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Sample records for onion-enriched diet beneficially

  1. Does an onion-enriched diet beneficially affect the microbiotal composition in healthy human subjects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Borg, Birgitte; Marin, Eduvigis Roldán

    are considered to have beneficial effects on the intestinal environment. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of onion consumption on the gut microbiotal profile. In this project, five male and five female subjects were randomized to two 14 days intervention periods including one onion...

  2. Nitrites and nitrates in the human diet: Carcinogens or beneficial hypotensive agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Anthony

    2015-06-05

    The presence of nitrite in the human diet was thought to constitute a hazard as secondary nitrosamines are known to cause gastric cancers. Recent publications on the physiology of serum nitrite have been consulted. Nitrite is added to some foodstuffs as an antibotulinum agent. The epidemiological evidence that nitrite causes gastric ulcers is weak. On the other hand, evidence that the presence of nitrite in serum lowers blood pressure is strong. This allows us to explain why a Tang dynasty treatment for angina, given in a Dunhuang medical manuscript, can be successful. The presence of nitrite in food is free of danger and a diet high in nitrate is beneficial to the health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Beneficial Effects of an 8-Week, Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Intervention on Obese Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yunjuan; Yu, Haoyong; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Junxi; Yu, Weihui; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effects of weight loss during an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) on improvement of metabolic parameters, adipose distribution and body composition, and insulin resistance and sensitivity in Chinese obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-three healthy obese volunteers were given an 8-week VLCD. The outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, metabolic profile, abdominal fat distribution, liver fat percent (LFP), and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Results. A total of 46 (86.8%) obese subjects completed the study. The VLCD caused a weight loss of −8.7 ± 0.6 kg (mean ± standard error (SE), P < 0.0001) combined with a significant improvement of metabolic profile. In both male and female, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) significantly decreased (−166.2 ± 47.6 μmol/L, P = 0.001) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHA) increased (0.15 ± 0.06 mmol/L, P = 0.004) after eight weeks of VLCD intervention. The significant reductions in subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and LFP were −66.5 ± 7.9 cm2, −35.3 ± 3.9 cm2, and −16.4 ± 2.4%, respectively (all P values P < 0.0001). HOMA IR and HOMA β significantly decreased while whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) increased (all P values P < 0.001). Conclusion. Eight weeks of VLCD was an effective intervention in obese subjects. These beneficial effects may be associated with enhanced hepatic and whole-body lipolysis and oxidation. PMID:23573151

  4. Beneficial Effects of an 8-Week, Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Intervention on Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjuan Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the effects of weight loss during an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD on improvement of metabolic parameters, adipose distribution and body composition, and insulin resistance and sensitivity in Chinese obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-three healthy obese volunteers were given an 8-week VLCD. The outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, metabolic profile, abdominal fat distribution, liver fat percent (LFP, and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Results. A total of 46 (86.8% obese subjects completed the study. The VLCD caused a weight loss of −8.7±0.6 kg (mean ± standard error (SE, P<0.0001 combined with a significant improvement of metabolic profile. In both male and female, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA significantly decreased (−166.2±47.6 μmol/L, P=0.001 and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHA increased (0.15±0.06 mmol/L, P=0.004 after eight weeks of VLCD intervention. The significant reductions in subcutaneous fat area (SFA, visceral fat area (VFA, and LFP were −66.5±7.9 cm2, −35.3±3.9 cm2, and −16.4±2.4%, respectively (all P values P<0.0001. HOMA IR and HOMA β significantly decreased while whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI increased (all P values P<0.001. Conclusion. Eight weeks of VLCD was an effective intervention in obese subjects. These beneficial effects may be associated with enhanced hepatic and whole-body lipolysis and oxidation.

  5. Sirtuins and resveratrol-derived compounds: a model for understanding the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet.

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    Russo, Matteo A; Sansone, Luigi; Polletta, Lucia; Runci, Alessandra; Rashid, Mohammad M; De Santis, Elena; Vernucci, Enza; Carnevale, Ilaria; Tafani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet (MD) had been first observed about 50 years ago. Consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, cereals, red wine, nuts, legumes, etc. has been regarded as the primary factor for protection from many human pathologies by the Mediterranean diet. Subsequently, this was attributed to the presence of polyphenols and their derivatives that, by exerting an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect, can be involved in the prevention of many diseases. Clinical trials, observational studies and meta-analysis have demonstrated an antiageing effect of MD accompanied by a reduced risk of age-related pathologies, such as cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as cancer. The scientific explanation of such beneficial effects was limited to the reduction of the oxidative stress by compounds present in the MD. However, recently, this view is changing thanks to new studies aimed to uncover the molecular mechanism(s) activated by components of this diet. In particular, a new class of proteins called sirtuins have gained the attention of the scientific community because of their antiageing effects, their ability to protect from cardiovascular, metabolic, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and to extend lifespan in lower organisms as well as in mammals. Interestingly, resveratrol a polyphenol present in grapes, nuts and berries has been shown to activate sirtuins and such activation is able to explain most of the beneficial effects of the MD. In this review, we will highlight the importance of MD with particular attention to the possible molecular pathways that have been shown to be influenced by it. We will describe the state of the art leading to demonstrate the important role of sirtuins as principal intracellular mediators of the beneficial effects of the MD. Finally, we will also introduce how Mediterranean diet may influence microbioma composition and stem cells function.

  6. Potential beneficial effects of a gluten-free diet in newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes

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    Svensson, Jannet; Sildorf, Stine Møller; Pipper, Christian B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gluten-free diet has shown promising effects in preventing type 1 diabetes (T1D) in animals as well as beneficial effects on the immune system. Gluten-free diet at diabetes onset may alter the natural course and outcome of autoimmune diseases such as T1D. Methods: In a 12-month study, 15...... children newly diagnosed with T1D were instructed to follow a gluten-free diet. Questionnaires were used to evaluate adherence to the gluten-free diet. Partial remission (PR) was defined by insulin dose-adjusted A1c (IDAA1c) ≤9 or stimulated C-peptide (SCP) >300 pmol/L measured 90 min after a liquid mixed...... meal at the inclusion, six and 12 months after onset. The intervention group was compared with two previous cohorts. Linear mixed models were used to estimate differences between cohorts. Results: After 6 months, more children on a gluten-free diet tended to have SCP values above 300 pmol/L compared...

  7. Anthocyanins in Strawberry Polyphenolic Extract Enhance the Beneficial Effects of Diets with Fructooligosaccharides in the Rat Cecal Environment.

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    Bartosz Fotschki

    Full Text Available The administration of fructooligosaccharides (FOS beneficially modulates gastrointestinal functions and may enhance the metabolism of polyphenols. However, different polyphenolic components in the diet may have different influences on the activities of the digestive enzymes and microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, a 4-week study of forty-eight male Wistar rats was conducted to investigate the physiological response of the rat cecal environment to diets without and with FOS that contained two different strawberry polyphenolic extracts, specifically EP (polyphenolic profile 60, 35, 5, and 0% ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, anthocyanins, respectively and EPA (polyphenolic profile: 50, 35, 6, and 9%, respectively. When combined with FOS, both extracts beneficially enhanced the acidification of the cecal digesta (P≤0.05 vs the groups without extracts, but the dietary combination of EPA and FOS elicited the greatest reduction in putrefactive short-chain fatty acid production and the lowest fecal β-glucuronidase activity in the cecum (P≤0.05 vs group EP. Moreover, the addition of dietary FOS elevated the metabolism of the examined strawberry extracts in the cecum and thereby increased the concentrations of the metabolites in the cecal digesta and urine (P≤0.05 vs the group with cellulose. Overall, both strawberry extracts modulated the effects of FOS in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the combination with EPA extract that contained anthocyanins exhibited greater beneficial effects in the lower gut environment than the EP extract.

  8. Beneficial effect of feeding a ketogenic diet to mothers on brain development in their progeny with a murine model of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency

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    Lioudmila Pliss

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The findings provide for the first time experimental support for beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet during the prenatal and early postnatal periods on the brain development of PDC-deficient mammalian progeny.

  9. Diet modification and metformin have a beneficial effect in a fly model of obesity and mucormycosis.

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    Shirazi, Fazal; Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Yan, Yuanqing; Albert, Nathaniel; Do, Kim-Anh; Kim-Anh, Do; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2014-01-01

    In an experimental model of obesity and hyperglycemia in Drosophila melanogaster we studied the effect of diet modification and administration of metformin on systemic infection with Rhizopus, a common cause of mucormycosis in diabetic patients. Female Wt-type Drosophila flies were fed regular (RF) or high-fat diet (HFD; 30% coconut oil) food with or without metformin for 48 h and then injected with R. oryzae. Survival rates, glucose and triglyceride levels were compared between 1) normal-weight flies (RF), 2) obese flies (HFD), 3) obese flies fed with RF, 4) flies continuously fed on HFD + metformin, 5) flies fed on HFD + metformin, then transferred to RF, and 6) obese flies administered metformin after infection [corrected].Glucose levels were compared across groups of non-infected flies and across groups of infected flies. Survival was significantly decreased (P = 0.003) in obese flies, while post-infection glucose levels were significantly increased (P = 0.0001), compared to normal-weight flies. Diet and administration of metformin led to weight loss, normalized glucose levels during infection, and were associated with decreased mortality and tissue fungal burden. In conclusion, diet and metformin help control infection-associated hyperglycemia and improve survival in Drosophila flies with mucormycosis. Fly models of obesity bear intriguing similarities to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and diabetes in humans, and can provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of infections in obese and diabetic patients.

  10. Diet modification and metformin have a beneficial effect in a fly model of obesity and mucormycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Shirazi

    Full Text Available In an experimental model of obesity and hyperglycemia in Drosophila melanogaster we studied the effect of diet modification and administration of metformin on systemic infection with Rhizopus, a common cause of mucormycosis in diabetic patients. Female Wt-type Drosophila flies were fed regular (RF or high-fat diet (HFD; 30% coconut oil food with or without metformin for 48 h and then injected with R. oryzae. Survival rates, glucose and triglyceride levels were compared between 1 normal-weight flies (RF, 2 obese flies (HFD, 3 obese flies fed with RF, 4 flies continuously fed on HFD + metformin, 5 flies fed on HFD + metformin, then transferred to RF, and 6 obese flies administered metformin after infection [corrected].Glucose levels were compared across groups of non-infected flies and across groups of infected flies. Survival was significantly decreased (P = 0.003 in obese flies, while post-infection glucose levels were significantly increased (P = 0.0001, compared to normal-weight flies. Diet and administration of metformin led to weight loss, normalized glucose levels during infection, and were associated with decreased mortality and tissue fungal burden. In conclusion, diet and metformin help control infection-associated hyperglycemia and improve survival in Drosophila flies with mucormycosis. Fly models of obesity bear intriguing similarities to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and diabetes in humans, and can provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of infections in obese and diabetic patients.

  11. Plant-Based and Plant-Rich Diet Patterns during Gestation: Beneficial Effects and Possible Shortcomings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistollato, Francesca; Sumalla Cano, Sandra; Elio, Iñaki; Masias Vergara, Manuel; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2015-09-01

    Environmental and lifestyle factors are known to play an important role during gestation, determining newborns' health status and influencing their risk of being subject to certain noncommunicable diseases later in life. In particular, maternal nutritional patterns characterized by a low intake of plant-derived foods could increase the risk of gestation-related issues, such as preeclampsia and pregravid obesity, increase genotoxicant susceptibility, and contribute to the onset of pediatric diseases. In particular, the risk of pediatric wheeze, diabetes, neural tube defects, orofacial clefts, and some pediatric tumors seems to be reduced by maternal intake of adequate amounts of vegetables, fruits, and selected antioxidants. Nevertheless, plant-based diets, like any other diet, if improperly balanced, could be deficient in some specific nutrients that are particularly relevant during gestation, such as n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids, vitamin B-12, iron, zinc, and iodine, possibly affecting the offspring's health state. Here we review the scientific literature in this field, focusing specifically on observational studies in humans, and highlight protective effects elicited by maternal diets enriched in plant-derived foods and possible issues related to maternal plant-based diets. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Resistant starch diet induces change in the swine microbiome and a predominance of beneficial bacterial populations.

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    Umu, Özgün C O; Frank, Jeremy A; Fangel, Jonatan U; Oostindjer, Marije; da Silva, Carol Souza; Bolhuis, Elizabeth J; Bosch, Guido; Willats, William G T; Pope, Phillip B; Diep, Dzung B

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fibers contribute to health and physiology primarily via the fermentative actions of the host's gut microbiome. Physicochemical properties such as solubility, fermentability, viscosity, and gel-forming ability differ among fiber types and are known to affect metabolism. However, few studies have focused on how they influence the gut microbiome and how these interactions influence host health. The aim of this study is to investigate how the gut microbiome of growing pigs responds to diets containing gel-forming alginate and fermentable resistant starch and to predict important interactions and functional changes within the microbiota. Nine growing pigs (3-month-old), divided into three groups, were fed with either a control, alginate-, or resistant starch-containing diet (CON, ALG, or RS), and fecal samples were collected over a 12-week period. SSU (small subunit) rDNA amplicon sequencing data was annotated to assess the gut microbiome, whereas comprehensive microarray polymer profiling (CoMPP) of digested material was employed to evaluate feed degradation. Gut microbiome structure variation was greatest in pigs fed with resistant starch, where notable changes included the decrease in alpha diversity and increase in relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae- and Ruminococcus-affiliated phylotypes. Imputed function was predicted to vary significantly in pigs fed with resistant starch and to a much lesser extent with alginate; however, the key pathways involving degradation of starch and other plant polysaccharides were predicted to be unaffected. The change in relative abundance levels of basal dietary components (plant cell wall polysaccharides and proteins) over time was also consistent irrespective of diet; however, correlations between the dietary components and phylotypes varied considerably in the different diets. Resistant starch-containing diet exhibited the strongest structural variation compared to the alginate-containing diet. This variation gave rise

  13. Beneficial effects of Plantago albicans on high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats.

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    Samout, Noura; Ettaya, Amani; Bouzenna, Hafsia; Ncib, Sana; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is a one of the main global public health problems associated with chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and cancer. As a solution to obesity, we suggest Plantago albicans, which is a medicinal plant with several biological effects. This study assesses the possible anti-obesity protective properties of Plantago albicans in high fat diet-fed rats. 28 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups; a group which received normal diet (C), the second group was fed HDF diet (HDF), the third group was given normal diet supplemented with Plantago albicans (P.AL), and the fourth group received HDF supplemented with Plantago albicans (HDF+P.AL) (30mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks. Our results showed an increase in body weight of HDF rats by ∼16% as compared to the control group with an increase in the levels of total cholesterol (TC) as well as LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) in serum. Also, the concentration of TBARS increased in the liver and heart of HDF-fed rats as compared to the control group. The oral gavage of Plantago albicans extract to obese rats induced a reduction in their body weight, lipid accumulation in liver and heart tissue, compared to the high-fat diet control rats. The obtained results proved that the antioxidant potency of Plantago albicans extracts was correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The antioxidant capacity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH test (as EC50=250±2.12μg/mL) and FRAP tests (as EC50=27.77±0.14μg/mL). These results confirm the phytochemical and antioxidant impact of Plantago albicans extracts. Plantago albicans content was determined using validated HPLC methodology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. MILK IN CHILDREN’S AND ADULTS’ DIET: BENEFICIAL EFFECTS AND POTENTIAL RISK

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    Ye.F. Lukushkina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow’s milk is used for the nutrition of children and adults since ancient times; its favorable effects are described in medical and popular literature. During the last years, some unfavorable effects of extensive use of milk in nutrition of infants were revealed. First of all, cow’s milk is strong risk factor of iron-deficient anemia in infants. Besides, the study of big group of children who received big volumes of milk during first 6–24 months of life showed that that type of diet increase the risk of obesity and related pathological states in older age. Comparison of compound and effects of cow’s and breast milk is presented. Authors reviewed literature data on influence of cow’s milk on the risk of acne. The question of the use of cow’s milk in adults’ diet is still under discussion.Key words: children, milk, diet, safety, efficacy.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (4: 140–144

  15. Modification in the diet can induce beneficial effects against breast cancer.

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    Aragón, Felix; Perdigón, Gabriela; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra

    2014-08-10

    The population tends to consume foods that in addition to their nutritional values can offer some benefits to their health. There are many epidemiological evidences and research studies in animal models suggesting that diet plays an important role in breast cancer prevention or progression. This review summarized some of the relevant researches about nutrition and cancer during the last years, especially in breast cancer. The analysis of probiotics and fermented products containing lactic acid bacteria in cancer prevention and/or treatment was especially discussed. It was observed that a balance of fatty acids similar to those of traditional Mediterranean diet, the consumption of fruits and vegetables, dietary fiber intake, vitamin supplementation are, along with the intake of probiotic products, the most extensively studied by the negative association to breast cancer risk. The consumption of probiotics and fermented products containing lactic acid bacteria was associated to reduce breast cancer risk in some epidemiological studies. The use of animal models showed the modulation of the host's immune response as one of the important effects associated to the benefices observed with most probiotics. However; future assays in human are very important before the medical community can accept the addition of probiotic or fermented milks containing lactic acid bacteria as supplements for cancer patients.

  16. Beneficial Effects of Oolong Tea Consumption on Diet-induced Overweight and Obese Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Rong-rong; CHEN Ling; LIN Bing-hui; MATSUI Yokichi; YAO Xin-sheng; KURIHARA Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the anti-obesity effects of oolong tea on diet-induced overweight or obesity. Methods: A total of 8 g of oolong tea a day for 6 weeks was ingested by 102 diet-induced overweight or obese subjects. The body fat level of the subjects was determined at the same time by taking body weight, height and waist measurements. The thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer was also determined on the abdomen 3 cm to the right of the navel by the ultrasonic echo method. On the other hand, effects of oolong tea ingestion on plasma triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were determined. Inhibitions of pancreatic lipase by oolong tea extract and catechins in vitro were also determined. Results: A total of 70% of the severely obese subjects did show a decrease of more than 1 kg in body weight, including 22% who lost more than 3 kg. Similarly, 64% of the obese subjects and 66% of the overweight subjects lost more than 1 kg during the experiment, and the subcutaneous fat content decreased in 12% of the subjects. The correlation between weight loss and subcutaneous fat decrease in men (r=0.055) was obviously lower than that in women (r=0.440, P0.05). Moreover, the plasma levels of TG and TC of the subjects with hyperlipidemia were remarkably decreased after ingesting oolong tea for 6 weeks. In vitro assays for the inhibition of pancreatic lipase by oolong tea extract and catechins suggest that the mechanism for oolong tea to prevent hyperlipidemia may be related to the regulative action of oolong tea catechins in lipoprotein activity. Conclusions: Oolong tea could decrease body fat content and reduce body weight through improving lipid metabolism. Chronic consumption of oolong tea may prevent against obesity.

  17. Beneficial effects of exercise on offspring obesity and insulin resistance are reduced by maternal high-fat diet.

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    Kasch, Juliane; Schumann, Sara; Schreiber, Saskia; Klaus, Susanne; Kanzleiter, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of maternal high-fat consumption and post-weaning exercise on offspring obesity susceptibility and insulin resistance. C57BL/6J dams were fed either a high-fat (HFD, 40% kcal fat) or low-fat (LFD, 10% kcal fat) semi-synthetic diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring of both maternal diet groups (mLFD; mHFD) received a LFD. At week 7, half of the mice got access to a running wheel (+RW) as voluntary exercise training. To induce obesity, all offspring groups (mLFD +/-RW and mHFD +/-RW) received HFD from week 15 until week 25. Compared to mLFD, mHFD offspring were more prone to HFD-induced body fat gain and exhibited an increased liver mass which was not due to increased hepatic triglyceride levels. RW improved the endurance capacity in mLFD, but not in mHFD offspring. Additionally, mHFD offspring +RW exhibited higher plasma insulin levels during glucose tolerance test and an elevated basal pancreatic insulin production compared to mLFD offspring. Taken together, maternal HFD reduced offspring responsiveness to the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise training regarding the improvement of endurance capacity, reduction of fat mass gain, and amelioration of HFD-induced insulin resistance.

  18. Dietary Oleate Has Beneficial Effects on Every Step of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Progression in a Methionine- and Choline-Deficient Diet-Fed Animal Model

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    Ji Young Lee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is increasingly recognized as a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The underlying mechanisms of disease progression remain poorly understood, and primary therapy of NAFLD is not yet established. We investigated the effects of dietary oleate on the development and progression of NAFLD in a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD diet-fed animal model.MethodsA total of 30 C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 in each group and fed various experimental diets for four weeks: chow, MCD diet, or OMCD (MCD diet with oleate, 0.5 mg/g/day. Liver samples were examined for steatohepatitis and fibrosis parameters and associated genes.ResultsAdditional dietary oleate dramatically reduced MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Hepatic carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein was overexpressed in MCD diet-fed mice, and dietary oleate prevented this overexpression (P<0.001. Dietary oleate partially prevented MCD diet-induced serum level increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (P<0.001, respectively. The mRNA expressions of hepatic monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, tumor necrosis factor-α and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in MCD diet-fed mice, and this overexpression of inflammatory molecules was prevented by dietary oleate (P<0.001. Hepatic pericellular fibrosis was observed in MCD diet-fed mice, and dietary oleate prevented this fibrosis. Altogether, dietary oleate prevented MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis.ConclusionDietary oleate has beneficial effects in every step of NAFLD development and progression and could be a nutritional option for NAFLD prevention and treatment.

  19. Beneficial effect of low dose Amlodipine vs Nifedipine on serum cholesterol profile of rabbits receiving standard diet.

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    Bavane DS, Rajesh CS, Gurudatta Moharir, Bharatha Ambadasu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of low dose amlodipine v/s nifedipine on serum cholesterol profile of rabbits receiving standard diet. Methods: Fourty Newzealand rabbits were selected for the study. Their cholesterol profile was estimated at the beginning of the study. Rabbits were grouped into 4 groups receiving standard diet (control group, standard diet + vehicle propylene glycol, standard diet + nifedipine dissolved in propylene glycol and standard diet + amlodipine dissolved in propylene glycol. Along with standard diet they were treated with respective drugs for ten weeks. At the end of ten weeks serum cholesterol profile was estimated. Results: The cholesterol profile was estimated at the beginning and at the end of ten weeks. Total cholesterol in the amlodipine group decreased from 97±4.06 mg/dl to 90±4.2 mg/dl and HDL-Cholesterol increased from 32.01±4.40 mg/dl to 37±4.60 mg/dl after 10 week treatment but these changes were not significant. LDL cholesterol decreased significantly in rabbits with low dose of amlodipine from 55.42±3.32 mg/dl to 32.40±3.22 mg/dl and. In the nifedipine group there was a slight increase in total cholesterol from 102.49±5.16 mg/dl to 106±5.39 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol from 34.10±2.80 to 35.16±2.82 mg/dl and LDL cholesterol also increased from 56.20±2.20 mg/dl to 59.00±2.20 mg/dl after 10 week treatment. Conclusion: The study shows amlodipine produces favorable alterations in serum cholesterol profile

  20. Plant-Based and Plant-Rich Diet Patterns during Gestation: Beneficial Effects and Possible Shortcomings12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistollato, Francesca; Sumalla Cano, Sandra; Elio, Iñaki; Masias Vergara, Manuel; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Environmental and lifestyle factors are known to play an important role during gestation, determining newborns’ health status and influencing their risk of being subject to certain noncommunicable diseases later in life. In particular, maternal nutritional patterns characterized by a low intake of plant-derived foods could increase the risk of gestation-related issues, such as preeclampsia and pregravid obesity, increase genotoxicant susceptibility, and contribute to the onset of pediatric diseases. In particular, the risk of pediatric wheeze, diabetes, neural tube defects, orofacial clefts, and some pediatric tumors seems to be reduced by maternal intake of adequate amounts of vegetables, fruits, and selected antioxidants. Nevertheless, plant-based diets, like any other diet, if improperly balanced, could be deficient in some specific nutrients that are particularly relevant during gestation, such as n–3 (ω-3) fatty acids, vitamin B-12, iron, zinc, and iodine, possibly affecting the offspring’s health state. Here we review the scientific literature in this field, focusing specifically on observational studies in humans, and highlight protective effects elicited by maternal diets enriched in plant-derived foods and possible issues related to maternal plant-based diets. PMID:26374180

  1. Beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on insulin signaling cascade, dyslipidemia, and body adiposity of diet-induced obese rats

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    Banin, R.M.; Hirata, B.K.S. [Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil); Andrade, I.S.; Zemdegs, J.C.S. [Disciplina de Fisiologia da Nutrição, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Clemente, A.P.G. [Faculdade de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, AL (Brazil); Dornellas, A.P.S.; Boldarine, V.T. [Disciplina de Fisiologia da Nutrição, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Estadella, D. [Departamento de Biociências, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Baixada Santista, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, K.T. [Curso de Nutrição, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, RJ (Brazil); Oyama, L.M.; Ribeiro, E.B. [Disciplina de Fisiologia da Nutrição, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Telles, M.M. [Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-25

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) has been indicated as an efficient medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It remains unclear if its effects are due to an improvement of the insulin signaling cascade, especially in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of GbE on insulin tolerance, food intake, body adiposity, lipid profile, fasting insulin, and muscle levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B), and protein kinase B (Akt), as well as Akt phosphorylation, in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) or a normal fat diet (NFD) for 8 weeks. After that, the HFD group was divided into two groups: rats gavaged with a saline vehicle (HFD+V), and rats gavaged with 500 mg/kg of GbE diluted in the saline vehicle (HFD+Gb). NFD rats were gavaged with the saline vehicle only. At the end of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized, insulin was injected into the portal vein, and after 90s, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed. The quantification of IRS-1, Akt, and Akt phosphorylation was performed using Western blotting. Serum levels of fasting insulin and glucose, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol, and LDL and HDL fractions were measured. An insulin tolerance test was also performed. Ingestion of a hyperlipidic diet promoted loss of insulin sensitivity and also resulted in a significant increase in body adiposity, plasma triacylglycerol, and glucose levels. In addition, GbE treatment significantly reduced food intake and body adiposity while it protected against hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diet-induced obesity rats. It also enhanced insulin sensitivity in comparison to HFD+V rats, while it restored insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, increased IRS-1, and reduced PTP-1B levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The present findings suggest that G. biloba might be efficient in preventing and treating obesity-induced insulin signaling impairment.

  2. Beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on insulin signaling cascade, dyslipidemia, and body adiposity of diet-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Banin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE has been indicated as an efficient medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It remains unclear if its effects are due to an improvement of the insulin signaling cascade, especially in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of GbE on insulin tolerance, food intake, body adiposity, lipid profile, fasting insulin, and muscle levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B, and protein kinase B (Akt, as well as Akt phosphorylation, in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD or a normal fat diet (NFD for 8 weeks. After that, the HFD group was divided into two groups: rats gavaged with a saline vehicle (HFD+V, and rats gavaged with 500 mg/kg of GbE diluted in the saline vehicle (HFD+Gb. NFD rats were gavaged with the saline vehicle only. At the end of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized, insulin was injected into the portal vein, and after 90s, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed. The quantification of IRS-1, Akt, and Akt phosphorylation was performed using Western blotting. Serum levels of fasting insulin and glucose, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol, and LDL and HDL fractions were measured. An insulin tolerance test was also performed. Ingestion of a hyperlipidic diet promoted loss of insulin sensitivity and also resulted in a significant increase in body adiposity, plasma triacylglycerol, and glucose levels. In addition, GbE treatment significantly reduced food intake and body adiposity while it protected against hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diet-induced obesity rats. It also enhanced insulin sensitivity in comparison to HFD+V rats, while it restored insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, increased IRS-1, and reduced PTP-1B levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The present findings suggest that G. biloba might be efficient in preventing and treating obesity-induced insulin signaling impairment.

  3. Beneficial Effects of Red Yeast Rice on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity, Hyperlipidemia, and Fatty Liver in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Sung; Lee, Yu Jeung; Chung, Yoon Hee; Nam, Yunsung; Kim, Sung Tae; Park, Eon Sub; Hong, Suk Myung; Yang, Yeong Kuk; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a common cause of hyperlipidemia, which is a major coronary risk factor. Previous studies have shown red yeast rice (RYR) effectiveness in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RYR on obesity and hyperlipidemia. Mice were randomly separated into five groups: the control group with a normal diet, the high-fat diet (HFD) group fed a HFD without any treatment, and HFD-fed groups supplemented with RYR (1 g/kg/day for 8 weeks, 1 g/kg/day for 12 weeks, and 2.5 g/kg/day for 8 weeks). Body weight was recorded twice and food intake thrice weekly. Liver and fat pads were surgically removed and weighed. The levels of lipid parameters, liver enzymes, and leptin levels were measured. The HFD feeding resulted in obesity, which was associated with increases in body weight, liver weight, fat pad weight, liver enzymes, and plasma leptin levels with the development of hyperlipidemia. RYR prevented weight gain and fat pad weight in mice fed a HFD. RYR alleviated blood lipid parameters, liver enzymes, and leptin levels, and improved atherogenic index. These findings suggest that RYR has therapeutic potential in treating obesity and hyperlipidemia.

  4. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Health: The Potential Beneficial Effects of a Medium Chain Triglyceride Diet in Obese Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rial, Sabri Ahmed; Karelis, Antony D; Bergeron, Karl-F; Mounier, Catherine

    2016-05-12

    Obesity and associated metabolic complications, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), are in constant increase around the world. While most obese patients show several metabolic and biometric abnormalities and comorbidities, a subgroup of patients representing 3% to 57% of obese adults, depending on the diagnosis criteria, remains metabolically healthy. Among many other factors, the gut microbiota is now identified as a determining factor in the pathogenesis of metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO) individuals and in obesity-related diseases such as endotoxemia, intestinal and systemic inflammation, as well as insulin resistance. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that an optimal healthy-like gut microbiota structure may contribute to the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype. Here, we describe how dietary medium chain triglycerides (MCT), previously found to promote lipid catabolism, energy expenditure and weight loss, can ameliorate metabolic health via their capacity to improve both intestinal ecosystem and permeability. MCT-enriched diets could therefore be used to manage metabolic diseases through modification of gut microbiota.

  5. Molecular mechanisms mediating the beneficial metabolic effects of [Arg4]tigerinin-1R in mice with diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Opeolu O; Srinivasan, Dinesh K; Owolabi, Bosede O; McGahon, Mary K; Moffett, R Charlotte; Curtis, Tim M; Conlon, J Michael; Flatt, Peter R; Abdel-Wahab, Yasser H A

    2016-08-01

    The frog skin host-defense peptide tigerinin-1R stimulates insulin release in vitro and improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in animal models of type 2 diabetes. This study extends these observations by investigating the molecular mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial metabolic effects of the analogue [Arg4]tigerinin-1R in mice with diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The study also investigates the electrophysiological effects of the peptide on KATP and L-type Ca2+ channels in BRIN-BD11 clonal β cells. Non-fasting plasma glucose and glucagon concentrations were significantly (pinsulin increased by twice daily treatment with [Arg4]tigerinin-1R (75 nmol/kg body weight) for 28 days. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were significantly (pinsulin. The peptide blocked KATP channels and, consistent with this, improved beta cell responses of isolated islets to a range of secretagogues. Peptide administration resulted in up-regulation of key functional genes in islets involved insulin secretion (Abcc8, Kcnj11, Cacna1c and Slc2a2) and in skeletal muscle involved with insulin action (Insr, Irs1, Pdk1, Pik3ca, and Slc2a4). These observations encourage further development of tigerinin-1R analogues for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes.

  6. Activation of the AMP activated protein kinase by short-chain fatty acids is the main mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of a high fiber diet on the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guo-Xin; Chen, Guo-Rong; Xu, Hui; Ge, Ren-Shan; Lin, Jing

    2010-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome, a cluster of conditions including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and elevated blood pressure, is a natural consequence of over nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased to epidemic proportions in the world. The exact pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome remains unclear, but it is known to be a complex interaction between genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors. Promotion of physical activity and dietary management are still the main methods for the prevention and management of the metabolic syndrome. Numerous experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of high fiber diet on the metabolic syndrome. The principal beneficial effects of a fiber-rich diet in these patients are: prevention of obesity, improved glucose levels, and control of the profile of blood lipids. Dietary fiber may also favor the control of arterial blood pressure. How dietary fiber exerts its beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome is not well understood. AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a major cellular fuel gauge and a master regulator of metabolic homeostasis. Several lines of evidence suggest that AMPK can be activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) either directly or indirectly. It is our hypothesis that the main mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of a high fiber diet on the metabolic syndrome is the increased SCFA production in the colon leading to a higher concentration of SCFA in the portal vein, which activates the AMPK in the liver.

  7. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jönsson, Tommy; Granfeldt, Yvonne; Ahrén, Bo; Branell, Ulla-Carin; Pålsson, Gunvor; Hansson, Anita; Söderström, Margareta; Lindeberg, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to compare the effects of a Paleolithic ('Old Stone Age') diet and a diabetes diet as generally recommended on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes not treated with insulin...

  8. Beneficial metabolic effects of CB1R anti-sense oligonucleotide treatment in diet-induced obese AKR/J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Tang

    Full Text Available An increasing amount of evidence supports pleiotropic metabolic roles of the cannibinoid-1 receptor (CB1R in peripheral tissues such as adipose, liver, skeletal muscle and pancreas. To further understand the metabolic consequences of specific blockade of CB1R function in peripheral tissues, we performed a 10-week-study with an anti-sense oligonucleotide directed against the CB1R in diet-induced obese (DIO AKR/J mice. DIO AKR/J mice were treated with CB1R ASO Isis-414930 (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg/week or control ASO Isis-141923 (25 mg/kg/week via intraperitoneal injection for 10 weeks. At the end of the treatment, CB1R mRNA from the 25 mg/kg/week CB1R ASO group in the epididymal fat and kidney was decreased by 81% and 63%, respectively. Body weight gain was decreased in a dose-dependent fashion, significantly different in the 25 mg/kg/week CB1R ASO group (46.1±1.0 g vs veh, 51.2±0.9 g, p<0.05. Body fat mass was reduced in parallel with attenuated body weight gain. CB1R ASO treatment led to decreased fed glucose level (at week 8, 25 mg/kg/week group, 145±4 mg/dL vs veh, 195±10 mg/dL, p<0.05. Moreover, CB1R ASO treatment dose-dependently improved glucose excursion during an oral glucose tolerance test, whereas control ASO exerted no effect. Liver steatosis was also decreased upon CB1R ASO treatment. At the end of the study, plasma insulin and leptin levels were significantly reduced by 25 mg/kg/week CB1R ASO treatment. SREBP1 mRNA expression was decreased in both epididymal fat and liver. G6PC and fatty acid translocase/CD36 mRNA levels were also reduced in the liver. In summary, CB1R ASO treatment in DIO AKR/J mice led to improved insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. The beneficial effects of CB1R ASO treatment strongly support the notion that selective inhibition of the peripheral CB1R, without blockade of central CB1R, may serve as an effective approach for treating type II diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

  9. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson Anita; Pålsson Gunvor; Branell Ulla-Carin; Ahrén Bo; Granfeldt Yvonne; Jönsson Tommy; Söderström Margareta; Lindeberg Staffan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Our aim was to compare the effects of a Paleolithic ('Old Stone Age') diet and a diabetes diet as generally recommended on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes not treated with insulin. Methods In a randomized cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes, 3 women and 10 men, were instructed to eat a Paleolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts; and a Diabetes diet designed in accorda...

  10. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson Anita; Pålsson Gunvor; Branell Ulla-Carin; Ahrén Bo; Granfeldt Yvonne; Jönsson Tommy; Söderström Margareta; Lindeberg Staffan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Our aim was to compare the effects of a Paleolithic ('Old Stone Age') diet and a diabetes diet as generally recommended on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes not treated with insulin. Methods In a randomized cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes, 3 women and 10 men, were instructed to eat a Paleolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts; and a Diabetes diet designed in accorda...

  11. Beneficial biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara R Robertson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface-adherent biofilm growth is a common trait of bacteria and other microorganisms in nature. Within biofilms, organisms are present in high density and are enmeshed in an organic matrix containing polysaccharides and other molecules. The close proximity of organisms within biofilms facilitates microbial interactions and signaling, including many metabolic processes in which consortia rather than individual organisms participate. Biofilm growth also enables microorganisms to withstand chemical and biological stresses. Here, we review some current literature and document representative beneficial aspects of biofilms using examples from wastewater treatment, microbial fuel cells, biological repair (biocementation of stonework, and biofilm protection against Candida albicans infections. Finally, we address a chemical ecology strategy whereby desired microbial succession and beneficial biofilm formation can be encouraged via manipulation of culture conditions and bacterial signaling.

  12. Branched-chain Amino Acids are Beneficial to Maintain Growth Performance and Intestinal Immune-related Function in Weaned Piglets Fed Protein Restricted Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M; Zhang, S H; Zeng, X F; Liu, H; Qiao, S Y

    2015-12-01

    As a novel approach for disease control and prevention, nutritional modulation of the intestinal health has been proved. However, It is still unknown whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is needed to maintain intestinal immune-related function. The objective of this study was to determine whether BCAA supplementation in protein restricted diet affects growth performance, intestinal barrier function and modulates post-weaning gut disorders. One hundred and eight weaned piglets (7.96±0.26 kg) were randomly fed one of the three diets including a control diet (21% crude protein [CP], CON), a protein restricted diet (17% CP, PR) and a BCAA diet (BCAA supplementation in the PR diet) for 14 d. The growth performance, plasma amino acid concentrations, small intestinal morphology and intestinal immunoglobulins were tested. First, average daily gain (ADG) (pBCAA group improved ADG (pBCAA groups was not different (p>0.05). The PR and BCAA treatments had a higher (pBCAA supplementation significantly increased BCAA concentrations (pBCAA supplementation increased villous height in the duodenum (pBCAA supplementation increased levels of jejunal and ileal immunoglobulin mentioned above. In conclusion, BCAA supplementation to protein restricted diet improved intestinal immune defense function by protecting villous morphology and by increasing levels of intestinal immunoglobulins in weaned piglets. Our finding has the important implication that BCAA may be used to reduce the negative effects of a protein restricted diet on growth performance and intestinal immunity in weaned piglets.

  13. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Tommy; Granfeldt, Yvonne; Ahrén, Bo; Branell, Ulla-Carin; Pålsson, Gunvor; Hansson, Anita; Söderström, Margareta; Lindeberg, Staffan

    2009-07-16

    Our aim was to compare the effects of a Paleolithic ('Old Stone Age') diet and a diabetes diet as generally recommended on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes not treated with insulin. In a randomized cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes, 3 women and 10 men, were instructed to eat a Paleolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts; and a Diabetes diet designed in accordance with dietary guidelines during two consecutive 3-month periods. Outcome variables included changes in weight, waist circumference, serum lipids, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and areas under the curve for plasma glucose and plasma insulin in the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary intake was evaluated by use of 4-day weighed food records. Study participants had on average a diabetes duration of 9 years, a mean HbA1c of 6,6% units by Mono-S standard and were usually treated with metformin alone (3 subjects) or metformin in combination with a sulfonylurea (3 subjects) or a thiazolidinedione (3 subjects). Mean average dose of metformin was 1031 mg per day. Compared to the diabetes diet, the Paleolithic diet resulted in lower mean values of HbA1c (-0.4% units, p = 0.01), triacylglycerol (-0.4 mmol/L, p = 0.003), diastolic blood pressure (-4 mmHg, p = 0.03), weight (-3 kg, p = 0.01), BMI (-1 kg/m2, p = 0.04) and waist circumference (-4 cm, p = 0.02), and higher mean values of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.03). The Paleolithic diet was mainly lower in cereals and dairy products, and higher in fruits, vegetables, meat and eggs, as compared with the Diabetes diet. Further, the Paleolithic diet was lower in total energy, energy density, carbohydrate, dietary glycemic load, saturated fatty acids and calcium, and higher in unsaturated fatty acids, dietary cholesterol and several vitamins. Dietary GI was slightly lower in the Paleolithic diet

  14. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Anita

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to compare the effects of a Paleolithic ('Old Stone Age' diet and a diabetes diet as generally recommended on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes not treated with insulin. Methods In a randomized cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes, 3 women and 10 men, were instructed to eat a Paleolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts; and a Diabetes diet designed in accordance with dietary guidelines during two consecutive 3-month periods. Outcome variables included changes in weight, waist circumference, serum lipids, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and areas under the curve for plasma glucose and plasma insulin in the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary intake was evaluated by use of 4-day weighed food records. Results Study participants had on average a diabetes duration of 9 years, a mean HbA1c of 6,6% units by Mono-S standard and were usually treated with metformin alone (3 subjects or metformin in combination with a sulfonylurea (3 subjects or a thiazolidinedione (3 subjects. Mean average dose of metformin was 1031 mg per day. Compared to the diabetes diet, the Paleolithic diet resulted in lower mean values of HbA1c (-0.4% units, p = 0.01, triacylglycerol (-0.4 mmol/L, p = 0.003, diastolic blood pressure (-4 mmHg, p = 0.03, weight (-3 kg, p = 0.01, BMI (-1 kg/m2, p = 0.04 and waist circumference (-4 cm, p = 0.02, and higher mean values of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.03. The Paleolithic diet was mainly lower in cereals and dairy products, and higher in fruits, vegetables, meat and eggs, as compared with the Diabetes diet. Further, the Paleolithic diet was lower in total energy, energy density, carbohydrate, dietary glycemic load, saturated fatty acids and calcium, and higher in unsaturated fatty acids, dietary cholesterol and several vitamins. Dietary GI

  15. Beneficial effect of CETP gene polymorphism in combination with a Mediterranean diet influencing lipid metabolism in metabolic syndrome patients: CORDIOPREV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan Francisco; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Marin, Carmen; Leon-Acuña, Ana; Camargo, Antonio; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Ordovas, Jose Maria; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Martinez, Pablo

    2016-12-24

    The cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene has been implicated in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) metabolism. However, little is known about the impact of this gene on metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and its interaction with diet. Here, we evaluate whether the consumption of a Mediterranean diet, compared with a Low-fat diet, interacts with the rs3764261 SNP at the CETP locus to modify lipid metabolism in MetS patients. Plasma lipid concentrations and rs3764261 genotypes were determined in 424 MetS subjects participating in the CORDIOPREV clinical trial (NCT00924937). Gene-diet interactions were analyzed after a year of dietary intervention (Mediterranean diet (35% fat, 22% MUFA) vs Low-fat diet (28% fat, 12% MUFA)). We found significant gene-diet interactions between rs3764261 SNP and the dietary pattern for HDL-C (P = 0.006) and triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.040). Specifically, after 12 months of Mediterranean diet intervention, subjects who were carriers of the minor T allele (TT + TG) displayed higher plasma HDL-C concentrations (P = 0.021) and lower triglycerides (P = 0.020) compared with those who were homozygous for the major allele (GG). In contrast, in the Low-fat intervention group, no significant differences were found between CETP genotypes after 12 months of dietary treatment. Our data support the notion that the consumption of a Mediterranean diet may play a contributing role in triggering lipid metabolism by interacting with the rs3764261 SNP at CETP gene locus in MetS patients. Due to the complex nature of gene-environment interactions, dietary adjustment in MetS patients may require a personalized approach.

  16. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent weight-related diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and some cancers. A healthy diet is an important part of a weight-loss ... you to lose weight. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  17. Antioxidant properties of tea blunt ROS-dependent lipogenesis: beneficial effect on hepatic steatosis in a high fat-high sucrose diet NAFLD obese rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, Laura; Battault, Sylvain; Meyer, Grégory; Nascimento, Alessandro; Gaillard, Sandrine; de Sousa, Georges; Rahmani, Roger; Riva, Catherine; Armand, Martine; Maixent, Jean-Michel; Reboul, Cyril

    2017-02-01

    Oxidative stress could trigger lipid accumulation in liver and thus hepatic steatosis. Tea is able to prevent liver disorders, but a direct link between antioxidant capacities and prevention of steatosis has not been reported yet. We aimed to investigate such relationship in a rat model of high fat-high sucrose diet (HFS)-induced obesity and to explore more deeply the mechanisms in isolated hepatocytes. Wistar rats were divided into a control group (standard diet), an HFS group (high fat-sucrose diet) and an HFS+tea group (HFS diet with ad-libitum access to tea drink). Body weight, fat mass, glycemic parameters in blood, lipid and oxidative stress parameters in blood and liver were measured in each group after 14 weeks. Isolated hepatocytes were treated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducer t-BHP in the presence or not of antioxidants (tempol or tea), and superoxide anion production and lipid accumulation were measured using specific fluorescent probes. We reported that the HFS diet highly increased hepatic lipids content, while tea consumption attenuated steatosis and improved the oxidative status (decrease in hepatic oxidative stress, increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity). The role of antioxidant properties of tea in such phenomenon was confirmed in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Indeed, the increase of mitochondrial ROS production with t-BHP resulted in lipid accumulation in hepatocytes (positive linear regression), and antioxidants (tempol or tea) normalized both. We reported that the antioxidant properties of tea protect rats from an obesogenic HFS diet-induced hepatic steatosis by counteracting the ROS-dependent lipogenesis.

  18. Long-term beneficial effect of a 16-week very low calorie diet on pericardial fat in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, M.; Jonker, J.T.; Hammer, S.; Kerpershoek, G.; Lamb, H.J.; Meinders, A.E.; Pijl, H.; Roos, A. de; Romijn, J.A.; Smit, J.W.A.; Jazet, I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Pericardial fat accumulation has been associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. A very low calorie diet (VLCD) improves the cardiovascular risk profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), by improving the metabolic profile, heart function, and triglyceride (TG) stores in

  19. The beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on diet induced obesity and impaired glucose control do not require Gpr120.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Bjursell

    Full Text Available GPR120 (Ffar4 has been postulated to represent an important receptor mediating the improved metabolic profile seen upon ingestion of a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. GPR120 is highly expressed in the digestive system, adipose tissue, lung and macrophages and also present in the endocrine pancreas. A new Gpr120 deficient mouse model on pure C57bl/6N background was developed to investigate the importance of the receptor for long-term feeding with a diet enriched with fish oil. Male Gpr120 deficient mice were fed two different high fat diets (HFDs for 18 weeks. The diets contained lipids that were mainly saturated (SAT or mainly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Body composition, as well as glucose, lipid and energy metabolism, was studied. As expected, wild type mice fed the PUFA HFD gained less body weight and had lower body fat mass, hepatic lipid levels, plasma cholesterol and insulin levels and better glucose tolerance as compared to those fed the SAT HFD. Gpr120 deficient mice showed a similar improvement on the PUFA HFD as was observed for wild type mice. If anything, the Gpr120 deficient mice responded better to the PUFA HFD as compared to wild type mice with respect to liver fat content, plasma glucose levels and islet morphology. Gpr120 deficient animals were found to have similar energy, glucose and lipid metabolism when fed HFD PUFA compared to wild type mice. Therefore, GPR120 appears to be dispensable for the improved metabolic profile associated with intake of a diet enriched in n-3 PUFA fatty acids.

  20. Cooking enhances beneficial effects of pea seed coat consumption on glucose tolerance, incretin, and pancreatic hormones in high-fat-diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Zohre; Yang, Kaiyuan; Yang, Han; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn; Chan, Catherine B

    2015-04-01

    Pulses, including dried peas, are nutrient- and fibre-rich foods that improve glucose control in diabetic subjects compared with other fibre sources. We hypothesized feeding cooked pea seed coats to insulin-resistant rats would improve glucose tolerance by modifying gut responses to glucose and reducing stress on pancreatic islets. Glucose intolerance induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with high-fat diet (HFD; 10% cellulose as fibre) was followed by 3 weeks of HFD with fibre (10%) provided by cellulose, raw-pea seed coat (RP), or cooked-pea seed coat (CP). A fourth group consumed low-fat diet with 10% cellulose. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (oGTT, ipGTT) were done. CP rats had 30% and 50% lower glucose and insulin responses in oGTT, respectively, compared with the HFD group (P < 0.05) but ipGTT was not different. Plasma islet and incretin hormone concentrations were measured. α- and β-cell areas in the pancreas and density of K- and L-cells in jejunum and ileum were quantified. Jejunal expression of hexose transporters was measured. CP feeding increased fasting glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-stimulated gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses (P < 0.05), but K- and L-cells densities were comparable to HFD, as was abundance of SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA. No significant difference in β-cell area between diet groups was observed. α-cell area was significantly smaller in CP compared with RP rats (P < 0.05). Overall, our results demonstrate that CP feeding can reverse adverse effects of HFD on glucose homeostasis and is associated with enhanced incretin secretion and reduced α-cell abundance.

  1. A protein-enriched low glycemic index diet with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation exerts beneficial effects on metabolic control in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosheer, Simone M; Waldschütz, Wolfgang; Itariu, Bianca K; Brath, Helmut; Stulnig, Thomas M

    2014-12-01

    The current study aims to investigate practicability and effects of a combined dietary intervention with increased relative protein content supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on metabolic control and inflammatory parameters in a real life situation in type 2 diabetes patients. In this observational study we advised thirty mostly obese patients with type 2 diabetes to follow a protein-enriched diet with carbohydrates of low glycemic index (low GI) and moderate fat reduction supplemented with omega-3 PUFA for 24 weeks. Primary efficacy parameter was the change in HbA1c; secondary parameters included changes in systemic inflammation (measured by ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, usCRP), body weight, waist circumference, fat mass. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01474603). The dietary intervention significantly reduced the primary efficacy variable HbA1c from a baseline value of 63±11mmol/mol to 59±14mmol/mol (P=0.033) and 56±12mmol/mol (P=0.001) after 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. In addition, usCRP decreased significantly at 24 weeks (P=0.039). Waist circumference, an important indicator for cardiometabolic-risk and silent inflammation, decreased from baseline 116.0±14.1cm to 114.9±13.5cm (P=0.019), 114.0±14.4cm (P=0.001), and 112.7±13.4cm (P=0.049), after 3, 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. Counseling a protein enriched and low glycemic index diet supplemented with long-chain omega-3 PUFA in a real-life clinical setting improves glycemic control and also reduces waist circumference and silent inflammation in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Beneficial effects of tigerinin-1R on glucose homeostasis and beta cell function in mice with diet-induced obesity-diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Opeolu O; Srinivasan, Dinesh K; Owolabi, Bosede O; Flatt, Peter R; Abdel-Wahab, Yasser H A

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates the anti-diabetic effects of tigerinin-1R (RVCSAIPLPICH.NH2), a previously described amphibian host defence peptide, in mice with diet-induced obesity-diabetes. Proteolytic degradation of synthetic tigerinin-1R was investigated by reversed-phase HPLC and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Changes in glycaemic responses and metabolic parameters were measured in mice with high fat diet-induced obesity-diabetes treated with twice-daily with of tigerinin-1R (75 nmol/kg bw) for 15 days. Indirect calorimetry and body composition were measured by CLAMS and DEXA whole body scanning. Insulin secretory responses of islets isolated from treated and untreated mice were examined. Tigerinin-1R was resistant to in vitro degradation by plasma enzymes. Twice-daily injection of tigerinin-1R for 15 days had no significant effect on food intake or body weight. Non-fasting glucose levels were significantly lowered, and insulin levels were elevated compared to saline treated controls. Glycaemic responses to both oral and intraperitoneal glucose administration were significantly improved by tigerinin-1R treatment. Plasma insulin was also significantly elevated. The peptide had no significant effect on insulin sensitivity but the beta cell responses of islets isolated from treated mice to a range of nutrients and peptidergic secretagogues were significantly improved. Oxygen consumption, CO2 production, respiratory exchange ratio, energy expenditure and body composition were not significantly altered by treatment with tigerinin-1R. Tigerinin-1R significantly improves glucose homeostasis and may have potential as a novel antidiabetic agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  3. Activation of transsulfuration pathway by salvianolic acid a treatment: a homocysteine-lowering approach with beneficial effects on redox homeostasis in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated homocysteine is a cardiovascular risk factor in hyperlipidemia. Transsulfuration pathway provides an endogenous pathway for homocysteine conversion to antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Salvianolic acid A (Sal A) contains two molecules of caffeic acid and one molecule of danshensu that is capable of enhancing homocysteine transsulfuration, which led to the hypothesis that Sal A has activatory effect on transsulfuration pathway and this effect may have beneficial effects on both homocysteine and redox status in hyperlipidemia. Methods and results To test this hypothesis, we developed a rat model of hyperlipidemia induced by high-fat diet for 16 weeks, during which rats were treated with 1 mg/kg salvianolic acid A (Sal A) for the final 4 weeks. Activities of key enzymes and metabolite profiling in the transsulfuration pathway revealed that hyperlipidemia led to elevated plasma homocysteine levels after 16-week dietary treatment, which was associated with reduced activities of homocysteine transsulfuration enzymes, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE). The impaired transsulfuration pathway prevented homocysteine transsulfuration to cysteine, resulting in cysteine deficiency and subsequent reduction in GSH pool size. The redox status was altered in the setting of hyperlipidemia as indicated by GSH/GSSG ratio. Sal A treatment increased hepatic CBS and CSE activities, which was associated with reduced accumulation in circulating homocysteine levels and attenuated decline in hepatic cysteine content in hyperlipidemic rats. Sal A also led to an increase in GSH pool size, which subsequently caused a restored GSH/GSSG ratio. The activatory effect of Sal A on CBS was also observed in normal rats and in in vitro experiment. Conclusion Our results suggest that activation of transsulfuration pathway by Sal A is a promising homocysteine-lowering approach that has beneficial effects on redox homeostasis in hyperlipidemic settings

  4. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Rix, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High phosphorus content in the diet may have adverse effect on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether the New Nordic Diet (NND), based mainly on local, organic and less processed food and large amounts of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain and fish, versus an Average Danish Diet (ADD...... modifications of the diet are needed in order to make this food concept beneficial regarding phosphorus absorption....

  5. Beneficiated coals' char morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira, La Jagua (Cesar, Guachinte (Valle del Cauca and Nechí (Antioquia. Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thickness. It was found that char morphology depended on coal rank and maceral composition. Morphological characteristics like high porosity, thinner walls and network-like morphology which are beneficial in improving combustion were present in vitrinite- and liptinite-rich lowest-ranking coals. Beneficiated coals showed that their chars had better performance regarding their morphological characteristics than their original coal chars.

  6. Dynamics of beneficial epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Berdahl, Andrew; De Bacco, Caterina; Dumas, Marion; Ferdinand, Vanessa; Grochow, Joshua A; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Kallus, Yoav; Kempes, Christopher P; Kolchinsky, Artemy; Larremore, Daniel B; Libby, Eric; Power, Eleanor A; Stern, Caitlin A; Tracey, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens can spread epidemically through populations. Beneficial contagions, such as viruses that enhance host survival or technological innovations that improve quality of life, also have the potential to spread epidemically. How do the dynamics of beneficial biological and social epidemics differ from those of detrimental epidemics? We investigate this question using three theoretical approaches as well as an empirical analysis of concept propagation. First, in evolutionary models, we show that a beneficial horizontally-transmissible element, such as viral DNA, spreads super-exponentially through a population, substantially more quickly than a beneficial mutation. Second, in an epidemiological social network approach, we show that infections that cause increased connectivity lead to faster-than-exponential fixation in the population. Third, in a sociological model with strategic rewiring, we find that preferences for increased global infection accelerate spread and produce super-exponential fixation rates,...

  7. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  8. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2010-01-01

    of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....

  9. When is Concentration Beneficial?

    OpenAIRE

    Liron-Espana, Carmen; Lopez, Rigoberto A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper separates market power and efficiency effects of concentration in a sample of 255 U.S. manufacturing industries and computes welfare changes from rises in concentration. The empirical findings reveal that in nearly two-third of the cases, consumers lose as efficiency gains are generally pocketed by the industries. From an aggregate welfare standpoint, concentration is found to be beneficial in nearly 70% of the cases, mostly for low and moderate levels of concentration being partic...

  10. A cyclic and intermittent very low-protein diet can have beneficial effects against advanced diabetic nephropathy in Wistar fatty (fa/fa) rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Munehiro; Ogura, Yoshio; Suzuki, Taeko; Monnno, Itaru; Kanasaki, Keizo; Watanabe, Ai; Koya, Daisuke

    2017-08-12

    A low-protein diet (LPD), particularly, very low-protein diet (VLPD) is expected for reno-protection in advanced chronic kidney disease, including diabetic nephropathy. We previously also demonstrated that a VLPD clearly improved advanced diabetic nephropathy in a type 2 diabetes and obesity rat. However, clinically, an everyday long-term VLPD contributes to poor adherence, which may be related to controvertial results of an LPD on the suppression for diabetic nephropathy, and has nutritional issues, such as sarcopenia or protein-energy wasting. The aim of this study is to elucidate the reno-protective effect of a cyclic and intermittent VLPD, not an everyday VLPD, against the advanced experimental diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic male Wistar fatty (fa/fa) rats (WFRs) were treated with a standard diet (STD; 23.84% protein) or a cyclic and intermittent VLPD (5.77% protein) consisting of an STD for 3 days and a VLPD for 4 days a week for 20 weeks beginning at 24 weeks of age. A cyclic and intermittent VLPD significantly improved renal hypertrophy, and significantly decreased urinary albumin and liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) excretion without changes in body weight or exacerbation of HbA1c levels in diabetic rats. Additionally, diabetes-induced renal injuries including fibrosis, tubular cell damage and inflammation were significantly ameliorated by a cyclic and intermittent VLPD in diabetic rats. Thus, based on our experimental data, a cyclic and intermittent VLPD may be a dietary regimen that is easy to continue and has a less risk of malnutrition, compared to an everyday long-term VLPD, against advanced diabetic nephropathy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Beneficial bacteria inhibit cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varian, Bernard J; Goureshetti, Sravya; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Lakritz, Jessica R; Levkovich, Tatiana; Kwok, Caitlin; Teliousis, Konstantinos; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Mirabal, Sheyla; Erdman, Susan E

    2016-03-15

    Muscle wasting, known as cachexia, is a debilitating condition associated with chronic inflammation such as during cancer. Beneficial microbes have been shown to optimize systemic inflammatory tone during good health; however, interactions between microbes and host immunity in the context of cachexia are incompletely understood. Here we use mouse models to test roles for bacteria in muscle wasting syndromes. We find that feeding of a human commensal microbe, Lactobacillus reuteri, to mice is sufficient to lower systemic indices of inflammation and inhibit cachexia. Further, the microbial muscle-building phenomenon extends to normal aging as wild type animals exhibited increased growth hormone levels and up-regulation of transcription factor Forkhead Box N1 [FoxN1] associated with thymus gland retention and longevity. Interestingly, mice with a defective FoxN1 gene (athymic nude) fail to inhibit sarcopenia after L. reuteri therapy, indicating a FoxN1-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, symbiotic bacteria may serve to stimulate FoxN1 and thymic functions that regulate inflammation, offering possible alternatives for cachexia prevention and novel insights into roles for microbiota in mammalian ontogeny and phylogeny.

  12. Beneficial Properties of Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lye Huey; Balakrishnan, Kunasundari; Thiagarajah, Kokila; Mohd Ismail, Nor Ismaliza; Yin, Ooi Shao

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that can be found in fermented foods and cultured milk, and are widely used for the preparation of infant food. They are well-known as “health friendly bacteria”, which exhibit various health beneficial properties such as prevention of bowel diseases, improving the immune system, for lactose intolerance and intestinal microbial balance, exhibiting antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertensive effects, alleviation of postmenopausal disorders, and reducing traveller’s diarrhoea. Recent studies have also been focused on their uses in treating skin and oral diseases. In addition to that, modulation of the gut-brain by probiotics has been suggested as a novel therapeutic solution for anxiety and depression. Thus, this review discusses on the current probiotics-based products in Malaysia, criteria for selection of probiotics, and evidences obtained from past studies on how probiotics have been used in preventing intestinal disorders via improving the immune system, acting as an antihypercholesterolemic factor, improving oral and dermal health, and performing as anti-anxiety and anti-depressive agents. PMID:27688852

  13. Beneficial uses of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, M.R.

    1991-10-01

    An overall decline in technical literacy within the American public has come at a time when technological advances are accelerating in the United States and around the world. This had led to a large communication gulf between the general public and the technologists. Nowhere is this more evident then with the topic of radiation. Regrettably, too few people know about sources of radiation, the pervasiveness, amounts, and variabilities, and do not have a true understanding of the environment in which we live. Nor do many people know that radiation has been used in beneficial ways for decades around the world. While the general public does not know of the scientific applications to which radiation has been deployed, it nevertheless had benefited tremendously from these efforts. Thanks to the well know properties of radiation, scientific ingenuity has found many uses of radiation in chemical and agricultural research, biomedical research, in the diagnoses and treatment of hundreds of types of diseases, in industrial applications, food irradiation, and many others. This paper provides a sample of the types of uses to which radiation has been used to help advance the betterment of humankind.

  14. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heartburn - bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... A bland diet can be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gas. You may ...

  15. Beneficial Pleiotropic Effects of Statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Lunder

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: In the current article we review the pharmacological mechanisms of action, which contribute to the beneficial pleiotropic effects of statins. Described mechanisms are supported by the evidence obtained from clinical trials in the last decade.

  16. Beneficial Use of Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important goal of managing dredged material is to ensure that the material is used or disposed of in an environmentally sound manner.Most of this dredged material could be used in a beneficial manner instead.

  17. IBS Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ...

  18. [Vegetarian diets; effect on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis Román, D; Aller, R; Castaño, O

    2007-03-01

    Vegetarian diets are those diets mainly based on the consumption of vegetable product, but that also permit consumption of eggs and milk. The American Dietetic Association made a declaration on these vegetarian diets in which they stated that vegetarian diet is healthy, nutritionally adequate and provides health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases>. Some studies have shown beneficial results in obesity, cancer, Parkinson disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and urinary stones, compared with the omnivorous. The possible theoretical benefits in some diseases has been seen in the medical practice (diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular risk). However more studies are needed in the case of Parkinson's disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. Vegetarian diets and childhood obesity prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sabaté, Joan; Wien, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    ... that are beneficial in the primary prevention of obesity is warranted. The focus of this article is to review the relation between vegetarian diets and obesity, particularly as they relate to childhood obesity...

  20. Vegetarian diets in cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominique Ashen, M

    2013-12-01

    There is growing evidence that consumption of a vegetarian diet as well as specific components of a vegetarian diet lower the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death. Vegetarian diets lower the probability of developing CVD, are effective in altering serum lipids, are beneficial in reducing blood pressure, improve glycemic control and insulin sensitivity, reduce weight, and lower mortality. Vascular effects of a vegetarian diet include a thinner carotid IMT and lower brachial artery resistance. Health care providers should be aware of the types of vegetarian diets and their risks and benefits in order to guide patients' dietary habits with the ultimate goal of reducing their CVD risk. While a patient does not have to become a complete vegetarian to reduce their CVD risk, they can make simple changes in their diet that are effective in risk reduction.

  1. Coal Beneficiation by Gas Agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas D. Wheelock; Meiyu Shen

    2000-03-15

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  2. Paleolithic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Malus, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The paleolithic diet is a diet which imitates the nutrition eaten by various species of hominoids living in the paleolithic era by using foodstuffs available today. The objectives of our thesis were to research the nutrition of human ancestors, to describe a modern paleolithic diet and compare it to healthy dietary guidelines and present experience of individuals who were experimentally eating a paleolithic diet. The aim was to determine whether consuming a paleolithic diet could have benefic...

  3. Paleolithic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Malus, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The paleolithic diet is a diet which imitates the nutrition eaten by various species of hominoids living in the paleolithic era by using foodstuffs available today. The objectives of our thesis were to research the nutrition of human ancestors, to describe a modern paleolithic diet and compare it to healthy dietary guidelines and present experience of individuals who were experimentally eating a paleolithic diet. The aim was to determine whether consuming a paleolithic diet could have benefic...

  4. Childhood Absence Epilepsy Successfully Treated with the Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens, Zsófia; Kelemen, Anna; Fogarasi, András; Tóth, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Childhood absence epilepsy is an epilepsy syndrome responding relatively well to the ketogenic diet with one-third of patients becoming seizure-free. Less restrictive variants of the classical ketogenic diet, however, have been shown to confer similar benefits. Beneficial effects of high fat, low-carbohydrate diets are often explained in evolutionary terms. However, the paleolithic diet itself which advocates a return to the human evolutionary diet has not yet been studied in epi...

  5. Childhood Absence Epilepsy Successfully Treated with the Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens, Zsófia; Kelemen, Anna; Fogarasi, András; Tóth, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Childhood absence epilepsy is an epilepsy syndrome responding relatively well to the ketogenic diet with one-third of patients becoming seizure-free. Less restrictive variants of the classical ketogenic diet, however, have been shown to confer similar benefits. Beneficial effects of high fat, low-carbohydrate diets are often explained in evolutionary terms. However, the paleolithic diet itself which advocates a return to the human evolutionary diet has not yet been studied in epi...

  6. Beneficial effects of green tea: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuttan Ramadasan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The health benefits of green tea for a wide variety of ailments, including different types of cancer, heart disease, and liver disease, were reported. Many of these beneficial effects of green tea are related to its catechin, particularly (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate, content. There is evidence from in vitro and animal studies on the underlying mechanisms of green tea catechins and their biological actions. There are also human studies on using green tea catechins to treat metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors. Long-term consumption of tea catechins could be beneficial against high-fat diet-induced obesity and type II diabetes and could reduce the risk of coronary disease. Further research that conforms to international standards should be performed to monitor the pharmacological and clinical effects of green tea and to elucidate its mechanisms of action.

  7. Progress in developments of dry coal beneficiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuemin Zhao; Xuliang Yang; Zhenfu Luo; Chenlong Duan; Shulei Song

    2014-01-01

    China’s energy supply heavily relies on coal and China’s coal resource and water resource has a reverse distribution. The problem of water shortages restricts the applications of wet coal beneficiation technologies in drought regions. The present situation highlights the significance and urgency of developing dry beneficiation technologies of coal. Besides, other countries that produce large amounts of coal also encounter serious problem of lack of water for coal beneficiation, such as American, Australia, Canada, South Africa, Turkey and India. Thus, dry coal beneficiation becomes the research hot-points in the field of coal cleaning worldwide in recent years. This paper systematically reviewed the promising research efforts on dry coal beneficiation reported in literature in last 5 years and discussed the progress in developments of dry coal beneficiation worldwide. Finally, we also elaborated the prospects and the challenges of the development of dry coal beneficiation.

  8. Vegetarian Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into ...

  9. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  10. Effects of a high-fat, low- versus high-glycemic index diet: retardation of insulin resistance involves adipose tissue modulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schothorst, van, E.M; Bunschoten, J.E; Schrauwen, P; Mensink, R.P; Keijer, J

    Beneficial effects of low glycemic index (GI) diets in rodents have been studied using healthy low-fat diets, while the effects might be different on high-fat diets inducing progression of insulin resistance...

  11. Plant immune responses triggered by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, A.C.M. van; Ent, S. van der; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Beneficial soil-borne microorganisms, such as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and mycorrhizal fungi,can improve plant performance by inducing systemic defense responses that confer broad-spectrum resistance to plant pathogens and even insect herbivores. Different beneficial microbe-associated m

  12. Beneficial Insects and Spiders of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of integrated pest management programs is dependent on the availability of biological information on beneficial insects and natural enemies of agricultural pests. This cooperative effort between ARS and UAF represents the first manual on beneficial insects and natural enemies of pest...

  13. Beneficial roles of dietary oleum cinnamomi in alleviating intestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Hou, Yongqing; Yi, Dan; Ding, Binying; Zhao, Di; Wang, Zhongxing; Zhu, Huiling; Liu, Yulan; Gong, Joshua; Assaad, Houssein; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon is a traditional herb used for treatment of many human diseases. The most important chemical compounds of the essential oil are cinnamaldehyde and eugenol. Oleum cinnamomi (OCM, cinnamon oil) is increasingly used as a feed additive to animal diets. Beneficial effects of OCM in protecting tissues from inflammation and injury by endogenous and exogenous agents (such as hydrogen peroxide and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) may result, in part, from its action on regulating amino acid metabolism in cells to favor the synthesis of glutathione (a major low-molecular-weight antioxidant) from cysteine, glycine and glutamate. In support of this notion, results of recent studies indicate that supplementing OCM (50 mg/kg diet) to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet for piglets weaned at 21 days of age enhances intestinal anti-oxidative capacity and reduces the incidence of diarrhea. Additionally, dietary supplementation with OCM ameliorates LPS-induced mucosal barrier dysfunction and mucosal damage in the small intestine. OCM holds great promise for protecting the gut from injury under conditions of inflammation, infections, and oxidative stress.

  14. Ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bregant

    2009-04-01

    conclusions This review traces a history of ketogenic diet, reviews its uses and side effects, and discusses possible alternatives and the diet’s possible mechanisms of action. We show how to use the diet in practice. Protocol and calculations are presented. We look toward possible future uses of the ketogenic diet, since it is efficient, under doctor’s supervison safe, but very demanding, additional treatment.

  15. Assessment of the haematological indices of albino rats fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    suggest that diet supplementation with 10% jackfruit bulb or the seed-bulb blend is likely to ... nutritious and beneficial to health (Morton, ... other health benefits. ..... Albokhadaim I. 2015. Influence of dietary supplementation of propolis on.

  16. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving d Employer Matching Gifts d Gifts of Stock or Securities d Giving Circles Golden Circle Circle ... health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low Carb Omega- ...

  17. Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, S; Malik, K A; Ah Kang, S; Kim, H-Y

    2006-06-01

    Probiotics are usually defined as microbial food supplements with beneficial effects on the consumers. Most probiotics fall into the group of organisms' known as lactic acid-producing bacteria and are normally consumed in the form of yogurt, fermented milks or other fermented foods. Some of the beneficial effect of lactic acid bacteria consumption include: (i) improving intestinal tract health; (ii) enhancing the immune system, synthesizing and enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients; (iii) reducing symptoms of lactose intolerance, decreasing the prevalence of allergy in susceptible individuals; and (iv) reducing risk of certain cancers. The mechanisms by which probiotics exert their effects are largely unknown, but may involve modifying gut pH, antagonizing pathogens through production of antimicrobial compounds, competing for pathogen binding and receptor sites as well as for available nutrients and growth factors, stimulating immunomodulatory cells, and producing lactase. Selection criteria, efficacy, food and supplement sources and safety issues around probiotics are reviewed. Recent scientific investigation has supported the important role of probiotics as a part of a healthy diet for human as well as for animals and may be an avenue to provide a safe, cost effective, and 'natural' approach that adds a barrier against microbial infection. This paper presents a review of probiotics in health maintenance and disease prevention.

  18. Modulation of host immunity by beneficial microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamioudis, Christos; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2012-02-01

    In nature, plants abundantly form beneficial associations with soilborne microbes that are important for plant survival and, as such, affect plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Classical examples of symbiotic microbes are mycorrhizal fungi that aid in the uptake of water and minerals, and Rhizobium bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen for the plant. Several other types of beneficial soilborne microbes, such as plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria and fungi with biological control activity, can stimulate plant growth by directly suppressing deleterious soilborne pathogens or by priming aboveground plant parts for enhanced defense against foliar pathogens or insect herbivores. The establishment of beneficial associations requires mutual recognition and substantial coordination of plant and microbial responses. A growing body of evidence suggests that beneficial microbes are initially recognized as potential invaders, after which an immune response is triggered, whereas, at later stages of the interaction, mutualists are able to short-circuit plant defense responses to enable successful colonization of host roots. Here, we review our current understanding of how symbiotic and nonsymbiotic beneficial soil microbes modulate the plant immune system and discuss the role of local and systemic defense responses in establishing the delicate balance between the two partners.

  19. Spices: the savory and beneficial science of pungency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilius, Bernd; Appendino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Spicy food does not only provide an important hedonic input in daily life, but has also been anedoctically associated to beneficial effects on our health. In this context, the discovery of chemesthetic trigeminal receptors and their spicy ligands has provided the mechanistic basis and the pharmacological means to investigate this enticing possibility. This review discusses in molecular terms the connection between the neurophysiology of pungent spices and the "systemic" effects associated to their trigeminality. It commences with a cultural and historical overview on the Western fascination for spices, and, after analysing in detail the mechanisms underlying the trigeminality of food, the main dietary players from the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels are introduced, also discussing the "alien" distribution of taste receptors outside the oro-pharingeal cavity. The modulation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 by spices is next described, discussing how spicy sensations can be turned into hedonic pungency, and analyzing the mechanistic bases for the health benefits that have been associated to the consumption of spices. These include, in addition to a beneficial modulation of gastro-intestinal and cardio-vascular function, slimming, the optimization of skeletal muscle performance, the reduction of chronic inflammation, and the prevention of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We conclude by reviewing the role of electrophilic spice constituents on cancer prevention in the light of their action on pro-inflammatory and pro-cancerogenic nuclear factors like NFκB, and on their interaction with the electrophile sensor protein Keap1 and the ensuing Nrf2-mediated transcriptional activity. Spicy compounds have a complex polypharmacology, and just like any other bioactive agent, show a balance of beneficial and bad actions. However, at least for moderate consumption, the balance seems definitely in favour of the positive side, suggesting that a spicy diet, a caveman

  20. A low-fat diet has a higher potential than energy restriction to improve high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muurling, M.; Jong, M.C.; Mensink, R.P.; Hornstra, G.; Dahlmans, V.E.H.; Pijl, H.; Voshol, P.J.; Havekes, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that energy restriction (ER) or low-fat (LF) diets have beneficial effects on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. However, comparison between ER and low-fat diet regarding the effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism has not bee

  1. A low-fat diet has a higher potential than energy restriction to improve high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muurling, M.; Jong, M.C.; Mensink, R.P.; Hornstra, G.; Dahlmans, V.E.H.; Pijl, H.; Voshol, P.J.; Havekes, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that energy restriction (ER) or low-fat (LF) diets have beneficial effects on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. However, comparison between ER and low-fat diet regarding the effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism has not

  2. A low-fat diet has a higher potential than energy restriction to improve high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muurling, M.; Jong, M.C.; Mensink, R.P.; Hornstra, G.; Dahlmans, V.E.H.; Pijl, H.; Voshol, P.J.; Havekes, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that energy restriction (ER) or low-fat (LF) diets have beneficial effects on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. However, comparison between ER and low-fat diet regarding the effect on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism has not bee

  3. The Roles of Beneficiation in Lunar Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Doug L.

    2010-01-01

    Natural feedstocks used for any process are intrinsically variable. They may also contain deleterious components or low concentrations of desired fractions. For these three reasons it is standard industrial practice to beneficiate feedstocks. This is true across all industries which trans-form raw materials into standardized units. On the Moon there are three natural resources: vacuum, radiation and regolith. To utilize in situ resources on the Moon it is reasonable to presume some beneficiation of the regolith (ground rock) resource will be desirable if not essential. As on Earth, this will require fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the relevant processes, which are exceeding complex in detail. Further, simulants are essential test articles for evaluation of components and systems planned for lunar deployment. Simulants are of course made from geologic feedstocks. Therefore, there is variation, deleterious components and incorrect concentrations of desired fractions in the feedstocks used for simulants. Thus, simulant production can benefit from beneficiation of the input feedstocks. Beneficiation of geologic feedstocks is the subject of extractive metallurgy. Clearly, NASA has two discrete interests pertaining to the science and technology of extractive metallurgy.

  4. Modulation of host immunity by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In nature, plants abundantly form beneficial associations with soilborne microbes that are important for plant survival and, as such, affect plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Classical examples of symbiotic microbes are mycorrhizal fungi that aid in the uptake of water and minerals, and

  5. 7 CFR 1421.6 - Beneficial interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... have control of the commodity, such person must have complete decision-making authority regarding...-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.6 Beneficial interest. (a) To be eligible to receive marketing assistance loans and loan deficiency payments, a...

  6. [Prebiotics: concept, properties and beneficial effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, N; Alonso, J L; Azpiroz, F; Calvo, M A; Cirici, M; Leis, R; Lombó, F; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Plou, F J; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Rúperez, P; Redondo-Cuenca, A; Sanz, M L; Clemente, A

    2015-02-07

    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients (oligosaccharides) that reach the colon and are used as substrate by microorganisms producing energy, metabolites and micronutrients used for the host; in addition they also stimulate the selective growth of certain beneficial species (mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) in the intestinal microbiota. In this article, a multidisciplinary approach to understand the concept of prebiotic carbohydrates, their properties and beneficial effects in humans has been carried out. Definitions of prebiotics, reported by relevant international organizations and researchers, are described. A comprehensive description of accepted prebiotics having strong scientific evidence of their beneficial properties in humans (inulin-type fructans, FOS, GOS, lactulose and human milk oligosaccharides) is reported. Emerging prebiotics and those which are in the early stages of study have also included in this study. Taken into account that the chemical structure greatly influences carbohydrates prebiotic properties, the analytical techniques used for their analysis and characterization are discussed. In vitro and in vivo models used to evaluate the gastrointestinal digestion, absorption resistance and fermentability in the colon of prebiotics as well as major criteria to design robust intervention trials in humans are described. Finally, a comprehensive summary of the beneficial effects of prebiotics for health at systemic and intestinal levels is reported. The research effort on prebiotics has been intensive in last decades and has demonstrated that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in order to claim their health benefits.

  7. Induced systemic resistance by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; Zamioudis, Christos|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313964742; Berendsen, Roeland L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824151; Weller, David M.; van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373; Bakker, Peter A H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074744623

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial microbes in the microbiome of plant roots improve plant health. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) emerged as an important mechanism by which selected plant growth-promoting bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of patho

  8. Induced systemic resistance by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Zamioudis, C.; Berendsen, R.L.; Weller, D.M.; Van Wees, S.C.M.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial microbes in the microbiome of plant roots improve plant health. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) emerged as an important mechanism by which selected plant growth–promoting bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of patho

  9. Modulation of host immunity by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In nature, plants abundantly form beneficial associations with soilborne microbes that are important for plant survival and, as such, affect plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Classical examples of symbiotic microbes are mycorrhizal fungi that aid in the uptake of water and minerals, and

  10. Induced systemic resistance by beneficial microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Zamioudis, C.; Berendsen, R.L.; Weller, D.M.; Van Wees, S.C.M.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial microbes in the microbiome of plant roots improve plant health. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) emerged as an important mechanism by which selected plant growth–promoting bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of patho

  11. Diets, food and Idiopathic Parkinson´s disease

    OpenAIRE

    José Perea-Sasiaín; Roberta Hanfling Schwartz

    2014-01-01

    Based on two individual cases, this is a personal depict on knowledge of Idiopathic Parkinson´s Disease (IPD) etiopathogeny emphasizing diets, food and edible substances tested and reported. In the first case (adherence to an almost vegan diet, with one seventh of the protein supplied from animal origin), had an impressive beneficial effect on his fifteen years clinical course, while in the second case (continuation of a quasi ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet), did not modify substantially the clini...

  12. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romero Pérez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have concluded that incidences of osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related fractures vary across the European Union, the lowest incidence being reported in the Mediterranean area. The beneficial effect is mainly attributed to a specific eating pattern. The Mediterranean diet contain a complex array of naturally occurring bioactive molecules with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and alkalinising properties that may contribute to the bone-sparing effect of the Mediterranean diet. Objective: The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence to date on the effects of Mediterranean diet on bone health. Methods: The search for articles came from extensive research in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. We used the search terms "Mediterranean diet", "adherence", "fruit and vegetable", "olive oil", "fish" "legume", "cereal" "alcohol", "bone", "osteoporosis", "fracture", and combinations, such as "Mediterranean diet and bone" or "Mediterranean diet and fracture". Results: A limited number of studies have examined the relationship between Mediterranean Diet and bone health, and they have reported conflicting results. On the one hand, adherence to a traditional MeDi has been associated with higher bone mineral density and lower fracture risk. The results of these studies could be attributed to the combined beneficial effects of individual components of the Mediterranean diet. On the contrary, several studies failed to show any association between adherence to the MeDi and indices of bone mass. Conclusions: Further large-scale studies are required to clarify the effect of Mediterranean diet on bone health, in order to establish the role of this diet in the prevention of osteoporosis.

  13. Childhood absence epilepsy successfully treated with the paleolithic ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Zsófia; Kelemen, Anna; Fogarasi, András; Tóth, Csaba

    2013-12-01

    Childhood absence epilepsy is an epilepsy syndrome responding relatively well to the ketogenic diet with one-third of patients becoming seizure-free. Less restrictive variants of the classical ketogenic diet, however, have been shown to confer similar benefits. Beneficial effects of high fat, low-carbohydrate diets are often explained in evolutionary terms. However, the paleolithic diet itself which advocates a return to the human evolutionary diet has not yet been studied in epilepsy. Here, we present a case of a 7-year-old child with absence epilepsy successfully treated with the paleolithic ketogenic diet alone. In addition to seizure freedom achieved within 6 weeks, developmental and behavioral improvements were noted. The child remained seizure-free when subsequently shifted toward a paleolithic diet. It is concluded that the paleolithic ketogenic diet was effective, safe and feasible in the treatment of this case of childhood absence epilepsy.

  14. The beneficial biological properties of salicylic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Randjelović Pavle; Veljković Slavimir; Stojiljković Nenad; Sokolović Dušan; Ilić Ivan; Laketić Darko; Randjelović Dušica; Randjelović Nebojša

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid is a phytochemical with beneficial effects on human well-being. Salicylic acid is a phenolic compound and is present in various plants where it has a vital role in protection against pathogenic agents. Natural sources include fruits, vegetables and spices. The most famous and defined effect of salicylic acid is prostaglandin synthesis inhibition. Salicylic acid has antiinflammatory effects through suppression of transcription of genes for cyclooxygenase. Most of the pharmacolog...

  15. Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary. Indeed, many contradictions and misunderstandings concerning vegetarianism are due to scientific data from studies without this differentiation. In the past, vegetarian diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12 and A, n-3 fatty acids and iodine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and competitive athletes. In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. The reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet often go beyond health and well-being and include among others economical, ecological and social concerns. The influences of these aspects of vegetarian diets are the subject of the new field of nutritional ecology that is concerned with sustainable life styles and human development.

  16. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...

  17. Diet and Spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Have Spondylitis? Treatment Information Medications Exercise & Posture Diet & Nutrition Medication & Diet Dietary Supplements Changing Your Diet The London AS / Low Starch Diet Complementary Treatments Possible Complications Iritis or Anterior Uveitis Fatigue in Spondylitis Pain in ...

  18. The ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments for refractory epilepsy in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suvasini; Jain, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and restricted protein diet that is useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. The efficacy of the ketogenic diet is better than most of the new antiepileptic drugs. Other modifications of the diet are also beneficial, such as the modified Atkins diet and the low glycemic index treatment. There is a lack of awareness of the ketogenic diet as a treatment modality for epilepsy amongst pediatricians and neurologists. In this review, the use of the ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments in refractory epilepsy is discussed. The Indian experience with the use of these dietary treatments is also briefly reviewed. PMID:25221391

  19. The ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments for refractory epilepsy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvasini Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and restricted protein diet that is useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. The efficacy of the ketogenic diet is better than most of the new antiepileptic drugs. Other modifications of the diet are also beneficial, such as the modified Atkins diet and the low glycemic index treatment. There is a lack of awareness of the ketogenic diet as a treatment modality for epilepsy amongst pediatricians and neurologists. In this review, the use of the ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments in refractory epilepsy is discussed. The Indian experience with the use of these dietary treatments is also briefly reviewed.

  20. The ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments for refractory epilepsy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suvasini; Jain, Puneet

    2014-07-01

    The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and restricted protein diet that is useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. The efficacy of the ketogenic diet is better than most of the new antiepileptic drugs. Other modifications of the diet are also beneficial, such as the modified Atkins diet and the low glycemic index treatment. There is a lack of awareness of the ketogenic diet as a treatment modality for epilepsy amongst pediatricians and neurologists. In this review, the use of the ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments in refractory epilepsy is discussed. The Indian experience with the use of these dietary treatments is also briefly reviewed.

  1. [Osteoporosis diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, B; Neuenschwander, B; Perrelet, R; Lippuner, K

    2000-03-01

    Bone requires a wide variety of nutrients to develop normally and to maintain itself after growth. Most important--in the sense that bony abnormalities are associated with their deficiencies--are protein, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, C and K, zinc, manganese and copper. The nutrients most likely to be deficient in citizens of industrialized countries are calcium and vitamin D. In this review of the current literature about nutritional aspects of osteoporosis, we have focused on factors influencing calcium requirement: the principal interacting nutrients are sodium, protein, caffeine, fiber, oxalate, phytate, and the acid/alkaline ash character of the overall diet. Fiber and caffeine decrease calcium absorption from the gut and typically exert relatively minor effects, while sodium, protein and the acid/alkaline balance of the diet increase urinary excretion of calcium and are of much greater significance for the calcium homeostasis. Alkali buffers, whether vegetables or fruits reverse this urinary calcium loss. As long as accompanied by adequate calcium intake, protein-rich diet is not deleterious to bone: a calcium-to-protein ratio of 20:1 (mg calcium/g protein) is recommended. Whether a nutrition-based therapeutic approach to osteoporosis is feasible in the near future is yet unclear: at least there are some recent promising data from in-vitro as well as from rat studies showing that extracts taken from various vegetables, mainly from the onion family inhibit bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner.

  2. Tribocharging Lunar Soil for Electrostatic Beneficiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Future human lunar habitation requires using in situ materials for both structural components and oxygen production. Lunar bases must be constructed from thermal-and radiation-shielding materials that will provide significant protection from the harmful cosmic energy which normally bombards the lunar surface. In addition, shipping oxygen from Earth is weight-prohibitive, and therefore investigating the production of breathable oxygen from oxidized mineral components is a major ongoing NASA research initiative. Lunar regolith may meet the needs for both structural protection and oxygen production. Already a number of oxygen production technologies are being tested, and full-scale bricks made of lunar simulant have been sintered. The beneficiation, or separation, of lunar minerals into a refined industrial feedstock could make production processes more efficient, requiring less energy to operate and maintain and producing higher-performance end products. The method of electrostatic beneficiation used in this research charges mineral powders (lunar simulant) by contact with materials of a different composition. The simulant acquires either a positive or negative charge depending upon its composition relative to the charging material.

  3. SRS stainless steel beneficial reuse program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettinger, W.L.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) has thousands of tons of stainless steel radioactive scrap metal (RSNI). Much of the metal is volumetrically contaminated. There is no {open_quotes}de minimis{close_quotes} free release level for volumetric material, and therefore no way to recycle the metal into the normal commercial market. If declared waste, the metal would qualify as low level radioactive waste (LLW) and ultimately be dispositioned through shallow land buried at a cost of millions of dollars. The metal however could be recycled in a {open_quotes}controlled release{close_quote} manner, in the form of containers to hold other types of radioactive waste. This form of recycle is generally referred to as {open_quotes}Beneficial Reuse{close_quotes}. Beneficial reuse reduces the amount of disposal space needed and reduces the need for virgin containers which would themselves become contaminated. Stainless steel is particularly suited for long term storage because of its resistance to corrosion. To assess the practicality of stainless steel RSM recycle the SRS Benficial Reuse Program began a demonstration in 1994, funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology. This paper discusses the experiences gained in this program.

  4. Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaartinen, K; Lammi, K; Hypen, M; Nenonen, M; Hanninen, O; Rauma, A L

    2000-01-01

    The effect of a strict, low-salt, uncooked vegan diet rich in lactobacteria on symptoms in 18 fibromyalgia patients during and after a 3-month intervention period in an open, non-randomized controlled study was evaluated. As control 15 patients continued their omnivorous diet. The groups did not differ significantly from each other in the beginning of the study in any other parameters except in pain and urine sodium. The results revealed significant improvements in Visual analogue scale of pain (VAS) (p=0.005), joint stiffness (p=0.001), quality of sleep (p=0.0001), Health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) (p=0.031), General health questionnaire (GHQ) (p=0.021), and a rheumatologist's own questionnaire (p=0.038). The majority of patients were overweight to some extent at the beginning of the study and shifting to a vegan food caused a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) (p=0.0001). Total serum cholesterol showed a statistically significant lowering (p=0.003). Urine sodium dropped to 1/3 of the beginning values (p=0.0001) indicating good diet compliance. It can be concluded that vegan diet had beneficial effects on fibromyalgia symptoms at least in the short run.

  5. Induced systemic resistance by beneficial microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Corné M J; Zamioudis, Christos; Berendsen, Roeland L; Weller, David M; Van Wees, Saskia C M; Bakker, Peter A H M

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial microbes in the microbiome of plant roots improve plant health. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) emerged as an important mechanism by which selected plant growth-promoting bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of pathogens and insect herbivores. A wide variety of root-associated mutualists, including Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Trichoderma, and mycorrhiza species sensitize the plant immune system for enhanced defense without directly activating costly defenses. This review focuses on molecular processes at the interface between plant roots and ISR-eliciting mutualists, and on the progress in our understanding of ISR signaling and systemic defense priming. The central role of the root-specific transcription factor MYB72 in the onset of ISR and the role of phytohormones and defense regulatory proteins in the expression of ISR in aboveground plant parts are highlighted. Finally, the ecological function of ISR-inducing microbes in the root microbiome is discussed.

  6. Beneficial properties of probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomičić Zorica M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces boulardii is unique probiotic and biotherapeutic yeast, known to survive in gastric acidity and it is not adversely affected or inhibited by antibiotics or does not alter or adversely affect the normal microbiota. S. boulardii has been utilized worldwide as a probiotic supplement to support gastrointestinal health. The multiple mechanisms of action of S. boulardii and its properties may explain its efficacy and beneficial effects in acute and chronic gastrointestinal diseases that have been confirmed by clinical trials. Caution should be taken in patients with risk factors for adverse events. Its potential application in various dairy foods could offer an alternative probiotic product to people suffering from antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This review discusses the evidence for efficacy and safety of S. boulardii as a probiotic for the prevention and therapy of gastrointestinal disorders in humans.

  7. DECONTAMINATION AND BENEFICIAL USE OF DREDGED MATERIALS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STERN, E.A.; LODGE, J.; JONES, K.W.; CLESCERI, N.L.; FENG, H.; DOUGLAS, W.S.

    2000-12-03

    Our group is leading a large-sale demonstration of dredged material decontamination technologies for the New York/New Jersey Harbor. The goal of the project is to assemble a complete system for economic transformation of contaminated dredged material into an environmentally-benign material used in the manufacture of a variety of beneficial use products. This requires the integration of scientific, engineering, business, and policy issues on matters that include basic knowledge of sediment properties, contaminant distribution visualization, sediment toxicity, dredging and dewatering techniques, decontamination technologies, and product manufacturing technologies and marketing. A summary of the present status of the system demonstrations including the use of both existing and new manufacturing facilities is given here. These decontamination systems should serve as a model for use in dredged material management plans of regions other than NY/NJ Harbor, such as Long Island Sound, where new approaches to the handling of contaminated sediments are desirable.

  8. Electrostatic Separator for Beneficiation of Lunar Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Arens, Ellen; Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James

    2010-01-01

    A charge separator has been constructed for use in a lunar environment that will allow for separation of minerals from lunar soil. In the present experiments, whole lunar dust as received was used. The approach taken here was that beneficiation of ores into an industrial feedstock grade may be more efficient. Refinement or enrichment of specific minerals in the soil before it is chemically processed may be more desirable as it would reduce the size and energy requirements necessary to produce the virgin material, and it may significantly reduce the process complexity. The principle is that minerals of different composition and work function will charge differently when tribocharged against different materials, and hence be separated in an electric field.

  9. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  10. Effects of a high-fat, low- versus high-glycemic index diet: retardation of insulin resistance involves adipose tissue modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Schrauwen, P.; Mensink, R.P.; Keijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Beneficial effects of low glycemic index (GI) diets in rodents have been studied using healthy low-fat diets, while the effects might be different on high-fat diets inducing progression of insulin resistance. We fed C57BL/6J male mice high-fat low/high-GI (LGI/HGI) diets for 13 wk. Glucose and insul

  11. Development of a food group-based diet score and its assocation with bone mineral density in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de E.A.L.; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Voortman, T.; Schoufour, J.D.; Zillikens, M.C.; Hofman, A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Franco, O.H.; Rivadeneira, F.

    2015-01-01

    No diet score exists that summarizes the features of a diet that is optimal for bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly. Our aims were (a) to develop a BMD-Diet Score reflecting a diet that may be beneficial for BMD based on the existing literature, and (b) to examine the association of the BMD-Di

  12. Development of a food group-based diet score and its association with bone mineral density in the elderly: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.L. de Jonge (Ester); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica); L.C.P.G.M. de Groot (Lisette); R.G. Voortman (Trudy); J.D. Schoufour (Josje); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); O.H. Franco (Oscar); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractNo diet score exists that summarizes the features of a diet that is optimal for bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly. Our aims were (a) to develop a BMD-Diet Score reflecting a diet that may be beneficial for BMD based on the existing literature, and (b) to examine the association o

  13. Effects of a high-fat, low- versus high-glycemic index diet: retardation of insulin resistance involves adipose tissue modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Schrauwen, P.; Mensink, R.P.; Keijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Beneficial effects of low glycemic index (GI) diets in rodents have been studied using healthy low-fat diets, while the effects might be different on high-fat diets inducing progression of insulin resistance. We fed C57BL/6J male mice high-fat low/high-GI (LGI/HGI) diets for 13 wk. Glucose and insul

  14. Effects of a high-fat, low- versus high-glycemic index diet: retardation of insulin resistance involves adipose tissue modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Schrauwen, P.; Mensink, R.P.; Keijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Beneficial effects of low glycemic index (GI) diets in rodents have been studied using healthy low-fat diets, while the effects might be different on high-fat diets inducing progression of insulin resistance. We fed C57BL/6J male mice high-fat low/high-GI (LGI/HGI) diets for 13 wk. Glucose and

  15. Evaluation of Beneficial Metabolic Effects of Berries in High-Fat Fed C57BL/6J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa Heyman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to screen eight species of berries for their ability to prevent obesity and metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were assigned the following diets for 13 weeks: low-fat diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet supplemented (20% with lingonberry, blackcurrant, bilberry, raspberry, açai, crowberry, prune or blackberry. Results. The groups receiving a high-fat diet supplemented with lingonberries, blackcurrants, raspberries or bilberries gained less weight and had lower fasting insulin levels than the control group receiving high-fat diet without berries. Lingonberries, and also blackcurrants and bilberries, significantly decreased body fat content, hepatic lipid accumulation, and plasma levels of the inflammatory marker PAI-1, as well as mediated positive effects on glucose homeostasis. The group receiving açai displayed increased weight gain and developed large, steatotic livers. Quercetin glycosides were detected in the lingonberry and the blackcurrant diets. Conclusion. Lingonberries were shown to fully or partially prevent the detrimental metabolic effects induced by high-fat diet. Blackcurrants and bilberries had similar properties, but to a lower degree. We propose that the beneficial metabolic effects of lingonberries could be useful in preventing obesity and related disorders.

  16. Vegetarian diet: panacea for modern lifestyle diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segasothy, M; Phillips, P A

    1999-09-01

    We review the beneficial and adverse effects of vegetarian diets in various medical conditions. Soybean-protein diet, legumes, nuts and soluble fibre significantly decrease total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Diets rich in fibre and complex carbohydrate, and restricted in fat, improve control of blood glucose concentration, lower insulin requirement and aid in weight control in diabetic patients. An inverse association has been reported between nut, fruit, vegetable and fibre consumption, and the risk of coronary heart disease. Patients eating a vegetarian diet, with comprehensive lifestyle changes, have had reduced frequency, duration and severity of angina as well as regression of coronary atherosclerosis and improved coronary perfusion. An inverse association between fruit and vegetable consumption and stroke has been suggested. Consumption of fruits and vegetables, especially spinach and collard green, was associated with a lower risk of age-related ocular macular degeneration. There is an inverse association between dietary fibre intake and incidence of colon and breast cancer as well as prevalence of colonic diverticula and gallstones. A decreased breast cancer risk has been associated with high intake of soy bean products. The beneficial effects could be due to the diet (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, minerals, fibre, complex carbohydrate, antioxidant vitamins, flavanoids, folic acid and phytoestrogens) as well as the associated healthy lifestyle in vegetarians. There are few adverse effects, mainly increased intestinal gas production and a small risk of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  17. Quantitative mineralogical characterization of chrome ore beneficiation plant tailing and its beneficiated products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. K.

    2015-04-01

    Mineralogical characterization and liberation of valuable minerals are primary concerns in mineral processing industries. The present investigation focuses on quantitative mineralogy, elemental deportment, and locking-liberation characteristics of the beneficiation of tailings from a chrome ore beneficiation plant in the Sukinda region, Odisha; methods used for the study of the beneficiated tailings are QEMSCAN®, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and mineral chemistry by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The tailing sample was fine grained (69.48wt% below 45 μm size), containing 20.25wt% Cr2O3 and 39.19wt% Fe2O3, with a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 0.51. Mineralogical investigations using QEMSCAN studies revealed that chromite, goethite, and gibbsite are the dominant mineral phases with minor amounts of hematite, kaolinite, and quartz. The sample contained 34.22wt% chromite, and chromite liberation is more than 80% for grains smaller than 250 μm in size. Based on these results, it was predicted that liberated chromite and high-grade middling chromite particles could be separated from the gangue by various concentration techniques. The tailing sample was beneficiated by hydrocyclone, tabling, wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS), and flotation in order to recover the chromite. A chromite concentrate with 45.29wt% Cr2O3 and a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 1.85 can be produced from these low-grade chromite ore beneficiation plant rejects.

  18. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Are Detox Diets Safe? KidsHealth > For Teens > Are Detox Diets Safe? ... las dietas de desintoxicación? What Is a Detox Diet? The name sounds reassuring — everyone knows that anything ...

  19. Fluoride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fluoride ... bones and teeth. Too much fluoride in the diet is very rare. Rarely, infants who get too ... of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  20. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the Non-transfused ... Nutrition with Connie Schroepfer, MS, RD: Dec 2016 Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  1. Fad diets in the treatment of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D

    2011-04-01

    Use of the term "fad diet" reflects the contentious nature of the debate in the treatment of diabetes and generally targets diets based on carbohydrate restriction, the major challenge to traditional dietary therapy. Although standard low-fat diets more accurately conform to the idea of a practice supported by social pressure rather than scientific data, it is suggested that we might want to give up altogether unscientific terms like "fad" and "healthy." Far from faddish, diets based on carbohydrate restriction have been the historical treatment for diabetes and are still supported by basic biochemistry, and it is argued that they should be considered the "default" diet, the one to try first, in diseases of carbohydrate intolerance or insulin resistance. The barrier to acceptance of low-carbohydrate diets in the past has been concern about saturated fat, which might be substituted for the carbohydrate that is removed. However, recent re-analysis of much old data shows that replacing carbohydrate with saturated fat is, if anything, beneficial. The dialectic of impact of continued hemoglobin A(1c) versus effect of dietary saturated fat in the risk of cardiovascular disease is resolved in direction of glycemic control. Putting biased language behind us and facing the impact of recent results that point to the value of low-carbohydrate diets would offer patients the maximum number of options.

  2. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  3. FACEBOOK AND WHATSAPP: BENEFICIAL OR HARMFUL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankalp Raj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available New innovations and advances in science and technology in the present day have made considerable and significant changes in the lifestyle of people all around the globe. Communication from one part of the world to another is possible at the hit of a button . Social networking is being rampantly used everywhere and by everybody, be it youngsters or the older generation. Facebook and Whatsapp are the most commonly used means of communication in social networking at present. Smart phones functioning as minicomp uters with fast internet connectivity in the pockets of today’s technosavy generation have made them create and spend most of their time interacting with people in a virtual world. There is an urgent need to understand the dynamics of social media and its effects on the lifestyle of people. Studies documenting the same have been very few. This study was conducted to understand the benefits and harms towards health and academics of MBBS students. This cross - sectional study on 147 MBBS students revealed inter esting findings and opinions of the students. Effects of Facebook and What Sapp on productivity and sleep disturbances due to it were the significant findings of the study. Facebook and Whatsapp can be considered both beneficial and harmful and it solely d epends on how it is being put to use

  4. Nanoscale particles in technological processes of beneficiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Popel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cavitation is a rather common and important effect in the processes of destruction of nano- and microscale particles in natural and technological processes. A possible cavitation disintegration of polymineral nano- and microparticles, which are placed into a liquid, as a result of the interaction of the particles with collapsed cavitation bubbles is considered. The emphasis is put on the cavitation processes on the interface between liquid and fine solid particles, which is suitable for the description of the real situations.Results: The results are illustrated for the minerals that are most abundant in gold ore. The bubbles are generated by shock loading of the liquid heated to the boiling temperature. Possibilities of cavitation separation of nano- and microscale monomineral fractions from polymineral nano- and microparticles and of the use of cavitation for beneficiation are demonstrated.Conclusion: The cavitation disintegration mechanism is important because the availability of high-grade deposits in the process of mining and production of noble metals is decreasing. This demands for an enhancement of the efficiency in developing low-grade deposits and in reprocessing ore dumps and tailings, which contain a certain amount of noble metals in the form of finely disseminated fractions. The cavitation processes occuring on the interface between liquid and fine solid particles are occasionally more effective than the bulk cavitation processes that were considered earlier.

  5. Beneficial effects of antioxidative lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Nakagawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is caused by exposure to reactive oxygen intermediates. The oxidative damage of cell components such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids one of the important factors associated with diabetes mellitus, cancers and cardiovascular diseases. This occurs as a result of imbalance between the generations of oxygen derived radicals and the organism’s antioxidant potential. The amount of oxidative damage increases as an organism ages and is postulated to be a major causal factor of senescence. To date, many studies have focused on food sources, nutrients, and components that exert antioxidant activity in worms, flies, mice, and humans. Probiotics, live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts provide many beneficial effects on the human health, have been attracting growing interest for their health-promoting effects, and have often been administered in fermented milk products. In particular, lactic acid bacteria (LAB are known to conferre physiologic benefits. Many studies have indicated the antioxidative activity of LAB. Here we review that the effects of lactic acid bacteria to respond to oxidative stress, is connected to oxidative-stress related disease and aging.

  6. Resistant starch diet induces change in the swine microbiome and a predominance of beneficial bacterial populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umu, O.C.O.; Frank, J.A.; Fangel, J.U.; Oostindjer, M.; Souza Da Silva, C.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Bosch, G.; Willats, W.G.T.; Pope, P.B.; Diep, D.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary fibers contribute to health and physiology primarily via the fermentative actions of the host’s gut microbiome. Physicochemical properties such as solubility, fermentability, viscosity, and gel-forming ability differ among fiber types and are known to affect metabolism. However,

  7. Resistant starch diet induces change in the swine microbiome and a predominance of beneficial bacterial populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umu, O.C.O.; Frank, J.A.; Fangel, J.U.; Oostindjer, M.; Souza Da Silva, C.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Bosch, G.; Willats, W.G.T.; Pope, P.B.; Diep, D.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary fibers contribute to health and physiology primarily via the fermentative actions of the host’s gut microbiome. Physicochemical properties such as solubility, fermentability, viscosity, and gel-forming ability differ among fiber types and are known to affect metabolism. However, f

  8. The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure, biological activity and beneficial effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripoli, Elisa; Giammanco, Marco; Tabacchi, Garden; Di Majo, Danila; Giammanco, Santo; La Guardia, Maurizio

    2005-06-01

    The Mediterranean diet is rich in vegetables, cereals, fruit, fish, milk, wine and olive oil and has salutary biological functions. Epidemiological studies have shown a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and certain kinds of cancer in the Mediterranean area. Olive oil is the main source of fat, and the Mediterranean diet's healthy effects can in particular be attributed not only to the high relationship between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in olive oil but also to the antioxidant property of its phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, which give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste, have powerful antioxidant activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present review focuses on recent works analysing the relationship between the structure of olive oil polyphenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. These compounds' possible beneficial effects are due to their antioxidant activity, which is related to the development of atherosclerosis and cancer, and to anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity.

  9. Potential beneficial effects of garlic in oncohematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroddi, M; Calapai, F; Calapai, G

    2011-06-01

    The use of non-conventional medicines, especially herbal medicine, is common in patients with cancers including haematologic malignancies. Diet components may also modify the risk of cancer through the influence on multiple processes, including DNA repair, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Garlic (Allium sativum), considered either food or herbal medicine, possesses antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties that can be used in anticancer interventions. We analyzed literature data on effects of garlic and garlic compounds which can serve as basic information to design clinical approach in oncohematology. Garlic contains water soluble and oil-soluble sulfur compounds. The latter are responsible for anticancer effects exerted through multiple mechanisms such as: inhibition of metabolic carcinogenic activation, arrest of cell cycle, antioxidant and pro-apoptotic action. Evidence about the effects of main sulfur compounds diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl trisulfide (DATS), ajoene and S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) in oncohematology was described. Our research highlights that data on garlic in oncohematology are essentially represented by pre-clinical studies. Although these studies must be considered as preliminary, they provided insight into biological activities of garlic compounds and support a rationale for the use of substances such as DAS, DADS, DATS and ajoene as promising anticancer agents in oncohematology.

  10. Diets, food and Idiopathic Parkinson´s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Perea-Sasiaín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on two individual cases, this is a personal depict on knowledge of Idiopathic Parkinson´s Disease (IPD etiopathogeny emphasizing diets, food and edible substances tested and reported. In the first case (adherence to an almost vegan diet, with one seventh of the protein supplied from animal origin, had an impressive beneficial effect on his fifteen years clinical course, while in the second case (continuation of a quasi ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet, did not modify substantially the clinical course. The relevance of diet on IPD focused in redistribution of protein daily intake when levodopa prescribed. Diet by itself is fundamental for the management of each individual person prone to or suffering from IPD. Vegan diets with pulses rich in protein duly balanced with cereals and supplemented with vitamin B12, reduce the intake of methionine and keep the amount of aromatic amino acids at a moderate level.

  11. Ketogenic diets: from cancer to mitochondrial diseases and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Ana F; Ferreira, André; Simões, Rui F; Magalhães-Novais, Sílvia; Zehowski, Cheryl; Cope, Elisabeth; Silva, Ana Marta; Pereira, Daniela; Sardão, Vilma A; Cunha-Oliveira, Teresa

    2016-03-01

    The employment of dietary strategies such as ketogenic diets, which force cells to alter their energy source, has shown efficacy in the treatment of several diseases. Ketogenic diets are composed of high fat, moderate protein and low carbohydrates, which favour mitochondrial respiration rather than glycolysis for energy metabolism. This review focuses on how oncological, neurological and mitochondrial disorders have been targeted by ketogenic diets, their metabolic effects, and the possible mechanisms of action on mitochondrial energy homeostasis. The beneficial and adverse effects of the ketogenic diets are also highlighted. Although the full mechanism by which ketogenic diets improve oncological and neurological conditions still remains to be elucidated, their clinical efficacy has attracted many new followers, and ketogenic diets can be a good option as a co-adjuvant therapy, depending on the situation and the extent of the disease. © 2016 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  12. Capsaicinoids but not their analogue capsinoids lower plasma cholesterol and possess beneficial vascular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weihuan; Cheang, Wai San; Wang, Xiaobo; Lei, Lin; Liu, Yuwei; Ma, Ka Ying; Zheng, Fangrui; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2014-08-20

    Capsaicinoids exist in chili peppers, whereas capsinoids are present in some sweet peppers. The present study investigated the effects of capsaicinoids and capsinoids on plasma lipids, relaxation of the aorta, atherosclerotic plaque development, and fecal sterol excretion in hamsters fed a high-cholesterol diet. Five groups of male hamsters were given the control diet or one of the four experimental diets containing 1.3 mmol of capsaicinoids (NL), 2.6 mmol of capsaicinoids (NH), 1.3 mmol of capsinoids (OL), or 2.6 mmol of capsinoids (OH), respectively. Results showed capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could decrease plasma total cholesterol (TC), reduce the formation of atherosclerotic plaque, and relax the aortic artery. This was accompanied by a 28-175% increase in fecal excretion of acidic sterols in hamsters fed the diets containing capsaicinoids. Similarly, capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could decrease the pad weights of epididymal and prerenal adipose tissues. It was concluded that capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could favorably modulate plasma lipids and possess beneficial vascular activity.

  13. Influence of diet in acne vulgaris and atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokeen, Divya

    2016-09-01

    Diet has been considered as an influence in dermatology for several years. Unfortunately, although correlation has been breached, causation is yet to be determined. Over the last couple years, a few reviews of the literature have been published regarding the influence of diet in acne vulgaris and atopic dermatitis. This article reviews some dietary restrictions and supplements that may have beneficial effects in managing patients with acne vulgaris and atopic dermatitis.

  14. [Is family planning beneficial for our society?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noudjalbaye, K

    1988-09-01

    Family planning comprises a group of activities that permit couples to decide freely the spacing and number of their children. Its other goals are to identify high risk pregnancies and treat infertility. Family planning improves the health of mothers, children, and entire families. Women understanding the benefits of family planning can space pregnancies at least 2 years apart to allow time to care for the new baby and to recuperate after the birth. Women and children in Chad and throughout Africa are the most vulnerable population groups with the greatest need for high quality nutrition, but they usually are relegated the food left over after men and other family members have eaten. Too frequent and too numerous pregnancies are likely to lead to maternal death from hemorrhage, toxemia, or septicemia. Chronic malnutrition reduces the defenses of the woman's body. Couples who plan their births for the times when the mother is best prepared avoid high risk pregnancies. Young infants whose mothers become pregnant too soon are subjected to abrupt weaning and sometimes physically separated from their mothers. The baby is at risk of infection and malnutrition because of its lack of adjustment to its new diet, and high rates of mortality are 1 result. The 2nd baby often is low birth weight and receives less milk because his malnourished, anemic, and chronically fatigued mother is unable to produce more. The infant is prey to infections, which his undernourished body is less able to fight. Traditional African societies recognized the importance of spacing and achieved it by abstinence until the child would walk. Family planning programs provide contraception, treatment and advice on sexually transmitted diseases, and alternatives to illegal abortion. Adolescents in particular should be provided with information on the consequences of too early sexual activity.

  15. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron

  16. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hilda Vargas-Robles; Amelia Rios; Monica Arellano-Mendoza; Escalante, Bruno A.; Michael Schnoor

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture c...

  17. Longevity and diet. Myth or pragmatism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysohoou, Christina; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-12-01

    Longevity is a very complex phenomenon, because many environmental, behavioral, socio-demographic and dietary factors influence the physiological pathways of aging and life-expectancy. Nutrition has been recognized to have an important impact on overall mortality and morbidity; and its role in extending life expectancy has been the object of extensive scientific research. This paper reviews the pathophysiological mechanisms that potentially link aging with diet and the scientific evidence supporting the anti-aging effect of the traditional Mediterranean diet, as well as of some specific foods. The diet and several of its components have additionally been shown to have beneficial effects on the co-morbidities typical of elderly populations. Furthermore, the epigenetic effects of diet on the aging process - through calorie restriction and the consumption of foods like red wine, orange juice, probiotics and prebiotics - have attracted scientific interest. Some, such as dark chocolate, red wine, nuts, beans, avocados are being promoted as anti-aging foods, due to their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Finally, an important moderator in the relationship between diet, longevity and human health remains the socio-economic status of individual, as a healthy diet, due to its higher cost, is closely related to higher financial and educational status.

  18. An Update on the Ketogenic Diet, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Halevy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet has been in use for the last 90 years, and its role in the treatment of epilepsy in the pediatric population has been gaining recognition. It can be helpful in many types of epilepsies, even the more severe ones, and has a beneficial effect on the child’s alertness and cognition, which can be impaired by both the condition and the medications needed for controlling it. Parental compliance is good in spite of the inconveniences inherent in following the diet. The significant advancements in understanding the nature of the diet are in better defining when its use is contraindicated and in validating its application in severe epilepsies in infancy, such as infantile spasms. Although most neurologists do not consider it as being the preferred first-line therapy, it is often a reasonable option when two medications have already failed.

  19. Effects of a supra-sustained gelatin-milk protein diet compared with (supra-)sustained milk protein diets on body-weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstenbach-Waelen, Ananda; Soenen, Stijn; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2011-05-01

    Diets higher in protein content result in increased satiety and energy expenditure. In the short term, gelatin showed stronger hunger suppression and less subsequent energy intake compared with other proteins. The present study investigated whether a supra-sustained gelatin-milk protein (GMP) diet promotes weight loss compared with a sustained milk protein (SMP) diet and a supra-sustained milk protein (SSMP) diet during an 8-week diet period. A total of seventy-two healthy subjects (31·2 (sd 4·8) kg/m2; 43 (sd 10) years) followed one of the three diets in a subject-specific amount: SMP, SSMP or GMP diet. During weeks 1-4, energy intake was 100 % of individual energy requirement: 10, 40 and 50 % of energy (En %) as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SMP diet), and 20, 30 and 50 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SSMP diet or GMP diet). During weeks 5-8, energy intake was 33 % of individual energy requirement: 30, 35 and 35 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SMP diet), and 60, 5 and 35 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SSMP diet or GMP diet). Thus, absolute protein intake was kept constant throughout per subject. Significant decreases in BMI (P diets. Decreases in fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM) and FM %, and increases in FFM % were similar between the GMP and both control diets. Changes in RQ differed (P diets. Changes in HDL concentrations differed (P diets ( - 0·08 (sd 0·18) mmol/l and - 0·09 (sd 0·26) mmol/l, respectively). In conclusion, a gelatin-milk protein diet does not induce more beneficial effects during an 8-week weight-loss period compared with a SMP or SSMP diet.

  20. Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales, engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Riley, R.H.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes a beneficiation facility designed to process 1620 tons per day of run-of-mine Alabama oil shale containing 12.7 gallons of kerogen per ton of ore (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay) suitable for feed to a hydroretort oil extraction facility of nominally 20,000 barrels per day capacity. The beneficiation plant design prepared includes the operations of crushing, grinding, flotation, thickening, filtering, drying, briquetting, conveying and tailings empoundment. A complete oil shale beneficiation plant is described including all anticipated ancillary facilities. For purposes of determining capital and operating costs, the beneficiation facility is assumed to be located on a generic site in the state of Alabama. The facility is described in terms of the individual unit operations with the capital costs being itemized in a similar manner. Additionally, the beneficiation facility estimated operating costs are presented to show operating costs per ton of concentrate produced, cost per barrel of oil contained in concentrate and beneficiation cost per barrel of oil extracted from concentrate by hydroretorting. All costs are presented in fourth quarter of 1988 dollars.

  1. Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids in the proteome of high-density lipoprotein proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burillo Elena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs have demonstrated to be beneficial in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, however, the mechanisms by which they perform their cardiovascular protection have not been clarified. Intriguingly, some of these protective effects have also been linked to HDL. The hypothesis of this study was that ω-3 PUFAs could modify the protein cargo of HDL particle in a triglyceride non-dependent mode. The objective of the study was to compare the proteome of HDL before and after ω-3 PUFAs supplemented diet. Methods A comparative proteomic analysis in 6 smoker subjects HDL before and after a 5 weeks ω-3 PUFAs enriched diet has been performed. Results Among the altered proteins, clusterin, paraoxonase, and apoAI were found to increase, while fibronectin, α-1-antitrypsin, complement C1r subcomponent and complement factor H decreased after diet supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs. Immunodetection assays confirmed these results. The up-regulated proteins are related to anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic properties of HDL, while the down-regulated proteins are related to regulation of complement activation and acute phase response. Conclusions Despite the low number of subjects included in the study, our findings demonstrate that ω-3 PUFAs supplementation modifies lipoprotein containing apoAI (LpAI proteome and suggest that these protein changes improve the functionality of the particle.

  2. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need to know about Wilson Disease Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is ... dysarthria; rigid dystonia; pseudobulbar palsy; seizures; migraine headaches; insomnia Psychiatric: Depression; neuroses; personality changes; psychosis Other symptoms: ...

  3. Diets that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and low-fat dairy products. It excludes white flour products and most starchy carbohydrates like potatoes, rice, ... grains. Other vegetarians might include fish but no meat. A vegan diet is a diet that excludes ...

  4. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002442.htm Diet - chronic kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease. These changes may include limiting fluids, eating a ...

  5. Caffeine in the diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - caffeine ... Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or ... been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine ...

  6. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain. PMID:23680946

  7. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain.

  8. Diet and Your Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and to do them for a long time. Eating an unhealthy diet can lead to liver disease. For example, ... and can help repair some liver damage. An unhealthy diet can make the liver ... diet include? • Eating foods from all the food groups: grains, proteins, ...

  9. Diet induced thermogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. METHODS: Measuring c

  10. Diet induced thermogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. METHODS: Measuring

  11. Diet induced thermogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. METHODS: Measuring c

  12. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase the potassium in your diet or use salt substitutes (which often contain potassium). People who have kidney ... consume. Alternative Names Hypertension - diet Images DASH diet Low sodium diet References American Heart Association Nutrition Committee; Lichtenstein ...

  13. Diet induced thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerterp KR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.

  14. Diet quality assessment indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Various indices and scores based on admittedly healthy dietary patterns or food guides for the general population, or aiming at the prevention of diet-related diseases have been developed to assess diet quality. The four indices preferred by most studies are: the Diet Quality Index; the Healthy Eating Index; the Mediterranean Diet Score; and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Other instruments based on these indices have been developed and the words 'adapted', 'revised', or 'new version I, II or III' added to their names. Even validated indices usually find only modest associations between diet and risk of disease or death, raising questions about their limitations and the complexity associated with measuring the causal relationship between diet and health parameters. The objective of this review is to describe the main instruments used for assessing diet quality, and the applications and limitations related to their use and interpretation.

  15. Dietary sardine protein lowers insulin resistance, leptin and TNF-α and beneficially affects adipose tissue oxidative stress in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Zohra; Louchami, Karim; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Ait Yahia, Dalila

    2012-02-01

    The present study aims at exploring the effects of sardine protein on insulin resistance, plasma lipid profile, as well as oxidative and inflammatory status in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed sardine protein (S) or casein (C) diets supplemented or not with high-fructose (HF) for 2 months. Rats fed the HF diets had greater body weight and adiposity and lower food intake as compared to control rats. Increased plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1C, triacylglycerols, free fatty acids and impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was observed in HF-fed rats. Moreover, a decline in adipose tissues antioxidant status and a rise in lipid peroxidation and plasma TNF-α and fibrinogen were noted. Rats fed sardine protein diets exhibited lower food intake and fat mass than those fed casein diets. Sardine protein diets diminished plasma insulin and insulin resistance. Plasma triacylglycerol and free fatty acids were also lower, while those of α-tocopherol, taurine and calcium were enhanced as compared to casein diets. Moreover, S-HF diet significantly decreased plasma glucose and HbA1C. Sardine protein consumption lowered hydroperoxide levels in perirenal and brown adipose tissues. The S-HF diet, as compared to C-HF diet decreased epididymal hydroperoxides. Feeding sardine protein diets decreased brown adipose tissue carbonyls and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. Perirenal and epididymal superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and brown catalase activity were significantly greater in S-HF group than in C-HF group. Sardine protein diets also prevented hyperleptinemia and reduced inflammatory status in comparison with rats fed casein diets. Taken together, these results support the beneficial effect of sardine protein in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome on such variables as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and oxidative and inflammatory status, suggesting the possible use of sardine protein as a protective

  16. Beneficial effect of Curcumin in Letrozole induced polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sushma Reddy

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Curcumin showed beneficial effects in Letrozole induced PCOS in female Wistar rats. Its effect was comparable to that of Clomiphene citrate, most widely used treatment for ovulation induction in PCOS condition.

  17. Graphene-based composite materials beneficial to wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bingan; Li, Ting; Zhao, Haitao; Li, Xiaodong; Gao, Caitian; Zhang, Shengxiang; Xie, Erqing

    2012-04-01

    We use electrospinning to prepare chitosan-PVA nanofibers containing graphene. The nanofibers can be directly used in wound healing: graphene, as an antibacterial material, can be beneficial for this. A possible antibacterial mechanism for graphene is presented.

  18. Lunar Oxygen and Silicon Beneficiation Using Only Solar Power Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Element beneficiation from a moving, ionized plasma can be accomplished through the principles of mass spectroscopy. Two US patents were recently awarded to the PI...

  19. Climate change effects on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Compant, Stéphane; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.; Sessitsch, Angela

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that beneficial plant-associated microorganisms may stimulate plant growth and enhance resistance to disease and abiotic stresses. The effects of climate change factors such as elevated CO2, drought and warming on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions are increasingly being explored. This now makes it possible to test whether some general patterns occur and whether different groups of plant-associated microorganisms respond differently or in the same way to climate chan...

  20. Effect of corn bran and steep inclusion in finishing diets on diet digestibility, cattle performance, and nutrient mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, K M; Buckner, C D; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Macken, C N; Loy, T W

    2013-08-01

    One metabolism trial and 2 finishing trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding corn bran and steep liquor (steep) in replacement of dry-rolled corn (DRC) on diet digestibility, cattle performance, and nutrient mass balance in open feedlot pens. The metabolism trial (Exp. 1) used 8 ruminally cannulated heifers in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and the 2 finishing trials used 128 steer calves fed for 167 d (Exp. 2) and 256 yearling steers fed for 126 d (Exp. 3). Dietary treatments for all trials included a DRC-based control (CON), 30% corn bran (30/0), 30% corn bran plus 15% steep (30/15), and 45% corn bran plus 15% steep (45/15), in which by-products replaced DRC and molasses in the diet (DM basis). Diets were not isonitrogenous or isoenergetic. In the metabolism trial, feeding the by-product diets produced greater rumen pH (5.95) than CON (5.76; P diets (P diet than the by-product diets (2.36 vs. 2.84 and 0.72 vs. 1.66, respectively). In the performance trials, steers fed the by-product diets consumed more DM (P = 0.06) and G:F was either similar for all diets in Exp. 2 (P = 0.56) or less for cattle fed 30/0 than the other diets in Exp. 3 (P = 0.05). Percent N loss was reduced in Exp. 2 by including corn bran in diets compared with CON (P diet digestibility, it was beneficial in maintaining cattle performance in the feedlot studies. Feeding corn bran in combination with steep increased manure N removed and N in compost, but decreased percent N lost during the winter months only.

  1. You are what you eat: within-subject increases in fruit and vegetable consumption confer beneficial skin-color changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D Whitehead

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetable consumption and ingestion of carotenoids have been found to be associated with human skin-color (yellowness in a recent cross-sectional study. This carotenoid-based coloration contributes beneficially to the appearance of health in humans and is held to be a sexually selected cue of condition in other species. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigate the effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on skin-color longitudinally to determine the magnitude and duration of diet change required to change skin-color perceptibly. Diet and skin-color were recorded at baseline and after three and six weeks, in a group of 35 individuals who were without makeup, self-tanning agents and/or recent intensive UV exposure. Six-week changes in fruit and vegetable consumption were significantly correlated with changes in skin redness and yellowness over this period, and diet-linked skin reflectance changes were significantly associated with the spectral absorption of carotenoids and not melanin. We also used psychophysical methods to investigate the minimum color change required to confer perceptibly healthier and more attractive skin-coloration. Modest dietary changes are required to enhance apparent health (2.91 portions per day and attractiveness (3.30 portions. CONCLUSIONS: Increased fruit and vegetable consumption confers measurable and perceptibly beneficial effects on Caucasian skin appearance within six weeks. This effect could potentially be used as a motivational tool in dietary intervention.

  2. Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K

    2005-09-01

    Diet has been recognized as a corner stone in the management of diabetes mellitus. Spices are the common dietary adjuncts that contribute to the taste and flavour of foods. Besides, spices are also known to exert several beneficial physiological effects including the antidiabetic influence. This review considers all the available information from animal experimentation as well as clinical trials where spices, their extracts or their active principles were examined for treatment of diabetes. Among the spices, fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenumgraecum), garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), and turmeric (Curcuma longa) have been experimentally documented to possess antidiabetic potential. In a limited number of studies, cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), mustard (Brassica nigra), curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) have been reported to be hypoglycaemic.

  3. New insights into the mechanisms of the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Detlev

    2017-04-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets have been used for almost a century for the treatment of epilepsy. Used traditionally for the treatment of refractory pediatric epilepsies, in recent years the use of ketogenic diets has experienced a revival to include the treatment of adulthood epilepsies as well as conditions ranging from autism to chronic pain and cancer. Despite the ability of ketogenic diet therapy to suppress seizures refractory to antiepileptic drugs and reports of lasting seizure freedom, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This review explores new insights into mechanisms mobilized by ketogenic diet therapies. Ketogenic diets act through a combination of mechanisms, which are linked to the effects of ketones and glucose restriction, and to interactions with receptors, channels, and metabolic enzymes. Decanoic acid, a component of medium-chain triclycerides, contributes to seizure control through direct α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor inhibition, whereas drugs targeting lactate dehydrogenase reduce seizures through inhibition of a metabolic pathway. Ketogenic diet therapy also affects DNA methylation, a novel epigenetic mechanism of the diet. Ketogenic diet therapy combines several beneficial mechanisms that provide broad benefits for the treatment of epilepsy with the potential to not only suppress seizures but also to modify the course of the epilepsy.

  4. Fiber sources in diets for newly weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp in the diet of weaned piglets. A total of 72 piglets (36 castrated males and 36 females weaned at 21 days of age (BW 6.45±0.66 kg was distributed according to a randomized block design, for evaluation of performance, transit time, diarrhea incidence and blood parameters of piglets which received diets containing different sources of fiber. The experimental diets were: control diet - diet composed of corn, soybean meal and a source of lactose; control + 1.5% purified cellulose; control + 3% soybean hull and control + 9% citrus pulp. The inclusion of purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp in diets of weaned piglets did not affect the performance or transit time of diets in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the use of purified cellulose reduced incidence of diarrhea. The use of purified cellulose, soybean hull and citrus pulp in the diet of weaned piglets does not affect performance or gastrointestinal transit time. The addition of purified cellulose promotes a beneficial effect to control the diarrhea in weaned piglets.

  5. Effects of Synthetic Diets Enriched in Specific Nutrients on Drosophila Development, Body Fat, and Lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Reis

    Full Text Available Gene-diet interactions play a crucial but poorly understood role in susceptibility to obesity. Accordingly, the development of genetically tractable model systems to study the influence of diets in obesity-prone genetic backgrounds is a focus of current research. Here I present a modified synthetic Drosophila diet optimized for timely larval development, a stage dedicated to energy storage. Specifically increasing the levels of individual macronutrients-carbohydrate, lipid, or protein-resulted in markedly different organismal effects. A high-carbohydrate diet adversely affected the timing of development, size, early lifespan and body fat. Strikingly, quadrupling the amount of dietary lipids had none of these effects. Diets rich in protein appeared to be the most beneficial, as larvae developed faster, with no change in size, into long-lived adults. I believe this synthetic diet will significantly facilitate the study of gene-diet interactions in organismal energy balance.

  6. Effects of Synthetic Diets Enriched in Specific Nutrients on Drosophila Development, Body Fat, and Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Gene-diet interactions play a crucial but poorly understood role in susceptibility to obesity. Accordingly, the development of genetically tractable model systems to study the influence of diets in obesity-prone genetic backgrounds is a focus of current research. Here I present a modified synthetic Drosophila diet optimized for timely larval development, a stage dedicated to energy storage. Specifically increasing the levels of individual macronutrients-carbohydrate, lipid, or protein-resulted in markedly different organismal effects. A high-carbohydrate diet adversely affected the timing of development, size, early lifespan and body fat. Strikingly, quadrupling the amount of dietary lipids had none of these effects. Diets rich in protein appeared to be the most beneficial, as larvae developed faster, with no change in size, into long-lived adults. I believe this synthetic diet will significantly facilitate the study of gene-diet interactions in organismal energy balance.

  7. Impact of Diet Composition in Adult Offspring is Dependent on Maternal Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Megan C; Reimer, Raylene A

    2016-01-14

    The Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis proposes that the fetus takes cues from the maternal environment to predict its postnatal environment. A mismatch between the predicted and actual environments precipitates an increased risk of chronic disease. Our objective was to determine if, following a high fat, high sucrose (HFS) diet challenge in adulthood, re-matching offspring to their maternal gestational diet would improve metabolic health more so than if there was no previous exposure to that diet. Animals re-matched to a high prebiotic fiber diet (HF) had lower body weight and adiposity than animals re-matched to a high protein (HP) or control (C) diet and also had increased levels of the satiety hormones GLP-1 and PYY (p diet was associated with the most beneficial metabolic phenotype (body fat, glucose control, satiety hormones). The HP diet, as per our previous work, had detrimental effects on body weight and adiposity. Findings in control rats suggest that the obesogenic potential of the powdered AIN-93 diet warrants investigation.

  8. Impact of Diet Composition in Adult Offspring is Dependent on Maternal Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan C. Hallam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis proposes that the fetus takes cues from the maternal environment to predict its postnatal environment. A mismatch between the predicted and actual environments precipitates an increased risk of chronic disease. Our objective was to determine if, following a high fat, high sucrose (HFS diet challenge in adulthood, re-matching offspring to their maternal gestational diet would improve metabolic health more so than if there was no previous exposure to that diet. Animals re-matched to a high prebiotic fiber diet (HF had lower body weight and adiposity than animals re-matched to a high protein (HP or control (C diet and also had increased levels of the satiety hormones GLP-1 and PYY (p < 0.05. Control animals, whether maintained throughout the study on AIN-93M, or continued on HFS rather than reverting back to AIN-93M, did not differ from each other in body weight or adiposity. Overall, the HF diet was associated with the most beneficial metabolic phenotype (body fat, glucose control, satiety hormones. The HP diet, as per our previous work, had detrimental effects on body weight and adiposity. Findings in control rats suggest that the obesogenic potential of the powdered AIN-93 diet warrants investigation.

  9. Nutritional and cultural aspects of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Majem, Lluis; Bach-Faig, Anna; Raidó-Quintana, Blanca

    2012-06-01

    The recent recognition by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) of the Mediterranean diet as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity reinforces, together with the scientific evidence, the Mediterranean diet as a cultural and health model. The Mediterranean diet has numerous beneficial effects on among others the immune system, against allergies, on the psyche, or even on quality of life, topics that are currently fields of research. The Mediterranean diet has an international projection; it is regarded as the healthiest and the most sustainable eating pattern on the planet and is a key player in the public health nutrition field globally, but especially in the Mediterranean area. Moreover, this ancient cultural heritage should be preserved and promoted from different areas: public health, agriculture, culture, politics, and economic development.

  10. The mediterranean diet model in inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spinella

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is based on a pattern of eating that’s closely tied to the Mediterranean region, which includes Greece and southern Italy. Essentially, the traditional diet emphasizes foods from plant sources, limited meat consumption, small amounts of wine and olive oil as the main fat source. The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet has been proven not only to cardiovascular diseases but also for diabetes, obesity, arthritis and cancer. Its anti-inflammatory and protective properties are linked to the large presence of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, but especially to the constituents of extra virgin olive oil: oleic acid, phenolic compounds olecanthal, a new recently discovered molecule, with natural anti-inflammatory properties. It has been shown that the Mediterranean diet can reduce disease activity, pain and stiffness in patients with inflammatory arthritis and may thus constitute a valuable support for patients suffering from these diseases.

  11. Beneficial effects of non-alcoholic grape-derived products on human health: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vine is widely cultivated due to the economic value of wine and other grape derivatives. The grape berry is character- ized by the presence of a wide variety of flavonoids, which have been investigated for their health promoting properties. Several epidemiological studies have shown that a moderate consumption of wine is associated with a J-shaped effect on some risk fac- tors for chronic diseases. On the other hand, the wine market has shown a decreasing trend due to the frequent abuse of alcoholic beverages also by young people, as denounced by WHO. Accordingly, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has been further stimulated. The aim of this paper was a preliminary collection of data on human studies supporting the beneficial properties of unfermented grape products. The most convincing positive effects, observed in humans, consisted in the reduction of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and oxidative stress. Other human trials have been published in the area of: immune system, diabetes, cognitive functions, oral health, and cancer. Generally speaking, the findings listed in this review support the use of non-alcoholic grape derivatives, as a source of beneficial compounds for the human diet, even though further studies are necessary.

  12. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Nitrate on Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer d’El-Rei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor eating habits may represent cardiovascular risk factors since high intake of fat and saturated fatty acids contributes to dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Thus, nutritional interventions are recognized as important strategies for primary prevention of hypertension and as adjuvants to pharmacological therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk. The DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension plan is one of the most effective strategies for the prevention and nonpharmacological management of hypertension. The beneficial effects of DASH diet on blood pressure might be related to the high inorganic nitrate content of some food products included in this meal plan. The beetroot and other food plants considered as nitrate sources account for approximately 60–80% of the daily nitrate exposure in the western population. The increased levels of nitrite by nitrate intake seem to have beneficial effects in many of the physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being conducted to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing the bioavailability of nitrite in human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In conclusion, the dietary inorganic nitrate seems to represent a promising complementary therapy to support hypertension treatment with benefits for cardiovascular health.

  13. Switching harmful visceral fat to beneficial energy combustion improves metabolic dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Sui, Wenhai; Zhang, Meng; Dong, Mei; Lim, Sharon; Seki, Takahiro; Guo, Ziheng; Fischer, Carina; Lu, Huixia; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Jianmin; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Yangang; Cao, Caixia; Gao, Yanyan; Zhao, Xingguo; Sun, Meili; Sun, Yuping; Zhuang, Rujie; Samani, Nilesh J; Zhang, Yun; Cao, Yihai

    2017-02-23

    Visceral fat is considered the genuine and harmful white adipose tissue (WAT) that is associated to development of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Here, we present a new concept to turn the harmful visceral fat into a beneficial energy consumption depot, which is beneficial for improvement of metabolic dysfunctions in obese mice. We show that low temperature-dependent browning of visceral fat caused decreased adipose weight, total body weight, and body mass index, despite increased food intake. In high-fat diet-fed mice, low temperature exposure improved browning of visceral fat, global metabolism via nonshivering thermogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic steatosis. Genome-wide expression profiling showed upregulation of WAT browning-related genes including Cidea and Dio2. Conversely, Prdm16 was unchanged in healthy mice or was downregulated in obese mice. Surgical removal of visceral fat and genetic knockdown of UCP1 in epididymal fat largely ablated low temperature-increased global thermogenesis and resulted in the death of most mice. Thus, browning of visceral fat may be a compensatory heating mechanism that could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating visceral fat-associated obesity and diabetes.

  14. Epigallocatechin Gallate: A Review of Its Beneficial Properties to Prevent Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Legeay

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and being overweight are linked with a cluster of metabolic and vascular disorders that have been termed the metabolic syndrome. This syndrome promotes the incidence of cardiovascular diseases that are an important public health problem because they represent a major cause of death worldwide. Whereas there is not a universally-accepted set of diagnostic criteria, most expert groups agree that this syndrome is defined by an endothelial dysfunction, an impaired insulin sensitivity and hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity and hypertension. Epidemiological studies suggest that the beneficial cardiovascular health effects of diets rich in green tea are, in part, mediated by their flavonoid content, with particular benefits provided by members of this family such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG. Although their bioavailability is discussed, various studies suggest that EGCG modulates cellular and molecular mechanisms of various symptoms leading to metabolic syndrome. Therefore, according to in vitro and in vivo model data, this review attempts to increase our understanding about the beneficial properties of EGCG to prevent metabolic syndrome.

  15. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet....

  16. Climate change effects on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compant, Stéphane; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Sessitsch, Angela

    2010-08-01

    It is well known that beneficial plant-associated microorganisms may stimulate plant growth and enhance resistance to disease and abiotic stresses. The effects of climate change factors such as elevated CO(2), drought and warming on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions are increasingly being explored. This now makes it possible to test whether some general patterns occur and whether different groups of plant-associated microorganisms respond differently or in the same way to climate change. Here, we review the results of 135 studies investigating the effects of climate change factors on beneficial microorganisms and their interaction with host plants. The majority of studies showed that elevated CO(2) had a positive influence on the abundance of arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi, whereas the effects on plant growth-promoting bacteria and endophytic fungi were more variable. In most cases, plant-associated microorganisms had a beneficial effect on plants under elevated CO(2). The effects of increased temperature on beneficial plant-associated microorganisms were more variable, positive and neutral, and negative effects were equally common and varied considerably with the study system and the temperature range investigated. Moreover, numerous studies indicated that plant growth-promoting microorganisms (both bacteria and fungi) positively affected plants subjected to drought stress. Overall, this review shows that plant-associated microorganisms are an important factor influencing the response of plants to climate change.

  17. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Vargas-Robles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.

  18. Adherence to a Mediterranean-Style Diet and Effects on Cognition in Adults: A Qualitative Evaluation and Systematic Review of Longitudinal and Prospective Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Hardman, Roy J.; Greg Kennedy; Helen Macpherson; Scholey, Andrew B.; Andrew Pipingas

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean-style diet (MedDiet) involves substantial intake of fruits, vegetables, and fish, and a lower consumption of dairy, red meat, and sugars. Over the past 15 years much empirical evidence supports the suggestion that a MedDiet may be beneficial with respect to reducing the incidence of cardiovascular disease, cancer, metabolic syndrome, and dementia. A number of cross-sectional studies that have examined the impact of MedDiet on cognition have yielded largely positive results....

  19. The beneficial effects of betaine on dysfunctional adipose tissue and N6-methyladenosine mRNA methylation requires the AMP-activated protein kinase α1 subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xihong; Chen, Jingqing; Chen, Jin; Wu, Weiche; Wang, Xinxia; Wang, Yizhen

    2015-12-01

    The current study was conducted to determine whether betaine could improve fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial function and N6-methyladenosine (m(6)A) mRNA methylation in adipose tissue in high-fat-induced mice and how AMP-activated protein kinase α1 subunit (AMPKα1) was involved. AMPKα1 knockout mice and wild-type mice were fed either a low-fat diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet supplemented with betaine in the drinking water for 8weeks. Our results showed that mitochondrial genes (PGC1α) and β-oxidation-related genes (CPT1a) at protein level were increased in wild-type mice supplemented with betaine when compared with those in mice with high-fat diet. Betaine also decreased FTO expression and improved m(6)A methylation in adipose tissue of wild-type mice with high-fat diet. However, betaine failed to exert the abovementioned effects in AMPKα1 knockout mice. In adipocytes isolated from mice with high-fat diet, betaine treatment increased lipolysis and lipid oxidation. Moreover, betaine decreased FTO expression and increased m(6)A methylation. However, while AMPKα1 was knockdown, no remarkable changes in adipocytes were observed under betaine treatment. Our results indicated that betaine supplementation rectified mRNA hypomethylation and high FTO expression induced by high-fat diet, which may contribute to its beneficial effects on impaired adipose tissue function. Our results suggested that the AMPKα1 subunit is required for the beneficial effects of betaine on dysfunctional adipose tissue and m(6)A methylation. These results may provide the foundation for a mechanism that links m(6)A methylation status in RNA, AMPKα1 phosphorylation and dysfunctional adipose tissue induced by high-fat diet.

  20. DIETARY FRUCTANS AND THEIR POTENTIAL BENEFICIAL INFLUENCE ON HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE PARAMETRS IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika BOGUSŁAWSKA-TRYK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fructans, which include inulin and fructooligosaccharides, are non-digestible carbohydrates that are fermented in the large intestine. This review focuses on the effect of these prebiotics on gut microflora, fermentation characteristics, gut morphology, enzymes activity, nutrients digestibility and absorption, lipids metabolism and performance parameters in broiler chickens. Inulin-type fructans can improve performance of birds and health by affecting microbial community in the gastrointestinal tract, gut morphology and nutrient digestion. It is documented that dietary fructans influence the intestinal gut microflora of broiler chickens by increasing the population of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp. and Eubacterium spp. while decreasing the concentration of Clostridium spp. and Escherichia coli in the large intestine and caeca. The supplementation of poultry diets with inulin or oligofructose can lead to an increase of the length of small and large intestines in broilers, elongation of the villus in the chickens jejunal mucosa and increase in the ratio of villus height to crypt depth. The beneficial effect of inulin-type fructans on performance parameters in broilers may be partially explained by the elevated intestinal enzymatic activity under the influence of the fructooligosaccharides and increase of digestibility and absorption of nutrients, mainly protein and fat. The prebiotic effectiveness of inulin-type fructans in broilers depends on a number of factors, like the type of supplement (inulin vs. oligofructose, inclusion level, composition of the basal diet, animal characteristics (age, sex, stage of production and hygienic conditions (i.e. stress factors.

  1. Beneficial effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice on livers of high-fat dietary hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Yang, Deng-Jye; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2013-09-01

    Polyphenols in noni juice (NJ) are mainly composed of phenolic acids, mainly gentisic, p-hydroxybenoic, and chlorogenic acids. To investigate the beneficial effects of NJ on the liver, hamsters were fed with two diets, normal-fat and high-fat diets. Furthermore, high-fat dietary hamsters were received distilled water, and 3, 6, and 9 mL NJ/kg BW, respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, the increased (p<0.05) sizes of liver and visceral fat in high-fat dietary hamsters compared to the control hamsters were ameliorated (p<0.05) by NJ supplementation. NJ also decreased (p<0.05) serum/liver lipids but enhanced (p<0.05) daily faecal lipid/bile acid outputs in the high-fat dietary hamsters. High-fat dietary hamsters supplemented with NJ had higher (p<0.05) liver antioxidant capacities but lowered (p<0.05) liver iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions, gelatinolytic levels of MMP9, and serum ALT values compared to those without NJ. Hence, NJ protects liver against a high-fat dietary habit via regulations of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses.

  2. New Nordic diet versus average Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    A previous study has shown effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) to stimulate weight loss and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obese Danish women and men in a randomized, controlled dietary intervention study. This work demonstrates long-term metabolic effects of the NND as compared...... metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis, formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects higher levels of vaccenic acid...... diets high in fish, vegetables, fruit, and wholegrain facilitated weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity by increasing ketosis and gluconeogenesis in the fasting state....

  3. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, O.K.; Levasseur, A.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring the development of advanced coal-cleaning technologies aimed at expanding the use of the nation`s vast coal reserves in an environmentally and economically acceptable manner. Because of the lack of practical experience with deeply beneficiated coal-based fuels, PETC has contracted Combustion Engineering, Inc. to perform a multi-year project on `Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.` The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels (BCs) influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs.

  4. Survey and evaluation of current and potential coal beneficiation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. P.N.; Peterson, G. R.

    1979-03-01

    Coal beneficiation is a generic term used for processes that prepare run-of-mine coal for specific end uses. It is also referred to as coal preparation or coal cleaning and is a means of reducing the sulfur and the ash contents of coal. Information is presented regarding current and potential coal beneficiation processes. Several of the processes reviewed, though not yet commercial, are at various stages of experimental development. Process descriptions are provided for these processes commensurate with the extent of information and time available to perform the evaluation of these processes. Conceptual process designs, preliminary cost estimates, and economic evaluations are provided for the more advanced (from a process development hierarchy viewpoint) processes based on production levels of 1500 and 15,000 tons/day (maf) of cleaned product coal. Economic evaluations of the coal preparation plants are conducted for several project financing schemes and at 12 and 15% annual after-tax rates of return on equity capital. A 9% annual interest rate is used on the debt fraction of the plant capital. Cleaned product coal prices are determined using the discounted cash flow procedure. The study is intended to provide information on publicly known coal beneficiation processes and to indicate the relative costs of various coal beneficiation processes. Because of severe timeconstraints, several potential coal beneficiation processes are not evaluated in great detail. It is recommended that an additional study be conducted to complement this study and to more fully appreciate the potentially significant role of coal beneficiation in the clean burning of coal.

  5. Vegetarian diets and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T A; Reddy, S

    1994-05-01

    The diets and growth of children reared on vegetarian diets are reviewed. Excessive bulk combined with low energy density can be a problem for children aged Diets that have a high content of phytate and other modifiers of mineral absorption are associated with an increased prevalence of rickets and iron-deficiency anemia. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is a real hazard in unsupplemented or unfortified vegan and vegetarian diets. It is suggested that vegans and vegetarians should use oils with a low ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid in view of the recently recognized role of docosahexaenoic acid in visual functioning. If known pitfalls are avoided, the growth and development of children reared on both vegan and vegetarian diets appears normal.

  6. [Diet and atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, J A; Garcés, C; de Oya, M

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between diet and atherosclerosis is due to the diet influence on lipoprotein composition. However, because of the multifactorial basis of the atherosclerosis, diet components have another potential intervention mechanisms in the atherosclerosis process, such as the influence on other cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity, diabetes) or the influence on the coagulation system and the relationship endothelium-platelets. We will review the effect of diet components on these factors, specially its effects on the haemostasia system, which alteration is responsible for provoking ischemic heart disease. We have to consider that the main objective when treating dyslipidaemias, besides of avoiding acute pancreatitis in cases of strong hypertrigliceridaemia, is to prevent arteriosclerosis development and its clinical manifestations such as ischemic heart disease. Besides, we know that genetic, in addition to provoke familial susceptibility to atherosclerosis, has an essential importance in the response to ambiental factors as diet is.

  7. Mediterranean diet and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: new therapeutic option around the corner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, Francesco; Casini, Alessandro

    2014-06-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries, being considered as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. NAFLD has a common pathogenic background to that of metabolic syndrome, and shares many risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Although there is no currently available evidence-based established treatment for NAFLD, all the recommendations from the medical associations indicate that the most effective treatment is to reduce weight through lifestyle modifications. Diet, indeed, plays a key role in the management of NAFLD patients, as both the quantity and quality of the diet have been reported to have a beneficial role in the onset and severity of the liver disease. Among all the diets that have been proposed, a Mediterranean diet was the most effective dietary option for inducing weight loss together with beneficial effects on all the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. Over the last few years, research has demonstrated a beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet in NAFLD. In this review, we will examine all the available data on the association between diet, nutrients and the Mediterranean diet in association with onset and severity of NAFLD.

  8. Diet for rapid weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Staying away from fad diets. Updated January 4, 2016. www.eatright.org/resource/health/weight-loss/fad-diets/staying-away-from-fad-diets . Accessed May 25, 2016. Cowley MA, Brown WA, Considine ...

  9. Diet and Nutrition in Porphyria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Art Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition A proper diet is important to all individuals, ... alter food intake. Therefore, attention to diet and nutrition is important in almost any disease. Porphyrias are ...

  10. Water consumption related to different diets in Mediterranean cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D; Del Pozo, S; Pekcan, A G; Keinan-Boker, L; Trichopoulou, A; Gawlik, B M

    2016-12-15

    Providing the sustainable development goals (SDGs) water, food and energy security to cities relies strongly on resource use outside city borders. Many modern cities have recently invested in a sustainable urban water system, and score high in international city rankings regarding water management and direct urban water use. However, these rankings generally neglect external resource use for cities. Here we quantify the water resources related to food consumption in thirteen cities located in Mediterranean countries, by means of the water footprint (WF) concept. These WFs amount from 3277l per capita per day (l/cap/d) to 5789l/cap/d. These amounts are about thirty times higher than their direct urban water use. We additionally analyse the WF of three diet scenarios, based upon a Mediterranean dietary pattern. Many authors identify the Mediterranean diet as cultural heritage, being beneficial for human health and a model for a sustainable food system. The first diet scenario, a healthy Mediterranean diet including meat, leads to WF reductions of -19% to -43%. The second diet scenario (pesco-vegetarian), leads to WF reductions of -28% to -52%. The third diet scenario (vegetarian), leads to WF reductions of -30% to -53%. In other words, if urban citizens want to save water, they need to look at their diets.

  11. The contribution of vegetarian diets to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Joan

    2003-01-01

    Our knowledge is far from complete regarding the relationship between vegetarian diets and human health. However, scientific advances in the last decades have considerably changed the role that vegetarian diets may play in human nutrition. Components of a healthy vegetarian diet include a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grain cereals, legumes and nuts. Numerous studies show important and quantifiable benefits of the different components of vegetarian diets, namely the reduction of risk for many chronic diseases and the increase in longevity. Such evidence is derived from the study of vegetarians as well as other populations. While meat intake has been related to increased risk for a variety of chronic diseases, an abundant consumption of vegetables, fruits, cereals, nuts, and legumes all have been independently related with a lower risk for several chronic degenerative diseases, such as ischemic heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and many cancers. Hence, whole foods of plant origin seem to be beneficial on their own merit for chronic disease prevention. This is possibly more certain than the detrimental effects of meats. Vegetarian diets, as any other diet pattern, have potential health risks, namely marginal intake of essential nutrients. However, from the public health viewpoint the health benefits of a well-planned vegetarian diet far outweigh the potential risks.

  12. Novel ketone diet enhances physical and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Andrew J; Knight, Nicholas S; Cole, Mark A; Cochlin, Lowri E; Carter, Emma; Tchabanenko, Kirill; Pichulik, Tica; Gulston, Melanie K; Atherton, Helen J; Schroeder, Marie A; Deacon, Robert M J; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; King, M Todd; Pawlosky, Robert; Rawlins, J Nicholas P; Tyler, Damian J; Griffin, Julian L; Robertson, Jeremy; Veech, Richard L; Clarke, Kieran

    2016-12-01

    Ketone bodies are the most energy-efficient fuel and yield more ATP per mole of substrate than pyruvate and increase the free energy released from ATP hydrolysis. Elevation of circulating ketones via high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets has been used for the treatment of drug-refractory epilepsy and for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. Ketones may also be beneficial for muscle and brain in times of stress, such as endurance exercise. The challenge has been to raise circulating ketone levels by using a palatable diet without altering lipid levels. We found that blood ketone levels can be increased and cholesterol and triglycerides decreased by feeding rats a novel ketone ester diet: chow that is supplemented with (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate as 30% of calories. For 5 d, rats on the ketone diet ran 32% further on a treadmill than did control rats that ate an isocaloric diet that was supplemented with either corn starch or palm oil (P Ketone-fed rats completed an 8-arm radial maze test 38% faster than did those on the other diets, making more correct decisions before making a mistake (P ketone diet had greater free energy available from ATP hydrolysis during increased work than did hearts from rats on the other diets as shown by using [(31)P]-NMR spectroscopy. The novel ketone diet, therefore, improved physical performance and cognitive function in rats, and its energy-sparing properties suggest that it may help to treat a range of human conditions with metabolic abnormalities.-Murray, A. J., Knight, N. S., Cole, M. A., Cochlin, L. E., Carter, E., Tchabanenko, K., Pichulik, T., Gulston, M. K., Atherton, H. J., Schroeder, M. A., Deacon, R. M. J., Kashiwaya, Y., King, M. T., Pawlosky, R., Rawlins, J. N. P., Tyler, D. J., Griffin, J. L., Robertson, J., Veech, R. L., Clarke, K. Novel ketone diet enhances physical and cognitive performance. © The Author(s).

  13. Titanium as a Beneficial Element for Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Shiheng; Wei, Xiangying; Chen, Jianjun; Wang, Cun; Wang, Xiaoming; Pan, Dongming

    2017-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is considered a beneficial element for plant growth. Ti applied via roots or leaves at low concentrations has been documented to improve crop performance through stimulating the activity of certain enzymes, enhancing chlorophyll content and photosynthesis, promoting nutrient uptake, strengthening stress tolerance, and improving crop yield and quality. Commercial fertilizers containing Ti, such as Tytanit and Mg-Titanit, have been used as biostimulants for improving crop production; however, mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects still remain unclear. In this article, we propose that the beneficial roles Ti plays in plants lie in its interaction with other nutrient elements primarily iron (Fe). Fe and Ti have synergistic and antagonistic relationships. When plants experience Fe deficiency, Ti helps induce the expression of genes related to Fe acquisition, thereby enhancing Fe uptake and utilization and subsequently improving plant growth. Plants may have proteins that either specifically or nonspecifically bind with Ti. When Ti concentration is high in plants, Ti competes with Fe for ligands or proteins. The competition could be severe, resulting in Ti phytotoxicity. As a result, the beneficial effects of Ti become more pronounced during the time when plants experience low or deficient Fe supply.

  14. THE BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF SPORT ON ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Perrotta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that exercise increases energy levels and mood state. At least 20 published studies, indicate a link between physical activity and signs of prosperity. There is much medical evidence showing the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. Currently there is growing interest to see ifphysical activity can also improve symptoms of mental illness

  15. The non-target impact of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Antonio; Mommaerts, Veerle; Smagghe, Guy; Viñuela, Elisa; Zappalà, Lucia; Desneux, Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    Spinosyn-based products, mostly spinosad, have been widely recommended by extension specialists and agribusiness companies; consequently, they have been used to control various pests in many different cropping systems. Following the worldwide adoption of spinosad-based products for integrated and organic farming, an increasing number of ecotoxicological studies have been published in the past 10 years. These studies are primarily related to the risk assessment of spinosad towards beneficial arthropods. This review takes into account recent data with the aim of (i) highlighting potentially adverse effects of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods (and hence on ecosystem services that they provide in agroecosystems), (ii) clarifying the range of methods used to address spinosyn side effects on biocontrol agents and pollinators in order to provide new insights for the development of more accurate bioassays, (iii) identifying pitfalls when analysing laboratory results to assess field risks and (iv) gaining increasing knowledge on side effects when using spinosad for integrated pest management (IPM) programmes and organic farming. For the first time, a thorough review of possible risks of spinosad and novel spinosyns (such as spinetoram) to beneficial arthropods (notably natural enemies and pollinators) is provided. The acute lethal effect and multiple sublethal effects have been identified in almost all arthropod groups studied. This review will help to optimise the future use of spinosad and new spinosyns in IPM programmes and for organic farming, notably by preventing the possible side effects of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods.

  16. Electrochemical Remediation of Dredged Material for Beneficial Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Gardner, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    electroosmotic flow occured (0.01 mL/cm2-hr) and that sediments were effectively dewatered. These experimental results suggest electrochemical techniques should be evaluated for full-scale treatment of dredged material for upland beneficial use and may also be applicable for treatment of material placed...

  17. Control of the peachtree borer using beneficial nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of peaches and other stone fruits. Our research indicates that entomopathogenic nematodes, also known as beneficial nematodes, can be used effectively to control the insect. We conducted replicated experiments in randomized block designs ov...

  18. A review on the beneficial aspects of food processing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Fogliano, V.; Pellegrini, N.; Stanton, C.; Scholz, G.; Lalljie, S.P.D.; Somoza, V.; Knorr, D.; Rao Jasti, P.; Eisenbrand, G.

    2010-01-01

    The manuscript reviews beneficial aspects of food processing with main focus on cooking/heat treatment, including other food-processing techniques (e.g. fermentation). Benefits of thermal processing include inactivation of food-borne pathogens, natural toxins or other detrimental constituents, prolo

  19. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    2007-01-01

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...

  20. Unraveling root developmental programs initiated by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  1. Unraveling Root Developmental Programs Initiated by Beneficial Pseudomonas spp. Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  2. Beneficial Insects and Insect Pollinators on Milkweed in South Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pollinators are essential for the reproduction of more than two-thirds of the world’s crops, and beneficial insects play an important role in managing pest insects in agricultural farmscapes. These insects depend on nectar for their survival in these farmscapes. The flowers of tropical milkwe...

  3. Factitious foods to reduce production costs of beneficial insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reports the use of factitious foods such as Tenebrio molitor pupa, E. kuehniella eggs, Ephestia eggs, and or Artemia franciscana eggs for the rearing of beneficial insect such as Podisus maculiventris, spined soldier bug and several ladybird predators belonging to the Coccinellidae fam...

  4. Unraveling Root Developmental Programs Initiated by Beneficial Pseudomonas spp. Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamioudis, C.; Mastranesti, P.; Dhonukshe, P.; Blilou, I.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of

  5. Enhancing the health-beneficial qualities of whole grain rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various pre- and post-harvest approaches (i.e. pre-germination of whole grains and reduced milling degree) to enhancing the health beneficial compounds of whole grain and milled rice have been reported. A discussion of the results from our pre-harvest efforts is as follows. The majority of rice cons...

  6. Vegetarian diets and childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Joan; Wien, Michelle

    2010-05-01

    The increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is not unique to industrialized societies; dramatic increases are occurring in urbanized areas of developing countries. In light of the consensus that obesity is a significant public health concern and that many weight-loss interventions have been unsuccessful in the long term, an exploration of food patterns that are beneficial in the primary prevention of obesity is warranted. The focus of this article is to review the relation between vegetarian diets and obesity, particularly as they relate to childhood obesity. Epidemiologic studies indicate that vegetarian diets are associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower prevalence of obesity in adults and children. A meta-analysis of adult vegetarian diet studies estimated a reduced weight difference of 7.6 kg for men and 3.3 kg for women, which resulted in a 2-point lower BMI (in kg/m(2)). Similarly, compared with nonvegetarians, vegetarian children are leaner, and their BMI difference becomes greater during adolescence. Studies exploring the risk of overweight and food groups and dietary patterns indicate that a plant-based diet seems to be a sensible approach for the prevention of obesity in children. Plant-based diets are low in energy density and high in complex carbohydrate, fiber, and water, which may increase satiety and resting energy expenditure. Plant-based dietary patterns should be encouraged for optimal health and environmental benefits. Food policies are warranted to support social marketing messages and to reduce the cultural and economic forces that make it difficult to promote plant-based dietary patterns.

  7. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Abreu, Maria T

    2015-08-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets-such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet-have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data.

  8. Effects of prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics in the diet of young pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: prebiotics, piglets, gut healthPrebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates that are not metabolized in the small intestine and fermented in the large intestine. Oligofructose are non-digestible oligosaccharides which may stimulate beneficial bacteria in the gut and may affect the gut ecosystem. Prebiotic effects will depend largely on their chemical structure (degree of polymerization). Dietary inclusion of probiotics in young pig diets may beneficially affect gut microbiota. Synbio...

  9. Promising Medicated Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ The founding conference of World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies-Special Committee of Medicated Diet & Dietotherapy(WFCMS-SCMDAD).and the first world medicated diet and life nurturing academic seminar was held in the Great Hall of the People.Beijing,China,on August 11.A total of 400 experts and professors on medicated diet and life nurturing from 17 countries and regions including Japan,ROK,U.S.,Canada,U.K.,ect.Honorary President Professor Cai Guangxian delivered a welcoming speech to declare the organization's found.

  10. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation.

  11. Extract of Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and High-Fat Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhee, Ki-Jong; Lee, Chang Gun; Kim, Sung Woo; Gim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Jung, Bae Dong

    2015-01-01

    .... In this study, we assessed whether Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) 761 could provide beneficial effects in the streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM and high-fat diet-induced type 2 DM murine model system...

  12. [Nutritional genomics: toward a personalized diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miggiano, G A D; De Sanctis, R

    2006-01-01

    Nutrigenomics is the application of high-throughput genomics tools to the study of diet-gene interactions in order to identify dietetic components having beneficial or detrimental health effects. Nutrition becomes indeed one of the environmental factors influencing gene expression. We can consider nutrigenomics as a multidisciplinary science that comes after the human genome characterization and that put the genomic techniques besides the biochemical and epidemiological aspects, with the aim to understand the etiologic aspects of chronic diseases such as cancer, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), metabolic syndrome, etc. Nutrigenomics is linked to nutrigenetics, which studies the genetic basis of the different individual response to the same nutritional stimulus. This phenomenon arises from gene polymorphism. As a consequence genes are important in determining a function, but nutrition is able to modify the degree of gene expression. These are however theories only at an early stage, but a perspective in the change of dietetic intervention is emerging. A really personalized diet will be a diet considering the nutritional status, the nutritional needs based on age, body composition, work and physical activities, but also considering the genotype. The integration of all these information and in particular the ones arising from genomic, proteomic and metabolomic analyses will be useful to define the "nutritional phenotype".

  13. Vitamin B₁₂ and vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuschner, Carol L; Hokin, Bevan D; Marsh, Kate A; Saunders, Angela V; Reid, Michelle A; Ramsay, Melinda R

    2013-08-19

    Vitamin B₁₂ is found almost exclusively in animal-based foods and is therefore a nutrient of potential concern for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet. Vegans, and anyone who significantly limits intake of animal-based foods, require vitamin B₁₂-fortified foods or supplements. Vitamin B₁₂ deficiency has several stages and may be present even if a person does not have anaemia. Anyone following a vegan or vegetarian diet should have their vitamin B₁₂ status regularly assessed to identify a potential problem. A useful process for assessing vitamin B₁₂ status in clinical practice is the combination of taking a diet history, testing serum vitamin B₁₂ level and testing homocysteine, holotranscobalamin II or methylmalonic acid serum levels. Pregnant and lactating vegan or vegetarian women should ensure an adequate intake of vitamin B₁₂ to provide for their developing baby. In people who can absorb vitamin B₁₂, small amounts (in line with the recommended dietary intake) and frequent (daily) doses appear to be more effective than infrequent large doses, including intramuscular injections. Fortification of a wider range of foods products with vitamin B₁₂, particularly foods commonly consumed by vegetarians, is likely to be beneficial, and the feasibility of this should be explored by relevant food authorities.

  14. Prostate cancer and diet: food for thought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Satoshi; Butler, Elizabeth; McLoughlin, John

    2011-05-01

    • There is now increasing evidence that diet plays a major role in prostate cancer biology and tumorigenesis. • In a health conscious society, it is becoming increasingly common for Urologists to be asked about the impact of diet on prostate cancer. • In the present review, we explore the current evidence for the role of different dietary components and its' effect on prostate cancer prevention and progression. • A literature search was conducted using PubMed® to identify key studies. • There was some evidence to suggest that green tea, isoflavones, lycopenes, cruciferous vegetables and omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake to be beneficial in the prevention and/or progression of prostate cancer. • There was also evidence to suggest that a high total fat, meat (especially well cooked) and multivitamin intake may be associated with an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. • To date publications have been highly heterogeneous and variable in quality and design. More robust, high quality research trials are needed to help us understand the complex relationship between diet and prostate cancer.

  15. Low-fiber diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... slow your bowel movements. This helps decrease diarrhea, gas, and bloating. Your doctor may recommend that you follow a low-fiber diet when you have a flare-up of: Irritable bowel syndrome Diverticulitis Crohn disease ...

  16. Diet and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware of the ... help arrange for counseling and other support services. Exercise After a Transplant Most people are weak after ...

  17. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  18. Dieting and Gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Walking: A Step in the Right Direction Dieting & Gallstones Introduction According to estimates, as many as 20 ... prevent this very common health problem. What are gallstones? Gallstones are hard crystals that may form in ...

  19. Sea Lion Diet Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  20. Diets that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... non-vegetarians. A vegetarian diet can help fight heart disease and high blood pressure. Sample Dinner Menus Vegetarian Spaghetti with Mushroom-Tomato-Asiago Cheese Sauce Steamed Green Beans with Pine Nuts Fruit Salad Vegan Roasted Vegetables with Whole ...

  1. Effect of fibre hydrolytic enzymes supplementation on performances of broiler chickens fed diets containing rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pius P Ketaren

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of the rice bran as poultry feed is restricted by its high fibre content as poultry is unable to hydrolyse the fibre into available energy. This experiment was aimed The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of crude enzymes supplementation on performances of broiler chickens fed diets containing 30% rice bran. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with nine experimental diets. Diets 1-5 contained 5% less than recommended protein and energy, based on determined metabolizable energy (ME content in the rice bran at 2040 kcal/kg, without taking into account on the beneficial effect of the enzyme supplementation. These diets were: 1. A control diet (D2040, without enzymes; 2. D2040 + E. javanicum (BS4 + P. nalgiovense (S11; 3. D2040 + BS4 + A. niger; 4. D2040 + BS4 + commercial enzymes (CE; 5. D2040 + B. pumilus (PU4-2 + CE. Four other experimental diets contained the same protein and energy levels as in the diets 1-5, but had taken into account on the beneficial effect of the enzyme supplementation,. These diets were: 6. D2702 + BS4 + S11; 7. D2650 + BS4 + A. niger; 8. D2465 + BS4 + CE ;and 9. D2465 + PU4-2+ CE. Each experimental diet was repeated six times and each replication consists of 5 day-old broiler chickens. Results showed that FCR of the chickens fed D2040 + PU4-2 + CE diet (FCR = 1.38 and D2465 + PU4-2 + CE diet (FCR = 1.46 were significantly (P < 0.01 improved compared to the control diet (FCR = 1.64. This experiment strongly shows that supplementation of PU4-2 + CE enzymes significantly (P < 0.01 improved feed efficiency of the broiler chickens by 11-16%.

  2. Anti-inflammatory Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Chronic disease is driven by inflammation. This article will provide an overview on how the balance of macronutrients and omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can alter the expression of inflammatory genes. In particular, how the balance of the protein to glycemic load of a meal can alter the generation of insulin and glucagon and the how the balance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can effect eicosanoid formation. Clinical results on the reduction of inflammation following anti-inflammatory diets are discussed as well as the molecular targets of anti-inflammatory nutrition. To overcome silent inflammation requires an anti-inflammatory diet (with omega-3s and polyphenols, in particular those of Maqui). The most important aspect of such an anti-inflammatory diet is the stabilization of insulin and reduced intake of omega-6 fatty acids. The ultimate treatment lies in reestablishing hormonal and genetic balance to generate satiety instead of constant hunger. Anti-inflammatory nutrition, balanced 40:30:30 with caloric restriction, should be considered as a form of gene silencing technology, in particular the silencing of the genes involved in the generation of silent inflammation. To this anti-inflammatory diet foundation supplemental omega-3 fatty acids at the level of 2-3 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day should be added. Finally, a diet rich in colorful, nonstarchy vegetables would contribute adequate amounts of polyphenols to help not only to inhibit nuclear factor (NF)-κB (primary molecular target of inflammation) but also activate AMP kinase. Understanding the impact of an anti-inflammatory diet on silent inflammation can elevate the diet from simply a source of calories to being on the cutting edge of gene-silencing technology.

  3. Role and functions of beneficial microorganisms in sustainable aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qunlan; Li, Kangmin; Jun, Xie; Bo, Liu

    2009-08-01

    This paper aims to review the development of scientific concepts of microecology and ecology of microbes and the role and functions of beneficial microorganisms in aquaculture and mariculture. Beneficial microorganisms play a great role in natural and man-made aquatic ecosystems based on the co-evolution theory in living biosphere on earth. Their functions are to adjust algal population in water bodies so as to avoid unwanted algal bloom; to speed up decomposition of organic matter and to reduce CODmn, NH3-N and NO2-N in water and sediments so as to improve water quality; to suppress fish/shrimp diseases and water-borne pathogens; to enhance immune system of cultured aquatic animals and to produce bioactive compounds such as vitamins, hormones and enzymes that stimulate growth, thus to decrease the FCR of feed.

  4. Technologies for Beneficial Microorganisms Inocula Used as Biofertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Malusá

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing need for environmentaly friendly agricultural practices is driving the use of fertilizers based on beneficial microorganisms. The latter belong to a wide array of genera, classes, and phyla, ranging from bacteria to yeasts and fungi, which can support plant nutrition with different mechanisms. Moreover, studies on the interactions between plant, soil, and the different microorganisms are shedding light on their interrelationships thus providing new possible ways to exploit them for agricultural purposes. However, even though the inoculation of plants with these microorganisms is a well-known practice, the formulation of inocula with a reliable and consistent effect under field conditions is still a bottleneck for their wider use. The choice of the technology for inocula production and of the carrier for the formulation is key to their successful application. This paper focuses on how inoculation issues can be approached to improve the performance of beneficial microorganisms used as a tool for enhancing plant growth and yield.

  5. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  6. Technologies for Beneficial Microorganisms Inocula Used as Biofertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malusá, E.; Sas-Paszt, L.; Ciesielska, J.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing need for environmentaly friendly agricultural practices is driving the use of fertilizers based on beneficial microorganisms. The latter belong to a wide array of genera, classes, and phyla, ranging from bacteria to yeasts and fungi, which can support plant nutrition with different mechanisms. Moreover, studies on the interactions between plant, soil, and the different microorganisms are shedding light on their interrelationships thus providing new possible ways to exploit them for agricultural purposes. However, even though the inoculation of plants with these microorganisms is a well-known practice, the formulation of inocula with a reliable and consistent effect under field conditions is still a bottleneck for their wider use. The choice of the technology for inocula production and of the carrier for the formulation is key to their successful application. This paper focuses on how inoculation issues can be approached to improve the performance of beneficial microorganisms used as a tool for enhancing plant growth and yield. PMID:22547984

  7. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    2007-01-01

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  8. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert;

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  9. Beneficial Plant Microbe Interaction in Adverse Climatic Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Oves

    2015-01-01

    There are two well-known old American and Japanese quotes "snug as a bug in a rug” and ‘Tade kuu mushi mo suki-zuki’ which means very comfortable and everyone has their own tastes respectively, both quotes are best fit for beneficial plantmicrobes (PM) interactions. Most of the plants interact largely with diverse microorganisms in their surrounding environment but the question arises why PM interaction exist everywhere in agroecosystem with sustainability? PM interactions were occurred from ...

  10. Is Part-Time Employment Beneficial for Firm Productivity?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelen, A.C.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether part-time employment is beneficial for firm productivity in the service sector. Using a unique dataset on the Dutch pharmacy sector that includes the work hours of all employees and a “hard” physical measure of firm productivity, we estimate a production function including heterogeneous employment shares based on work hours. We find that a larger part-time employment share leads to greater firm productivity. Additional data on the timing of labor demand show that p...

  11. Test results of beneficiation of lignites deriving from opencast mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacskai, G.; Schmied, L.; Szabo, I.

    1987-01-01

    The possible varieties of lignite beneficiation of Hungarian lignites as well as the experiences from abroad are discussed. Improvement of the quality of lignites includes homogenization, pre-sorting, wet sorting and pre-drying. The possibilities of producing cemented lignite briquette, of the thermal benefication are outlined. The anticipated costs and length of time necessary to establish lignite briquetting plants in Hungary under different economic conditions are listed.

  12. Specific Carbohydrate Diet: Does It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Go Back The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Email Print + Share There is no ... diet that has received attention is the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. This diet limits poorly digestible carbohydrates to ...

  13. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-20

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  14. Diet and acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Whitney P; Joshi, Smita S; Shalita, Alan R

    2010-07-01

    Historically, the relationship between diet and acne has been highly controversial. Before the 1960s, certain foods were thought to exacerbate acne. However, subsequent studies dispelled these alleged associations as myth for almost half a century. Several studies during the last decade have prompted dermatologists to revisit the potential link between diet and acne. This article critically reviews the literature and discusses how dermatologists might address diet when counseling patients with acne. Dermatologists can no longer dismiss the association between diet and acne. Compelling evidence exists that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne, and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, zinc, vitamin A, and dietary fiber remain to be elucidated. This study was limited by the lack of randomized controlled trials in the literature. We hope that this review will encourage others to explore the effects of diet on acne. Copyright (c) 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Mediterranean diet, its components, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, R Jay; Flammer, Andreas J; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2015-03-01

    One of the best-studied diets for cardiovascular health is the Mediterranean diet. This consists of fish, monounsaturated fats from olive oil, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes/nuts, and moderate alcohol consumption. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to reduce the burden, or even prevent the development, of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, depression, colorectal cancer, diabetes, obesity, asthma, erectile dysfunction, and cognitive decline. This diet is also known to improve surrogates of cardiovascular disease, such as waist-to-hip ratio, lipids, and markers of inflammation, as well as primary cardiovascular disease outcomes such as death and events in both observational and randomized controlled trial data. These enhancements easily rival those seen with more established tools used to fight cardiovascular disease such as aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and exercise. However, it is unclear if the Mediterranean diet offers cardiovascular disease benefit from its individual constituents or in aggregate. Furthermore, the potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet or its components is not yet validated by concrete cardiovascular disease endpoints in randomized trials or observational studies. This review will focus on the effects of the whole and parts of the Mediterranean diet with regard to both population-based and experimental data highlighting cardiovascular disease morbidity or mortality and cardiovascular disease surrogates when hard outcomes are not available. Our synthesis will highlight the potential for the Mediterranean diet to act as a key player in cardiovascular disease prevention, and attempt to identify certain aspects of the diet that are particularly beneficial for cardioprotection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbial Beneficiation of Salem Iron Ore Using Penicillium purpurogenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M.; Pradhan, M.; Sukla, L. B.; Mishra, B. K.

    2011-02-01

    High alumina and silica content in the iron ore affects coke rate, reducibility, and productivity in a blast furnace. Iron ore is being beneficiated all around the world to meet the quality requirement of iron and steel industries. Choosing a beneficiation treatment depends on the nature of the gangue present and its association with the ore structure. The advanced physicochemical methods used for the beneficiation of iron ore are generally unfriendly to the environment. Biobeneficiation is considered to be ecofriendly, promising, and revolutionary solutions to these problems. A characterization study of Salem iron ore indicates that the major iron-bearing minerals are hematite, magnetite, and goethite. Samples on average contains (pct) Fe2O3-84.40, Fe (total)-59.02, Al2O3-7.18, and SiO2-7.53. Penicillium purpurogenum (MTCC 7356) was used for the experiment . It removed 35.22 pct alumina and 39.41 pct silica in 30 days in a shake flask at 10 pct pulp density, 308 K (35 °C), and 150 rpm. In a bioreactor experiment at 2 kg scale using the same organism, it removed 23.33 pct alumina and 30.54 pct silica in 30 days at 300 rpm agitation and 2 to 3 l/min aeration. Alumina and silica dissolution follow the shrinking core model for both shake flask and bioreactor experiments.

  17. Impact of food disinfection on beneficial biothiol contents in vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Zhimin; Demirkol, Omca; Ercal, Nuran; Adams, Craig

    2005-12-14

    In this work we investigated the impact of food disinfection on the beneficial biothiol contents in a suite of vegetables consumed daily, including spinach, green bean, asparagus, cucumber, and red pepper. Four disinfection technologies commonly studied and/or used in food processing and preservation, including hydrogen peroxide, free chlorine, and gaseous- and aqueous-phase ozone, were examined with common dosages and contact times. Results indicate that the common disinfection technologies may result in significant loss of beneficial biothiols in vegetables which are essentially important to human health. For example, as much as 70% of biothiols were lost when spinach was treated with hydrogen peroxide (5.0 wt %) for 30 min. Approximately 48-54% of biothiols were destroyed by free chlorine and gaseous- and aqueous-phase ozone under typical contacting conditions. In red pepper, about 60-71% of reduced glutathione was oxidized by the disinfectants. The potential decrease in biothiols during disinfection was dependent upon the biothiol type, the disinfectant, and the vegetable. The effectiveness of total bacterial inactivation by the four disinfection technologies was concurrently evaluated. Results show that free chlorine is most effective, achieving disinfection efficiencies of greater than 4 log for all study vegetables. This study may provide important information for the food industry to design optimum contacting methods for vegetables to simultaneously achieve sufficient bacterial disinfection while minimizing loss of beneficial biothiols.

  18. Next-Generation Beneficial Microbes: The Case of Akkermansia muciniphila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice D. Cani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders associated with obesity and cardiometabolic disorders are worldwide epidemic. Among the different environmental factors, the gut microbiota is now considered as a key player interfering with energy metabolism and host susceptibility to several non-communicable diseases. Among the next-generation beneficial microbes that have been identified, Akkermansia muciniphila is a promising candidate. Indeed, A. muciniphila is inversely associated with obesity, diabetes, cardiometabolic diseases and low-grade inflammation. Besides the numerous correlations observed, a large body of evidence has demonstrated the causal beneficial impact of this bacterium in a variety of preclinical models. Translating these exciting observations to human would be the next logic step and it now appears that several obstacles that would prevent the use of A. muciniphila administration in humans have been overcome. Moreover, several lines of evidence indicate that pasteurization of A. muciniphila not only increases its stability but more importantly increases its efficacy. This strongly positions A. muciniphila in the forefront of next-generation candidates for developing novel food or pharma supplements with beneficial effects. Finally, a specific protein present on the outer membrane of A. muciniphila, termed Amuc_1100, could be strong candidate for future drug development. In conclusion, as plants and its related knowledge, known as pharmacognosy, have been the source for designing drugs over the last century, we propose that microbes and microbiomegnosy, or knowledge of our gut microbiome, can become a novel source of future therapies.

  19. Chemotaxis signaling systems in model beneficial plant-bacteria associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Birgit E; Hynes, Michael F; Alexandre, Gladys M

    2016-04-01

    Beneficial plant-microbe associations play critical roles in plant health. Bacterial chemotaxis provides a competitive advantage to motile flagellated bacteria in colonization of plant root surfaces, which is a prerequisite for the establishment of beneficial associations. Chemotaxis signaling enables motile soil bacteria to sense and respond to gradients of chemical compounds released by plant roots. This process allows bacteria to actively swim towards plant roots and is thus critical for competitive root surface colonization. The complete genome sequences of several plant-associated bacterial species indicate the presence of multiple chemotaxis systems and a large number of chemoreceptors. Further, most soil bacteria are motile and capable of chemotaxis, and chemotaxis-encoding genes are enriched in the bacteria found in the rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil. This review compares the architecture and diversity of chemotaxis signaling systems in model beneficial plant-associated bacteria and discusses their relevance to the rhizosphere lifestyle. While it is unclear how controlling chemotaxis via multiple parallel chemotaxis systems provides a competitive advantage to certain bacterial species, the presence of a larger number of chemoreceptors is likely to contribute to the ability of motile bacteria to survive in the soil and to compete for root surface colonization.

  20. Medium-chain triglycerides and monounsaturated fatty acids potentiate the beneficial effects of fish oil on selected cardiovascular risk factors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondreddy, Vijay Kumar Reddy; Anikisetty, Maheswaraiah; Naidu, Kamatham Akhilender

    2016-02-01

    Fish oil (FO) rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Little information is known regarding the influence of lipid composition in the background diet on the modulatory effect of FO supplementation on CVDs. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of various background dietary lipids and FO on selected cardiovascular risk factors in rats. Adult Wistar rats were fed semisynthetic diet with FO at 1.0% or 2.0% along with other lipids, namely, medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and n-3 PUFAs, for 5 weeks. Some of the potent CVD risk factors were estimated in the rats. FO at 1.0% and 2.0% has significantly reduced serum lipid peroxides, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TAGs), tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein; liver and adipose TAG and cholesterol levels in MCT, MUFA and n-6 PUFA diet groups. Notably, these alterations were comparatively higher in 1.0% FO-substituted MCT and MUFA diet groups. Interestingly, feeding of FO along with n-3 PUFAs did not show additive effect in attenuation of these factors. Serum liver EPA and DHA levels were remarkably elevated in rats fed FO-enriched MCT or MUFA diets. Our results suggest that MCTs or MUFAs in the background diet might promote the beneficial effects of FO on CVDs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analyzing Beneficial Effects of Nutritional Supplements on Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Functions During Experimental Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Robles, Hilda; Castro Ochoa, Karla Fabiola; Nava, Porfirio; Silva Olivares, Angélica; Shibayama, Mineko; Schnoor, Michael

    2017-01-05

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic relapsing disorders of the intestines. They cause severe problems, such as abdominal cramping, bloody diarrhea, and weight loss, in affected individuals. Unfortunately, there is no cure yet, and treatments only aim to alleviate symptoms. Current treatments include anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs that may cause severe side effects. This warrants the search for alternative treatment options, such as nutritional supplements, that do not cause side effects. Before their application in clinical studies, such compounds must be rigorously tested for effectiveness and security in animal models. A reliable experimental model is the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model in mice, which reproduces many of the clinical signs of ulcerative colitis in humans. We recently applied this model to test the beneficial effects of a nutritional supplement containing vitamins C and E, L-arginine, and ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We analyzed various disease parameters and found that this supplement was able to ameliorate edema formation, tissue damage, leukocyte infiltration, oxidative stress, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to an overall improvement in the disease activity index. In this article, we explain in detail the correct application of nutritional supplements using the DSS colitis model in C57Bl/6 mice, as well as how disease parameters such as histology, oxidative stress, and inflammation are assessed. Analyzing the beneficial effects of different diet supplements may then eventually open new avenues for the development of alternative treatment strategies that alleviate IBD symptoms and/or that prolong the phases of remission without causing severe side effects.

  2. Dieting practices and body image perception among Lebanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; El-Ghazale, Hiba; Achkar, Alice; Rizk, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Dieting is becoming a popular phenomenon among university students to achieve or maintain a healthy weight. The purpose of this study is to obtain a preliminary understanding of what dieting practices university students use in order to achieve their desirable body weight and to determine the magnitude of body dissatisfaction in relation to weight status among a sample of students (n=252) from the Lebanese American University in Beirut, Lebanon. Students filled out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their dieting and physical activity practices in addition to the body shape questionnaire (BSQ). Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index. Percentage body fat was measured using Tanita scale body fat analyzer 300A. The outcome of this study showed that smoking and unhealthy dieting practices were not common among students (only 26% reported smoking, 8% reported taking laxatives and 4% taking diet pills). Half of the students reported practicing regular physical activity. Multivitamin intake was also not popular among students. BSQ scores indicate that the majority of students were not worried about their body image perception (64% reported not being worried, 19% were slightly worried, 12% were moderately worried and 5% were extremely worried). A gender difference was observed in the BSQ scores, as 89% of the "extremely worried" students were females. Collectively, results indicate that unhealthy dieting practices are uncommon among students. However, developing health promotion awareness' programs to promote good self image within the concept of a realistic healthy weight will be beneficial, especially among females.

  3. The Effect of Diet Mixing on a Nonselective Herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Groendahl

    Full Text Available The balanced-diet hypothesis states that a diverse prey community is beneficial to consumers due to resource complementarity among the prey species. Nonselective consumer species cannot differentiate between prey items and are therefore not able to actively regulate their diet intake. We thus wanted to test whether the balanced-diet hypothesis is applicable to nonselective consumers. We conducted a laboratory experiment in which a nonselective model grazer, the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis, was fed benthic green algae as single species or as a multi-species mixture and quantified the snails' somatic growth rates and shell lengths over a seven-week period. Gastropods fed the mixed diet were found to exhibit a higher somatic growth rate than the average of the snails fed single prey species. However, growth on the multi-species mixture did not exceed the growth rate obtained on the best single prey species. Similar results were obtained regarding the animals' shell height increase over time. The mixed diet did not provide the highest growth rate, which confirms our hypothesis. We thus suggest that the balanced-diet hypothesis is less relevant for non-selective generalist consumers, which needs to be considered in estimates of secondary production.

  4. Mitochondria: The ketogenic diet--A metabolism-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidali, Silvia; Aminzadeh, Sepideh; Lambert, Bridget; Rutherford, Tricia; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara; Feichtinger, René G

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria are the energy-producing organelles of the cell, generating ATP via oxidative phosphorylation mainly by using pyruvate derived from glycolytic processing of glucose. Ketone bodies generated by fatty acid oxidation can serve as alternative metabolites for aerobic energy production. The ketogenic diet, which is high in fat and low in carbohydrates, mimics the metabolic state of starvation, forcing the body to utilize fat as its primary source of energy. The ketogenic diet is used therapeutically for pharmacoresistant epilepsy and for "rare diseases" of glucose metabolism (glucose transporter type 1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency). As metabolic reprogramming from oxidative phosphorylation toward increased glycolysis is a hallmark of cancer cells; there is increasing evidence that the ketogenic diet may also be beneficial as an adjuvant cancer therapy by potentiating the antitumor effect of chemotherapy and radiation treatment. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Energy Metabolism Disorders and Therapies.

  5. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  6. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-09-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  7. Phlorizin Supplementation Attenuates Obesity, Inflammation, and Hyperglycemia in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Su-Kyung; Cho, Su-Jung; Jung, Un Ju; Ryu, Ri; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-02-16

    Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w), high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w), or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w). The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance.

  8. Phlorizin Supplementation Attenuates Obesity, Inflammation, and Hyperglycemia in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Kyung Shin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w, high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w, or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w. The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance.

  9. Bile components and lecithin supplemented to plant based diets do not diminish diet related intestinal inflammation in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortner, Trond M; Penn, Michael H; Bjӧrkhem, Ingemar; Måsøval, Kjell; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2016-09-07

    The present study was undertaken to gain knowledge on the role of bile components and lecithin on development of aberrations in digestive functions which seemingly have increased in Atlantic salmon in parallel with the increased use of plant ingredients in fish feed. Post smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 77 days one of three basal diets: a high fish meal diet (HFM), a low fishmeal diet (LFM), or a diet with high protein soybean meal (HPS). Five additional diets were made from the LFM diet by supplementing with: purified taurocholate (1.8 %), bovine bile salt (1.8 %), taurine (0.4 %), lecithin (1.5 %), or a mix of supplements (suppl mix) containing taurocholate (1.8 %), cholesterol (1.5 %) and lecithin (0.4 %). Two additional diets were made from the HPS diet by supplementing with: bovine bile salt (1.8 %) or the suppl mix. Body and intestinal weights were recorded, and blood, bile, intestinal tissues and digesta were sampled for evaluation of growth, nutrient metabolism and intestinal structure and function. In comparison with fish fed the HFM diet fish fed the LFM and HPS diets grew less and showed reduced plasma bile salt and cholesterol levels. Histological examination of the distal intestine showed signs of enteritis in both LFM and HPS diet groups, though more pronounced in the HPS diet group. The HPS diet reduced digesta dry matter and capacity of leucine amino peptidase in the distal intestine. None of the dietary supplements improved endpoints regarding fish performance, gut function or inflammation in the distal intestine. Some endpoints rather indicated negative effects. Dietary supplementation with bile components or lecithin in general did not improve endpoints regarding performance or gut health in Atlantic salmon, in clear contrast to what has been previously reported for rainbow trout. Follow-up studies are needed to clarify if lower levels of bile salts and cholesterol may give different and beneficial effects, or if other supplements

  10. Suppression of Beneficial Mutations in Dynamic Microbial Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittihn, Philip; Hasty, Jeff; Tsimring, Lev S.

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative predictions for the spread of mutations in bacterial populations are essential to interpret evolution experiments and to improve the stability of synthetic gene circuits. We derive analytical expressions for the suppression factor for beneficial mutations in populations that undergo periodic dilutions, covering arbitrary population sizes, dilution factors, and growth advantages in a single stochastic model. We find that the suppression factor grows with the dilution factor and depends nontrivially on the growth advantage, resulting in the preferential elimination of mutations with certain growth advantages. We confirm our results by extensive numerical simulations.

  11. Beneficial microstructured titania photoanodes for improving DSSC performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saquib

    Critical assessment of economically viable renewable energy sources is essential for the development of a globally sustainable society. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) offer a viable alternative to traditional silicon and thin film photovoltaic (PV) technologies owing to their potential low cost and facile manufacturing. The two main challenges in enhancing device cell performance lie in improving the open circuit voltage (VOC), and suppressing recombination in the semiconductor TiO2 matrix. This thesis explores the latter challenge through investigation of a novel microstructured TiO2 photoanode system. In this research, we have synthesized CTAB-templated mesoporous, anatase, high surface area TiO2 using an acidic precursor to enhance dye adsorption. Through simple supramolecular self-assembly of the TiO2 particles during the synthesis, we have discovered a self-assembled system of TiO2 nanocrystallite aggregates with high surface area, which when applied as the photoanode in DSSCs, result in a novel high-roughness film beneficial for dye adsorption, and also lead to enhanced intrinsic light-scattering within the film itself. The TiO2 nanocrystallites are highly crystalline, with good interconnectivity for improved electron conduction. An additional unique and beneficial feature inherent of this novel photoanode film is its hierarchical meso- and macro-porosity, leading to improved electrolyte percolation through the TiO2 matrix---thereby providing better access to dye molecules for regeneration to occur more effectively (enhanced charge transfer). In all, we have fabricated a TiO2 system through a one-step process that incorporates key beneficial microstructural features crucial for enhancing DSSC behavior. We have further carried out critical TiCl4 surface treatment studies of this porous electrode structure of TiO2 aggregates to understand and improve upon recombination kinetics in the photonanode film matrix, together with enhancing its intrinsic light

  12. Ethics as a beneficial Trojan horse in a technological society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queraltó, Ramón

    2013-03-01

    This article explores the transformation of ethics in a globalizing technological society. After describing some basic features of this society, particularly the primacy it gives to a special type of technical rationality, three specific influences on traditional ethics are examined: (1) a change concerning the notion of value, (2) the decreasing relevance of the concept of axiological hierarchy, and (3) the new internal architecture of ethics as a net of values. These three characteristics suggest a new pragmatic understanding of ethics. From a pragmatic perspective, the process of introducing ethical values into contemporary society can be regarded as a beneficial Trojan horse, a metaphor that will be developed further.

  13. ANALYSIS OF WEB MINING APPLICATIONS AND BENEFICIAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleel Ahmad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to study the process of Web mining techniques, features, application ( e-commerce and e-business and its beneficial areas. Web mining has become more popular and its widely used in varies application areas (such as business intelligent system, e-commerce and e-business. The e-commerce or e-business results are bettered by the application of the mining techniques such as data mining and text mining, among all the mining techniques web mining is better.

  14. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  15. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Arun

    This PhD project is part of the research programme at the OPUS Research Centre (2009-2013) at the University of Copenhagen. The aim of the Centre is to improve public health in Denmark by developing, testing and disseminating the New Nordic Diet (NND). Combining the gastronomic ideals of the New...... Nordic Cuisine movement with eating habits that accord with Nordic dietary recommendations, the NND is designed to be a healthy, Nordic, seasonal and organic diet that will be acceptable to Danish consumers. This PhD study has four objectives: (i) to explore the acceptance of the NND among Danish......: (iv) to assess which social and cultural factors are likely to impact upon the achievement of the aim of OPUS. The NND concept was found to be well accepted, although some consumers viewed it as being an elitist diet. Also, the taste of the NND was very well accepted. The practical hallenges and time...

  16. Vegetarian diets and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T A

    1995-08-01

    Although the general health and development of vegan and vegetarian children seem to be normal, there may be subtle differences compared with omnivores. They are at increased risk of iron deficiency, and impaired psychomotor development associated with iron deficiency has been reported in macrobiotic infants. Fortunately, this impairment is not permanent, and follow-up studies have reported higher-than-average intelligence quotients among older macrobiotic children. Several other hazards of vegetarian diets have been identified, including vitamin B12 deficiency, rickets, and a bulky diet that can restrict energy intake in the first few years of life; however, these pitfalls can be avoided easily, and children can be successfully reared on vegetarian diets.

  17. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  18. Nutritional composition and flavonoid content of edible wild greens and green pies: a potential rich source and antioxidant nutrients in the Mediterranean diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trichopoulou, A.; Vasilopoulou, E.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Chamalides, Ch.; Foufa, E.

    2000-01-01

    The traditional Greek diet is dominated by the high consumption of olive oil, fruit and vegetables. Antioxidants represent a common element in these foods and may be important mediators of the beneficial effect of this diet. Wild edible greens are frequently consumed throughout Greece. Seven edible

  19. Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Tonstad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%] and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%] in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22–1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64–1.93, respectively. Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78–1.01, not statistically significant while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01–1.18. In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59–1.03, not statistically significant. In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  20. Should the amazigh diet (regular and moderate argan-oil consumption) have a beneficial impact on human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrouf, Zoubida; Guillaume, Dominique

    2010-05-01

    Virgin argan oil, cosmetic or dietary grade, is prepared by cold-pressing the kernels of argan fruits. Both types of oil, traditionally used by the amazighs (the argan grove traditional dwellers), are now available on the shelves of the most-developed country stores. Argan oil contains a high level of oleic and linoleic acid and is also particularly rich in phenols. Since these metabolites are currently considered as essential to explain some of the protective effects against cancer and coronary heart disease attributed to other oils, similar effects can be expected from argan oil consumption as suggested by the amazigh medicine claims. Interestingly, argan oil content in gamma -tocopherol is much higher than that of any other oils. gamma -Tocopherol has recently been shown to possess strong chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties. This indicates that argan oil should readily find a place of choice amid the most profitable oils for human health. Because of its reduced geographical origin, the chemical composition (major as well as minor components) of argan oil is also highly reproducible. Therefore argan oil consumption should confer health benefits in a reliable and efficient manner.

  1. Beneficial and cautionary outcomes of resveratrol supplementation in pregnant nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Victoria H J; Pound, Lynley D; Thorn, Stephanie R; Gillingham, Melanie B; Thornburg, Kent L; Friedman, Jacob E; Frias, Antonio E; Grove, Kevin L

    2014-06-01

    Resveratrol has been proposed as a potential therapeutic to improve metabolic health during pregnancy, yet little is known about the fetal effects of this maternal dietary supplement. We hypothesized that when administered to pregnant nonhuman primates (NHPs), resveratrol would increase uterine blood flow and mitigate the harmful consequences of maternal Western-style diet (WSD) consumption. NHPs were fed a WSD (36% fat) supplemented with 0.37% resveratrol throughout pregnancy. Outcomes were compared with cohorts fed WSD alone and control chow (14% fat) to distinguish between WSD and resveratrol-specific effects in these animals. In the early third trimester, uterine blood flow was measured by Doppler ultrasound before fetal delivery and tissue collection. Resveratrol resulted in 30% maternal weight loss and improved glucose tolerance, increased uterine artery volume blood flow, and decreased placental inflammation and liver triglyceride deposition. In addition, fetal pancreatic mass was enlarged by 42%, with a 12-fold increase in proliferation by Ki67 immunohistochemistry. These results demonstrate that resveratrol use during pregnancy yields improvements in maternal and placental phenotype with beneficial effects in the fetal liver but an unexplained and concerning alteration in fetal pancreatic development, which strongly cautions against the use of resveratrol by pregnant women. © FASEB.

  2. Early removal of nasogastric tube is beneficial for patients undergoing radical cystectomy with urinary diversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Adamakis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Examine the beneficial effect of early nasogastric tube (NGT removal in patients undergoing radical cystectomy with urinary diversion. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 43 consecutive patients underwent radical cystectomy with urinary diversion and were randomized into 2 groups. In the intervention group (n = 22, the NGT was removed 12 hours after the operation. Comparatively, in the control group (n = 21, the NGT remained in place until the appearance of the first flatus. The appearance of ileus, patient ambulation, time to regular diet, and hospital discharge of the two patient groups were assessed. Patient discomfort due to the NGT was also recorded. RESULTS: The 2 groups showed statistical homogeneity of their baseline characteristics. Two patients (9.09% from the intervention and 3 patients (14.3% from the control group developed postoperative ileus and were treated conservatively. No significant differences in intraoperative, postoperative, bowel outcomes or other complications were found between the two groups. All patients preferred the NGT to be removed first in comparison to their other co-existing drains. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first randomized, prospective study, to our knowledge, to assess early NGT removal after radical cystectomy. We advocate early removal, independently of the selected type of urinary diversion, since it is not correlated with ileus and is advantageous in terms of patient comfort and earlier ambulation.

  3. Augmenting Iron Accumulation in Cassava by the Beneficial Soil Bacterium Bacillus subtilis (GBO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica A Freitas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta, a major staple food in the developing world, provides a basic carbohydrate diet for over half a billion people living in the tropics. Despite the iron abundance in most soils, cassava provides insufficient iron for humans as the edible roots contain 3-12 times less iron than other traditional food crops such as wheat, maize, and rice. With the recent identification that the beneficial soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis (strain GB03 activates iron acquisition machinery to increase metal ion assimilation in Arabidopsis, the question arises as to whether this plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR also augments iron assimilation to increase endogenous iron levels in cassava. Biochemical analyses reveal that shoot-propagated cassava with GB03-inoculation exhibit elevated iron accumulation after 140 days of plant growth as determined by X-ray microanalysis and total foliar iron analysis. Growth promotion and increased photosynthetic efficiency were also observed for greenhouse-grown plants with GB03-exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of microbes to increase iron accumulation in an important agricultural crop and is consistent with idea that microbial signaling can regulate plant photosynthesis.

  4. Glycemic index differences of high-fat diets modulate primarily lipid metabolism in murine adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schothorst, Evert M; Bunschoten, Annelies; Verlinde, Eline; Schrauwen, Patrick; Keijer, Jaap

    2011-08-16

    A low vs. high glycemic index of a high-fat (HF) diet (LGI and HGI, respectively) significantly retarded adverse health effects in adult male C57BL/6J mice, as shown recently (Van Schothorst EM, Bunschoten A, Schrauwen P, Mensink RP, Keijer J. FASEB J 23: 1092-1101, 2009). The LGI diet enhanced whole body insulin sensitivity and repressed HF diet-induced body and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight gain, resulting in significantly reduced serum leptin and resistin levels and increased adiponectin levels. We questioned how WAT is modulated and characterized the molecular mechanisms underlying the glycemic index-mediated effects using whole genome microarrays. This showed that the LGI diet mainly exerts its beneficial effects via substrate metabolism, especially fatty acid metabolism. In addition, cell adhesion and cytoskeleton remodeling showed reduced expression, in line with lower WAT mass. An important transcription factor showing enhanced expression is PPAR-γ. Furthermore, serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol were all significantly reduced by LGI diet, and simultaneously muscle insulin sensitivity was significantly increased as analyzed by protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation. Cumulatively, even though these mice were fed an HF diet, the LGI diet induced significantly favorable changes in metabolism in WAT. These effects suggest a partial overlap with pharmacological approaches by thiazolidinediones to treat insulin resistance and statins for hypercholesterolemia. It is therefore tempting to speculate that such a dietary approach might beneficially support pharmacological treatment of insulin resistance or hypercholesterolemia in humans.

  5. Prostaglandin signaling suppresses beneficial microglial function in Alzheimer's disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jenny U; Woodling, Nathaniel S; Wang, Qian; Panchal, Maharshi; Liang, Xibin; Trueba-Saiz, Angel; Brown, Holden D; Mhatre, Siddhita D; Loui, Taylor; Andreasson, Katrin I

    2015-01-01

    Microglia, the innate immune cells of the CNS, perform critical inflammatory and noninflammatory functions that maintain normal neural function. For example, microglia clear misfolded proteins, elaborate trophic factors, and regulate and terminate toxic inflammation. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, beneficial microglial functions become impaired, accelerating synaptic and neuronal loss. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to microglial dysfunction is an important objective for identifying potential strategies to delay progression to AD. The inflammatory cyclooxygenase/prostaglandin E2 (COX/PGE2) pathway has been implicated in preclinical AD development, both in human epidemiology studies and in transgenic rodent models of AD. Here, we evaluated murine models that recapitulate microglial responses to Aβ peptides and determined that microglia-specific deletion of the gene encoding the PGE2 receptor EP2 restores microglial chemotaxis and Aβ clearance, suppresses toxic inflammation, increases cytoprotective insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling, and prevents synaptic injury and memory deficits. Our findings indicate that EP2 signaling suppresses beneficial microglia functions that falter during AD development and suggest that inhibition of the COX/PGE2/EP2 immune pathway has potential as a strategy to restore healthy microglial function and prevent progression to AD.

  6. Identifying beneficial qualities of Trichoderma parareesei for plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, M Belén; Quijada, Narciso M; Pérez, Esclaudys; Domínguez, Sara; Monte, Enrique; Hermosa, Rosa

    2014-03-01

    Trichoderma parareesei and Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) produce cellulases and xylanases of industrial interest. Here, the anamorphic strain T6 (formerly T. reesei) has been identified as T. parareesei, showing biocontrol potential against fungal and oomycete phytopathogens and enhanced hyphal growth in the presence of tomato exudates or plant cell wall polymers in in vitro assays. A Trichoderma microarray was used to examine the transcriptomic changes in T6 at 20 h of interaction with tomato plants. Out of a total 34,138 Trichoderma probe sets deposited on the microarray, 250 showed a significant change of at least 2-fold in expression in the presence of tomato plants, with most of them being downregulated. T. parareesei T6 exerted beneficial effects on tomato plants in terms of seedling lateral root development, and in adult plants it improved defense against Botrytis cinerea and growth promotion under salt stress. Time course expression patterns (0 to 6 days) observed for defense-related genes suggest that T6 was able to prime defense responses in the tomato plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. Such responses undulated, with a maximum upregulation of the jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-related LOX1 and EIN2 genes and the salt tolerance SOS1 gene at 24 h and that of the salicylic acid (SA)-related PR-1 gene at 48 h after T6 inoculation. Our study demonstrates that the T. parareesei T6-tomato interaction is beneficial to both partners.

  7. Surface modification of materials to encourage beneficial biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amreeta Sarjit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are communities of sessile microorganisms that grow and produce extrapolymeric substances on an abiotic or biotic surface. Although biofilms are often associated with negative impacts, the role of beneficial biofilms is wide and include applications in bioremediation, wastewater treatment and microbial fuel cells. Microbial adhesion to a surface, which is highly dependent on the physicochemical properties of the cells and surfaces, is an essential step in biofilm formation. Surface modification therefore represents an important way to modulate microbial attachment and ultimately biofilm formation by microorganisms. In this review different surface modification processes such as organosilane surface modification, plasma treatment, and chemical modification of carbon nanotubes, electro-oxidation and covalent-immobilization with neutral red and methylene blue molecules are outlined. The effectiveness of these modifications and their industrial applications are also discussed. There is inadequate literature on surface modification as a process to enhance beneficial biofilm formation. These methods need to be safe, economically viable, scalable and environmental friendly and their potential to fulfil these criteria for many applications has yet to be determined.

  8. Identifying Beneficial Qualities of Trichoderma parareesei for Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, M. Belén; Quijada, Narciso M.; Pérez, Esclaudys; Domínguez, Sara; Hermosa, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma parareesei and Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) produce cellulases and xylanases of industrial interest. Here, the anamorphic strain T6 (formerly T. reesei) has been identified as T. parareesei, showing biocontrol potential against fungal and oomycete phytopathogens and enhanced hyphal growth in the presence of tomato exudates or plant cell wall polymers in in vitro assays. A Trichoderma microarray was used to examine the transcriptomic changes in T6 at 20 h of interaction with tomato plants. Out of a total 34,138 Trichoderma probe sets deposited on the microarray, 250 showed a significant change of at least 2-fold in expression in the presence of tomato plants, with most of them being downregulated. T. parareesei T6 exerted beneficial effects on tomato plants in terms of seedling lateral root development, and in adult plants it improved defense against Botrytis cinerea and growth promotion under salt stress. Time course expression patterns (0 to 6 days) observed for defense-related genes suggest that T6 was able to prime defense responses in the tomato plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. Such responses undulated, with a maximum upregulation of the jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-related LOX1 and EIN2 genes and the salt tolerance SOS1 gene at 24 h and that of the salicylic acid (SA)-related PR-1 gene at 48 h after T6 inoculation. Our study demonstrates that the T. parareesei T6-tomato interaction is beneficial to both partners. PMID:24413597

  9. Beneficial effects of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia on the body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi ZHANG; Zhao-nian ZHOU

    2012-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is a common problem in clinic and there is no satisfactory method for prevention or treatment of I/R injury so far.Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH),similar to the concept of ischemia preconditioning(IPC)or altitude hypoxia adaptation (AHA),has been recognized to confer a protective effect on heart against I/R injury with a longer protective effect than IPC and a less adverse effect than AHA.It has been proved that CIHH increases myocardial tolerance to ischemia or hypoxia,reserving cardiac function and preventing arrhythmia during I/R.Multiple mechanisms or pathway underlying the cardiac protection of ClHH have been proposed,such as induction of heatshock protein,enhancement of myocardial antioxidation capacity,increase of coronary flow and myocardial capillary angiogenesis,activation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels,inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pores,and activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).In addition,CIHH has been found having many beneficial effects on the body,such as promotion of health,increase of oxygen utilization,and prevention or treatment for some diseases.The beneficial effects of ClHH and potential mechanisms are reviewed mainly based on the researches performed by our group.

  10. [Alcohol--when it's beneficial to your health?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmumt; Pypno, Damian; Bugaj, Bartosz; Cabała, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Ethyl alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive agent. It's average consumption in Poland totaled 9.67 liters per capita in 2013. Ethanol's biotransformation rate in an adult ranges from 7 to 10 grams per hour. The basic metabolism takes place in the liver through the oxidation involving NAD+. The alcohol is transformed first into acetaldehyde and then into acetic acid. In higher blood concentrations or in alcoholism, cytochrome's P-450 coenzyme CYP2E1 also plays an important role in this process. Alcohol is responsible for nearly 50% of annual deaths, mostly caused by an accident due to alcohol intoxication while driving. Studies were performed to determine the influence ethanol has on the human body and how it impacts the progression of illnesses such as senile dementia, cardiovascular diseases or osteoporosis. Scientists' attention was drawn to the possibility of ethyl alcohol's usage resulting in a reduction in an overall mortality rate, however the beneficial effects were observed only during a slight and moderate consumption. Higher doses of alcohol were associated with a decline in patient's condition. The purpose of this dissertation is an attempt to answer the question, whether the alcohol can be beneficial to the user's health and if so, in what doses? The importance of this topic comes from the fact that due to the alcohol being widely available, determining the influence it has on human body is vital for public health. Original articles and reviews were used to summarize the results of studies regarding the topic.

  11. Unraveling root developmental programs initiated by beneficial Pseudomonas spp. bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamioudis, Christos; Mastranesti, Parthena; Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Blilou, Ikram; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2013-05-01

    Plant roots are colonized by an immense number of microbes, referred to as the root microbiome. Selected strains of beneficial soil-borne bacteria can protect against abiotic stress and prime the plant immune system against a broad range of pathogens. Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria represent one of the most abundant genera of the root microbiome. Here, by employing a germ-free experimental system, we demonstrate the ability of selected Pseudomonas spp. strains to promote plant growth and drive developmental plasticity in the roots of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by inhibiting primary root elongation and promoting lateral root and root hair formation. By studying cell type-specific developmental markers and employing genetic and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate the crucial role of auxin signaling and transport in rhizobacteria-stimulated changes in the root system architecture of Arabidopsis. We further show that Pseudomonas spp.-elicited alterations in root morphology and rhizobacteria-mediated systemic immunity are mediated by distinct signaling pathways. This study sheds new light on the ability of soil-borne beneficial bacteria to interfere with postembryonic root developmental programs.

  12. DECONTAMINATING AND PROCESSING DREDGED MATERIAL FOR BENEFICIAL USE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CLESCERI,N.L.; STERN,E.A.; FENG,H.; JONES,K.W.

    2000-07-01

    Management of contaminated dredged material is a major problem in the Port of New York and New Jersey. One component of an overall management plan can be the application of a decontamination technology followed by creation of a product suitable for beneficial use. This concept is the focus of a project now being carried out by the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region 2, the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District, the US Department of Energy-Brookhaven National Laboratory, and regional university groups that have included Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rutgers University, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and Stevens Institute of Technology. The project has gone through phased testing of commercial technologies at the bench scale (15 liters) and pilot scale (1.5--500 m{sup 3}) levels. Several technologies are now going forward to large-scale demonstrations that are intended to treat from 23,000 to 60,000 m{sup 3}. Selections of the technologies were made based on the effectiveness of the treatment process, evaluation of the possible beneficial use of the treated materials, and other factors. Major elements of the project are summarized here.

  13. Beneficial effect of sesame oil on heavy metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in the soft tissue. Chelation therapy is mainly for the management of heavy metal-induced toxicity; however, it usually causes adverse effects or completely blocks the vital function of the particular metal chelated. Much attention has been paid to the development of chelating agents from natural sources to counteract lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal damage. Sesame oil (a natural edible oil) and sesamol (an active antioxidant) are potently beneficial for treating lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal toxicity and have no adverse effects. Sesame oil and sesamol significantly inhibit iron-induced lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical generation. In addition, sesame oil is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediators, and it attenuates lead-induced hepatic damage by inhibiting nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β levels. Because metal chelating therapy is associated with adverse effects, treating heavy metal toxicity in addition with sesame oil and sesamol may be better alternatives. This review deals with the possible use and beneficial effects of sesame oil and sesamol during heavy metal toxicity treatment.

  14. Perlecan and the Blood-Brain Barrier: Beneficial Proteolysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill eRoberts

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral microvasculature is important for maintaining brain homeostasis. This is achieved via the blood-brain barrier (BBB, composed of endothelial cells with specialized tight junctions, astrocytes and a basement membrane. Prominent components of the basement membrane extracellular matrix (ECM include fibronectin, laminin, collagen IV and perlecan, all of which regulate cellular processes via signal transduction through various cell membrane bound ECM receptors. Expression and proteolysis of these ECM components can be rapidly altered during pathological states of the central nervous system. In particular, proteolysis of perlecan, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, occurs within hours following ischemia induced by experimental stroke. Proteolysis of ECM components following stroke results in the degradation of the basement membrane and further disruption of the BBB. While it is clear that such proteolysis has negative consequences for the BBB, we propose that it also may lead to generation of ECM protein fragments, including the C-terminal domain V (DV of perlecan, that potentially have a positive influence on other aspects of CNS health. Indeed, perlecan DV has been shown to be persistently generated after stroke and beneficial as a neuroprotective molecule and promoter of post-stroke brain repair. This mini-review will discuss beneficial roles of perlecan protein fragment generation within the brain during stroke.

  15. Effect of a vegan diet on biomarkers of chemoprevention in females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.; Rauma, A.L.; Törrönen, R.; Vogel, N. de; Bruijntjes-Rozier, G.C.D.M.; Dreve, M.A.; Bogaards, J.J.P.; Mykkänen, H.

    1996-01-01

    1. In order to study the potential beneficial effects of a vegan diet, a cross-sectional study was performed and several biomarkers of chemoprevention were measured in a population of female 'living food' eaters ('vegans'; n = 20) vs matched omnivorous controls (n = 20). 2. White blood cells obtaine

  16. Increased physical activity ameliorates high fat diet-induced bone resorption in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been recognized that mechanical stresses associated with physical activity (PA) have beneficial effects on increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and improving bone quality. On the other hand, high fat diet (HFD) and obesity increase bone marrow adiposity leading to increased excretion of pro-...

  17. Effect of a vegan diet on biomarkers of chemoprevention in females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.; Rauma, A.L.; Törrönen, R.; Vogel, N. de; Bruijntjes-Rozier, G.C.D.M.; Dreve, M.A.; Bogaards, J.J.P.; Mykkänen, H.

    1996-01-01

    1. In order to study the potential beneficial effects of a vegan diet, a cross-sectional study was performed and several biomarkers of chemoprevention were measured in a population of female 'living food' eaters ('vegans'; n = 20) vs matched omnivorous controls (n = 20). 2. White blood cells

  18. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, the thyroid cells and the thyroid gland become enlarged. Deficiency happens more often in women than in men. It is also more common in pregnant women and older children. Getting enough iodine in ...

  19. Diet, Exercise and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Mutation That Protects Against the Development of Alzheimer’s Disease to the Effect of Gleevec Newly Inducted Into the Basketball Hall ... increase wandering, and depression disrupts sleep and deepens social withdrawal. Do people with Alzheimer’s need to follow a special diet? People with ...

  20. Table 1 Experimental diets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francois Siebrits

    oilcake containing 2.4% residual oil (control diet with 29 g fat and 123 g crude protein kg feed) fed to four groups of 10 SA ... Keywords: Calcium soap, TBARS, fatty acid composition, shelf life ..... Obesity: Impact on Cardiovascular. Disease.

  1. [Acne and diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, B C

    2013-04-01

    In industrialized countries acne presents as an epidemic disease of civilization affecting sebaceous follicles of adolescents and young adults, associated with increased body mass index and insulin resistance. "Western style" diet, characterized by high glycaemic load and increased consumption of insulinotropic milk proteins, plays an important role in acne pathogenesis. On the cellular level, nutrient-derived metabolic signals are sensed by the metabolic transcription factor FoxO1 and integrated by the regulatory kinase mTORC1. mTORC1, the central hub of protein- and lipid biosynthesis, cell growth and proliferation, is activated by insulin, IGF-1 and branched-chain essential amino acids, especially leucine. The understanding of Western diet-mediated nutrient signalling with over-activated mTORC1 offers a reasonable approach for dietary intervention in acne by lowering glycaemic load and consumption of milk and milk products. A suitable diet attenuating increased mTORC1 activity is a Palaeolithic-like diet with reduced intake of sugar, hyperglycaemic grains, milk and milk products but enriched consumption of vegetables and fish.

  2. Relationship of carotid intima-media thickness and duration of vegetarian diet in Chinese male vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Yu; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Sun, Su-Yun; Wang, Li-Ying; Yan, Bing; Liu, Chang-Qin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xue-Jun

    2011-09-19

    Many studies have shown that vegetarian diet has beneficial effects on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of vegetarian diet on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), as well as the association between IMT and duration of vegetarian diet, are still unclear. The present study aims to investigate the influence of duration of vegetarian diet on cardiovascular risk factors, and more importantly on IMT among Chinese vegetarians. One hundred and seventy-one Chinese male vegetarians were screened for metabolic profile, cardiovascular risk and carotid IMT. They were compared with 129 age-matched omnivores recruited from a community-based health project. The effects of confounding factors were adjusted by stepwise logistic regression analysis. Compared to the omnivores, the vegetarians had lower BMI, weight, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Also, the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, ApoA1, ApoB, uric acid, albumin and γ-glutamyltransferase were significantly reduced in vegetarians. Omnivores had significantly higher fasting blood glucose than that of vegetarians. However, there were no differences in fasting insulin, C-reactive protein and HOMA-IR between the two groups. IMT was thinner in the vegetarian group than in the omnivore group (0.59 ± 0.16 vs. 0.63 ± 0.10 cm, P vegetarians were divided according to duration of vegetarian diet ( 11 years), those in tertile 1 (vegetarian diet. Moreover, taking a low-calorie, low-protein, or vegetarian diet might have great beneficial effects on IMT through improved lipid profile, and the beneficial effects appeared to be correlated with the duration of vegetarian diet.

  3. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  4. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  5. Odontella aurita-enriched diet prevents high fat diet-induced liver insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Hamza; Benomar, Yacir; Haimeur, Adil; Messaouri, Hafida; Meskini, Nadia; Taouis, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effect of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (w-3 FA) consumption regarding cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and inflammation has been widely reported. Fish oil is considered as the main source of commercialized w-3 FAs, and other alternative sources have been reported such as linseed or microalgae. However, despite numerous reports, the underlying mechanisms of action of w-3 FAs on insulin resistance are still not clearly established, especially those from microalgae. Here, we report that Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in w-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic acid, prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation in the liver of Wistar rats. Indeed, a high fat diet (HFD) increased plasma insulin levels associated with the impairment of insulin receptor signaling and the up-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions. Importantly, Odontella aurita-enriched HFD (HFOA) reduces body weight and plasma insulin levels and maintains normal insulin receptor expression and responsiveness. Furthermore, HFOA decreased TLR4 expression, JNK/p38 phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory factors. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that diet supplementation with whole Ondontella aurita overcomes HFD-induced insulin resistance through the inhibition of TLR4/JNK/p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways.

  6. The ketogenic diet: uses in epilepsy and other neurologic illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barañano, Kristin W; Hartman, Adam L

    2008-11-01

    The ketogenic diet is well established as therapy for intractable epilepsy. It should be considered first-line therapy in glucose transporter type 1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. It should be considered early in the treatment of Dravet syndrome and myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (Doose syndrome). Initial studies indicate that the ketogenic diet appears effective in other metabolic conditions, including phosphofructokinase deficiency and glycogenosis type V (McArdle disease). It appears to function in these disorders by providing an alternative fuel source. A growing body of literature suggests the ketogenic diet may be beneficial in certain neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In these disorders, the ketogenic diet appears to be neuroprotective, promoting enhanced mitochondrial function and rescuing adenosine triphosphate production. Dietary therapy is a promising intervention for cancer, given that it may target the relative inefficiency of tumors in using ketone bodies as an alternative fuel source. The ketogenic diet also may have a role in improving outcomes in trauma and hypoxic injuries.

  7. Health benefits and risk associated with adopting a vegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilis, Wiesław; Stec, Krzysztof; Zych, Michał; Pilis, Anna

    2014-01-01

    A vegetarian diet may be adopted for various reasons that can include ecological, economic, religious, ethical and health considerations. In the latter case they arise from the desire to lose weight, in tackling obesity, improving physical fitness and/or in reducing the risk of acquiring certain diseases. It has been shown that properly applied vegetarian diet is the most effective way of reducing body mass (expressed as BMI), improving the plasma lipid profile and in decreasing the incidence of high arterial blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic syndrome and arteriosclerosis. In addition, improved insulin sensitivity together with lower rates of diabetes and cancer has been observed. Some studies have however found that a vegetarian diet may result in changes adversely affecting the body. These could include; hyperhomocysteinaemia, protein deficiency, anaemia, decreased creatinine content in muscles and menstrual disruption in women who undertake increased physical activity. Some of these changes may decrease the ability for performing activities that require physical effort. Nevertheless, on balance it can be reasonably concluded that the beneficial effects of a vegetarian diet significantly, by far, outweigh the adverse ones. It should also be noted that the term 'vegetarian diet' is not always clearly defined in the literature and it may include many dietary variations.

  8. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.

  9. Coffee components and cardiovascular risk: beneficial and detrimental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Coffee consists of several biological active compounds, such as caffeine, diterpenes, chlorogenic acids, and melanoidins, which may affect human health. The intake of each compound depends on the variety of coffee species, roasting degree, type of brewing method and serving size. The bioavailability and the distribution of each compound and its metabolites also contribute to coffee mechanisms of action. The health benefits of coffee consumption regarding cardiovascular system and metabolism mostly depend on its antioxidant compounds. In contrast, diterpenes and caffeine may produce harmful effects by raising lipid fraction and affecting endothelial function, respectively. Studying the mechanism of action of coffee components may help understanding weather coffee's impact on health is beneficial or hazardous. In this article, we reviewed the available information about coffee compounds and their mechanism of action. Furthermore, benefits and risks for cardiovascular system associated with coffee consumption will be discussed.

  10. Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto Berni Canani; Margherita Di Costanzo; Ludovica Leone; Monica Pedata; Rosaria Meli; Antonio Calignano

    2011-01-01

    The multiple beneficial effects on human health of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, synthesized from nonabsorbed carbohydrate by colonic microbiota, are well documented. At the intestinal level, butyrate plays a regulatory role on the transepithelial fluid transport,ameliorates mucosal inflammation and oxidative status,reinforces the epithelial defense barrier, and modulates visceral sensitivity and intestinal motility. In addition,a growing number of studies have stressed the role of butyrate in the prevention and inhibition of colorectal cancer. At the extraintestinal level, butyrate exerts potentially useful effects on many conditions, including hemoglobinopathies, genetic metabolic diseases,hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and ischemic stroke. The mechanisms of action of butyrate are different;many of these are related to its potent regulatory effects on gene expression. These data suggest a wide spectrum of positive effects exerted by butyrate, with a high potential for a therapeutic use in human medicine.

  11. Beneficially reusing LLRW the Savannah River Site Stainless Steel Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettinger, W.L.

    1993-09-09

    With 68 radioactively contaminated excess Process Water Heat Exchangers the Savannah River Site launched its program to turn potential LLRW metal liabilities into assets. Each Heat Exchanger contains approximately 100 tons of 304 Stainless Steel and could be disposed as LLRW by land burial. Instead the 7000 tons of metal will be recycled into LLRW, HLW, and TRU waste containers thereby eliminating the need for near term land disposal and also eliminating the need to add more clean metal to the waste stream. Aspects of the partnership between DOE and Private Industry necessary to accomplish this new mission are described. A life cycle cost analysis associated with past practices of using carbon steel containers to indefinitely store material (contributing to the creation of today`s legacy waste problems) is presented. The avoided cost calculations needed to support the economics of the ``Indifference`` decision process in assessing the Beneficial Reuse option relative to the Burial option are described.

  12. The application of the electrodynamic separator in minerals beneficiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, M.; Syrek, P.; Surowiak, A.

    2017-05-01

    The aim of presented paper is elaboration of methodology of upgrading natural minerals in example of chalcocite and bornite sample. The results were obtained by means of laboratory drum separator. This device operates in accordance to properties of materials, which in this case was electrical conductivity. The study contains the analysis of the forces occurring inside of electrodynamic separator chamber, that act on the particles of various electrical properties. Both, the potential and electric field strength distributions were calculated, with set of separators setpoints. Theoretical analysis influenced on separator parameters, and hence impacted the empirical results too. Next, the authors conducted empirical research on chalcocite and bornite beneficiation by means of electrodynamic separation. The results of this process were shown graphically in form of upgrading curves of chalcocite considering elementary copper and lead.

  13. Beneficial effects of footbaths in controlling spasticity after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shuji; Shimodozono, Megumi; Etoh, Seiji; Shimozono, Yurika; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2010-07-01

    Footbaths are considered to provide beneficial thermal therapy for post-stroke patients with spasticity, but their anti-spastic effects have not been investigated comprehensively. The present study aimed to evaluate alterations in motor-neuron excitability using F-wave parameters in post-stroke patients with spastic hemiplegia. Subjects’ legs below the knee joint were immersed in water at 41°C and F-wave recordings were made over the abductor hallucis muscle before, immediately after, and 30 min after thermal treatment. Antidromic stimulation was performed on the tibial nerve at the ankle. Measurements included F-wave amplitude, F-wave/M-response ratio, changes in modified Ashworth scale (MAS), body temperature and surface-skin temperature. The mean values of both F-wave parameters were higher on the affected side before footbath treatment. In post-stroke patients, the mean values of F-wave parameters were significantly reduced after footbath treatment ( P rehabilitation.

  14. Beneficial effects of melatonin in experimental models of Alzheimer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong CHENG; Zheng FENG; Qing-zhu ZHANG; Jun-tian ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive degenerative disorder, is characterized by the presence of amyloid deposits, neurofibrillary tangles and neuron loss.Emerging evidence indicates that antioxidants could be useful either for the prevention or treatment of AD. It has been shown that melatonin is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Additionally, melatonin stimulates several antioxidative enzymes and improves mitochondrial energy metabolism. These findings led us to study amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice, ovariectomized rats, and pheochromocytoma and astroglioma cell lines, to observe whether melatonin had any effect on Alzheimer's symptoms or pathological changes. We found that melatonin had many beneficial effects in experimental models of AD, including improvement of cognitive function, anti-oxidative injury, anti-apoptosis, inhibition of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and Aβ fiber formation. Several groups have shown that melatonin has an inhibitory effect on tau protein hyperphosphorylation.These actions may potentially slow down or stop the progression of dementia.

  15. Beneficial and harmful roles of bacteria from the Clostridium genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samul, Dorota; Worsztynowicz, Paulina; Leja, Katarzyna; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria of the Clostridium genus are often described only as a biological threat and a foe of mankind. However, many of them have positive properties and thanks to them they may be used in many industry branches (e.g., in solvents and alcohol production, in medicine, and also in esthetic cosmetology). During the last 10 years interest in application of C. botulinum and C. tetani in medicine significantly increased. Currently, the structure and biochemical properties of neurotoxins produced by these bacterial species, as well as possibilities of application of such toxins as botulinum as a therapeutic factor in humans, are being intensely researched. The main aim of this article is to demonstrate that bacteria from Clostridium spp. are not only pathogens and the enemy of humanity but they also have many important beneficial properties which make them usable among many chemical, medical, and cosmetic applications.

  16. Glutamine Supplementation in Sick Children: Is It Beneficial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Mok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of the literature on Glutamine (Gln supplementation in various conditions or illnesses that affect children, from neonates to adolescents. First, a general overview of the proposed mechanisms for the beneficial effects of Gln is provided, and subsequently clinical studies are discussed. Despite safety, studies are conflicting, partly due to different effects of enteral and parenteral Gln supplementation. Further insufficient evidence is available on the benefits of Gln supplementation in pediatric patients. This includes premature infants, infants with gastrointestinal disease, children with Crohn's disease, short bowel syndrome, malnutrition/diarrhea, cancer, severe burns/trauma, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and type 1 diabetes. Moreover, methodological issues have been noted in some studies. Further mechanistic data is needed along with large randomized controlled trials in select populations of sick children, who may eventually benefit from supplemental Gln.

  17. Critical evaluation of toxic versus beneficial effects of methylglyoxal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, D; Chaudhuri, B S; Ray, M; Ray, S

    2009-10-01

    In various organisms, an array of enzymes is involved in the synthesis and breakdown of methylglyoxal. Through these enzymes, it is intimately linked to several other physiologically important metabolites, suggesting that methylglyoxal has some important role to play in the host organism. Several in vitro and in vivo studies showed that methylglyoxal acts specifically against different types of malignant cells. These studies culminated in a recent investigation to evaluate a methylglyoxal-based formulation in treating a small group of cancer patients, and the results were promising. Methylglyoxal acts against a number of pathogenic microorganisms. However, recent literature abounds with the toxic effects of methylglyoxal, which are supposed to be mediated through methylglyoxal-derived advanced glycation end products (AGE). Many diseases such as diabetes, cataract formation, hypertension, and uremia are proposed to be intimately linked with methylglyoxal-derived AGE. However methylglyoxal-derived AGE formation and subsequent pathogenesis might be a very minor event because AGE are nonspecific reaction products that are derived through the reactions of carbonyl groups of reducing sugars with amino groups present in the side chains of lysine and arginine and in terminal amino groups of proteins. Moreover, the results of some in vitro experiments with methylglyoxal under non-physiological conditions were extrapolated to the in vivo situation. Some experiments even showed contradictory results and were differently interpreted. For this reason conclusions about the potential beneficial effects of methylglyoxal have often been neglected, thus hindering the advancement of medical science and causing some confusion in fundamental understanding. Overall, the potential beneficial effects of methylglyoxal far outweigh its possible toxic role in vivo, and it should be utilized for the benefit of suffering humanity.

  18. Is membrane sweeping beneficial at the initiation of labor induction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harmi, Jehad; Chibber, Rachana; Fouda, Mohamed; Mohammed, Zeinab K; El-Saleh, Eyad; Tasneem, Asiya

    2015-07-01

    To determine whether cervical membrane sweeping during labor induction is beneficial. Outcomes of labor after induction in pregnant women at term were compared in a randomized trial. Women were assigned to having their membranes "swept" or "not swept" at the initiation of labor induction. We recruited a total of 870 women of which 70 were excluded. There were 400 nullipara (Group A) [198 "swept", 202 "not swept"] and 400 multiparas (Group B) (201 "swept" and 199 "not swept"]. Among group A who received intravaginal prostaglandin (PG) E2, those who had simultaneous sweeping had significantly shorter mean induction-labor interval (12.9 ± 1.3 versus 16.2 ± 1.1 hours, p = 0.046), lower mean dose of oxytocin (6.6 ± 0.6 versus 10.11 ± 1.4 mU/minute, p = 0.01), and increased normal delivery rates (vaginal delivery 82.8% versus 58.6%, p = 0.01). Sweeping also had a favorable effect on nulliparas who had ARM and received oxytocin alone (mean induction-labor interval 5.9 ± 2.9 versus 10.9 ± 2.6 hours p = 0.04, mean maximum dose of oxytocin 9.8 ± 1.1 versus 15.2 ± 1.1 mU/min, p = 0.01). These results were restricted to women with unfavorable cervix in Group A those who had membrane sweeping. Membrane sweeping, has beneficial effects on labor and delivery, which is limited to nulliparas with unfavorable cervix requiring PGE2 or Oxytocin alone.

  19. Effects of Inulin Supplementation in Low- or High-Fat Diets on Reproductive Performance of Sows and Antioxidant Defence Capacity in Sows and Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y S; Zhou, P; Liu, H; Li, S; Zhao, Y; Deng, K; Cao, D D; Che, L Q; Fang, Z F; Xu, S Y; Lin, Y; Feng, B; Li, J; Wu, D

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin supplementation in low- or high-fat diets on both the reproductive performance of sow and the antioxidant defence capacity in sows and offspring. Sixty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were randomly allocated to four treatments with low-fat diet (L), low-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (LI), high-fat diet (H) and high-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (HI). Inulin-rich diets lowered the within-litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CV, p = 0.05) of piglets, increased the proportion of piglets weighing 1.0-1.5 kg at farrowing (p sow constipation (p Sows fed fat-rich diets gained more BW during gestation (p sows fed low-fat diets. However, it is worth noting that the H diet significantly decreased the serum activities of superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and increased the serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in sows and piglets (p sows and piglets. In summary, the fat-rich diets fed to sows during gestation had beneficial effects on reproductive performance, but aggravated the oxidative stress in sow and piglets. Inulin-rich diets fed to sow during gestation had beneficial effects on within-litter uniformity of piglet birthweight and enhanced the antioxidant defence capacity of sows and piglets. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Vegetarian diets, low-meat diets and health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Claire T; Temple, Norman; Woodside, Jayne V

    2012-12-01

    To review the epidemiological evidence for vegetarian diets, low-meat dietary patterns and their association with health status in adults. Published literature review focusing primarily on prospective studies and meta-analyses examining the association between vegetarian diets and health outcomes. Both vegetarian diets and prudent diets allowing small amounts of red meat are associated with reduced risk of diseases, particularly CHD and type 2 diabetes. There is limited evidence of an association between vegetarian diets and cancer prevention. Evidence linking red meat intake, particularly processed meat, and increased risk of CHD, cancer and type 2 diabetes is convincing and provides indirect support for consumption of a plant-based diet. The health benefits of vegetarian diets are not unique. Prudent plant-based dietary patterns which also allow small intakes of red meat, fish and dairy products have demonstrated significant improvements in health status as well. At this time an optimal dietary intake for health status is unknown. Plant-based diets contain a host of food and nutrients known to have independent health benefits. While vegetarian diets have not shown any adverse effects on health, restrictive and monotonous vegetarian diets may result in nutrient deficiencies with deleterious effects on health. For this reason, appropriate advice is important to ensure a vegetarian diet is nutritionally adequate especially for vulnerable groups.

  1. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients preventing diet-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E

    2016-05-18

    This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products.

  2. Prospective study of the modified atkins diet in combination with a ketogenic liquid supplement during the initial month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Dorward, Jennifer L; Turner, Zahava; Pyzik, Paula L

    2011-02-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate treatment for intractable childhood epilepsy. As data suggest that a stricter diet onset can be more effective, we added a ketogenic supplement to the modified Atkins diet during its initial month. Thirty children with intractable epilepsy were prospectively started on the modified Atkins diet in combination with a daily 400-calorie KetoCal shake. At 1 month, 24 (80%) children had >50% seizure reduction, of which 11 (37%) had >90% seizure reduction. There was no significant loss of efficacy during the second month after KetoCal was discontinued. The use of this ketogenic supplement increased daily fat intake and thus the ketogenic ratio (1.8:1 versus 1.0:1 in the modified Atkins diet alone, P = .0002), but did not change urinary or serum ketosis. The addition of a ketogenic supplement to the modified Atkins diet during its initial month appears to be beneficial.

  3. My New Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正I liked eat fast food before.But it was not healthy,so I changed my diet.Now let me tell you something about my new diet.At 6:30 a.m.,I have breakfast at home.For breakfast,I often eat an egg,some bread and a glass of milk.At 11:30 a.m.,I have lunch at school.I usually have a bowl of rice,some meat and vegetables,sometimes I eat some fish.I with my family often have supper at home in the evening.I usually eat porridge and some vegetables.Sometimes I eat noodles for supper.After supper,I usually have some fruit.Because I usually eat healthy food now,so I am much healthier than before.

  4. An Algorithmic Diversity Diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Schmidt, Jan-Hinrik

    2016-01-01

    With the growing influence of personalized algorithmic recommender systems on the exposure of media content to users, the relevance of discussing the diversity of recommendations increases, particularly as far as public service media (PSM) is concerned. An imagined implementation of a diversity...... diet system however triggers not only the classic discussion of the reach – distinctiveness balance for PSM, but also shows that ‘diversity’ is understood very differently in algorithmic recommender system communities than it is editorially and politically in the context of PSM. The design...... of a diversity diet system generates questions not just about editorial power, personal freedom and techno-paternalism, but also about the embedded politics of recommender systems as well as the human skills affiliated with PSM editorial work and the nature of PSM content....

  5. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Arun

    demands of their lives. Cultural factors associated with acceptance of the NND were interest in cooking, eating habits that embrace ‘feminine’ tastes, ‘modern’ dishes and healthy foods, as well as preferences for consuming organic and seasonal foods. Social factors were high level of urbanisation...... Nordic Cuisine movement with eating habits that accord with Nordic dietary recommendations, the NND is designed to be a healthy, Nordic, seasonal and organic diet that will be acceptable to Danish consumers. This PhD study has four objectives: (i) to explore the acceptance of the NND among Danish......: (iv) to assess which social and cultural factors are likely to impact upon the achievement of the aim of OPUS. The NND concept was found to be well accepted, although some consumers viewed it as being an elitist diet. Also, the taste of the NND was very well accepted. The practical hallenges and time...

  6. Protein and vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kate A; Munn, Elizabeth A; Baines, Surinder K

    2013-08-19

    A vegetarian diet can easily meet human dietary protein requirements as long as energy needs are met and a variety of foods are eaten. Vegetarians should obtain protein from a variety of plant sources, including legumes, soy products, grains, nuts and seeds. Eggs and dairy products also provide protein for those following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. There is no need to consciously combine different plant proteins at each meal as long as a variety of foods are eaten from day to day, because the human body maintains a pool of amino acids which can be used to complement dietary protein. The consumption of plant proteins rather than animal proteins by vegetarians may contribute to their reduced risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.

  7. Diet and Longevity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Bingxian

    2000-01-01

    @@In 1985 the International Natural Medicine Society declared the Hoten area, Xinjiang (a province of China) as one of the areas of most pronounced longevity in the world. Why are there more elderly people in Hoten? There are many factors. On the basis of our many years of research, our claim is that diet is the most important factor. Now I will discuss the following factors to illustrate.

  8. [Diabetes and diet revisited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miggiano, G A D; Gagliardi, L

    2006-01-01

    In the treatment of diabetes the diet has an important role complementary to the pharmaceutical treatment. The diet must provide the right amount of nutrients and calories in order for the individual to reach and maintain the ideal weight, stabilize the blood glucose levels close to the norm, and attain an optimal lipid profile. The daily caloric intake is represented by 55-60% of carbohydrates with a preference for nutrients rich in fiber and with a low blood glucose index. Of the daily caloric intake 10% may include sucrose as long as it is consumed in the context of a balanced meal. A moderate use of fructose is allowed, and an increased intake of fiber is encouraged. The consumption of proteins represents about 10-15% of the daily caloric intake. A consumption close to the lower limits of the range (about 0,8 gr/kg of body weight) is required for diabetes patients with nephropathy, while a daily intake of 0,6 gr/kg of body weight is considered to be the malnutrition risk factor for lower levels. The total intake of fats required is or = 100mg/dl and other cardiovascular risk factors), the polyunsaturated fatty acids less than 10%, and the monounsaturated fatty acids at 10-15% of the total caloric intake. The intake of cholesterol through the diet should be high levels of LDL cholesterol. Multivitamin supplements are recommended only for certain categories of diabetic patients that may be at risk of micronutrient deficiency. A moderate quantity of alcohol (5-15 gr/die) is allowed in the case of stabilized diabetes and lack of hypertrigliceridemia. Although the diet may determine a ponderal decrease of up to 10% of the initial weight, it is good to insert a correct nutritional program into a well defined behavioral program that, other than a reduced caloric intake, takes into consideration an increased energetic expenditure through physical activity.

  9. Growth hormone abolishes beneficial effects of calorie restriction in long-lived Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesing, Adam; Al-Regaiey, Khalid A; Bartke, Andrzej; Masternak, Michal M

    2014-10-01

    Disruption of the growth hormone (GH) axis promotes longevity and delays aging. In contrast, GH over-expression may lead to accelerated aging and shorter life. Calorie restriction (CR) improves insulin sensitivity and may extend lifespan. Long-lived Ames dwarf (df/df) mice have additional extension of longevity when subjected to 30% CR. The aim of the study was to assess effects of CR or GH replacement therapy separately and as a combined (CR+GH) treatment in GH-deficient df/df and normal mice, on selected metabolic parameters (e.g., insulin, glucose, cholesterol), insulin signaling components (e.g., insulin receptor [IR] β-subunit, phosphorylated form of IR [IR pY1158], protein kinase C ζ/λ [p-PKCζ/λ] and mTOR [p-mTOR]), transcription factor p-CREB, and components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling (p-ERK1/2, p-p38), responsible for cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. CR decreased plasma levels of insulin, glucose, cholesterol and leptin, and increased hepatic IR β-subunit and IR pY1158 levels as well as IR, IRS-1 and GLUT-2 gene expression compared to ad libitum feeding, showing a significant beneficial diet intervention effect. Moreover, hepatic protein levels of p-PKCζ/λ, p-mTOR and p-p38 decreased, and p-CREB increased in CR mice. On the contrary, GH increased levels of glucose, cholesterol and leptin in plasma, and p-mTOR or p-p38 in livers, and decreased plasma adiponectin and hepatic IR β-subunit compared to saline treatment. There were no GH effects on adiponectin in N mice. Moreover, GH replacement therapy did not affect IR, IRS-1 and GLUT-2 gene expression. GH treatment abolishes the beneficial effects of CR; it may suggest an important role of GH-IGF1 axis in mediating the CR action. Suppressed somatotrophic signaling seems to predominate over GH replacement therapy in the context of the examined parameters and signaling pathways.

  10. Plants, diet, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathie; Zhang, Yang; Tonelli, Chiara; Petroni, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Chronic disease is a major social challenge of the twenty-first century. In this review, we examine the evidence for discordance between modern diets and those on which humankind evolved as the cause of the increasing incidence of chronic diseases, and the evidence supporting consumption of plant foods as a way to reduce the risk of chronic disease. We also examine the evidence for avoiding certain components of plant-based foods that are enriched in Western diets, and review the mechanisms by which different phytonutrients are thought to reduce the risk of chronic disease. This body of evidence strongly suggests that consuming more fruits and vegetables could contribute both to medical nutrition therapies, as part of a package of treatments for conditions like type 2 diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and obesity, and to the prevention of these diseases. Plant science should be directed toward improving the quality of plant-based foods by building on our improved understanding of the complex relationships between plants, our diet, and our health.

  11. [Diet low in potassium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez Rodríguez, Loreto; Meizoso Ameneiro, Ana; Pérez Paz, Ma Jesús; Valiño Pazos, Cristina

    2011-11-01

    After confirming the high prevalence rates in our hemodialysis unit of the following nursing diagnoses: nutritional imbalances--both excesses and shortages, willingness to improve nutrition and fear related to the consequences of excessive intake of potassium and manifested by the inhibition in some people towards the enjoyment of food, we decided to plan an educational strategy which later resulted in a nursing intervention for these diagnoses, with the objective of providing adequate resources for the monitoring of balanced diets with a restriction of potassium. Inspired by dietary rations, as well as recognized dietary programs of learning by points, we decided to incorporate these ideas to design an educational tool to facilitate advice to our patients on how to follow diet plans as well as the choice of appropriate foods. The result was a set of cards incorporating nutritional information of various kinds, aimed at our patients covering different aspects of the diet appropriate food rations using household measurements, promoting good food preparation, appropriate dietary advice for different chronic diseases and a scoring system of foods according to their potassium content. Together they form a board game available during the hemodialysis sessions that also takes into consideration other issues of importance related to conditions such as cognitive stimulation, coping with the disease, improving the therapeutic performance or resources to increase patient motivation. Although initially it was only an educational exercise, the result has turned out to be both enjoyable and entertaining.

  12. Acne and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ronni; Matz, Hagit; Orion, Edith

    2004-01-01

    Forbidden foods? "The first law of dietetics seems to be: If it tastes good, it's bad for you" (Isaac Asimov, Russian-born biochemist and science fiction writer). This was essentially the Magna Carta for dermatologists of the 1950s: anything coveted by the teenage palate was suspect for morning after acne. Today, half a century later, although the slant has shifted away for this line of thinking in our dermatologic textbooks, several articles on the beliefs and perceptions of acne patients showed that nothing much has changed and that they expect us to give them detailed instructions of what "acne-related" foods they should avoid. In one such study(1), diet was the third most frequently implicated factor (after hormones and genetics) as the cause of the disease, with 32% of the respondents selecting diet as the main cause, and 44% thinking that foods aggravate acne. In another study that analyzed knowledge about causes of acne among English teenagers, 11% of the responders blamed greasy food as the main cause of the disease(2), whereas in another study found that 41% of final-year medical students of the University of Melbourne chose diet as an important factor of acne exacerbation on a final examination.(3)

  13. Effects of monensin supplementation on ruminal metabolism of feedlot cattle fed diets containing dried distillers grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, T L; Pyatt, N A; Loerch, S C

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of monensin and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on ruminal metabolism in 8 fistulated steers. In Exp. 1, treatments were (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 2) 22 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 3) 33 mg monensin/kg diet DM, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM. The remainder of the diet was 10% corn silage, 60% DDGS, 10% corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as the carrier. There was no effect (P > 0.80) of dietary monensin inclusion on DMI. Increasing dietary monensin did not affect (P > 0.05) ruminal VFA concentrations or lactic acid concentrations. There was no effect (P > 0.15) of increasing dietary monensin concentration on ruminal hydrogen sulfide gas (H(2)S) and liquid sulfide (S(2-)) concentrations, or ruminal pH. In Exp. 2, treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial and contained (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, 2) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion, 3) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion. The remainder of the diet was 15% corn silage, corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as a carrier. With 60% dietary DDGS inclusion, DMI decreased (P diet, 0 h postfeeding acetate concentration was decreased compared with when 60% DDGS was fed (P diets, regardless of monensin inclusion. This increase in propionate concentrations contributed to the increase (P = 0.03) in total VFA concentrations at 3 h postfeeding when 60% DDGS diets were fed. There was no interaction detected (P > 0.05) for H(2)S or S(2-) concentrations in Exp. 2. Feeding 60% DDGS diets increased mean H(2)S by 71% when compared with feeding 25% DDGS diets. Similar to the response observed for H(2)S, feeding 60% DDGS diets increased mean S(2-) by 64% when compared with feeding 25% DDGS diets. Although these studies did not show beneficial effects of monensin supplementation on ruminal pH, VFA, or H(2)S

  14. Suppression of Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia by Turtle Jelly, A Traditional Chinese Functional Food, in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Hong; Wang, Qing-Hua; Li, Fan; Shu, Yuan-Lan; Chan, Chi-On; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah; Chan, Shun-Wan

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of functional foods for lowering serum cholesterol has globally gained acceptance by the general public. Turtle jelly (TJ), also called gui-ling-gao, is a popular traditional functional food in southern China. The hypocholesterolemic effect of consuming TJ was investigated in rats fed with normal diet, high-cholesterol diet or high-cholesterol diet supplemented with simvastatin (3 mg/kg bw per day, p.o.) or TJ (3.3 or 10 mL/kg bw per day, p.o.) for 30 days. TJ markedly reversed the increased serum total cholesterol, increased high-density lipoprotein, and decreased high-density lipoprotein induced by hypercholesterolemic diet with a dose-dependent improvement on the atherogenic index. It also demonstrated good hepatoprotective function by reducing fat depositions and overall lipid contents in the liver and increasing the activities of hepatic antioxidative enzymes. The blunted nitric oxide/endothelium-mediated aortic relaxation in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was partially restored after TJ consumption. It is postulated that the hypocholesterolemic effect is the primary beneficial effect given by TJ; it then leads to secondary beneficial effects such as vasoprotective and hepatoprotective functions. The results revealed that TJ could block the downregulation of LDLR and PEPCK and upregulation of PPARα mRNA and protein expressions in the livers of rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet. PMID:23243438

  15. Suppression of Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia by Turtle Jelly, A Traditional Chinese Functional Food, in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of functional foods for lowering serum cholesterol has globally gained acceptance by the general public. Turtle jelly (TJ, also called gui-ling-gao, is a popular traditional functional food in southern China. The hypocholesterolemic effect of consuming TJ was investigated in rats fed with normal diet, high-cholesterol diet or high-cholesterol diet supplemented with simvastatin (3 mg/kg bw per day, p.o. or TJ (3.3 or 10 mL/kg bw per day, p.o. for 30 days. TJ markedly reversed the increased serum total cholesterol, increased high-density lipoprotein, and decreased high-density lipoprotein induced by hypercholesterolemic diet with a dose-dependent improvement on the atherogenic index. It also demonstrated good hepatoprotective function by reducing fat depositions and overall lipid contents in the liver and increasing the activities of hepatic antioxidative enzymes. The blunted nitric oxide/endothelium-mediated aortic relaxation in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was partially restored after TJ consumption. It is postulated that the hypocholesterolemic effect is the primary beneficial effect given by TJ; it then leads to secondary beneficial effects such as vasoprotective and hepatoprotective functions. The results revealed that TJ could block the downregulation of LDLR and PEPCK and upregulation of PPARα mRNA and protein expressions in the livers of rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet.

  16. Relationship of carotid intima-media thickness and duration of vegetarian diet in Chinese male vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chang-Qin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Many studies have shown that vegetarian diet has beneficial effects on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of vegetarian diet on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, as well as the association between IMT and duration of vegetarian diet, are still unclear. The present study aims to investigate the influence of duration of vegetarian diet on cardiovascular risk factors, and more importantly on IMT among Chinese vegetarians. Methods One hundred and seventy-one Chinese male vegetarians were screened for metabolic profile, cardiovascular risk and carotid IMT. They were compared with 129 age-matched omnivores recruited from a community-based health project. The effects of confounding factors were adjusted by stepwise logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to the omnivores, the vegetarians had lower BMI, weight, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Also, the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, ApoA1, ApoB, uric acid, albumin and γ-glutamyltransferase were significantly reduced in vegetarians. Omnivores had significantly higher fasting blood glucose than that of vegetarians. However, there were no differences in fasting insulin, C-reactive protein and HOMA-IR between the two groups. IMT was thinner in the vegetarian group than in the omnivore group (0.59 ± 0.16 vs. 0.63 ± 0.10 cm, P 11 years, those in tertile 1 ( Conclusion A decrease in multiple cardiovascular risk factors such as BMI, blood pressure and lipid profile was associated with vegetarian diet. Moreover, taking a low-calorie, low-protein, or vegetarian diet might have great beneficial effects on IMT through improved lipid profile, and the beneficial effects appeared to be correlated with the duration of vegetarian diet.

  17. Beneficial effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on liver regeneration in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogan, Mehmet; Ersoy, Eren; Dundar, Kadir; Albayrak, Levent; Devay, Seda; Gundogdu, Haldun

    2005-12-01

    Underlying hepatic injury and cirrhosis are leading factors that interfere with the post-operative liver regeneration and function. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) has been reported to ameliorate the ischemia-reperfusion injury of the liver, to induce compensatory hypertrophy of the predicted remnant liver in rats after portal vein ligation and to augment liver regeneration after hepatectomy in non-cirrhotic rats. Our aim was to determine the effect of HBO treatment on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in normal and cirrhotic mice in this experimental study. The effect of HBO on liver regeneration was studied in a mice model combining carbon tetrachloride induced cirrhosis and partial hepatectomy. Mice were divided into four groups: Control, cirrhotic, non-cirrhotic HBO-treated, and cirrhotic HBO-treated. All animals underwent 40% hepatectomy. Liver regeneration was evaluated by the proliferating cell nuclear antigen-labeling index. Serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were measured to evaluate liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly decreased in HBO-treated cirrhotic group compared to cirrhosis group after hepatectomy (P = 0.001 and P = 0.014, respectively). The proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index was significantly higher in HBO treated cirrhotic group than in cirrhotic group after hepatectomy (P = 0.022). Our results suggest that HBO treatment improves liver functions and augments hepatocyte regeneration in cirrhotic mice after hepatectomy. Post-operative HBO treatment may have a beneficial effect on post-operative liver function and regeneration in cirrhotic patients.

  18. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  19. Can vineyard biodiversity be beneficial for viticulture and tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Morgane; Kratschmer, Sophie; Gregorich, Claudia; Silvia, Winter; Montembault, David; Zaller, Johann G.; Guernion, Muriel; Jung, Vincent; Schuette, Rebekka; Paredes, Daniel; Guzman Diaz, Gema; Cabezas Luque, Jose Manuel; Hoble, Adela; Popescu, Daniela; Burel, Françoise; Cluzeau, Daniel; Bergmann, Holger; Potthoff, Martin; Nicolai, Annegret

    2017-04-01

    The European research BiodivERsA project VineDivers aims to link ecosystem services and vine production, in an integrative approach that considers both landscape structure and cultural practices (cover-crops versus bare soils), in vineyards of Austria, France, Romania and Spain. Such services studied are (i) provisioning and regulation services by soil biota and pollinators, and (ii) landscape cultural services. In this study, we want to know if landscape beneficial for biodiversity providing ecosystem services at a plot scale also have an aesthetical value. An interdisciplinary approach was chosen to include both ecological and sociological data. First, we analyzed the influence of soil management practices and landscape complexity on soil biota, inter-row flora and bees. Second, we implemented a questionnaire based on photographs about biodiversity perception and visual aesthetic evaluation. Our results highlighted the effect of landscape complexity and soil management intensity on biodiversity and their ecological and cultural ecosystem services. This allows us to discuss the global importance of biodiversity for a wine-producing region. Further analysis within the VineDivers project will focus on an assessment of the biodiversity importance for local viticulture economy.

  20. Primary beneficiation of tantalite using magnetic separation and acid leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Nete; F Koko; T Theron; W Purcell; JT Nel

    2014-01-01

    Primary beneficiation was successfully performed prior to dissolution of manganotantalite (sample A) and ferrotantalite (sample C) samples obtained from two different mines in the Naquissupa area, Mozambique. Magnetic separation removed the majority of iron and tita-nium, whereas H2SO4 leaching removed a large portion of thorium and uranium in these samples. Analytical results indicated that 64.14wt%and 72.04wt%of the total Fe and Ti, respectively, and~2wt%each of Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 were removed from sample C (ferrotantalite) using the magnetic separation method, whereas only 9.64wt%and 8.66wt%of total Fe2O3 and TiO2, respectively, and~2wt%each of Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 were removed from sample A (manganotantalite). A temperature of 50°C and a leaching time of 3 h in the presence of concentrated H2SO4 were observed to be the most appropriate leaching conditions for removal of radioactive elements from the tantalite ores. The results obtained for sample A under these conditions indicated that 64.14wt%U3O8 and 60.77wt%ThO2 were leached into the acidic solution, along with 4.45wt%and 0.99wt%of Nb2O5 and Ta2O5, respectively.

  1. The Beneficial Role of Mobility for the Emergence of Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armano, Giuliano; Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2017-05-11

    Innovation is a key ingredient for the evolution of several systems, including social and biological ones. Focused investigations and lateral thinking may lead to innovation, as well as serendipity and other random discovery processes. Some individuals are talented at proposing innovation (say innovators), while others at deeply exploring proposed novelties, at getting further insights on a theory, or at developing products, services, and so on (say developers). This separation in terms of innovators and developers raises an issue of paramount importance: under which conditions a system is able to maintain innovators? According to a simple model, this work investigates the evolutionary dynamics that characterize the emergence of innovation. In particular, we consider a population of innovators and developers, in which agents form small groups whose composition is crucial for their payoff. The latter depends on the heterogeneity of the formed groups, on the amount of innovators they include, and on an award-factor that represents the policy of the system for promoting innovation. Under the hypothesis that a "mobility" effect may support the emergence of innovation, we compare the equilibria reached by our population in different cases. Results confirm the beneficial role of "mobility", and the emergence of further interesting phenomena.

  2. Can misfolded proteins be beneficial? The HAMLET case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson-Kastberg, Jenny; Aits, Sonja; Gustafsson, Lotta; Mossberg, Anki; Storm, Petter; Trulsson, Maria; Persson, Filip; Mok, K Hun; Svanborg, Catharina

    2009-01-01

    By changing the three-dimensional structure, a protein can attain new functions, distinct from those of the native protein. Amyloid-forming proteins are one example, in which conformational change may lead to fibril formation and, in many cases, neurodegenerative disease. We have proposed that partial unfolding provides a mechanism to generate new and useful functional variants from a given polypeptide chain. Here we present HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) as an example where partial unfolding and the incorporation of cofactor create a complex with new, beneficial properties. Native alpha-lactalbumin functions as a substrate specifier in lactose synthesis, but when partially unfolded the protein binds oleic acid and forms the tumoricidal HAMLET complex. When the properties of HAMLET were first described they were surprising, as protein folding intermediates and especially amyloid-forming protein intermediates had been regarded as toxic conformations, but since then structural studies have supported functional diversity arising from a change in fold. The properties of HAMLET suggest a mechanism of structure-function variation, which might help the limited number of human protein genes to generate sufficient structural diversity to meet the diverse functional demands of complex organisms.

  3. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF SUDARSHANA KRIYA IN TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sudarshana kriya is a Sanskrit term meaning ―proper vision, purified action by controlling the breath. Kri means to act with awareness. It normalizes breathing by concentrating on it systematically. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 subjects with type II diabetes 20 males, 20 females with age group of 40-60 were chosen. They underwent sudarshana kriya training for 6 days organized in Bangalore. A written consent was taken from subjects. They participated in 6 day Sudarshana kriya training held at Bangalore by a trained teacher. This 6 day training includes Sudarshana kriya and meditation. Our Study is designed to study the glycemic control and antilipemic effect of Sudarshana kriya in TypeII Diabetes Mellitus. RESULTS: Sudarshana kriya appears to be specialized pranayamic breathing capable of inducing series of beneficial changes besides causing significant fall of sugar levels, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels (p<0.001 and a raise in HDL cholesterol (p<0.001 CONCLUSION: Sudarshan Kriya can be used along with oral hypoglycemic agents as a holistic adjunct approach for a better glycemic and lipid profile control. Regular practice of Sudarshana Kriya reduces symptoms of mental depression for treating stress and anxiety in post- traumatic stress disorder. Sudarshana Kriya leaves one more alert aware, attentive and focused

  4. Nephromyces, a beneficial apicomplexan symbiont in marine animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffo, Mary Beth; McCoy, Adam M.; Rieken, Christopher; Slamovits, Claudio H.

    2010-01-01

    With malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.), Toxoplasma, and many other species of medical and veterinary importance its iconic representatives, the protistan phylum Apicomplexa has long been defined as a group composed entirely of parasites and pathogens. We present here a report of a beneficial apicomplexan: the mutualistic marine endosymbiont Nephromyces. For more than a century, the peculiar structural and developmental features of Nephromyces, and its unusual habitat, have thwarted characterization of the phylogenetic affinities of this eukaryotic microbe. Using short-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences as key evidence, with sequence identity confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we show that Nephromyces, originally classified as a chytrid fungus, is actually an apicomplexan. Inferences from rDNA data are further supported by the several apicomplexan-like structural features in Nephromyces, including especially the strong resemblance of Nephromyces infective stages to apicomplexan sporozoites. The striking emergence of the mutualistic Nephromyces from a quintessentially parasitic clade accentuates the promise of this organism, and the three-partner symbiosis of which it is a part, as a model for probing the factors underlying the evolution of mutualism, pathogenicity, and infectious disease. PMID:20736348

  5. Graphic values for some organic constitutents of beneficiated coal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlenberger, L.B. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Graphic techniques exist which can accurately predict values for calorific value, organic sulfur, and possibly other constituents of the organic portion of beneficiated coal sample fractions. These techniques also permit a determination of coal rank to be made without the use of the approximations required in the standard procedure. Fractions of IBC-101 with varying ash contents were produced by froth flotation. The various fractions were analyzed by the coal analysis laboratory and the particular data type was plotted in each case vs. the individual ash content of each fraction, using Lotus 123 and Freelace software packages. Such plots for calorific value and organic sulfur have, so far, been made. These curves and the information they contain are discussed in this report. A comparison of the graphic mineral matter value with the usual one calculated from the Parr approximation has been made. Eventually, the data may lead to an effective way to estimate inorganic carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and other organic constitents of coal. All data will be made available to researchers.

  6. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Beneficiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Schultz, C.W.; Mehta, R.K.; Lamont, W.E. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Chiang, S.H.; Venkatadri, R. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States)); Misra, M. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States))

    1992-05-01

    The Mineral Resources Institute at the University of Alabama, along with investigators from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Nevada-Reno, have conducted a research program on the beneficiation, of Eastern oil shales. The objective of the research program was to evaluate and adapt those new and emerging technologies that have the potential to improve the economics of recovering oil from Eastern oil shales. The technologies evaluated in this program can be grouped into three areas: fine grinding kerogen/mineral matter separation, and waste treatment and disposal. Four subtasks were defined in the area of fine grinding. They were as follows: Ultrasonic Grinding, Pressure Cycle Comminution, Stirred Ball Mill Grinding, and Grinding Circuit Optimization. The planned Ultrasonic grinding research was terminated when the company that had contracted to do the research failed. Three technologies for effecting a separation of kerogen from its associated mineral matter were evaluated: column flotation, the air-sparged hydrocyclone, and the LICADO process. Column flotation proved to be the most effective means of making the kerogen/mineral matter separation. No problems are expected in the disposal of oil shale tailings. It is assumed that the tailings will be placed in a sealed pond and the water recycled to the plant as is the normal practice. It may be advantageous, however, to conduct further research on the recovery of metals as by-products and to assess the market for tailings as an ingredient in cement making.

  7. Modified TMV Particles as Beneficial Scaffolds to Present Sensor Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Claudia; Wabbel, Katrin; Eber, Fabian J; Krolla-Sidenstein, Peter; Azucena, Carlos; Gliemann, Hartmut; Eiben, Sabine; Geiger, Fania; Wege, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a robust nanotubular nucleoprotein scaffold increasingly employed for the high density presentation of functional molecules such as peptides, fluorescent dyes, and antibodies. We report on its use as advantageous carrier for sensor enzymes. A TMV mutant with a cysteine residue exposed on every coat protein (CP) subunit (TMVCys) enabled the coupling of bifunctional maleimide-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-biotin linkers (TMVCys/Bio). Its surface was equipped with two streptavidin [SA]-conjugated enzymes: glucose oxidase ([SA]-GOx) and horseradish peroxidase ([SA]-HRP). At least 50% of the CPs were decorated with a linker molecule, and all thereof with active enzymes. Upon use as adapter scaffolds in conventional "high-binding" microtiter plates, TMV sticks allowed the immobilization of up to 45-fold higher catalytic activities than control samples with the same input of enzymes. Moreover, they increased storage stability and reusability in relation to enzymes applied directly to microtiter plate wells. The functionalized TMV adsorbed to solid supports showed a homogeneous distribution of the conjugated enzymes and structural integrity of the nanorods upon transmission electron and atomic force microscopy. The high surface-increase and steric accessibility of the viral scaffolds in combination with the biochemical environment provided by the plant viral coat may explain the beneficial effects. TMV can, thus, serve as a favorable multivalent nanoscale platform for the ordered presentation of bioactive proteins.

  8. Multifarious Beneficial Effect of Nonessential Amino Acid, Glycine: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meerza Abdul Razak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycine is most important and simple, nonessential amino acid in humans, animals, and many mammals. Generally, glycine is synthesized from choline, serine, hydroxyproline, and threonine through interorgan metabolism in which kidneys and liver are the primarily involved. Generally in common feeding conditions, glycine is not sufficiently synthesized in humans, animals, and birds. Glycine acts as precursor for several key metabolites of low molecular weight such as creatine, glutathione, haem, purines, and porphyrins. Glycine is very effective in improving the health and supports the growth and well-being of humans and animals. There are overwhelming reports supporting the role of supplementary glycine in prevention of many diseases and disorders including cancer. Dietary supplementation of proper dose of glycine is effectual in treating metabolic disorders in patients with cardiovascular diseases, several inflammatory diseases, obesity, cancers, and diabetes. Glycine also has the property to enhance the quality of sleep and neurological functions. In this review we will focus on the metabolism of glycine in humans and animals and the recent findings and advances about the beneficial effects and protection of glycine in different disease states.

  9. The beneficial effects of taurine to counteract sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicchitano, Bianca M; Sica, Gigliola

    2016-11-22

    Aging is a multifactorial process characterized by several features including low-grade inflammation, increased oxidative stress and reduced regenerative capacity, which ultimately lead to alteration in morpho-functional properties of skeletal muscle, thus promoting sarcopenia. This condition is characterized by a gradual loss of muscle mass due to an unbalance between protein synthesis and degradation, finally conveying in functional decline and disability. The development of specific therapeutic approaches able to block or reverse this condition may represent an invaluable tool for the promotion of a healthy aging among elderly. It is well established that changes in the quantity and the quality of dietary proteins, as well as the intake of specific amino acids, are able to counteract some of the physiopathological processes related to the progression of the loss of muscle mass and may have beneficial effects in improving the anabolic response of muscle in the elderly. Taurine is a non-essential amino acid expressed in high concentration in several mammalian tissues and particularly in skeletal muscle where it is involved in the modulation of intracellular calcium concentration and ion channel regulation and where it also acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory factor. The aim of this review is to summarize the pleiotropic effects of taurine on specific muscle targets and to discuss its role in regulating signaling pathways involved in the maintenance of muscle homeostasis. We also highlight the potential use of taurine as a therapeutic molecule for the amelioration of skeletal muscle function and performance severely compromised during aging.

  10. Beneficial role of bacterial endophytes in heavy metal phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Zhang, Chang; Freitas, Helena

    2016-06-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants and their associated microbes to clean up pollutants from the soil, water and air. In recent years, phytoremediation assisted by bacterial endophytes has been highly recommended for cleaning up of metal polluted soils since endophytic bacteria can alleviate metal toxicity in plant through their own metal resistance system and facilitate plant growth under metal stress. Endophytic bacteria improve plant growth in metal polluted soils in two different ways: 1) directly by producing plant growth beneficial substances including solubilization/transformation of mineral nutrients (phosphate, nitrogen and potassium), production of phytohormones, siderophores and specific enzymes; and 2) indirectly through controlling plant pathogens or by inducing a systemic resistance of plants against pathogens. Besides, they also alter metal accumulation capacity in plants by excreting metal immobilizing extracellular polymeric substances, as well as metal mobilizing organic acids and biosurfactants. The present work aims to review the progress of recent research on the isolation, identification and diversity of metal resistant endophytic bacteria and illustrate various mechanisms responsible for plant growth promotion and heavy metal detoxification/phytoaccumulation/translocation in plants.

  11. Thymus vulgaris L., Glycyrrhiza glabra or Combo® enzyme in corn vs. barley-based broiler diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Kalantar; Mostafa Rezaei; Jalal Salary; Hamid Reza Hemati Matin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test the effect of supplementation of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris) or Glycyrrhizaglabra (G. glabra) in corn-soybean meal diets as well as the inclusion of an exogenous enzyme i.e. Combo ® in barley-soybean meal diets together with mentioned medicinal plants in broiler diets. Methods: A total of 270 unsexed 1-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) was randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 3 replications of 15 birds in each. Diets were comprised of the control (T1), the inclusion of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, their mixture (equal amount), Combo ® supplementation (T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively) in diets based on corn-soybean meal diets and enzyme supplementation plus equal amount of tested medicinal plants (T6) based on barley-soybean meal diets. Medicinal plants and enzyme were included in diets at level 0.5% and 0.2% of diets, respectively.Results:The highest feed intake was obtained by T1 at 1-21 d of age (P<0.05). All diets caused significant increases in weight gain and significant decreases in feed conversion ratio compared to control at this age (P<0.05). Significant reductions were acquired in feed intake by T3 and T6 at 22-42 d of age (P<0.05). All diets significantly decreased total number of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Gram-negative bacteria and increased lactic acid bacteria compared to control (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that basal diet has vital character to effectiveness of medicinal plants in broiler diets. Beneficial effects on intestinal microflora were brought by use of T. vulgaris L. and G. glabra in corn-based diets or in barley-based diets together with enzyme. Thus, this capability can support growth performance of broiler chickens at lower age.

  12. Thymus vulgaris L., Glycyrrhiza glabra or Combo® enzyme in corn vs. barley-based broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Kalantar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the effect of supplementation of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris or Glycyrrhiza glabra (G. glabra in corn-soybean meal diets as well as the inclusion of an exogenous enzyme i.e. Combo ® in barley-soybean meal diets together with mentioned medicinal plants in broiler diets. Methods: A total of 270 unsexed 1-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 was randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 3 replications of 15 birds in each. Diets were comprised of the control (T1, the inclusion of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, their mixture (equal amount, Combo® supplementation (T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively in diets based on corn-soybean meal diets and enzyme supplementation plus equal amount of tested medicinal plants (T6 based on barley-soybean meal diets. Medicinal plants and enzyme were included in diets at level 0.5% and 0.2% of diets, respectively. Results: The highest feed intake was obtained by T1 at 1-21 d of age (P<0.05. All diets caused significant increases in weight gain and significant decreases in feed conversion ratio compared to control at this age (P<0.05. Significant reductions were acquired in feed intake by T3 and T6 at 22-42 d of age (P<0.05. All diets significantly decreased total number of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Gram-negative bacteria and increased lactic acid bacteria compared to control (P<0.05. Conclusions: The results showed that basal diet has vital character to effectiveness of medicinal plants in broiler diets. Beneficial effects on intestinal microflora were brought by use of T. vulgaris L. and G. glabra in corn-based diets or in barley-based diets together with enzyme. Thus, this capability can support growth performance of broiler chickens at lower age.

  13. Dietary β-galactomannans have beneficial effects on the intestinal morphology of chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brufau, M T; Martín-Venegas, R; Guerrero-Zamora, A M; Pérez-Vendrell, A M; Vilà, B; Brufau, J; Ferrer, R

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is one of the leading causes of food-borne salmonellosis in humans. Poultry is the single largest reservoir, and the consumption of incorrectly processed chicken meat and egg products is the major source of infection. Since 2006, the use of antibiotics as growth promoters has been banned in the European Union, and the dietary inclusion of β-galactomannans (βGM) has become a promising strategy to control and prevent intestinal infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various βGM-rich products on intestinal morphology in chickens challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis. To assess this effect, a total of 280 male Ross 308 chickens were studied (40 animals per treatment housed in 5 cages). There were 7 treatments, including controls: uninoculated birds fed the basal diet (negative control) and inoculated birds fed the basal diet (positive control) or the basal diet supplemented with Salmosan (1 g/kg), Duraió gum (1 g/kg), Cassia gum (1 g/kg), the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.5 g/kg), or the antibiotic colistine (0.8 g/kg). The birds were fed these diets from the d 1 to 23, except the animals in the colistine group, which were fed the diet containing the antibiotic only from d 5 to 11. The inoculated animals were orally infected on d 7 with 10(8) cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis. Bird performance per replicate was determined for the whole study period (23 d), and the distal ileum and cecal tonsil of 5 animals per treatment (1 animal per replicate) were observed at different magnification levels (scanning electron, light, and laser confocal microscopy). In the images corresponding to the treatments containing βGM we observed more mucus, an effect that can be associated with the observation of more goblet cells. Moreover, the images also show fewer M cells, which are characteristic of infected animals. Regarding the morphometric parameters, the animals that received Duraió and Cassia gums

  14. Beneficial effect of Verminephrobacter nephridial symbionts on the fitness of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Holmstrup, Martin; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    , the symbionts have been hypothesized to enhance nitrogen retention in the earthworms. The effect of Verminephrobacter on the life-history traits of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata (Eisen) was investigated by comparing growth, development, and fecundity of worms with and without symbionts, given high...... (cowdung) and low (straw) nutrient diets. There were no difference in worm growth and number of cocoons produced by symbiotic and aposymbiotic worms. Worms with Verminephrobacter symbionts reached sexual maturity earlier and had higher cocoon hatching success than worms cured from their symbionts when...... grown on the low nutrient diet. Thus, the Verminephrobacter nephridial symbionts do have a beneficial effect on their earthworm host. Cocoons with and without symbionts did not significantly differ in total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), or total hydrolysable amino acid (THAA) content, which...

  15. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halton, Thomas L; Hu, Frank B

    2004-10-01

    For years, proponents of some fad diets have claimed that higher amounts of protein facilitate weight loss. Only in recent years have studies begun to examine the effects of high protein diets on energy expenditure, subsequent energy intake and weight loss as compared to lower protein diets. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of randomized investigations on the effects of high protein diets on dietary thermogenesis, satiety, body weight and fat loss. There is convincing evidence that a higher protein intake increases thermogenesis and satiety compared to diets of lower protein content. The weight of evidence also suggests that high protein meals lead to a reduced subsequent energy intake. Some evidence suggests that diets higher in protein result in an increased weight loss and fat loss as compared to diets lower in protein, but findings have not been consistent. In dietary practice, it may be beneficial to partially replace refined carbohydrate with protein sources that are low in saturated fat. Although recent evidence supports potential benefit, rigorous longer-term studies are needed to investigate the effects of high protein diets on weight loss and weight maintenance.

  16. Lean rats gained more body weight from a high-fructooligosaccharide diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoting; Yingyi, Gu; Chen, Long; Lijuan, Gao; Ou, Shiyi; Peng, Xichun

    2015-07-01

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are believed to be beneficial to the host growth and its gut health. This article is intended to investigate the different influences of a high-fructooligosaccharide (FOS) diet on the growth and gut microbiota of lean and obese rats. Diet-induced lean and obese rats were fed a high-FOS diet for 8 weeks. Rats' body weight (BW) and feed intake were recorded weekly, and their gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that the lean rats gained more BW than the obese ones from the high-FOS diet. In the meanwhile, the gut microbiota in both lean and obese rats was altered by this diet. The abundance of Bacteroidetes was increased significantly (P diet. In conclusion, this study first reported that the lean rats gained more body weight from a high-FOS diet than the obese ones, and the increase of Bacteroidetes might help rats harvest more energy from the high-FOS diet.

  17. Physical Activity and Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Increase Total Antioxidant Capacity: The ATTICA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros A. Kavouras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the association of physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, in total antioxidant capacity (TAC. A random sample of 1514 men and 1528 women was selected from Attica region. Physical activity was assessed with a translated version of the validated “International Physical Activity Questionnaire” (iPAQ, and dietary intake through a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by the MedDietScore that incorporated the inherent characteristics of this diet. TAC was positively correlated with the degree of physical activity (P<.05. TAC was also positively correlated with MedDietScore (r=0.24, P<.001. Stratified analysis by diet status revealed that the most beneficial results were observed to highly active people as compared to inactive, who also followed the Mediterranean diet (288  ±  70 μmol/L, 230  ±  50 μmol/L, resp., after adjusting for various confounders. Increased physical activity and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet were associated with increased total antioxidant capacity.

  18. High-fat and ketogenic diets in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, Sabrina; Wills, Anne-Marie

    2013-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Epidemiologic data suggest that malnutrition is a common feature in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and being overweight or obese confers a survival advantage in this patient population. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse models, a high-fat diet has been shown to lead to weight gain and prolonged survival. However, little research has been conducted to test whether nutritional interventions might ameliorate the disease course in humans. Here we review the currently available evidence supporting the potential role of dietary interventions as a therapeutic tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ultimately, determining whether a high-fat or ketogenic diet could be beneficial in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis will require large randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials.

  19. Epigenetic diet: impact on the epigenome and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Tabitha M; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2011-08-01

    A number of bioactive dietary components are of particular interest in the field of epigenetics. Many of these compounds display anticancer properties and may play a role in cancer prevention. Numerous studies suggest that a number of nutritional compounds have epigenetic targets in cancer cells. Importantly, emerging evidence strongly suggests that consumption of dietary agents can alter normal epigenetic states as well as reverse abnormal gene activation or silencing. Epigenetic modifications induced by bioactive dietary compounds are thought to be beneficial. Substantial evidence is mounting proclaiming that commonly consumed bioactive dietary factors act to modify the epigenome and may be incorporated into an 'epigenetic diet'. Bioactive nutritional components of an epigenetic diet may be incorporated into one's regular dietary regimen and used therapeutically for medicinal or chemopreventive purposes. This article will primarily focus on dietary factors that have been demonstrated to influence the epigenome and that may be used in conjunction with other cancer prevention and chemotherapeutic therapies.

  20. Dietary supplementation of grape skin extract improves glycemia and inflammation in diet-induced obese mice fed a Western high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Shelly; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Sun, Xiuxiu; Kadouh, Hoda; Zhou, Kequan

    2011-04-13

    Dietary antioxidants may provide a cost-effective strategy to promote health in obesity by targeting oxidative stress and inflammation. We recently found that the antioxidant-rich grape skin extract (GSE) also exerts a novel anti-hyperglycemic activity. This study investigated whether 3-month GSE supplementation can improve oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia associated with a Western diet-induced obesity. Young diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a standard diet (S group), a Western high fat diet (W group), and the Western diet plus GSE (2.4 g GSE/kg diet, WGSE group). By week 12, DIO mice in the WGSE group gained significantly more weight (24.6 g) than the W (20.2 g) and S groups (11.2 g); the high fat diet groups gained 80% more weight than the standard diet group. Eight of 12 mice in the W group, compared to only 1 of 12 mice in the WGSE group, had fasting blood glucose levels above 140 mg/dL. Mice in the WGSE group also had 21% lower fasting blood glucose and 17.1% lower C-reactive protein levels than mice in the W group (P < 0.05). However, the GSE supplementation did not affect oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity as determined by plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. Collectively, the results indicated a beneficial role of GSE supplementation for improving glycemic control and inflammation in diet-induced obesity.

  1. Chronic Consptipation and Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ince

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Constipation presented a lof of sign-symptoms is not a single disease and a disorder that affect colonic and anorectal function. Constipation is defined as decreased of defecation number by physicians and all of problems relation with defecation by patients. But a accurate and correct defitinition giving base on patophyslogically by Rome III criteria. As patophyslogically, constipation is improved by decreased material that will be reached cecum, decreased motility of colon and multiple results improving defecation disorders. Constipation can be divided irratable bowel syndrome with constipation (normal transit, slow transit constipation and defecation disorders but there is no accurate border in this classification. Neurotransmitters, stress, medical therapies, sleep and meals are association with etiology of constipation. A high fiber diet can reach easily to cecum and prevent constipation. Therefore aim of this review is to stress effect of fiber diet in the first and second type of constipation. Slow transit constipation in 13-15% patients and irratable bowel sendrom with constipation (normal transit in 59% patients has being diagnosed. Seconder causes of constipation can be found with a good history taking from patients. Accurate diagnosis can be find with colon transit time followed by abdominal and pelvic examinitian. Treatment should be begin after correction of seconder causes. It should be recommendation to patients a high fiber diet, exercise, appropriate fluid with medical therapy. Lubiprostone and Tegaserod are used to begin for treatment of slow transit constipation. Laparoscopic surgery is recommened to patients not recoveried by medical therapy. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 71-76

  2. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Beneficiation. Topical report for Task 4, Beneficiation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Schultz, C.W.; Mehta, R.K.; Lamont, W.E. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States); Chiang, S.H.; Venkatadri, R. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States); Misra, M. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The Mineral Resources Institute at the University of Alabama, along with investigators from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Nevada-Reno, have conducted a research program on the beneficiation, of Eastern oil shales. The objective of the research program was to evaluate and adapt those new and emerging technologies that have the potential to improve the economics of recovering oil from Eastern oil shales. The technologies evaluated in this program can be grouped into three areas: fine grinding kerogen/mineral matter separation, and waste treatment and disposal. Four subtasks were defined in the area of fine grinding. They were as follows: Ultrasonic Grinding, Pressure Cycle Comminution, Stirred Ball Mill Grinding, and Grinding Circuit Optimization. The planned Ultrasonic grinding research was terminated when the company that had contracted to do the research failed. Three technologies for effecting a separation of kerogen from its associated mineral matter were evaluated: column flotation, the air-sparged hydrocyclone, and the LICADO process. Column flotation proved to be the most effective means of making the kerogen/mineral matter separation. No problems are expected in the disposal of oil shale tailings. It is assumed that the tailings will be placed in a sealed pond and the water recycled to the plant as is the normal practice. It may be advantageous, however, to conduct further research on the recovery of metals as by-products and to assess the market for tailings as an ingredient in cement making.

  3. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad® were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida "fly free zone" protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production.

  4. Beneficial effects of Bacopa monnieri extract on opioid induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Subhan, Fazal; Ullah, Ihsan; Ali, Gowhar; Alam, Javaid; Shah, Rehmat

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of morphine and illicit street heroin and their amelioration by a standardized methanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri (L.) (mBME) in rats. Morphine or street heroin was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg for 14 and 21 days. mBME (40 mg/kg) or ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg) was administered two hours before morphine or street heroin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the standardization of bacoside-A major components in mBME. The antioxidant potential of mBME was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Administration of morphine and street heroin resulted in marked elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatinine. Histopathological changes induced by morphine and street heroin after 14 days were of reversible nature while treatment for 21 days was associated with irreversible changes. Pretreatment with mBME or ascorbic acid restored the elevation of serum ALT, AST and creatinine and protected liver and kidneys from the toxicological influence of morphine and street heroin. HPLC analysis showed that mBME contained bacoside-A major components i.e. bacoside-A3 (37.5 μg/mg), bacopaside-II (4.62 μg/mg) and bacopasaponin-C (1.91 μg/mg). The EC50 for the DPPH free radical scavenging assay revealed that mBME possessed strong antioxidant potential. These results concluded that as compared to morphine, street heroin was associated with severe biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys. Bacopa monnieri having strong antioxidant potential may provide a beneficial herbal remedy for the efficient management of opioid related hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  5. 3-Tesla MRI: Beneficial visualization of the meniscofemoral ligaments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrecht, Johanna; Krasny, Andrej; Hartmann, Dinah Maria; Rückbeil, Marcia Viviane; Ritz, Thomas; Prescher, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Recent investigations have confirmed an important stabilizing and protective function of the meniscofemoral ligaments (MFLs) to the knee joint and suggest a clinical relevance. Concerning their incidences, however, there have been discrepancies between data acquired from cadaveric studies and MRI data using 0.3- to 1.5-Tesla field strengths probably due to lower resolution. This study aims to investigate whether imaging with 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3-T MRI) is beneficial in gaining information regarding the ligaments' incidence, length, width and anatomic variation. 3-T MRI images of 448 patients (224 males, 224 females, with, respectively, 32 patients of each sex in the age groups: 0-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, >70years) were retrospectively reviewed. The influence of the parameters 'sex' and 'age' was determined. Whereas 71% of the patients had at least one MFL, 22% had an anterior MFL (aMFL), 53% had a posterior MFL (pMFL) and five percent had coexisting ligaments. The pMFLs were more likely to be present in female patients (P<0.05) but if so, they were longer in the males (P<0.05). The pMFL was categorized according to its insertion on the medial femoral condyle. 3-T MRI enables an excellent illustration of the anatomic variations of pMFLs. By modifying an anatomic classification for radiological use we measured lengths and widths of the MFLs without any difficulties. Despite its increased resolution, 3-T MRI lends no diagnostic benefit in visualizing the course of the aMFL or filigree coexisting ligaments as compared to MRI at lower field strengths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Beneficial effects of Bacopa monnieri extract on opioid induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of morphine and illicit street heroin and their amelioration by a standardized methanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri (L. (mBME in rats. Morphine or street heroin was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg for 14 and 21 days. mBME (40 mg/kg or ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg was administered two hours before morphine or street heroin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used for the standardization of bacoside-A major components in mBME. The antioxidant potential of mBME was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Administration of morphine and street heroin resulted in marked elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and creatinine. Histopathological changes induced by morphine and street heroin after 14 days were of reversible nature while treatment for 21 days was associated with irreversible changes. Pretreatment with mBME or ascorbic acid restored the elevation of serum ALT, AST and creatinine and protected liver and kidneys from the toxicological influence of morphine and street heroin. HPLC analysis showed that mBME contained bacoside-A major components i.e. bacoside-A3 (37.5 μg/mg, bacopaside-II (4.62 μg/mg and bacopasaponin-C (1.91 μg/mg. The EC50 for the DPPH free radical scavenging assay revealed that mBME possessed strong antioxidant potential. These results concluded that as compared to morphine, street heroin was associated with severe biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys. Bacopa monnieri having strong antioxidant potential may provide a beneficial herbal remedy for the efficient management of opioid related hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  7. Small Beneficial Effect of Caffeinated Energy Drink Ingestion on Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Nora B; Hardy, Michelle A; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L; Warren, Gordon L

    2016-07-01

    Collier, NB, Hardy, MA, Millard-Stafford, ML, and Warren, GL. Small beneficial effect of caffeinated energy drink ingestion on strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1862-1870, 2016-Because caffeine ingestion has been found to increase muscle strength, our aim was to determine whether caffeine when combined with other potential ergogenic ingredients, such as those in commercial energy drinks, would have a similar effect. Fifteen young healthy subjects were used in a double-blind, repeated-measures experimental design. Each subject performed 3 trials, ingesting either a caffeinated energy drink, an uncaffeinated version of the drink, or a placebo drink. The interpolated twitch procedure was used to assess maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) strength, electrically evoked strength, and percent muscle activation during MVIC of the knee extensors both before and after drink ingestion, and after a fatiguing bout of contractions; electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the knee extensors during MVIC was also assessed. The mean (±SE) change in MVIC strength from before to after drink ingestion was significantly greater for the caffeinated energy drink compared with placebo [+5.0 (±1.7) vs. -0.5 (±1.5)%] and the difference between the drinks remained after fatigue (p = 0.015); the strength changes for the uncaffeinated energy drink were not significantly different from those of the other 2 drinks at any time. There was no significant effect of drink type on the changes in electrically evoked strength, percent muscle activation, and EMG from before to after drink ingestion. This study indicates that a caffeinated energy drink can increase MVIC strength but the effect is modest and the strength increase cannot be attributed to increased muscle activation. Whether the efficacy of energy drinks can be attributed solely to caffeine remains unclear.

  8. The Beneficial Role of Retinoids in Glomerular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep eMallipattu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary etiology of CKD is a direct consequence of initial dysfunction and injury of the glomerulus, the main filtration system. Podocytes are terminally differentiated epithelial cells in the glomerulus, whose major function is the maintenance of this renal filtration barrier. Podocyte injury is implicated in many glomerular diseases including Focal Segmental Glomerular Sclerosis (FSGS and HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN. In many of these diseased conditions, the podocyte can either undergo dedifferentiation and proliferation, apoptosis, or cell detachment. Regardless of the initial type of injury, the podocyte ultimately loses its functional capacity to maintain the glomerular filtration barrier. Significant injury resulting in a loss of the podocytes and failure to maintain the renal filtration barrier contributes to progressive kidney disease. Consequently, therapies that prevent podocyte injury and promote their regeneration will have a major clinical impact on glomerular disease. Retinoic acid (RA, which is a derivative of vitamin A, has many cellular functions including induction of cell differentiation, regulation of apoptosis, and inhibition of inflammation and proliferation. RA is required for kidney development and is essential for cellular differentiation in the setting of podocyte injury. The mechanism by which RA directs its beneficial effects is multifactorial, ranging from its anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects to a direct effect of upregulating podocyte differentiation markers in the podocyte. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of RA in kidney development and glomerular disease. We also highlight the key mechanism(s by which RA restores podocyte differentiation markers and ameliorates glomerular disease.

  9. The role of ecological infrastructure on beneficial arthropods in vineyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franin, K.; Barić, B.; Kuštera, G.

    2016-11-01

    Weeds and non-cultivated plants have a great impact on abundance and diversity of beneficial arthropods in agriculture. The main aim of this work was to study the influence of the ecological infrastructure (meadows and weedy margins) on the arthropod composition in vineyard surrounding landscape. Research was carried out from May to October during three years. Sampling took place in the ecological infrastructure of three differently managed vineyards (organic, integrated and extensive). Three zones were chosen in each vineyard (3 m, 10 m, and 30 m from the edge of the vineyard). Samples were taken using a standardised sweep net method. In total, we captured 6032 spiders and 1309 insects belonging to 4 orders and 10 families. Arthropod fauna was numerically dominated by Aranea (82.1%); among insects, Coleoptera was the most abundant taxonomic group (10.6%); Neuroptera showed the lowest value (0.88%). Significant differences were found between sites and zones. Organic vineyard showed the highest abundance of arthropods (92.41% were spiders) and in the integrated vineyard there was a 23% of insects. Both the highest abundance of arthropods and the highest Shannon Index value (2.46) was found 3 m away from the edge of the vineyard. Results showed that spiders were the dominant arthropods and ladybugs the dominant insects. Weedy strips near the edge of the vineyard contained a high number of insects and spiders. Our results support the importance of weedy margins in enhancing the population of arthropods as well as in biodiversity promotion. Well-managed field margins could play important role in biological control of vineyard pests. (Author)

  10. The role of ecological infrastructure on beneficial arthropods in vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrijela Kuštera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds and non-cultivated plants have a great impact on abundance and diversity of beneficial arthropods in agriculture. The main aim of this work was to study the influence of the ecological infrastructure (meadows and weedy margins on the arthropod composition in vineyard surrounding landscape. Research was carried out from May to October during three years. Sampling took place in the ecological infrastructure of three differently managed vineyards (organic, integrated and extensive. Three zones were chosen in each vineyard (3 m, 10 m, and 30 m from the edge of the vineyard. Samples were taken using a standardised sweep net method. In total, we captured 6032 spiders and 1309 insects belonging to 4 orders and 10 families. Arthropod fauna was numerically dominated by Aranea (82.1%; among insects, Coleoptera was the most abundant taxonomic group (10.6%; Neuroptera showed the lowest value (0.88%. Significant differences were found between sites and zones. Organic vineyard showed the highest abundance of arthropods (92.41% were spiders and in the integrated vineyard there was a 23% of insects. Both the highest abundance of arthropods and the highest Shannon Index value (2.46 was found 3 m away from the edge of the vineyard. Results showed that spiders were the dominant arthropods and ladybugs the dominant insects. Weedy strips near the edge of the vineyard contained a high number of insects and spiders. Our results support the importance of weedy margins in enhancing the population of arthropods as well as in biodiversity promotion. Well-managed field margins could play important role in biological control of vineyard pests.

  11. Mediterranean diet in healthy lifestyle and prevention of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarin, Vida; Lisak, Marijana; Morović, Sandra

    2011-03-01

    Several studies demonstrated the beneficial and preventive role of Mediterranean diet in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, chronic neurodegenerative diseases and neoplasms, obesity and diabetes. In randomized intervention trials, Mediterranean diet improved endothelial function and significantly reduced waist circumference, plasma glucose, serum insulin and homeostasis model assessment score in metabolic syndrome. Several studies support favorable effects of Mediterranean diet on plasma lipid profile: reduction of total and plasma LDL cholesterol levels, plasma triglyceride levels, and apo-B and VLDL concentrations, and an increase in plasma HDL cholesterol levels. This effect is associated with increased plasma antioxidant capacity, improved endothelial function, reduced insulin resistance, and reduced incidence of the metabolic syndrome. The beneficial impact of fish consumption on the risk of cardiovascular diseases is the result of synergistic effects of nutrients in fish. Fish is considered an excellent source of protein with low saturated fat, nutritious trace elements, long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3PUFAs), and vitamins D and B. Fish consumption may be inversely associated with ischemic stroke but not with hemorrhagic stroke because of the potential antiplatelet aggregation property of LCn3PUFAs. Total stroke risk reduction was statistically significant for fish intake once per week, while the risk of stroke was lowered by 31% in individuals who ate fish 5 times or more per week. In the elderly, moderate consumption of tuna/other fish, but not fried fish, was associated with lower prevalence of subclinical infarcts and white matter abnormalities on MRI examination. Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids in a moderate-to-high range does not appear to be associated with reduced plaque, but is negatively associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness. Greater adherence to Mediterranean diet is associated with significant

  12. Does a vegan diet reduce risk for Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M F

    2001-09-01

    Three recent case-control studies conclude that diets high in animal fat or cholesterol are associated with a substantial increase in risk for Parkinson's disease (PD); in contrast, fat of plant origin does not appear to increase risk. Whereas reported age-adjusted prevalence rates of PD tend to be relatively uniform throughout Europe and the Americas, sub-Saharan black Africans, rural Chinese, and Japanese, groups whose diets tend to be vegan or quasi-vegan, appear to enjoy substantially lower rates. Since current PD prevalence in African-Americans is little different from that in whites, environmental factors are likely to be responsible for the low PD risk in black Africans. In aggregate, these findings suggest that vegan diets may be notably protective with respect to PD. However, they offer no insight into whether saturated fat, compounds associated with animal fat, animal protein, or the integrated impact of the components of animal products mediates the risk associated with animal fat consumption. Caloric restriction has recently been shown to protect the central dopaminergic neurons of mice from neurotoxins, at least in part by induction of heat-shock proteins; conceivably, the protection afforded by vegan diets reflects a similar mechanism. The possibility that vegan diets could be therapeutically beneficial in PD, by slowing the loss of surviving dopaminergic neurons, thus retarding progression of the syndrome, may merit examination. Vegan diets could also be helpful to PD patients by promoting vascular health and aiding blood-brain barrier transport of L-dopa. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  13. Putting the diet back into diet-induced obesity: diet-induced hypothalamic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Julian G; Archer, Zoë A

    2008-05-06

    A wealth of detailed mechanistic information relating to obesity and body weight regulation has emerged from study of single gene mutation models, and continues to be generated by engineered rodent models targeting specific genes. However, as an early step in translational research, many researchers are turning to models of diet-induced obesity. Interpretation of data generated from such models is not aided by the variety of diets and rodent strains employed in these studies and a strong case could be made for rationalisation. Differences in experimental protocol, which may deploy a single obligatory solid diet, a choice of solid diets, or liquid/solid combinations, and which may or may not allow a preferred macronutrient composition to be selected, mean that different models of diet-induced obesity achieve that obesity by different routes. The priority should be to mimic the palatability- and choice-driven over-consumption that probably underlies the majority of human obesity. Some of the hypothalamic energy balance genes apparently 'recognise' developing diet-induced obesity as indicated by counter-regulatory changes in expression levels. However, substantial changes in gene expression on long-term exposure to obesogenic diets are not able to prevent weight gain. Forebrain reward systems are widely assumed to be overriding hypothalamic homeostatic energy balance systems under these circumstances. More mechanism-based research at the homeostatic/reward/diet interface may enable diets to be manipulated with therapeutic benefit, or define the contribution of these interactions to susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.

  14. Interplay between intestinal alkaline phosphatase, diet, gut microbes and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estaki, Mehrbod; DeCoffe, Daniella; Gibson, Deanna L

    2014-11-14

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) plays an essential role in intestinal homeostasis and health through interactions with the resident microbiota, diet and the gut. IAP's role in the intestine is to dephosphorylate toxic microbial ligands such as lipopolysaccharides, unmethylated cytosine-guanosine dinucleotides and flagellin as well as extracellular nucleotides such as uridine diphosphate. IAP's ability to detoxify these ligands is essential in protecting the host from sepsis during acute inflammation and chronic inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease. Also important in these complications is IAP's ability to regulate the microbial ecosystem by forming a complex relationship between microbiota, diet and the intestinal mucosal surface. Evidence reveals that diet alters IAP expression and activity and this in turn can influence the gut microbiota and homeostasis. IAP's ability to maintain a healthy gastrointestinal tract has accelerated research on its potential use as a therapeutic agent against a multitude of diseases. Exogenous IAP has been shown to have beneficial effects when administered during ulcerative colitis, coronary bypass surgery and sepsis. There are currently a handful of human clinical trials underway investigating the effects of exogenous IAP during sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis and heart surgery. In light of these findings IAP has been marked as a novel agent to help treat a variety of other inflammatory and infectious diseases. The purpose of this review is to highlight the essential characteristics of IAP in protection and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis while addressing the intricate interplay between IAP, diet, microbiota and the intestinal epithelium.

  15. Mediterranean diet and inflammaging within the hormesis paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci, Morena; Ostan, Rita; Biondi, Fiammetta; Bellavista, Elena; Fabbri, Cristina; Bertarelli, Claudia; Salvioli, Stefano; Capri, Miriam; Franceschi, Claudio; Santoro, Aurelia

    2017-06-08

    A coherent set of epidemiological data shows that the Mediterranean diet has beneficial effects capable of preventing a variety of age-related diseases in which low-grade, chronic inflammation/inflammaging plays a major role, but the underpinning mechanism(s) is/are still unclear. It is argued here that the Mediterranean diet can be conceptualized as a form of chronic hormetic stress, similar to what has been proposed regarding calorie restriction, the most thoroughly studied nutritional intervention. Data on the presence in key Mediterranean foods of a variety of compounds capable of exerting hormetic effects are summarized, and the mechanistic role of the nuclear factor erythroid 2 pathway is highlighted. Within this conceptual framework, particular attention has been devoted to the neurohormetic and neuroprotective properties of the Mediterranean diet, as well as to its ability to maintain an optimal balance between pro- and anti-inflammaging. Finally, the European Commission-funded project NU-AGE is discussed because it addresses a number of variables not commonly taken into consideration, such as age, sex, and ethnicity/genetics, that can modulate the hormetic effect of the Mediterranean diet. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  16. The western diet and lifestyle and diseases of civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carrera-Bastos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Carrera-Bastos1, Maelan Fontes-Villalba1, James H O’Keefe2, Staffan Lindeberg1, Loren Cordain31Center for Primary Health Care Research, Faculty of Medicine at Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; 2Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute/University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, USA; 3Department of Health and Exercise Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USAAbstract: It is increasingly recognized that certain fundamental changes in diet and lifestyle that occurred after the Neolithic Revolution, and especially after the Industrial Revolution and the Modern Age, are too recent, on an evolutionary time scale, for the human genome to have completely adapted. This mismatch between our ancient physiology and the western diet and lifestyle underlies many so-called diseases of civilization, including coronary heart disease, obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, epithelial cell cancers, autoimmune disease, and osteoporosis, which are rare or virtually absent in hunter–gatherers and other non-westernized populations. It is therefore proposed that the adoption of diet and lifestyle that mimic the beneficial characteristics of the preagricultural environment is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of chronic degenerative diseases.Keywords: Paleolithic, hunter–gatherers, Agricultural Revolution, modern diet, western lifestyle and diseases

  17. Ketogenic Diet in Epileptic Encephalopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Suvasini Sharma; Manjari Tripathi

    2013-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is a medically supervised high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that has been found useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. It has been shown to be effective in treating multiple seizure types and epilepsy syndromes. In this paper, we review the use of the ketogenic diet in epileptic encephalopathies such as Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, Dravet syndrome, epilepsy with myoclonic atonic seizures, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

  18. Ketogenic Diet in Epileptic Encephalopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvasini Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet is a medically supervised high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that has been found useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. It has been shown to be effective in treating multiple seizure types and epilepsy syndromes. In this paper, we review the use of the ketogenic diet in epileptic encephalopathies such as Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, Dravet syndrome, epilepsy with myoclonic atonic seizures, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

  19. Reduced use of antibiotic growth promoters in diets fed to weanling pigs: dietary tools, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Hans H; Kil, Dong Y

    2006-01-01

    Diets formulated to maximize performance of weanling pigs need to support the development of intestinal tissue, support intestinal colonization with beneficial, mainly lactic acid-producing bacteria, and support development of the intestinal and overall immune system. This objective is not likely to be achieved using one single strategy, but there is strong evidence that diets formulated with cereal grains other than corn, with a low concentration of crude protein and with the use of direct-fed microbials, will improve intestinal health and performance of weanling pigs. Further improvements may be observed if the grain part of the diet is fermented prior to feeding or if the diet is fed in a liquid form, but the need for specialized equipment limit the implementation of this strategy. Dietary supplements such as essential oils and nucleosides or nucleotides may also be useful, but more research is needed to verify the effects of these substances.

  20. A low-glycemic-index diet reduces plasma PAI-1 activity in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    to decrease during weight loss. However, the beneficial effects of healthy diets on PAI-1 levels may not solely depend on weight loss, but other factors may also play a role. For example better glycemic control has been observed in diabetic patients after a low glycemic index (GI) diet compared to a high GI......Introduction An elevated level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in plasma is a core feature of the metabolic syndrome. Plasma PAI-1 is elevated in obesity and might be responsible for some of the secondary effects of obesity as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. PAI-1 has been shown...... diet. Still, the relevance of GI in preventing the metabolic syndrome is controversial. Objectives The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 10 weeks intake of a low glycemic index vs. a high glycemic index high-carbohydrate, low fat ad libitum diet on plasma PAI-1 activity...

  1. Diet and heart health: moderate wine drinking strengthens the cardioprotective effects of fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leiris, J; Besse, S; Boucher, F

    2010-12-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Mediterranean diet is beneficial to human health. Many epidemiological and research studies have reported that this diet pattern is able to limit the development and progression of coronary heart disease, one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries worldwide. There is now a large consensus about recommending Mediterranean diet to reduce atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease and to limit the risk of fatal complications such as sudden cardiac death and heart failure. This review underlines the role of two of the specific components of the Mediterranean diet, namely marine omega-3 fatty acids and wine, and the link between moderate wine consumption and fatty acid profiles.

  2. Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on ambulatory blood pressure in metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brader, L; Uusitupa, M; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:Dietary pattern is central in the prevention of hypertension and blood pressure (BP)-related diseases. A diet based on healthy Nordic foods may have a favourable impact on BP. The objective was to clarify whether a Nordic alternative for a healthy food pattern would have.......5 mm Hg; P=0.122). Heart rate tended to be lower in those on the healthy Nordic diet (P=0.057). Urinary sodium and potassium excretions were unaffected by diets and consequently not associated with the healthy Nordic diet-induced lowering of BP.Conclusions:Consumption of Nordic varieties of health......-enhancing foods for 12 weeks decreased diastolic ambulatory BP and mean arterial pressure in subjects with features of MetS during weight-stable condition, suggesting beneficial effects of a healthy Nordic dietary pattern on ambulatory BP....

  3. Non-Traditional Aspects of Renal Diets: Focus on Fiber, Alkali and Vitamin K1 Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupisti, Adamasco; D’Alessandro, Claudia; Gesualdo, Loreto; Cosola, Carmela; Gallieni, Maurizio; Egidi, Maria Francesca; Fusaro, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Renal diets for advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are structured to achieve a lower protein, phosphate and sodium intake, while supplying adequate energy. The aim of this nutritional intervention is to prevent or correct signs, symptoms and complications of renal insufficiency, delaying the start of dialysis and preserving nutritional status. This paper focuses on three additional aspects of renal diets that can play an important role in the management of CKD patients: the vitamin K1 and fiber content, and the alkalizing potential. We examined the energy and nutrients composition of four types of renal diets according to their protein content: normal diet (ND, 0.8 g protein/kg body weight (bw)), low protein diet (LPD, 0.6 g protein/kg bw), vegan diet (VD, 0.7 g protein/kg bw), very low protein diet (VLPD, 0.3 g protein/kg bw). Fiber content is much higher in the VD and in the VLPD than in the ND or LPD. Vitamin K1 content seems to follow the same trend, but vitamin K2 content, which could not be investigated, might have a different pattern. The net endogenous acid production (NEAP) value decreases from the ND and LPD to the vegetarian diets, namely VD and VLPD; the same finding occurred for the potential renal acid load (PRAL). In conclusion, renal diets may provide additional benefits, and this is the case of vegetarian diets. Namely, VD and VLPD also provide high amounts of fibers and Vitamin K1, with a very low acid load. These features may have favorable effects on Vitamin K1 status, intestinal microbiota and acid-base balance. Hence, we can speculate as to the potential beneficial effects on vascular calcification and bone disease, on protein metabolism, on colonic environment and circulating levels of microbial-derived uremic toxins. In the case of vegetarian diets, attention must be paid to serum potassium levels. PMID:28468236

  4. The role of higher protein diets in weight control and obesity-related comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, A; Raben, A; Geiker, N

    2015-05-01

    The importance of the relative dietary content of protein, carbohydrate and the type of carbohydrate (that is, glycemic index (GI)) for weight control under ad libitum conditions has been controversial owing to the lack of large scale studies with high diet adherence. The Diet, Obesity and Genes (DioGenes) European multicentre trial examined the importance of a slight increase in dietary protein content, reduction in carbohydrate and the importance of choosing low (LGI) vs high GI (HGI) carbohydrates for weight control in 932 obese families. Only the adults underwent a diet of 800 kcal per day for 8 weeks, and after losing ~11kg they were randomized to one of five energy ad libitum diets for 6 months. The diets differed in protein content and GI. The high-protein (HP) diet groups consumed 5.4% points more energy from protein than the normal protein (NP) groups, and the LGI diet groups achieved 5.1% lower GI than the HGI groups. The effect of HP and LGI was additive on weight loss and maintenance, and the combination was successful in preventing weight regain and reducing drop-out rate among the adults after the 11kg weight loss. This diet also reduced body fatness and prevalence of overweight and obesity among their children and had consistent beneficial effects on blood pressure, blood lipids and inflammation in both parents and children. After 1 year, mainly the HP effects were maintained. Putative genes have been identified that suggest this diet to be particularly effective in 67% of the population. In conclusion, the DioGenes diet has shown to be effective for prevention of weight regain and for weight reduction in overweight children under ad libitum conditions. The less-restrictive dietary approach fits into a normal food culture, and has been translated into popular diet and cook books in several languages.

  5. Beneficial effect of lantibiotic nisin in rabbit husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, Andrea; Chrastinová, Lubica; Plachá, Iveta; Kandričáková, Anna; Szabóová, Renáta; Strompfová, Viola; Chrenková, Mária; Cobanová, Klaudia; Zitňan, Rudolf

    2014-03-01

    Nisin is a bacteriocin marketed as Nisaplin. The aim of our work was to test its in vivo effect in a rabbit model; its effect on phagocytic activity (PA) and morphometry has not so far been studied. Post-weaning rabbits (48), 5 weeks old (both sexes, Hycole breed), were divided into the experimental (E) and the control groups (C), 24 animals in each. They were fed a commercial diet with access to water ad libitum. Rabbits in E had nisin additionally administered to their drinking water (500 IU-20 μg per animal/day) for 28 days. The experiment lasted 42 days. On day 28, significant decrease in coagulase-positive (CoPS) staphylococci and coliforms was noted (p < 0.01) in faeces of group E compared with C. Pseudomonads and clostridiae were also significantly reduced (p < 0.001; p < 0.05) and slight decrease was also in CoNS and enterococci. On day 42, coliforms were still significantly reduced (p < 0.001) in faeces; slight decrease in CoPS and pseudomonads was noted. In the caecum, significant decrease in pseudomonads (p < 0.05) was noted on day 28; slight decrease in coliforms. In the appendix slight decrease in coliforms, pseudomonads was obtained on both days. PA was increased significantly in E on days 28, 42 (p < 0.001). Biochemical parameters were not influenced; nor were volatile fatty acids or lactic acid in the chymus. Nisin application did not evoke oxidative stress. In group E, an increase in average body weight gain (about 9.4 %) was noted. The villus height/crypt depth ratio was not influenced; that is, resorption surface and functionality of mucosa were not influenced.

  6. Diet, nutrition, and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, S.

    1985-01-01

    Evidence pertaining to the role of dietary factors in carcinogenesis comes from both epidemiological studies and laboratory experiments. In 1982, the Committee on Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer of the National Research Council conducted a comprehensive evaluation of this evidence. That assessment as well as recent epidemiological and laboratory investigations suggest that a high fat diet is associated with increased susceptibility to cancer of different sites, particularly the breast and colon, and to a lesser extent, the prostate. Current data permit no definitive conclusions about other dietary macroconstituents including cholesterol, total caloric intake, protein, carbohydrates and total dietary fiber. Specific components of fiber, however, may have a protective effect against colon cancer. In epidemiological studies, frequent consumption of certain fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits and carotene-rich and cruciferous vegetables, is associated with a lower incidence of cancers at various sites. The specific components responsible for these effects are not clearly identified, although the epidemiological evidence appears to be most consistent for a protective effect of carotene on lung cancer and less so for vitamins A and C and various cancer sites. The laboratory evidence is most consistent for vitamin A deficiency and enhanced tumorigenesis, and for the ability of various nonnutritive components in cruciferous vegetables to block in-vivo carcinogenesis. The data for minerals and carcinogenesis are extremely limited, although preliminary evidence from both epidemiological and laboratory studies suggests that selenium may protect against overall cancer risk. 402 references.

  7. [Sustainable diet: history lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatati, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Global dietary patterns changed dramatically in the past 50 years, presenting both a boom and a threat to the health and well-being of populations everywhere. We need sustainable diets, with low-input, local and seasonal agro-ecological food productions as well as short distance production-consumption nets for fair trade. The development of a global food system able to guarantee everyone a balanced food intake requires health professionals an awareness and a commitment to increasingly complex education. Dietary changes such as the adherence of to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern can reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. Increased focus on improving the utilization of freshwater fishes and the correct use of the waters of rivers and lakes should also be encouraged. Cultural heritage, food quality and culinary skills are other key aspects determining sustainable dietary patterns and food security. The Mediterranean street food (Mediterraneità), for intrinsic characteristics, can represent valid model to address the main issues concerning the sustainable food system. The issues of sustainability offer a great opportunity to nutritional science and scientists to play a more central role in the political analysis of future food systems. We are confident that preserve the past helps us understand the present and build for the future, the Mediterranean lifestyle is much more than the Mediterranean diet and, finally, the rivers and the lakes may be our future.

  8. Diet in dermatology: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaimal Sowmya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet has an important role to play in many skin disorders, and dermatologists are frequently faced with the difficulty of separating myth from fact when it comes to dietary advice for their patients. Patients in India are often anxious about what foods to consume, and what to avoid, in the hope that, no matter how impractical or difficult this may be, following this dictum will cure their disease. There are certain disorders where one or more components in food are central to the pathogenesis, e.g. dermatitis herpetiformis, wherein dietary restrictions constitute the cornerstone of treatment. A brief list, although not comprehensive, of other disorders where diet may have a role to play includes atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, psoriasis vulgaris, pemphigus, urticaria, pruritus, allergic contact dermatitis, fish odor syndrome, toxic oil syndrome, fixed drug eruption, genetic and metabolic disorders (phenylketonuria, tyrosinemia, homocystinuria, galactosemia, Refsum′s disease, G6PD deficiency, xanthomas, gout and porphyria, nutritional deficiency disorders (kwashiorkar, marasmus, phrynoderma, pellagra, scurvy, acrodermatitis enteropathica, carotenemia and lycopenemia and miscellaneous disorders such as vitiligo, aphthous ulcers, cutaneous vasculitis and telogen effluvium. From a practical point of view, it will be useful for the dermatologist to keep some dietary information handy to deal with the occasional patient who does not seem to respond in spite of the best, scientific and evidence-based therapy.

  9. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  10. The modified Atkins diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, Eric H; Dorward, Jennifer L

    2008-11-01

    In 2003, a case series was published describing the benefits of a less restrictive ketogenic diet (KD) started as an outpatient without a fast and without any restrictions on calories, fluids, or protein. This "Modified Atkins Diet" (MAD) restricts carbohydrates to 10 g/day (15 g/day in adults) while encouraging high fat foods. Now 5 years later, there have been eight prospective and retrospective studies published on this alternative dietary therapy, both in children as well as adults. In these reports, 45 (45%) have had 50-90% seizure reduction, and 28 (28%) >90% seizure reduction, which is remarkably similar to the traditional KD. This review will discuss basics and tips to best provide the MAD, evidence for its efficacy, suggestions about the role of ketosis in dietary treatment efficacy, and its side effect profile. Lastly, the possible future benefits of this treatment for new-onset seizures, adults, neurologic conditions other than epilepsy, and developing countries of the world will be discussed.

  11. 饮食疗法加中药治疗38例痛风性关节炎%Diet plus Chinese traditional medicine in the treatment of gout arthritis in 38 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马景芳; 毕连华

    2002-01-01

    Background:Gout arthritis is correlated with diet.Control of purine in diet is beneficial to therapy.Western durgs is effective in the treatment of gout arthritis,nonetheless adverse effects are severe.Recent studies showed Chinese traditional medicine is effective.

  12. Beneficial Effects of Childhood Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T S; Edwards, Caleb; Liu, Jenny L; Walter, Deanna M; Dobbs, Matthew B

    2017-03-05

    .  Orthopedic surgeries were pursued by 59% of patients. The most common orthopedic surgeries were hamstring lengthenings (31%), Achilles tendon lengthenings (18%), adductor lengthenings (16%), and derotational osteotomies (16%). Twenty-four percent of all patients later underwent hip surgery and 8% had surgeries on their knees.  Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that the beneficial effects of childhood SDR extend to adulthood quality of life and ambulatory function without late side effects of surgery.

  13. Exercise effects on lipids in persons with varying dietary patterns - Does diet matter if they exercise? Responses in STRRIDE I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Kim M.; Hawk, Victoria H.; Henes, Sarah T.; Ocampo, Christine I.; Orenduff, Melissa C.; Slentz, Cris A.; Johnson, Johanna L.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Samsa, Gregory P.; Kraus, William E.; Bales, Connie W.

    2012-01-01

    Background The standard clinical approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk due to dyslipidemia is to prescribe changes in diet and physical activity. The purpose of the current study was to determine if, across a range of dietary patterns, there were variable lipoprotein responses to an aerobic exercise training intervention. Methods Subjects were participants in the Studies of a Targeted Risk Reduction Intervention through Defined Exercise (STRRIDE I), a supervised exercise program in sedentary, overweight subjects randomized to 6 months of inactivity or one of 3 aerobic exercise programs. To characterize diet patterns observed during the study, we calculated a modified z-score that included intakes of total fat, saturated fat, trans fatty acids, cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acids and fiber as compared to the 2006 AHA diet recommendations. Linear models were used to evaluate relationships between diet patterns and exercise effects on lipoproteins/lipids. Results Independent of diet, exercise had beneficial effects on LDL-cholesterol particle number, LDL-cholesterol size, HDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol size, and triglycerides (P<0.05 for all). However, having a diet pattern that closely adhered to AHA recommendations was not related to changes in these or any other serum lipids or lipoproteins in any of the exercise groups. Conclusions We found that even in sedentary individuals whose habitual diets vary in the extent of adherence to AHA dietary recommendations, a rigorous, supervised exercise intervention can achieve significant beneficial lipid effects. PMID:22795291

  14. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  15. Diet Quality and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,…

  16. Diet Quality and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,…

  17. Effects of low-carbohydrate diets v. low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Nadia; Vinknes, Kathrine J; Veierød, Marit B; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2016-02-14

    The effects of low-carbohydrate (LC) diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk are unclear, and previous studies have found varying results. Our aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT), assessing the effects of LC diets v. low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss and risk factors of CVD. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Trials. Studies had to fulfil the following criteria: a RCT; the LC diet was defined in accordance with the Atkins diet, or carbohydrate intake of healthy; and the dietary intervention had a duration of 6 months or longer. Results from individual studies were pooled as weighted mean difference (WMD) using a random effect model. In all, eleven RCT with 1369 participants met all the set eligibility criteria. Compared with participants on LF diets, participants on LC diets experienced a greater reduction in body weight (WMD -2·17 kg; 95% CI -3·36, -0·99) and TAG (WMD -0·26 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·37, -0·15), but a greater increase in HDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·14 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·09, 0·19) and LDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·16 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·003, 0·33). This meta-analysis demonstrates opposite change in two important cardiovascular risk factors on LC diets--greater weight loss and increased LDL-cholesterol. Our findings suggest that the beneficial changes of LC diets must be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of increased LDL-cholesterol.

  18. Diet-Induced Thermogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Chang-rong; GAO Si-zheng; JIA Jun-jing; Mark Jois

    2008-01-01

    An immense amount of information has now accrued about the factors that influence the increment of heat and the efficiency with which the energy of food is used by different animal species.Heat increment is one of the major factors that decrease the efficiency of energy utilization.In growing animals,the free energy content of the basal ATP requirement is typically about one-third of dietary basal heat production (thermogenesis).Thermogenesis is an evolutionary and biologically significant mechanism for adaptive,homeostatic heat production in animals,including shivering thermogenesis (ST),nonshivefing thermogenesis (NST),diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT),febrile response (fever),and so on.The main focus of this review is on the effect of DIT on energy metabolism.

  19. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina K. Gonzales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT, release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL, population replacement strategies (PR, and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood.

  20. Ethnicity and children's diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced...... dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...

  1. Positive correlation between serum taurine and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Zhao, Xu; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum taurine level and serum adiponectin or leptin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups for a period of 8 weeks (normal diet, N group; high-fat diet, HF group; high-fat diet + taurine, HFT group). Taurine was supplemented by dissolving in feed water (3% w/v), and the same amount of distilled water was orally administrated to N and HF groups. In serum, adiponectin level was higher in HFT group compared to HF group. The serum taurine level was negatively correlated with serum total cholesterol (TC) level and positively correlated with serum adiponectin level. These results suggest that dietary taurine supplementation has beneficial effects on total cholesterol and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.

  2. Cassava For Space Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  3. Physical activity,physical fitness,diet and the health in young people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neil; Armstrong; Sulin; Cheng; J.Larry; Durstine

    2012-01-01

    <正>The beneficial effects of appropriate physical activity(PA), physical fitness,and diet during adult life are well-documented but the potential of appropriate PA,physical fitness,and diet to confer benefits on health and well-being during childhood and adolescence has not been explored fully.Recognizing the value of critical reviews of the extant literature in providing a foundation for future research,the Journal of Sport and Health Science(JSHS) has commissioned two Special Issues devoted

  4. Fluorescent Pseudomonas Strains with only Few Plant-Beneficial Properties Are Favored in the Maize Rhizosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Vacheron, Jordan; Yvan Moënne-Loccoz; Dubost, Audrey; Maximilien Gonçalves-Martins; Daniel Muller; Claire Prigent-Combaret

    2016-01-01

    Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant health and growth using a variety of traits. Effective PGPR strains typically exhibit multiple plant-beneficial properties, but whether they are better adapted to the rhizosphere than PGPR strains with fewer plant-beneficial properties is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that strains with higher numbers of plant-beneficial properties would be preferentially selected by plant roots. To this end, the co-occurrence of 18 properties...

  5. Beneficiation of Titanium Oxides From Ilmenite by Self-Reduction of Coal Bearing Pellets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The study on the beneficiation of titanium oxides from Panzhihua ilmenites by reduction of coal bearing pellets was carried out. The iron oxides in pellets were efficiently reduced to metal iron, and titanium oxide slag beneficiated was separated from metal iron. The effect of temperature, flux and coal blending ratio on the reduction and separation was investigated, and rational parameters were determined. A new process for the beneficiation of titanium oxides by rotary hearth furnace (RHF) was proposed.

  6. Health effects of vegan diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.

  7. Ketogenic diet for epilepsy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Letícia Pereira de Brito

    2016-10-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable while reducing side effects and making it available to larger group of refractory epilepsy patients. This review summarizes the history of the KD and the principles and efficacy of the classic ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride(s) (MCT) ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, and low glycemic index treatment.

  8. Ketogenic diet for epilepsy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Pereira de Brito Sampaio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ketogenic diet (KD, a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable while reducing side effects and making it available to larger group of refractory epilepsy patients. This review summarizes the history of the KD and the principles and efficacy of the classic ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride(s (MCT ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, and low glycemic index treatment.

  9. Diet effects on honeybee immunocompetence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaux, Cédric; Ducloz, François; Crauser, Didier; Le Conte, Yves

    2010-08-23

    The maintenance of the immune system can be costly, and a lack of dietary protein can increase the susceptibility of organisms to disease. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between protein nutrition and immunity in insects. Here, we tested in honeybees (Apis mellifera) whether dietary protein quantity (monofloral pollen) and diet diversity (polyfloral pollen) can shape baseline immunocompetence (IC) by measuring parameters of individual immunity (haemocyte concentration, fat body content and phenoloxidase activity) and glucose oxidase (GOX) activity, which enables bees to sterilize colony and brood food, as a parameter of social immunity. Protein feeding modified both individual and social IC but increases in dietary protein quantity did not enhance IC. However, diet diversity increased IC levels. In particular, polyfloral diets induced higher GOX activity compared with monofloral diets, including protein-richer diets. These results suggest a link between protein nutrition and immunity in honeybees and underscore the critical role of resource availability on pollinator health.

  10. Your diet after gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric bypass surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after bypass; Weight loss - diet after bypass ... You had gastric bypass surgery. This surgery made your stomach smaller by closing off most of your stomach with staples. It changed the way your ...

  11. Mediterranean-style diet reduces metabolic syndrome components in obese children and adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-López, Lubia; Santiago-Díaz, Gerardo; Nava-Hernández, Julia; Muñoz-Torres, Abril V; Medina-Bravo, Patricia; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita

    2014-07-05

    The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet have been amply proven in adults with cardiovascular risk factors. The effects of this diet have not been extensively assessed in pediatric populations with obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Mediterranean style diet (MSD) to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with obesity. Participants were randomly assigned to a MSD rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, fiber, flavonoids and antioxidants (60% of energy from carbohydrate, 25% from fat, and 15% from protein, (n = 24); or a standard diet (55% of carbohydrate, 30% from fat and 15% from protein, (n = 25), the caloric ingest was individualized. At baseline and 16-week of intervention, the glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C were measured as well as the body composition and anthropometric data. The diet compliance was determined by the 24-hour recalls.Paired Student's t and Macnemar's test were used to compare effects in biochemical, body composition, anthropometric, and dietary variables. The MSD group had a significantly decrease in BMI, lean mass, fat mass, glucose, TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C. (p diet compliance increased consumption of omega 9 fatty acids, zinc, vitamin E, selenium, and decreased consumption of saturated fatty acids (p diet group decrease in glucose levels and frequency of glucose >100 mg/dL (p obesity and any MetS component.

  12. Health benefits of the Mediterranean Diet: an update of research over the last 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsis, Efthymios; Anagnostis, Panagiotis; Mariolis, Anargyros; Vlachou, Athanasia; Katsiki, Niki; Karagiannis, Asterios

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) has been reported to be protective against the occurrence of several diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that the MedDiet could counter diseases associated with chronic inflammation, including metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, obesity, pulmonary diseases, and cognition disorders. Adoption of a MedDiet was associated with beneficial effects on the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, antioxidant cellular and circulating biomarkers as well as with regulation of gene polymorphisms involved in the atherosclerotic process. The MedDiet has been considered for the prevention of cardiovascular and other chronic degenerative diseases focusing on the impact of a holistic dietary approach rather than on single nutrients. Epidemiological dietary scores measuring adherence to a MedDiet have been developed. This narrative review considers the results of up-to-date clinical studies (with a focus on the last 5 years) that evaluated the effectiveness of the MedDiet in reducing the prevalence of chronic and degenerative diseases.

  13. Long-term low-calorie low-protein vegan diet and endurance exercise are associated with low cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Luigi; Meyer, Timothy E; Klein, Samuel; Holloszy, John O

    2007-06-01

    Western diets, which typically contain large amounts of energy-dense processed foods, together with a sedentary lifestyle are associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. We evaluated the long-term effects of consuming a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet or performing regular endurance exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors. In this cross-sectional study, cardiometabolic risk factors were evaluated in 21 sedentary subjects, who had been on a low-calorie low-protein raw vegan diet for 4.4 +/- 2.8 years, (mean age, 53.1 +/- 11 yrs), 21 body mass index (BMI)-matched endurance runners consuming Western diets, and 21 age- and gender-matched sedentary subjects, consuming Western diets. BMI was lower in the low-calorie low-protein vegan diet (21.3 +/- 3.1 kg/m(2)) and endurance runner (21.1 +/- 1.6 kg/m(2)) groups than in the sedentary Western diet group (26.5 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2)) (p vegan diet and runner groups than in the Western diet group (all p vegan diet group (104 +/- 15 and 62 +/- 11 mm Hg) than in BMI-matched endurance runners (122 +/- 13 and 72 +/- 9 mmHg) and Western diet group (132 +/- 14 and 79 +/- 8 mm Hg) (p vegan diet or regular endurance exercise training is associated with low cardiometabolic risk. Moreover, our data suggest that specific components of a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet provide additional beneficial effects on blood pressure.

  14. Diet and fertility in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most

  15. Resveratrol Protects Rabbits Against Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanko, Y; Jimoh, A; Ahmed, A; Mohammed, A; Ayo, J O

    2016-08-30

    The excessive consumption of high cholesterol diet has been associated with an increased incidence oflipidaemia. Lipidaemia is enhanced by formation of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and hyperglycaemia. The aim ofthese experiments was to investigate the protective effect of resveratrol co-administered with cholesterol diet inducedhyperlipidaemia in rabbits. Thirty rabbits divided into six groups of five animal (group= 5) each: group 1 = normal control,group 2 = cholesterol diet/high fat diet group only (HFD), group 3 = resveratrol 200 mg/kg (R200), group 4 = resveratrol400 mg/kg (R400), group 5 = HFD + R200 and group 6 = HFD + R400. The normal group was fed with standard animalfeeds only; while the HFD groups were fed with standard animal feeds + cholesterol diet (10% Groundnut oil, 20%Groundnut mill and 2% cholesterol). Resveratrol-treated rabbits received resveratrol suspended in 10 g/Lcarboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and the control group received the vehicle only, CMC. The preparations were administeredfor 8 weeks of experimental protocol. At the end of the study period, the animals were sacrificed. Blood and plasma sampleswere collected. Serum evaluation of lipid profile such as total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (Tg), low density lipoproteincholesterol (LDP-c) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were also assessed. The results obtained showsignificant (P < 0.05) decrease in total cholesterol (TC), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDP-c), total triacylglyceroland an increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in resveratrol treated groups compared to HFD group only.In conclusion, the findings indicated that Resveratrol may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrationsand might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.

  16. Diet traditions in wild orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Meredith L; Zweifel, Nicole; Vogel, Erin R; Wich, Serge A; van Schaik, Carel P

    2010-10-01

    This study explores diet differences between two populations of wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) to assess whether a signal of social learning can be detected in the observed patterns. The populations live in close proximity and in similar habitats but are separated by a river barrier that is impassable to orangutans in the study region. We found a 60% between-site difference in diet at the level of plant food items (plant species-organ combinations). We also found that individuals at the same site were more likely to eat the same food items than expected by chance. These results suggest the presence of diet (food selection) traditions. Detailed tests of three predictions of three models of diet acquisition allowed us to reject a model based on exclusive social learning but could not clearly distinguish between the remaining two models: one positing individual exploration and learning of food item selection and the other one positing preferential social learning followed by individual fine tuning. We know that maturing orangutans acquire their initial diet through social learning and then supplement it by years of low-level, individual sampling. We, therefore, conclude that the preferential social learning model produces the best fit to the geographic patterns observed in this study. However, the very same taxa that socially acquire their diets as infants and show evidence for innovation-based traditions in the wild paradoxically may have diets that are not easily distinguished from those acquired exclusively through individual learning. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Vegetarian Diet in Chronic Kidney Disease—A Friend or Foe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gluba-Brzózka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Healthy diet is highly important, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Proper nutrition provides the energy to perform everyday activities, prevents infection, builds muscle, and helps to prevent kidney disease from getting worse. However, what does a proper diet mean for a CKD patient? Nutrition requirements differ depending on the level of kidney function and the presence of co-morbid conditions, including hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The diet of CKD patients should help to slow the rate of progression of kidney failure, reduce uremic toxicity, decrease proteinuria, maintain good nutritional status, and lower the risk of kidney disease-related secondary complications (cardiovascular disease, bone disease, and hypertension. It has been suggested that plant proteins may exert beneficial effects on blood pressure, proteinuria, and glomerular filtration rate, as well as results in milder renal tissue damage when compared to animal proteins. The National Kidney Foundation recommends vegetarianism, or part-time vegetarian diet as being beneficial to CKD patients. Their recommendations are supported by the results of studies demonstrating that a plant-based diet may hamper the development or progression of some complications of chronic kidney disease, such as heart disease, protein loss in urine, and the progression of kidney damage. However, there are sparse reports suggesting that a vegan diet is not appropriate for CKD patients and those undergoing dialysis due to the difficulty in consuming enough protein and in maintaining proper potassium and phosphorus levels. Therefore, this review will focus on the problem as to whether vegetarian diet and its modifications are suitable for chronic kidney disease patients.

  18. Vegetarian Diet in Chronic Kidney Disease-A Friend or Foe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluba-Brzózka, Anna; Franczyk, Beata; Rysz, Jacek

    2017-04-10

    Healthy diet is highly important, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Proper nutrition provides the energy to perform everyday activities, prevents infection, builds muscle, and helps to prevent kidney disease from getting worse. However, what does a proper diet mean for a CKD patient? Nutrition requirements differ depending on the level of kidney function and the presence of co-morbid conditions, including hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The diet of CKD patients should help to slow the rate of progression of kidney failure, reduce uremic toxicity, decrease proteinuria, maintain good nutritional status, and lower the risk of kidney disease-related secondary complications (cardiovascular disease, bone disease, and hypertension). It has been suggested that plant proteins may exert beneficial effects on blood pressure, proteinuria, and glomerular filtration rate, as well as results in milder renal tissue damage when compared to animal proteins. The National Kidney Foundation recommends vegetarianism, or part-time vegetarian diet as being beneficial to CKD patients. Their recommendations are supported by the results of studies demonstrating that a plant-based diet may hamper the development or progression of some complications of chronic kidney disease, such as heart disease, protein loss in urine, and the progression of kidney damage. However, there are sparse reports suggesting that a vegan diet is not appropriate for CKD patients and those undergoing dialysis due to the difficulty in consuming enough protein and in maintaining proper potassium and phosphorus levels. Therefore, this review will focus on the problem as to whether vegetarian diet and its modifications are suitable for chronic kidney disease patients.

  19. Vegetarian Diet in Chronic Kidney Disease—A Friend or Foe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluba-Brzózka, Anna; Franczyk, Beata; Rysz, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Healthy diet is highly important, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Proper nutrition provides the energy to perform everyday activities, prevents infection, builds muscle, and helps to prevent kidney disease from getting worse. However, what does a proper diet mean for a CKD patient? Nutrition requirements differ depending on the level of kidney function and the presence of co-morbid conditions, including hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The diet of CKD patients should help to slow the rate of progression of kidney failure, reduce uremic toxicity, decrease proteinuria, maintain good nutritional status, and lower the risk of kidney disease-related secondary complications (cardiovascular disease, bone disease, and hypertension). It has been suggested that plant proteins may exert beneficial effects on blood pressure, proteinuria, and glomerular filtration rate, as well as results in milder renal tissue damage when compared to animal proteins. The National Kidney Foundation recommends vegetarianism, or part-time vegetarian diet as being beneficial to CKD patients. Their recommendations are supported by the results of studies demonstrating that a plant-based diet may hamper the development or progression of some complications of chronic kidney disease, such as heart disease, protein loss in urine, and the progression of kidney damage. However, there are sparse reports suggesting that a vegan diet is not appropriate for CKD patients and those undergoing dialysis due to the difficulty in consuming enough protein and in maintaining proper potassium and phosphorus levels. Therefore, this review will focus on the problem as to whether vegetarian diet and its modifications are suitable for chronic kidney disease patients. PMID:28394274

  20. Diet And Hypertension: A Comparative Analysis Of Four Diet Groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-01

    Feb 1, 2011 ... communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) [2]. ... diets consisting of food and snacks with high salt, saturated fat ... major cause of morbidity and mortality, in relation to anthropometric measurements.

  1. Cognitive health and Mediterranean diet: just diet or lifestyle pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Kontogianni, Meropi; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    Mediterranean diet is a term used to describe the traditional eating habits of people in Crete, South Italy and other Mediterranean countries. It is a predominantly plant-based diet, with olive oil being the main type of added fat. There are many observational studies exploring the potential association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline. The present review focuses on longitudinal studies with repeated cognitive assessments. It also evaluates evidence on behaviors related to the Mediterranean way of living, that have been shown to be associated with cognition, namely social interaction, participation in leisure activities, including physical activities, and sleep quality. The synergistic association-effect of these lifestyle behaviors, including diet, is unknown. Lifestyle patterns may constitute a new research and public health perspective.

  2. Does orthodontic treatment harm children's diets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Ama; Abed Al Jawad, Feras; Marcenes, Wagner; Croft, Nick

    2013-11-01

    Despite the many courses of fixed orthodontic treatment being undertaken worldwide, the question of this treatment harming children's diets remains unanswered. A hospital-based prospective cohort design was adopted to investigate the effects of treatment on dietary intake and behaviour, body fat (BMI) and fat percentage in 124 patients (41.9% male) aged 11-14 (mean 13.1, SD 0.91) years, consecutively recruited to test and control groups. Both groups completed socio-demographic and food frequency questionnaires, body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage measures at baseline and follow-up. Test patients completed follow-up pain diaries and dietary questionnaires. Both groups were comparable at baseline, with a dropout rate of 12.1%. The impact on dietary behaviour was significantly higher at 6 weeks compared to 3 months (Pfactor), analgesic consumption or professional dietary advice (behaviour modification) had no influence whilst, a high BMI status at baseline appeared to be the only significant moderator of change in fat percentage (P<0.05) and impacts on dietary behaviour (P<0.049) at follow-up. The findings show no significant detrimental effect on dietary intake or behaviour, BMI and fat percentage, during the first 3 months, of orthodontic treatment and may impart a beneficial/protective effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Role of Soy in Vegetarian Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Messina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Soyfoods have long been prized among vegetarians for both their high protein content and versatility. Soybeans differ markedly in macronutrient content from other legumes, being much higher in fat and protein, and lower in carbohydrate. In recent years however, soyfoods and specific soybean constituents, especially isoflavones, have been the subject of an impressive amount of research. Nearly 2,000 soy-related papers are published annually. This research has focused primarily on the benefits that soyfoods may provide independent of their nutrient content. There is particular interest in the role that soyfoods have in reducing risk of heart disease, osteoporosis and certain forms of cancer. However, the estrogen-like effects of isoflavones observed in animal studies have also raised concerns about potential harmful effects of soyfood consumption. This review addresses questions related to soy and chronic disease risk, provides recommendations for optimal intakes, and discusses potential contraindications. As reviewed, the evidence indicates that, with the exception of those individuals allergic to soy protein, soyfoods can play a beneficial role in the diets of vegetarians. Concerns about adverse effects are not supported by the clinical or epidemiologic literature. Based on the soy intake associated with health benefits in the epidemiologic studies and the benefits noted in clinical trials, optimal adult soy intake would appear to be between two and four servings per day.

  4. The role of soy in vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Mark; Messina, Virginia

    2010-08-01

    Soyfoods have long been prized among vegetarians for both their high protein content and versatility. Soybeans differ markedly in macronutrient content from other legumes, being much higher in fat and protein, and lower in carbohydrate. In recent years however, soyfoods and specific soybean constituents, especially isoflavones, have been the subject of an impressive amount of research. Nearly 2,000 soy-related papers are published annually. This research has focused primarily on the benefits that soyfoods may provide independent of their nutrient content. There is particular interest in the role that soyfoods have in reducing risk of heart disease, osteoporosis and certain forms of cancer. However, the estrogen-like effects of isoflavones observed in animal studies have also raised concerns about potential harmful effects of soyfood consumption. This review addresses questions related to soy and chronic disease risk, provides recommendations for optimal intakes, and discusses potential contraindications. As reviewed, the evidence indicates that, with the exception of those individuals allergic to soy protein, soyfoods can play a beneficial role in the diets of vegetarians. Concerns about adverse effects are not supported by the clinical or epidemiologic literature. Based on the soy intake associated with health benefits in the epidemiologic studies and the benefits noted in clinical trials, optimal adult soy intake would appear to be between two and four servings per day.

  5. Beneficial and Detrimental Effects of UV on Aquatic Organisms: Implications of Spectral Variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williamson, C.E.; Neale, P.J.; Grad, G.; Lange, de H.J.; Hargreaves, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) may have beneficial as well as detrimental effects on living systems. For example, UV-B radiation (280¿320 nm) is generally damaging, while UV-A radiation (320¿400 nm) may cause damage or stimulate beneficial photorepair of UV-B damage. The nature of both direct and

  6. Fitness effects of beneficial mutations: the mutational landscape model in experimental evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betancourt, Andrea J.; Bollback, Jonathan Paul

    2006-01-01

    of beneficial mutations should be roughly exponentially distributed. The prediction appears to be borne out by most of these studies, at least qualitatively. Another study showed that a modified version of the model was able to predict, with reasonable accuracy, which of a ranked set of beneficial alleles...

  7. 26 CFR 1.674(a)-1 - Power to control beneficial enjoyment; scope of section 674.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Power to control beneficial enjoyment; scope of... § 1.674(a)-1 Power to control beneficial enjoyment; scope of section 674. (a) Under section 674, the grantor is treated as the owner of a portion of trust if the grantor or a nonadverse party has a...

  8. Electrostatic beneficiation of coal. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, M.K.; Lindquist, D.; Tennal, K.B.

    1996-07-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following: modification to the electrostatic separator; review of DOE specifications for minimum beneficiation and calculations of grinding requirements based on washability; two-pass beneficiation; analysis of different sieve fractions; measurement of charge to mass ratio as a function of height of deposition; and charging of coal against different materials.

  9. Diet and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case-control study, conducted in Serbia during the period 1998-2000, was to investigate whether diet was associated with the development of gastric cancer. The case group consisted of 131 patients with histologically confirmed gastric cancer, and the control group of 131 patients with orthopedics diseases and injuries. Cases and controls were individually matched by age (±± 2 years, gender, and place of residence. On the basis of multivariate logistic regression analysis, following factors were found as independent risk factors for gastric cancer: more frequent consumption of high-fat milk [Odds ratio (OR =1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.99-2.16]; mutton, lamb and/or calf meat (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.11-5.47, sugar (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.43-3.18, semi-white bread (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.25-3.50, and salting food (OR = 5.72, 95% CI = 2.63-12.42. Factors found as protective were: more frequent consumption of margarine (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25-0.69, „other“ cheeses (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.29 - 0.77, and fish (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.19-0.76.

  10. Effects of low carbohydrate diets on weight and glycemic control among type 2 diabetes individuals: a systemic review of RCT greater than 12 weeks Efectos de las dietas bajas en carbohidratos sobre el peso y el control glicémico en individuos con diabetes tipo 2: revisión sistemática de estudios aleatorizados de más de 12 semanas

    OpenAIRE

    L. M. Castañeda-González; M. Bacardí Gascón; A. Jiménez Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Low carbohydrate diets (LCD) have shown beneficial effects on short-term weight reduction programs for obese individuals without diabetes, but the long-term evidence of efficacy on individuals with type 2 diabetes is not conclusive. Objective: To evaluate, the effectiveness of 12 or more weeks of LCD compared to Low Fat Diet (LFD), Usual Care Diet (UCD) or Low Glycemic Index Diet (LGID) on weight reduction and AIC on type 2 diabetes individuals. Methods: A systematic review was ...

  11. Ruminal Prevotella spp. may play an important role in the conversion of plant lignans into human health beneficial antioxidants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L B Schogor

    Full Text Available Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, the most abundant lignan in flaxseed, is metabolized by the ruminal microbiota into enterolignans, which are strong antioxidants. Enterolactone (EL, the main mammalian enterolignan produced in the rumen, is transferred into physiological fluids, with potentially human health benefits with respect to menopausal symptoms, hormone-dependent cancers, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and diabetes. However, no information exists to our knowledge on bacterial taxa that play a role in converting plant lignans into EL in ruminants. In order to investigate this, eight rumen cannulated cows were used in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed with four treatments: control with no flax meal (FM, or 5%, 10% and 15% FM (on a dry matter basis. Concentration of EL in the rumen increased linearly with increasing FM inclusion. Total rumen bacterial 16S rRNA concentration obtained using Q-PCR did not differ among treatments. PCR-T-RFLP based dendrograms revealed no global clustering based on diet indicating between animal variation. PCR-DGGE showed a clustering by diet effect within four cows that had similar basal ruminal microbiota. DNA extracted from bands present following feeding 15% FM and absent with no FM supplementation were sequenced and it showed that many genera, in particular Prevotella spp., contributed to the metabolism of lignans. A subsequent in vitro study using selected pure cultures of ruminal bacteria incubated with SDG indicated that 11 ruminal bacteria were able to convert SDG into secoisolariciresinol (SECO, with Prevotella spp. being the main converters. These data suggest that Prevotella spp. is one genus playing an important role in the conversion of plant lignans to human health beneficial antioxidants in the rumen.

  12. Are socioeconomic disparities in diet quality explained by diet cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic disparities in nutrition are well documented. This study tested the hypothesis that socioeconomic differences in nutrient intakes can be accounted for, in part, by diet cost. Methods A representative sample of 1,295 adults in King County (WA) was surveyed in 2008–2009 and usual dietary intakes were assessed based on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Monetary value of individual diets was estimated using local retail supermarket prices for 384 foods. Nutrients of concern as identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee were fiber, vitamins A, C and E, calcium, magnesium and potassium. A nutrient density score based on all seven nutrients was another dependent measure. General linear models and linear regressions were used to examine associations among education and income, nutrient density measure and diet cost. Analyses were conducted in 2009–2010. Results Controlling for energy and other covariates, higher-cost diets were significantly higher in all seven nutrients and in overall nutrient density. Higher education and income were positively and significantly associated with the nutrient density measure, but these effects were greatly attenuated with the inclusion of the cost variable in the model. Conclusions Socioeconomic differences in nutrient intake can be substantially explained by the monetary cost of the diet. The higher cost of more nutritious diets may contribute to socioeconomic disparities in health and should be taken into account in the formulation of nutrition and public health policy. PMID:21148819

  13. No vacancy: how beneficial microbes cooperate with immunity to provide colonization resistance to pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassone-Corsi, Martina; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2015-05-01

    The mammalian intestine harbors a community of trillions of microbes, collectively known as the gut microbiota, which coevolved with the host in a mutually beneficial relationship. Among the numerous gut microbial species, certain commensal bacteria are known to provide health benefits to the host when administered in adequate amounts and, as such, are labeled "probiotics." We review some of the mechanisms by which probiotics and other beneficial commensals provide colonization resistance to pathogens. The battle for similar nutrients and the bacterial secretion of antimicrobials provide a direct means of competition between beneficial and harmful microbes. Beneficial microbes can also indirectly diminish pathogen colonization by stimulating the development of innate and adaptive immunity, as well as the function of the mucosal barrier. Altogether, we gather and present evidence that beneficial microbes cooperate with host immunity in an effort to shut out pathogens.

  14. Evaluation of four raw meat diets using domestic cats, captive exotic felids, and cecectomized roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, K R; Beloshapka, A N; Morris, C L; Parsons, C M; Burke, S L; Utterback, P L; Swanson, K S

    2013-01-01

    formulation. The types of meat commonly used in raw meat diets may be deficient in total fat (trimmed muscle meat) and essential fatty acids (trimmings and muscle meats). Additionally, differences in raw meat source nutrient composition and digestibility affect the beneficial and putrefactive fermentative end-products found in feces.

  15. Development of a Food Group-Based Diet Score and Its Association with Bone Mineral Density in the Elderly: The Rotterdam Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Ester A. L.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Voortman, Trudy; Schoufour, Josje D.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Franco, Oscar H.; Rivadeneira, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    No diet score exists that summarizes the features of a diet that is optimal for bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly. Our aims were (a) to develop a BMD-Diet Score reflecting a diet that may be beneficial for BMD based on the existing literature, and (b) to examine the association of the BMD-Diet Score and the Healthy Diet Indicator, a score based on guidelines of the World Health Organization, with BMD in Dutch elderly participating in a prospective cohort study, the Rotterdam Study (n = 5144). Baseline dietary intake, assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, was categorized into food groups. Food groups that were consistently associated with BMD in the literature were included in the BMD-Diet Score. BMD was measured repeatedly and was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD-Diet Score considered intake of vegetables, fruits, fish, whole grains, legumes/beans and dairy products as “high-BMD” components and meat and confectionary as “low-BMD” components. After adjustment, the BMD-Diet Score was positively associated with BMD (β (95% confidence interval) = 0.009 (0.005, 0.012) g/cm2 per standard deviation). This effect size was approximately three times as large as has been observed for the Healthy Diet Indicator. The food groups included in our BMD-Diet Score could be considered in the development of future dietary guidelines for healthy ageing. PMID:26295256

  16. Development of a Food Group-Based Diet Score and Its Association with Bone Mineral Density in the Elderly: The Rotterdam Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester A.L. de Jonge

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No diet score exists that summarizes the features of a diet that is optimal for bone mineral density (BMD in the elderly. Our aims were (a to develop a BMD-Diet Score reflecting a diet that may be beneficial for BMD based on the existing literature, and (b to examine the association of the BMD-Diet Score and the Healthy Diet Indicator, a score based on guidelines of the World Health Organization, with BMD in Dutch elderly participating in a prospective cohort study, the Rotterdam Study (n = 5144. Baseline dietary intake, assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, was categorized into food groups. Food groups that were consistently associated with BMD in the literature were included in the BMD-Diet Score. BMD was measured repeatedly and was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD-Diet Score considered intake of vegetables, fruits, fish, whole grains, legumes/beans and dairy products as “high-BMD” components and meat and confectionary as “low-BMD” components. After adjustment, the BMD-Diet Score was positively associated with BMD (β (95% confidence interval = 0.009 (0.005, 0.012 g/cm2 per standard deviation. This effect size was approximately three times as large as has been observed for the Healthy Diet Indicator. The food groups included in our BMD-Diet Score could be considered in the development of future dietary guidelines for healthy ageing.

  17. Potato glycoalkaloids and metabolites: roles in the plant and in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2006-11-15

    Potatoes, members of the Solanaceae plant family, serve as major, inexpensive low-fat food sources providing energy (starch), high-quality protein, fiber, and vitamins. Potatoes also produce biologically active secondary metabolites, which may have both adverse and beneficial effects in the diet. These include glycoalkaloids, calystegine alkaloids, protease inhibitors, lectins, phenolic compounds, and chlorophyll. Because glycoalkaloids are reported to be involved in host-plant resistance and to have a variety of adverse as well as beneficial effects in cells, animals, and humans, a need exists to develop a clearer understanding of their roles both in the plant and in the diet. To contribute to this effort, this integrated review presents data on the (a) history of glycoalkaloids; (b) glycoalkaloid content in different parts of the potato plant, in processed potato products, and in wild, transgenic, and organic potatoes; (c) biosynthesis, inheritance, plant molecular biology, and glycoalkaloid-plant phytopathogen relationships; (d) dietary significance with special focus on the chemistry, analysis, and nutritional quality of low-glycoalkaloid potato protein; (e) pharmacology and toxicology of the potato glycoalkaloids comprising alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine and their hydrolysis products (metabolites); (f) anticarcinogenic and other beneficial effects; and (g) possible dietary consequences of concurrent consumption of glycoalkaloids and other biologically active compounds present in fresh and processed potatoes. An enhanced understanding of the multiple and overlapping aspects of glycoalkaloids in the plant and in the diet will benefit producers and consumers of potatoes.

  18. Diet and physical activity in the prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Mamta; Shike, Moshe

    2014-12-01

    Diet has been linked to the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) and may explain some of the differences in incidence and mortality among various populations. Evidence suggests that a high intake of red and processed meats is associated with an increased risk of CRC. The protective benefits of fiber are unclear, although in some studies fiber is associated with reduced CRC risk. The role of supplements, such as calcium, vitamin D, and folic acid, remains uncertain, and these nutrients cannot be currently recommended for chemoprevention. Obesity and sedentary lifestyle have been associated with an increased risk for colon cancer. Because of the inherent difficulty in studying the effects of specific nutrients, dietary pattern analysis may be a preferable approach to the investigation of the relationship between diet and risk for human diseases. Lifestyle modifications, such as increasing physical activity and consumption of a diet rich in fiber, fruits, vegetables, fish, and poultry and low in red and processed meats, have been advocated for primary prevention of several chronic diseases, and may in fact be beneficial for cancer prevention, particularly CRC.

  19. Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.

  20. Eating practices and diet quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker; Niva, Mari

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Daily practices related to eating are embedded in the social and cultural contexts of everyday life. How are such factors associated with diet quality relative to motivational factors? And, are associations universal or context-specific? We analyze the relationship between...... diet quality and the following practices: social company while eating, the regularity and duration of eating and the activity of watching TV while eating. Subjects/methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based internet survey was conducted in April 2012 with stratified random samples...... is based on eight food frequency questions focusing on fats, vegetables, fruits and fish in the diet. Results: Eating activities were associated with diet quality even when motivation to eat healthily and sociodemographic factors were controlled for. The number of daily eating events and eating main meals...

  1. Diet and Nutrition and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whistleblower Rights & Protections Transparency Media Room Inside the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications ... that. To add protein to your diet Protein-rich foods include meats, fish, beans, dairy products, and ...

  2. Diet and Nutrition With Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Diet and nutrition with lupus Lupus Foundation of America September 26, ... Living with Lupus I Have Lupus Exercise and Nutrition Site Footer Need to talk to someone? Our ...

  3. Traveler’s diarrhea diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk for getting traveler's diarrhea by avoiding water, ice, and food that may be contaminated. The goal of the traveler's diarrhea diet is to make your symptoms better and prevent you from getting ...

  4. GoM Diet Matrix

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was taken from CRD 08-18 at the NEFSC. Specifically, the Gulf of Maine diet matrix was developed for the EMAX exercise described in that center...

  5. Diet and Nutrition With Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Diet and nutrition with lupus Lupus Foundation of America September 18, ... Living with Lupus I Have Lupus Exercise and Nutrition Site Footer Need to talk to someone? Our ...

  6. Diet and Nutrition With Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Diet and nutrition with lupus Lupus Foundation of America March 16, ... Recipes Get email updates Related Resources ABCs of nutrition U.S. English español Medically reviewed on May 28, ...

  7. Search for the optimal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Gerard E

    2010-12-01

    Since the beginning of time, we have been searching for diets that satisfy our palates while simultaneously optimizing health and well-being. Every year, there are hundreds of new diet books on the market that make a wide range of promises but rarely deliver. Unfortunately, consumers are gullible and believe much of the marketing hype because they are desperately seeking ways to maximize their health. As a result, they continue to purchase these diet books, sending many of them all the way to the bestseller list. Because many of these meal plans are not sustainable and are questionable in their approaches, the consumer is ultimately left to continue searching, only able to choose from the newest "fad" promoted by publicists rather than being grounded in science. Thus, the search for the optimal diet continues to be the "holy grail" for many of us today, presenting a challenge for nutritionists and practitioners to provide sound advice to consumers.

  8. Can beneficial ends justify lying? Neural responses to the passive reception of lies and truth-telling with beneficial and harmful monetary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lijun; Weber, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Can beneficial ends justify morally questionable means? To investigate how monetary outcomes influence the neural responses to lying, we used a modified, cheap talk sender-receiver game in which participants were the direct recipients of lies and truthful statements resulting in either beneficial or harmful monetary outcomes. Both truth-telling (vs lying) as well as beneficial (vs harmful) outcomes elicited higher activity in the nucleus accumbens. Lying (vs truth-telling) elicited higher activity in the supplementary motor area, right inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal sulcus and left anterior insula. Moreover, the significant interaction effect was found in the left amygdala, which showed that the monetary outcomes modulated the neural activity in the left amygdala only when truth-telling rather than lying. Our study identified a neural network associated with the reception of lies and truth, including the regions linked to the reward process, recognition and emotional experiences of being treated (dis)honestly.

  9. Pentoxifylline Attenuates Methionine- and Choline-Deficient-Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis by Suppressing TNF-α Expression and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kyung Chae

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pentoxifylline (PTX anti-TNF properties are known to exert hepatoprotective effects in various liver injury models. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PTX has beneficial roles in the development of methionine- and choline-deficient-(MCD- diet-induced NAFLD SD rats in vivo and TNF-α-induced Hep3B cells in vitro. Methods. SD Rats were classified according to diet (chow or MCD diet and treatment (normal saline or PTX injection over a period of 4 weeks: group I (chow + saline, n=4, group II (chow + PTX, group III (MCD + saline, and group IV (MCD + PTX. Hep3B cells were treated with 100 ng/ml TNF-α (24 h in the absence or presence of PTX (1 mM. Results. PTX attenuated MCD-diet-induced serum ALT levels and hepatic steatosis. In real-time PCR and western blotting analysis, PTX decreased MCD-diet-induced TNF-alpha mRNA expression and proapoptotic unfolded protein response by ER stress (GRP78, p-eIF2, ATF4, IRE1α, CHOP, and p-JNK activation in vivo. PTX (1 mM reduced TNF-α-induced activation of GRP78, p-eIF2, ATF4, IRE1α, and CHOP in vitro. Conclusion. PTX has beneficial roles in the development of MCD-diet-induced steatohepatitis through partial suppression of TNF-α and ER stress.

  10. The effects of diet- and diet plus exercise-induced weight loss on basal metabolic rate and acylated ghrelin in grade 1 obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes AL

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available André L Lopes,1 Ana Paula T Fayh,2,3 Luisa G de Souza Campos,4 Bruno C Teixeira,1 Randhall B Kreismann Carteri,1 Jerri L Ribeiro,4 Rogério Friedman,2 Álvaro Reischak-Oliveira1 1Exercise Research Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 2Endocrine Unit, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 3Health Sciences College of Trairi, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Santa Cruz, RN, Brazil; 4Centro Universitário Metodista – IPA, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Background: Diet and exercise are often prescribed as primary intervention regarding obesity-related disorders. Additionally, recent studies have shown beneficial effects of weight loss through diet and exercise in ghrelin concentrations in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 5% weight loss on lipid profile, resting metabolic rate (RMR, and acylated ghrelin (AG using two different methods of intervention (diet or diet plus exercise. Materials and methods: Eighteen subjects (twelve women and six men aged 20–40 years with a body mass index of 30–34.9 kg/m2 (grade 1 obesity were randomized into two intervention groups: diet (n=9 or diet plus exercise (n=9. Both groups underwent treatment until 5% of the initial body weight was lost. At baseline and upon completion, RMR and AG were analyzed. Results: Both groups showed a significant decrease in body fat percentage and fat mass. The diet-plus-exercise group showed a decrease in AG (pre: 54.4±25.3 pg/mL and post: 33.2±19.1 pg/mL and an increase in RMR (pre: 1,363±379 kcal/day, post: 1,633±223 kcal/day. Conclusion: These data suggest that diet plus exercise induced weight loss and had beneficial effects on AG concentration and RMR, essential factors to ensure the benefits of a weight-loss program. Keywords: exercise therapy, diet, energy regulation, obesity

  11. Weight restoration on a high carbohydrate refeeding diet promotes rapid weight regain and hepatic lipid accumulation in female anorexic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Erin D; Hagman, Jennifer; Pan, Zhaoxing; MacLean, Paul S; Higgins, Janine A

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no standard clinical refeeding diet for the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN). To provide the most efficacious AN clinical care, it is necessary to define the metabolic effects of current refeeding diets. An activity-based model of anorexia nervosa (AN) was used in female rats. AN was induced over 7d by timed access to low fat (LF) diet with free access to a running wheel. Plasma hormones/metabolites and body composition were assessed at baseline, AN diagnosis (day 0), and following 28d of refeeding on LF diet. Energy balance and expenditure were measured via continuous indirect calorimetry on days -3 to +3. AN induction caused stress as indicated by higher levels of corticosterone versus controls (p weight gain during refeeding was higher in AN rats than controls (p = 0.0188), despite lower overall energy intake (p weight as controls. It is possible that liver lipid accumulation was caused by overfeeding of carbohydrate suggesting that a lower carbohydrate, higher fat diet may be beneficial during AN treatment. To test whether such a diet would be accepted clinically, we conducted a study in adolescent female AN patients which showed equivalent palatability and acceptability for LF and moderate fat diets. In addition, this diet was feasible to provide clinically during inpatient treatment in this population. Refeeding a LF diet to restore body weight in female AN rats caused depressed TEE and REE which facilitated rapid regain. However, this weight gain was metabolically unhealthy as it resulted in elevated lipid accumulation in the liver. It is necessary to investigate the use of other diets, such as lower carbohydrate, moderate fat diets, in pre-clinical models to develop the optimal clinical refeeding diets for AN.

  12. Impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and endothelial function in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Heike; Hofmann, Anja; Brunssen, Coy; Goettsch, Winfried; Morawietz, Henning

    2015-05-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are important cardiovascular risk factors. Regular physical exercise has been shown to mediate beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the impact of physical exercise on endothelial function in proatherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice has not been studied so far. Six-week-old male LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet (39 kcal% fat diet) for 20 weeks. The impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and amount of white adipose tissue was monitored. Basal tone and endothelial function was investigated in aortic rings using a Mulvany myograph. LDLR(-/-) mice on high-fat diet had increased cumulative food energy intake, but also higher physical activity compared to mice on control diet. Body weight and amount of visceral and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of LDLR(-/-) mice were significantly increased by high-fat diet and partially reduced by voluntary running. Endothelial function in aortae of LDLR(-/-) mice was impaired after 20 weeks on standard and high-fat diet and could not be improved by voluntary running. Basal tone showed a trend to be increased by high-fat diet. Voluntary running reduced body weight and amount of white adipose tissue in LDLR(-/-) mice. Endothelial dysfunction in LDLR(-/-) mice could not be improved by voluntary running. In a clinical context, physical exercise alone might not have an influence on functional parameters and LDL-C levels in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. However, physical activity in these patients may be in general beneficial and should be performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Religion, body satisfaction and dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Karen Hye-Cheon

    2006-05-01

    Western societal pressures of thinness have assigned worth to the ideal body, contributing to body dissatisfaction and increased dieting. A social factor that may serve as an alternative avenue of worth than the body is religion. Survey data from a community sample (n=546) was collected to examine religion's relationships with body satisfaction and dieting. Religion was significantly related to greater body satisfaction and less dieting, and specifically negative aspects of religion were related to lower body satisfaction and greater dieting. Those utilizing more negative religious coping had lower body satisfaction (women: r=-0.47; men: r=-0.58). Self-esteem was a mediator in these relationships. In women, those reporting higher negative congregational social support were more likely to diet than those reporting lower levels (CI: 2.0; 1.2, 3.5). Overall, religion was related to body satisfaction and dieting, with specifically negative aspects of religion having more consistent and stronger relationships than other components of religion.

  14. Effect of mediterranean diet in diabetes control and cardiovascular risk modification: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Dana; Al-Badri, Marwa R; Azar, Sami T

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been a worldwide significant increase in the incidence of type II diabetes mellitus with both increase in morbidity and mortality. Controlling diabetes through life style modifications, including diet and exercise has always been the cornerstone in diabetes management. Increasing evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet could be of benefit in diseases associated with chronic inflammation, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity as well as atherosclerosis, cancer, pulmonary diseases, and cognition disorders As a matter of fact, a number of studies addressed the relationship between Mediterranean diet and diabetes control. The result of these studies was conflicting. Some were able to elicit a protective role, while others showed no added benefit. As a result; we decided to conduct a systematic review to have a better understanding of the relationship between adherence to Mediterranean diet and diabetes control. A systematic review was conducted on the effect of Mediterranean diet in diabetes control and cardiovascular risk modification as well as the possible mechanism through which this diet might exhibit its beneficial role. We did a comprehensive search of multiple electronic databases such as Medline, Google Scholars, PubMed, and the Cochrane central register data until May 2014. We included cross-sectional, prospective, and controlled clinical trials that looked at the associations between Mediterranean diet and indices of diabetes control such HbA1c, fasting glucose, and homeostasis model assessment, in addition to cardiovascular and peripheral vascular outcomes. Most of the studies showed favorable effects of Mediterranean diet on glycemic control and CVD, although a certain degree of controversy remains regarding some issues, such as obesity. Important methodological differences and limitations in the studies make it difficult to compare results, thus further longer term studies are needed to evaluate the long

  15. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and academic performance in youth: the UP&DOWN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Izquierdo-Gomez, Rocio; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Padilla-Moledo, Carmen; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Marcos, Ascensión; Veiga, Oscar L

    2016-04-01

    To examine the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and academic performance in children and adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 1371 youth aged 12.04 ± 2.50 years (685 girls) in Spain during 2011-2012. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using the KIDMED index (Mediterranean Diet Quality Index in children and adolescents), which includes 16 questions on specific dietary patterns. Levels of adherence were classified into three groups: poor adherence (0-3), average adherence (4-7), and good adherence (8-12). Academic performance was assessed through school records using four indicators: math, language, an average of math and language, and grade point average score. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was related to academic performance (β ranging from 0.107 to 0.148; all P academic indicators compared with the poor group (ranging from +0.429 to 0.464; all P ≤ 0.001); as well as the group of average adherence to the Mediterranean diet had significantly higher scores in all of the academic indicators compared with the poor group (ranging from +0.292 to 0.344; all P ≤ 0.06). There were no differences between the groups of good and average adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet may have a beneficial influence on academic performance in youth. Importantly, the benefits of adherence to the Mediterranean diet on academic performance may be stronger as youth adhered to the optimal Mediterranean diet levels.

  16. Nutritive value of diets containing fish silage for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Bonne, 1931).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Pedro; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Soberano, Sofía; Taboada, J Gabriel; Pérez, Marquelia; Rosas, Carlos; Cuzon, Gerard; Espinosa, L Gabriela; Sotelo, Angela

    2012-08-30

    Fish wastes has been used for many years as an alternative in feeds for aquaculture. In the present study weight gain of juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets including fish waste silage (WS), fish waste silage with soybean meal SBM (WS + S) or fish waste meal (WM) was compared. A conventional acidic silage process was applied to obtain from wastes (skin, heads, bones and viscera) of snapper (Lutjanus spp.), grunt (Haemulon plumieri), and grouper (Epinephelus spp.) an ingredient rich in protein. After 3 days ensilage more than 90% protein was hydrolysed. Waste material processed at pH 3.8 lost about 24% tryptophan. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) prevented lipid oxidation, as shown after 45 days with malonaldehyde production. Shrimp fed WS + S diet gained 0.7 g per week higher than those fed WS and WM diets with 0.3 g per week (P < 0.05). WS processed with formic acid under conditions of low pH is beneficial for the white shrimp L. vannamei. It sustained reasonable weight gain combined with soybean meal in practical diets. On the other hand, BHT addition was beneficial in preventing oxidative action during silage preparation. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effects of taurine supplementation on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ja

    2009-01-01

    Taurine supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect on femur bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received sham operation (SHAM), and received either control diet or a taurine supplemented diet for 6 weeks. All rats were fed on calcium deficient diet (AIN-93: 50% level of calcium) and deionized water. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. Bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks immunoassay and corrected for creatinine. Urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, osteocalcin in blood and cross link value were not significantly different among the groups. Within the OVX group, the taurine supplemented group had not higher femur bone mineral content than the control group. This study established the need for a study on the taurine effect on bone with different calcium levels.

  18. The gut microbial community in metabolic syndrome patients is modified by diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Carmen; Garcia-Carpintero, Sonia; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Rangel Zuñiga, Oriol A; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia M; Landa, Blanca B; Clemente, Jose C; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Camargo, Antonio; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota changes may be involved in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is a multicomponent disorder frequently associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to test the effect of consuming two healthy diets: a Mediterranean diet and a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet, for 2years in the gut microbiota of MetS patients and those in the control group. We analyzed the differences in the bacterial community structure between the groups after 2years of dietary intervention (Mediterranean or low-fat diet) through quantitative polymerase chain reaction using primers, targeting specific bacterial taxa. We observed, at basal time, that the abundance of Bacteroides, Eubacterium and Lactobacillus genera is lower in the control group than in MetS patients, while Bacteroides fragilis group, Parabacteroides distasonis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Ruminococcus flavefaciens subgroup and Eubacterium rectale are depleted in MetS patients (all P values diet partially restores the population of P. distasonis, B. thetaiotaomicron, F. prausnitzii, B. adolescentis and B. longum in MetS patients (all P values diet could be a useful tool to restore potentially beneficial members of the gut microbiota, although the stability of these changes over time still remains to be assessed.

  19. Vegetarian Diets in the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahleova, Hana; Pelikanova, Terezie

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies show that prevalence of type 2 diabetes is 1.6 to 2 times lower in vegetarians than in the general population, even after adjustment for differences in body mass index (BMI). Clinical interventional trials demonstrated that vegetarian diets lead to a greater weight loss and greater reduction in fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, blood lipids, and hypoglycemic medication than a conventional hypocaloric diet in subjects with type 2 diabetes. We found a greater reduction in visceral fat and greater improvements in insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers with a vegetarian compared to a conventional hypocaloric diabetic diet. Vegetarian diets are sustainable in the long term and may elicit desirable improvements not only in physical health but also in mental health. The American Dietetic Association states that well-planned vegetarian diets are healthy and nutritionally adequate and they may be beneficial in prevention and treatment of some illnesses. Larger clinical trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness and promote the inclusion of vegetarian diets in dietary guidelines for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  20. Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet and incident fractures: pooled analysis of observational evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Laukkanen, Jari A; Whitehouse, Michael R; Blom, Ashley W

    2017-03-22

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality from various chronic diseases. Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet has been suggested to have protective effects on bone health and decreases the incidence of bone fractures, but the evidence is not clear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of available observational studies to quantify the association between adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet, as assessed by the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), and the risk of fractures in the general population. Relevant studies were identified in a literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and reference lists of relevant studies to October 2016. Relative risks (RRS) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were aggregated using random-effects models. Five observational studies with data on 353,076 non-overlapping participants and 33,576 total fractures (including 6,881 hip fractures) were included. The pooled fully adjusted RR (95% CI) for hip fractures per 2-point increment in adherence to the MDS was 0.82 (0.71-0.96). Adherence to the MDS was not associated with the risk of any or total fractures based on pooled analysis of only two studies. Limited observational evidence supports a beneficial effect of adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet on the incidence of hip fractures. Well-designed intervention studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet and the risk of adverse bone health outcomes such as fractures.

  1. Oleocanthal, a Phenolic Derived from Virgin Olive Oil: A Review of the Beneficial Effects on Inflammatory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Parkinson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is credited as being one of many healthful components of the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday dietary pattern. A phenolic compound contained in VOO, named oleocanthal, shares unique perceptual and anti-inflammatory characteristics with Ibuprofen. Over recent years oleocanthal has become a compound of interest in the search for naturally occurring compounds with pharmacological qualities. Subsequent to its discovery and identification, oleocanthal has been reported to exhibit various modes of action in reducing inflammatory related disease, including joint-degenerative disease, neuro-degenerative disease and specific cancers. Therefore, it is postulated that long term consumption of VOO containing oleocanthal may contribute to the health benefits associated with the Mediterranean dietary pattern. The following paper summarizes the current literature on oleocanthal, in terms of its sensory and pharmacological properties, and also discusses the beneficial, health promoting activities of oleocanthal, in the context of the molecular mechanisms within various models of disease.

  2. The modified atkins diet in refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suvasini; Jain, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a less restrictive variation of the ketogenic diet. This diet is started on an outpatient basis without a fast, allows unlimited protein and fat, and does not restrict calories or fluids. Recent studies have shown good efficacy and tolerability of this diet in refractory epilepsy. In this review, we discuss the use of the modified Atkins diet in refractory epilepsy.

  3. The Modified Atkins Diet in Refractory Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvasini Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modified Atkins diet is a less restrictive variation of the ketogenic diet. This diet is started on an outpatient basis without a fast, allows unlimited protein and fat, and does not restrict calories or fluids. Recent studies have shown good efficacy and tolerability of this diet in refractory epilepsy. In this review, we discuss the use of the modified Atkins diet in refractory epilepsy.

  4. Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Guerre-Millo, Michéle; Flindt, Esben N

    2002-01-01

    completely prevented diet-induced insulin resistance and adiposity. In genetically obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats TTA treatment reduced the epididymal adipose tissue mass and improved insulin sensitivity. All three rodent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subtypes were activated by TTA......Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a non-beta-oxidizable fatty acid analog, which potently regulates lipid homeostasis. Here we evaluate the ability of TTA to prevent diet-induced and genetically determined adiposity and insulin resistance. In Wistar rats fed a high fat diet, TTA administration...... that a TTA-induced increase in hepatic fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis drains fatty acids from blood and extrahepatic tissues and that this contributes significantly to the beneficial effects of TTA on fat mass accumulation and peripheral insulin sensitivity....

  5. Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Syrian Mesquite (Prosopis farcta) Root in High Cholesterol Diet-Fed Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Mohammad Reza; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Miraghaee, Shahram; Babaei, Atefeh; Mohammadi, Bahareh; Bahrami, Mohammad Taher; Bahrami, Gholamreza

    2016-10-01

    Prosopis farcta root has been proposed as an efficacious natural drug for cardiovascular disorders in traditional medicine. The present study evaluates the efficacy of aqueous extract of Prosopis farcta root on experimental atherosclerosis development in rabbits with high cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. Serum lipid parameters were significantly increased in the high cholesterol diet groups in comparison with the normal control group (P Prosopis farcta root significantly reduced total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein levels compared to high cholesterol diet rabbits (P < .050). This finding may reflect a reduction of chest pain or the beneficial effects of this plant root extract on cardiovascular health. The present study can serve as a basis for future investigations on the other effects of this plant on cardiovascular health.

  6. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on muscle fatty acid composition in goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahim Abubakr

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the effects of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on different muscle fatty acid profiles in goats. Thirty-two Cacang × Boer goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1 control diet (CD, (2 80% decanter cake diet (DCD, (3 80% palm kernel cake diet (PKCD and (4 CD plus 5% palm oil (PO supplemented diet (CPOD. After 100 days of feeding, four goats from each group were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD, infraspinatus (IS and biceps femoris (BF were sampled for analysis of fatty acids. Goats fed the PKCD had higher (P<0.05 concentration of lauric acid (C12:0 than those fed the other diets in all the muscles tested. Compared to the other diets, the concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0 and stearic acid (C18:0 were lower (P<0.05 and that of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6 was higher (P<0.05 in the muscles from goats fed the CD. It was concluded that palm kernel cake and decanter cake can be included in the diet of goats up to 80% with more beneficial than detrimental effects on the fatty acid profile of their meat.

  7. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on muscle fatty acid composition in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effects of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on different muscle fatty acid profiles in goats. Thirty-two Cacang × Boer goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1) control diet (CD), (2) 80% decanter cake diet (DCD), (3) 80% palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and (4) CD plus 5% palm oil (PO) supplemented diet (CPOD). After 100 days of feeding, four goats from each group were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD), infraspinatus (IS) and biceps femoris (BF) were sampled for analysis of fatty acids. Goats fed the PKCD had higher (P<0.05) concentration of lauric acid (C12:0) than those fed the other diets in all the muscles tested. Compared to the other diets, the concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) were lower (P<0.05) and that of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) was higher (P<0.05) in the muscles from goats fed the CD. It was concluded that palm kernel cake and decanter cake can be included in the diet of goats up to 80% with more beneficial than detrimental effects on the fatty acid profile of their meat.

  8. Beneficial effects of fruit extracts on neuronal function and behavior following 56Fe irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A. N.; Jenkins, D.; Rabin, B. M.

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge HZE particles enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals Previous research has shown that diets supplemented with 2 blueberry or strawberry extracts have the ability to retard and even reverse age-related deficits in behavior and signal transduction in rats perhaps due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties This study evaluated the efficacy of these diets on irradiation-induced deficits in these parameters by maintaining rats on these diets or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to whole-body irradiation with 1 5 Gy of 1 GeV n high-energy 56 Fe particles Irradiation impaired performance in the Morris water maze and measures of dopamine release one month following radiation these deficits were protected by the antioxidant diets The strawberry diet offered better protection against spatial deficits in the maze because strawberry-fed animals were better able to retain place information a hippocampally-mediated behavior compared to controls The blueberry diet on the other hand seemed to improve reversal learning a behavior more dependent on intact striatal function These data suggest that 56 Fe particle irradiation causes deficits in behavior and signaling in rats which were ameliorated by an antioxidant diet and that the polyphenols in these fruits might be acting in different brain regions

  9. Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mi Lee

    Full Text Available Several intervention studies have suggested that vegetarian or vegan diets have clinical benefits, particularly in terms of glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D; however, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted in Asians who more commonly depend on plant-based foods, as compared to Western populations. Here, we aimed to compare the effect of a vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control among Korean individuals.Participants diagnosed with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegan diet (excluding animal-based food including fish; n = 46 or a conventional diet recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association 2011 (n = 47 for 12 weeks. HbA1c levels were measured at weeks 0, 4, and 12, and the primary study endpoint was the change in HbA1c levels over 12 weeks.The mean HbA1c levels at weeks 0, 4, and 12 were 7.7%, 7.2%, and 7.1% in the vegan group, and 7.4%, 7.2%, and 7.2% in the conventional group, respectively. Although both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1C levels, the reductions were larger in the vegan group than in the conventional group (-0.5% vs. -0.2%; p-for-interaction = 0.017. When only considering participants with high compliance, the difference in HbA1c level reduction between the groups was found to be larger (-0.9% vs. -0.3%. The beneficial effect of vegan diets was noted even after adjusting for changes in total energy intake or waist circumference over the 12 weeks.Both diets led to reductions in HbA1c levels; however, glycemic control was better with the vegan diet than with the conventional diet. Thus, the dietary guidelines for patients with T2D should include a vegan diet for the better management and treatment. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a vegan diet, and to identify potential explanations of the underlying mechanisms.CRiS KCT0001771.

  10. Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Mi; Kim, Se-A; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Guk; Park, Keun-Gyu; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Jae-Han; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Several intervention studies have suggested that vegetarian or vegan diets have clinical benefits, particularly in terms of glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted in Asians who more commonly depend on plant-based foods, as compared to Western populations. Here, we aimed to compare the effect of a vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control among Korean individuals. Participants diagnosed with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegan diet (excluding animal-based food including fish; n = 46) or a conventional diet recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association 2011 (n = 47) for 12 weeks. HbA1c levels were measured at weeks 0, 4, and 12, and the primary study endpoint was the change in HbA1c levels over 12 weeks. The mean HbA1c levels at weeks 0, 4, and 12 were 7.7%, 7.2%, and 7.1% in the vegan group, and 7.4%, 7.2%, and 7.2% in the conventional group, respectively. Although both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1C levels, the reductions were larger in the vegan group than in the conventional group (-0.5% vs. -0.2%; p-for-interaction = 0.017). When only considering participants with high compliance, the difference in HbA1c level reduction between the groups was found to be larger (-0.9% vs. -0.3%). The beneficial effect of vegan diets was noted even after adjusting for changes in total energy intake or waist circumference over the 12 weeks. Both diets led to reductions in HbA1c levels; however, glycemic control was better with the vegan diet than with the conventional diet. Thus, the dietary guidelines for patients with T2D should include a vegan diet for the better management and treatment. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a vegan diet, and to identify potential explanations of the underlying mechanisms. CRiS KCT0001771.

  11. Administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor accompanied with a balanced diet improves cardiac function alterations induced by high fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltro, Pâmela Santana; Alves, Paula Santana; Castro, Murilo Fagundes; Azevedo, Carine M; Vasconcelos, Juliana Fraga; Allahdadi, Kyan James; de Freitas, Luiz Antônio Rodrigues; de Freitas Souza, Bruno Solano; Dos Santos, Ricardo Ribeiro; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira; Macambira, Simone Garcia

    2015-12-03

    High fat diet (HFD) is a major contributor to the development of obesity and cardiovascular diseases due to the induction of cardiac structural and hemodynamic abnormalities. We used a model of diabetic cardiomyopathy in C57Bl/6 mice fed with a HFD to investigate the effects of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a cytokine known for its beneficial effects in the heart, on cardiac anatomical and functional abnormalities associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Groups of C57Bl/6 mice were fed with standard diet (n = 8) or HFD (n = 16). After 36 weeks, HFD animals were divided into a group treated with G-CSF + standard diet (n = 8) and a vehicle control group + standard diet (n = 8). Cardiac structure and function were assessed by electrocardiography, echocardiography and treadmill tests, in addition to the evaluation of body weight, fasting glicemia, insulin and glucose tolerance at different time points. Histological analyses were performed in the heart tissue. HFD consumption induced metabolic alterations characteristic of type 2 diabetes and obesity, as well as cardiac fibrosis and reduced exercise capacity. Upon returning to a standard diet, obese mice body weight returned to non-obese levels. G-CSF administration accelerated the reduction in of body weight in obese mice. Additionally, G-CSF treatment reduced insulin levels, diminished heart fibrosis, increased exercise capacity and reversed cardiac alterations, including bradycardia, elevated QRS amplitude, augmented P amplitude, increased septal wall thickness, left ventricular posterior thickening and cardiac output reduction. Our results indicate that G-CSF administration caused beneficial effects on obesity-associated cardiac impairment.

  12. Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer Epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Carmen; Issa, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-17

    The search for a connection between diet and human cancer has a long history in cancer research, as has interest in the mechanisms by which dietary factors might increase or decrease cancer risk. The realization that altering diet can alter the epigenetic state of genes and that these epigenetic alterations might increase or decrease cancer risk is a more modern notion, driven largely by studies in animal models. The connections between diet and epigenetic alterations, on the one hand, and between epigenetic alterations and cancer, on the other, are supported by both observational studies in humans as well as animal models. However, the conclusion that diet is linked directly to epigenetic alterations and that these epigenetic alterations directly increase or decrease the risk of human cancer is much less certain. We suggest that true and measurable effects of diet or dietary supplements on epigenotype and cancer risk are most likely to be observed in longitudinal studies and at the extremes of the intersection of dietary risk factors and human population variability. Careful analysis of such outlier populations is most likely to shed light on the molecular mechanisms by which suspected environmental risk factors drive the process of carcinogenesis.

  13. THE EFFECT OF SAUROPUS ANDROGYNUS LEAVES EXTRACT PLUS TURMERIC POWDER ON FAT DEPOSITION, CARCASS QUALITY AND BLOOD PROFILE IN BROILERS FED LOW PROTEIN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Santoso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of Sauropus androgynus leavesextract (SALE plus turmeric powder (TP on carcass quality and blood profile in broilers fed lowprotein diets. Sixty broilers aged 14 days were divided to 5 treatment groups as follows: 1 Broilers fed19% protein diet without SALE plus TP as control (P0; 2 Broilers fed 17% protein diet supplementedto 4.5 g SALE/kg diet plus 0.5% TP (P1; 3 Broilers fed 17% protein diet supplemented to 4.5 gSALE/kg diet plus 1% TP (P2; 4 Broilers fed 15% protein diet supplemented to 4.5 g SALE/kg dietplus 0.5% TP (P3 and; 5 Broilers fed 15% protein diet supplemented to 4.5 g SALE/kg diet plus 1%TP (P4. Supplementation of SALE plus TP significantly affected body weight gain, feed intake, proteinintake, thigh meat haemorrhage and fat deposition (P<0.05. No significantly different was observed oncarcass odor, shank color, breast meat haemorrhage, leg and breast weight, meat cholesterol, fatty liverscore and tocixity (P>0.05. In conclusion suplementation of SALE plus TP had no beneficial effect onreducing fat deposition in broilers fed low protein diets, but it reduced blood uric acid but increasedblood glucose concentration.

  14. Model and test in a fungus of the probability that beneficial mutations survive drift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gifford, D.R.; Visser, de J.A.G.M.; Wahl, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Determining the probability of fixation of beneficial mutations is critically important for building predictive models of adaptive evolution. Despite considerable theoretical work, models of fixation probability have stood untested for nearly a century. However, recent advances in experimental and t

  15. Model and test in a fungus of the probability that beneficial mutations survive drift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gifford, D.R.; Visser, de J.A.G.M.; Wahl, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Determining the probability of fixation of beneficial mutations is critically important for building predictive models of adaptive evolution. Despite considerable theoretical work, models of fixation probability have stood untested for nearly a century. However, recent advances in experimental and

  16. Revaccination with Live Attenuated Vaccines Confer Additional Beneficial Nonspecific Effects on Overall Survival: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine S. Benn

    2016-08-01

    Interpretation: Revaccination with live vaccines led to substantial reductions in overall mortality. These findings challenge current understanding of vaccines and may explain the beneficial effects of campaigns with live vaccines.

  17. To what degree are environmentally beneficial choices reflective of a general conservation stance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Folke

    2006-01-01

    Whether or not different environmentally beneficial choices have common motivational causes are discussed in the framework of partial correlation analysis with structural equation modeling. Correlations between recycling, buying organic food products, and using public transport or bicycle...

  18. To what degree are environmentally beneficial choices reflective of a general conservation stance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    Whether or not different environmentally beneficial choices have common motivational causes are discussed in the framework of partial correlation analysis with structural equation modelling. Correlations between recycling, buying organic food products, and using public transport or bicycle...

  19. Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material Case Study: San Francisco Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major interagency, regional planning effort led to the development of the Long-Term Management Strategy and other planning programs in the San Francisco Bay area. These programs incorporate beneficial uses of dredged material into local projects.

  20. Coal Combustion Residual Beneficial Use Evaluation: Fly Ash Concrete and FGD Gypsum Wallboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains documents related to the evaluation of coal combustion residual beneficial use of fly ash concrete and FGD gypsum wallboard including the evaluation itself and the accompanying appendices

  1. Impact of diet and nutraceutical supplementation on inflammation in elderly people. Results from the RISTOMED study, an open-label randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostan, R; Béné, M C; Spazzafumo, L; Pinto, A; Donini, L M; Pryen, F; Charrouf, Z; Valentini, L; Lochs, H; Bourdel-Marchasson, I; Blanc-Bisson, C; Buccolini, F; Brigidi, P; Franceschi, C; d'Alessio, P A

    2016-08-01

    Eating habits may influence the life span and the quality of ageing process by modulating inflammation. The RISTOMED project was developed to provide a personalized and balanced diet, enriched with or without nutraceutical compounds, to decrease and prevent inflammageing, oxidative stress and gut microbiota alteration in healthy elderly people. This paper focused on the effect on inflammation and metabolism markers after 56 days of RISTOMED diet alone or supplementation with three nutraceutical compounds. A cohort of 125 healthy elderly subjects was recruited and randomized into 4 arms (Arm A, RISTOMED diet; Arm B, RISTOMED diet plus VSL#3 probiotic blend; Arm C, RISTOMED diet plus AISA d-Limonene; Arm D, RISTOMED diet plus Argan oil). Inflammatory and metabolism parameters as well as the ratio between Clostridium cluster IV and Bifidobacteria (CL/B) were collected before and after 56 days of dietary intervention, and their evolution compared among the arms. Moreover, participants were subdivided according to their baseline inflammatory parameters (erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR), C-Reactive Protein, fibrinogen, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alfa (TNF-α), and Interleukin 6) in two clusters with low or medium-high level of inflammation. The evolution of the measured parameters was then examined separately in each cluster. Overall, RISTOMED diet alone or with each nutraceutical supplementation significantly decreased ESR. RISTOMED diet supplemented with d-Limonene resulted in a decrease in fibrinogen, glucose, insulin levels and HOMA-IR. The most beneficial effects were observed in subjects with a medium-high inflammatory status who received RISTOMED diet with AISA d-Limonene supplementation. Moreover, RISTOMED diet associated with VSL#3 probiotic blend induced a decrease in the CL/B ratio. Overall, this study emphasizes the beneficial anti-inflammageing effect of RISTOMED diet supplemented with nutraceuticals to control the inflammatory status of elderly

  2. Evaluation of the use of probiotic (Bacillus subtilis C-3102 as additive to improve performance in broiler chicken diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Oliveira Nunes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the use of probiotic based upon Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (BS in broiler diets containing or not conventional additive growth-promoter (AGP. A total of 1,824 one-day-old chicks of the Cobb-500 strain were used and distributed into 48 plots (1.50 × 2.00 m. A completely randomized design with four treatments and 12 repetitions was adopted. The treatments evaluated were: 1- Negative Control - AGP-free diet (NC; 2 - Positive Control, with AGP halquinol 30 mg/kg diet (PC; 3 - NC + BS (3x10(5 cfu/g diet; and 4 - PC + BS (3x10(5 cfu/g diet. The diets were on corn, soybean meal and meat and bone meal basis, formulated according to the nutrient allowances of the Strain Cobb Guide, following a feed program with three diets (starter, grower and finisher. At 21 and 42 days of age, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were evaluated, and carcass yield characteristics were determined at 42 days of age. Throughout the trial period (starter and total phases, better feed conversion was found for broilers fed diet with both additives (AGP and BS combined. At the end of the experiment (1 to 42 days, the highest weight gain also occurred in broilers fed diets with a combination of the two additives. In present study, the use of BS or AGP alone in diets did not affect the performance of broilers. The carcass yield was not influenced by the use of the additives and beneficial effects of supplementation of BS and AGP combined in the diet on broiler performance were observed.

  3. Beneficial Effects of Probiotic and Food Borne Yeasts on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloomeh Moslehi-Jenabian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides being important in the fermentation of foods and beverages, yeasts have shown numerous beneficial effects on human health. Among these, probiotic effects are the most well known health effects including prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects. Other beneficial functions of yeasts are improvement of bioavailability of minerals through the hydrolysis of phytate, folate biofortification and detoxification of mycotoxins due to surface binding to the yeast cell wall.

  4. Beneficial effects of probiotic and food borne yeasts on human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslehi Jenabian, Saloomeh; Pedersen, Line Lindegaard; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Besides being important in the fermentation of foods and beverages, yeasts have shown numerous beneficial effects on human health. Among these, propiotic effects are the most well known health effects including prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects. Other be...... beneficial functions of yeasts are improvement of bioavailability of minerals through the hydrolysis of phytate, folate biofortification and detoxification of mycotoxins due to surface binding to the yeast cell wall....

  5. DHA supplemented in peptamen diet offers no advantage in pathways to amyloidosis: is it time to evaluate composite lipid diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareen Amtul

    Full Text Available Numerous reports have documented the beneficial effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on beta-amyloid production and Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, none of these studies have examined and compared DHA, in combination with other dietary nutrients, for its effects on plaque pathogenesis. Potential interactions of DHA with other dietary nutrients and fatty acids are conventionally ignored. Here we investigated DHA with two dietary regimes; peptamen (pep+DHA and low fat diet (low fat+DHA. Peptamen base liquid diet is a standard sole-source nutrition for patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction. Here we demonstrate that a robust AD transgenic mouse model shows an increased tendency to produce beta-amyloid peptides and amyloid plaques when fed a pep+DHA diet. The increase in beta-amyloid peptides was due to an elevated trend in the levels of beta-secretase amyloid precursor protein (APP cleaving enzyme (BACE, the proteolytic C-terminal fragment beta of APP and reduced levels of insulin degrading enzyme that endoproteolyse beta-amyloid. On the contrary, TgCRND8 mice on low fat+DHA diet (based on an approximately 18% reduction of fat intake ameliorate the production of abeta peptides and consequently amyloid plaques. Our work not only demonstrates that DHA when taken with peptamen may have a tendency to confer a detrimental affect on the amyloid plaque build up but also reinforces the importance of studying composite lipids or nutrients rather than single lipids or nutrients for their effects on pathways important to plaque development.

  6. Genes, diet and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Shelling, Andrew N; Browning, Brian L; Huebner, Claudia; Petermann, Ivonne

    2007-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises in part from a genetic predisposition, through the inheritance of a number of contributory genetic polymorphisms. These variant forms of genes may be associated with an abnormal response to normal luminal bacteria. A consistent observation across most populations is that any of three polymorphisms of the Caspase-activated recruitment domain (CARD15) gene are more prevalent in IBD patients as compared with unaffected controls. Similar aberrant responses to bacteria are associated with variants in Autophagy-related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1) and human defensin (HBD-2, -3 and -4) genes. The defective bacterial signal in turn leads to an excessive immune response, presenting as chronic gut inflammation in susceptible individuals. Inconsistent population reports implicate the major histocompatability complex (MHC), that encodes a number of human leukocyte antigens (HLA), MHC class I chain-related gene A (MICA) or cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Toll-like receptors encoded by the TLR4 or TLR9 genes may also play a role. Recent whole genome scans suggest that a rare variant in the interleukin-23 receptor (IL23R) gene may actually protect against IBD. Other implicated genes may affect mucosal cell polarity (Drosophila discs large homologue 5, DLG5) or mucosal transporter function (sodium dependent organic cation transporters, SLC22A4 and SLC22A5). A variant in ABCB1 (ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1) may be especially associated with increased risk of UC. While pharmacogenetics is increasingly being used to predict and optimise clinical response to therapy, nutrigenetics may have even greater potential. In many cases, IBD can be controlled through prescribing an elemental diet, which appears to act through modulating cytokine response and changing the gut microbiota. More generally, no single group of dietary items is beneficial or detrimental to all patients, and elimination diets have been used to

  7. Organic diets are equally good for rainbow trout fry as conventional diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Ingerslev, Hans Christian; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2014-01-01

    OPTIFISH has been to elucidate the effect of diet ingredients on fish health. Diets with either organic or non-organic ingredients were compared. The OPTIFISH project has shown that the ingredient type in the diet is more important for the bacterial intestinal microbiota of the fish than if the diet...... ingredients are of organic or conventional origin. Furthermore, fish fed organic diets appear to acquire the same health status as fish fed conventional diets....

  8. Organic diets are equally good for rainbow trout fry as conventional diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Ingerslev, Hans Christian; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2014-01-01

    OPTIFISH has been to elucidate the effect of diet ingredients on fish health. Diets with either organic or non-organic ingredients were compared. The OPTIFISH project has shown that the ingredient type in the diet is more important for the bacterial intestinal microbiota of the fish than if the diet...... ingredients are of organic or conventional origin. Furthermore, fish fed organic diets appear to acquire the same health status as fish fed conventional diets....

  9. An evaluation of the atkins' diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bernard V; Bertino, Joseph S; Reed, Roberta G; Burrington, Christine M; Davidson, Leslie K; Green, Allan; Gartung, Anne M; Nafziger, Anne N

    2003-12-01

    Low-carbohydrate (LC) weight-reducing diets are popular choices for self-dieters. Eighteen adults (BMI >/= 25 kg/m(2)) were enrolled in this short-term longitudinal study to evaluate dietary intake and weight on their "usual" diets and LC diet. Subjects were instructed to follow the first two phases of the diet described in Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution (2 weeks each). Total daily intake of calories and nutrients were calculated from 3-day food diaries. Body weight was measured at the end of each 2-week diet session. All enrolled subjects completed the study (age = 39.8 +/- 8.1 years, BMI = 36.6 +/- 6.6 kg/m(2)). Mean caloric intakes were 1400 +/- 472 kcal/day (Induction diet) and 1558 +/- 490 kcal/day (Ongoing Weight Loss diet) both p diet) 2481 +/- 723 kcal/day. Body weights were 107.4 +/- 24.2 kg, 103.6 +/- 23.0 kg and 102.1 +/- 22.6 kg at the conclusion of the Baseline, Induction, and Ongoing Weight Loss diets, respectively (both p diets versus "usual" diet. Caloric intake is decreased when otherwise healthy overweight and obese adults self-implement Atkins' Induction and Ongoing Weight Loss diets and significantly altered their dietary micronutrient intake. Weight loss can be explained by the self-selected lower caloric intake on The Atkins' Diet.

  10. Diet as prophylaxis and treatment for venous thromboembolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cundiff David K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE: deep venous thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary emboli (PE with anticoagulants are associated with significant risks of major and fatal hemorrhage. Anticoagulation treatment of VTE has been the standard of care in the USA since before 1962 when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began requiring randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs showing efficacy, so efficacy trials were never required for FDA approval. In clinical trials of 'high VTE risk' surgical patients before the 1980s, anticoagulant prophylaxis was clearly beneficial (fatal pulmonary emboli (FPE without anticoagulants = 0.99%, FPE with anticoagulants = 0.31%. However, observational studies and RCTs of 'high VTE risk' surgical patients from the 1980s until 2010 show that FPE deaths without anticoagulants are about one-fourth the rate that occurs during prophylaxis with anticoagulants (FPE without anticoagulants = 0.023%, FPE while receiving anticoagulant prophylaxis = 0.10%. Additionally, an FPE rate of about 0.012% (35/28,400 in patients receiving prophylactic anticoagulants can be attributed to 'rebound hypercoagulation' in the two months after stopping anticoagulants. Alternatives to anticoagulant prophylaxis should be explored. Methods and Findings The literature concerning dietary influences on VTE incidence was reviewed. Hypotheses concerning the etiology of VTE were critiqued in relationship to the rationale for dietary versus anticoagulant approaches to prophylaxis and treatment. Epidemiological evidence suggests that a diet with ample fruits and vegetables and little meat may substantially reduce the risk of VTE; vegetarian, vegan, or Mediterranean diets favorably affect serum markers of hemostasis and inflammation. The valve cusp hypoxia hypothesis of DVT/VTE etiology is consistent with the development of VTE being affected directly or indirectly by diet. However, it is less consistent with

  11. Diet of canvasbacks during breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Serie, J.R.; Noyes, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    We examined diets of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding in southwestern Manitoba during 1977-81. Percent volume of animal foods consumed did not differ between males and females nor among prenesting, rapid follicle growth, laying, incubation, and renesting periods in females (mean = 50.1%). Tubers and shoots of fennelleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and midge larvae (Chironomidae) were the predominant foods, comprising on average 45% and 23% of the diet volume, respectively. Continued importance of plant foods to canvasbacks throughout reproduction contrasts with the mostly invertebrate diets of other prairie-breeding ducks, and does not fit current theories of nutritional ecology of breeding anatids (i.e., females meet the protein requirements of reproduction by consuming a high proportion of animal foods).

  12. Does diet really affect acne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsian, H R; Levin, S

    2010-03-01

    Acne vulgaris has anecdotally been attributed to diet by individuals affected by this skin condition. In a 2009 systematic literature review of 21 observational studies and 6 clinical trials, the association between acne and diet was evaluated. Observational studies, including 2 large controlled prospective trials, reported that cow's milk intake increased acne prevalence and severity. Furthermore, prospective studies, including randomized controlled trials, demonstrated a positive association between a high-glycemic-load diet, hormonal mediators, and acne risk. Based on these findings, there exists convincing data supporting the role of dairy products and high-glycemic-index foods in influencing hormonal and inflammatory factors, which can increase acne prevalence and severity. Studies have been inconclusive regarding the association between acne and other foods.

  13. Fluorescent Pseudomonas Strains with only Few Plant-Beneficial Properties Are Favored in the Maize Rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacheron, Jordan; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Dubost, Audrey; Gonçalves-Martins, Maximilien; Muller, Daniel; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant health and growth using a variety of traits. Effective PGPR strains typically exhibit multiple plant-beneficial properties, but whether they are better adapted to the rhizosphere than PGPR strains with fewer plant-beneficial properties is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that strains with higher numbers of plant-beneficial properties would be preferentially selected by plant roots. To this end, the co-occurrence of 18 properties involved in enhanced plant nutrition, plant hormone modulation, or pathogen inhibition was analyzed by molecular and biochemical methods in a collection of maize rhizosphere and bulk soil isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas. Twelve plant-beneficial properties were found among the 698 isolates. Contrarily to expectation, maize preferentially selected pseudomonads with low numbers of plant-beneficial properties (up to five). This selection was not due to the predominance of strains with specific assortments of these properties, or with specific taxonomic status. Therefore, the occurrence of only few plant-beneficial properties appeared favorable for root colonization by pseudomonads. PMID:27610110

  14. Experimental evolution as an underutilized tool for studying beneficial animal-microbe interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Loan Hoang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms play a significant role in the evolution and functioning of the eukaryotes with which they interact. Much of our understanding of beneficial host-microbe interactions stems from studying already established associations; we often infer the genotypic and environmental conditions that led to the existing host-microbe relationships. However, several outstanding questions remain, including understanding how host and microbial (internal traits, and ecological and evolutionary (external processes, influence the origin of beneficial host-microbe associations. Experimental evolution has helped address a range of evolutionary and ecological questions across different model systems; however, it has been greatly underutilized as a tool to study beneficial host-microbe associations. In this review, we suggest ways in which experimental evolution can further our understanding of the proximate and ultimate mechanisms shaping mutualistic interactions between eukaryotic hosts and microbes. By tracking beneficial interactions under defined conditions or evolving novel associations among hosts and microbes with little prior evolutionary interaction, we can link specific genotypes to phenotypes that can be directly measured. Moreover, this approach will help address existing puzzles in beneficial symbiosis research: how symbioses evolve, how symbioses are maintained, and how both host and microbe influence their partner’s evolutionary trajectories. By bridging theoretical predictions and empirical tests, experimental evolution provides us with another approach to test hypotheses regarding the evolution of beneficial host-microbe associations.

  15. Fluorescent Pseudomonas strains with only few plant-beneficial properties are favored in the maize rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan VACHERON

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR enhance plant health and growth using a variety of traits. Effective PGPR strains typically exhibit multiple plant-beneficial properties, but whether they are better adapted to the rhizosphere than PGPR strains with fewer plant-beneficial properties is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that strains with higher numbers of plant-beneficial properties would be preferentially selected by plant roots. To this end, the co-occurrence of 18 properties involved in enhanced plant nutrition, plant hormone modulation, or pathogen inhibition was analyzed by molecular and biochemical methods in a collection of maize rhizosphere and bulk soil isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas. Twelve plant-beneficial properties were found among the 698 isolates. Contrarily to expectation, maize preferentially selected pseudomonads with low numbers of plant-beneficial properties (up to five. This selection was not due to the predominance of strains with specific assortments of these properties, or with specific taxonomic status. Therefore, the occurrence of only few plant-beneficial properties appeared favorable for root colonization by pseudomonads.

  16. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-06-29

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  17. Fluorescent Pseudomonas Strains with only Few Plant-Beneficial Properties Are Favored in the Maize Rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacheron, Jordan; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Dubost, Audrey; Gonçalves-Martins, Maximilien; Muller, Daniel; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant health and growth using a variety of traits. Effective PGPR strains typically exhibit multiple plant-beneficial properties, but whether they are better adapted to the rhizosphere than PGPR strains with fewer plant-beneficial properties is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that strains with higher numbers of plant-beneficial properties would be preferentially selected by plant roots. To this end, the co-occurrence of 18 properties involved in enhanced plant nutrition, plant hormone modulation, or pathogen inhibition was analyzed by molecular and biochemical methods in a collection of maize rhizosphere and bulk soil isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas. Twelve plant-beneficial properties were found among the 698 isolates. Contrarily to expectation, maize preferentially selected pseudomonads with low numbers of plant-beneficial properties (up to five). This selection was not due to the predominance of strains with specific assortments of these properties, or with specific taxonomic status. Therefore, the occurrence of only few plant-beneficial properties appeared favorable for root colonization by pseudomonads.

  18. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp. are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus; however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  19. Effect of Mediterranean Diet in Diabetes Control and Cardiovascular Risk Modification: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana eSleiman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past few years, there has been a worldwide significant increase in the incidence of type II diabetes (T2DM with both increase in morbidity and mortality. Controlling diabetes through life style modifications, including diet and exercise has always been the cornerstone in diabetes management. As a matter of fact, a number of studies addressed the potential protective role of Mediterranean diet in diabetic patients. Increasing evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet could be of benefit in diseases associated with chronic inflammation, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity as well as atherosclerosis, cancer, pulmonary diseases, and cognition disorders. Methods: A systematic review was conducted on the effect of Mediterranean diet in diabetes control and cardiovascular risk modification as well as the possible mechanism through which this diet might exhibit its beneficial role. We did a comprehensive search of multiple electronic databases such as Medline, Google Scholars, PubMed, and the Cochrane central register data until May 2014. We included cross-sectional, prospective and controlled clinical trials that looked at the associations between Mediterranean diet and indices of diabetes control such HbA1c, fasting glucose, and HOMA, in addition to cardiovascular and peripheral vascular outcomes.Outcome/Conclusion: Most of the studies showed favorable effects of Mediterranean diet on glycemic control and CVD, although a certain degree of controversy remains regarding some issues, such as obesity. Important methodological differences and limitations in the studies make it difficult to compare results, thus further longer term studies are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the Mediterranean diet along with the possibility of explaining its mechanism.

  20. Low-energy-density diets are associated with higher diet quality and higher diet costs in French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Monsivais, Pablo; Maillot, Matthieu; Darmon, Nicole

    2007-06-01

    Low-energy-density diets are often recommended for weight control. Such diets have a higher nutrient content than do high-energy-density diets. This study tested the hypothesis that energy-dense diets have a relatively low monetary cost, whereas less energy-dense diets are more expensive. In this cross-sectional study, dietary intakes of 1,474 French adults (672 men, 802 women), aged 15 to 92 years, were assessed using 7-day diet records. Dietary energy density (kcal/g) was calculated by dividing total dietary energy by the edible weight of foods and caloric beverages consumed. Diet cost ($/7 days or $/2,000 kcal) was estimated using mean national food prices for 895 foods. The relationship between dietary energy density and diet cost was examined in a linear regression model. Within each quintile of energy intakes, the more energy-dense diets were associated with lower diet quality and with lower diet costs (r(2)=0.38 to 0.44). In a regression model, the more energy-dense diets cost less, whereas low-energy-density diets cost substantially more, adjusting for energy intakes, sex, and age. The finding that energy-dense diets cost less per 2,000 kcal may help explain why the highest rates of obesity are observed among groups of limited economic means. The finding that low-energy-density diets are associated with higher diet costs suggests that lasting improvements in diet quality may require economic as well as behavioral interventions.

  1. Beneficial rhizobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Charlotte Frydenlund

    to protect tomato seedlings against R. solani infection. Various molecular and biochemical methods, such as PCR and sequence analysis, genome mining, gene knock-out, heterologous recombination, TLC and HPLC analyses were used in order to assess the antifungal mechanisms of P. fluorescens In5. In addition...

  2. Beneficial rhizobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Charlotte Frydenlund

    to protect tomato seedlings against R. solani infection. Various molecular and biochemical methods, such as PCR and sequence analysis, genome mining, gene knock-out, heterologous recombination, TLC and HPLC analyses were used in order to assess the antifungal mechanisms of P. fluorescens In5. In addition......, the fairly new technology, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time Of Flight Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF IMS) combined with genome mining were conducted to detect, identify and characterize antifungal compounds produced by P. fluorescens In5. Novel bioactive compounds from P. fluorescens In...

  3. Role of Mediterranean diet in prevention and management of type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khemayanto Hidayat; Shi Bimin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarize the importance of Mediterranean diet in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes.Data sources We searched electronic database on PubMed up to 14 April 2014,we identified these articles with following key words:"Mediterranean diet" and "diabetes".The initial search resulted in 451 entries.The search strategy had no language and publication date restrictions.The relevance of the studies was assessed based only on the title and abstract.The studies included in our review had to match the following inclusion criteria:(1) randomized clinical trials and meta-analysis or systematic review,and (2) provided strong evidence for the diet as a way to prevent type 2 diabetes,and improve glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients.We reviewed 49 manuscripts and only 22 met our inclusion criteria.Study selection Relevant literatures including randomized control trials,meta-analysis or systematic review.Results Based on several studies,Mediterranean diet is inversely related to type 2 diabetes and plays important roles in the management of type 2 diabetes.Based on the evidence gathered and evaluated from various studies,we concluded combination and interaction of Mediterranean diet components,such as fruits,vegetables,nuts,legumes,whole grains,fish and moderate intakes of red wine,which contain essential nutrients and health promoting properties,including high fibers,high magnesium,high anti-oxidant and high monounsaturatal fatty acids (MUFA).Interaction and combination of these essential nutrients and health promoting properties found to lower body weight,hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c),low density lipoprotein (LDL),oxidative-stress and improve high density lipoprotein (HDL) level; which are beneficial for prevention and prognosis improvement of type 2 diabetes.Conclusions In the modern society,poor dietary habits accompanied by inadequate physical activity are associated with the risk of having obesity and type 2 diabetes

  4. The gut microbiota in young and middle-aged rats showed different responses to chicken protein in their diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingying; Li, He; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-11-25

    Meat protein in the diet has been shown to be beneficial for the growth of Lactobacillus in the caecum of growing rats; however, it is unknown whether gut microbiota in middle-aged animals have the same responses to meat protein diets. This study compared the composition of the gut microbiota between young and middle-aged rats after being fed 17.7% chicken protein diet for 14 days. Feces were collected on day 0 and day 14 from young rats (4 weeks old) and middle-aged rats (64 weeks old) fed with 17.7% chicken protein diets. The composition of the gut bacteria was analyzed by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The results showed that the composition of the gut microbiota was significantly different between young and middle-aged rats on both day 0 and day 14. The percentage of Firmicutes decreased for middle-aged rats (72.1% versus 58.1% for day 0 and day 14, respectively) but increased for young rats (41.5 versus 57.7% for day 0 and day 14, respectively). The percentage of Bacteroidetes increased to 31.2% (20.5% on day 0) for middle-aged rats and decreased to 29.6% (41.3% on day 0) for young rats. The relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus increased in response to the intake of chicken protein in the young group, while it had the opposite effect in the middle-aged group. The results of our study demonstrated that 17.7% chicken protein diet promoted the beneficial genus Lactobacillus in young rats, but the opposite effect were found in the middle-aged group. To evaluate the linkage between diet and host health, age effect should be considered in the future studies.

  5. Cardiovascular disease-related genes and regulation by diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2009-11-01

    Diets rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) such as alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid are associated with decreased incidence and severity of cardiovascular disease (CVD). At least some of the beneficial effects of these dietary fatty acids are mediated by metabolites such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, and resolvins. The effects of n-3 PUFAs often differ from those of other fatty acids with very similar structures, such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid (n-6 PUFAs) and their corresponding metabolites. This article reviews the evidence that specific receptors exist for fatty acids or their metabolites that are able to regulate gene expression and coordinately affect metabolic or signaling pathways associated with CVD. Four nuclear receptor subfamilies that respond to dietary and endogenous ligands and have implications for CVD are emphasized in this article: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, retinoid X receptors, liver X receptors, and the farnesoid X receptor.

  6. An exclusive human milk-based diet in extremely premature infants reduces the probability of remaining on total parenteral nutrition: A reanalysis of the data

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously shown that an exclusively human-milk-based diet is beneficial for extremely premature infants who are at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). However, no significant difference in the other primary study endpoint, the length of time on total parenteral nutrition (TPN), was fo...

  7. Long-term ketogenic diet causes glucose intolerance and reduced β- and α-cell mass but no weight loss in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellenbroek, Johanne H; van Dijck, Laura; Töns, Hendrica A; Rabelink, Ton J; Carlotti, Françoise; Ballieux, Bart E P B; de Koning, Eelco J P

    2014-01-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KD) are used for weight loss and for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Recently, short-time studies in rodents have shown that, besides their beneficial effect on body weight, KD lead to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. However, the long-term

  8. Long-term ketogenic diet causes glucose intolerance and reduced β- and α-cell mass but no weight loss in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellenbroek, Johanne H; van Dijck, Laura; Töns, Hendrica A; Rabelink, Ton J; Carlotti, Françoise; Ballieux, Bart E P B; de Koning, Eelco J P

    2014-01-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KD) are used for weight loss and for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Recently, short-time studies in rodents have shown that, besides their beneficial effect on body weight, KD lead to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. However, the long-term ef

  9. Long-term ketogenic diet causes glucose intolerance and reduced β- and α-cell mass but no weight loss in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellenbroek, Johanne H; van Dijck, Laura; Töns, Hendrica A; Rabelink, Ton J; Carlotti, Françoise; Ballieux, Bart E P B; de Koning, Eelco J P

    2014-01-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KD) are used for weight loss and for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Recently, short-time studies in rodents have shown that, besides their beneficial effect on body weight, KD lead to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. However, the long-term ef

  10. Avocado consumption by adults is associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and some measures of adiposity: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocados contain a beneficial lipid profile, including a high level of monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as dietary fiber, essential nutrients, and phytochemicals. However, little epidemiologic data exist on the effect that consumption of avocados has on overall nutrient intake, diet quality, adi...

  11. Rat Models of Diet-Induced Obesity and High Fat/Low Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetes: Effect of Reversal of High Fat Diet Compared to Treatment with Enalapril or Menhaden Oil on Glucose Utilization and Neuropathic Endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amey Holmes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether reversal of high fat diet, stimulating weight loss, compared to two treatments previously shown to have beneficial effects, could improve glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy in animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet and treated with a low dose of streptozotocin to create models of diet induced obesity or type 2 diabetes, respectively. Afterwards, rats were transferred to a normal diet or treated with enalapril or dietary enrichment with menhaden oil for 12 weeks. Obesity and to a greater extent type 2 diabetes were associated with impaired glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy. Placing obese rats on a normal diet improved glucose utilization. Steatosis but not peripheral neuropathy was improved after placing obese or diabetic rats on a normal diet. Treating obese and diabetic rats with enalapril or a menhaden oil enriched diet generally improved peripheral neuropathy endpoints. In summary, dietary improvement with weight loss in obese or type 2 diabetic rats was not sufficient to correct peripheral neuropathy. These results further stress the need for discovery of a comprehensive treatment for peripheral neuropathy.

  12. Rat Models of Diet-Induced Obesity and High Fat/Low Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetes: Effect of Reversal of High Fat Diet Compared to Treatment with Enalapril or Menhaden Oil on Glucose Utilization and Neuropathic Endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Amey; Coppey, Lawrence J; Davidson, Eric P; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether reversal of high fat diet, stimulating weight loss, compared to two treatments previously shown to have beneficial effects, could improve glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy in animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet and treated with a low dose of streptozotocin to create models of diet induced obesity or type 2 diabetes, respectively. Afterwards, rats were transferred to a normal diet or treated with enalapril or dietary enrichment with menhaden oil for 12 weeks. Obesity and to a greater extent type 2 diabetes were associated with impaired glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy. Placing obese rats on a normal diet improved glucose utilization. Steatosis but not peripheral neuropathy was improved after placing obese or diabetic rats on a normal diet. Treating obese and diabetic rats with enalapril or a menhaden oil enriched diet generally improved peripheral neuropathy endpoints. In summary, dietary improvement with weight loss in obese or type 2 diabetic rats was not sufficient to correct peripheral neuropathy. These results further stress the need for discovery of a comprehensive treatment for peripheral neuropathy.

  13. Limited Impact of a Fall-Seeded, Spring-Terminated Rye Cover Crop on Beneficial Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Gassmann, Aaron J; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2017-04-01

    Cover crops are beneficial to agroecosystems because they decrease soil erosion and nutrient loss while increasing within-field plant diversity. Greater plant diversity within cropping systems can positively affect beneficial arthropod communities. We hypothesized that increasing plant diversity within annually rotated corn and soybean with the addition of a rye cover crop would positively affect the beneficial ground and canopy-dwelling communities compared with rotated corn and soybean grown without a cover crop. From 2011 through 2013, arthropod communities were measured at two locations in Iowa four times throughout each growing season. Pitfall traps were used to sample ground-dwelling arthropods within the corn and soybean plots and sweep nets were used to measure the beneficial arthropods in soybean canopies. Beneficial arthropods captured were identified to either class, order, or family. In both corn and soybean, community composition and total community activity density and abundance did not differ between plots that included the rye cover crop and plots without the rye cover crop. Most taxa did not significantly respond to the presence of the rye cover crop when analyzed individually, with the exceptions of Carabidae and Gryllidae sampled from soybean pitfall traps. Activity density of Carabidae was significantly greater in soybean plots that included a rye cover crop, while activity density of Gryllidae was significantly reduced in plots with the rye cover crop. Although a rye cover crop may be agronomically beneficial, there may be only limited effects on beneficial arthropods when added within an annual rotation of corn and soybean. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  15. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lou-Bonafonte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  16. Vegetarian diets and bone status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2014-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a common chronic condition associated with progressive loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and compromised bone strength, with increasing risk of fracture over time. Vegetarian diets have been shown to contain lower amounts of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, protein, and n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids, all of which have important roles in maintaining bone health. Although zinc intakes are not necessarily lower quantitatively, they are considerably less bioavailable in vegetarian diets, which suggests the need for even higher intakes to maintain adequate status. At the same time, healthy vegetarian diets tend to contain more of several protective nutrients, including magnesium, potassium, vitamin K, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytonutrients. On balance, there is evidence that vegetarians, and particularly vegans, may be at greater risk of lower BMD and fracture. Attention to potential shortfall nutrients through the careful selection of foods or fortified foods or the use of supplements can help ensure healthy bone status to reduce fracture risk in individuals who adhere to vegetarian diets. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Thermodynamics of weight loss diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Eugene J; Feinman, Richard D

    2004-12-08

    BACKGROUND: It is commonly held that "a calorie is a calorie", i.e. that diets of equal caloric content will result in identical weight change independent of macronutrient composition, and appeal is frequently made to the laws of thermodynamics. We have previously shown that thermodynamics does not support such a view and that diets of different macronutrient content may be expected to induce different changes in body mass. Low carbohydrate diets in particular have claimed a "metabolic advantage" meaning more weight loss than in isocaloric diets of higher carbohydrate content. In this review, for pedagogic clarity, we reframe the theoretical discussion to directly link thermodynamic inefficiency to weight change. The problem in outline: Is metabolic advantage theoretically possible? If so, what biochemical mechanisms might plausibly explain it? Finally, what experimental evidence exists to determine whether it does or does not occur? RESULTS: Reduced thermodynamic efficiency will result in increased weight loss. The laws of thermodynamics are silent on the existence of variable thermodynamic efficiency in metabolic processes. Therefore such variability is permitted and can be related to differences in weight lost. The existence of variable efficiency and metabolic advantage is therefore an empiric question rather than a theoretical one, confirmed by many experimental isocaloric studies, pending a properly performed meta-analysis. Mechanisms are as yet unknown, but plausible mechanisms at the metabolic level are proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Variable thermodynamic efficiency due to dietary manipulation is permitted by physical laws, is supported by much experimental data, and may be reasonably explained by plausible mechanisms.

  18. Ketogenic Diet: Effects on Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the ketogenic diet on growth of 237 children (130 males, 107 females treated for intractable epilepsy has been evaluated in a prospective cohort study (average follow-up 308 days at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.

  19. Ketogenic diets and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phinney Stephen D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Impaired physical performance is a common but not obligate result of a low carbohydrate diet. Lessons from traditional Inuit culture indicate that time for adaptation, optimized sodium and potassium nutriture, and constraint of protein to 15–25 % of daily energy expenditure allow unimpaired endurance performance despite nutritional ketosis.

  20. Ketogenic diets and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phinney SD

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Impaired physical performance is a common but not obligate result of a low carbohydrate diet. Lessons from traditional Inuit culture indicate that time for adaptation, optimized sodium and potassium nutriture, and constraint of protein to 15-25 % of daily energy expenditure allow unimpaired endurance performance despite nutritional ketosis.