, the regenerated plantlet were domesticated and transplanted in greenhouse: The survival rate was 95%.

  5. Disponibilidade hídrica e germinação de sementes de cebola (Allium cepa L. Water availability and germination of onion seeds (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Piana

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar a influência do teor de água do substrato na germinação de sementes de cebola (Allium cepa L., conduziu-se um ensaio sob condições de ambiente de laboratório. Os efeitos de cinco níveis de água no substrato solo x areia (3:1, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% da capacidade de retenção foram avaliados através da porcentagem de emergência no 14° dia da semeadura e pesos da matéria verde e seca das plântulas normais. Para tanto, 200 sementes do cultivar Pira Ouro por tratamento, em quatro repetições de 50, foram semeadas a 1,5 cm de profundidade, mantendo-se constantes os níveis de água no substrato. Os resultados possibilitaram concluir que os níveis de umidade do solo indicados para germinação de sementes de cebola são de 40% e 60% da capacidade de retenção do substrato, por possibilitarem uma melhor emergência, peso da matéria verde e seca das plântulas.One essay was conducted under laboratory conditions, in order to verify the influence of substrate water content on the germination of onion (Allium cepa L. seeds. The effect of five water levels in the medium soil x sand (3:1 - 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% retention capacity-were evaluated through the emergence percentage 14 days after seedling and the weight of fresh and dry matters of normal seedlings. For that purpose, 200 treated seeds of Pira Ouro cultivar were sown 1.5 cm deep in four replicátions of 50, with a constant water content in the medium. The best results showed that the soil moisture levels suggested for the germination of onion seeds were 40% to 60% of the substrate retention capacity, once they provide better emergence, weight of the fresh and dry matters of seedlings.

  6. Efeito da polinização por abelhas e outros insetos na produção de sementes de cebola Effect of pollination by bees and other insects on the production of onion seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidia Witter

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência de polinização tem sido apontada como uma das causas da baixa produção de sementes na cultura da cebola. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a relação da presença de abelhas e outros insetos em flores de duas cultivares de cebola, Allium cepa L. (Alliaceae, com a produção de sementes. Foram registradas a diversidade e a freqüência de insetos nas flores de cebola e o efeito polinizador foi testado. O comportamento de Apis mellifera foi observado diretamente nas flores e a fidelidade verificada a partir do pólen nas corbículas. Representantes de Hymenoptera e Diptera foram os visitantes florais mais abundantes. Houve correlação entre a freqüência de A. mellifera com número de umbelas com flores, em ambas cultivares, e de outros insetos em Crioula Alto Vale. A produção de sementes com livre visitação de insetos apresentou acréscimo superior a 20% em relação às parcelas sem insetos e com visita de uma abelha. A. mellifera transportou mais de 70% de pólen de cebola. A presença de A. mellifera é indispensável para a produção comercial de sementes de cebola.Pollination's deficit has been pointed as one of the causes of the low onion seed production. The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship of the presence of bees and other insects in flowers of two cultivars of onion, Allium cepa L. (Alliaceae, with seed production. The diversity and frequency of insects in flowers of onion was registered and their pollinizing effect was tested. The behavior of Apis mellifera was directly observed in the flowers and the fidelity was testified from the presence of pollen in the corbiculas. Representatives of Hymenoptera and Diptera were the most abundant flower visitors. There was a correlation between frequency of A. mellifera and the number of umbels with flowers in both cultivars and of other insects in Crioula Alto Vale. The production of seeds with free insect visitation had an increase of more

  7. Decontamination of tomato, red cabbage, carrot, fresh parsley and fresh green onion inoculated with Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri by some Essential oils (in vitro condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhang Aliakbari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Essential oils and their major constituents are useful sources of antimicrobial compounds. There are a few reports on the decontamination and antimicrobial activity of essential oils towards Shigella spp.Materials and Methods: In this study, the antimicrobial and decontamination potentials of essential oils at different concentrations, belonging to plants such as Thymus vulgaris, Saturiea hortensis, Mentha polegium, Cuminum cyminum, Lavandula officinalis and Mentha viridis L. (spearmint, towards Shigella sonnei and Shigella  flexneri were investigated. The disk diffusion method demonstrated the antimicrobial potential of the essential oils.Results: The ability of essential oils to decontaminate vegetables such as, tomato, red cabbage, carrot, fresh parsley and fresh green onion that were previously inoculated with Shigella spp. was determined. Inhibitory effects of essential oils towards Shigella spp. were noted in the disk diffusion method. There was a reduction in Shigella population following inoculation of cultures with 0.5% and 0.1% (v/v essential oils.Conclusion: This study confirmed that essential oils have the potential to be used for decontamination of vegetables.

  8. Gene cloning, characterization and expression and enzymatic activities related to trehalose metabolism during diapause of the onion maggot Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Hao, You-Jin; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Juan; Ren, Shuang; Si, Feng-Ling; Chen, Bin

    2015-07-01

    Trehalose represents the main hemolymph sugar in many insects, and it functions in energy metabolism and protection in extreme environmental conditions. To gain an insight into trehalose functions in Delia antiqua diapausing pupae, genes encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS), trehalose-6-phosphatase (TPP) and trehalase (TRE) were identified and characterized. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences indicated that these genes were highly similar to each homolog from Diptera insects. Gene expressions and their enzyme activities were also investigated. The differential expressions of TPS and TPP shared very similar trends for summer and winter diapausing pupae. Their enzyme activities were consistent with the gene expressions. Trehalose concentrations in summer- and winter-diapausing pupae were lower at the initial phase (4.37-5.09μg/mg) but increased gradually and peaked in the maintenance phase (10.59-14.36μg/mg); the concentrations then declined in the quiescence phase. We speculated that a higher trehalose content during the maintenance stage may contribute to protein and/or biological membrane stabilization in winter or to desiccation resistance in the summertime. Diapause termination requires a decrease in the trehalose concentration to promote pupal-adult development. The glucose content also varied during the diapausing processes. Our results provide an overview of the differential expression levels of trehalose metabolic enzymes, confirming the important roles of trehalose in diapausing pupae of the onion maggot. Further work remains to explore its actual functions.

  9. Improvement of microbiological safety and sensorial quality of pork jerky by electron beam irradiation and by addition of onion peel extract and barbecue flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Jung, Samooel; Yong, Hae In; Bae, Young Sik; Kang, Suk Nam; Kim, Il Suk; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-05-01

    The combined effects of electron-beam (EB) irradiation and addition of onion peel (OP) extract and barbecue flavor (BF) on inactivation of foodborne pathogens and the quality of pork jerky was investigated. Prepared pork jerky samples were irradiated (0, 1, 2, and 4 kGy) and stored for 2 month at 25 °C. The D10 values of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium observed in the OP treated samples were 0.19, 0.18, and 0.19 kGy, whereas those in control were 0.25, 0.23, and 0.20 kGy, respectively. Irradiated samples with OP extract and BF had substantially lower total aerobic bacterial counts than the control had. Samples with added OP extract and BF had lower peroxide values than the control had. Sensory evaluation indicated that overall acceptability of treated samples was not changed up to 2 kGy. Therefore, EB irradiation, combined with OP extract and BF, has improved the microbiological safety with no negative effects on the quality of pork jerky.

  10. Genetic diversity of tropical-adapted onion germplasm assessed by RAPD markers Diversidade genética em germoplasma tropical de cebola estimada via marcadores RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Desterro M dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Onion is a crop of significant socioeconomic importance to Brazil. Onion germplasm with adaptation to tropical and sub-tropical conditions has played an important role in the development of this crop in the country. In this context, we studied the genetic diversity in a germplasm collection potentially useful for the development of cultivars for tropical and subtropical regions. The genetic variability of 21 accessions/cultivars that have been used as germplasm and/or were developed by onion breeding programs in Brazil was evaluated via RAPD markers. The following accessions were included in the study :'Red Creole', 'Roxa IPA-3', 'Valenciana 14', 'Beta Cristal', 'Diamante', 'Composto IPA-6', 'Aurora', 'Bojuda Rio Grande', 'Alfa Tropical', 'Pêra IPA-4', 'Primavera', 'Belém IPA-9', 'Crioula Alto Vale', 'Conquista', 'Pira-Ouro', 'Vale-Ouro IPA-11', 'Franciscana IPA-10', 'Serrana', 'CNPH 6400', 'Petroline', and 'Baia Periforme'. From the 520 primers used in the initial screening only 38 displayed stable polymorphisms. They produced 624 amplicons, of which 522 (83.7% were monomorphic and 102 (16.3% were polymorphic. An average similarity coefficient of 0.72 was calculated among accessions based upon this subgroup of polymorphic amplicons. This allowed the discrimination of this germplasm collection into six groups with only one of them comprising more than one accession. The main group was formed by 16 accessions ('Diamante', 'Composto IPA-6', 'Aurora', 'Bojuda Rio Grande', 'Conquista', 'Pira-Ouro', 'Serrana', 'Vale-Ouro IPA-11', 'Baia Periforme', 'Primavera', 'Franciscana IPA-10', 'Belém IPA-9', 'Crioula Alto Vale', 'Petroline', 'Pêra IPA-4' and 'Alfa Tropical', for which the genetic origin (with few exceptions can be traced back to the variety 'Baia Periforme'. The populations 'Red Creole', 'Roxa IPA-3', 'Beta Cristal', 'CNPH 6400', and 'Valenciana 14' comprised a set of five isolated groups, showing genetic divergence among them and in

  11. The optimization of onion pigment wool fiber dyeing process%羊毛纤维应用洋葱皮色素染色工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪梅; 马海龙

    2014-01-01

    The onion pigment wool fiber dyeing process using one-bath mordant dyeing methods of citric acid were discussed. The dying pH, time, temperature and dye concentration were as four main factors to design for the orthogonal experiment. The optimal dyeing parameters was as follows:dyed at 100℃for 70 min with the dying concentration of 0.05 g/mL and pH of 6. The pH is the dominant factor for dyeing results.%探讨柠檬酸同浴媒染条件下,洋葱皮色素染色羊毛纤维的染色工艺,以染色pH、染色时间、染色温度、染料用量为主要因素进行正交试验,获得优化的染色工艺参数为:染色pH 6,染色时间70 min,染色温度100℃,染料用量0.05 g/mL,4因素中,染色pH对染色结果影响最大。

  12. Day-to-day variations in the amplitude of the soil temperature cycle and impact on adult eclosion timing of the onion fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Watari, Yasuhiko

    2017-06-01

    The onion fly Delia antiqua advances its eclosion timing with decreasing temperature amplitude to compensate for a depth-dependent phase delay of the zeitgeber. To elucidate whether or not naturally occurring day-to-day variations in the amplitude of soil temperature cycle disturb this compensatory response, we monitored daily variations in the temperature amplitude in natural soils and evaluated the impact on adult eclosion timing. Our results indicated that both median and variance of the soil temperature amplitude become smaller as depth increases. Insertion of a larger temperature fluctuation into the thermoperiod with smaller temperature amplitude induced a stronger phase delay, while insertion of a smaller temperature fluctuation into the thermoperiod with larger temperature amplitude had a weaker phase-advancing effect. It is therefore expected that larger diurnal temperature fluctuations disturb the compensatory response, particularly if they occur at deeper locations, while smaller temperature fluctuations do so only at shallower locations. Under natural conditions, however, the probability of occurrence of smaller or larger temperature fluctuations in shallower or deeper soils, respectively, is relatively small. Thus, naturally occurring day-to-day variations in the temperature amplitude rarely disturb the compensatory response, thereby having a subtle or negligible impact on adult eclosion timing.

  13. A New Onion Cultivar——Yuyuan Hongxing%洋葱新品种豫园红星的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚秋菊; 王志勇; 蒋武生; 原玉香; 张强; 赵艳艳; 张晓伟

    2011-01-01

    Yuyuan Hongxing is a new onion cultivar with red skin developed by pedigree selection from a Japan cultivar. It is a mid-mature cultivar and the crop can be harvested about 260 days from sowing. The plant height is about 68 cm and the green blades are upwards covered with medium level of wax. It produces oblate bulb with red skin and shape index (height/ diameter) 0.70. The bulb has moderate pungency, sweet taste and crisp texture. 667 m2 yield is about 5 500 kg and the average bulb is about 240 g. It is suitable for cultivation in Henan province and similar ecological areas.%豫园红星洋葱是从日本红皮洋葱中经过多年优良单株选择和提纯复壮育成的红皮洋葱新品种.中熟,全生育期260d左右.株高约68 cm,叶片上冲,深绿色,蜡粉中等.鳞茎外皮红色,扁圆形,球形指数0.70,辣味适中,口感甜脆,商品性好;单球质量240g左右,667 m2产量约5 500 kg.适宜河南省及周边地区种植.

  14. Solid-solution precursor to melting in onion-ring Pd-Pt nanoclusters: a case of second-order-like phase change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Florent

    2008-01-01

    The thermodynamical behaviour of icosahedral, multilayer Pd-Pt clusters is addressed using a combination of simulation tools, mainly parallel tempering Monte Carlo. A preferential swapping trial move is introduced to increase the chance of successfully exchanging Pd and Pt atoms in the cluster. The 2-, 3- and 4-shell, Pd-rich clusters have been studied. We generally find that the clusters melt at a temperature significantly below the bulk melting point at the same corresponding composition. More interestingly, for the smaller clusters melting is initiated by a solid-solution intermediate phase in which the overall icosahedral frame remains, but the Pd and Pt atoms can swap sites. The transition to this solid-solution phase is seen to have a continuous, second-order like character, which is interpreted from the similarity between the present system with the ferromagnetic Ising model on the 3D cubic lattice. As the cluster grows, the onion-ring structure becomes thermodynamically unstable. The 4-layer cluster already exhibits a solid-solution in its core at temperatures as low as 100 K. The bulk behaviour is thus recovered at very small scales.

  15. Microwave irradiation on carbon black: Studies on the transformation of particles into nano-balls, nano-sticks and nano-onion like structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, Vijayshankar; Venkatachalapathy, Vishnukanthan; Rajavel, Krishnamoorthy; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard

    2016-12-01

    The solid-state transformation behavior of carbon black (CB) nanoparticles after irradiated with microwave energy was studied with and without influence of a metal catalyst. The CB sample was exposed to microwave radiation at power of 900 W from the oven and collected after 15 min and after 30 min and 45 min of irradiation. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction measurements, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and thermogravimetric analysis. Characterization of the samples prepared without catalyst shows that microwave irradiation can transform CB nanoparticles into nano-balls and nano-stick like structures. While nanoballs of almost 300-500 nm diameter are visible in all the samples irrespective of microwave irradiation time, amorphous nano-stick like structure are present only in the sample collected after 30 min of microwave irradiation. CB irradiated together with a metal catalyst resulted in metal-encapsulated onion like structures with perfectly arranged graphene layers.

  16. Inheritance nature for the trait of resistance to neck rot in hybrid combinations of common onion under the conditions of Nosivka Variety Texting Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. О. Горган

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the results of studying hybrid combinations of common onion to the Botrytis allii Munn pathogen. It is found out that as for the combinations being studied the resistance to pathogen was inherited as dominant, intermediate or recessive trait. Better resistance to neck rot was inherent in the hybrid combinations which parents comprised resistant and immune varieties, insofar as the determination of inheritance coefficient has indicated F1 hybrids have this characteristic expression dependant by 50 to 78% on the parental plant (h2 =0,50–0,78. Studying the determination of the impact of both parental components on inheritance of the resistance to B. allii pathogen showed that the regression coefficient subject to hybrid combination fell within R = 0,12–0,39, while the resistance coefficient within 0,24–0,78, respectively. Efficiency of selection is proved by the trait of resistance to neck rot based on the populations of Grandina х Mavka, Olina х Grandina, Grandina х Skvyrska і Skvyrska х Grandina, as their respective inheritance coefficient reached the level of 0,42 to 0,78.

  17. Confined direct analysis in real time ion source and its applications in analysis of volatile organic compounds of Citrus limon (lemon) and Allium cepa (onion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue

    2012-05-30

    The DART (direct analysis in real time) ion source is a novel atmospheric pressure ionization technique that enables efficient ionization of gases, liquids and solids with high throughput. A major limit to its wider application in the analysis of gases is its poor detection sensitivity caused by open-air sampling. In this study, a confined interface between the DART ion source outlet and mass spectrometer sampling orifice was developed, where the plasma generated by the atmospheric pressure glow discharge collides and ionizes gas-phase molecules in a Tee-shaped flow tube instead of in open air. It leads to significant increase of collision reaction probability between high energy metastable molecules and analytes. The experimental results show that the ionization efficiency was increased at least by two orders of magnitude. This technique was then applied in the real time analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of Citrus Limon (lemon) and wounded Allium Cepa (onion). The confined DART ion source was proved to be a powerful tool for the studies of plant metabolomics.

  18. Insects’ RNA Profiling Reveals Absence of “Hidden Break” in 28S Ribosomal RNA Molecule of Onion Thrips, Thrips tabaci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaline Wanjiru Macharia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With an exception of aphids, insects’ 28S rRNA is thought to harbor a “hidden break” which cleaves under denaturing conditions to comigrate with 18S rRNA band to exhibit a degraded appearance on native agarose gels. The degraded appearance confounds determination of RNA integrity in laboratories that rely on gel electrophoresis. To provide guidelines for RNA profiles, RNA from five major insect orders, namely, Diptera, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, was compared under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. This study confirmed that although present in most of insect’s RNA, the “hidden break” is absent in the 28S rRNA of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci. On the other hand, presence of “hidden break” was depicted in whiteflies’ 28S rRNA despite their evolutionary grouping under same order with aphids. Divergence of 28S rRNA sequences confirms variation of both size and composition of gap region among insect species. However, phylogeny reconstruction does not support speciation as a possible source of the hidden break in insect’s 28S rRNA. In conclusion, we show that RNA from a given insect order does not conform to a particular banding profile and therefore this approach cannot be reliably used to characterize newly discovered species.

  19. Insects' RNA Profiling Reveals Absence of “Hidden Break” in 28S Ribosomal RNA Molecule of Onion Thrips, Thrips tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, Rosaline Wanjiru; Ombura, Fidelis Levi; Aroko, Erick Onyango

    2015-01-01

    With an exception of aphids, insects' 28S rRNA is thought to harbor a “hidden break” which cleaves under denaturing conditions to comigrate with 18S rRNA band to exhibit a degraded appearance on native agarose gels. The degraded appearance confounds determination of RNA integrity in laboratories that rely on gel electrophoresis. To provide guidelines for RNA profiles, RNA from five major insect orders, namely, Diptera, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, was compared under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. This study confirmed that although present in most of insect's RNA, the “hidden break” is absent in the 28S rRNA of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci. On the other hand, presence of “hidden break” was depicted in whiteflies' 28S rRNA despite their evolutionary grouping under same order with aphids. Divergence of 28S rRNA sequences confirms variation of both size and composition of gap region among insect species. However, phylogeny reconstruction does not support speciation as a possible source of the hidden break in insect's 28S rRNA. In conclusion, we show that RNA from a given insect order does not conform to a particular banding profile and therefore this approach cannot be reliably used to characterize newly discovered species. PMID:25767721

  20. Record of controlling hydroponic solution temperature by using heat pumps in water culture facilities (for onions and tomatoes) and the cost thereof; Suiko saibai shisetsu (negi, tomato) no heat pump ni yoru yoeki ondo seigyo no jisseki oyobi sono cost ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonezawa, K. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-03-21

    This paper summarizes operation record of heat pumps used in controlling temperatures of hydroponic solution in onion and tomato hydroponic culture facilities. The facilities are of greenhouse structure constructed by glass, and their environmental temperatures are controlled by heaters, heat insulating curtains, and light shielding curtains. The hydroponic solution temperatures are controlled by heat pumps, with target temperatures set to 22-24{degree}C in summer and 13-18{degree}C in winter for onion, and 22-23{degree}C in summer and 18-20{degree}C in winter for tomato. The hydroponic solution temperatures for onion and tomato were maintained at the targeted temperatures even if the outside temperature has varied from maximum to minimum. The hydroponic solution controlling cost as calculated from the heat pump facility cost and annual onion harvest amounted to 51 yen/kg, which corresponds to about 6% of the shipment price of the onion. In the case of tomato, the hydroponic solution temperature having fallen below 15{degree}C causes delay in growth and Mg depletion. Temperatures higher than that develop reduction in physiological function of roots, and the root rot disease. Controlling the hydroponic solution should have resulted in stabilized harvest. The solution controlling cost for tomato is 15 yen/kg, which is about 5% of the shipment price. 3 refs., 15 figs.