WorldWideScience

Sample records for ongoing epidemiological shift

  1. Hydrate Evolution in Response to Ongoing Environmental Shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Alan [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates have the potential to become a vital domestic clean-burning energy source. However, past changes in environmental conditions have caused hydrates to become unstable and trigger both massive submarine landslides and the development of crater-like pockmarks, thereby releasing methane into the overlying seawater and atmosphere, where it acts as a powerful greenhouse gas. This project was designed to fill critical gaps in our understanding of domestic hydrate resources and improve forecasts for their response to environmental shifts. Project work can be separated into three interrelated components, each involving the development of predictive mathematical models. The first project component concerns the role of sediment properties on the development and dissociation of concentrated hydrate anomalies. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict equilibrium solubility of methane in twophase equilibrium with hydrate as a function of measureable porous medium characteristics. The second project component concerned the evolution of hydrate distribution in heterogeneous reservoirs. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict the growth and decay of anomalies in representative physical environments. The third project component concerned the stability of hydrate-bearing slopes under changing environmental conditions. To this end, we developed numerical treatments of pore pressure evolution and consolidation, then used "infinite-slope" analysis to approximate the landslide potential in representative physical environments, and developed a "rate-and-state" frictional formulation to assess the stability of finite slip patches that are hypothesized to develop in response to the dissociation of hydrate anomalies. The increased predictive capabilities that result from this work provide a framework for interpreting field observations of hydrate anomalies in terms of the history of environmental forcing that led to their development. Moreover

  2. Epidemiological research drives a paradigm shift in complementary feeding - the celiac disease story and lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordyke, Katrina; Olsson, Cecilia; Hernell, Olle; Ivarsson, Anneli

    2010-01-01

    Breast milk is the initial natural food for infants, but already during the second half year complementary feeding is essential. Epidemiological research, first on celiac disease and later on atopic diseases, has driven a paradigm shift with respect to most favorable age to introduce complementary feeding. Simplified, this implies a shift from later to earlier introduction, which is now taken into account in recommendations on infant feeding. Complementary feeding, including all foods, should not be initiated for any infant before 4 months of age, and not later than around 6 months, including infants with elevated disease risk (e.g. for celiac disease or atopic diseases). Motivating reasons could be that ongoing breastfeeding provides an 'immunological umbrella' and/ or a different age interval gives a 'window of opportunity' for developing oral tolerance towards gluten and other food antigens. This will for some infants be in conflict with recent WHO recommendations on exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. Epidemiology has evolved over time and could, if increasingly used, contribute even more to innovations in pediatric nutrition and other phenomena related to population health.

  3. Past and ongoing shifts in Joshua tree distribution support future modeled range contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kenneth L.; Ironside, Kirsten; Eischeid, Jon K.; Garfin, Gregg; Duffy, Phil; Toney, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The future distribution of the Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) is projected by combining a geostatistical analysis of 20th-century climates over its current range, future modeled climates, and paleoecological data showing its response to a past similar climate change. As climate rapidly warmed ;11 700 years ago, the range of Joshua tree contracted, leaving only the populations near what had been its northernmost limit. Its ability to spread northward into new suitable habitats after this time may have been inhibited by the somewhat earlier extinction of megafaunal dispersers, especially the Shasta ground sloth. We applied a model of climate suitability for Joshua tree, developed from its 20th-century range and climates, to future climates modeled through a set of six individual general circulation models (GCM) and one suite of 22 models for the late 21st century. All distribution data, observed climate data, and future GCM results were scaled to spatial grids of ;1 km and ;4 km in order to facilitate application within this topographically complex region. All of the models project the future elimination of Joshua tree throughout most of the southern portions of its current range. Although estimates of future monthly precipitation differ between the models, these changes are outweighed by large increases in temperature common to all the models. Only a few populations within the current range are predicted to be sustainable. Several models project significant potential future expansion into new areas beyond the current range, but the species' Historical and current rates of dispersal would seem to prevent natural expansion into these new areas. Several areas are predicted to be potential sites for relocation/ assisted migration. This project demonstrates how information from paleoecology and modern ecology can be integrated in order to understand ongoing processes and future distributions.

  4. Burn Hazards of the Deployed Environment in Wartime: Epidemiology of Noncombat Burns from Ongoing United States Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    conversation with the patient, if ossible. This information was made part of the inpatient lectronic medical record. For the purposes of this study, atient...b p 456 Kauvar et al Epidemiology of Noncombat Burns J Am Coll Surgelding, refilling a cigarette lighter, and a vehicle fire not esulting from a

  5. Shift work and the risk of ischemic heart disease - a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, P.; Kolstad, H.A.; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2009-01-01

    disease in relation to shift work. The quality of included papers was evaluated with respect to design, exposure and outcome information, bias, and exposure response assessment. Results Of the 16 studies examined, relevant information was retrieved from 14. Seven of these analyzed fatal events, six......Objective The objective of this review was to evaluate the epidemiologic evidence for a causal relation between shift work and ischemic heart disease. Methods We conducted a systematic search until the end of March 2008 for studies providing information on the relative risk of ischemic heart...... combined fatal and non-fatal events, while one study reported separately on both types of events. Relative risks ranged from 0.6-1.4 in 12 papers while two papers reported relative risks around 2.0. Most studies based on fatal events showed no or weak associations while studies that combined fatal and non...

  6. Dengue fever in Pakistan: a paradigm shift; changing epidemiology and clinical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Zahra; Ahmad, Farina Zia; Mahmood, Asif; Waseem, Tariq; Shafiq, Irfan; Raza, Tanzeem; Qazi, Javaria; Siddique, Nasir; Humayun, Malik Asif

    2015-11-01

    Dengue fever has huge public health implications and affects over 100 million people worldwide. This review pictures the current situation of Dengue in Pakistan and presents a review of published literature. Pakistan has seen recurrent epidemics of Dengue Fever recently. Unfortunately, these epidemics are becoming more severe in their clinical manifestation. Pakistan experienced large epidemics of dengue fever during 2008, 2010 and 2011 affecting thousands of people and claiming hundreds of deaths. A comparison of data during these epidemics indicates a shift from mild to a more severe disease, which could be interpreted as an epidemiologic transition pattern in the country. Expansion of Dengue in Pakistan seems to be multifactorial, including the climate change, frequent natural disasters, vector resistance to insecticides and lack of resources. This highlights the need for rigorous vector control. Continuing education of primary care physicians is crucial for early appropriate management to reduce mortality.

  7. Global Shifts in Cardiovascular Disease, the Epidemiologic Transition, and Other Contributing Factors: Toward a New Practice of Global Health Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Walter; Miranda, J Jaime

    2017-02-01

    One of the major drivers of change in the practice of cardiology is population change. This article discusses the current debate about epidemiologic transition paired with other ongoing transitions with direct relevance to cardiovascular conditions. Challenges specific to patterns of risk factors over time; readiness for disease surveillance and meeting global targets; health system, prevention, and treatment efforts; and physiologic traits and human-environment interactions are identified. This article concludes that a focus on the most populated regions of the world will contribute substantially to protecting the large gains in global survival and life expectancy accrued over the last decades.

  8. Epidemiology and ecology of enterococci, with special reference to antibiotic resistant strains, in animals, humans and the environment - Example of an ongoing project within the European research programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, I.; Iversen, A.; Burman, L. G.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the present study are to generate knowledge of the ecology and epidemiology of enterococci in the food chain by studying the following: (1) the population structure (in measures of abundance, number of vancomycin resistant strains, antibiotic resistance patterns, diversity...... and vancomycin resistant enterococcal populations in each sample have been enumerated and more than 12 000 isolates have been characterised by phenotyping. Representative isolates are further species identified and characterised by genotyping and MIC determination and from antibiotic resistant isolates...

  9. Global epidemiology of CTX-M β-lactamases: temporal and geographical shifts in genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Edward R; Jones, Annie M; Hawkey, Peter M

    2017-08-01

    Globally, rates of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are rising. We undertook a literature review, and present the temporal trends in blaCTX-M epidemiology, showing that blaCTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M-14 have displaced other genotypes in many parts of the world. Explanations for these changes can be attributed to: (i) horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of plasmids; (ii) successful Escherichia coli clones; (iii) ESBLs in food animals; (iv) the natural environment; and (v) human migration and access to basic sanitation. We also provide explanations for the changing epidemiology of blaCTX-M-2 and blaCTX-M-27. Modifiable anthropogenic factors, such as poor access to basic sanitary facilities, encourage the spread of blaCTX-M and other antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, such as blaNDM, blaKPC and mcr-1. We provide further justification for novel preventative and interventional strategies to reduce transmission of these AMR genes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Ongoing epileptiform activity in the post-ischemic hippocampus is associated with a permanent shift of the excitatory-inhibitory synaptic balance in CA3 pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsztein, Jérôme; Milh, Mathieu; Bihi, Rachid Id; Jorquera, Isabel; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Represa, Alfonso; Crépel, Valérie

    2006-06-28

    Ischemic strokes are often associated with late-onset epilepsy, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the hippocampus, which is one of the regions most sensitive to ischemic challenge, global ischemia induces a complete loss of CA1 pyramidal neurons, whereas the resistant CA3 pyramidal neurons display a long-term hyperexcitability several months after the insult. The mechanisms of this long-term hyperexcitability remain unknown despite its clinical implication. Using chronic in vivo EEG recordings and in vitro field recordings in slices, we now report spontaneous interictal epileptiform discharges in the CA3 area of the hippocampus from post-ischemic rats several months after the insult. Whole-cell recordings from CA3 pyramidal neurons, revealed a permanent reduction in the frequency of spontaneous and miniature GABAergic IPSCs and a parallel increase in the frequency of spontaneous and miniature glutamatergic postsynaptic currents. Global ischemia also induced a dramatic loss of GABAergic interneurons and terminals together with an increase in glutamatergic terminals in the CA3 area of the hippocampus. Altogether, our results show a morpho-functional reorganization in the CA3 network several months after global ischemia, resulting in a net shift in the excitatory-inhibitory balance toward excitation that may constitute a substrate for the generation of epileptiform discharges in the post-ischemic hippocampus.

  11. The Global Epidemiologic Transition: Noncommunicable Diseases and Emerging Health Risk of Allergic Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiim, George A.; Elliott, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, there has been a shift in the causes of illness and death from infectious diseases to noncommunicable diseases. This changing pattern has been attributed to the effects of an (ongoing) epidemiologic transition. Although researchers have applied epidemiologic transition theory to questions of global health, there have been relatively few…

  12. The Ongoing Catastrophe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    intimacy, however, never seemed intimate but rather excessive: the sweets too sweet, the colours too bright, and the laughter too high-pitched. The stark contrast between the light chit-chat and the ongoing suffering of the individual women made these public get together not only pleasant but also...

  13. Testing the hypothesis of the relationships between laterality and ability according to Annett's right-shift theory: findings in an epidemiological sample of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, F; Haffner, J; Parzer, P; Pfueller, U; Strehlow, U; Zerahn-Hartung, C

    1997-11-01

    In a large epidemiological sample of young adults, predictions of the right-shift (RS) theory of Annett that cognitive abilities will vary with right-left hand skill were tested. Presenting a theory of a genetic balanced polymorphism with heterozygote advantage for laterality and ability, Annett & Manning (1989, 1990a) and Annett (1993c) claimed that probands at the right end of the R-L hand skill continuum would show lower general intelligence in IQ testing and that specific verbal abilities and educational success would be lower at both extremes of the R-L distribution, taking the form of an inverted U. Most of these predictions could not be confirmed by our study. In particular, our data contrast with the important and specific prediction of the RS theory that strong dextrals will be the most disfavoured group. In our sample, probands at the left end of the R-L continuum had significantly lower scores in spelling and educational success and showed a tendency to have lower non-verbal IQ scores, while strong dextrals tended to have average or even marginally higher ability scores. The effects, however, are small and decrease when controlling for other variables. Implications of these empirical findings for the right-shift theory are discussed.

  14. An epidemiologic review of enteropathogens in Gaborone, Botswana: shifting patterns of resistance in an HIV endemic region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack S Rowe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of diarrheal disease in Botswana, an HIV endemic region, is largely unknown. Our primary objective was to characterize the prevalent bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens in Gaborone, Botswana. Secondary objectives included determining corresponding antimicrobial resistance patterns and the value of stool white and red blood cells for predicting bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective cross-sectional study examined laboratory records of stool specimens analyzed by the Botswana National Health Laboratory in Gaborone, Botswana from February 2003 through July 2008. In 4485 specimens the median subject age was 23 [interquartile range 1.6-34] years. Overall, 14.4% (644 of 4485 of samples yielded a pathogen. Bacteria alone were isolated in 8.2% (367 of 4485, parasites alone in 5.6% (253 of 4485 and both in 0.5% (24 of 4485 of samples. The most common bacterial pathogens were Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp., isolated from 4.0% (180 of 4485 and 3.9% (175 of 4485 of specimens, respectively. Escherichia coli (22 of 4485 and Campylobacter spp. (22 of 4485 each accounted for 0.5% of pathogens. Comparing antimicrobial resistance among Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. between two periods, February 2003 to February 2004 and July 2006 to July 2008, revealed an increase in ampicillin resistance among Shigella spp. from 43% to 83% (p<0.001. Among Salmonella spp., resistance to chloramphenicol decreased from 56% to 6% (p<0.001. The absence of stool white and red blood cells correlated with a high specificity and negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most gastroenteritis stools were culture and microscopy negative suggesting that viral pathogens were the majority etiologic agents in this Botswana cohort. Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. were the most common bacteria; Isospora spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were the most common parasites. Resistance to commonly used

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure shift in a 5-year molecular epidemiology surveillance follow-up study in a low endemic agro-industrial setting in São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Gaspareto, Rosângela Maria; Viana, Brunilde Helena Jung; Mendes, Natália Helena; Pandolfi, José Rodrigo Cláudio; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Sato, Daisy Nakamura; David, Susana Correia de Matos; Saad, Maria Helena Feres; Rastogi, Nalin; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2013-09-01

    Starting with 257 outpatients attending the specialized health service for tuberculosis (TB) between 2002 and 2006 in Araraquara, an agro-industrial area with low tuberculosis (TB) incidence in São Paulo state, Brazil, positive mycobacterial cultures were obtained in 130 cases, of which 121 were confirmed as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. This report assesses the genetic diversity observed on 69.42% (n=84) of the clinical isolates, for which both spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU typing data were fully interpretable. In order to monitor changes in the population dynamics of circulating M. tuberculosis strains over time, spoligotypes were compared from this study (n=84) with an earlier study from 1998 to 2001 (n=70 strains); and these two datasets from low-incidence Araraquara area were also compared with a 2-year cohort in the nearby higher-incidence São Paulo city area from 2006 to 2008 (n=93). The results obtained showed that with 58.3% (49/84) of the strains, the Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM) was the predominant lineage in the present follow-up study; major patterns being SIT42/LAM9 11.9% (10/84), and SIT20/LAM1 10.7% (9/84). As compared with the 1998-2001 period when 40% (28/70) of the isolates belonged to the ill-defined T family, it was replaced by LAM strains between 2002 and 2006 with a visible shift to a population structure characteristic of the metropolitan São Paulo city. Further typing of the follow-up isolates from 2002 to 2006 using 12 loci MIRUs in conjunction with conventional epidemiology did not link this population structure shift to an increase in ongoing transmission or drug-resistance. Instead, it is most probably linked to movements of the important migrant community of Araraquara to higher TB incidence metropolitan areas such as São Paulo city. This is of particular concern owing to the increment in the global burden of LAM strains and the recent association of certain LAM sublineages with multidrug- and extensively drug

  16. Childhood cancer in the surroundings of German nuclear power plants: report of an ongoing epidemiological study; Krebs bei Kindern in der Umgebung von Kernkraftwerken: Bericht zu einer laufenden epidemiologischen Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Rath, R.; Kaatsch, P.; Schmiedel, S.; Spix, C.; Blettner, M. [Deutsches Kinderkrebsregister, Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik (IMBEI), Univ. Mainz (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Epidemiological studies could not show an association between ionising radiation of nuclear power stations in routine operation and the incidence of childhood cancer, yet. The following report presents a case control study conducted by the German Childhood Cancer Registry since autumn 2003. All children in the study region, who were diagnosed with cancer between 1980 and 2003 at an age below five are included. In the first part of the study we investigate whether children with cancer (cases) lived closer to the respective nuclear power stations compared to random children without cancer (controls). In the second part, for a subgroup of cases and controls we conduct computer assisted telephone interviews regarding confounders possibly associated with the exposure of ionising radiation and childhood cancer. Results are expected by the end of 2006. (orig.)

  17. Antibiotic consumption to detect epidemics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a burn centre: A paradigm shift in the epidemiological surveillance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Anne; Voirol, Pierre; Krähenbühl, Marie; Bonnemain, Claire-Lise; Fournier, Camille; Pantet, Olivier; Pagani, Jean-Luc; Revelly, Jean-Pierre; Dupuis-Lozeron, Elise; Sadeghipour, Farshid; Pannatier, André; Eggimann, Philippe; Que, Yok-Ai

    2016-05-01

    The control of antibiotic resistance and nosocomial infections are major challenges for specialized burn centres. Early detection of those epidemic outbreaks is crucial to limit the human and financial burden. We hypothesize that data collected by antibiotic consumption medico-economic surveys could be used as warning signal to detect early nosocomial outbreaks. A retrospective analysis was conducted that included all burn patients staying >48h on the Lausanne BICU (Burn Intensive Care Unit) between January 2001 and October 2012 who received systemic therapeutic antibiotics. Infection episodes were characterized according to predefined criteria. Antibiotic consumption data, obtained from the quarterly surveillance of drug consumption surveys, were translated into defined daily doses (DDDs). In total, 297 out of 414 burn patients stayed >48h, giving a total of 7458 'burn-days'. We identified 610 infection episodes (burn wound [32.0%], respiratory [31.1%], and catheter [21.8%]), from 774 microorganisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.5%), and Candida albicans (7.0%) were the main pathogens. We observed three distinct outbreaks of P. aeruginosa infections in 2002-2003, 2006, and 2009-2011. These outbreaks correlated with an increase in the DDDs of anti-Pseudomonas antibiotics. Our data support a paradigm shift in the epidemiological surveillance of nosocomial P. aeruginosa epidemics in burn centres, using the rise in antibiotic consumption as an early trigger to initiate the molecular typing of P. aeruginosa strains and the reinforcement of standard infection control procedures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. [Ongoing Health Education in Brazil:education or ongoing management?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Cristiane Lopes Simão

    2016-03-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze the concept and principles of Ongoing Health Education (OHE) - the Brazilian acronym is PNEPS. The methodology was based on the analysis of documents from the Ministry of Health and related scientific articles. It was revealed that the concept of OHE transcends its pedagogical significance and is undergoing a service restructuring process in the face of the new demands of the model. Precisely at the time in which jobs are increasingly unstable and precarious, the Ministry of Health engages in discourse regarding innovative management, focusing on the issue of OHE. The idea is not one of ongoing education, but of ongoing management. Rather than being an instrument for radical transformation, OHE becomes an attractive ideology due to its appearance as a pedagogical novelty.

  19. Ongoing challenges in the management of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokwaro, Gilbert

    2009-10-12

    This article gives an overview of some of the ongoing challenges that are faced in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Malaria causes approximately 881,000 deaths every year, with nine out of ten deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to the human burden of malaria, the economic burden is vast. It is thought to cost African countries more than US$12 billion every year in direct losses. However, great progress in malaria control has been made in some highly endemic countries. Vector control is assuming a new importance with the significant reductions in malaria burden achieved using combined malaria control interventions in countries such as Zanzibar, Zambia and Rwanda. The proportion of patients treated for malaria who have a confirmed diagnosis is low in Africa compared with other regions of the world, with the result that anti-malarials could be used to treat patients without malaria, especially in areas where progress has been made in reducing the malaria burden and malaria epidemiology is changing. Inappropriate administration of anti-malarials could contribute to the spread of resistance and incurs unnecessary costs. Parasite resistance to almost all commonly used anti-malarials has been observed in the most lethal parasite species, Plasmodium falciparum. This has presented a major barrier to successful disease management in malaria-endemic areas. ACT (artemisinin-based combination therapy) has made a significant contribution to malaria control and to reducing disease transmission through reducing gametocyte carriage. Administering ACT to infants and small children can be difficult and time consuming. Specially formulating anti-malarials for this vulnerable population is vital to ease administration and help ensure that an accurate dose is received. Education of healthworkers and communities about malaria prevention, diagnosis and treatment is a vital component of effective case management, especially as diagnostic policies change

  20. Molecular epidemiology of dengue virus serotypes 2 and 3 in Paraguay during 2001-2006: the association of viral clade introductions with shifting serotype dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Jose D J Diaz; Tang, Wei-Feng; Ishii, Ryoichi; Ono, Tetsuro; Eshita, Yuki; Aono, Hiroshi; Makino, Yoshihiro

    2008-11-01

    To determine the genetic variability of dengue viruses (DENVs) in Paraguay, the complete envelope gene was sequenced for 4 DENV-2 and 22 DENV-3 strains isolated from 2001 to 2006. The sequence data were used in Bayesian phylogenetic analyses, which revealed that Paraguayan DENV-2 strains fell into two distinct clades within the American/Asian genotype, thus suggesting that the introduction of a new DENV-2 clade was likely associated with the shift of dominant serotype from DENV-3 to DENV-2 in 2005 and might have caused an outbreak of DENV-2. This study also indicated that DENV-3 strains fell into genotype III, of which, several 2006 isolates varied from the remaining isolates in their tree locations. The introduction of this new clade was likely associated with the shift of dominant serotype from DENV-2 to DENV-3 in 2006 and might have caused an epidemic of DENV-3. More data are needed to test this hypothesis.

  1. Ongoing Projects on Serious Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vaz de Carvalho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This number of the EAI Transactions on Serious Games is dedicated to a set of ongoing research and development projects in this area. The selected articles represent very well the diversity of approaches, contexts and objectives that foster and render highly dynamic this area of study. In Europe, several funding programmes like the 7th Framework Programme, the Lifelong Learning Programme and the most recent Horizon 2020 made specific provisions to support Serious Games projects. At the same time, enterprises are recognizing more and more the potential of SG to train and to motivate their workforce and are therefore joining forces with the academy and SG producers to design specific SG. Serious Games became one of the most interesting “places to be” due to its growing scientific and practitioner community. We can say that the motivating and addictive character of games has been successfully transmitted to the research and development of Serious Games.

  2. Epidemiology, Disease Burden, and Treatment Strategies of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infections in Saudi Arabia in the New Treatment Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljumah, Abdulrahman A.; Abaalkhail, Faisal; Al-Ashgar, Hamad; Assiri, Abdullah; Babatin, Mohamed; Al Faleh, Faleh; Alghamdi, Abdullah; Al-Hakeem, Raafat; Hashim, Almoataz; Alqutub, Adel; Razavi, Homie; Sanai, Faisal M.; Al-Swat, Khalid; Schmelzer, Jonathan; Altraif, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Around 101,000 individuals are estimated to be viremic for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in 2014; however, only about 20% have been diagnosed. We aim to assess baseline epidemiology, disease burden, and evaluate strategies to eliminate HCV in KSA. Materials and Methods: The infected population and disease progression were modeled using age- and gender-defined cohorts to track HCV incidence, prevalence, hepatic complications, and mortality. Baseline assumptions and transition probabilities were extracted from the literature. The impacts of two scenarios on HCV-related disease burden were considered through increases in treatment efficacy alone or treatment and diagnosis. Results: In 2030, it is estimated by the base scenario that viremic prevalence will increase to 103,000 cases, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to 470, decompensated and compensated cirrhosis cases to 1,300 and 15,400, respectively, and liver-related mortality to 670 deaths. Using high efficacy treatment alone resulted in 2030 projection of 80,700 viremic cases, 350 HCC cases, 480 liver-related deaths, and 850 and 11,500 decompensated and compensated cirrhosis cases, respectively. With an aggressive treatment strategy, in 2030 there will be about 1,700 viremic cases, 1 HCC case, about 20 liver-related deaths, and 5 and 130 cases of decompensated and compensated cirrhosis, respectively. Delaying this strategy by one year would result in 360 additional deaths by 2030. Conclusions: HCV in KSA remains constant, and cases of advanced liver disease and mortality continue to rise. Considered increases in treatment efficacy and number treated would have a significantly greater impact than increased treatment efficacy alone. The projected impact will facilitate disease forecasting, resource planning, and strategies for HCV management. Increased screening and diagnosis would likely be required as part of a national strategy. PMID:27488321

  3. Ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Individual cases of adult incestuous abuse have surfaced repeatedly in the lay and professional literature of the past 1.5 centuries without it occasioning systematic investigation, such as the reporting of a case series of individuals subjected to such extreme abuse. Yet substantial numbers of patients with dissociative identity disorder at the time of presentation report incestuous abuse continuing into the adult years, and for many the abuse is ongoing. Data relating to a series of 10 such incestuously abused women are presented. These patients were sexually abused from a very early age (typically from before age 3), with the manipulation of their sexual response a key component in conditioning an enduring sexualized attachment. Shame and fear were also used to ensure compliance and silence. The women, when able to speak of it, describe the induction by their paternal abuser of orgasm at an early age, typically around the age of 6. The women have high indices of self-harm and suicidality and are prone to placing themselves in dangerous reenactment scenarios. The average duration of incestuous abuse for this group of women was 31 years, and the average estimate of total episodes of sexual abuse was 3,320. Most women do not feel that they own their body and experience being "fused" to their father. Their mother was reported as an active participant in the sexual abuse or as having done nothing to protect their daughter despite seeing obvious evidence of incest. The fathers, despite a propensity to use or threaten violence, were generally outwardly productively employed, financially comfortable, and stably married and half had close church involvement. However, suicide and murder occurred within the 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives of these women at a high frequency. All 10 had been sexually abused by various groupings of individuals connected to their fathers.

  4. [Poisonous plants: An ongoing problem].

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    Martínez Monseny, A; Martínez Sánchez, L; Margarit Soler, A; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Luaces Cubells, C

    2015-05-01

    A medical visit for plant ingestion is rare in the pediatric emergency services but may involve a high toxicity. The botanical toxicology training of health staff is often very limited, and it can be difficult to make a diagnosis or decide on the appropriate treatment. To study the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of poisoning due to plant ingestion in order to increase the knowledge of the health professional. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted on patients seen in a pediatric emergency department after the ingestion of plant substances from January 2008 to December 2012. During the period of study, 18 patients had ingested possible toxic plants. In 14 cases, it was considered to be potentially toxic: broom, oleander, mistletoe, butcher's-broom, and vulgar bean (2), Jerusalem tomato, castor (2), Jimson weed, potus, marijuana, and mushrooms with digestive toxicity (2). Among the potentially toxic cases, the ingestion was accidental in 10 patients, 2 cases were classed as infantile mistreatment, 1 case had recreational intention, and another one suicidal intentions. The ingestion of oleander, castor and Jimson weed had major toxicity. The potential gravity of the ingestion of plant substances and the variety of the exposure mechanism requires the pediatrician to bear in mind this possibility, and to be prepared for its diagnosis and management. Specific preventive information measures need to be designed for the families and for the regulation of toxic plants in playgrounds. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Education in epidemiology: "The Times They Are a-Changin'".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet, Jonathan M; Savitz, David A

    2008-03-01

    "The Changing Face of Epidemiology" is a series of symposia sponsored by Epidemiology for the purpose of addressing topical issues that cut across specialty areas. We comment here on 3 papers presented last summer at a symposium ("Education in Epidemiology: Changing needs for changing times") at the 2007 meeting of the Society for Epidemiologic Research. These papers address current challenges in training epidemiologists, including the rise of molecular epidemiology, the ongoing need to redefine core epidemiologic methods and develop optimum approaches, and the increasing difficulty of assuring competency in primary data collection. We offer suggestions for educational programs and professional organizations on approaching these ongoing challenges.

  6. The Ongoing and Open-Ended Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores a novel form of classroom simulation that differs from published examples in two important respects. First, it is ongoing. While most simulations represent a single learning episode embedded within a course, the ongoing simulation is a continuous set of interrelated events and decisions that accompany learning throughout…

  7. Shifting Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between citizen journalism and professional journalism by means of a theoretical discussion combined with empirical data gathered through focus group interviews with students of international journalism. The article discusses the process and ongoing struggle...

  8. Q fever in the Netherlands: a concise overview and implications of the largest ongoing outbreak.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsing, C.E.; Kullberg, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Two outbreaks of Q fever were reported in the Netherlands in 2007 and 2008. The ongoing 2008 outbreak in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands is the largest community outbreak ever described, with 808 cases reported until August 2008. The changing epidemiology of Q fever is most likely related

  9. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  10. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  11. Tough Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Holst, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    in a student dormitory and found that players did not shift their electricity use, because they were unwilling to change their schedules and found it easier to focus on reducing electricity use. Based on our findings, we discuss the implications for encouraging shifting, and also the challenges of integrating...

  12. "Drivers" of translational cancer epidemiology in the 21st century: needs and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tram Kim; Spitz, Margaret; Schully, Sheri D; Khoury, Muin J

    2013-02-01

    Cancer epidemiology is at the cusp of a paradigm shift--propelled by an urgent need to accelerate the pace of translating scientific discoveries into health care and population health benefits. As part of a strategic planning process for cancer epidemiologic research, the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is leading a "longitudinal" meeting with members of the research community to engage in an on-going dialogue to help shape and invigorate the field. Here, we review a translational framework influenced by "drivers" that we believe have begun guiding cancer epidemiology toward translation in the past few years and are most likely to drive the field further in the next decade. The drivers include: (i) collaboration and team science, (ii) technology, (iii) multilevel analyses and interventions, and (iv) knowledge integration from basic, clinical, and population sciences. Using the global prevention of cervical cancer as an example of a public health endeavor to anchor the conversation, we discuss how these drivers can guide epidemiology from discovery to population health impact, along the translational research continuum.

  13. Ongoing Model Development Analyzing Glass Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molnar, G.; Bojtar, I.; Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Present subject deals with an ongoing experimental and numerical analysis of inplane loaded glass plates. The main goal of the investigation is to develop a hybrid – discrete and finite element – model which could follow the fracture process in annealed and in tempered glass. Measurements...

  14. Placental Development in Ongoing Pregnancy and Miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Reus (Averil)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this thesis three-dimensional ultrasound, three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound, virtual reality and histologic examination of the chorionic villous vascularization were used to investigate early placental development in normal ongoing pregnancy as well as misca

  15. Ongoing Model Development Analyzing Glass Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molnar, G.; Bojtar, I.; Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Present subject deals with an ongoing experimental and numerical analysis of inplane loaded glass plates. The main goal of the investigation is to develop a hybrid – discrete and finite element – model which could follow the fracture process in annealed and in tempered glass. Measurements...... an overview of the structure of the research and a summary of current status archived so far....

  16. Ongoing outbreak of an acute muscular Sarcocystis-like illness among travellers returning from Tioman Island, Malaysia, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, D H; Freedman, D O; Neumayr, A; Parola, P

    2012-11-08

    As of 4 November, 2012, 100 patients with an acute muscular Sarcocystis-like illness associated with travel to Tioman Island, Malaysia, have been identified. Thirty-five travelled there mostly during July and August 2011 and 65 mostly during July and August 2012, suggesting an ongoing outbreak. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing. Public health agencies and practicing clinicians should be aware of this rarely-reported disease in humans and consider it as differential diagnosis in travellers returning from Tioman Island.

  17. Power Shift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ "We are entering a new era of world history: the end of Western domination and the arrival of the Asian century. The question is: will Washington wake up to this reality?" This is the central premise of Kishore Mahbubani's provocative new book The New Asian Hemisphere: The Irresistible Shift of Global Power to the East.

  18. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2003-06-01

    This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory.

  19. Universal patterns underlying ongoing wars and terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, N F; Restrepo, J A; Becerra, O; Bohorquez, J C; Suárez, N; Restrepo, E M; Zarama, R; Johnson, Neil F.; Spagat, Mike; Restrepo, Jorge A.; Becerra, Oscar; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Suarez, Nicolas; Restrepo, Elvira Maria; Zarama, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    We report a remarkable universality in the patterns of violence arising in three high-profile ongoing wars, and in global terrorism. Our results suggest that these quite different conflict arenas currently feature a common type of enemy, i.e. the various insurgent forces are beginning to operate in a similar way regardless of their underlying ideologies, motivations and the terrain in which they operate. We provide a microscopic theory to explain our main observations. This theory treats the insurgent force as a generic, self-organizing system which is dynamically evolving through the continual coalescence and fragmentation of its constituent groups.

  20. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Liu, J.; Macias, B.; Martin, D. S.; Minkoff, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Smith, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  1. Epidemiological causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  2. Anencephaly: An Ongoing Investigation in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Sara

    2016-03-01

    : In the spring of 2012, a nurse in Washington State detected a cluster of babies born with anencephaly-a fatal condition in which infants are born without parts of the brain or skull. The resulting investigation initially confirmed a rate of anencephaly between January 2010 and January 2013 of 8.4 per 10,000 live births-more than four times the national average. As of November 2015, cases of anencephaly in Washington State have continued to increase, with the current rate estimated at 9.5 per 10,000 live births. While no distinct cause has yet been determined, neural tube defects-including anencephaly-are known to have multiple causes, including folic acid deficit, genetic variants in the folate pathway, and exposure to a variety of environmental and occupational toxins. This article describes many of these risk factors and explores the findings of Washington's ongoing investigation.

  3. The Fukushima nuclear disaster is ongoing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Andrew R

    2016-07-01

    The 5th anniversary of the Fukushima disaster and the 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster, the two most catastrophic nuclear accidents in history, both occurred recently. Images of Chernobyl are replete with the international sign of radioactive contamination (a circle with three broad spokes radiating outward in a yellow sign). In contrast, ongoing decontamination efforts at Fukushima lack international warnings about radioactivity. Decontamination workers at Fukushima appear to be poorly protected against radiation. It is almost as if the effort is to make the Fukushima problem disappear. A more useful response would be to openly acknowledge the monumental problems inherent in managing a nuclear plant disaster. Lessons from Chernobyl are the best predictors of what the Fukushima region of Japan is coping with in terms of health and environmental problems following a nuclear catastrophe.

  4. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this

  5. Dry needling versus acupuncture: the ongoing debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kehua; Ma, Yan; Brogan, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    Although Western medical acupuncture (WMA) is commonly practised in the UK, a particular approach called dry needling (DN) is becoming increasingly popular in other countries. The legitimacy of the use of DN by conventional non-physician healthcare professionals is questioned by acupuncturists. This article describes the ongoing debate over the practice of DN between physical therapists and acupuncturists, with a particular emphasis on the USA. DN and acupuncture share many similarities but may differ in certain aspects. Currently, little information is available from the literature regarding the relationship between the two needling techniques. Through reviewing their origins, theory, and practice, we found that DN and acupuncture overlap in terms of needling technique with solid filiform needles as well as some fundamental theories. Both WMA and DN are based on modern biomedical understandings of the human body, although DN arguably represents only one subcategory of WMA. The increasing volume of research into needling therapy explains its growing popularity in the musculoskeletal field including sports medicine. To resolve the debate over DN practice, we call for the establishment of a regulatory body to accredit DN courses and a formal, comprehensive educational component and training for healthcare professionals who are not physicians or acupuncturists. Because of the close relationship between DN and acupuncture, collaboration rather than dispute between acupuncturists and other healthcare professionals should be encouraged with respect to education, research, and practice for the benefit of patients with musculoskeletal conditions who require needling therapy.

  6. Methylated spirit burns: an ongoing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansbeken, J R H; Vloemans, A F P M; Tempelman, F R H; Breederveld, R S

    2012-09-01

    Despite many educational campaigns we still see burns caused by methylated spirit every year. We undertook a retrospective study to analyse the impact of this problem. We retrospectively collected data of all patients with burns caused by methylated spirit over twelve years from 1996 to 2008. Our main endpoints were: incidence, age, mechanism of injury, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, burn depth, need for surgery and length of hospital stay. Ninety-seven patients with methylated spirit burns were included. During the study period there was no decrease in the number of patients annually admitted to the burn unit with methylated spirit burns. 28% of the patients (n=27) were younger than eighteen years old, 15% (n=15) were ten years old or younger. The most common cause of burns was carelessness in activities involving barbecues, campfires and fondues. Mean TBSA burned was 16% (SD 12.4). 70% (n=68) had full thickness burns. 66% (n=64) needed grafting. Mean length of hospital stay was 23 days (SD 24.7). The use of methylated spirit is an ongoing problem, which continues to cause severe burns in adults and children. Therefore methylated spirit should be banned in households. We suggest sale only in specialised shops, clear labelling and mandatory warnings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioequivalence accomplishments, ongoing initiatives, and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M N

    2014-02-01

    Although bioequivalence (BE) concepts date back to the late 1960s, there has been a steady evolution in the tools applied to the assessment of product comparability. Despite these advancements, we continue to face a multitude of unresolved challenges. Several of these challenges are unique to veterinary medicine due to issues such as multiple species approvals, unique dosage forms (e.g., intramammary infusion and medicated premixes), physiological challenges (e.g., limitations in blood volume and stress reactions), and the need to evaluate product equivalence for products intended to release drug over a duration of months. Thus, while in some instances, we can adopt advancements implemented by our human health counterparts but in other situations, we need to pioneer our own method for resolving these challenges. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an update on recent advances, achievements, and ongoing initiatives associated with the assessment of product BE in veterinary medicine. This review reflects the highlights of a presentation given at the 2012 meeting of the European Association for Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology. Published (2013). This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Consequences of ongoing retrotransposition in mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell PH

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Patrick H Maxwell Department of Biological Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA Abstract: Retrotransposons can have significant influences on gene expression and genome stability through their ability to integrate reverse-transcript copies of their sequences at new genomic locations by retrotransposition. These elements have been long known to retrotranspose in mammalian germ cells to give rise to inherited insertion alleles, but more recent work has also shown that retrotransposition can occur in mammalian somatic cells, particularly in brain tissue and tumors. Retrotransposition makes appreciable contributions to spontaneous disease-causing alleles in humans and a more significant contribution to spontaneous mutations in mice. Genome-wide studies have found high levels of polymorphic retrotransposon insertions in human populations that are consistent with ongoing retrotransposition. Many insertions do not disrupt exons, but insertions into introns or flanking genes can alter gene expression patterns, generate truncated or antisense gene transcripts, alter splicing patterns, or result in premature polyadenylation of gene transcripts. Furthermore, the very high genomic copy numbers of these elements can lead to nonallelic homologous recombination events that produce gene deletions/duplications and genome rearrangements, and can also lead to evolution of particular insertions or types of elements to have cellular functions through exaptation. Mobility of these elements occurs despite multiple epigenetic mechanisms to restrict their expression. While the potential for retrotransposons to significantly influence mammalian health and cellular functions is clear, substantial research efforts will be needed to fully elucidate the actual contributions of natural levels of mobility of endogenous elements to the health and development of humans and other mammals. Keywords: retrotransposon, human, mouse, mutations, epigenetics

  9. Ongoing dengue epidemic - Angola, June 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    On April 1, 2013, the Public Health Directorate of Angola announced that six cases of dengue had been reported to the Ministry of Health of Angola (MHA). As of May 31, a total of 517 suspected dengue cases had been reported and tested for dengue with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). A total of 313 (60.5%) specimens tested positive for dengue, including one from a patient who died. All suspected cases were reported from Luanda Province, except for two from Malanje Province. Confirmatory diagnostic testing of 49 specimens (43 RDT-positive and six RDT-negative) at the CDC Dengue Branch confirmed dengue virus (DENV) infection in 100% of the RDT-positive specimens and 50% of the RDT-negative specimens. Only DENV-1 was detected by molecular diagnostic testing. Phylogenetic analysis indicated this virus has been circulating in the region since at least 1968, strongly suggesting that dengue is endemic in Angola. Health-care professionals throughout Angola should be aware of the ongoing epidemic, the recommended practices for clinical management of dengue patients, and the need to report cases to MHA. Persons in Angola should seek medical care for acute febrile illness to reduce the risk for developing complications. Laboratory-confirmed dengue also has been reported from seven countries on four continents among persons who had recently traveled to Luanda, including 79 persons from Portugal. Angola is the third of four African countries to report a dengue outbreak in 2013. Persons returning from Africa with acute febrile illness should seek medical care, including testing for DENV infection, and suspected cases should be reported to public health authorities.

  10. Hydrothermal conditions of South Eastern Siberia under the ongoing warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voropay, N. N.; Maksyutova, E. V.; Riazanova, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    A great increase in air temperature has been observed since 1976. Siberia is a region with most severe ongoing climate change. To monitor the extreme weather events is important. To evaluate moisture conditions we used the D.A. Ped index (Si). Monthly air temperature and precipitation data from 19 weather stations of South Eastern Siberia (50-60° N 90-120° E) were used for the index calculation during the vegetation period. During 1976-2010 the number of droughts in the study region was more than the number of excessive moisture periods. The maximal statistically significant trend (0.4-0.6 per 10 years) in Eastern Siberia was observed in May. The characteristics of the winter-spring period preceding the vegetation season were analyzed. Significant positive trends exist in the study area for the May temperature (0.5-0.9 °C per 10 years) and the May sum of positive temperatures (14-28 °C per 10 years). There are tendencies to increase the number of days with temperatures above zero in March (1-3 days per 10 years) and the sum of positive temperatures in April (5-16 °C per 10 years). The stable transition of air temperature over 0 °C shifts into early dates by 1-7 days every 10 years.

  11. Epidemiology chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, J H; Butaev, M K; Duysheev, A; Gabbasova, A R; Khasanov, O S; Kulakov, Yu K; Mkrtchyan, A R; Myrzabekov, A M; Nurgaziev, R Z; Tsirel'son, L E; Willer, R D; Yaraev, R G; Zheludkov, M M

    2010-10-01

    This chapter outlines the epidemiology of brucellosis in the Russian Federation and in five countries bordering Russia. Since the Soviet Union's dissolution, Russia and the newly formed independent republics have failed to maintain policies to control brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases. Many of these republics, due to weak animal control and prevention systems and dangerous food preparation practices, are still burdened with the human cost of brucellosis. The final summary of this section provides an example of the successful transboundary cooperative efforts between Arizona and Mexico, which could be applied to the situation between Russia and the bordering independent republics.

  12. [The background, development and perspectives of modern epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Fabián

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiology is an ongoing discipline (i.e. still being constructed) and many of the foundations of the theory and methods now in use were mostly developed during the second half of the twentieth century, arising from what is known today as "modern epidemiology". This paper summary the history and main ideas which guided epidemiology at that time, the debates and divisions that characterized such advance and presents a "biased" point of view concerning the perspectives which could help thinking about the disciplinary development of epidemiology.

  13. EIDA Next Generation: ongoing and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, Angelo; Quinteros, Javier; Sleeman, Reinoud; Trani, Luca; Clinton, John; Stammler, Klaus; Danecek, Peter; Pedersen, Helle; Ionescu, Constantin

    2015-04-01

    The European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA; http://www.orfeus-eu.org/eida/eida.html) is the distributed Data Centre system within ORFEUS, providing transparent access and services to high quality, seismic data across (currently) 9 large data archives in Europe. EIDA is growing, in terms of the number of participating data centres, the size of the archives, the variability of the data in the archives, the number of users, and the volume of downloads. The on-going success of EIDA is thus providing challenges that are the driving force behind the design of the next generation (NG) of EIDA, which is expected to be implemented within EPOS IP. EIDA ORFEUS must cope with further expansion of the system and more complex user requirements by developing new techniques and extended services. The EIDA NG is being designed to work on standard FDSN web services and two additional new web services: Routing Service and QC (quality controlled) service. This presentation highlights the challenges EIDA needs to address during the EPOS IP and focuses on these 2 new services. The Routing Service can be considered as the core of EIDA NG. It was designed to assist users and clients to locate data within a federated, decentralized data centre (e.g. EIDA). A detailed, FDSN-compliant specification of the service has been developed. Our implementation of this service will run at every EIDA node, but is also capable of running on a user's computer, allowing anyone to define virtual or integrate existing data centres. This (meta)service needs to be queried in order to locate the data. Some smart clients (in a beta status) have been also provided to offer the user an integrated view of the whole EIDA, hiding the complexity of its internal structure. The service is open and able to be queried by anyone without the need of credentials or authentication. The QC Service is developed to cope with user requirements to query for relevant data only. The web service provides detailed information on the

  14. Mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong

    2008-01-01

    Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...

  15. Dendroecological opportunities to shift and cross disciplinary boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buentgen, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    In this 'solicited' talk, I will firstly navigate through some of the most influential dendroecological/-climatological advancements of roughly the last decade. Afterwards, I will outline pending challenges in modern tree-ring research, including the ongoing involvement of (quantitative) wood anatomical materials, methods and perspectives. Finally, I will provide several examples of how dendroecological approaches might indeed be able to contribute towards identifying and shifting research frontiers, as well as crossing disciplinary boundaries; not only within the vast field of natural sciences but also with the humanities. While presenting an array of timely case studies, with all of them being centered on either tree-ring data or associated techniques, this talk will comprise multiple aspects of archaeology, astronomy, biology, ecology, epidemiology, history, mycology and volcanology. In so doing, I hope to stimulate discussion on the potential and limitations of state-of-the-art tree-ring research across various spatiotemporal scales of resolution, which may range from the cell to the hemisphere and from the day to the Holocene. Despite its overview character, this talk will place emphases on utilizing big datasets, on valuing Russia's scientific landscape, on performing high-resolution radiocarbon measurements, and on linking volcanic activity, climate variability and human history.

  16. Coccidioidomycosis: epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Brown,1 Kaitlin Benedict,2 Benjamin J Park,2 George R Thompson III1,31Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA; 2Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, One Shields Avenue, Tupper Hall, Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory, University of California, Davis, CA, USAAbstract: Coccidioidomycosis consists of a spectrum of disease, ranging from a mild, self-limited, febrile illness to severe, life-threatening infection. It is caused by the soil-dwelling fungi, Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii, which are present in diverse endemic areas. Climate changes and environmental factors affect the Coccidioides lifecycle and influence infection rates. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis has risen substantially over the past two decades. The vast majority of Coccidioides infections occur in the endemic zones, such as California, Arizona, Mexico, and Central America. Infections occurring outside those zones appear to be increasingly common, and pose unique clinical and public health challenges. It has long been known that elderly persons, pregnant women, and members of certain ethnic groups are at risk for severe or disseminated coccidioidomycosis. In recent years, it has become evident that persons with immunodeficiency diseases, diabetics, transplant recipients, and prisoners are also particularly vulnerable.Keywords: coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, epidemiology, incidence, risk factors, geography

  17. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health.

  18. Buyer-Seller Interaction Patterns During Ongoing Service Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Valk (Wendy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on the ongoing interactions that take place between buyers and sellers of business services after the contract has been signed. This ongoing interaction is important since services are produced and consumed simultaneously; therefore, both buyer and seller have t

  19. The ongoing Digitalization of an Introductory Programming Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about the ongoing digitalization of a C programming course. The paper describes our considerations about the use of video resources, as well as other digital learning resources. In particular, we discuss the ongoing transition from using a number of supplementary videos (in...

  20. [Update on Cancer Epidemiology in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Motoki

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated epidemiological evidence has revealed several risk and preventive factors for cancer. Thus, cancer prevention guidelines for the Japanese population have been developed on the basis of scientific evidence from mainly studies conducted in Japan. In Japan, tobacco smoking and infections are the major causes of cancer. Further control of these factors will contribute to substantial reductions in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan. Concurrently, large-scale molecular epidemiologic studies are ongoing in order to obtain epidemiological evidence for personalized prevention strategies. In particular, evidence from omics analyses and investigation of gene-environment interactions may contribute to the further understanding of the biological mechanism underlying cancer occurrence. In addition, the establishment of preventive measures according to individual disease risk, on the basis of risk prediction models including omics data, is necessary.

  1. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pepłońska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. Material and Methods: The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more - 434 individuals currently wor­king night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Results: Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22 among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029. Conclusions: This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  2. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  3. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  4. [Dermato-epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbacher, C J; Diepgen, T L; Weisshaar, E

    2011-11-01

    Dermato-epidemiology is an important scientific discipline which investigates skin diseases using epidemiological methods. Epidemiology is the science of the distribution and determinants of disease in specified populations. We describe fundamental terms of dermato-epidemiology (measures of disease occurrence, measures of risk), different study types (observational studies, interventional studies), the selection of statistical tests, bias and confounding as well as the principles of evidence-based dermatology, and give illustrative examples.

  5. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  6. Compressive Shift Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Henrik; Eldar, Yonina C.; Yang, Allen Y.; Sastry, S. Shankar

    2014-08-01

    The classical shift retrieval problem considers two signals in vector form that are related by a shift. The problem is of great importance in many applications and is typically solved by maximizing the cross-correlation between the two signals. Inspired by compressive sensing, in this paper, we seek to estimate the shift directly from compressed signals. We show that under certain conditions, the shift can be recovered using fewer samples and less computation compared to the classical setup. Of particular interest is shift estimation from Fourier coefficients. We show that under rather mild conditions only one Fourier coefficient suffices to recover the true shift.

  7. Ongoing Slow Fluctuations in V1 Impact on Visual Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlschläger, Afra M; Glim, Sarah; Shao, Junming; Draheim, Johanna; Köhler, Lina; Lourenço, Susana; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human brain's ongoing activity is characterized by intrinsic networks of coherent fluctuations, measured for example with correlated functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. So far, however, the brain processes underlying this ongoing blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal orchestration and their direct relevance for human behavior are not sufficiently understood. In this study, we address the question of whether and how ongoing BOLD activity within intrinsic occipital networks impacts on conscious visual perception. To this end, backwardly masked targets were presented in participants' left visual field only, leaving the ipsi-lateral occipital areas entirely free from direct effects of task throughout the experiment. Signal time courses of ipsi-lateral BOLD fluctuations in visual areas V1 and V2 were then used as proxies for the ongoing contra-lateral BOLD activity within the bilateral networks. Magnitude and phase of these fluctuations were compared in trials with and without conscious visual perception, operationalized by means of subjective confidence ratings. Our results show that ipsi-lateral BOLD magnitudes in V1 were significantly higher at times of peak response when the target was perceived consciously. A significant difference between conscious and non-conscious perception with regard to the pre-target phase of an intrinsic-frequency regime suggests that ongoing V1 fluctuations exert a decisive impact on the access to consciousness already before stimulation. Both effects were absent in V2. These results thus support the notion that ongoing slow BOLD activity within intrinsic networks covering V1 represents localized processes that modulate the degree of readiness for the emergence of visual consciousness.

  8. Frontiers in cancer epidemiology: a challenge to the research community from the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program at the National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Muin J; Freedman, Andrew N; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Harvey, Chinonye E; Kaefer, Christie; Reid, Britt C; Rogers, Scott; Schully, Sheri D; Seminara, Daniela; Verma, Mukesh

    2012-07-01

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing scientific priorities for cancer epidemiology research in the next decade. We would like to engage the research community and other stakeholders in a planning effort that will include a workshop in December 2012 to help shape new foci for cancer epidemiology research. To facilitate the process of defining the future of cancer epidemiology, we invite the research community to join in an ongoing web-based conversation at http://blog-epi.grants.cancer.gov/ to develop priorities and the next generation of high-impact studies.

  9. Fast adjustments of ongoing movements in spastic hemiparesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, E. van; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Smeets, J.B.J.; Hulstijn, W.

    2002-01-01

    The present study focuses on the ability of participants with spastic hemiparesis caused by cerebral palsy to adjust an ongoing movement. Typical symptoms associated with the disorder would lead one to expect that people with spastic hemiparesis would be unable to adjust their movements quickly and

  10. Overview of ongoing cohort and dietary studies in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Pál; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the ongoing cohort and dietary studies underlying the assessment of population health in the Arctic. The emphasis here is on a description of the material, methods and results or preliminary results for each study. Detailed exposure information is available in an...

  11. Fast adjustments of ongoing movements in spastic hemiparesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, E. van; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Smeets, J.B.J.; Hulstijn, W.

    2002-01-01

    The present study focuses on the ability of participants with spastic hemiparesis caused by cerebral palsy to adjust an ongoing movement. Typical symptoms associated with the disorder would lead one to expect that people with spastic hemiparesis would be unable to adjust their movements quickly and

  12. Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth Who Experience Ongoing Traumas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will…

  13. Examples of Important Ongoing Research Topics for Offshore Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Bredmose, Henrik; Schløer, Signe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to address some challenges related to offshore wind energy. A first example shows some results from an ongoing project on accurate computation of wave loads on monopole foundations. The effects of wave nonlinearity and bottom slope are examined and detailed CFD computation...

  14. Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth Who Experience Ongoing Traumas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will…

  15. Implementing OpenShift

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial-based approach to using OpenShift and deploying custom or pre-built web applications to the OpenShift Online cloud.This book is for software developers and DevOps alike who are interested in learning how to use the OpenShift Platform-as-a-Service for developing and deploying applications, how the environment works on the back end, and how to deploy their very own open source Platform-as-a-Service based on the upstream OpenShift Origin project.

  16. Quantized beam shifts

    CERN Document Server

    Kort-Kamp, W J M; Dalvit, D A R

    2015-01-01

    We predict quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-H\\"anchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$, while the Goos- H\\"anchen ones in multiples of $\\alpha^2$. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  17. UP states protect ongoing cortical activity from thalamic inputs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon O Watson

    Full Text Available Cortical neurons in vitro and in vivo fluctuate spontaneously between two stable membrane potentials: a depolarized UP state and a hyperpolarized DOWN state. UP states temporally correspond with multineuronal firing sequences which may be important for information processing. To examine how thalamic inputs interact with ongoing cortical UP state activity, we used calcium imaging and targeted whole-cell recordings of activated neurons in thalamocortical slices of mouse somatosensory cortex. Whereas thalamic stimulation during DOWN states generated multineuronal, synchronized UP states, identical stimulation during UP states had no effect on the subthreshold membrane dynamics of the vast majority of cells or on ongoing multineuronal temporal patterns. Both thalamocortical and corticocortical PSPs were significantly reduced and neuronal input resistance was significantly decreased during cortical UP states -- mechanistically consistent with UP state insensitivity. Our results demonstrate that cortical dynamics during UP states are insensitive to thalamic inputs.

  18. Implementation of Sustainability in Ongoing Supply Chain Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørsfeldt, Liliyana Makarowa; Meulengracht Jensen, Peter; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2012-01-01

    The need to take the sustainable agenda beyond its technological outset and include operational and supply chain practices is well-established, but still very little has happened and the supply chain and operational logics have remained largely unaffected. This paper asks why this may be the case...... and investigates what happens in the translation from ambitious strategic goals to operational practices. To do this an exploratory case study is presented detailing the efforts of a large Danish manufacturing company to introduce an ambitious sustainability agenda in its ongoing supply chain operations. The study...... aims to develop a deeper un-derstanding of the, inter-functional coordination and operational practices related to introducing the sustainable agenda in the supply chain. The study points to a lack of tangible environmental performance measurements related to day-to-day practice in the ongoing supply...

  19. Linear superposition of sensory-evoked and ongoing cortical hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Saka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern non-invasive brain imaging techniques utilise changes in cerebral blood flow, volume and oxygenation that accompany brain activation. However, stimulus-evoked hemodynamic responses display considerable inter-trial variability even when identical stimuli are presented and the sources of this variability are poorly understood. One of the sources of this response variation could be ongoing spontaneous hemodynamic fluctuations. To investigate this issue, 2-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy was used to measure cortical hemodynamics in response to sensory stimuli in anaesthetised rodents Pre-stimulus cortical hemodynamics displayed spontaneous periodic fluctuations and as such, data from individual stimulus presentation trials were assigned to one of four groups depending on the phase angle of pre-stimulus hemodynamic fluctuations and averaged. This analysis revealed that sensory evoked cortical hemodynamics displayed distinctive response characteristics and magnitudes depending on the phase angle of ongoing fluctuations at stimulus onset. To investigate the origin of this phenomenon, ‘null-trails’ were collected without stimulus presentation. Subtraction of phase averaged ‘null trials’ from their phase averaged stimulus-evoked counterparts resulted in four similar time series that resembled the mean stimulus-evoked response. These analyses suggest that linear superposition of evoked and ongoing cortical hemodynamic changes may be a property of the structure of inter-trial variability.

  20. [Epidemiology and public policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita Barradas

    2013-03-01

    The present essay deals with the relation between epidemiology and public policies, highlighting the epidemiology position in the public health field, analyzing the impact of public policies over epidemiological profile and contributions from epidemiology to the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public health policies. In the first title, the essay debates the links between the epidemiology and public health field, the social determinants and political action framework proposed by the WHO's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, and different approaches of health policies. In the second title the essay analyses the reduction of child stunting in Brazil as an example of public policies that impact epidemiological profile. The third title presents three strategic topics for the application of public health policies: reduction of social inequalities in health, health promotion and regulation of products and services that have impact over health. The fourth title discusses the possibilities and difficulties to combine the epidemiological knowledge in the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public policies and, finally, material examples of such relation between epidemiology and public policies are presented.

  1. OpenShift cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gulati, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    If you are a web application developer who wants to use the OpenShift platform to host your next big idea but are looking for guidance on how to achieve this, then this book is the first step you need to take. This is a very accessible cookbook where no previous knowledge of OpenShift is needed.

  2. Shifting employment revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Gramuglia, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    The CLR-network examined in 2006 the phenomenon of undeclared labour, with specific regard to the construction sector. The resulting study, Shifting Employment: undeclared labour in construction (Shifting-study hereafter), gave evidence that this is an area particularly affected by undeclared activi

  3. Making Shifts toward Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGatha, Maggie B.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    The Leading for Mathematical Proficiency (LMP) Framework (Bay-Williams et al.) has three components: (1) The Standards for Mathematical Practice; (2) Shifts in classroom practice; and (3) Teaching skills. This article briefly describes each component of the LMP framework and then focuses more in depth on the second component, the shifts in…

  4. Shifted Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    Delayed mixing is a problem of theoretical interest and practical importance, e.g., in speech processing, bio-medical signal analysis and financial data modelling. Most previous analyses have been based on models with integer shifts, i.e., shifts by a number of samples, and have often been carrie...

  5. The future of epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Roberta B; Andrews, Elizabeth B; Gaudino, James A; Newman, Anne B; Soskolne, Colin L; Stürmer, Til; Wartenberg, Daniel E; Weiss, Stanley H

    2009-11-01

    In this article, the authors discuss current challenges and opportunities in epidemiology that will affect the field's future. Epidemiology is commonly considered the methodologic backbone for the fields of public health and outcomes research because its practitioners describe patterns of disease occurrence, identify risk factors and etiologic determinants, and demonstrate the usefulness of interventions. Like most aspects of science, epidemiology is in rapid flux. Several factors that are influencing and will continue to influence epidemiology and the health of the public include factors fundamental to framing the discipline of epidemiology (i.e., its means of communication, its methodologies, its access to data, its values, its population perspective), factors relating to scientific advances (e.g., genomics, comparative effectiveness in therapeutics), and factors shaping human health (e.g., increasing globalism, the environment, disease and lifestyle, demographics, infectious disease).

  6. Welcome to epidemiology and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo Youl

    2009-10-29

    The Korean Society of Epidemiology publishes a scholarly journal titled 'Korean Journal of Epidemiology', which announces and discusses the results of epidemiological studies from the past 30 yr. Since its first publication in 1979, the journal has contributed to the advancement of epidemiology as well as the prevention and control of disease, and the promotion of health in Korea.In 2009, the editorial board has decided to publish the journal in English to contribute internationally, and change the journal's name. The new name of the journal is 'Epidemiology and Health'.The abstract and full text of articles will be published as an open access online journal, which will be posted onto the homepage (http://www.e-epih.org/) in real time for anyone in the world to access free of charge. Our editorial policy is that 'Epidemiology and Health' is open to every researcher in fields related to epidemiology, regardless of membership, his or her major and nationality.Editorials, lectures, review papers, original articles, epidemic and case investigations, brief communications and letters will be published to generate active discussion through the journal along with the publication of the papers.'Epidemiology and Health' welcomes articles from various fields of epidemiology, such as 1) infectious diseases epidemiology, 2) chronic diseases epidemiology, 3) nutritional epidemiology, 4) clinical epidemiology, 5) pharmacoepidemiology, 6) genetic or molecular epidemiology, 7) social epidemiology, 8) environmental or occupational epidemiology, 9) epidemiological methods and biostatistics, 10) disease prevention and control, 11) health promotion and, 12) all other fields related to epidemiology.

  7. Ongoing clinical trials of the pleiotropic effects of statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Davignon

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Jean Davignon1, Lawrence A Leiter21Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, CanadaBackground: The multiple effects (ie, pleiotropic effects of statins have received increasing recognition and may have clinical applicability across a broad range of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular conditions. Objective: To determine the relevance and significance of ongoing clinical trials of the pleiotropic effects of statins, focusing on nonlipid effects. Method: Ongoing trials were identified through personal communication, reports presented at scientific meetings (2000–2004, and queries made to AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co, Merck & Co, Novartis, and Pfizer, manufacturers of the currently marketed statins. Published trials and other source material were identified through electronic searches on MEDLINE (1990–2003, abstract books, and references identified from bibliographies of pertinent articles. Eligible studies were the clinical trials of statins currently under way in which primary or secondary outcomes included the statins’ nonlipid (ie, pleiotropic effect(s. Data were extracted and trial quality was assessed by the authors. Results: Of the 22 ongoing trials of the nonlipid effects of statins identified, 10 assessed inflammatory markers and plaque stabilization, 4 assessed oxidized low density lipoprotein/vascular oxidant stress, 3 assessed end-stage renal disease, 3 assessed fibrinogen/viscosity, 2 assessed endothelial function, 2 assessed acute coronary syndrome, 2 assessed aortic stenosis progression, and 1 each assessed hypertension, osteoporosis, ischemic burden, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke (outcomes often overlapped. Conclusion: Given the excellent safety and tolerability of statins as a class, full exploration of their pleiotropic effects has the potential to provide additional benefits to many patients

  8. Offsetting Ongoing Methane Emissions --- An Alternative to Emission Equivalence Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clisby, N.; Enting, I. G.; Lauder, A.; Carter, J.; Cowie, A.; Henry, B.; Raupach, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Global Warming Potential (GWP) has been widely adopted as a metric for comparing the climate impact of different greenhouse gases. As has been frequently noted, there are many problems with using GWPs to define emission equivalence in spite of the use of GWPs for this purpose in contexts such as the Kyoto Protocol. We propose that for methane, rather than define emission equivalence, the appropriate comparison is between ongoing emissions of 0.9 to 1.0 kg of CH4 per year and one-off emissions of 1 tonne of carbon. This approach represents an approximate solution to the inverse problem of defining a forcing equivalent index (FEI) that gives exact equivalence of radiative forcing over a range of timescales. In our approach, if ongoing methane emissions are offset by a one-off carbon removal that is built up with 40-year e-folding time, then the result is close to radiatively neutral over periods from years to centuries. In contrast, the GWP provides radiative equivalence (in integrated terms) only at a single time, with large discrepancies at other times. Our approach also follows from consideration of greenhouse gas stabilisation, since stabilising atmospheric CO2 requires an approximate cap on total emissions, while stabilising methane requires stabilisation of ongoing emissions. Our quantitative treatment recognises that, on time scales of centuries, removal of 1 tonne of carbon only lowers the atmospheric carbon content by 0.3 to 0.35 tonnes. We discuss the implications for rangeland grazing systems. In the absence of effective mitigation techniques for methane from rangeland systems, this approach may provide an attractive offset mechanism in spite of requiring that woody vegetation be established and maintained over about 15% of the landscape, or an equivalent amount of carbon storage in soil.

  9. Epidemiology: Then and Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuller, Lewis H

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-five years ago, on the 75th anniversary of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, I noted that epidemiologic research was moving away from the traditional approaches used to investigate "epidemics" and their close relationship with preventive medicine. Twenty-five years later, the role of epidemiology as an important contribution to human population research, preventive medicine, and public health is under substantial pressure because of the emphasis on "big data," phenomenology, and personalized medical therapies. Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. The primary role of epidemiology is to identify the epidemics and parameters of interest of host, agent, and environment and to generate and test hypotheses in search of causal pathways. Almost all diseases have a specific distribution in relation to time, place, and person and specific "causes" with high effect sizes. Epidemiology then uses such information to develop interventions and test (through clinical trials and natural experiments) their efficacy and effectiveness. Epidemiology is dependent on new technologies to evaluate improved measurements of host (genomics), epigenetics, identification of agents (metabolomics, proteomics), new technology to evaluate both physical and social environment, and modern methods of data collection. Epidemiology does poorly in studying anything other than epidemics and collections of numerators and denominators without specific hypotheses even with improved statistical methodologies.

  10. Ongoing outbreak of invasive listeriosis, Germany, 2012 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppitsch, Werner; Prager, Rita; Halbedel, Sven; Hyden, Patrick; Pietzka, Ariane; Huhulescu, Steliana; Lohr, Dorothee; Schönberger, Katharina; Aichinger, Elisabeth; Hauri, Anja; Stark, Klaus; Vygen, Sabine; Tietze, Erhard; Allerberger, Franz; Wilking, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Listeriosis patient isolates in Germany have shown a new identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern since 2012 (n = 66). Almost all isolates (Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a) belonged to cases living in southern Germany, indicating an outbreak with a so far unknown source. Case numbers in 2015 are high (n = 28). No outbreak cases outside Germany have been reported. Next generation sequencing revealed the unique cluster type CT1248 and confirmed the outbreak. Investigations into the source are ongoing.

  11. On the Ongoing Evolution of Very High Frequency Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Toke Meyer; Kamby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in radio frequency transmission equipment helps to overcome those. However those circuits were not designed to meet the same requirements as power converters. This paper summarizes the contributions in recent years in application of very high frequency (VHF) technologies in power electronics, describes......The ongoing demand for smaller and lighter power supplies is driving the motivation to increase the switching frequencies of power converters. Drastic increases however come along with new challenges, namely the increase of switching losses in all components. The application of power circuits used...

  12. Overview of ongoing cohort and dietary studies in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pál Weihe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the ongoing cohort and dietary studies underlying the assessment of population health in the Arctic. The emphasis here is on a description of the material, methods and results or preliminary results for each study. Detailed exposure information is available in an article in this journal, whereas another paper describes the effects associated with contaminant exposure in the Arctic. The cohort descriptions have been arranged geographically, beginning in Norway and moving east to Finland, Sweden, Russia and the other Arctic countries and ultimately to the Faroe Islands. No cohort studies have been reported for Alaska or Iceland.

  13. Overview of ongoing cohort and dietary studies in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihe, Pál; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva; Dudarev, Alexey; Halling, Jónrit; Hansen, Solrunn; Muckle, Gina; Nøst, Therese; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Rautio, Arja; Veyhe, Anna Sofía; Wennberg, Maria; Bergdahl, Ingvar

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the ongoing cohort and dietary studies underlying the assessment of population health in the Arctic. The emphasis here is on a description of the material, methods and results or preliminary results for each study. Detailed exposure information is available in an article in this journal, whereas another paper describes the effects associated with contaminant exposure in the Arctic. The cohort descriptions have been arranged geographically, beginning in Norway and moving east to Finland, Sweden, Russia and the other Arctic countries and ultimately to the Faroe Islands. No cohort studies have been reported for Alaska or Iceland. PMID:27974135

  14. Preparedness for ongoing Ebola virus infection: how to welcome it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sora Yasri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of Ebola virus infection is the big global concern. Preparedness for ongoing Ebola virus infection is the topic that should be discussed. In fact, it is necessary to set up a biosecurity system to protect against the present Ebola outbreak. The medical personnel have to prepare for fighting the problem. The management of the present outbreak requires international collaboration and control of cross-border disease transmission is also the big challenge. The good case study is the Hajj scenario.

  15. Evolution and social epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary biology, which aims to explain the dynamic process of shaping the diversity of life, has not yet significantly affected thinking in social epidemiology. Current challenges in social epidemiology include understanding how social exposures can affect our biology, explaining the dynamics of society and health, and designing better interventions that are mindful of the impact of exposures during critical periods. I review how evolutionary concepts and tools, such as fitness gradient in cultural evolution, evolutionary game theory, and contemporary evolution in cancer, can provide helpful insights regarding social epidemiology.

  16. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  17. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LightWater Reactors (CASL). Fivemain types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  18. A Systemic Review of Resistance Mechanisms and Ongoing Clinical Trials in ALK-rearranged Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khashayar eEsfahani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of oncogenic driver driver mutations in non-small cell lung cancer has led to a paradigm shift and the development of specific molecular treatments. Tumors harboring a rearranged EML4-ALK fusion oncogene are highly sensitive to therapy with ALK-targeted inhibitors. Crizotinib is the first approved treatment for advanced lung tumors containing this genetic abnormality. In this mini review, we discuss the existing data on crizotinib as well as ongoing trials involving this medication. A brief overview of the known resistance mechanisms to criztotinib will also be presented followed by a summary of the ongoing trials involving next-generation ALK inhibitors or other targeted therapies in patients with ALK+ NSCLC.

  19. Paradigms in epidemiology textbooks: in the footsteps of Thomas Kuhn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, R

    1999-08-01

    This article attempts to contribute to the debate on the future of epidemiology by combining Thomas Kuhn's ideas on scientific paradigms with the author's observations on some epidemiology textbooks. The author's interpretations were based on his readings of Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, epidemiology textbooks, and papers on the future of epidemiology. Thomas Kuhn's view is that sciences mostly work with a single paradigm driven by exemplars of successful work, and that proposals for paradigm change are resisted. Sciences that are maturing or changing do not have a dominant paradigm. Epidemiology textbooks showed diversity in their concepts, content, and approach. Most exemplars related to etiologic research rather than public health practice. One key focus of the recent controversy regarding the role of epidemiology has been the increasing inability of epidemiology to solve socially based public health problems. Kuhn's views help explain the polarization of views expressed. Kuhn's philosophy of science offers insights into controversies such as whether a paradigm shift is needed or imminent and the gap between epidemiology and public health practice. Interaction between science philosophers, epidemiologists, and public health practitioners may be valuable.

  20. Litigation Provides Clues to Ongoing Challenges in Implementing Insurance Parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kelsey N; Huskamp, Haiden A; Goldman, Howard H; Rutkow, Lainie; Barry, Colleen L

    2017-08-11

    Over the past twenty-five years, thirty-seven states and the US Congress have passed mental health and substance use disorder (MH/SUD) parity laws to secure nondiscriminatory insurance coverage for MH/SUD services in the private health insurance market and through certain public insurance programs. However, in the intervening years, litigation has been brought by numerous parties alleging violations of insurance parity. We examine the critical issues underlying these legal challenges as a framework for understanding the areas in which parity enforcement is lacking, as well as ongoing areas of ambiguity in the interpretation of these laws. We identified all private litigation involving federal and state parity laws and extracted themes from a final sample of thirty-seven lawsuits. The primary substantive topics at issue include the scope of services guaranteed by parity laws, coverage of certain habilitative therapies such as applied behavioral analysis for autism spectrum disorders, credentialing standards for MH/SUD providers, determinations regarding the medical necessity of MH/SUD services, and the application of nonquantitative treatment limitations under the 2008 federal parity law. Ongoing efforts to achieve nondiscriminatory insurance coverage for MH/SUDs should attend to the major issues subject to private legal action as important areas for facilitating and monitoring insurer compliance. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  1. The Rare Cancer Network: ongoing studies and future strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Ozsahin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Rare Cancer Network (RCN was formed in the early 1990’s to create a global network that could pool knowledge and resources in the studies of rare malignancies whose infrequency prevented both their study with prospective clinical trials. To date, the RCN has initiated 74 studies resulting in 46 peer reviewed publications. The First International Symposium of the Rare Cancer Network took place in Nice in March of 2014. Status updates and proposals for new studies were heard for fifteen topics. Ongoing studies continue for cardiac sarcomas, thyroid cancers, glomus tumors, and adult medulloblastomas. New proposals were presented at the symposium for primary hepatic lymphoma, solitary fibrous tumors, Rosai-Dorfman disease, tumors of the ampulla of Vater, salivary gland tumors, anorectal melanoma, midline nuclear protein in testes carcinoma, pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea, osteosarcomas of the mandible, and extra-cranial hemangiopericytoma. This manuscript presents the abstracts of those proposals and updates on ongoing studies, as well a brief summary of the vision and future of the RCN.

  2. The globalization of epidemiology: introductory remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Neil

    2004-10-01

    We are all living in the era of globalization, and like it or not, it is going to change the way we practice epidemiology, the kinds of questions we ask, and the methods we use to answer them. Increasingly, pubic health problems are being shifted from rich countries to poor countries and from rich to poor populations within Western countries. There is increasing interest and concern about the situation in non-Western populations on the part of Western epidemiologists, with regards to collaborative research, skills transfer, and 'volunteerism' to enable the 'benefits' of Western approaches to epidemiology to be shared by the non-Western world. However, most existing collaborations benefit Western epidemiologists rather than the countries in which the research is conducted. Even when research in non-Western populations is conducted as a genuine collaboration, it can too often 'export failure' from the West. On the other hand, non-Western epidemiologists are increasingly developing new and innovative approaches to health research that are more appropriate to the global public health issues they are addressing. These include recognition of the importance of context and the importance of diversity and local knowledge, and a problem-based approach to addressing the major public health problems using appropriate technology. These debates formed the background for a plenary session on 'International Epidemiology and International Health' at the recent International Epidemiological Association (IEA) meeting in Montreal, and the papers from this session are presented here. The development of a truly global epidemiology can not only better address the public health problems in non-Western populations, but can shed light on the current limitations of epidemiology in addressing the major public health problems in the West.

  3. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  4. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  5. Power Shifting in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Japanese Foreign Minister Seiji Maehara resigned on March 6 after it was reported he had illegally accepted a donation from a South Korean supporter. Three days later, Maehara’s deputy Takeaki Matsumoto was named Japan’s new foreign minister. The Shanghai-based Jiefang Daily published an article by Lian Degui, Deputy Director of the Center for Japanese Studies of the Shanghai Institutes for International Studies, analyzing Japan’s ongoing political strife. The following is an excerpt from the article:

  6. Occupational cancer epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Occupational cancer epidemiology has led to the identification of more than 40 agents, groups of agents, and exposure circumstances which cause cancer in humans. This evidence has been followed by preventive and control measures. There are four areas where occupational cancer epidemiology may contribute important results in the future: surveillance of workers exposed to carcinogens, identification of new carcinogens and target organs, study of interactions, and research on special exposure circumstances.

  7. Notes from the Field: Ongoing Cholera Outbreak - Kenya, 2014-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Githuka; Rotich, Jacob; Kigen, Hudson; Catherine, Kiama; Waweru, Bonface; Boru, Waqo; Galgalo, Tura; Githuku, Jane; Obonyo, Mark; Curran, Kathryn; Narra, Rupa; Crowe, Samuel J; O'Reilly, Ciara E; Macharia, Daniel; Montgomery, Joel; Neatherlin, John; De Cock, Kevin M; Lowther, Sara; Gura, Zeinab; Langat, Daniel; Njeru, Ian; Kioko, Jackson; Muraguri, Nicholas

    2016-01-29

    On January 6, 2015, a man aged 40 years was admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, with acute watery diarrhea. The patient was found to be infected with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Inaba. A subsequent review of surveillance reports identified four patients in Nairobi County during the preceding month who met either of the Kenya Ministry of Health suspected cholera case definitions: 1) severe dehydration or death from acute watery diarrhea (more than four episodes in 12 hours) in a patient aged ≥5 years, or 2) acute watery diarrhea in a patient aged ≥2 years in an area where there was an outbreak of cholera. An outbreak investigation was immediately initiated. A confirmed cholera case was defined as isolation of V. cholerae O1 or O139 from the stool of a patient with suspected cholera or a suspected cholera case that was epidemiologically linked to a confirmed case. By January 15, 2016, a total of 11,033 suspected or confirmed cases had been reported from 22 of Kenya's 47 counties (Table). The outbreak is ongoing.

  8. Investigation of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields: Ongoing animal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.

    1994-03-01

    There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. Many of the observed effects appear to be directly or indirectly associated with the neural or neuroendocrine systems. Such effects include increased neuronal excitability, chemical and hormonal changes in the nervous system, altered behavioral responses, some of which are related to sensing the presence of the field, and changes in endogenous biological rhythms. Additional indices of general physiological status appear relatively unaffected by exposure, although effects have occasionally been described in bone growth and fracture repair, reproduction and development, and immune system function. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models. Three major challenges exist for ongoing research: (1) knowledge about the mechanisms underlying observed bioeffects is incomplete, (2) researchers do not as yet understand what physical aspects of exposure produce biological responses, and (3) health consequences resulting from ELF exposure are unknown. Although no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, several are suggestive of potential health impacts. From the perspective of laboratory animal studies, this paper will discuss biological responses to ELF magnetic and/or electric field exposures.

  9. Epidemiological models to support animal disease surveillance activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Paisley, Larry; Lind, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological models have been used extensively as a tool in improving animal disease surveillance activities. A review of published papers identified three main groups of model applications: models for planning surveillance, models for evaluating the performance of surveillance systems...... and models for interpreting surveillance data as part of ongoing control or eradication programmes. Two Danish examples are outlined. The first illustrates how models were used in documenting country freedom from disease (trichinellosis) and the second demonstrates how models were of assistance in predicting...

  10. Inadequate description of educational interventions in ongoing randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Cécile

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The registration of clinical trials has been promoted to prevent publication bias and increase research transparency. Despite general agreement about the minimum amount of information needed for trial registration, we lack clear guidance on descriptions of non-pharmacologic interventions in trial registries. We aimed to evaluate the quality of registry descriptions of non-pharmacologic interventions assessed in ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs of patient education. Methods On 6 May 2009, we searched for all ongoing RCTs registered in the 10 trial registries accessible through the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We included trials evaluating an educational intervention (that is, designed to teach or train patients about their own health and dedicated to participants, their family members or home caregivers. We used a standardized data extraction form to collect data related to the description of the experimental intervention, the centers, and the caregivers. Results We selected 268 of 642 potentially eligible studies and appraised a random sample of 150 records. All selected trials were registered in 4 registers, mainly ClinicalTrials.gov (61%. The median [interquartile range] target sample size was 205 [100 to 400] patients. The comparator was mainly usual care (47% or active treatment (47%. A minority of records (17%, 95% CI 11 to 23% reported an overall adequate description of the intervention (that is, description that reported the content, mode of delivery, number, frequency, duration of sessions and overall duration of the intervention. Further, for most reports (59%, important information about the content of the intervention was missing. The description of the mode of delivery of the intervention was reported for 52% of studies, the number of sessions for 74%, the frequency of sessions for 58%, the duration of each session for 45% and the overall duration for 63

  11. Protein Chemical Shift Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Anders S

    2014-01-01

    The protein chemical shifts holds a large amount of information about the 3-dimensional structure of the protein. A number of chemical shift predictors based on the relationship between structures resolved with X-ray crystallography and the corresponding experimental chemical shifts have been developed. These empirical predictors are very accurate on X-ray structures but tends to be insensitive to small structural changes. To overcome this limitation it has been suggested to make chemical shift predictors based on quantum mechanical(QM) calculations. In this thesis the development of the QM derived chemical shift predictor Procs14 is presented. Procs14 is based on 2.35 million density functional theory(DFT) calculations on tripeptides and contains corrections for hydrogen bonding, ring current and the effect of the previous and following residue. Procs14 is capable at performing predictions for the 13CA, 13CB, 13CO, 15NH, 1HN and 1HA backbone atoms. In order to benchmark Procs14, a number of QM NMR calculatio...

  12. Ongoing Analysis of Jupiter's Equatorial Hotspots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, D. S.; Showmwn, A. P.; Vasavada, A. R.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present updated results from our ongoing analysis of Cassini observations of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach of the planet, the ISS instrument onboard Cassini regularly imaged the atmosphere of Jupiter. We created time-lapse movies from this period that show the complex activity and interactions of the equatorial atmosphere. During this period, hot spots exhibited significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes appear to be a result of interactions with passing vortex systems in adjacent latitudes. Strong anticyclonic gyres to the southeast of the dark areas converge with flow from the west and appear to circulate into a hot spot at its southwestern corner.

  13. Review of EGFR TKIs in metastatic NSCLC, including ongoing trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eMelosky

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI in the treatment of patients with advanced metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. Most of these recent trials were conducted in patients with EGFR mutation-positive tumours. As our knowledge of the EGFR mutation and its resistant pathways develops, the complexity of the situation expands. This article briefly reviews the pivotal trials leading to approval of EGFR TKIs in the first-line setting for patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung carcinomas. It discusses the historical use of EGFR TKIs after the first line setting in unselected patients and briefly describes ongoing trials.

  14. Ongoing Space Nuclear Systems Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bragg-Sitton; J. Werner; S. Johnson; Michael G. Houts; Donald T. Palac; Lee S. Mason; David I. Poston; A. Lou Qualls

    2011-10-01

    Reliable, long-life power systems are required for ambitious space exploration missions. Nuclear power and propulsion options can enable a bold, new set of missions and introduce propulsion capabilities to achieve access to science destinations that are not possible with more conventional systems. Space nuclear power options can be divided into three main categories: radioisotope power for heating or low power applications; fission power systems for non-terrestrial surface application or for spacecraft power; and fission power systems for electric propulsion or direct thermal propulsion. Each of these areas has been investigated in the United States since the 1950s, achieving various stages of development. While some nuclear systems have achieved flight deployment, others continue to be researched today. This paper will provide a brief overview of historical space nuclear programs in the U.S. and will provide a summary of the ongoing space nuclear systems research, development, and deployment in the United States.

  15. Asymptomatic moyamoya disease: literature review and ongoing AMORE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Recent development of a non-invasive magnetic resonance examination has increased the opportunity to identify asymptomatic patients with moyamoya disease who have experienced no cerebrovascular events. However, their clinical features, prognosis, and treatment strategy are still unclear because of small number of subjects and short follow-up periods. Therefore, we have designed Asymptomatic Moyamoya Registry (AMORE) study in Japan. The objectives of this nation-wide, multi-center prospective study are to clarify long-term prognosis of asymptomatic patients with moyamoya disease and to determine the risk factors that cause ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in them. In this article, we review the published data on asymptomatic moyamoya disease and report the on-going multi-center prospective cohort study, AMORE study. We would like to emphasize the importance to determine the clinical features, prognosis, and treatment strategies of asymptomatic moyamoya disease in very near future.

  16. Planned and ongoing projects (pop) database: development and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Claudia; Erdös, Judit; Warmuth, Marisa; Hinterreiter, Gerda; Krämer, Peter; Chalon, Patrice

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to present the development, structure and results of a database on planned and ongoing health technology assessment (HTA) projects (POP Database) in Europe. The POP Database (POP DB) was set up in an iterative process from a basic Excel sheet to a multifunctional electronic online database. The functionalities, such as the search terminology, the procedures to fill and update the database, the access rules to enter the database, as well as the maintenance roles, were defined in a multistep participatory feedback loop with EUnetHTA Partners. The POP Database has become an online database that hosts not only the titles and MeSH categorizations, but also some basic information on status and contact details about the listed projects of EUnetHTA Partners. Currently, it stores more than 1,200 planned, ongoing or recently published projects of forty-three EUnetHTA Partners from twenty-four countries. Because the POP Database aims to facilitate collaboration, it also provides a matching system to assist in identifying similar projects. Overall, more than 10 percent of the projects in the database are identical both in terms of pathology (indication or disease) and technology (drug, medical device, intervention). In addition, approximately 30 percent of the projects are similar, meaning that they have at least some overlap in content. Although the POP DB is successful concerning regular updates of most national HTA agencies within EUnetHTA, little is known about its actual effects on collaborations in Europe. Moreover, many non-nationally nominated HTA producing agencies neither have access to the POP DB nor can share their projects.

  17. Outcomes in registered, ongoing randomized controlled trials of patient education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Pino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the increasing prevalence of chronic noncommunicable diseases, patient education is becoming important to strengthen disease prevention and control. We aimed to systematically determine the extent to which registered, ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluated an educational intervention focus on patient-important outcomes (i.e., outcomes measuring patient health status and quality of life. METHODS: On May 6, 2009, we searched for all ongoing RCTs registered in the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry platform. We used a standardized data extraction form to collect data and determined whether the outcomes assessed were 1 patient-important outcomes such as clinical events, functional status, pain, or quality of life or 2 surrogate outcomes, such as biological outcome, treatment adherence, or patient knowledge. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected 268 of the 642 potentially eligible studies and assessed a random sample of 150. Patient-important outcomes represented 54% (178 of 333 of all primary outcomes and 46% (286 of 623 of all secondary outcomes. Overall, 69% of trials (104 of 150 used at least one patient-important outcome as a primary outcome and 66% (99 of 150 as a secondary outcome. Finally, for 31% of trials (46 of 150, primary outcomes were only surrogate outcomes. The results varied by medical area. In neuropsychiatric disorders, patient important outcomes represented 84% (51 of 61 of primary outcomes, as compared with 54% (32 of 59 in malignant neoplasm and 18% (4 of 22 in diabetes mellitus trials. In addition, only 35% assessed the long-term impact of interventions (i.e., >6 months. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to improve the relevance of outcomes and to assess the long term impact of educational interventions in RCTs.

  18. [Does shift work cause spontaneous abortion, preterm birth or low birth weight?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Viskum, Sven; Omland, Øyvind; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2007-03-05

    In Denmark 30% of females in the reproductive age regularly have shift work. 22 epidemiological papers were studied looking at associations between shift work and abortion, stillbirth, preterm birth, and birth weight. No convincing associations were observed between rotating shift work or fixed nightshift and negative pregnancy outcome. Some epidemiological support was found for a relation between fixed nightshift and late abortions/stillbirth. If fixed night work for all pregnant women is avoided, seven late abortion/stillbirths a year can be prevented. Fixed night work for pregnant women should be avoided.

  19. Shift work and cancer: the evidence and the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erren, Thomas C; Falaturi, Puran; Morfeld, Peter; Knauth, Peter; Reiter, Russel J; Piekarski, Claus

    2010-09-01

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified shift work with circadian disruption or chronodisruption as a probable human carcinogen. Short-term disturbances of biological 24-hour-rhythms following exposures to light and darkness at unusual times are well-known as "jet-lag" and "shift-lag" symptoms. However, that chronic disturbances or disruptions of timely sequenced circadian rhythms (chronodisruption) should contribute to long-term developments of cancer is a relatively new concept. This review provides background and practical information with regard to the open question "does shift-work cause cancer?" Overview on the basis of a selective literature search via Medline and ISI Web of Knowledge until 2009 from the viewpoints of occupational medicine, epidemiology, chronobiology, and occupational science. The postulated causal links between shift-work and cancer in humans are biologically plausible in the light of experimental findings, but to date we lack epidemiological studies which could describe or exonerate risks in humans. Monetary compensation has already been paid for such cases in at least one country (Denmark). In Germany, however, according to the applicable law, a new occupational disease can only be recognized when certain conditions for the recognition of "general scientific merit" have been met. We present the current state of knowledge regarding prevention. While causal links between shift-work and cancer developments are not established, future shift-work planning should pay more attention to insights from occupational medicine, chronobiology, and occupational science.

  20. Landmarks in the history of cancer epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Peter; Dunn, Barbara K

    2009-03-15

    The application of epidemiology to cancer prevention is relatively new, although observations of the potential causes of cancer have been reported for more than 2,000 years. Cancer was generally considered incurable until the late 19th century. Only with a refined understanding of the nature of cancer and strategies for cancer treatment could a systematic approach to cancer prevention emerge. The 20th century saw the elucidation of clues to cancer causation from observed associations with population exposures to tobacco, diet, environmental chemicals, and other exogenous factors. With repeated confirmation of such associations, researchers entertained for the first time the possibility that cancer, like many of the infectious diseases of the time, might be prevented. By the mid-20th century, with antibiotics successfully addressing the majority of infectious diseases and high blood pressure treatment beginning to affect the prevalence of heart disease in a favorable direction, the focus of much of epidemiology shifted to cancer. The early emphasis was on exploring, in greater depth, the environmental, dietary, hormonal, and other exogenous exposures for their potential associations with increased cancer risk. The first major breakthrough in identifying a modifiable cancer risk factor was the documentation of an association between tobacco smoking and lung cancer. During the past four decades, epidemiologic studies have generated population data identifying risk factors for cancers at almost every body site, with many cancers having multiple risk factors. The development of technologies to identify biological molecules has facilitated the incorporation of these molecular manifestations of biological variation into epidemiologic studies, as markers of exposure as well as putative surrogate markers of cancer outcome. This technological trend has, during the past two decades, culminated in emphasis on the identification of genetic variants and their products as

  1. Towards an integrated food safety surveillance system: a simulation study to explore the potential of combining genomic and epidemiological metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotta, M.; Wall, B.; Good, L.; O'Brien, S. J.; Guitian, J.

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne infection is a result of exposure to complex, dynamic food systems. The efficiency of foodborne infection is driven by ongoing shifts in genetic machinery. Next-generation sequencing technologies can provide high-fidelity data about the genetics of a pathogen. However, food safety surveillance systems do not currently provide similar high-fidelity epidemiological metadata to associate with genetic data. As a consequence, it is rarely possible to transform genetic data into actionable knowledge that can be used to genuinely inform risk assessment or prevent outbreaks. Big data approaches are touted as a revolution in decision support, and pose a potentially attractive method for closing the gap between the fidelity of genetic and epidemiological metadata for food safety surveillance. We therefore developed a simple food chain model to investigate the potential benefits of combining ‘big’ data sources, including both genetic and high-fidelity epidemiological metadata. Our results suggest that, as for any surveillance system, the collected data must be relevant and characterize the important dynamics of a system if we are to properly understand risk: this suggests the need to carefully consider data curation, rather than the more ambitious claims of big data proponents that unstructured and unrelated data sources can be combined to generate consistent insight. Of interest is that the biggest influencers of foodborne infection risk were contamination load and processing temperature, not genotype. This suggests that understanding food chain dynamics would probably more effectively generate insight into foodborne risk than prescribing the hazard in ever more detail in terms of genotype.

  2. Ongoing movement of the hermit warbler X Townsend's warbler hybrid zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meade Krosby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Movements of hybrid zones - areas of overlap and interbreeding between species - are difficult to document empirically. This is true because moving hybrid zones are expected to be rare, and because movement may proceed too slowly to be measured directly. Townsend's warblers (Dendroica townsendi hybridize with hermit warblers (D. occidentalis where their ranges overlap in Washington and Oregon. Previous morphological, behavioral, and genetic studies of this hybrid zone suggest that it has been steadily moving into the geographical range of hermit warblers, with the more aggressive Townsend's warblers replacing hermit warblers along ∼2000 km of the Pacific coast of Canada and Alaska. Ongoing movement of the zone, however, has yet to be empirically demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared recently sampled hybrid zone specimens to those collected 10-20 years earlier, to test directly the long-standing hypothesis of hybrid zone movement between these species. Newly sampled specimens were more Townsend's-like than historical specimens, consistent with ongoing movement of the zone into the geographical range of hermit warblers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While movement of a hybrid zone may be explained by several possible mechanisms, in this case a wealth of existing evidence suggests that movement is being driven by the competitive displacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers. That no ecological differences have been found between these species, and that replacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers is proceeding downward in latitude and elevation - opposite the directions of range shifts predicted by recent climate change - further support that this movement is not being driven by alternative environmental factors. If the mechanism of competitive displacement is correct, whether this process will ultimately lead to the extinction of hermit warblers will depend on the continued maintenance of the

  3. A Shift of Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Administrative reforms are shifting prefecture government powers to the county level in an effort to boost local economies on July 8, the government of China’s southernmost Hainan Province announced that it was to hand over 177 of its administrative powers to county-level governments. The move practically dismantled the powers of the

  4. Continuously on-going hindcast simulations for impact applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Ivonne; Geyer, Beate

    2016-04-01

    Observations for e.g. temperature, precipitation, radiation, or wind are often used as meteorological forcing for different impact models, like e.g. crop models, urban models, economic models and energy system models. To assess a climate signal, the time period covered by the observation is often too short, they have gaps in between, and are inhomogeneous over time, due to changes in the measurements itself or in the near surrounding. Thus output from global and regional climate models can close the gap and provide homogeneous and physically consistent time series of meteorological parameters. CORDEX evaluation runs performed for the IPCC-AR5 provide a good base for the regional scale. However, with respect to climate services, continuously on-going hindcast simulations are required for regularly updated applications. In this study two projects are presented where hindcast-simulations optimized for a region of interest are performed continuously. The hindcast simulation performed by HZG covering Europe includes the EURO-CORDEX domain with a wider extend to the north to cover the ice edge. The simulation under consideration of the coastDat-experiences is available for the period of 1979 - 2015, prolonged ongoing and fulfills the customer's needs with respect of output variables, levels, intervals and statistical measures. CoastDat - customers are dealing e.g. with naval architecture, renewable energies, offshore wind farming, shipping emissions, coastal flood risk and others. The evaluation of the hindcast is done for Europe by using the EVAL-tool of the CCLM community and by comparison with HYRAS - data for Germany and neighbouring countries. The Climate Research group at the national Austrian weather service, ZAMG, is focusing on high mountain regions and, especially on the Alps. The hindcast-simulation is forced by ERA-interim and optimized for the Alpine Region. One of the main tasks is to capture strong precipitation events which often occur during summer when

  5. Geoengineering:Basic science and ongoing research efforts in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Long; GAO Chao-Chao; ZHAO Li-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Geoengineering (also called climate engineering), which refers to large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system to counteract greenhouse gas-induced warming, has been one of the most rapidly growing areas of climate research as a potential option for tackling global warming. Here, we provide an overview of the scientific background and research progress of proposed geoengineering schemes. Geo-engineering can be broadly divided into two categories:solar geoengineering (also called solar radiation management, or SRM), which aims to reflect more sunlight to space, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR), which aims to reduce the CO2 content in the atmosphere. First, we review different proposed geoengineering methods involved in the solar radiation management and carbon dioxide removal schemes. Then, we discuss the fundamental science underlying the climate response to the carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management schemes. We focus on two basic issues:1) climate response to the reduction in solar irradiance and 2) climate response to the reduction in atmospheric CO2. Next, we introduce an ongoing geoengineering research project in China that is supported by National Key Basic Research Program. This research project, being the first coordinated geoengineering research program in China, will systematically investigate the physical mechanisms, climate impacts, and risk and governance of a few targeted geoengineering schemes. It is expected that this research program will help us gain a deep under-standing of the physical science underlying geoengineering schemes and the impacts of geoengineering on global climate, in particular, on the Asia monsoon region.

  6. Milieu matters: Evidence that ongoing lifestyle activities influence health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rob; Norman, Paul; Sheeran, Paschal

    2017-01-01

    Health behaviors occur within a milieu of lifestyle activities that could conflict with health actions. We examined whether cognitions about, and performance of, other lifestyle activities augment the prediction of health behaviors, and whether these lifestyle factors are especially influential among individuals with low health behavior engagement. Participants (N = 211) completed measures of past behavior and cognitions relating to five health behaviors (e.g., smoking, getting drunk) and 23 lifestyle activities (e.g., reading, socializing), as well as personality variables. All behaviors were measured again at two weeks. Data were analyzed using neural network and cluster analyses. The neural network accurately predicted health behaviors at follow-up (R2 = .71). As hypothesized, lifestyle cognitions and activities independently predicted health behaviors over and above behavior-specific cognitions and previous behavior. Additionally, lifestyle activities and poor self-regulatory capability were more influential among people exhibiting unhealthy behaviors. Considering ongoing lifestyle activities can enhance prediction and understanding of health behaviors and offer new targets for health behavior interventions.

  7. Milieu matters: Evidence that ongoing lifestyle activities influence health behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rob; Norman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Health behaviors occur within a milieu of lifestyle activities that could conflict with health actions. We examined whether cognitions about, and performance of, other lifestyle activities augment the prediction of health behaviors, and whether these lifestyle factors are especially influential among individuals with low health behavior engagement. Participants (N = 211) completed measures of past behavior and cognitions relating to five health behaviors (e.g., smoking, getting drunk) and 23 lifestyle activities (e.g., reading, socializing), as well as personality variables. All behaviors were measured again at two weeks. Data were analyzed using neural network and cluster analyses. The neural network accurately predicted health behaviors at follow-up (R2 = .71). As hypothesized, lifestyle cognitions and activities independently predicted health behaviors over and above behavior-specific cognitions and previous behavior. Additionally, lifestyle activities and poor self-regulatory capability were more influential among people exhibiting unhealthy behaviors. Considering ongoing lifestyle activities can enhance prediction and understanding of health behaviors and offer new targets for health behavior interventions. PMID:28662120

  8. Sandia's mentoring program : an ongoing success.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, Soila

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the Mentoring Program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), which has been an on-going success since its inception in 1995. The Mentoring Program provides a mechanism to develop a workforce able to respond to changing requirements and complex customer needs. The program objectives are to enhance employee contributions through increased knowledge of SNL culture, strategies, and programmatic direction. Mentoring is a proven mechanism for attracting new employees, retaining employees, and developing leadership. It helps to prevent the loss of corporate knowledge from attrition and retirement, and it increases the rate and level of contributions of new managers and employees, also spurring cross-organizational teaming. The Mentoring Program is structured as a one-year partnership between an experienced staff member or leader and a less experienced one. Mentors and mentees are paired according to mutual objectives and interests. Support is provided to the matched pairs from their management as well as division program coordinators in both New Mexico and California locations. In addition, bi-monthly large-group training sessions are held.

  9. New insights in the ongoing surge of the Austfonna icecap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, T.; Dunse, T.; Kääb, A.; Hagen, J. O.; Schuler, T.; Reijmer, C.

    2014-12-01

    Basin-3, a major drainage basin of the Austfonna icecap in NE-Svalbard switched to full surge mode in autumn 2012 after a multiannual, stepwise acceleration of its northern branch. A time series of velocity maps from repeat TerraSAR-X acquisitions revealed a maximum speed at the terminus of >18 m d-1 around the turn of the year 2012. The frontal ablation of Basin-3 was estimated to 4.2±1.6 Gt a-1 between April 2012 and May 2013, tripling the total dynamic mass loss from the largest icecap in the Eurasian arctic. Today, TerraSAR-X, Radarsat-2 and GPS data show that the surge is still ongoing. While the speed at the calving front dropped to 10 m d-1 until July 2014, areas further inland continued to accelerate after the climax, and 10 m d-1 were also measured ~20 km inland in summer 2014. This development will be further investigated by exploiting a time series of velocity maps based on Radarsat-2 Fine Beam data starting from July 2014, which will, other than the TerraSAR-X data, cover almost the entire fast flowing part of the basin. By combining both datasets we will extend the estimation of the frontal ablation and related sea-level rise contribution of the Basin-3 surge.

  10. Biomarkers for the prediction of acute ongoing arterial plaque rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo YL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuan-Lin Guo, Jian-Jun Li Division of Dyslipidemia, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fu Wai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is the main cause of mortality for coronary artery disease (CAD. Accordingly, earlier detection and diagnosis might be a key point for reducing the mortality in patients with ACS. One promising strategy is biomarker measurement in patients with ACS. Biomarkers are generally considered to be plasma measurements of molecules, proteins, or enzymes that provide independent diagnostic and prognostic values that can reflect underlying disease state and condition, especially repeated measurements. Nowadays, the most widely used biomarkers to identify or predict ACS are high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and high sensitivity troponin T/I (hs-TnT/I. The aim of the present review was principally to summarize recent evidence regarding some new biomarkers by which we could directly predict acute ongoing arterial plaque rupture, which may help to identify at-risk patients earlier than hs-CRP or hs-TnT/I. Keywords: matrix metalloproteinase-9, lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2, myeloperoxidase, soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, placental growth factor, acute coronary syndrome

  11. Geoengineering: Basic science and ongoing research efforts in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Cao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geoengineering (also called climate engineering, which refers to large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system to counteract greenhouse gas-induced warming, has been one of the most rapidly growing areas of climate research as a potential option for tackling global warming. Here, we provide an overview of the scientific background and research progress of proposed geoengineering schemes. Geoengineering can be broadly divided into two categories: solar geoengineering (also called solar radiation management, or SRM, which aims to reflect more sunlight to space, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR, which aims to reduce the CO2 content in the atmosphere. First, we review different proposed geoengineering methods involved in the solar radiation management and carbon dioxide removal schemes. Then, we discuss the fundamental science underlying the climate response to the carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management schemes. We focus on two basic issues: 1 climate response to the reduction in solar irradiance and 2 climate response to the reduction in atmospheric CO2. Next, we introduce an ongoing geoengineering research project in China that is supported by National Key Basic Research Program. This research project, being the first coordinated geoengineering research program in China, will systematically investigate the physical mechanisms, climate impacts, and risk and governance of a few targeted geoengineering schemes. It is expected that this research program will help us gain a deep understanding of the physical science underlying geoengineering schemes and the impacts of geoengineering on global climate, in particular, on the Asia monsoon region.

  12. The ongoing impact of modular localization on particle theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schroer, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Modular localization is the concise conceptual formulation of causal localization in the setting of local quantum physics. Unlike QM it does not refer to individual operators but rather to ensembles of observables which share the same localization region, as a result it explains the probabilistic aspects of QFT in terms of the impure KMS nature arising from the local restriction of the pure vacuum. Whereas it played no important role in the perturbation theory of low spin particles, it becomes indispensible for interactions which involve higher spin s fields, where is leads to the replacement of the operator (BRST) gauge theory setting in Krein space by a new formulation in terms of stringlocal fields in Hilbert space. The main purpose of this paper is to present new results which lead to a rethinking of important issues of the Standard Model concerning massive gauge theories and the Higgs mechanism. We place these new findings into the broader context of ongoing conceptual changes within QFT which already le...

  13. Dental amalgam: few proven harmful effects but many ongoing concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    (1) Dental amalgam is one of the main sources of exposure to mercury in industrialised countries; (2) At high doses, mercury is both neurotoxic and nephrotoxic. A suspected link exists between chronic exposure to low doses of mercury derived from dental amalgam and renal, neurodegenerative or neurobehavioural disorders, but it has not been established; (3) Some individual cases are troubling, but epidemiological studies show no major effects in the general population. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain why some people may be more sensitive than others to the effects of low-dose mercury; (4) More and more countries, especially Sweden, recommend that the use of amalgam should be restricted, particularly in pregnant women and children; (5) As part of a global strategy to eliminate mercury, the European Parliament has asked the Commission to draft legislation limiting the use of mercury in dental amalgam; (6) Evaluation of the risk-benefit balances of alternatives to dental amalgam does not provide sufficient data on which to base an informed choice between available options.

  14. Rotating night shift work and the risk of ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Devin L; Feskanich, Diane; Sánchez, Brisa N; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Schernhammer, Eva S; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2009-06-01

    Rotating night shift work disrupts circadian rhythms and is associated with coronary heart disease. The relation between rotating night shift work and ischemic stroke is unclear. The Nurses' Health Study, an ongoing cohort study of registered female nurses, assessed in 1988 the total number of years the nurses had worked rotating night shifts. The majority (69%) of stroke outcomes from 1988 to 2004 were confirmed by physician chart review. The authors used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the relation between years of rotating night shift work and ischemic stroke, adjusting for multiple vascular risk factors. Of 80,108 subjects available for analysis, 60% reported at least 1 year of rotating night shift work. There were 1,660 ischemic strokes. Rotating night shift work was associated with a 4% increased risk of ischemic stroke for every 5 years (hazard ratio = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.07; P(trend) = 0.01). This increase in risk was similar when limited to the 1,152 confirmed ischemic strokes (hazard ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.07; P(trend) = 0.10) and may be confined to women with a history of 15 or more years of rotating shift work. Women appear to have a modestly increased risk of stroke after extended periods of rotating night shift work.

  15. Shifting problems and shifting policies to reduce student drop-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2016-01-01

    -out, as well as the policies that have been implemented in pursuit of improving student retention. The review identifies two pervasive ways in which the drop-out problem has been framed in both policy and research. The first locates the drop-out problem with individual students, while the second locates...... the problem with the educational system. This study of Danish vocational education policy examines both (i) how student attrition has been framed in different periods, and (ii) the solutions that have been prescribed in accordance with shifting conceptualisations of early school leaving. The author’s inquiry...... finds that the rate of student drop-out has been a cause for ongoing concern among policy makers for more than a century, and that the framing of the problem has shifted considerably over time. The problem has variously been placed with the individual apprentice, the basic structure of vocational...

  16. The shifting demographic landscape of pandemic influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal

    Full Text Available As Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza spreads around the globe, it strikes school-age children more often than adults. Although there is some evidence of pre-existing immunity among older adults, this alone may not explain the significant gap in age-specific infection rates.Based on a retrospective analysis of pandemic strains of influenza from the last century, we show that school-age children typically experience the highest attack rates in primarily naive populations, with the burden shifting to adults during the subsequent season. Using a parsimonious network-based mathematical model which incorporates the changing distribution of contacts in the susceptible population, we demonstrate that new pandemic strains of influenza are expected to shift the epidemiological landscape in exactly this way.Our analysis provides a simple demographic explanation for the age bias observed for H1N1/09 attack rates, and suggests that this bias may shift in coming months. These results have significant implications for the allocation of public health resources for H1N1/09 and future influenza pandemics.

  17. The ongoing relevance of local journalism and public broadcasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, Joëlle; Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    distinguish patterns of news use in the Dutch media landscape, and if so, which ones. This country report analyzes which news media repertoires can be found in The Netherlands and studies the various motivations underlying the construction of these repertoires. Using Q methodology with think-aloud protocols......Digitalization fundamentally changes how people consume, (re)distribute and use news. Users have increased possibilities to compose their own configurations of news media out of an increased array of different sources. In many cases, these can be accessed where-, when- and however they prefer....... Accordingly, previous patterns of news use have come to shift. Among the key trends that have been identified are a growth of news consumption through mobile devices, increased cross-mediality, and the growing significance of social network sites for accessing and using news. The Netherlands is no exception...

  18. On the Lamb shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroel, D. [Av. Tobalaba 3696, Puente Alto, Santiago, Metropolitana (Chile)

    2008-02-15

    The Lamb shift is calculated, in an approximate way, considering the hydrogen atom as an isolated physical system; the quantized radiation field does not play any role in the present approach. Our formalism is based on the generalization of the Dirac wave equation that incorporates the effects of the electron self-fields directly into it. Both the physical picture as well as the mathematical formalism have their roots in the classical theory of the electron. (author)

  19. Recurrences and Ongoing Complaints of Diverticulitis; Results of a Survey among Gastroenterologists and Surgeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, M. A W; Draaisma, W. A.; Consten, E. C J; Broeders, I. A M J

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the current opinion of gastroenterologists and surgeons on treatment strategies for patients, with recurrences or ongoing complaints of diverticulitis. Background: Treatment of recurrences and ongoing complaints remains a point of debate. No randomized trial

  20. Turtles to Terabytes: The Ongoing Revolution in Volcano Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Volcano geodesy is in the midst of a revolution. GPS and InSAR, together with extensive ground-based sensor networks, have enabled major advances in understanding how and why volcanoes deform. Surveying techniques that produced a few bytes of information per benchmark per year have been replaced by continuously operating deformation networks and imaging radar satellites that generate terabytes of data at resolutions unattainable only a few decades ago. These developments have enabled more detailed assessments of volcano hazards, more accurate forecasts of volcanic activity, and better insights into how volcanoes behave over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Forty years ago, repeated leveling surveys showed that the floor of the Yellowstone caldera had risen more than 70 cm in the past 5 decades. Today a network of GPS stations tracks surface movements continuously with millimeter-scale accuracy and the entire deformation field is imaged frequently by a growing number of SAR satellites, revealing a far more complex style of deformation than was recognized previously. At Mount St. Helens, the 1980-1986 eruption taught us that a seemingly quiescent volcano can suddenly become overtly restless, and that accurate eruption predictions are possible at least in some limited circumstances given sufficient observations. The lessons were revisited during the volcano's 2004-2008 eruption, during which a new generation of geodetic sensors and methods detected a range of co-eruptive changes that enabled new insights into the volcano's magma storage and transport system. These examples highlight volcano deformation styles and scales that were unknown just a few decades ago but now have been revealed by a growing number of data types and modeling methods. The rapid evolution that volcano geodesy is currently experiencing provides an ongoing challenge for geodesists, while also demonstrating that geodetic unrest is common, widespread, and illuminating. Vive la révolution!

  1. Early markers of ongoing action-effect learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruge, Hannes; Krebs, Ruth M; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Acquiring knowledge about the relationship between stimulus conditions, one's own actions, and the resulting consequences or effects, is one prerequisite for intentional action. Previous studies have shown that such contextualized associations between actions and their effects (S-R-E associations) can be picked up very quickly. The present study examined how such weakly practiced associations might affect overt behavior during the process of initial learning and during subsequent retrieval, and how these two measures are inter-related. We examined incidental (S-)R-E learning in the context of trial-and-error S-R learning and in the context of instruction-based S-R learning. Furthermore, as a control condition, common outcome (CO) learning blocks were included in which all responses produced one common sound effect, hence precluding differential (S-)R-E learning. Post-learning retrieval of R-E associations was tested by re-using previously produced sound effects as novel imperative stimuli combined with actions that were either compatible or incompatible with the previously encountered R-E mapping. The central result was that the size of the compatibility effect could be predicted by the size of relative response slowing during ongoing learning in the preceding acquisition phase, both in trial-and-error learning and in instruction-based learning. Importantly, this correlation was absent for the CO control condition, precluding accounts based on unspecific factors. Instead, the results suggest that differential outcomes are "actively" integrated into action planning and that this takes additional planning time. We speculate that this might be especially true for weakly practiced (S-)R-E associations before an initial goal-directed action mode transitions into a more stimulus-based action mode.

  2. Early markers of ongoing action-effect learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes eRuge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring knowledge about the relationship between stimulus conditions, one’s own actions, and the resulting consequences or effects, is one prerequisite for intentional action. Previous studies have shown that such contextualized associations between actions and their effects (S-R-E associations can be picked up very quickly. The present study examined how such weakly practiced associations might affect overt behavior during the process of initial learning and during subsequent retrieval, and how these two measures are inter-related. We examined incidental (S-R-E learning in the context of trial-and-error S-R learning and in the context of instruction-based S-R learning. Furthermore, as a control condition, common outcome (CO learning blocks were included in which all responses produced one common sound effect, hence precluding differential (S-R-E learning. Post-learning retrieval of R-E associations was tested by re-using previously produced sound effects as novel imperative stimuli combined with actions that were either compatible or incompatible with the previously encountered R-E mapping. The central result was that the size of the compatibility effect could be predicted by the size of relative response slowing during ongoing learning in the preceding acquisition phase, both in trial-and-error learning and in instruction-based learning. Importantly, this correlation was absent for the common outcome control condition, precluding accounts based on unspecific factors. Instead, the results suggest that differential outcomes are ‘actively’ integrated into action planning and that this takes additional planning time. We speculate that this might be especially true for weakly practiced (S-R-E associations before an initial goal-directed action mode transitions into a more stimulus-based action mode.

  3. Rootstock breeding in Prunus species: Ongoing efforts and new challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gainza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current global agricultural challenges imply the need to generate new technologies and farming systems. In this context, rootstocks are an essential component in modern agriculture. Most currently used are those clonally propagated and there are several ongoing efforts to develop this type of plant material. Despite this tendency, lesser number of rootstock breeding programs exists in comparison to the large number of breeding programs for scion cultivars. In the case of rootstocks, traits evaluated in new selection lines are quite different: From the agronomic standpoint vigor is a key issue in order to establish high-density orchards. Other important agronomic traits include compatibility with a wide spectrum of cultivars from different species, good tolerance to root hypoxia, water use efficiency, aptitude to extract or exclude certain soil nutrients, and tolerance to soil or water salinity. Biotic stresses are also important: Resistance/tolerance to pests and diseases, such as nematodes, soil-borne fungi, crown gall, bacterial canker, and several virus, viroids, and phytoplasms. In this sense, the creation of new rootstocks at Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Fruticultura (CEAF offers an alternative to stone fruit crop, particularly in Chile, where just a few alternatives are commercially available, and there are site-specific problems. The implementation of molecular markers in order to give support to the phenotypic evaluation of plant breeding has great potential assisting the selection of new genotypes of rootstocks. Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS can shorten the time required to obtain new cultivars and can make the process more cost-effective than selection based exclusively on phenotype, but more basic research is needed to well understood the molecular and physiological mechanisms behind the studied trait.

  4. The Ongoing Impact of Modular Localization on Particle Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, Bert

    2014-08-01

    Modular localization is the concise conceptual formulation of causal localization in the setting of local quantum physics. Unlike QM it does not refer to individual operators but rather to ensembles of observables which share the same localization region, as a result it explains the probabilistic aspects of QFT in terms of the impure KMS nature arising from the local restriction of the pure vacuum. Whereas it played no important role in the perturbation theory of low spin particles, it becomes indispensible for interactions which involve higher spin s≥1 fields, where is leads to the replacement of the operator (BRST) gauge theory setting in Krein space by a new formulation in terms of stringlocal fields in Hilbert space. The main purpose of this paper is to present new results which lead to a rethinking of important issues of the Standard Model concerning massive gauge theories and the Higgs mechanism. We place these new findings into the broader context of ongoing conceptual changes within QFT which already led to new nonperturbative constructions of models of integrable QFTs. It is also pointed out that modular localization does not support ideas coming from string theory, as extra dimensions and Kaluza-Klein dimensional reductions outside quasiclassical approximations. Apart from hologarphic projections on null-surfaces, holograhic relations between QFT in different spacetime dimensions violate the causal completeness property, this includes in particular the Maldacena conjecture. Last not least, modular localization sheds light onto unsolved problems from QFT's distant past since it reveals that the Einstein-Jordan conundrum is really an early harbinger of the Unruh effect.

  5. Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delcourt, Cécile; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S

    2016-01-01

    The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000 Euro...

  6. Inflammatory bowel disease epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, Johan; Munkholm, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide, yet the reasons remain unknown. New therapeutic approaches have been introduced in medical IBD therapy, but their impact on the natural history of IBD remains uncertain. This review will summarize the recent findings in t...... in the epidemiology of IBD....

  7. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-03-08

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals' HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results.

  8. [Toxoplasmosis: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khryanin, A A; Reshetnikov, O V; Kuvshinova, I N

    2015-01-01

    The up-to-date literature and original data on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis are presented. Particular attention is paid to the parasite infection during pregnancy. Spiramycin is the drug of choice for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of ascariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Halstead, Fennella; Nejsum, Peter

      We are using molecular epidemiology techniques to study the population structure of Ascaris obtained from humans and pigs. Worms were obtained from human hosts on Zanzibar and in Uganda, Bangladesh, Guatemala and Nepal and Ascaris from pigs were collected from in Uganda, Tanzania, Denmark...

  10. Epidemiology of Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

  11. Triangulation in aetiological epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Tilling, Kate; Davey Smith, George

    2016-12-01

    Triangulation is the practice of obtaining more reliable answers to research questions through integrating results from several different approaches, where each approach has different key sources of potential bias that are unrelated to each other. With respect to causal questions in aetiological epidemiology, if the results of different approaches all point to the same conclusion, this strengthens confidence in the finding. This is particularly the case when the key sources of bias of some of the approaches would predict that findings would point in opposite directions if they were due to such biases. Where there are inconsistencies, understanding the key sources of bias of each approach can help to identify what further research is required to address the causal question. The aim of this paper is to illustrate how triangulation might be used to improve causal inference in aetiological epidemiology. We propose a minimum set of criteria for use in triangulation in aetiological epidemiology, summarize the key sources of bias of several approaches and describe how these might be integrated within a triangulation framework. We emphasize the importance of being explicit about the expected direction of bias within each approach, whenever this is possible, and seeking to identify approaches that would be expected to bias the true causal effect in different directions. We also note the importance, when comparing results, of taking account of differences in the duration and timing of exposures. We provide three examples to illustrate these points. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  12. The Epidemiology of Pheochromocytoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged Ebbehøj, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma and catecholamine secreting paraganglioma (PPGL) are exceedingly rare endocrine tumours, but remain a frequent diagnostic dilemma due to their potential life-threatening nature. Reliable data on the epidemiology of PPGL is lacking and no time trends in incidence rates (IR) have...

  13. Epidemiology of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from

  14. Planning for the Future of Epidemiology in the Era of Big Data and Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Muin J

    2015-12-15

    We live in the era of genomics and big data. Evaluating the impact on health of large-scale biological, social, and environmental data is an emerging challenge in the field of epidemiology. In the past 3 years, major discussions and plans for the future of epidemiology, including with several recommendations for actions to transform the field, have been launched by 2 institutes within the National Institutes of Health. In the present commentary, I briefly explore the themes of these recommendations and their effects on leadership, resources, cohort infrastructure, and training. Ongoing engagement within the epidemiology community is needed to determine how to shape the evolution of the field and what truly matters for changing population health. We also need to assess how to leverage existing epidemiology resources and develop new studies to improve human health. Readers are invited to examine these recommendations, consider others that might be important, and join in the conversation about the future of epidemiology.

  15. Avionics Architectures for Exploration: Ongoing Efforts in Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Montgomery B.; Ratliff, James E.; Hames, Kevin L.; Vitalpur, Sharada V.; Woodman, Keith L.

    2014-01-01

    The field of Avionics is advancing far more rapidly in terrestrial applications than in spaceflight applications. Spaceflight Avionics are not keeping pace with expectations set by terrestrial experience, nor are they keeping pace with the need for increasingly complex automation and crew interfaces as we move beyond Low Earth Orbit. NASA must take advantage of the strides being made by both space-related and terrestrial industries to drive our development and sustaining costs down. This paper describes ongoing efforts by the Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program to evaluate new avionic architectures and technologies, provide objective comparisons of them, and mature selected technologies for flight and for use by other AES projects. The AAE project team includes members from most NASA centers, and from industry. It is our intent to develop a common core avionic system that has standard capabilities and interfaces, and contains the basic elements and functionality needed for any spacecraft. This common core will be scalable and tailored to specific missions. It will incorporate hardware and software from multiple vendors, and be upgradeable in order to infuse incremental capabilities and new technologies. It will maximize the use of reconfigurable open source software (e.g., Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Core Flight Software (CFS)). Our long-term focus is on improving functionality, reliability, and autonomy, while reducing size, weight, and power. Where possible, we will leverage terrestrial commercial capabilities to drive down development and sustaining costs. We will select promising technologies for evaluation, compare them in an objective manner, and mature them to be available for future programs. The remainder of this paper describes our approach, technical areas of emphasis, integrated test experience and results as of mid-2014, and future plans. As a part of the AES

  16. Ongoing contact activation in patients with hereditary angioedema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke Konings

    Full Text Available Hereditary angioedema (HAE is predominantly caused by a deficiency in C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH (HAE-C1INH. C1INH inhibits activated factor XII (FXIIa, activated factor XI (FXIa, and kallikrein. In HAE-C1INH patients the thrombotic risk is not increased even though activation of the contact system is poorly regulated. Therefore, we hypothesized that contact activation preferentially leads to kallikrein formation and less to activation of the coagulation cascade in HAE-C1INH patients. We measured the levels of C1INH in complex with activated contact factors in plasma samples of HAE-C1INH patients (N=30, 17 during remission and 13 during acute attack and healthy controls (N=10. We did not detect differences in enzyme-inhibitor complexes between samples of controls, patients during remission and patients during an acute attack. Reconstitution with C1INH did not change this result. Next, we determined the potential to form enzyme-inhibitory complexes after complete in vitro activation of the plasma samples with a FXII trigger. In all samples, enzyme-C1INH levels increased after activation even in patients during an acute attack. However, the levels of FXIIa-C1INH, FXIa-C1INH and kallikrein-C1INH were at least 52% lower in samples taken during remission and 70% lower in samples taken during attack compared to samples from controls (p<0.05. Addition of C1INH after activation led to an increase in levels of FXIIa-C1INH and FXIa-C1INH (p<0.05, which were still lower than in controls (p<0.05, while the levels of kallikrein-C1INH did not change. These results are consistent with constitutive activation and attenuated depletion of the contact system and show that the ongoing activation of the contact system, which is present in HAE-C1INH patients both during remission and during acute attacks, is not associated with preferential generation of kallikrein over FXIa.

  17. Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: An Ongoing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omry-Orbach, Gal

    2016-01-28

    Thyroid cancer is an increasingly common malignancy, with a rapidly rising prevalence worldwide. The social and economic ramifications of the increase in thyroid cancer are multiple. Though mortality from thyroid cancer is low, and most patients will do well, the risk of recurrence is not insignificant, up to 30%. Therefore, it is important to accurately identify those patients who are more or less likely to be burdened by their disease over years and tailor their treatment plan accordingly. The goal of risk stratification is to do just that. The risk stratification process generally starts postoperatively with histopathologic staging, based on the AJCC/UICC staging system as well as others designed to predict mortality. These do not, however, accurately assess the risk of recurrence/persistence. Patients initially considered to be at high risk may ultimately do very well yet be burdened by frequent unnecessary monitoring. Conversely, patients initially thought to be low risk, may not respond to their initial treatment as expected and, if left unmonitored, may have higher morbidity. The concept of risk-adaptive management has been adopted, with an understanding that risk stratification for differentiated thyroid cancer is dynamic and ongoing. A multitude of variables not included in AJCC/UICC staging are used initially to classify patients as low, intermediate, or high risk for recurrence. Over the course of time, a response-to-therapy variable is incorporated, and patients essentially undergo continuous risk stratification. Additional tools such as biochemical markers, genetic mutations, and molecular markers have been added to this complex risk stratification process such that this is essentially a continuum of risk. In recent years, additional considerations have been discussed with a suggestion of pre-operative risk stratification based on certain clinical and/or biologic characteristics. With the increasing prevalence of thyroid cancer but stable mortality

  18. Ongoing Development of a Series Bosch Reactor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B; Mansell, J. Matthew; Stanley, Christine; Edmunson, Jennifer; DuMez, Samuel J.; Chen, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Future manned missions to deep space or planetary surfaces will undoubtedly incorporate highly robust, efficient, and regenerable life support systems that require minimal consumables. To meet this requirement, NASA continues to explore a Bosch-based carbon dioxide reduction system to recover oxygen from CO2. In order to improve the equivalent system mass of Bosch systems, we seek to design and test a "Series Bosch" system in which two reactors in series are optimized for the two steps of the reaction, as well as to explore the use of in situ materials as carbon deposition catalysts. Here we report recent developments in this effort including assembly and initial testing of a Reverse Water-Gas Shift reactor (RWGSr) and initial testing of two gas separation membranes. The RWGSr was sized to reduce CO2 produced by a crew of four to carbon monoxide as the first stage in a Series Bosch system. The gas separation membranes, necessary to recycle unreacted hydrogen and CO2, were similarly sized. Additionally, we report results of preliminary experiments designed to determine the catalytic properties of Martian regolith simulant for the carbon formation step.

  19. The search for interreligious convivance, ongoing challenge and charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J D Gort

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay deals with the relationship between Christianity and other religions. Part one looks briefly at the matter of religion itself. Part two provides a condensed historical survey of the attitude of Christianity toward the world outside itself: the approach of the church to other religions changed from initial appreciation through a long phase of rejection to an increasingly affirmative posture in recent times. This shift is explained by a number of causal factors that gave rise to new understandings regarding God�s work in the world and Christian mission, which in turn led to the emergence of various theologies of religion. The question confronting religious people today is how to foster the removal of interhuman divisions and the promotion of justice and peace. One potential means of achieving this goal is interreligious dialogue. In part three, the author delineates his concept of the four facets of dialogue: that of histories, of theologies, of spiritualities, and of life. Dialogue at all four of these levels is key to the establishment of interreligious convivance, which in our present world is prerequisite to the security and well-being of humanity.

  20. Ongoing Development of a Series Bosch Reactor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan; Mansell, Matt; DuMez, Sam; Thomas, John; Cooper, Charlie; Long, David

    2013-01-01

    Future manned missions to deep space or planetary surfaces will undoubtedly require highly robust, efficient, and regenerable life support systems that require minimal consumables. To meet this requirement, NASA continues to explore a Bosch-based carbon dioxide reduction system to recover oxygen from CO2. In order to improve the equivalent system mass of Bosch systems, we seek to design and test a "Series Bosch" system in which two reactors in series are optimized for the two steps of the reaction, as well as to explore the use of in situ materials as carbon deposition catalysts. Here we report recent developments in this effort including assembly and initial testing of a Reverse Water-Gas Shift reactor (RWGSr) and initial testing of two gas separation membranes. The RWGSr was sized to reduce CO2 produced by a crew of four to carbon monoxide as the first stage in a Series Bosch system. The gas separation membranes, necessary to recycle unreacted hydrogen and CO2, were similarly sized. Additionally, we report results of preliminary experiments designed to determine the catalytic properties of Martian and Lunar regolith simulant for the carbon deposition step.

  1. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Marten; Carpenter, Steve; Foley, Jonathan A.; Folke, Carl; Walker, Brian

    2001-10-01

    All ecosystems are exposed to gradual changes in climate, nutrient loading, habitat fragmentation or biotic exploitation. Nature is usually assumed to respond to gradual change in a smooth way. However, studies on lakes, coral reefs, oceans, forests and arid lands have shown that smooth change can be interrupted by sudden drastic switches to a contrasting state. Although diverse events can trigger such shifts, recent studies show that a loss of resilience usually paves the way for a switch to an alternative state. This suggests that strategies for sustainable management of such ecosystems should focus on maintaining resilience.

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Foodborne Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Brown, Eric; Knabel, Stephen J.

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the basic principles and advancements in the molecular epidemiology of foodborne pathogens. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of infectious diseases and/or the dynamics of disease transmission. The goals of epidemiology include the identification of physical sources, routes of transmission of infectious agents, and distribution and relationships of different subgroups. Molecular epidemiology is the study of epidemiology at the molecular level. It has been defined as "a science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of diseases within families and across populations".

  4. Epidemiological studies on syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken...... from smaller studies from different clinical settings with wide differences in patient morbidity. Through the extensive Danish registries we examined the characteristics and prognosis of the patients hospitalized due to syncope in a nationwide study. The aims of the present thesis were to investigate......, prevalence and cardiovascular factors associated with the risk of syncope, 4) the prognosis in healthy individuals discharged after syncope, and 5) the prognosis of patients after syncope and evaluation of the CHADS2 score as a tool for short- and long-term risk prediction. The first studies of the present...

  5. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Andrew R; Nan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment. Landmark discoveries in colorectal cancer risk factor research will also be presented. Based on the information reviewed for this report, we suggest that future U.S. public health efforts aim to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American communities, and that future worldwide colorectal cancer epidemiology studies should focus on researching nutrient-gene interactions towards the goal of improving personalized treatment and prevention strategies.

  6. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  7. The Epidemiology of Sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Burningham Zachary; Hashibe Mia; Spector Logan; Schiffman Joshua D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, a...

  8. Kilauea's Ongoing Eruption: 25th Year Brings Major Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, T. R.

    2007-12-01

    2007 marks the 25th year of nearly continuous eruption on Kilauea's east rift zone. Episodic high lava fountains, which built the Pu`u `O`o cone during the first three years of the eruption, ended in 1986. Activity then migrated downrift and the Kupaianaha shield was formed by passive effusion of lava. The change in eruptive style resulted in a switch at Pu`u `O`o from cone construction to cone collapse that has been ongoing for the last two decades. Activity at Kupaianaha ceased in 1992, and the eruption resumed at Pu`u `O`o. The eruptive style established at Kupaianaha continued, however, with continuous effusion from vents on the southwest flank of the Pu`u `O`o cone. The last 15 years have been characterized by the formation of relatively stable tube systems---broken only by a brief fissure eruption uprift of Pu`u `O`o in 1997---that have carried lava from the flank vents to the ocean about 9 km away. The Prince Kuhio Kalanianaole (PKK) tube, the most recent of these tube systems to develop, was active from March 2004 to June 2007. The PKK flow was emplaced almost entirely on older flows of this eruption and entered the ocean in several locations over a span of 6 km. The "Father's Day" intrusion of June 17--19, 2007, robbed the supply of magma to Pu`u `O`o and, thus, the active flow field. The floor of the Pu`u `O`o crater dropped 80--100 m, the PKK tube system drained, and the active flows and ocean entry quickly stagnated. On June 19, a short-lived fissure eruption broke out low on the east flank of Kane Nui o Hamo, about 6 km uprift of Pu`u `O`o, burying only 0.22 hectares. The eruption at Kilauea paused from June 20 through July 1 or 2, when lava returned to Pu`u `O`o and began refilling the collapsed crater. Near midnight on July 20--21, after at least 19 days of lava lake growth, the lava pond within the Pu`u `O`o crater drained suddenly when a series of fissures opened on the east flank of the cone and propagated ~2 km downrift. The new activity, dubbed

  9. Deformation patterns on Kythnos, Western Cyclades; ongoing work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    footwall part of the exposed West Cycladic Detachment System in the extreme SW of the island. The cause of the change from BGM in the east to YBM in the west is enigmatic. A primary sedimentary variation is unlikely, as it is parallel to the stretching direction; syn-tectonic dissolution seems more likely, but implies a massive fluid flow through the rocks. The confusion between BGM and YBM is seen elsewhere, with, for example, the map showing BGM changing to YBM across a normal fault, with little apparent offset of the marble boundary. Clearly, the map of de Smeth (1975), although very good in general, needs careful reworking. More important, it is potentially obscuring significant large-scale structures by mapping the same marble as two different lithostratigraphic units. Work is ongoing in the area.

  10. Atmospheric sulfur loading by the ongoing Nornahraun eruption, North Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Hartley, Margaret

    2015-04-01

    The ongoing Nornahraun fissure eruption has maintained a 1-4 km-high, gas-charged and sulfur-rich eruption plume since the onset of eruption on 31 August 2014 and had discharged ~1 km3 of lava at the end of 2014. During this time (i.e. September through December 2014), the SO2 emissions have produced significant volcanic pollution across Iceland with several short-lived events where the SO2 concentrations have exceeded toxic levels [1]. Although measurements of SO2 concentrations and fluxes is relatively straightforward at specific sites or localities within Iceland, it has been challenging to obtain good ground- or satellite-based time series measurements of the SO2 flux released by the magma upon venting. These difficulties arise because: (i) the eruption site is remote and nested in the centre of the Icelandic highland, thus these measurements are hampered by access and by weather conditions, (ii) the plume is confined to the lower troposphere where the conversion rate of SO2 to H2SO4 aerosols is very rapid, or hours (?) to days [2] and (iii) the plume is commonly obscured by clouds due of its low rise heights. The empirical sulphur emission method of Thordarson et al (2003) is an alternative way to obtain estimates on the total as well as temporal atmospheric SO2-loading by the Nornahraun eruption. We use the TiO2/FeO value of 0.156, obtained via microprobe analyses of groundmass glass in tephra grains, to calculate initial (1420 ppm) and degassed (435 ppm) S values for the Nornahraun magma. These values compare well with measured groundmass values (425 ppm = degassed S content) and melt inclusion values (~1400 ppm = initial S content of the magma). The difference in the above listed values represents the amount of S released into the atmosphere at the vents and indicates a 5.3 kg SO2-loading by each cubic meter of erupted magma. This implies a total atmospheric SO2-mass-loading of 5 million tons (= 5 terragrams) by the Nornahraun event during the first 4

  11. Epigenetic epidemiology of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Timothy M; Michels, Karin B

    2014-12-05

    Epigenetic epidemiology includes the study of variation in epigenetic traits and the risk of disease in populations. Its application to the field of cancer has provided insight into how lifestyle and environmental factors influence the epigenome and how epigenetic events may be involved in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, it has the potential to bring benefit to patients through the identification of diagnostic markers that enable the early detection of disease and prognostic markers that can inform upon appropriate treatment strategies. However, there are a number of challenges associated with the conduct of such studies, and with the identification of biomarkers that can be applied to the clinical setting. In this review, we delineate the challenges faced in the design of epigenetic epidemiology studies in cancer, including the suitability of blood as a surrogate tissue and the capture of genome-wide DNA methylation. We describe how epigenetic epidemiology has brought insight into risk factors associated with lung, breast, colorectal and bladder cancer and review relevant research. We discuss recent findings on the identification of epigenetic diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for these cancers.

  12. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of ongoing statin plus ezetimibe versus doubling the ongoing statin dose in hypercholesterolemic Taiwanese patients: an open-label, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chih-Chieh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C is associated with reduced risk for major coronary events. Despite statin efficacy, a considerable proportion of statin-treated hypercholesterolemic patients fail to reach therapeutic LDL-C targets as defined by guidelines. This study compared the efficacy of ezetimibe added to ongoing statins with doubling the dose of ongoing statin in a population of Taiwanese patients with hypercholesterolemia. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, parallel-group comparison study of ezetimibe 10 mg added to ongoing statin compared with doubling the dose of ongoing statin. Adult Taiwanese hypercholesterolemic patients not at optimal LDL-C levels with previous statin treatment were randomized (N = 83 to ongoing statin + ezetimibe (simvastatin, atorvastatin or pravastatin + ezetimibe at doses of 20/10, 10/10 or 20/10 mg or doubling the dose of ongoing statin (simvastatin 40 mg, atorvastatin 20 mg or pravastatin 40 mg for 8 weeks. Percent change in total cholesterol, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglycerides, and specified safety parameters were assessed at 4 and 8 weeks. Results At 8 weeks, patients treated with statin + ezetimibe experienced significantly greater reductions compared with doubling the statin dose in LDL-C (26.2% vs 17.9%, p = 0.0026 and total cholesterol (20.8% vs 12.2%, p = 0.0003. Percentage of patients achieving treatment goal was greater for statin + ezetimibe (58.6% vs doubling statin (41.2%, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.1675. The safety and tolerability profiles were similar between treatments. Conclusion Ezetimibe added to ongoing statin therapy resulted in significantly greater lipid-lowering compared with doubling the dose of statin in Taiwanese patients with hypercholesterolemia. Studies to assess clinical outcome benefit are ongoing. Trial registration Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00652327

  13. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of ongoing statin plus ezetimibe versus doubling the ongoing statin dose in hypercholesterolemic Taiwanese patients: an open-label, randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Chih-Chieh; Lai Wen-Ter; Shih Kuang-Chung; Lin Tsung-Hsien; Lu Chieh-Hua; Lai Hung-Jen; Hanson Mary E; Hwang Juey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is associated with reduced risk for major coronary events. Despite statin efficacy, a considerable proportion of statin-treated hypercholesterolemic patients fail to reach therapeutic LDL-C targets as defined by guidelines. This study compared the efficacy of ezetimibe added to ongoing statins with doubling the dose of ongoing statin in a population of Taiwanese patients with hypercholesterolemia. Methods This was a rand...

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of Brucella abortus in Northern Ireland-1991 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Allen

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is the most common bacterial zoonoses worldwide. Bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus has far reaching animal health and economic impacts at both the local and national levels. Alongside traditional veterinary epidemiology, the use of molecular typing has recently been applied to inform on bacterial population structure and identify epidemiologically-linked cases of infection. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat VNTR analysis (MLVA was used to investigate the molecular epidemiology of a well-characterised Brucella abortus epidemic in Northern Ireland involving 387 herds between 1991 and 2012.MLVA identified 98 unique B. abortus genotypes from disclosing isolates in the 387 herds involved in the epidemic. Clustering algorithms revealed the relatedness of many of these genotypes. Combined with epidemiological information on chronology of infection and geographic location, these genotype data helped to identify 7 clonal complexes which underpinned the outbreak over the defined period. Hyper-variability of some VNTR loci both within herds and individual animals led to detection of multiple genotypes associated with single outbreaks. However with dense sampling, these genotypes could still be associated with specific clonal complexes thereby permitting inference of epidemiological links. MLVA- based epidemiological monitoring data were congruent with an independent classical veterinary epidemiology study carried out in the same territory.MLVA is a useful tool in ongoing disease surveillance of B. abortus outbreaks, especially when combined with accurate epidemiological information on disease tracings, geographical clustering of cases and chronology of infection.

  15. Epidemiological Approaches to Metal Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2014-01-01

    to their propensity to cause chronic or delayed toxicity, epidemiological studies of metal toxicity have focused on a wide variety of organ systems, subtle effects as well as mortality, and differences in susceptibility. Toxic metals often serve as paradigms of environmental and occupational toxicity....... For these reasons, this chapter highlights the fields within epidemiology that are most relevant to toxic metals and discusses where these substances serve to illustrate important epidemiological concepts. Chapter sections include subjects such as epidemiological terms, study design, study population, exposure......Epidemiological methods are crucial to extract as much valid information as possible from human metal exposures. Thus, modern epidemiological approaches have elucidated human health effects that were not apparent in the past. At the same time, metal toxicology has served as a useful arena...

  16. Trichinosis: Epidemiology in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Soraya Jatesadapattaya Kaewpitoon; Chutikan Philasri; Ratana Leksomboon; Chanvit Maneenin; Samaporn Sirilaph; Prasit Pengsaa

    2006-01-01

    Trichinosis is one of the most common food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand and many outbreaks are reported each year. This paper reviews the history, species,and epidemiology of the disease and food habits of the people with an emphasis on the north, northeast, central and south regions of Thailand. The earliest record of trichinosis in Thailand was in 1962 in the Mae Sariang District, Mae Hong Son Province. Since then, about 130 outbreaks have been reported involving 7392 patients and 97 deaths (1962-2005). The highest number of cases, 557, was recorded in 1983. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports of the Bureau of Epidemiology,Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health,Thailand, show that trichinosis cases increased from 61 in 1997 to 351 in 1998.In contrast to these figures, the number of reported cases decreased to 16 in 1999 and 128 cases in 2000. There was no record of trichinosis in 2001, but then the figures for 2002, 2003 and 2004 were 289, 126 and 212 respectively. The infected patients were mostly in the 35-44 years age group and the disease occurred more frequently in men than women at a ratio of 1.7-2.0:1. There were 84 reported cases of trichinosis in Chiang Rai, Nan, Chiang Mai, Si Sa ket,Nakhon Phanom, Kalasin, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom and Surat Thani, provinces located in different parts of Thailand in 2005. The outbreaks were more common in the northern areas, especially in rural areas where people ate raw or under-cooked pork and/or wild animals. This indicates the need for health education programs to prevent and control trichinosis as soon as possible in the high-risk areas.

  17. Epidemiology of tuberculosis immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, G J; Menzies, D

    2013-01-01

    Immunological impairment plays a major role in the epidemiology of TB. Globally, the most common causes of immunological impairment are malnutrition, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, aging, and smoking. With the notable exception of HIV, each factor leads to relatively mild immunological impairment in individuals. However, as these conditions affect a significant proportion of the population, they contribute substantially to the incidence of TB at a global scale. Understanding immunological impairment is central to understanding the global TB pandemic, and vital to the development of effective disease control strategies.

  18. Epidemiology of Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Katharine A

    2016-11-01

    Brain tumors are the commonest solid tumor in children, leading to significant cancer-related mortality. Several hereditary syndromes associated with brain tumors are nonfamilial. Ionizing radiation is a well-recognized risk factor for brain tumors. Several industrial exposures have been evaluated for a causal association with brain tumor formation but the results are inconclusive. A casual association between the common mutagens of tobacco, alcohol, or dietary factors has not yet been established. There is no clear evidence that the incidence of brain tumors has changed over time. This article presents the descriptive epidemiology of the commonest brain tumors of children and adults.

  19. Worldwide epidemiology of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Luiz Paulo

    2013-08-01

    Studying the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) is very important to understand the impact of this disorder on persons, families and society. The recent modified 2010 classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), without the need of tender points palpation, allows that larger and nationwide surveys may be done, worldwide. This article reviews the prevalence and incidence studies done in the general population, in several countries/continents, the prevalence of FM in special groups/settings, the association of FM with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, and the comorbidity of FM with others disorders, especially with headaches.

  20. Epidemiologia social Social epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Barradas Barata

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da emergência da epidemiologia social concomitantemente ao surgimento da epidemiologia como disciplina científica, destacando as condições teóricas e epistemológicas desse aparecimento. Em seguida são enfocadas as razões para o declínio dessa abordagem, assim como para seu ressurgimento na década de 60, no século XX. São apresentadas as diferentes correntes teóricas atualmente vigentes na epidemiologia social, destacando as características gerais e as limitações de cada uma delas. Especial atenção é dada às seguintes formulações: a eco-epidemiologia proposta por Mervin Susser, a teoria do capital social, a perspectiva do curso de vida, a teoria da produção social da doença e a teoria ecosocial elaborada por Nancy Krieger. O panorama traçado pretende demonstrar a vitalidade dessa abordagem, bem como indicar a diversidade de aspectos em seu interior. Para finalizar são apontados alguns dilemas e desafios.This paper reviews the latest trends in social epidemiology. It analyzes the emergence of epidemiology as a scientific discipline in the nineteenth century focusing on the main characteristics of the episteme of the period. This paper also analyzes the decline of the social approach in the beginning of the twentieth century and the resurgence of social interest in the sixties. The multiple approaches of social epidemiology currently adopted are commented. The study also emphasizes Susser's proposal of ecoepidemiology, describing its characteristics and pointing out limitations. Next, there is a discussion of the social capital theory and its potentialities for epidemiological studies. The life course perspective is also analyzed, mentioning its psychological and material versions. Latin America's social production of the health and disease process is presented along with an overview of Nancy Krieger's social ecoepidemiology. Finally, some dilemmas and challenges for the future are presented.

  1. Update: Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission - Puerto Rico, November 1, 2015-July 7, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Laura; Bello-Pagan, Melissa; Lozier, Matthew; Ryff, Kyle R; Espinet, Carla; Torres, Jomil; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Febo, Mitchelle Flores; Dirlikov, Emilio; Martinez, Alma; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Garcia, Myriam; Segarra, Marangely Olivero; Malave, Graciela; Rivera, Aidsa; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie; Rosinger, Asher; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Chung, Koo-Whang; Pate, Lisa L; Harris, Angela; Hemme, Ryan R; Lenhart, Audrey; Aquino, Gustavo; Zaki, Sherif; Read, Jennifer S; Waterman, Stephen H; Alvarado, Luisa I; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Thomas, Dana; Sharp, Tyler M; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-08-05

    Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, and infection can be asymptomatic or result in an acute febrile illness with rash (1). Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe birth defects (2). Infection has also been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) (3) and severe thrombocytopenia (4,5). In December 2015, the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired case of Zika virus infection. This report provides an update to the epidemiology of and public health response to ongoing Zika virus transmission in Puerto Rico (6,7). A confirmed case of Zika virus infection is defined as a positive result for Zika virus testing by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for Zika virus in a blood or urine specimen. A presumptive case is defined as a positive result by Zika virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA)* and a negative result by dengue virus IgM ELISA, or a positive test result by Zika IgM MAC-ELISA in a pregnant woman. An unspecified flavivirus case is defined as positive or equivocal results for both Zika and dengue virus by IgM ELISA. During November 1, 2015-July 7, 2016, a total of 23,487 persons were evaluated by PRDH and CDC Dengue Branch for Zika virus infection, including asymptomatic pregnant women and persons with signs or symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease or suspected GBS; 5,582 (24%) confirmed and presumptive Zika virus cases were identified. Persons with Zika virus infection were residents of 77 (99%) of Puerto Rico's 78 municipalities. During 2016, the percentage of positive Zika virus infection cases among symptomatic males and nonpregnant females who were tested increased from 14% in February to 64% in June. Among 9,343 pregnant women tested, 672 had confirmed or presumptive Zika virus infection, including 441 (66%) symptomatic women and 231 (34%) asymptomatic

  2. Update: Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission - Puerto Rico, November 1, 2015-April 14, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlikov, Emilio; Ryff, Kyle R; Torres-Aponte, Jomil; Thomas, Dana L; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Caraballo, Elba V; Garcia, Myriam; Segarra, Marangely Olivero; Malave, Graciela; Simeone, Regina M; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Reyes, Lourdes Romero; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Harris, Angela F; Rivera, Aidsa; Major, Chelsea G; Mayshack, Marrielle; Alvarado, Luisa I; Lenhart, Audrey; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Waterman, Steve; Sharp, Tyler M; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-05-06

    Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, and symptoms of infection can include rash, fever, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis (1).* Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe brain defects (2). Infection has also been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (3). In December 2015, Puerto Rico became the first U.S. jurisdiction to report local transmission of Zika virus, with the index patient reporting symptom onset on November 23, 2015 (4). This report provides an update to the epidemiology of and public health response to ongoing Zika virus transmission in Puerto Rico. During November 1, 2015-April 14, 2016, a total of 6,157 specimens from suspected Zika virus-infected patients were evaluated by the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) and CDC Dengue Branch (which is located in San Juan, Puerto Rico), and 683 (11%) had laboratory evidence of current or recent Zika virus infection by one or more tests: reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Zika virus-infected patients resided in 50 (64%) of 78 municipalities in Puerto Rico. Median age was 34 years (range = 35 days-89 years). The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (74%), myalgia (68%), headache (63%), fever (63%), and arthralgia (63%). There were 65 (10%) symptomatic pregnant women who tested positive by RT-PCR or IgM ELISA. A total of 17 (2%) patients required hospitalization, including 5 (1%) patients with suspected Guillain-Barré syndrome. One (Zika virus infection (including blood donor screening), implementation of enhanced surveillance systems, and prevention activities focused on pregnant women. Vector control activities include indoor and outdoor residual spraying and reduction of mosquito breeding environments focused around pregnant women's homes. Residents of and travelers to Puerto Rico should continue to employ mosquito

  3. Global epidemiology of sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Mochizuki, Takashi; Li, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato. It has gained importance in recent years due to its worldwide prevalence, recognition of multiple cryptic species within the originally described species, and its distinctive ecology, distribution, and epidemiology across the globe. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the taxonomy, ecology, prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and outbreaks due to S. schenckii sensu lato. Despite its omnipresence in the environment, this fungus has remarkably diverse modes of infection and distribution patterns across the world. We have delved into the nuances of how sporotrichosis is intimately linked to different forms of human activities, habitats, lifestyles, and environmental and zoonotic interactions. The purpose of this review is to stimulate discussion about the peculiarities of this unique fungal pathogen and increase the awareness of clinicians and microbiologists, especially in regions of high endemicity, to its emergence and evolving presentations and to kindle further research into understanding the unorthodox mechanisms by which this fungus afflicts different human populations.

  4. Clinical Epidemiology Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a huge public health problem because of its high morbidity and disability. The epidemiology of stroke is of relevance to construct practical paradigms to tackle this major health issue in the community. Recent data have shown that about 72-86% of strokes are ischemic, 9-18% are due to hemorrhage (intracerebral of subarachnoid and the rest are undefined. The risk factors for stroke are multiple and combined. At present, stroke is no more considered as unavoidable and untreatable. It is an emergency and specialized units and teams improve outcome and lower costs. Death related to stroke is declining in many countries and in both sexes. This decrease in multifactorial. The detection and more effective treatment of hypertension may play an important factor, as well as the improved medical care and improvement in diagnostic procedures. While stroke incidence appears stable and stroke mortality is slowly declining, the absolute magnitude of stroke is likely to grow over the next 30 years. as the population ages, the absolute number of stroke victims and demands on healthcare and other support systems is likely to increase substantially in the future. Keeping this in perspective, this chapter shall focus on the epidemiology of stroke in the world and in Indian, in particular.

  5. Molecular Epidemiology of Amebiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ibne Karim M.; Clark, C. Graham; Petri, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is responsible for up to 100,000 deaths worldwide each year. Entamoeba dispar, morphologically indistinguishable from E. histolytica, is more common in humans in many parts of the world. Similarly Entamoeba moshkovskii, which was long considered to be a free-living ameba, is also morphologically identical to E. histolytica and E. dispar, and is highly prevalent in some E. histolytica endemic countries. However, the only species to cause disease in humans is E. histolytica. Most old epidemiological data on E. histolytica are unusable as the techniques employed do not differentiate between the above three Entamoeba species. Molecular tools are now available not only to diagnose these species accurately but also to study intra-species genetic diversity. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of all E. histolytica infections progress to development of clinical symptoms in the host and there exist population level differences between the E. histolytica strains isolated from the asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Nevertheless the underlying factors responsible for variable clinical outcome of infection by E. histolytica remain largely unknown. We anticipate that the recently completed E. histolytica genome sequence and new molecular techniques will rapidly advance our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of amebiasis. PMID:18571478

  6. The Epidemiology of Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Richard Matthew; Roberts, Helen Clare; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiology of sarcopenia, specifically prevalence, health outcomes, and factors across the life course that have been linked to its development. Sarcopenia definitions involve a range of measures (muscle mass, strength, and physical performance), which tend to decline with age, and hence sarcopenia becomes increasingly prevalent with age. Less is known about prevalence in older people in hospital and care homes, although it is likely to be higher than in community settings. The range of measures used, and the cutpoints suggested for each, presents a challenge for comparing prevalence estimates between studies. The importance of sarcopenia is highlighted by the range of adverse health outcomes that strength and physical performance (and to a lesser extent, muscle mass) have been linked to. This is shown most strikingly by the finding of increased all-cause mortality rates among those with weaker grip strength and slower gait speed. A life course approach broadens the window for our understanding of the etiology of sarcopenia and hence the potential intervention. An example is physical activity, with increased levels across midadulthood appearing to increase muscle mass and strength in early old age. Epidemiologic studies will continue to make an important contribution to our understanding of sarcopenia and possible avenues for intervention and prevention.

  7. An epidemiological network model for disease outbreak detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Y Reis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced disease-surveillance systems have been deployed worldwide to provide early detection of infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorist attacks. New methods that improve the overall detection capabilities of these systems can have a broad practical impact. Furthermore, most current generation surveillance systems are vulnerable to dramatic and unpredictable shifts in the health-care data that they monitor. These shifts can occur during major public events, such as the Olympics, as a result of population surges and public closures. Shifts can also occur during epidemics and pandemics as a result of quarantines, the worried-well flooding emergency departments or, conversely, the public staying away from hospitals for fear of nosocomial infection. Most surveillance systems are not robust to such shifts in health-care utilization, either because they do not adjust baselines and alert-thresholds to new utilization levels, or because the utilization shifts themselves may trigger an alarm. As a result, public-health crises and major public events threaten to undermine health-surveillance systems at the very times they are needed most. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To address this challenge, we introduce a class of epidemiological network models that monitor the relationships among different health-care data streams instead of monitoring the data streams themselves. By extracting the extra information present in the relationships between the data streams, these models have the potential to improve the detection capabilities of a system. Furthermore, the models' relational nature has the potential to increase a system's robustness to unpredictable baseline shifts. We implemented these models and evaluated their effectiveness using historical emergency department data from five hospitals in a single metropolitan area, recorded over a period of 4.5 y by the Automated Epidemiological Geotemporal Integrated Surveillance real-time public health

  8. Quantized beam shifts in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-08

    We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α2. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  9. Beam shifts and distribution functions

    CERN Document Server

    Aiello, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    When a beam of light is reflected by a smooth surface its behavior deviates from geometrical optics predictions. Such deviations are quantified by the so-called spatial and angular Goos-Haenchen (GH) and Imbert-Fedorov (IF) shifts of the reflected beam. These shifts depend upon the shape of the incident beam, its polarization and on the material composition of the reflecting surface. In this article we suggest a novel approach that allows one to unambiguously isolate the beam-shape dependent aspects of GH and IF shifts. We show that this separation is possible as a result of some universal features of shifted distribution functions which are presented and discussed.

  10. Life stage, not climate change, explains observed tree range shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máliš, František; Kopecký, Martin; Petřík, Petr; Vladovič, Jozef; Merganič, Ján; Vida, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    Ongoing climate change is expected to shift tree species distribution and therefore affect forest biodiversity and ecosystem services. To assess and project tree distributional shifts, researchers may compare the distribution of juvenile and adult trees under the assumption that differences between tree life stages reflect distributional shifts triggered by climate change. However, the distribution of tree life stages could differ within the lifespan of trees, therefore, we hypothesize that currently observed distributional differences could represent shifts over ontogeny as opposed to climatically driven changes. Here, we test this hypothesis with data from 1435 plots resurveyed after more than three decades across the Western Carpathians. We compared seedling, sapling and adult distribution of 12 tree species along elevation, temperature and precipitation gradients. We analyzed (i) temporal shifts between the surveys and (ii) distributional differences between tree life stages within both surveys. Despite climate warming, tree species distribution of any life stage did not shift directionally upward along elevation between the surveys. Temporal elevational shifts were species specific and an order of magnitude lower than differences among tree life stages within the surveys. Our results show that the observed range shifts among tree life stages are more consistent with ontogenetic differences in the species' environmental requirements than with responses to recent climate change. The distribution of seedlings substantially differed from saplings and adults, while the distribution of saplings did not differ from adults, indicating a critical transition between seedling and sapling tree life stages. Future research has to take ontogenetic differences among life stages into account as we found that distributional differences recently observed worldwide may not reflect climate change but rather the different environmental requirements of tree life stages.

  11. 7 CFR 25.403. - Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. 25.403. Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.403. Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. (a) Each Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community shall prepare and submit annually, work plans for the subsequent...

  12. The Use of Process Energy Characteristics to Predict Energy Performance Indicators on an Ongoing Basis

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Sadowska

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents possible uses of process energy characteristics for ongoing monitoring of energy indicators. The method of ongoing monitoring of indicators consists in comparison of indicators determined on the basis of the processes’ energy characteristics. The method is primarily applicable in early detection and elimination of excessive and irrational energy consumption and in adjustments of the current energy management.

  13. Transformational Change and Regime Shifts in the Circumpolar Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika E. Nilsson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is changing rapidly, and there are many indications that the region is in the midst of transformational change. While some of the focus relates to impacts of climate change, rapid economic development and the potential for shifts in political and social structures in the region have also been in the limelight. This article looks at the circumpolar Arctic as a potential case of a regime shift in a large-scale social–ecological system that includes reinforcing feedbacks. A special focus is placed on governance structures, as these play an important role in social negotiations on the relationship between societies and the environment. While climate change is often portrayed as a driver of social change in the Arctic, it does not appear that the ongoing changes in the biophysical features of the Arctic region have rocked current circumpolar governance structures out of kilter. On the contrary, the ongoing climate-related changes, in particular sea ice decline, appear to have reinforced political commitment to existing legal structures. Major past social regime shifts have mainly been related to access to resources and national identity ideology, with political dynamics reinforced at times by military security considerations.

  14. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  15. The new epidemiology of nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoag, Jonathan; Tasian, Greg E; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-07-01

    Historically nephrolithiasis was considered a disease of dehydration and abnormal urine composition. However, over the past several decades, much has been learned about the epidemiology of this disease and its relation to patient demographic characteristics and common systemic diseases. Here we review the latest epidemiologic studies in the field.

  16. Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to broaden access and facilitate efficient data sharing, the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) has created the Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR), a centralized, controlled-access database, where Investigators can deposit individual-level de-identified observational cancer datasets.

  17. Epidemiology of infections in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Jan M H; Risser, William L; Risser, Amanda L

    2008-12-01

    This article describes the epidemiologic profiles of sexually transmitted infections seen in US women. We present a brief description of the infectious agent, describe the epidemiology of the infection among women in terms of race/ethnicity and age (if those data are available), and present what is known about the behavioral risk factors associated with acquisition.

  18. Epidemiological evidence in forensic pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Nav; Healy, David

    2012-01-01

    Until recently epidemiological evidence was not regarded as helpful in determining cause and effect. It generated associations that then had to be explained in terms of bio-mechanisms and applied to individual patients. A series of legal cases surrounding possible birth defects triggered by doxylamine (Bendectin) and connective tissue disorders linked to breast implants made it clear that in some instances epidemiological evidence might have a more important role, but the pendulum swung too far so that epidemiological evidence has in recent decades been given an unwarranted primacy, partly perhaps because it suits the interests of certain stakeholders. Older and more recent epidemiological studies on doxylamine and other antihistamines are reviewed to bring out the ambiguities and pitfalls of an undue reliance on epidemiological studies.

  19. Update on molecular epidemiology of Shigella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ila F N; Havt, Alexandre; Lima, Aldo A M

    2015-01-01

    Shigella spp. are important etiologic agents of diarrhea worldwide. This review summarizes the recent findings on the epidemiology, diagnosis, virulence genes, and pathobiology of Shigella infection. Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei have been identified as the main serogroups circulating in developing and developed countries, respectively. However, a shift in the dominant species from S. flexneri to S. sonnei has been observed in countries that have experienced recent improvements in socioeconomic conditions. Despite the increasing usage of molecular methods in the diagnosis and virulence characterization of Shigella strains, researchers have been unsuccessful in finding a specific target gene for this bacillus. New research has demonstrated the role of proteins whose expressions are temperature-regulated, as well as genes involved in the processes of adhesion, invasion, dissemination, and inflammation, aiding in the clarification of the complex pathobiology of shigellosis. Knowledge about the epidemiologic profile of circulating serogroups of Shigella and an understanding of its pathobiology as well as of the virulence genes is important for the development of preventive measures and interventions to reduce the worldwide spread of shigellosis.

  20. [Epidemiology of urinary lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Rais, H; Rabii, R; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the epidemiological profile of urinary stones based on one thousand cases observed in our institution over a 10-year period. The mean age of the patients was 45 years and two-thirds of patients were males. The kidney was the commonest site of stones, in 57.8% of cases. The stone was radiopaque in 86.4% of cases and was a staghorn calculus in 12.2% of cases. An associated renal malformation was observed in 10.4% of cases. Urinary stones is therefore a common disease, essentially observed in a young population and characterized by recurrence. It therefore constitutes a public health problem and prevention consists of detecting recurrences and treating stone-inducing factors.

  1. Epidemiology of Lyme Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J White

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the epidemiology of Lyme disease depends upon information generated from several sources. Human disease surveillance can be conducted by both passive and active means involving physicians, public health agencies and laboratories. Passive and active tick surveillance programs can document the extent of tick-borne activity, identify the geographic range of potential vector species, and determine the relative risk of exposure to Lyme disease in specific areas. Standardized laboratory services can play an important role in providing data. Epidemiologists can gain a better understanding of Lyme disease through the collection of data from such programs. The interpretation of data and provision of information to the medical and general communities are important functions of public health agencies.

  2. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjid, M; Cherif, J; Ben Salah, N; Toujani, S; Ouahchi, Y; Zakhama, H; Louzir, B; Mehiri-Ben Rhouma, N; Beji, M

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It represents, according to World Health Organization (WHO), one of the most leading causes of death worldwide. With nearly 8 million new cases each year and more than 1 million deaths per year, tuberculosis is still a public health problem. Despite of the decrease in incidence, morbidity and mortality remain important partially due to co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and emergence of resistant bacilli. All WHO regions are not uniformly affected by TB. Africa's region has the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. The epidemiological situation is also worrying in Eastern European countries where the proportion of drug-resistant tuberculosis is increasing. These regional disparities emphasize to develop screening, diagnosis and monitoring to the most vulnerable populations. In this context, the Stop TB program, developed by the WHO and its partner's, aims to reduce the burden of disease in accordance with the global targets set for 2015.

  3. Cancer epidemiology of woodworking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtashamipur, E; Norpoth, K; Lühmann, F

    1989-01-01

    The literature published between 1965 and 1989 on the cancer epidemiology of woodworking in furniture industries and carpentry shops in 17 countries is reviewed. Included are some unpublished data obtained through personal communication with epidemiologists or collected from doctoral dissertations. Of 5,785 cases with sino-nasal cancers, about 23% were found to be woodworkers. Dusty jobs, especially wood processing using high-speed machines, are mainly associated with the enhanced incidence of nasal adenocarcinomas. The latency periods of the latter tumors ranged from 7 to 69 years in five European countries. A variety of neoplasias of the respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts as well as the hemopoietic and lymphatic systems, including Hodgkin's disease are reported to be significantly associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. These data suggest that the exposure to some types of wood dust might cause a systemic rather than local neoplastic disorder.

  4. The Epidemiology of Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burningham Zachary

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and an interaction between the two. HIV-positive individuals are at an increased risk for Kaposi’s sarcoma, even though HHV8 is the causative virus. Radiation exposure from radiotherapy has been strongly associated with secondary sarcoma development in certain cancer patients. In fact, the risk of malignant bone tumors increases as the cumulative dose of radiation to the bone increases (p for trend

  5. Epidemiology of gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Quinn T; Gittleman, Haley; Stetson, Lindsay; Virk, Selene M; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2015-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary intracranial tumors. Some glioma subtypes cause significant mortality and morbidity that are disproportionate to their relatively rare incidence. A very small proportion of glioma cases can be attributed to inherited genetic disorders. Many potential risk factors for glioma have been studied to date, but few provide explanation for the number of brain tumors identified. The most significant of these factors includes increased risk due to exposure to ionizing radiation, and decreased risk with history of allergy or atopic disease. The potential effect of exposure to cellular phones has been studied extensively, but the results remain inconclusive. Recent genomic analyses, using the genome-wide association study (GWAS) design, have identified several inherited risk variants that are associated with increased glioma risk. The following chapter provides an overview of the current state of research in the epidemiology of intracranial glioma.

  6. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, K; Williams, H C

    2013-03-01

    Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as 'pomade acne'. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3 billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence.

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder under ongoing threat: a review of neurobiological and neuroendocrine findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iro Fragkaki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although numerous studies have investigated the neurobiology and neuroendocrinology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD after single finished trauma, studies on PTSD under ongoing threat are scarce and it is still unclear whether these individuals present similar abnormalities. Objective: The purpose of this review is to present the neurobiological and neuroendocrine findings on PTSD under ongoing threat. Ongoing threat considerably affects PTSD severity and treatment response and thus disentangling its neurobiological and neuroendocrine differences from PTSD after finished trauma could provide useful information for treatment. Method: Eighteen studies that examined brain functioning and cortisol levels in relation to PTSD in individuals exposed to intimate partner violence, police officers, and fire fighters were included. Results: Hippocampal volume was decreased in PTSD under ongoing threat, although not consistently associated with symptom severity. The neuroimaging studies revealed that PTSD under ongoing threat was not characterized by reduced volume of amygdala or parahippocampal gyrus. The neurocircuitry model of PTSD after finished trauma with hyperactivation of amygdala and hypoactivation of prefrontal cortex and hippocampus was also confirmed in PTSD under ongoing threat. The neuroendocrine findings were inconsistent, revealing increased, decreased, or no association between cortisol levels and PTSD under ongoing threat. Conclusions: Although PTSD under ongoing threat is characterized by abnormal neurocircuitry patterns similar to those previously found in PTSD after finished trauma, this is less so for other neurobiological and in particular neuroendocrine findings. Direct comparisons between samples with ongoing versus finished trauma are needed in future research to draw more solid conclusions before administering cortisol to patients with PTSD under ongoing threat who may already exhibit increased endogenous

  8. Regime shifts in resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Resource management has to take account of the possibility of tipping points and regime shifts in ecological systems that provide the resources. This article focuses on the typical model of regime shifts in the ecological literature and analyzes optimal management and common-property issues when tra

  9. Work shifts in Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Recupero

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency Medicine is known as a high stress specialty. The adverse effect of constantly rotating shifts is the single most important reason given for premature attrition from the field. In this work problems tied with night shift work will be taken into account and some solutions to reduce the impact of night work on the emergency physicians will be proposed.

  10. Metabolic impact of shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; Fernandes Junior, Silvio A; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, shift work represents a considerable contingent workforce. Recently, studies have shown that overweight and obesity are more prevalent in shift workers than day workers. In addition, shift work has been associated with a higher propensity for the development of many metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, diabetes, dislipidemias and metabolic syndrome. Recent data have pointed that decrease of the sleep time, desynchronization of circadian rhythm and alteration of environmental aspects are the main factors related to such problems. Shortened or disturbed sleep is among the most common health-related effects of shift work. The plausible physiological and biological mechanisms are related to the activation of the autonomic nervous system, inflammation, changes in lipid and glucose metabolism, and related changes in the risk for atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes. The present review will discuss the impact of shift work on obesity and metabolic disorders and how disruption of sleep and circadian misalignment may contribute to these metabolic dysfunctions.

  11. A human judgment approach to epidemiological forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, David C; Brooks, Logan C; Hyun, Sangwon; Tibshirani, Ryan J; Burke, Donald S; Rosenfeld, Roni

    2017-03-01

    Infectious diseases impose considerable burden on society, despite significant advances in technology and medicine over the past century. Advanced warning can be helpful in mitigating and preparing for an impending or ongoing epidemic. Historically, such a capability has lagged for many reasons, including in particular the uncertainty in the current state of the system and in the understanding of the processes that drive epidemic trajectories. Presently we have access to data, models, and computational resources that enable the development of epidemiological forecasting systems. Indeed, several recent challenges hosted by the U.S. government have fostered an open and collaborative environment for the development of these technologies. The primary focus of these challenges has been to develop statistical and computational methods for epidemiological forecasting, but here we consider a serious alternative based on collective human judgment. We created the web-based "Epicast" forecasting system which collects and aggregates epidemic predictions made in real-time by human participants, and with these forecasts we ask two questions: how accurate is human judgment, and how do these forecasts compare to their more computational, data-driven alternatives? To address the former, we assess by a variety of metrics how accurately humans are able to predict influenza and chikungunya trajectories. As for the latter, we show that real-time, combined human predictions of the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 U.S. flu seasons are often more accurate than the same predictions made by several statistical systems, especially for short-term targets. We conclude that there is valuable predictive power in collective human judgment, and we discuss the benefits and drawbacks of this approach.

  12. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of changes in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission patterns over the rainy season in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Jackie; Speybroeck, Nico; Sochanta, Tho

    2012-01-01

    In Cambodia, malaria transmission is low and most cases occur in forested areas. Sero-epidemiological techniques can be used to identify both areas of ongoing transmission and high-risk groups to be targeted by control interventions. This study utilizes repeated cross-sectional data to assess the...

  13. On shift simulation in aeromedical operations - making it work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Glasheen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Patient care in the prehospital and retrieval medicine (PHARM environment presents many technical and non-technical challenges. Clinicians are frequently required to perform complex interventions in a time critical and resource limited setting. Intensive training is required prior to operational deployment, and ongoing training is vital to ensure optimal team performance in the delivery of high quality patient care. Regular simulation training with high situational fidelity is valuable in developing and maintaining excellence in PHARM. We describe the methods employed by two Australian aeromedical retrieval services to facilitate daily on shift simulation.

  14. The relation of ongoing brain activity, evoked neural responses, and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Sadaghiani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing brain activity has been observed since the earliest neurophysiological recordings and is found over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. It is characterized by remarkably large spontaneous modulations. Here, we review evidence for the functional role of these ongoing activity fluctuations and argue that they constitute an essential property of the neural architecture underlying cognition. The role of spontaneous activity fluctuations is probably best understood when considering both their spatiotemporal structure and their functional impact on cognition. We first briefly argue against a ‘segregationist’ view on ongoing activity, both in time and space, countering this view with an emphasis on integration within a hierarchical spatiotemporal organization of intrinsic activity. We then highlight the flexibility and context-sensitivity of intrinsic functional connectivity that suggest its involvement in functionally relevant information processing. This role in information processing is pursued by reviewing how ongoing brain activity interacts with afferent and efferent information exchange of the brain with its environment. We focus on the relationship between the variability of ongoing and evoked brain activity, and review recent reports that tie ongoing brain activity fluctuations to variability in human perception and behavior. Finally, these observations are discussed within the framework of the free-energy principle which – applied to human brain function - provides a theoretical account for a non-random, coordinated interaction of ongoing and evoked activity in perception and behaviour.

  15. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    of competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...... capitalism; the social power configuration underpinning the neoliberal order remains unaltered; no clear counter-project has surfaced; the European Commission has been (and remains) in a position to oppose radical changes; and finally, there are no signs of a wider paradigm shift in the EU's regulatory...

  16. Global mental health: Global strengths and strategies Task-shifting in a shifting health economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Melvin G; Merajver, Sofia D

    2011-09-01

    Global mental health challenges sit at the frontiers of health care worldwide. The frequency of mental health disorders is increasing, and represents a large portion of the global burden of human disease (DALYs). There are many impeding forces in delivering mental health care globally. The knowledge of what mental health and its diseased states are limits the ability to seek appropriate care. Limited training and experience among primary providers dilutes the capacity of systems for adequate care, support, and intervention. There are limited numbers of medical personnel worldwide to attend to individuals afflicted by mental health disorders. The challenges of global mental health are the capacity of the global systems to enhance knowledge and literacy surrounding mental health disorders, enhance and expand ways of identifying and treating mental health disorders effectively at an early stage in its course. Much has been written about the epidemiology of mental health disorders globally followed by discussions of the need for improvements in programs that will improve the lot of the mentally ill. Task shifting involves the engaging of human resources, generally nonprofessional, in the care of mental health disorders. Engaging traditional healers and community health workers in the identification and management of mental health disorders is a very strong potential opportunity for task shifting care in mental health. In doing so it will be necessary to study the concept of mental health literacy of traditional healers and health workers in a process of mutual alignment of purpose founded on evidence based research.

  17. Epidemiology of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katherine D Crew; Alfred I Neugut

    2006-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has been increasing, particularly in the Western countries. Incidence by tumor sub-site also varies widely based on geographic location, race, and socioeconomic status. Distal gastric cancer predominates in developing countries, among blacks, and in lower socioeconomic groups, whereas proximal tumors are more common in developed countries, among whites, and in higher socio-economic classes. Diverging trends in the incidence of gastric cancer by tumor location suggest that they may represent two diseases with different etiologies. The main risk factors for distal gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and dietary factors, whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity play important roles in the development of proximal stomach cancer. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of gastric cancer, and to discuss strategies for primary prevention.

  18. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2016-08-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency.

  19. Radiobiology and Epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desaintes, C; Holmstock, L

    2001-04-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium and to co-ordinate the Belgian contribution to the 'International Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry'; (2) to elucidate the molecular basis of individual susceptibility to ionizing radiation in mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (3) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (4) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (5) to monitor the early variations of gene expression induced by ionising radiation and cytokines; (6) to evaluate the use of cytokines and natural substances for improving radiotherapy protocols; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are reported.

  20. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions.

  1. Molecular epidemiology of giardiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciò, Simone M; Ryan, Una

    2008-08-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a widespread parasite of mammalian species, including humans. Due to its invariant morphology, investigation on aspects such as host specificity and transmission patterns requires a direct genetic characterization of cysts/trophozoites from host samples. A number of molecular assays have been developed to help unravel the complex epidemiology of this infection. A coherent picture has emerged from those studies, indicating the existence of seven genetic groups (or assemblages), two of which (A and B) are found in both humans and animals, whereas the remaining five (C-G) are host-specific. Sequence-based surveys have identified a number of genotypes within assemblages A and B in animal species, some of which may have zoonotic potential. Recently, however, molecular approaches have been complicated by the recognition of intra-isolate sequence heterogeneity (i.e., "mixed templates", that affects identification of subtypes within each assemblage), and by the unreliable assignment of isolates to G. duodenalis assemblages generated by different genetic markers. This raises concerns about previous interpretation of genotyping data, especially when single genetic markers have been used. The mechanisms that may be responsible for these findings, including allelic sequence heterozygosity and meiotic recombination, are discussed.

  2. Microtia: epidemiology and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquetti, Daniela V; Heike, Carrie L; Hing, Anne V; Cunningham, Michael L; Cox, Timothy C

    2012-01-01

    Microtia is a congenital anomaly of the ear that ranges in severity from mild structural abnormalities to complete absence of the ear, and can occur as an isolated birth defect or as part of a spectrum of anomalies or a syndrome. Microtia is often associated with hearing loss and patients typically require treatment for hearing impairment and surgical ear reconstruction. The reported prevalence varies among regions, from 0.83 to 17.4 per 10,000 births, and the prevalence is considered to be higher in Hispanics, Asians, Native Americans, and Andeans. The etiology of microtia and the cause of this wide variability in prevalence are poorly understood. Strong evidence supports the role of environmental and genetic causes for microtia. Although some studies have identified candidate genetic variants for microtia, no causal genetic mutation has been confirmed. The application of novel strategies in developmental biology and genetics has facilitated elucidation of mechanisms controlling craniofacial development. In this paper we review current knowledge of the epidemiology and genetics of microtia, including potential candidate genes supported by evidence from human syndromes and animal models. We also discuss the possible etiopathogenesis in light of the hypotheses formulated to date: Neural crest cells disturbance, vascular disruption, and altitude.

  3. Modeling Corporate Epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Waber, Benjamin; Cebrian, Manuel; Crane, Riley; Danon, Leon; Pentland, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Corporate responses to illness is currently an ad-hoc, subjective process that has little basis in data on how disease actually spreads at the workplace. Additionally, many studies have shown that productivity is not an individual factor but a social one: in any study on epidemic responses this social factor has to be taken into account. The barrier to addressing this problem has been the lack of data on the interaction and mobility patterns of people in the workplace. We have created a wearable Sociometric Badge that senses interactions between individuals using an infra-red (IR) transceiver and proximity using a radio transmitter. Using the data from the Sociometric Badges, we are able to simulate diseases spreading through face-to-face interactions with realistic epidemiological parameters. In this paper we construct a curve trading off productivity with epidemic potential. We are able to take into account impacts on productivity that arise from social factors, such as interaction diversity and density, wh...

  4. TUBERCULOSIS: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Sulis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health concern worldwide: despite a regular, although slow, decline in incidence over the last decade, as many as 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2012. TB is by all means a poverty-related disease, mainly affecting the most vulnerable populations in the poorest countries. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in most countries, with some where prevalence is high, is among the major challenges for TB control, which may hinder recent achievements especially in some settings. Early TB case detection especially in resource-constrained settings and in marginalized groups remains a challenge, and about 3 million people are estimated to remain undiagnosed or not notified and untreated. The World Health Organization (WHO has recently launched the new global TB strategy for the “post-2015 era” aimed at “ending the global TB epidemic” by 2035, based on the three pillars that emphasize patient-centred TB care and prevention, bold policies and supportive systems, and intensified research and innovation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the global TB epidemiology as well as of the main challenges that must be faced to eliminate the disease as a public health problem everywhere.

  5. Pemphigus: Epidemiology and Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Karıncaoğlu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus, a group of bullous diseases affecting the oral mucosa and the skin, is caused by antibody-mediated autoimmune reaction to desmogleins (Dsg, desmosomal transmembrane glycoproteins, leading to acantholysis. Pemphigus has a worldwide distribution but the incidence in patients of Jewish origin is higher. The disease has a peak incidence of occurrence between the 4th and 6th decades. While various environmental factors have been implicated as triggering agents, HLA association is probably the most important predisposing factor. Pemphigus, is caused by antibody-mediated autoimmune reaction to desmosomal cadherins, Dsg1, and Dsg3. Recent molecular studies have shown that acantholysis can occur also in the presence of antibodies against 9a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Pemphigus is currently divided into three distinct varieties, i.e., pemphigus vulgaris (PV, pemphigus foliaceus (PF and other variants of pemphigus, depending on clinical features, the level of separation in the epidermis, and immunologic characteristics of auto-antigens. Blistering pathogenesis differ for each of the types of pemphigus. PV is characterized by IgG autoantibodies against Dsg 3, whereas the target of PF is Dsg1, although about 50% of PV patients also have Dsg1 autoantibodies. Lesion distribution is related to the location of the antigen (Dgs 3 and/or Dgs 1 in the epithelium and specific autoantibody production. This article reviews the epidemiology and pathogenesis of pemphigus.

  6. 78 FR 5409 - Ongoing Equivalence Verifications of Foreign Food Regulatory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... (SRT), which structures the criteria used to assess each component of initial and on-going equivalence... to standardize its collection of information. This standardization improves the quality of...

  7. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  8. Genomic Resources for Cancer Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides links to research resources, complied by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, that may be of interest to genetic epidemiologists conducting cancer research, but is not exhaustive.

  9. Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program post excerpts of their grant applications online.

  10. Rosacea: current state of epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jerry; Berg, Mats

    2013-12-01

    Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes--rationalization and standardization--universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research.

  11. VP Anaphors and Object Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the placement of the VP anaphor det ‘it’ as a complement of verbs selecting VP complements in Danish. With verbs that only allow a VP complement, the VP anaphor must be in SpecCP regardless of its information structure properties. If SpecCP is occupied by an operator, the an...... be in situ. The article argues that a shifted pronominal in Danish must be categorially licensed by the verb and extends this analysis to shifting locatives. An Optimality Theory analysis is proposed that accounts for the observed facts......., the anaphor can be in situ, but it cannot shift. With verbs that allow its VP complement to alternate with an NP complement, the VP anaphor can be in SpecCP, shifted or in situ according to the information structural properties of the anaphor. Only if SpecCP is occupied by an operator, must a topical anaphor...

  12. Shift Work: Improving Daytime Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sleeping during the day. Do you have any sleep tips for shift workers? Answers from Timothy Morgenthaler, ... to be awake during the day and to sleep at night. Good daytime sleep is possible, though, ...

  13. Lyme neuroborreliosis-epidemiology, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedel, Uwe; Fingerle, Volker; Pfister, Hans-Walter

    2015-08-01

    Lyme disease, caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi bacterium, is the most common vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. The clinical presentation varies with disease stage, and neurological manifestations (often referred to as Lyme neuroborreliosis) are reported in up to 12% of patients with Lyme disease. Most aspects of the epidemiology, clinical manifestation and treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis are well known and accepted; only the management of so-called chronic Lyme disease is surrounded by considerable controversy. This term is used for disparate patient groups, including those who have untreated late-stage infection (for example, late neuroborreliosis), those with subjective symptoms that persist after treatment (termed 'post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome' [PTLDS]), and those with unexplained subjective complaints that may or may not be accompanied by positive test results for B. burgdorferi infection in serum (here called 'chronic Lyme disease'). The incidence of PTLDS is still a matter of debate, and its pathogenesis is unclear, but there is evidence that these patients do not have ongoing B. burgdorferi infection and, thus, do not benefit from additional antibiotic therapy. Chronic Lyme disease lacks an accepted clinical definition, and most patients who receive this diagnosis have other illnesses. Thus, a careful diagnostic work-up is needed to ensure proper treatment.

  14. Sociocultural epidemiology: an essential approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hersch-Martínez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of an inclusive epidemiological approach, capable to attend the diverse dimensions involved in health damage as a reflective phenomenon of society is analyzed. The range of perspectives involved requires an inclusive methodological scope and applicative channels, in order to deal with sanitary realities systematically related to culture and social organization. Some constitutive elements of sociocultural epidemiology are underlined, shaping an operative proposal that can enhance the relationship between disciplines and sectors regarding specific outstanding public health problems.

  15. Goos-Hänchen shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, A W; Love, J D

    1976-01-01

    An extremely simple derivation of the Goos-Hänchen shift is presented for total internal reflection at a plane interface between two semiinfinite dielectric media, as well as for optical waveguides of plane arid circular cross section. The derivation is based on energy considerations, requires knowledge of Fresnel's equation only, and shows explicitly that the shift is due to the flow of energy across the dielectric boundary.

  16. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  17. Considerations of circadian impact for defining 'shift work' in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard G; Hansen, Johnni; Costa, Giovanni; Haus, Erhard; Kauppinen, Timo; Aronson, Kristan J; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Davis, Scott; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Fritschi, Lin; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kogi, Kazutaka; Lie, Jenny-Anne; Lowden, Arne; Peplonska, Beata; Pesch, Beate; Pukkala, Eero; Schernhammer, Eva; Travis, Ruth C; Vermeulen, Roel; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cogliano, Vincent; Straif, Kurt

    2011-02-01

    Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to prostate cancer. On the basis of limited human evidence and sufficient evidence in experimental animals, in 2007 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified 'shift work that involves circadian disruption' as a probable human carcinogen, group 2A. A limitation of the epidemiological studies carried out to date is in the definition of 'shift work.' IARC convened a workshop in April 2009 to consider how 'shift work' should be assessed and what domains of occupational history need to be quantified for more valid studies of shift work and cancer in the future. The working group identified several major domains of non-day shifts and shift schedules that should be captured in future studies: (1) shift system (start time of shift, number of hours per day, rotating or permanent, speed and direction of a rotating system, regular or irregular); (2) years on a particular non-day shift schedule (and cumulative exposure to the shift system over the subject's working life); and (3) shift intensity (time off between successive work days on the shift schedule). The group also recognised that for further domains to be identified, more research needs to be conducted on the impact of various shift schedules and routines on physiological and circadian rhythms of workers in real-world environments.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus infections: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Steven Y C; Davis, Joshua S; Eichenberger, Emily; Holland, Thomas L; Fowler, Vance G

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that causes a wide range of clinical infections. It is a leading cause of bacteremia and infective endocarditis as well as osteoarticular, skin and soft tissue, pleuropulmonary, and device-related infections. This review comprehensively covers the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management of each of these clinical entities. The past 2 decades have witnessed two clear shifts in the epidemiology of S. aureus infections: first, a growing number of health care-associated infections, particularly seen in infective endocarditis and prosthetic device infections, and second, an epidemic of community-associated skin and soft tissue infections driven by strains with certain virulence factors and resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. In reviewing the literature to support management strategies for these clinical manifestations, we also highlight the paucity of high-quality evidence for many key clinical questions. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus Infections: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joshua S.; Eichenberger, Emily; Holland, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that causes a wide range of clinical infections. It is a leading cause of bacteremia and infective endocarditis as well as osteoarticular, skin and soft tissue, pleuropulmonary, and device-related infections. This review comprehensively covers the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management of each of these clinical entities. The past 2 decades have witnessed two clear shifts in the epidemiology of S. aureus infections: first, a growing number of health care-associated infections, particularly seen in infective endocarditis and prosthetic device infections, and second, an epidemic of community-associated skin and soft tissue infections driven by strains with certain virulence factors and resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. In reviewing the literature to support management strategies for these clinical manifestations, we also highlight the paucity of high-quality evidence for many key clinical questions. PMID:26016486

  20. CLINICAL, EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND MYCOLOGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratheesh T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinea versicolor is a chronic, mild, usually asymptomatic infection of the stratum corneum. The lesions are discrete or confluent and appear as discolored or hypo pigmented areas of the skin. The affected areas are located principally on the chest, abdomen, upper extremities and back. The etiologic agent is the lipophilic yeast Pityrosporum orbiculare, part of the normal flora of the human skin. This study is undertaken to know “clinical, patterns of the disease with respect to morphology and distribution, associated conditions and epidemiological factors like age, sex distribution and seasonal variation of the disease”. METHODS: Two hundred patients of tinea versicolor were selected. Patients belonging to the age group of above 10 years and below 60 years belonging to both sexes were selected and included in the study group after taking consent. A detailed history was taken with particular reference to onset, duration, symptoms and treatment taken and were recorded. Factors like – seasonal variation, family history and presence of any associated illnesses was also noted. A thorough clinical examination was done with reference to the location, the color, the extent of the lesions, the margins, the type of lesions and the details were recorded. Potassium hydroxide (KOH examination and Wood’s lamp examination were done in all the patients before therapy. RESULTS: Out of 200 patients, majority of them belong to 2nd and 3rd decade of life (72%. The Male: Female ratio was 1.5:1. There was a family history of 16%. The trunk was the most common site involved. Majority of the patients had exacerbation in summer. The most common associated dermatoses were acne vulgaris, immunosuppression and infections. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: Tinea versicolor is a disease of worldwide distribution, although it is significantly more common in humid and tropical climates. The true incidence cannot be estimated precisely because the disease is

  1. Epidemiology of dengue disease in Malaysia (2000-2012: a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hamid Mohd-Zaki

    Full Text Available A literature survey and analysis was conducted to describe the epidemiology of dengue disease in Malaysia between 2000 and 2012. Published literature was searched for epidemiological studies of dengue disease, using specific search strategies for each electronic database; 237 relevant data sources were identified, 28 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The epidemiology of dengue disease in Malaysia was characterized by a non-linear increase in the number of reported cases from 7,103 in 2000 to 46,171 in 2010, and a shift in the age range predominance from children toward adults. The overall increase in dengue disease was accompanied by a rise in the number, but not the proportion, of severe cases. The dominant circulating dengue virus serotypes changed continually over the decade and differed between states. Several gaps in epidemiological knowledge were identified; in particular, studies of regional differences, age-stratified seroprevalence, and hospital admissions.PROSPERO #CRD42012002293.

  2. Updates on cardiovascular comorbidities associated with psoriatic diseases: epidemiology and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Kaitlyn M; Armstrong, April W

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis are associated with a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular risk factors and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Active research is ongoing to elucidate this relationship between psoriatic diseases and cardiovascular comorbidities, as well as their shared pathogenic mechanisms. This review focuses on (1) the epidemiologic association between psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors, (2) the epidemiologic association between psoriasis and MACE, (3) the epidemiologic association between psoriatic arthritis, cardiovascular risk factors, and MACE, and (4) proposed mechanisms for the contribution of psoriatic diseases to cardiovascular diseases. The proposed mechanisms for shared pathogenesis between psoriatic diseases and cardiovascular diseases are inflammation, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, angiogenesis, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. There is complex interplay and overlap among these mechanisms and their contributions to shared pathogenesis. Future translational research is necessary to elucidate the link between psoriatic diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Such findings may be applied clinically to improve the lives of psoriasis patients.

  3. Does the ARFIMA really shift?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monache, Davide Delle; Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    Short memory models contaminated by level shifts have long-memory features similar to those associated to processes generated under fractional integration. In this paper, we propose a robust testing procedure, based on an encompassing parametric specification, that allows to disentangle the level...... the highest power compared to other existing tests for spurious long-memory. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approach on the daily series of bipower variation and share turnover and on the monthly inflation series of G7 countries....... shift term from the ARFIMA component. The estimation is carried out via a state-space methodology and it leads to a robust estimate of the fractional integration parameter also in presence of level shifts.The Monte Carlo simulations show that this approach produces unbiased estimates of the fractional...

  4. False positives in cancer epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Joseph K; Tarone, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    A recent attempt to estimate the false-positive rate for cancer epidemiology studies is based on agents in International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) category 3 (agent not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans) in the IARC Monographs Program. The estimation method is critiqued regarding biases caused by its reliance on the IARC classification criteria for assessing carcinogenic potential. The privileged position given to epidemiologic studies by the IARC criteria ensures that the percentage of positive epidemiologic studies for an agent will depend strongly on the IARC category to which the agent is assigned. Because IARC category 3 is composed of agents with the lowest-assessed carcinogenic potential to which the estimation approach in question could be applied, a spuriously low estimated false-positive rate was necessarily the outcome of this approach. Tendentious estimation approaches like that employed will by necessity produce spuriously low and misleading false positive rates. The recently reported estimates of the false-positive rate in cancer epidemiology are seriously biased and contribute nothing substantive to the literature on the very real problems related to false-positive findings in epidemiology.

  5. Parental Origin of the Retained X Chromosome in Monosomy X Miscarriages and Ongoing Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Maribel; Stergiotou, Iosifina; Pauta, Montse; Marquès, Borja; Badenas, Cèlia; Soler, Anna; Yaron, Yuval; Borrell, Antoni

    2017-10-05

    To assess the distribution of the parental origin of the retained X chromosome in monosomy X, either in miscarriages or in ongoing pregnancies. The parental origin of the X chromosome was determined in monosomy X pregnancies, either miscarriages or ongoing pregnancies. Microsatellite marker patterns were compared between maternal and fetal samples by quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction. Distributions of maternally and paternally derived X chromosome were assessed in miscarriages and in ongoing pregnancies using two-tailed Fisher exact test. Forty monosomy X pregnancies were included in the study: 26 miscarried at 5-16 weeks, and 14 ongoing pregnancies were diagnosed at 11-20 weeks. The retained X chromosome was maternally derived in 67% of the cases. In miscarriages, maternal and paternal X chromosome were retained in a similar proportion (54% [95% CI: 35-73%] vs. 46% [95% CI: 27-65%]), while in ongoing pregnancies, the maternal rate was 13 times higher (93% [95% CI: 79-100%)] vs. 7% [95% CI: 0-20%]). The retained X chromosome in individuals with monosomy X should theoretically be maternally derived in 2/3 of the cases. Our study suggests a preferential early miscarriage in pregnancies with a retained paternally derived X chromosome. This may explain the observation that 75-90% of individuals with monosomy X retain the maternal X chromosome. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Epidemiología de campo y epidemiología social Field epidemiology and social epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Segura del Pozo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la comparación de la epidemiología de campo y la epidemiología social, se pretende reflexionar sobre los imaginarios no explícitos que operan en ambos ámbitos, necesariamente convergentes, sobre los obstáculos de la práctica epidemiológica actual para alcanzar su función social y sobre la necesidad de cambiar las bases epistemológicas, metodológicas y prácticas que operan en la epidemiología, empezando por la formación del epidemiólogo de campo. La epidemiología de campo tiende a la acción sin marco teórico. La epidemiología social, por el contrario, tiende a los desarrollos teóricos (reflexión e investigación sobre los determinantes sociales alejados de la acción, debido a los limitantes para cambiar las políticas públicas. Otras diferencias se sitúan en el nivel de intervención (micro/macroespacios, el objeto de intervención (control del brote frente a control de las desigualdades y en la forma de articular la comunicación con la sociedad. Se asemejan en la preocupación por el método, la predominancia de una orientación positivista y condicionada por la estadística, aunque en proceso de cierta apertura epistemológica, la tensión experimentada entre relacionarse con un mundo virtual de bases de datos o con la sociedad real, su situación en la periferia del sistema político-social-institucional-profesional y por estar abocadas a la frustración profesional. Finalmente, se formulan 10 interrogantes a los epidemiólogos de campo sobre su práctica actual, a través de los cuales se podría evaluar si están realizando una epidemiología social, y se sugieren cambios para introducir en la formación y práctica del epidemiólogo.Comparing field epidemiology and social epidemiology, we pretend to think about the no explicit images and meanings operating in both necessary convergent fields, about the obstacles present in epidemiological practice to fulfil its social function and about the necessity of

  7. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ley B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brett Ley, Harold R Collard Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization. Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, mortality, risk factors

  8. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of the critical factors to this communications strategy effectiveness remain largely unknown, the mathematical models in epidemiology are presented in this marketing specific field. In this paper, an epidemiological model SIR (Susceptible- Infected-Recovered) to study the effects of a viral marketing strategy is presented. It is made a comparison between the disease parameters and the marketing application, and simulations using the Matlab software are performed. Finally, some conclusions are given and their marketing impli...

  9. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: epidemiology update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of this article is to outline the history of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a new and serious disease of patients with renal failure, and to give an update on its aetiology and prevalence. Recent findings Epidemiological and histochemical studies demonstrated that gadoli......Purpose of review The aim of this article is to outline the history of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a new and serious disease of patients with renal failure, and to give an update on its aetiology and prevalence. Recent findings Epidemiological and histochemical studies demonstrated...

  10. Environmental impact of ongoing sources of metal contamination on remediated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, Anna Sophia, E-mail: anna.knox@srn.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Paller, Michael H., E-mail: michael.paller@srnl.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Milliken, Charles E., E-mail: charles.milliken@srnl.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Redder, Todd M., E-mail: tredder@limno.com [LimnoTech, Ann Arbor, Minnesota 48108 (United States); Wolfe, John R., E-mail: jwolfe@limno.com [LimnoTech, Ann Arbor, Minnesota 48108 (United States); Seaman, John, E-mail: seaman@srel.uga.edu [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A challenge to all remedial approaches for contaminated sediments is the continued influx of contaminants from uncontrolled sources following remediation. We investigated the effects of ongoing contamination in mesocosms employing sediments remediated by different types of active and passive caps and in-situ treatment. Our hypothesis was that the sequestering agents used in active caps and in situ treatment will bind elements (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc) from ongoing sources thereby reducing their bioavailability and protecting underlying remediated sediments from recontamination. Most element concentrations in surface water remained significantly lower in mesocosms with apatite and mixed amendment caps than in mesocosms with passive caps (sand), uncapped sediment, and spike solution throughout the 2520 h experiment. Element concentrations were significantly higher in Lumbriculus variegatus from untreated sediment than in Lumbriculus from most active caps. Pearson correlations between element concentrations in Lumbriculus and metal concentrations in the top 2.5 cm of sediment or cap measured by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) sediment probes were generally strong (as high as 0.98) and significant (p < 0.05) for almost all tested elements. Metal concentrations in both Lumbriculus and sediment/cap were lowest in apatite, mixed amendment, and activated carbon treatments. These findings show that some active caps can protect remediated sediments by reducing the bioavailable pool of metals/metalloids in ongoing sources of contamination. - Graphical abstract: Conventional methods of remediating contaminated sediments may be inadequate for the protection of benthic organisms when ongoing sources of contamination are present. However, sediment caps with chemically active sequestering agents have the ability to reduce the bioavailable pool of metals in ongoing sources of contamination (red dots), reduce toxicity to

  11. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  12. Environmental Protection: a shifting focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2004-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a fundamental change in the way chemistry handles environmental issues. A shift in focus has occurred from 'end-of-pipe' to prevention and process integration. Presently an even more fundamental change is brought about by the need for sustainable development. It is

  13. Wavelength-shifted Cherenkov radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krider, E. P.; Jacobson, V. L.; Pifer, A. E.; Polakos, P. A.; Kurz, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The scintillation and Cherenkov responses of plastic Cherenkov radiators containing different wavelength-shifting fluors in varying concentrations have been studied in beams of low energy protons and pions. For cosmic ray applications, where large Cherenkov to scintillation ratios are desired, the optimum fluor concentrations are 0.000025 by weight or less.

  14. The Shift Needed for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter A. C.; Sharicz, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this action research is to begin to assess to what extent organizations have in practice begun to make the shift towards triple bottom line (TBL) sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A definition of TBL sustainability is provided, and key elements of TBL sustainability considered necessary to success are identified…

  15. Crichton's phase-shift ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, D.; Johnson, P.W.; Mehta, N.; Roo, M. de

    1973-01-01

    A re-examination of the SPD phase-shift ambiguity is made with a view to understanding certain singular features of the elastic unitarity constraint. An explicit solution of Crichton's equations is presented, and certain features of this solution are displayed graphically. In particular, it is shown

  16. Size-Dependent Raman Shifts for nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yukun; Zhao, Xinmei; Yin, Penggang; Gao, Faming

    2016-04-22

    Raman spectroscopy is a very sensitive tool for probing semiconductor nanocrystals. The underlying mechanism behind the size-dependent Raman shifts is still quite controversial. Here we offer a new theoretical method for the quantum confinement effects on the Raman spectra of semiconductor nanocrystals. We propose that the shift of Raman spectra in nanocrystals can result from two overlapping effects: the quantum effect shift and surface effect shift. The quantum effect shift is extracted from an extended Kubo formula, the surface effect shift is determined via the first principles calculations. Fairly good prediction of Raman shifts can be obtained without the use of any adjustable parameter. Closer analysis shows that the size-dependent Raman shifts in Si nanocrystals mainly result from the quantum effect shifts. For nanodiamond, the proportion of surface effect shift in Raman shift is up to about 40%. Such model can also provide a good baseline for using Raman spectroscopy as a tool to measure size.

  17. Pulpit Responses to Contemporary Issues: The On-Going Rhetoric of Dr. Martin Luther King.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadely, Dean; Greene, Ronald W.

    Many theoreticians have indicated that a major task of the nonpresumptive rhetor is to gain presumption, thereby shifting the burden of proof to the opposition. Rhetorically, Martin Luther King, Jr., sought to effect this shift in the burden of proof through the use of hierarchies of values. At the top of his value system was the love of God. The…

  18. Identification and epidemiology of pospiviroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, J.Th.J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the ongoing miniaturization of semiconductor devices, there is a significant interest in the surface modification of silicon. In this perspective, organic monolayers directly bound to oxide-free silicon are interesting candidates as they can easily be implemented in the existing technology fo

  19. A comparison of exposures to refractory ceramic fibres over multiple work shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, G S; Rice, C H; Lockey, J E; Lemasters, G K; Gartside, P S

    1997-10-01

    As part of an ongoing, industry-wide study in the manufacture of refractory ceramic fibres (RCF), time weighted average (TWA) exposures have been collected at five facilities according to a standardised protocol. Work activities were grouped into dust zones (DZs). Persons to be sampled were randomly selected according to a protocol designed to assure that at least one sample was collected annually from each DZ; each work shift is also sampled at least annually. TWA exposures calculated over a sampling period of at least 360 min were included in the data set. DZs were combined into one of three groups (DZGs): fibre production; vacuum processes; other. The data were analysed to identify any differences by DZG between airborne fibre exposures, by the shift worked at each facility, and across all facilities. There were no statistically significant shift-related differences detected between airborne fibre exposures across the five RCF facilities when analysed as a group. Within four of the facilities, no shift-related differences were detected between airborne fibre exposures; however, at one facility, first and third shift exposures were statistically different. No documentation related to job activities was found to account for the observation. The data generally support the use of a single exposure estimate for each DZG in each of these facilities, regardless of shift worked. Researchers reconstructing exposure and not able to determine the shift worked by study subjects may find these results useful, but are cautioned that substantial differences in exposure across shifts may exist in other types of manufacturing.

  20. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and ident

  1. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of glanders, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O'Neill, Matthew; Deshazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera; Keim, Paul

    2009-12-01

    We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines.

  3. Glossary for econometrics and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekara, F Imlach; Carter, K; Blakely, T

    2008-10-01

    Epidemiologists and econometricians are often interested in similar topics-socioeconomic position and health outcomes-but the different languages that epidemiologists and economists use to interpret and discuss their results can create a barrier to mutual communication. This glossary defines key terms used in econometrics and epidemiology to assist in bridging this gap.

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Glanders, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O’Neill, Matthew; DeShazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera; Keim, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines.

  5. Implementation epidemiology: The study of the frequency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campus, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia .... of new epidemiological findings into policy action the American College of Epidemiology ..... The underlying contexts of seat belt wearing rates in a community relate to the economic, social, political and.

  6. Why does epidemiology need better questionnaires?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, S.; Ring, I.; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    The authors argue for the use of validated questionnaires whenever possible to improve the quality of epidemiological research.......The authors argue for the use of validated questionnaires whenever possible to improve the quality of epidemiological research....

  7. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    A workshop to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology.

  8. Ongoing interpretations of accomplishments in smoking cessation : Positive and negative self-efficacy interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A; Ten Wolde, G

    2005-01-01

    Smokers and ex-smokers are considered to make ongoing interpretations of their accomplishments in terms of their ability to refrain from smoking. We assessed positive self-efficacy interpretations (PSEint) and negative self-efficacy interpretations (NSEint) as the frequencies with which smokers and

  9. Factors contributing to ongoing intimate partner abuse: childhood betrayal trauma and dependence on one's perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Rebecca L; Deprince, Anne P

    2013-05-01

    Identifying the factors that contribute to ongoing intimate partner abuse (IPA) among survivors of childhood abuse is essential to developing appropriate interventions. The current study assessed prospectively whether childhood betrayal trauma (BT) history and women's potential dependence on their perpetrators (unemployment, number of children below 13) increased women's risk of ongoing victimization, while controlling for trauma-related symptoms (PTSD, depression, dissociation). Women survivors of IPA (N = 190) from an urban U.S. city were recruited based on an IPA incident reported to the police. At the initial interview, women reported on childhood betrayal trauma experiences, their employment status, number of children, and current trauma-related symptoms. Women returned 6 months later and reported on ongoing events of victimization (physical, sexual, psychological aggression, and injury) in their relationships with the initial IPA perpetrator. Results showed that higher levels of childhood BT were associated with ongoing victimization over the course of 6 months. Women's unemployment status predicted greater physical and sexual aggression and injuries. Higher levels of depression and lower levels of PTSD symptoms were also associated with increases in physical, sexual, and psychological aggression, and bodily injury. The findings have important implications for interventions by demonstrating the need to process women's betrayal trauma experiences, target depression symptoms, and increase women's economic opportunities to prevent further victimization.

  10. Assessing ongoing sources of dissolved-phase polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David M.; Lee, Cindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies assess the potential of ongoing sources of “fresh” polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to aquatic systems when direct discharge to the environment has been eliminated. In the present study, the authors used single-layered, low-density polyethylene samplers (PEs) to measure total PCB concentrations, congener profiles, and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) in a contaminated stream and to provide multiple lines of evidence for assessing ongoing inputs of PCB. Concentrations were well above background levels that have been monitored for years. Concentrations significantly increased with distance, the farthest downstream PE concentrations being almost five times greater than those at 79 m downstream of a historical point source. The PCBs in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the contamination source were dominated by low KOW congeners, similar to those in the mixture of Aroclors 1016 and 1254 (4:1 v/v) historically released from the former capacitor manufacturer. The only two chiral congeners detected in the PEs downstream were PCBs 91 and 95. The EF values were nonracemic for PCB 91, while the values were either racemic or near racemic for PCB 95. Increased PCB concentrations with distance and a congener composition of predominantly low-weight congeners in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the plant site suggested an ongoing PCB source from the plant site. Chiral signatures suggested aerobic biotransformation of dissolved PCBs but did not shed any light on possible ongoing PCB inputs.

  11. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  12. A Collaborative, Ongoing University Strategic Planning Framework: Process, Landmines, and Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Susan E. Kogler; Thomas, Edward G.; Keller, Lawrence F.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the strategic planning process at Cleveland State University, a large metropolitan state university in Ohio. A faculty-administrative team used a communicative planning approach to develop a collaborative, ongoing, bottom-up, transparent strategic planning process. This team then spearheaded the process through plan…

  13. 77 FR 26674 - Enhancement of Electricity Market Surveillance and Analysis Through Ongoing Electronic Delivery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... relating to physical and virtual offers and bids, market awards, resource outputs, marginal cost estimates... pricing. Such data will facilitate the Commission's development and evaluation of its policies and.... Web-Based Delivery 45 F. Data Requested 49 G. Implementation Timeline and Phasing 64 H. Ongoing...

  14. Aftershocks of Chile's Earthquake for an Ongoing, Large-Scale Experimental Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lorenzo; Trevino, Ernesto; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Mendive, Susana; Reyes, Joaquin; Godoy, Felipe; Del Rio, Francisca; Snow, Catherine; Leyva, Diana; Barata, Clara; Arbour, MaryCatherine; Rolla, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation designs for social programs are developed assuming minimal or no disruption from external shocks, such as natural disasters. This is because extremely rare shocks may not make it worthwhile to account for them in the design. Among extreme shocks is the 2010 Chile earthquake. Un Buen Comienzo (UBC), an ongoing early childhood program in…

  15. 13 CFR 126.501 - What are a qualified HUBZone SBC's ongoing obligations to SBA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are a qualified HUBZone SBC's... ADMINISTRATION HUBZONE PROGRAM Maintaining HUBZone Status § 126.501 What are a qualified HUBZone SBC's ongoing obligations to SBA? A qualified HUBZone SBC must immediately notify SBA of any material change that...

  16. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  17. Assessing the Impact of Ongoing National Terror: Social Workers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Pnina; Shamai, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the connections between social workers' personal and professional exposure to national terror in Israel and their professional and personal distress experienced due to ongoing terror attacks. Data were collected from 406 social workers from Israel who worked in agencies that provide help to victims of…

  18. Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes According to Different Types of Exposure to Ongoing Terror Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verte, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of several types of exposure to terror attacks on adolescents' psychological outcomes in the context of ongoing terror. A total of 913 adolescents (51 girls) aged 12 to 18 years (12-13.6 = 33%; 13.7-15.6 = 38%; 15.7-18 = 28%) took part in the study. Detailed data were collected concerning objective, subjective…

  19. Aftershocks of Chile's Earthquake for an Ongoing, Large-Scale Experimental Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lorenzo; Trevino, Ernesto; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Mendive, Susana; Reyes, Joaquin; Godoy, Felipe; Del Rio, Francisca; Snow, Catherine; Leyva, Diana; Barata, Clara; Arbour, MaryCatherine; Rolla, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation designs for social programs are developed assuming minimal or no disruption from external shocks, such as natural disasters. This is because extremely rare shocks may not make it worthwhile to account for them in the design. Among extreme shocks is the 2010 Chile earthquake. Un Buen Comienzo (UBC), an ongoing early childhood program in…

  20. Preliminary results of an ongoing study of the Nicobar megapode Megapodius nicobariensis Blyth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sankaran, R.; Sivakumar, K.

    1999-01-01

    Data collected during an ongoing study on incubation mounds and the social organization of the Nicobar megapode Megapodius nicobariensis Blyth, 1846, are reviewed. Microbial decomposition of organic matter in mounds is likely to be the major source of heat production within incubation mounds of the

  1. Lateralization of noise-burst trains based on onset and ongoing interaural delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyman, Richard L; Balakrishnan, Uma; Zurek, Patrick M

    2010-07-01

    The lateralization of 250-ms trains of brief noise bursts was measured using an acoustic pointing technique. Stimuli were designed to assess the contribution of the interaural time delay (ITD) of the onset binaural burst relative to that of the ITDs in the ongoing part of the train. Lateralization was measured by listeners' adjustments of the ITD of a pointer stimulus, a 50-ms burst of noise, to match the lateral position of the target train. Results confirmed previous reports of lateralization dominance by the onset burst under conditions in which the train is composed of frozen tokens and the ongoing part contains multiple ambiguous interaural delays. In contrast, lateralization of ongoing trains in which fresh noise tokens were used for each set of two alternating (left-leading/right-leading) binaural pairs followed the ITD of the first pair in each set, regardless of the ITD of the onset burst of the entire stimulus and even when the onset burst was removed by gradual gating. This clear lateralization of a long-duration stimulus with ambiguous interaural delay cues suggests precedence mechanisms that involve not only the interaural cues at the beginning of a sound, but also the pattern of cues within an ongoing sound.

  2. A Collaborative, Ongoing University Strategic Planning Framework: Process, Landmines, and Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Susan E. Kogler; Thomas, Edward G.; Keller, Lawrence F.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the strategic planning process at Cleveland State University, a large metropolitan state university in Ohio. A faculty-administrative team used a communicative planning approach to develop a collaborative, ongoing, bottom-up, transparent strategic planning process. This team then spearheaded the process through plan…

  3. Consequences of ongoing civil conflict in Somalia: evidence for public health responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha-Sapir, Debarati; Ratnayake, Ruwan

    2009-08-01

    Debarati Guha-Sapir and Ruwan Ratnayake use field data to demonstrate the severe vulnerability faced by much of the Somalian population due to ongoing conflict, and call for concerted public health interventions and access to food aid especially in southern Somalia.

  4. Quality Matters™: An Educational Input in an Ongoing Design-Based Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Deborah; Shattuck, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Quality Matters (QM) has been transforming established best practices and online education-based research into an applicable, scalable course level improvement process for the last decade. In this article, the authors describe QM as an ongoing design-based research project and an educational input for improving online education.

  5. Self-Leadership Change Project: The Continuation of an Ongoing Experiential Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James I.; Kern, Dave; Tewari, Jitendra; Jones, Kenneth E.; Beemraj, Eshwar Prasad; Ettigi, Chaitra Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The self-leadership change project (SLCP) is an ongoing program for senior level students at a regional university designed to provide hands-on experience in building self-management skills, which is considered a pre-requisite by many leaders and scholars (e.g. Drucker, 1996; Schaetti et al., 2008). The paper aims to discuss this issue.…

  6. From Further to Higher Education: Transition as an On-Going Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tett, Lyn; Cree, Viviene E; Christie, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that transition is not a one-off event that occurs when students first enter universities but is an on-going process that is repeated over time. We draw on qualitative data from a longitudinal project on "non-traditional" students who entered a research-intensive university in Scotland direct from further education…

  7. Assessing the Impact of Ongoing National Terror: Social Workers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Pnina; Shamai, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the connections between social workers' personal and professional exposure to national terror in Israel and their professional and personal distress experienced due to ongoing terror attacks. Data were collected from 406 social workers from Israel who worked in agencies that provide help to victims of…

  8. Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes According to Different Types of Exposure to Ongoing Terror Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verte, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of several types of exposure to terror attacks on adolescents' psychological outcomes in the context of ongoing terror. A total of 913 adolescents (51 girls) aged 12 to 18 years (12-13.6 = 33%; 13.7-15.6 = 38%; 15.7-18 = 28%) took part in the study. Detailed data were collected concerning objective, subjective…

  9. Generalized lymphadenopathy as a marker of ongoing inflammation in prolonged cholestatic hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhya, Ashis; Chandy, George M

    2002-08-01

    Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis A are very unusual. We describe a case of prolonged cholestatic hepatitis A in a patient with generalized lymphadenopathy. With normalization of transaminases, there was an accompanying reduction in size of these lymph nodes. Lymphadenopathy reflects ongoing hepatic inflammation in prolonged cholestatic hepatitis A.

  10. ACGME proposes dropping the 16 hour resident shift limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME is proposing that first-year residents would no longer be limited to 16-hour shifts during the 2017-2018 academic year under a controversial proposal released today (1. Instead, individual residency programs could assign first-year trainees to shifts as long as 28 hours, the current limit for all other residents. The 28-hour maximum includes 4 transitional hours that's designed in part to help residents improve continuity of care. The plan to revise training requirements does not change other rules designed to protect all residents from overwork. including the maximum80 hours per week. The ACGME capped the shifts of first-year residents at 16 hours in 2011 as a part of an ongoing effort to make trainee schedules more humane and avoid clinical errors caused by sleep deprivation. ACGME CEO Thomas Nasca, MD, told Medscape Medical News that the problem arises largely from first-year residents not being ...

  11. Transient inflammation-induced ongoing pain is driven by TRPV1 sensitive afferents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercado Ramon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue injury elicits both hypersensitivity to evoked stimuli and ongoing, stimulus-independent pain. We previously demonstrated that pain relief elicits reward in nerve-injured rats. This approach was used to evaluate the temporal and mechanistic features of inflammation-induced ongoing pain. Results Intraplantar Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA produced thermal hyperalgesia and guarding behavior that was reliably observed within 24 hrs and maintained, albeit diminished, 4 days post-administration. Spinal clonidine produced robust conditioned place preference (CPP in CFA treated rats 1 day, but not 4 days following CFA administration. However, spinal clonidine blocked CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia at both post-CFA days 1 and 4, indicating different time-courses of ongoing and evoked pain. Peripheral nerve block by lidocaine administration into the popliteal fossa 1 day following intraplantar CFA produced a robust preference for the lidocaine paired chamber, indicating that injury-induced ongoing pain is driven by afferent fibers innervating the site of injury. Pretreatment with resiniferatoxin (RTX, an ultrapotent capsaicin analogue known to produce long-lasting desensitization of TRPV1 positive afferents, fully blocked CFA-induced thermal hypersensitivity and abolished the CPP elicited by administration of popliteal fossa lidocaine 24 hrs post-CFA. In addition, RTX pretreatment blocked guarding behavior observed 1 day following intraplantar CFA. In contrast, administration of the selective TRPV1 receptor antagonist, AMG9810, at a dose that reversed CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia failed to reduce CFA-induced ongoing pain or guarding behavior. Conclusions These data demonstrate that inflammation induces both ongoing pain and evoked hypersensitivity that can be differentiated on the basis of time course. Ongoing pain (a is transient, (b driven by peripheral input resulting from the injury, (c dependent on TRPV1 positive

  12. Shift Work and Health: Current Problems and Preventive Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the problems to be tackled nowadays by occupational health with regards to shift work as well as the main guidelines at organizational and medical levels on how to protect workers’ health and well-being. Working time organization is becoming a key factor on account of new technologies, market globalization, economic competition, and extension of social services to general populations, all of which involve more and more people in continuous assistance and control of work processes over the 24 hours in a day. The large increase of epidemiological and clinical studies on this issue document the severity of this risk factor on human health and well being, at both social and psychophysical levels, starting from a disruption of biological circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycle and ending in several psychosomatic troubles and disorders, likely also including cancer, and extending to impairment of performance efficiency as well as family and social life. Appropriate interventions on the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria and careful health surveillance and social support for shift workers are important preventive and corrective measures that allow people to keep working without significant health impairment.

  13. The evolving epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include assessments of disease burden and evolving patterns of disease presentation. Although it is hoped that sound epidemiologic studies provide aetiological clues, traditional risk factor-based epidemiology has provided limited insights into either Crohn\\'s disease or ulcerative colitis etiopathogenesis. In this update, we will summarize how the changing epidemiology of IBD associated with modernization can be reconciled with current concepts of disease mechanisms and will discuss studies of clinically significant comorbidity in IBD.

  14. Molecular approaches to epidemiology and clinical aspects of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G V; Beck, H P; Molyneux, M; Marsh, K

    2000-10-01

    Malaria is a problem of global importance, responsible for 1-2 million deaths per year, mainly in African children, as well as considerable morbidity manifested as severe anaemia and encephalopathy in young children. Fundamental to the development of new tools for malaria control in humans is an increased understanding of key features of malaria infection, such as the diversity of outcome in different individuals, the understanding of different manifestations of the disease and of the mechanisms of immunity that allow clinical protection in the face of ongoing low-grade infection (concomitant immunity or premunition). Here, Graham Brown and colleagues review some of the ways in which molecular approaches might be used to increase our understanding of the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of malaria, as discussed at the Molecular Approaches to Malaria conference (MAM2000), Lorne, Australia, 2-5 February 2000.

  15. Coal miner's pneumoconiosis: epidemiological and experimental approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoudru, C.

    1983-01-01

    A historical review is presented showing the belated recognition of coal miner's pneumoconiosis as a discrete pathological state, a fact due to a lack of experimental pathological research. The distribution of the disease in France was studied. Its incidence has decreased among active miners, but the number of cases has increased as a result of increased longevity of miners. Physiological and pathological concepts of the disease are discussed, which has become a post-professional disease with delayed radiological symptoms, which frequently entails chronic cor pulmonale, and which varies in incidence from one mining region to another. Lines of ongoing experimental research, which take account of new work in epidemiology and in dust analysis as well as recent biological studies on man are summarized. 29 references.

  16. An overview of the epidemiology and genetics of acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, A F; Petrossians, P; Beckers, A

    2005-01-01

    Historical data indicate that pituitary tumors represent 10% of intracranial tumors, while adenomas are noted in approximately 14-23% of normal subjects on autopsy or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). About 2.5% of these tumors stain positive for GH in histopathologic studies. In contrast, the prevalence of clinically diagnosed acromegaly is lower at 36-69 per million population. Ongoing studies indicate that the actual prevalence of acromegaly in the community may be higher than previous epidemiologic data suggest. Acromegaly can occur both sporadically and in the setting of familial conditions, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and Carney complex (CNC). Isolated familial somatotropinoma has been described and newer data suggest that acromegaly may also occur in non-MEN1/CNC families in combination with other pituitary tumor phenotypes.

  17. Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A

    2003-02-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to

  18. Expectations and positive emotional feelings accompany reductions in ongoing and evoked neuropathic pain following placebo interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Gitte L; Finnerup, Nanna B; Grosen, Kasper; Pilegaard, Hans K; Tracey, Irene; Benedetti, Fabrizio; Price, Donald D; Jensen, Troels S; Vase, Lene

    2014-12-01

    Research on placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia has primarily included healthy subjects or acute pain patients, and it is unknown whether these effects can be obtained in ongoing pain in patients with chronic pain caused by an identifiable nerve injury. Eighteen patients with postthoracotomy neuropathic pain were exposed to placebo and nocebo manipulations, in which they received open and hidden administrations of pain-relieving (lidocaine) or pain-inducing (capsaicin) treatment controlled for the natural history of pain. Immediately after the open administration, patients rated their expected pain levels on a mechanical visual analogue scale (M-VAS). They also reported their emotional feelings via a quantitative/qualitative experiential method. Subsequently, patients rated their ongoing pain levels on the M-VAS and underwent quantitative sensory testing of evoked pain (brush, pinprick, area of hyperalgesia, wind-up-like pain). There was a significant placebo effect on both ongoing (P=.009 to .019) and evoked neuropathic pain (P=.0005 to .053). Expected pain levels accounted for significant amounts of the variance in ongoing (53.4%) and evoked pain (up to 34.5%) after the open lidocaine administration. Furthermore, patients reported high levels of positive and low levels of negative emotional feelings in the placebo condition compared with the nocebo condition (P⩽.001). Pain increases during nocebo were nonsignificant (P=.394 to 1.000). To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate placebo effects in ongoing neuropathic pain. It provides further evidence for placebo-induced reduction in hyperalgesia and suggests that patients' expectations coexist with emotional feelings about treatments. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavioral and neurochemical analysis of ongoing bone cancer pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeniuk, Bethany; Sukhtankar, Devki; Okun, Alec; Navratilova, Edita; Xie, Jennifer Y; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain is described as dull, aching ongoing pain. Ongoing bone cancer pain was characterized after intratibial injection of breast cancer cells in rats. Cancer produced time-dependent bone remodeling and tactile hypersensitivity but no spontaneous flinching. Conditioned place preference (CPP) and enhanced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell was observed after peripheral nerve block (PNB) selectively in tumor-bearing rats revealing nociceptive-driven ongoing pain. Oral diclofenac reversed tumor-induced tactile hypersensitivity but did not block PNB-induced CPP or NAc DA release. Tumor-induced tactile hypersensitivity, and PNB-induced CPP and NAc DA release, was blocked by prior subcutaneous implantation of a morphine pellet. In sham rats, morphine produced a modest but sustained increase in NAc DA release. In contrast, morphine produced a transient 5-fold higher NAc DA release in tumor bearing rats compared with sham morphine rats. The possibility that this increased NAc DA release reflected the reward of pain relief was tested by irreversible blockade of rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) μ-opioid receptors (MORs). The rACC MOR blockade prevented the morphine-induced transient increased NAc DA release in tumor bearing rats but did not affect morphine-induced effects in sham-operated animals. Consistent with clinical experience, ongoing cancer pain was controlled by morphine but not by a dose of diclofenac that reversed evoked hypersensitivity. Additionally, the intrinsic reward of morphine can be dissociated from the reward of relief of cancer pain by blockade of rACC MOR. This approach allows mechanistic and therapeutic assessment of ongoing cancer pain with likely translation relevance.

  20. Looping through the Lamb Shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-06

    Sometimes in science, a small measurement can have big ramifications. For a team of Livermore scientists, such was the case when they measured a small shift in the spectrum of extremely ionized atoms of uranium. The measurement involves the Lamb shift, a subtle change in the energy of an electron orbiting an atom's nucleus. The precision of the Livermore result was 10 times greater than that of existing measurements, making it the best measurement to date of a complicated correction to the simplest quantum description of how atoms behave. The measurement introduces a new realm in the search for deviations between the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED), which is an extension of quantum mechanics, and the real world. Such deviations, if discovered, would have far-reaching consequences, indicating that QED is not a fundamental theory of nature.

  1. Lamb shift in muonic deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorchtein, Mikhail; Vanderhaeghen, Marc [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Carlson, Carl E. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    We consider the two-photon exchange contribution to the 2P-2S Lamb shift in muonic deuterium in the framework of forward dispersion relations. The dispersion integrals are evaluated with minimal model dependence using experimental data on elastic deuteron form factors and inelastic electron-deuteron scattering, both in the quasielastic and hadronic range. The subtraction constant that is required to ensure convergence of the dispersion relation for the forward Compton amplitude T{sub 1} (ν,Q{sup 2}) is related to the deuteron magnetic polarizability β(Q{sup 2}) and represents the main source of uncertainty in our analysis. We obtain for the Lamb shift ΔE{sub 2P-2S} = 1.620±0.190 meV and discuss ways to further reduce this uncertainty.

  2. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    In an effort to obtain the most comprehensive and coherent picture of changes under weightlessness, a set of measurements on Skylab 2 was initiated and at every opportunity, additional studies were added. All pertinent information from ancillary sources were gleaned and collated. On Skylab 2, the initial anthropometric studies were scheduled in conjunction with muscle study. A single set of facial photographs was made in-flight. Additional measurements were made on Skylab 3, with photographs and truncal and limb girth measurements in-flight. Prior to Skylab 4, it was felt there was considerable evidence for large and rapid fluid shifts, so a series of in-flight volume and center of mass measurements and infrared photographs were scheduled to be conducted in the Skylab 4 mission. A number of changes were properly documented for the first time, most important of which were the fluid shifts. The following description of Skylab anthropometrics address work done on Skylab 4 primarily.

  3. Healthy Diet And Reduction Of Chronic Disease Risks Of Night Shift Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Giovanni M; Cavone, Domenica; Intranuovo, Graziana; Macinagrossa, Linda

    2017-07-20

    The large increase in epidemiological studies on night shift work is due to the important effects of night shift work on workers' health and psychophysical wellbeing. The short-term effects-insomnia, difficulties in managing work and private life, lower work performance, and more work and extra-work accidents-are easily studied. However, there are several long-term effects that are difficult to study because of the need for detailed exposure assessment and the long latency periods of these diseases. The aim was to collect epidemiologic evidence of diseases in night shift workers, describing their biological pathways and a set of dietary guidelines. This is a review on diet and health effects in night shift workers. Significant increases in the rate ratios and hazard ratios of different diseases were associated with modified eating behaviours and poor eating habits among night shift workers. Night shift work is a risk factor for disruption of the circadian rhythms and for some genetic deregulation because it produces the inversion of the sleep/wake cycle and modifies the alternation between activity and rest. A healthy diet and improved dietary practices, together with other factors, can reduce shift workers' chronic disease risk. The literature showed the importance of eating behaviour in order to prevent diseases in these workers; therefore, educational programmes are necessary to encourage several important lifestyle changes. The target of our future research will be the role of food components in some dietetic habits for the prevention of disease in night shift workers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Debt Shifting and Ownership Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Schindler; Guttorm Schjelderup

    2011-01-01

    Previous theoretical studies on the debt shifting behavior of multinationals have assumed affiliates of multinationals to be wholly owned. We develop a model that allows a multinational firm to determine both the leverage and ownership structure in affiliates endogenously. A main finding is that affiliates with minority owners have less debt than wholly owned affiliates and therefore a less tax efficient financing structure. This is due to an externality that arises endogenously in our model,...

  5. Lamb shift in muonic deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Carboni, G

    1973-01-01

    The author has calculated the various contributions to 2s-2p splitting for muonic deuterium. An instantaneous potential is constructed between the muon and the nucleus. Except for the Coulomb potential, all the remaining terms are treated as a perturbation. The effects taken into account are fine structure, magnetic and electric hyperfine structure, muonic Lamb shift, vacuum polarisation, nuclear polarisation and nuclear size. (11 refs).

  6. Frequency shifts in gravitational resonance spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Baeßler, S; Pignol, G; Protasov, K V; Rebreyend, D; Kupriyanova, E A; Voronin, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    Quantum states of ultracold neutrons in the gravitational field are to be characterized through gravitational resonance spectroscopy. This paper discusses systematic effects that appear in the spectroscopic measurements. The discussed frequency shifts, which we call Stern-Gerlach shift, interference shift, and spectator state shift, appear in conceivable measurement schemes and have general importance. These shifts have to be taken into account in precision experiments.

  7. History and philosophy of modern epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of chronic diseases began around the mid-20th century. Contrary to the infectious disease epidemiology which had prevailed at the beginning of the 20th century and which had focused on single agents causing individual diseases, the chronic disease epidemiology which emerge...

  8. Shift work and endocrine disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulhôa, M A; Marqueze, E C; Burgos, L G A; Moreno, C R C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate the impact of shift and night work on metabolic processes and the role of alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and feeding times and environmental changes in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. The literature review was performed by searching three electronic databases for relevant studies published in the last 10 years. The methodological quality of each study was assessed, and best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. The literature has shown changes in concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin among shift workers. Melatonin has been implicated for its role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The action of this hormone also regulates the expression of transporter glucose type 4 or triggers phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Therefore, a reduction in melatonin can be associated with an increase in insulin resistance and a propensity for the development of diabetes. Moreover, shift work can negatively affect sleep and contribute to sedentarism, unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Recent studies on metabolic processes have increasingly revealed their complexity. Physiological changes induced in workers who invert their activity-rest cycle to fulfill work hours include disruptions in metabolic processes.

  9. Shift Work and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ulhôa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to investigate the impact of shift and night work on metabolic processes and the role of alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and feeding times and environmental changes in the occurrence of metabolic disorders. The literature review was performed by searching three electronic databases for relevant studies published in the last 10 years. The methodological quality of each study was assessed, and best-evidence synthesis was applied to draw conclusions. The literature has shown changes in concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin among shift workers. Melatonin has been implicated for its role in the synthesis and action of insulin. The action of this hormone also regulates the expression of transporter glucose type 4 or triggers phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Therefore, a reduction in melatonin can be associated with an increase in insulin resistance and a propensity for the development of diabetes. Moreover, shift work can negatively affect sleep and contribute to sedentarism, unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Recent studies on metabolic processes have increasingly revealed their complexity. Physiological changes induced in workers who invert their activity-rest cycle to fulfill work hours include disruptions in metabolic processes.

  10. Economic epidemiology of avian influenza on smallholder poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Maciej F; Galvani, Alison P; Wickelgren, Abraham L; Malani, Anup

    2013-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is often controlled through culling of poultry. Compensating farmers for culled chickens or ducks facilitates effective culling and control of HPAI. However, ensuing price shifts can create incentives that alter the disease dynamics of HPAI. Farmers control certain aspects of the dynamics by setting a farm size, implementing infection control measures, and determining the age at which poultry are sent to market. Their decisions can be influenced by the market price of poultry which can, in turn, be set by policy makers during an HPAI outbreak. Here, we integrate these economic considerations into an epidemiological model in which epidemiological parameters are determined by an outside agent (the farmer) to maximize profit from poultry sales. Our model exhibits a diversity of behaviors which are sensitive to (i) the ability to identify infected poultry, (ii) the average price of infected poultry, (iii) the basic reproductive number of avian influenza, (iv) the effect of culling on the market price of poultry, (v) the effect of market price on farm size, and (vi) the effect of poultry density on disease transmission. We find that under certain market and epidemiological conditions, culling can increase farm size and the total number of HPAI infections. Our model helps to inform the optimization of public health outcomes that best weigh the balance between public health risk and beneficial economic outcomes for farmers.

  11. Epidemiology and prevention of cardiovascular disease: Quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Guy

    2017-05-01

    With observational epidemiological studies it has been possible in the 1950-60 s to identify what has been called cardiovascular risk factors. The multifactorial origin of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease has been elucidated and in multifactorial intervention trials it was demonstrated that lifestyle changes related to smoking, diet and exercise can prevent the incidence of premature cardiovascular events. The application of that knowledge at the level of the community has resulted in a reversal of the cardiovascular disease epidemic. More investment is needed in the prevention of the development of cardiovascular risk from childhood onwards. More studies are needed to examine the long-term effects of low-intensity exposure to environmental factors on the cardiovascular system using the most appropriate study design and biosensors. More epidemiological studies are needed to evaluate societal changes on cardiovascular disease. Given the actual knowledge on how to prevent cardiovascular disease there is a need for a shift from aetiological epidemiological research into preventive research.

  12. Economic epidemiology of avian influenza on smallholder poultry farms☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Maciej F.; Galvani, Alison P.; Wickelgren, Abraham L.; Malani, Anup

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is often controlled through culling of poultry. Compensating farmers for culled chickens or ducks facilitates effective culling and control of HPAI. However, ensuing price shifts can create incentives that alter the disease dynamics of HPAI. Farmers control certain aspects of the dynamics by setting a farm size, implementing infection control measures, and determining the age at which poultry are sent to market. Their decisions can be influenced by the market price of poultry which can, in turn, be set by policy makers during an HPAI outbreak. Here, we integrate these economic considerations into an epidemiological model in which epidemiological parameters are determined by an outside agent (the farmer) to maximize profit from poultry sales. Our model exhibits a diversity of behaviors which are sensitive to (i) the ability to identify infected poultry, (ii) the average price of infected poultry, (iii) the basic reproductive number of avian influenza, (iv) the effect of culling on the market price of poultry, (v) the effect of market price on farm size, and (vi) the effect of poultry density on disease transmission. We find that under certain market and epidemiological conditions, culling can increase farm size and the total number of HPAI infections. Our model helps to inform the optimization of public health outcomes that best weigh the balance between public health risk and beneficial economic outcomes for farmers. PMID:24161559

  13. Childhood brain tumor epidemiology: a brain tumor epidemiology consortium review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly J; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Ostrom, Quinn T; Langer, Chelsea E; Turner, Michelle C; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L; Lupo, Philip J; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Scheurer, Michael E

    2014-12-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histologic subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(12); 2716-36. ©2014 AACR.

  14. Shift Work Is Not Associated with High Blood Pressure or Prevalence of Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Sfreddo; Sandra Costa Fuchs; Alvaro Roberto Merlo; Flávio Danni Fuchs

    2010-01-01

    Background Working mostly at night has been suggested to be associated with upset of chronobiological rhythms and high blood pressure, but the evidence from epidemiological studies is weak. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, we evaluated the association between shift work and blood pressure, pre-hypertension and hypertension. In total, 493 nurses, nurse technicians and assistants, were selected at random in a large general hospital setting. Hypertension was diagnosed by the mean of four aut...

  15. Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Rogerson

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Sectoral Shifts and Cyclical Fluctuations This paper studies a two sector real business cycle model in which the sectors experience different trend rates of growth and labor mobility is costly. Predictions are derived concerning the correlation between sectoral reallocation of workers and the cycle. This correlation may be positive or negative depending upon whether the growing sector displays larger or smaller fluctuations than the shrinking sector. The post- World War II period has witnessed two major patterns of sectoral change in industrialized countries: movement out of agriculture and movement out of the industrial sector. The model's basic prediction is shown to be consistent with the observed pattern of reallocation.

  16. Radon epidemiology and nuclear track detectors: Methods, results and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, F. [Unit of Radioactivity and Related Health Effects, Technology and Health Department, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00161 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: francesco.bochicchio@iss.it

    2005-11-15

    An important achievement of nuclear track detectors is that they render it possible to measure a large number of radon concentrations. These are necessary for epidemiological studies aimed to estimate the lung cancer risk due to exposure to radon and its decay products in dwellings. Many case-control studies were conducted in the last 15 years in Europe, North America and China, in order to avoid the uncertainties associated with the risk extrapolation from epidemiological studies on miners exposed in underground mines. In this review paper, the main methodological issues of these studies are introduced: confounding factors, the impact of radon exposure uncertainties on the estimated risk, the retrospective assessment of radon exposure through the measurement of Po210 surface concentration on glass objects, the interaction between radon and smoking, statistical methods to analyze data and combine studies, etc. As regards the estimated risk of lung cancer, the main characteristics and results of each study are reported and discussed, together with the results of meta-analyses and, most importantly, of the three recently published analyses that pool 2 Chinese, 7 North American, and 13 European studies. Finally, some conclusions are given and a brief reference is made to ongoing studies.

  17. The Lamb-shift experiment in Muonic helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebel, T., E-mail: tbn@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (Germany); Amaro, F. D. [Universidade de Coimbra, Departamento de Fisica (Portugal); Antognini, A. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Institut fuer Teilchenphysik (Switzerland); Biraben, F. [CNRS and Universite P. et M. Curie, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure (France); Cardoso, J. M. R. [Universidade de Coimbra, Departamento de Fisica (Portugal); Covita, D. S. [Universidade de Aveiro, I3N, Departamento de Fisica (Portugal); Dax, A. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Fernandes, L. M. P.; Gouvea, A. L. [Universidade de Coimbra, Departamento de Fisica (Portugal); Graf, T. [Universitaet Stuttgart, Institut fuer Strahlwerkzeuge (Germany); Haensch, T. W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (Germany); Hildebrandt, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland); Indelicato, P.; Julien, L. [CNRS and Universite P. et M. Curie, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure (France); Kirch, K.; Kottmann, F. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Institut fuer Teilchenphysik (Switzerland); Liu, Y.-W. [National Tsing Hua University, Physics Department (China); Monteiro, C. M. B. [Universidade de Coimbra, Departamento de Fisica (Portugal); and others

    2012-12-15

    We propose to measure several transition frequencies between the 2S and the 2P states (Lamb shift) in muonic helium ions ({mu}{sup 4}He{sup + } and {mu}{sup 3}He{sup + }) by means of laser spectroscopy, in order to determine the alpha-particle and helion root-mean-square (rms) charge radius. In addition, the fine and hyperfine structure components will be revealed, and the magnetic moment distribution radius will be determined. The contribution of the finite size effect to the Lamb shift (2S - 2P energy difference) in {mu}He{sup + } is as high as 20 %. Therefore a measurement of the transition frequencies with a moderate (for laser spectroscopy) precision of 50 ppm (corresponding to 1/20 of the linewidth) will lead to a determination of the nuclear rms charge radii with a relative accuracy of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup - 4} (equivalent to 0.0005 fm). The limiting factor for the extraction of the radii from the Lamb shift measurements is given by the uncertainty of the nuclear polarizability contribution. Combined with an ongoing experiment at MPQ aiming to measure the 1S - 2S transition frequency in the helium ion, the Lamb shift measurement in {mu}He{sup + } will lead to a sensitive test of problematic and challenging bound-state QED terms. This measurement will also help to clarify the discrepancy found in our previous {mu}{sub p} experiment. Additionally, a precise knowledge of the absolute nuclear radii of the He isotopes and the hyperfine splitting of {mu}{sup 3}He{sup + } provide a relevant test of few-nucleon theories.

  18. "Epidemiological criminology": coming full circle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Timothy A; Lanier, Mark M

    2009-03-01

    Members of the public health and criminal justice disciplines often work with marginalized populations: people at high risk of drug use, health problems, incarceration, and other difficulties. As these fields increasingly overlap, distinctions between them are blurred, as numerous research reports and funding trends document. However, explicit theoretical and methodological linkages between the 2 disciplines remain rare. A new paradigm that links methods and statistical models of public health with those of their criminal justice counterparts is needed, as are increased linkages between epidemiological analogies, theories, and models and the corresponding tools of criminology. We outline disciplinary commonalities and distinctions, present policy examples that integrate similarities, and propose "epidemiological criminology" as a bridging framework.

  19. Epidemiology of cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, E K

    1985-12-01

    Some information on cancer in Malaysia are available, and its epidemiology is described. There is a need for systematic and coordinated collection of cancer statistics which are essential to patient management, cancer control programme formulation, implementation and evaluation. The decision of the Ministry of Health to introduce National Cancer Registry and to encourage epidemiological studies, which will ultimately lead to the utilization of data and introduction of control and preventive activities for cancers are positive steps in the right direction. Meanwhile, curative and palliative treatment is available from the existing hospital facilities, and preventive activities such as actions on smoking and health will be continued until such time when a comprehensive prevention and control programme for cancers in the country is evolved.

  20. Estimating soil moisture from satellite microwave observations: Past and ongoing projects, and relevance to GCIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owe, M.; Van de Griend, A. A.; de Jeu, R.; de Vries, J. J.; Seyhan, E.; Engman, E. T.

    1999-08-01

    On the basis of a series of studies conducted in Botswana and preliminary results from an ongoing study in Spain, developments in microwave remote sensing by satellite, which can be used to monitor near-real-time surface moisture and also study long-term soil moisture climatology, are described. A progression of methodologies beginning with single-polarization studies and leading to both dual polarization and multiple frequency techniques are described. Continuing analysis of a 9 year data set of satellite-derived surface moisture in Spain is ongoing. Preliminary results from this study appear to provide some evidence of long-term desertification in certain parts of this region. The methodologies developed during these investigations can be applied easily to other regions such as the GCIP area and could provide useful databases for simulation and validation studies. Additionally, they have strong potential for global applications such as climate change studies.

  1. Diagnose and adios: practical tips for the ongoing evaluation and care of TAC patients taking indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanders, Laura B; Ailani, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Paroxysmal hemicrania and hemicrania continua are primary headache disorders characterized by unilateral attacks of severe pain around the orbit with associated autonomic features. They are unique in their absolute response to indomethacin. Diagnosis is made when patients with suspected paroxysmal hemicrania or hemicrania continua have the resolution of headache with therapeutic doses of indomethacin. Once diagnosis is made, limited data exists on the ongoing management of these patients. For patients who do not tolerate indomethacin, or wish to come off medication, there remain few options. This article will discuss the diagnosis of paroxysmal hemicrania and hemicrania continua and the ongoing management of patients on indomethacin, as well as options for patients who do not tolerate or need to come off indomethacin.

  2. [Epidemiology of burns in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François

    2012-01-01

    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  3. Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

  4. Epidemiological characteristics of gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Šipetić Sandra B.; Tomić-Kundaković Slađana; Vlajinac Hristina D.; Maksimović Nataša; Knežević Anita; Kisić Darija

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Gastric cancer was the third most common cancer worldwide in 2000, accounting for approximately 876 000 new cases or 9% of the global cancer burden. Epidemiological characteristics As a result of changes in diet, the incidence of gastric cancer has decreased in most countries. Now days, consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits is increasing in regard to canned food. In addition to unhealthy diet, the main risk factors for gastric cancer are H. pylori infection, alcohol consump...

  5. Science and practice of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy: A paradigm shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed ElMaghawry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The clinical, genetic, and molecular paradigm of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC has markedly progressed through the last three decades, shifting from the classical ARVC as a progressive condition characterized by fibrofatty replacement of the right ventricle,2,3,4 into a wider spectrum of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC,5 which covers ARVC with its various clinical phases (occult, electric, right heart failure and late stage biventricular heart failure, biventricular arrhythmic cardiomyopathy, left dominant arrhythmic cardiomyopathy, Naxos and Carvajal syndromes. Epidemiologically, the disease was first associated with the Mediterranean basin (mainly Italy and France, however further studies have reported AC in many races and ethnic backgrounds6,7,8. Moreover, with regard to the pathoitiology of the disease, dysplasia was originally assumed as the disease mechanism. Other mechanisms were later postulated, such as inflammation and transdifferentiation. However, more recent animal models have established that dystrophy, either by myocyte necrosis or apoptosis, is the founding pathological process of AC.

  6. An ongoing measles outbreak in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2014 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukic, M; Ravlija, J; Karakas, S; Mulaomerovic, M; Dedeic Ljubovic, A; Salimović-Besic, I; Seremet, M; Ahmetagic, S; Comor, A; Feric, E

    2015-03-05

    Between January 2014 and the beginning of February 2015, the Federal Institute of Public Health in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has reported 3,804 measles cases. Notable transmission has been observed in three Central Bosnia Canton municipalities: Bugojno, Fojnica and Travnik. Most cases were unvaccinated 2,680 (70%) or of unknown vaccination status 755 (20%). Health authorities have been checking vaccination records and performing necessary prevention measures. The epidemic is still ongoing.

  7. Sharing State Mental Health Data for Research: Building Toward Ongoing Learning in Mental Health Care Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David A; Rupp, Agnes

    2015-09-01

    With the rise of "big data," the opportunities to use administrative and clinical data to evaluate impact of state level program initiatives are greatly expanded. The National Institute of Mental Health has in recent years supported research studies pooling data across states to address state-relevant questions. This commentary summarizes these activities and describes future platforms that may enhance ongoing work in this area.

  8. Ongoing liver inflammation in patients with chronic hepatitis C and sustained virological response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Christoph; Efinger, Mira; von Wagner, Michael; Herrmann, Eva; Zeuzem, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Background Novel direct-acting antiviral DAA combination therapies tremendously improved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in patients with chronic HCV infection. SVR is typically accompanied by normalization of liver enzymes, however, hepatic inflammation, i.e. persistently elevated aminotransferase levels may persist despite HCV eradication. Aim: To investigate prevalence and risk factors for ongoing hepatic inflammation after SVR in two large patient cohorts. Methods This post-hoc analysis was based on prospectively collected demographic and clinical data from 834 patients with SVR after HCV treatment with either PegIFN- or DAA-based treatment regimens from the PRAMA trial (n = 341) or patients treated at our outpatient clinic (n = 493). Results We observed an unexpected high prevalence of post-SVR inflammation, including patients who received novel IFN-free DAA-based therapies. Up to 10% of patients had ongoing elevation of aminotransferase levels and another 25% showed aminotransferase activity above the so-called healthy range. Several baseline factors were independently associated with post-SVR aminotransferase elevation. Among those, particularly male gender, advanced liver disease and markers for liver steatosis were strongly predictive for persistent ALT elevation. The use of IFN-based antiviral treatment was independently correlated with post-SVR inflammation, further supporting the overall benefit of IFN-free combination regimens. Conclusion This is the first comprehensive study on a large patient cohort investigating the prevalence and risk factors for ongoing liver inflammation after eradication of HCV. Our data show a high proportion of patients with ongoing hepatic inflammation despite HCV eradication with potential implications for the management of approximately one third of all patients upon SVR. PMID:28196130

  9. The effect of aborting ongoing movements on end point position estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaguchi, Yoshihiro; Fukuzawa, Kazuyoshi

    2013-11-01

    The present study investigated the impact of motor commands to abort ongoing movement on position estimation. Participants carried out visually guided reaching movements on a horizontal plane with their eyes open. By setting a mirror above their arm, however, they could not see the arm, only the start and target points. They estimated the position of their fingertip based solely on proprioception after their reaching movement was stopped before reaching the target. The participants stopped reaching as soon as they heard an auditory cue or were mechanically prevented from moving any further by an obstacle in their path. These reaching movements were carried out at two different speeds (fast or slow). It was assumed that additional motor commands to abort ongoing movement were required and that their magnitude was high, low, and zero, in the auditory-fast condition, the auditory-slow condition, and both the obstacle conditions, respectively. There were two main results. (1) When the participants voluntarily stopped a fast movement in response to the auditory cue (the auditory-fast condition), they showed more underestimates than in the other three conditions. This underestimate effect was positively related to movement velocity. (2) An inverted-U-shaped bias pattern as a function of movement distance was observed consistently, except in the auditory-fast condition. These findings indicate that voluntarily stopping fast ongoing movement created a negative bias in the position estimate, supporting the idea that additional motor commands or efforts to abort planned movement are involved with the position estimation system. In addition, spatially probabilistic inference and signal-dependent noise may explain the underestimate effect of aborting ongoing movement.

  10. Thermal Filters for the ATHENA X-IFU: Ongoing Activities Toward the Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Marco; Argan, A.; Bozzo, E.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Ciaravella, A.; Collura, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Gatti, F.; Jimenez Escobar, A.; Lo Cicero, U.; Lotti, S.; Macculi, C.; Mineo, T.; Nuzzo, F.; Paltani, S.; Parodi, G.; Piro, L.; Rauw, G.; Sciortino, L.; Sciortino, S.; Villa, F.

    2016-08-01

    ATHENA is the L2 mission selected by ESA to pursue the science theme "Hot and Energetic Universe." One of the two focal plane instruments is the X-ray Integral Field Unit, an array of TES microcalorimeters operated at T RF electromagnetic interferences on TES sensors and SQUID electronics, and to protect the detector from contamination. This paper reviews the ongoing activities driving the design of the X-IFU thermal filters.

  11. Molecular targeted therapy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma: A review of completed and ongoing late phase clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Catalina; Maglic, Dino; Zervos, Emmanuel E

    2016-12-01

    Molecular targeted therapy is widely utilized and effective in a number of solid tumors. In pancreatic adenocarcinoma, targeted therapy has been extensively evaluated; however, survival improvement of this aggressive disease using a targeted strategy has been minimal. The purpose of this study is to review therapeutic molecular targets in completed and ongoing later phase (II and III) clinical trials to have a better understanding of the rationale and progress towards targeted molecular therapies for pancreatic cancer. The PubMed database and the NCDI clinical trial website (www.clinicaltrials.gov) were queried to identify phase II and III completed and published (PubMed) and ongoing (clinicaltrials.gov) trials using the keywords: pancreatic cancer and molecular targeted therapy. The search engines were further limited by adding Phase II or III, active enrollment and North American. A total of 14 completed and published phase II/III clinical trials and 17 ongoing trials were identified. Evaluated strategies included inhibition of growth factor receptors (EGFR, PDGFR, VGFR, IGF-1R), tyrosine kinase inhibitors, MEK1/2, mTOR blockade and PI3K and HER2-neu pathway inhibitors. Only one trial conducted by the National Cancer Institute of Canada and the PANTAR trial have demonstrated a survival improvement from EGFR inhibition using erlotinib. These trials ultimately led to FDA approval of erlotinib/Tarceva in advanced stage disease. It remains unclear whether new combinations of cytotoxic chemotherapy or immunotherapy plus molecular targeted therapy will be beneficial in management of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Despite a number of phase II and III trials, to date, only erlotinib has emerged as an approved targeted therapy in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. There are several ongoing late phase trials evaluating a number of targets, the results of which will become available over the next 1 to 2 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. When and Whom to Join: The Expansion of Ongoing Violent Interstate Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Reşat; Joyce, Kyle A.; Ghosn, Faten

    2014-01-01

    The opportunity and willingness framework has received much attention in research on interstate conflict expansion. This framework is extended here by examining when and what side third parties join during ongoing conflicts. It is maintained that without examining both timing and side selection, understanding of conflict expansion is limited. The timing and side joined in interstate disputes between 1816 and 2001 are analysed using a competing risks duration model. The findings contribute nov...

  13. Ongoing liver inflammation in patients with chronic hepatitis C and sustained virological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Christoph; Efinger, Mira; von Wagner, Michael; Herrmann, Eva; Zeuzem, Stefan; Welzel, Tania M; Lange, Christian M

    2017-01-01

    Novel direct-acting antiviral DAA combination therapies tremendously improved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in patients with chronic HCV infection. SVR is typically accompanied by normalization of liver enzymes, however, hepatic inflammation, i.e. persistently elevated aminotransferase levels may persist despite HCV eradication. Aim: To investigate prevalence and risk factors for ongoing hepatic inflammation after SVR in two large patient cohorts. This post-hoc analysis was based on prospectively collected demographic and clinical data from 834 patients with SVR after HCV treatment with either PegIFN- or DAA-based treatment regimens from the PRAMA trial (n = 341) or patients treated at our outpatient clinic (n = 493). We observed an unexpected high prevalence of post-SVR inflammation, including patients who received novel IFN-free DAA-based therapies. Up to 10% of patients had ongoing elevation of aminotransferase levels and another 25% showed aminotransferase activity above the so-called healthy range. Several baseline factors were independently associated with post-SVR aminotransferase elevation. Among those, particularly male gender, advanced liver disease and markers for liver steatosis were strongly predictive for persistent ALT elevation. The use of IFN-based antiviral treatment was independently correlated with post-SVR inflammation, further supporting the overall benefit of IFN-free combination regimens. This is the first comprehensive study on a large patient cohort investigating the prevalence and risk factors for ongoing liver inflammation after eradication of HCV. Our data show a high proportion of patients with ongoing hepatic inflammation despite HCV eradication with potential implications for the management of approximately one third of all patients upon SVR.

  14. Geometric Baryogenesis from Shift Symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Andrea; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Liberati, Stefano

    2017-03-31

    We present a new scenario for generating the baryon asymmetry of the Universe that is induced by a Nambu-Goldstone (NG) boson. The shift symmetry naturally controls the operators in the theory while allowing the NG boson to couple to the spacetime geometry as well as to the baryons. The cosmological background thus sources a coherent motion of the NG boson, which leads to baryogenesis. Good candidates of the baryon-generating NG boson are the QCD axion and axionlike fields. In these cases, the axion induces baryogenesis in the early Universe and can also serve as dark matter in the late Universe.

  15. Parameter and uncertainty estimation for mechanistic, spatially explicit epidemiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Flavio; Schaefli, Bettina; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiological models can be a crucially important tool for decision-making during disease outbreaks. The range of possible applications spans from real-time forecasting and allocation of health-care resources to testing alternative intervention mechanisms such as vaccines, antibiotics or the improvement of sanitary conditions. Our spatially explicit, mechanistic models for cholera epidemics have been successfully applied to several epidemics including, the one that struck Haiti in late 2010 and is still ongoing. Calibration and parameter estimation of such models represents a major challenge because of properties unusual in traditional geoscientific domains such as hydrology. Firstly, the epidemiological data available might be subject to high uncertainties due to error-prone diagnosis as well as manual (and possibly incomplete) data collection. Secondly, long-term time-series of epidemiological data are often unavailable. Finally, the spatially explicit character of the models requires the comparison of several time-series of model outputs with their real-world counterparts, which calls for an appropriate weighting scheme. It follows that the usual assumption of a homoscedastic Gaussian error distribution, used in combination with classical calibration techniques based on Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, is likely to be violated, whereas the construction of an appropriate formal likelihood function seems close to impossible. Alternative calibration methods, which allow for accurate estimation of total model uncertainty, particularly regarding the envisaged use of the models for decision-making, are thus needed. Here we present the most recent developments regarding methods for parameter and uncertainty estimation to be used with our mechanistic, spatially explicit models for cholera epidemics, based on informal measures of goodness of fit.

  16. Differential effects of ongoing EEG beta and theta power on memory formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Sebastian; Schneider, Signe Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Recently, elevated ongoing pre-stimulus beta power (13–17 Hz) at encoding has been associated with subsequent memory formation for visual stimulus material. It is unclear whether this activity is merely specific to visual processing or whether it reflects a state facilitating general memory formation, independent of stimulus modality. To answer that question, the present study investigated the relationship between neural pre-stimulus oscillations and verbal memory formation in different sensory modalities. For that purpose, a within-subject design was employed to explore differences between successful and failed memory formation in the visual and auditory modality. Furthermore, associative memory was addressed by presenting the stimuli in combination with background images. Results revealed that similar EEG activity in the low beta frequency range (13–17 Hz) is associated with subsequent memory success, independent of stimulus modality. Elevated power prior to stimulus onset differentiated successful from failed memory formation. In contrast, differential effects between modalities were found in the theta band (3–7 Hz), with an increased oscillatory activity before the onset of later remembered visually presented words. In addition, pre-stimulus theta power dissociated between successful and failed encoding of associated context, independent of the stimulus modality of the item itself. We therefore suggest that increased ongoing low beta activity reflects a memory promoting state, which is likely to be moderated by modality-independent attentional or inhibitory processes, whereas high ongoing theta power is suggested as an indicator of the enhanced binding of incoming interlinked information. PMID:28192459

  17. Magma accumulation or second boiling - Investigating the ongoing deformation field at Montserrat, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Amy; Neuberg, Jurgen; Pascal, Karen

    2016-04-01

    For over 20 years, Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat has been in a state of volcanic unrest. Intermittent periods of dome building have been punctuated by explosive eruptions and dome collapse events, endangering the lives of the inhabitants of the island. The last episode of active magma extrusion was in February 2010, and the last explosive event (ash venting) in March 2012. Despite a lack of eruptive activity recently, the volcano continues to emit significant volumes of SO2 and shows an ongoing trend of island inflation. Through the aid of three-dimensional numerical modelling, using a finite element method, we explore the potential sources of the ongoing island inflation. We consider both magmatic (dykes and chamber) and tectonic sources. Whilst a magmatic source suggests the possibility for further eruption, a tectonic source may indicate cessation of volcanic activity. We show that a magmatic source is the most likely scenario, and illustrate the effect of different sources (shapes, characters and depths) on the surface displacement. Furthermore, through the inclusion of topographic data, we investigate how the topography may affect the displacement pattern at the surface. We investigate the conflicting scenarios of magma chamber resupply versus second boiling - crystallisation-induced degassing. Based on numerical modelling results, we suggest the required pressurisation is too high for crystallisation-induced degassing to be the dominant process - thereby suggesting magma accumulation may be ongoing. However, we show that second boiling may be a contributing factor, particularly when taking into account the local tectonics and regional stretching.

  18. The unimodal distribution of sub-threshold, ongoing activity in cortical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat eYaron-Jakoubovitch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of the subthreshold, ongoing-activity in cortical neurons has been the focus of numerous studies. This activity, described as spontaneous slow waves in membrane potential, has been observed in a span of species in diverse cortical and subcortical areas. We here characterized membrane potential fluctuations in motor and the frontal association cortices cortical neurons of ketamine-xylazine anesthetized rats. We recorded from 95 neurons from a range of cortical depths to unravel the network and cellular mechanisms that shape the subthreshold ongoing spontaneous activity of these neurons. We define a unitary event that generates the sub-threshold ongoing activity: Giant Synaptic Potentials (GSPs. These events have a duration of 87 ± 50 ms and an amplitude of 19 ± 6.4 mV. They occur at a frequency of 3.7 ± 0.8 Hz and involve an increase in conductance change of 22 ± 21%. GSPs are mainly due to excitatory activity that occurs throughout all cortical layers, unaffected by the intrinsic properties of the cells. Indeed, blocking the GABAA receptors, a procedure that had a profound effect on cortical activity, did not alter these unitary events. We propose that this unitary event is composed of individual, excitatory synaptic potentials that appear at different levels of synchrony and that the level of synchrony determines the shape of the subthreshold activity.

  19. The Importance of On-Going Maintenance in Preserving the Heritage Listed Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance is not only important in ensuring the condition and physical of the old building to operate safely and effectively, but it also for an activity that is important in determining the life long of the building, so that it can be preserve and be inherit by the next generation. The need of maintenance is not only on repairing but more towards prevention method. According to the previous study, maintenance is done reactively; this further will cost serious problems in future. Therefore maintenance need good planning from the early stage and is followed with on-going implementation from time to time by all those who are responsible in it. In conjunction with this, this paper is to discuss about the importance of on-going maintenance in order to manage the old building after it has been gazette as heritage listed. At the end of the discussion, several strategies have been put forward in order to stimulate the practice of on-going maintenance as an initiative to encourage the culture of maintenance and also help to increase the quality process in a more effective maintenance management.

  20. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A Kyle; Heintz, Philip; Geiser, William; Goldman, Lee; Jerjian, Khachig; Martin, Melissa; Peck, Donald; Pfeiffer, Douglas; Ranger, Nicole; Yorkston, John

    2015-11-01

    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography.

  1. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. Kyle, E-mail: kyle.jones@mdanderson.org; Geiser, William [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Heintz, Philip [Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87104 (United States); Goldman, Lee [Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut 06102 (United States); Jerjian, Khachig [Hoag Memorial Hospital, Newport Beach, California 92658 (United States); Martin, Melissa [Therapy Physics, Inc., Gardena, California 90248 (United States); Peck, Donald [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Pfeiffer, Douglas [Boulder Community Foothills Hospital, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Ranger, Nicole [Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, Illinois 60425 (United States); Yorkston, John [Carestream Health, Inc., Rochester, New York 14615 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography.

  2. Determinants of epidemiologic transition in rural Africa: the role of socioeconomic status and drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelaer, Frouke M; Koopman, Jacob J E; van Bodegom, David; Eriksson, Ulrika K; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2014-06-01

    Many African countries experience a protracted epidemiologic transition, different from the classical transition in western societies. The factors driving this protracted transition are largely unknown. In northeast Ghana, we studied an ongoing epidemiologic transition and investigated the effects of socioeconomic status and drinking water source on the transition. During a 9-year period, we followed a cohort of almost 30 000 individuals and collected information on mortality and fertility rates. In addition, using the standards set out by the WHO, we obtained the causes of death by verbal autopsy. Individuals were stratified according to their socioeconomic status and the households' use of an improved or unimproved drinking water source. Mortality rates decreased by -5.0% annually (pfertility rates and child-women ratios decreased annually by -12.7% (pfertility depending on socioeconomic status or drinking water source. Factors other than socioeconomic status and drinking water source are responsible for the observed declines in mortality and fertility observed during the protracted epidemiologic transition. Identifying the specific determinants of the ongoing transition is of importance, as they could be targeted in order to further improve public health in rural African countries. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Metabolism and transport of tamoxifen in relation to its effectiveness: new perspectives on an ongoing controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P.; Damkier, Per; Lash, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    Tamoxifen reduces the rate of breast cancer recurrence by approximately a half. Tamoxifen is metabolized to more active metabolites by enzymes encoded by polymorphic genes, including cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Tamoxifen is a substrate for ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins. We review tamoxifen's clinical pharmacology and use meta-analyses to evaluate the clinical epidemiology studies conducted to date on the association between CYP2D6 inhibition and tamoxifen effectiveness. Our find...

  4. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-01-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  5. Core shifts in blazar jets

    CERN Document Server

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A; Pjanka, Patryk; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of core shift in jets, which is the dependence of the position of the jet radio core on the frequency. We derive a new method to measure the jet magnetic field based on both the value of the shift and the observed flux, which compliments the standard method assuming equipartition. Using both methods, we re-analyse the blazar sample of Zamaninasab et al. We find that equipartition is satisfied only if the jet opening angle in the radio core region is close to the values found observationally, $\\simeq$0.1--0.2 divided by the bulk Lorentz factor, $\\Gamma_{\\rm j}$. Larger values, e.g., $1/\\Gamma_{\\rm j}$, would imply very strong departures from equipartition. A small jet opening angle implies in turn the magnetization parameter of $\\ll 1$. We determine the jet magnetic flux taking this effect into account. We find that the average jet magnetic flux is compatible with the model of jet formation due to black-hole spin energy extraction and accretion being magnetically arrested. We calculate the ...

  6. Shift-invariant optical associative memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psaltis, D.; Hong, J.

    1987-01-01

    Shift invariance in the context of associative memories is discussed. Two optical systems that exhibit shift invariance are described in detail with attention given to the analysis of storage capacities. It is shown that full shift invariance cannot be achieved with systems that employ only linear interconnections to store the associations.

  7. Continuous-data FIFO bubble shift register

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T. T.

    1977-01-01

    Simple loop first-in-first-out (FIFO) bubble memory shift register has continuous storage capability. Bubble shift register simplifies chip-control electronics by enabling all control functions to be alined at same bit. FIFO shift register is constructed from passive replicator and annihilator combinations.

  8. Uniqueness and Zeros of -Shift Difference Polynomials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kai Liu; Xin-Ling Liu; Ting-Bin Cao

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the zero distributions of -shift difference polynomials of meromorphic functions with zero order, and obtain two theorems that extend the classical Hayman results on the zeros of differential polynomials to -shift difference polynomials. We also investigate the uniqueness problem of -shift difference polynomials that share a common value.

  9. PARADIGM SHIFT IN ISLAMIC STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1990s, there was a heated debate among students ofIAIN (the State Institute for Islamic Studies Sunan KalijagaYogyakarta about the future of Islamic studies, focusing on the possibilityof incorporating Thomas Kuhn’s paradigm to the discourse ofIslamic studies. Kuhn explains in detail the rise and decline of scientificparadigm in his classic work, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions,firstly published in 1970. Paradigm is defined as a set of beliefs thatguides the researchers to address some important problems or issuesunder a certain theoretical framework and provides procedures how tosolve those problems. A paradigm shift is a process whereby a newway of perceiving the world comes into existence and is accepted byscholars in a given time. Kuhn proposed two conditions for paradigmshift; first, the presence of anomalies in ‘normal science’, and secondly,the presence of alternative paradigm.

  10. Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle M; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Wrensch, Margaret R

    2016-01-01

    More than 250,000 new cases of primary malignant brain tumors are diagnosed annually worldwide, 77% of which are gliomas. A small proportion of gliomas are caused by the inheritance of rare high-penetrance genetic variants or high-dose radiation. Since 2009, inherited genetic variants in 10 regions near eight different genes have been consistently associated with glioma risk via genome-wide association studies. Most of these variants increase glioma risk by 20-40%, but two have higher relative risks. One on chromosome 8 increases risk of IDH-mutated gliomas sixfold and another that affects TP53 function confers a 2.5-fold increased risk of glioma. Functions of some of the other risk variants are known or suspected, but future research will determine functions of other risk loci. Recent progress also has been made in defining subgroups of glioma based on acquired alterations within tumors. Allergy history has been consistently associated with reduced glioma risk, though the mechanisms have not yet been clarified. Future studies will need to be large enough so that environmental and constitutive genetic risk factors can be examined within molecularly defined, etiologically homogeneous subgroups.

  11. Protein Structure Validation and Refinement Using Chemical Shifts Derived from Quantum Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bratholm, Lars Andersen

    to within 3 A. Furthermore, a fast quantum mechanics based chemical shift predictor was developed together with methodology for using chemical shifts in structure simulations. The developed predictor was used for renement of several protein structures and for reducing the computational cost of quantum...... mechanics / molecular mechanics (QM/MM) computations of chemical shieldings. Several improvements to the predictor is ongoing, where among other things, kernel based machine learning techniques have successfully been used to improve the quantum mechanical level of theory used in the predictions....... experimental data in the form of chemical shifts, as well as distance restraints obtained either experimentally or from sequence co-evolution. Of notable results, One of the determined structures, aKMT, was not solved experimentally at the time, but was found to match the recently published X-ray structure...

  12. Epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, and risk factors for renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Paglino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite only accounting for approximately 2% of all new primary cancer cases, renal cell carcinoma (RCC incidence has dramatically increased over time. Incidence rates vary greatly according to geographic areas, so that it is extremely likely that exogenous risk factors could play an important role in the development of this cancer. Several risk factors have been linked with RCC, including cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension (and antihypertensive drugs, chronic kidney diseases (also dialysis and transplantation, as well as the use of certain analgesics. Furthermore, although RCC has not generally been considered an occupational cancer, several types of occupationally-derived exposures have been implicated in its pathogenesis. These include exposure to asbestos, chlorinated solvents, gasoline, diesel exhaust fumes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, printing inks and dyes, cadmium and lead. Finally, families with a predisposition to the development of renal neoplasms were identified and the genes involved discovered and characterized. Therefore, there are now four well-characterized, genetically determined syndromes associated with an increased incidence of kidney tumors, i.e., Von Hippel Lindau (VHL, Hereditary Papillary Renal Carcinoma (HPRC, Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome (BHD, and Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC. This review will address present knowledge about the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and risk factors of RCC.

  13. News from the muonic helium lamb-shift experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diepold, Marc [Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics, Garching (Germany); Collaboration: The CREMA Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Our ongoing experiment located at Paul-Scherrer-Institute (Switzerland) recently succeeded to measure the 2S{sub 1/2}-2P{sub 3/2} transition in the muonic Helium-4-ion, and will continue to measure the remaining 2S-2P transitions in μ4He{sup +} and μ3He{sup +} later this summer. Due to its sensitivity to finite size effects, the Lamb-shift in muonic atoms is an excellent tool to determine nuclear rms charge radii, important input parameters in both nuclear models and atomic theory. With our result, we will be able to provide a ten times more accurate value for the absolute nuclear charge radius of the alpha particle, together with the respective 3He, 6He and 8He values that can be extracted via already measured isotope shifts. Furthermore, our data sheds interesting new light on the so-called ''proton size puzzle'', created by the 7-sigma discrepancy between the muonic hydrogen value of the proton radius and other experiments.

  14. Cardiovascular adaptations, fluid shifts, and countermeasures related to space flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R; Richardson, Sara

    2009-10-01

    Significant progress has been made related to understanding cardiovascular adaptations to microgravity and development of countermeasures to improve crew re-adaptation to gravity. The primary ongoing issues are orthostatic intolerance after flight, reduced exercise capacity, the effect of vascular-smooth muscle loss on other physiologic systems, development of efficient and low-cost countermeasures to counteract these losses, and an understanding of fluid shift mechanisms. Previous animal studies of cardiovascular adaptations offer evidence that prolonged microgravity remodels walls of blood vessels, which in turn, is important for deconditioning of the cardiovascular system and other functions of the body. Over the past 10 years, our studies have documented that treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure counteracts most physiologic decrements with bed rest in both women and men. Future studies should improve hardware and protocols to protect crew members during prolonged missions. Finally, it is proposed that transcapillary fluid shifts in microgravity may be related to the loss of tissue weight and external compression of blood vessels.

  15. Perceptual hysteresis in the judgment of auditory pitch shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Claire; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Perceptual hysteresis can be defined as the enduring influence of the recent past on current perception. Here, hysteresis was investigated in a basic auditory task: pitch comparisons between successive tones. On each trial, listeners were presented with pairs of tones and asked to report the direction of subjective pitch shift, as either "up" or "down." All tones were complexes known as Shepard tones (Shepard, 1964), which comprise several frequency components at octave multiples of a base frequency. The results showed that perceptual judgments were determined both by stimulus-related factors (the interval ratio between the base frequencies within a pair) and by recent context (the intervals in the two previous trials). When tones were presented in ordered sequences, for which the frequency interval between tones was varied in a progressive manner, strong hysteresis was found. In particular, ambiguous stimuli that led to equal probabilities of "up" and "down" responses within a randomized context were almost fully determined within an ordered context. Moreover, hysteresis did not act on the direction of the reported pitch shift, but rather on the perceptual representation of each tone. Thus, hysteresis could be observed within sequences in which listeners varied between "up" and "down" responses, enabling us to largely rule out confounds related to response bias. The strength of the perceptual hysteresis observed suggests that the ongoing context may have a substantial influence on fundamental aspects of auditory perception, such as how we perceive the changes in pitch between successive sounds.

  16. Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Hypoparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Bart L; Brown, Edward M; Collins, Michael T; Jüppner, Harald; Lakatos, Peter; Levine, Michael A; Mannstadt, Michael M; Bilezikian, John P; Romanischen, Anatoly F; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2016-06-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder characterized by hypocalcemia due to insufficient secretion of PTH. Pseudohypoparathyroidism is a less common disorder due to target organ resistance to PTH. This report summarizes the results of the findings and recommendations of the Working Group on Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Hypoparathyroidism. Each contributing author reviewed the recent published literature regarding epidemiology and diagnosis of hypoparathyroidism using PubMed and other medical literature search engines. The prevalence of hypoparathyroidism is an estimated 37 per 100 000 person-years in the United States and 22 per 100 000 person-years in Denmark. The incidence in Denmark is approximately 0.8 per 100 000 person-years. Estimates of prevalence and incidence of hypoparathyroidism are currently lacking in most other countries. Hypoparathyroidism increases the risk of renal insufficiency, kidney stones, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and intracerebral calcifications, but it does not appear to increase overall mortality, cardiovascular disease, fractures, or malignancy. The diagnosis depends upon accurate measurement of PTH by second- and third-generation assays. The most common etiology is postsurgical hypoparathyroidism, followed by autoimmune disorders and rarely genetic disorders. Even more rare are etiologies including parathyroid gland infiltration, external radiation treatment, and radioactive iodine therapy for thyroid disease. Differentiation between these different etiologies is aided by the clinical presentation, serum biochemistries, and in some cases, genetic testing. Hypoparathyroidism is often associated with complications and comorbidities. It is important for endocrinologists and other physicians who care for these patients to be aware of recent advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis, and genetics of this disorder.

  17. Understanding epidemiological transition in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Suryakant; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2014-01-01

    Background Omran's theory explains changing disease patterns over time predominantly from infectious to chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). India's epidemiological transition is characterized by dual burden of diseases. Kumar addressed low mortality and high morbidity in Kerala, which seems also to be true for India as a country in the current demographic scenario. Methods NSS data (1986–1987, 1995–1996, 2004) and aggregated data on causes of death provided by Registrar General India (RGI) were used to examine the structural changes in morbidity and causes of death. A zero-inflated poisson (ZIP) regression model and a beta-binomial model were used to corroborate the mounting age pattern of morbidity. Measures, namely the 25th and 75th percentiles of age-at-death and modal age-at-death, were used to examine the advances in mortality transition. Objective This study addressed the advances in epidemiological transition via exploring the structural changes in pattern of diseases and progress in mortality transition. Results The burden of NCDs has been increasing in old age without replacing the burden of communicable diseases. The manifold rise of chronic diseases in recent decades justifies the death toll and is responsible for transformation in the age pattern of morbidity. Over time, deaths have been concentrated near the modal age-at-death. Modal age-at-death increased linearly by 5 years for females (r2=0.9515) and males (r2=0.9020). Significant increase in modal age-at-death ascertained the dominance of old age mortality over the childhood/adult age mortality. Conclusions India experiences a dual burden of diseases associated with a remarkable transformation in the age pattern of morbidity and mortality, contemporaneous with structural changes in disease patterns. Continued progress in the pattern of diseases and mortality transition, accompanied by a linear rise in ex, unravels a compelling variation in advances found so far in epidemiological

  18. Attention and temporal expectations modulate power, not phase, of ongoing alpha oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Rosanne M; Cohen, Michael X; Denys, Damiaan; Mazaheri, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The perception of near-threshold visual stimuli has been shown to depend in part on the phase (i.e., time in the cycle) of ongoing alpha (8-13 Hz) oscillations in the visual cortex relative to the onset of that stimulus. However, it is currently unknown whether the phase of the ongoing alpha activity can be manipulated by top-down factors such as attention or expectancy. Using three variants of a cross-modal attention paradigm with constant predictable stimulus onsets, we examined if cues signaling to attend to either the visual or the auditory domain influenced the phase of alpha oscillations in the associated sensory cortices. Importantly, intermixed in all three experiments, we included trials without a target to estimate the phase at target presentation without contamination from the early evoked responses. For these blank trials, at the time of expected target and distractor onset, we examined (1) the degree of the uniformity in phase angles across trials, (2) differences in phase angle uniformity compared with a pretarget baseline, and (3) phase angle differences between visual and auditory target conditions. Across all three experiments, we found that, although the cues induced a modulation in alpha power in occipital electrodes, neither the visual condition nor the auditory cue condition induced any significant phase-locking across trials during expected target or distractor presentation. These results suggest that, although alpha power can be modulated by top-down factors such as attention and expectation, the phase of the ongoing alpha oscillation is not under such control.

  19. Epidemiology of Ciguatera in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Radke, Elizabeth G.; Reich, Andrew; Morris, John Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Ciguatera is the most commonly reported marine food-borne illness worldwide. Because there is a biological plausibility that ciguatera may be impacted by long-term climate variability and Florida is on the northern border of the geographic distribution of ciguatera, it is important to update our understanding of its epidemiology in Florida. We performed an analysis of 291 reports in Florida from 2000 to 2011 and an e-mail survey of 5,352 recreational fishers to estimate incidence and underrep...

  20. An introduction to mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Martcheva, Maia

    2015-01-01

    The book is a comprehensive, self-contained introduction to the mathematical modeling and analysis of infectious diseases. It includes model building, fitting to data, local and global analysis techniques. Various types of deterministic dynamical models are considered: ordinary differential equation models, delay-differential equation models, difference equation models, age-structured PDE models and diffusion models. It includes various techniques for the computation of the basic reproduction number as well as approaches to the epidemiological interpretation of the reproduction number. MATLAB code is included to facilitate the data fitting and the simulation with age-structured models.

  1. Epidemiology of recurrent venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a common disease that frequently recurs. Recurrence can be prevented by anticoagulants, but this comes at the risk of bleeding. Therefore, assessment of the risk of recurrence is important to balance the risks and benefits of anticoagulant treatment. This review briefly outlines what is currently known about the epidemiology of recurrent venous thrombosis, and focuses in more detail on potential new risk factors for venous recurrence. The general implications of these findings in patient management are discussed.

  2. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

  3. Epidemiological investigation of esophageal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhang; Shao-Hua Chen; You-Ming Li

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To review the characteristics of esophageal carcinoma in recent 30 years in the epidemiological investigation.METHODS: A total of 1 520 cases of esophageal carcinoma in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University Medical College admitted from 1970 until now were reviewed. Their age, gender, position of carcinoma and histological type were analyzed.RESULTS: The morbidity of esophageal carcinoma was increasing during the observation period. Compared with the 1970s (9.5%), the ratio of adenocarcinoma significantly increased after the 1980s (19.1%). The difference was significant (P≤0.05).CONCLUSION: The morbidity of esophageal adenocarcinoma was increasing and advanced clinical study should be strengthened.

  4. Epidemiology of Autoimmune Bullous Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Alpsoy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We have very limited knowledge about aotuimmune bullous disesases which are important causes of morbidity and mortality. They are generally rare disases in population. The yearly over all incidences of pemphigus and bullous pemhigoid are between 0.5 to 16.1/million and 2.5 to 42.8/million, respectively. Pemphigus vulgaris is the major type of pemphigus and it is most prevalent between ages of 40 and 50. Bullous pemphigoid is tpypically most prevalent in ages of over 70. In this review the results obtained from the studies which are especially about epidemiology of pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid were analised according to geographic regions.

  5. Loads and loads and loads: The influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of prospective load on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2, but not for specific targets (Experiment 1. Retrospective load and ongoing task load both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that prospective load can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. Retrospective load and ongoing task load seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  6. Interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical (BHE) borehole heat exchangers with predictive uncertainty based stopping criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Alberdi Pagola, Maria

    2015-01-01

    A method for real-time interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical borehole heat exchangers is presented. The method utilizes a statistically based stopping criterion for ongoing tests. The study finds minimum testing times for synthetic and actual TRTs to be in the interval 12–2...

  7. Interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical (BHE) borehole heat exchangers with predictive uncertainty based stopping criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Alberdi Pagola, Maria

    2015-01-01

    A method for real-time interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical borehole heat exchangers is presented. The method utilizes a statistically based stopping criterion for ongoing tests. The study finds minimum testing times for synthetic and actual TRTs to be in the interval 12–2...

  8. Integrative cancer epidemiology--the next generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Margaret R; Caporaso, Neil E; Sellers, Thomas A

    2012-12-01

    We outline an integrative approach to extend the boundaries of molecular cancer epidemiology by integrating modern and rapidly evolving "omics" technologies into state-of-the-art molecular epidemiology. In this way, one can comprehensively explore the mechanistic underpinnings of epidemiologic observations in cancer risk and outcome. We highlight the exciting opportunities to collaborate across large observational studies and to forge new interdisciplinary collaborative ventures.

  9. Genetic epidemiological study of schizophrenia: reproduction behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsner, M; Sherina, O; Ginath, Y

    1992-06-01

    Data from the Tomsk Epidemiological Register and epidemiological family sample were used to study the relationship between schizophrenics' reproductive behaviour (marital status and fertility rate), severity of ICD-9 schizophrenia and risk of illness among relatives of probands. The results are interpreted in terms of multifactorial threshold and single monolocus models. Their importance for the interpretation of epidemiological data (a change of prevalence rate, cohort effect and clinical polymorphism) is discussed.

  10. Integrative Cancer Epidemiology - The Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Margaret R.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Sellers, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We outline an integrative approach to extend the boundaries of molecular cancer epidemiology by integrating modern and rapidly evolving “omics” technologies into state-of-the-art molecular epidemiology. In this way, one can comprehensively explore the mechanistic underpinnings of epidemiologic observations into cancer risk and outcome. We highlight the exciting opportunities to collaborate across large observational studies and to forge new interdisciplinary collaborative ventures. PMID:23230187

  11. [Workshop on Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, B; Cabrera, L; Arias, C F

    1997-01-01

    A workshop on viral epidemiology was held on September 29, 1995 at the Medical School of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico. The aim of this workshop was to promote interaction among scientists working in viral epidemiology. Eighteen scientists from ten institutions presented their experiences and work. General aspects of the epidemiology of meaningful viral diseases in the country were discussed, and lectures presented on the rota, polio, respiratory syncytial, dengue, papiloma, rabies, VIH and hepatitis viruses.

  12. The contribution of ancestry, chance, and past and ongoing selection to adaptive evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitabh Joshi; Robinson B. Castillo; Laurence D. Mueller

    2003-12-01

    The relative contributions of ancestry, chance, and past and ongoing selection to variation in one adaptive (larval feeding rate) and one seemingly nonadaptive (pupation height) trait were determined in populations of Drosophila melanogaster adapting to either low or high larval densities in the laboratory. Larval feeding rates increased rapidly in response to high density, and the effects of ancestry, past selection and chance were ameliorated by ongoing selection within 15–20 generations. Similarly, in populations previously kept at high larval density, and then switched to low larval density, the decline of larval feeding rate to ancestral levels was rapid (15–20 generations) and complete, providing support for a previously stated hypothesis regarding the costs of faster feeding in Drosophila larvae. Variation among individuals was the major contributor to variation in pupation height, a trait that would superficially appear to be nonadaptive in the environmental context of the populations used in this study because it did not diverge between sets of populations kept at low versus high larval density for many generations. However, the degree of divergence among populations ($F_{\\text{ST}}$) for pupation height was significantly less than expected for a selectively neutral trait, and we integrate results from previous studies to suggest that the variation for pupation height among populations is constrained by stabilizing selection, with a flat, plateau-like fitness function that, consequently, allows for substantial phenotypic variation within populations. Our results support the view that the genetic imprints of history (ancestry and past selection) in outbreeding sexual populations are typically likely to be transient in the face of ongoing selection and recombination. The results also illustrate the heuristic point that different forms of selection—for example directional versus stabilizing selection—acting on a trait in different populations may

  13. Control of HIV-1 in Elite Suppressors despite Ongoing Replication and Evolution in Plasma Virus▿

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Karen A; Brennan, Timothy P.; Bailey, Justin R.; Ray, Stuart C.; Robert F. Siliciano; Blankson, Joel N.

    2010-01-01

    A subset of HIV-1-infected patients known as elite controllers or suppressors (ES) control the virus naturally. We have previously demonstrated sequence discordance between proviral and plasma gag clones in ES, much of which can be attributed to selective pressure from the host (J. R. Bailey, T. M. Williams, R. F. Siliciano, and J. N. Blankson, J. Exp. Med. 203:1357-1369, 2006). However, it is not clear whether ongoing viral replication continues in ES once the control of viremia has been est...

  14. Measuring data quality for ongoing improvement a data quality assessment framework

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian-Coleman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The Data Quality Assessment Framework shows you how to measure and monitor data quality, ensuring quality over time. You'll start with general concepts of measurement and work your way through a detailed framework of more than three dozen measurement types related to five objective dimensions of quality: completeness, timeliness, consistency, validity, and integrity. Ongoing measurement, rather than one time activities will help your organization reach a new level of data quality. This plain-language approach to measuring data can be understood by both business and IT and provides pra

  15. The impact of ongoing national terror on the community of hospital nurses in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Pnina; Shamai, Michal

    2014-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the connections between the exposure of nurses in Israel to national terror and the levels of distress experienced due to ongoing terror attacks. The data were collected from 214 nurses from various parts of Israel who work in three types of heath services (mainly hospital departments) and provide help to victims of terror. The nurses reported very high levels of burnout, high levels of stress and medium-to high levels of intrusive memories. Levels of exposure were associated with burnout, intrusive memories and level of stress. More professional attention should be given to hospital nurses who provide care for trauma patients.

  16. Superresolved phase-shifting Gabor holography by CCD shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, V.; Granero, L.; Zalevsky, Z.; García, J.

    2009-12-01

    Holography in the Gabor regime is restricted to weak diffraction assumptions. Otherwise, diffraction prevents an accurate recovery of the object's complex wavefront. We have recently proposed a modified Gabor-like setup to extend Gabor's concept to any sample provided that it be non-diffusive. However, the resolution of the final image becomes limited as a consequence of the additional elements considered in the proposed setup. In this paper we present an experimental approach to overcome such a limitation in which the former configuration is used while the CCD camera is shifted to different off-axis positions in order to generate a synthetic aperture. Thus, once the whole image set is recorded and digitally processed for each camera position, we merge the resulting band-pass images into one image by assembling a synthetic aperture. Finally, a superresolved image is recovered by Fourier transformation of the information contained in the generated synthetic aperture. Experimental results validate our concepts for a gain in resolution of close to 2.

  17. Dynamics and computation in functional shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikawa, Jun; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2004-07-01

    We introduce a new type of shift dynamics as an extended model of symbolic dynamics, and investigate the characteristics of shift spaces from the viewpoints of both dynamics and computation. This shift dynamics is called a functional shift, which is defined by a set of bi-infinite sequences of some functions on a set of symbols. To analyse the complexity of functional shifts, we measure them in terms of topological entropy, and locate their languages in the Chomsky hierarchy. Through this study, we argue that considering functional shifts from the viewpoints of both dynamics and computation gives us opposite results about the complexity of systems. We also describe a new class of shift spaces whose languages are not recursively enumerable.

  18. Susceptibility of pollinators to ongoing landscape changes depends on landscape history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre-Gutiérrez, J.; Biesmeijer, J.C.; van Loon, E.E.; Reemer, M.; WallisDeVries, M.F.; Carvalheiro, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Pollinators play an important role in ecosystem functioning, affecting also crop production. Their decline may hence lead to serious ecological and economic impacts, making it essential to understand the processes that drive pollinator shifts in space and time. Land-use changes are thought to be

  19. Promoting Leadership in the Ongoing Professional Development of Teachers: Responding to Globalization and Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, David E.; Furey, Edith; Penney, Sharon C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the need for innovative leadership in teacher education in the Canadian context, with a particular call for renewed professional development of current teachers. Within a country defined as multicultural, recent demographic shifts, interregional migration, growing ethnic diversity, and the emergence of a paradigm of inclusion,…

  20. Modernising Dutch Heritage Conservation: Current Progress and Ongoing Challenges for Heritage-Based Planning and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, Dutch heritage conservation shifted from a preservationist and object-focused to an area-based and development-oriented activity. Today's heritage management looks not only at the monument itself, but at its spatial context. The Belvedere Memorandum in 1999 has played a key ro

  1. Why victimology should stay positive: The ongoing need for positive victimology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronel Natti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the need for positive victimology and its unique contribution to victimology. Victimology presented a shift in attention and awareness in practice, research and theory, by focusing on victims of crime and of abuse of power, and on victims’ rights and victims’ services. Positive victimology indicates a more specified shift in attention and awareness, within the larger shift of victimology. This shift stands in line with positive psychology, positive criminology and the idea of victims’ victimology. It denotes an approach to provide the following, as much as possible: 1. A wide range of social responses to the victims and their victimization that victims can experience as positive, 2. Positive outcomes of healing and recovery for victims, and 3. Positive integration of victims. Within each of those, positive victimology suggests a pragmatic coordinated system that ranges from definitions of negative poles to those of positive ones. When moving towards the positive pole at any given coordinate, a sense of justice is an important factor that might reduce the impact of the harm. Support is also a crucial factor and at the very positive pole, stands human, inter-personal love.

  2. Genetics and epidemiology, congenital anomalies and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, J.M. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    1997-03-01

    Many of the basic statistical methods used in epidemiology - regression, analysis of variance, and estimation of relative risk, for example - originally were developed for the genetic analysis of biometric data. The familiarity that many geneticists have with this methodology has helped geneticists to understand and accept genetic epidemiology as a scientific discipline. It worth noting, however, that most of the work in genetic epidemiology during the past decade has been devoted to linkage and other family studies, rather than to population-based investigations of the type that characterize much of mainstream epidemiology. 30 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Causation and prediction in epidemiology: a guide to the "methodological revolution".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Alex

    2015-12-01

    There is an ongoing "methodological revolution" in epidemiology, according to some commentators. The revolution is prompted by the development of a conceptual framework for thinking about causation here referred to as the Potential Outcomes Approach (POA), and the mathematical apparatus of directed acyclic graphs that accompanies it. But over and above the mathematics, a number of striking theses about causation are evident, for example: that a cause is something that makes a difference; that a cause is something that humans can intervene on; and that causal knowledge enables one to predict under hypothetical suppositions. This is especially remarkable in a discipline that has variously identified factors such as race and sex as determinants of health, since it has the consequence that factors of this kind cannot be treated as causes either as usefully or as meaningfully as was previously supposed. In this paper I seek to explain the significance of this movement in epidemiology, to understand its commitments, and to evaluate them.

  4. Environmental Pollution Effects on Reproductive Health – Clinical-Epidemiological Study in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, M.L.; Zullo, F.; De Felice, B.; Nappi, L.; Guida, M.; Trifuoggi, M.; Nappi, C.; Di Spiezio Sardo, A.; Zizolfi, B.; Capece, G.; Visconti, F.; Troisi, J.; Ciccone, C.; Guida, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to address the clinical, statistical and Epidemiological Relationship Between Birth Defects and Environmental Pollution, in the Campania Region and in Salerno. Objectives: We examined four groups of subjects as follows: a sample of pregnant women living in Salerno, a sample of pregnant women living in highly polluted areas, a sample of controls, pregnant women and residents out of the Campania Region, considered in unpolluted areas (Foggia) and in the Salerno area. Methodologies: a toxicological and genetic analysis was conducted on patients examined. Conclusions: there is an epidemiological link between environmental pollution and reproductive health in the Salerno area. Experimentally there are the first evidences of endocrine disruptors by the PCB. It has been inferred an overexpression of the mir-191 as a marker of pollution by dioxin-like compounds. Socially, correct information of populations at risk is necessary and a possible preventive and ongoing medical care must be ensured. PMID:23905062

  5. A NEW ALGORITHM FOR ELIMINATING PHASE-SHIFT ERROR IN PHASE SHIFTING INTERFEROMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The effect of phase-shift error in phase shifting interferometry is investigated. A new algorithm with two sets of 4 samples for eliminating phase-shift error is presented. The computer simulation and experiment result show that the phase-shift offset should be π when the algorithm is used, and this algorithm has gotten better result than the original 4-sample algorithm.

  6. Shift work disorder in nurses--assessment, prevalence and related health problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Flo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study investigates the prevalence of symptoms of shift work disorder in a sample of nurses, and its association to individual, health and work variables. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated three different shift work disorder assessment procedures all based on current diagnostic criteria and employing symptom based questions. Crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed with symptoms of shift work disorder as the dependent variable. Participants (n = 1968 reported age, gender, work schedule, commuting time, weekly work hours, children in household, number of nights and number of shifts separated by less than 11 hours worked the last year, use of bright light therapy, melatonin and sleep medication, and completed the Bergen Insomnia Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Global Sleep Assessment Questionnaire, Diurnal Scale, Revised Circadian Type Inventory, Dispositional Resilience (Hardiness Scale--Revised, Fatigue Questionnaire, questions about alcohol and caffeine consumption, as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Prevalence rates of symptoms of shift work disorder varied from 32.4-37.6% depending on the assessment method and from 4.8-44.3% depending on the work schedule. Associations were found between symptoms of shift work disorder and age, gender, circadian type, night work, number of shifts separated by less than 11 hours and number of nights worked the last year, insomnia and anxiety. The different assessment procedures yielded similar results (prevalence and logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of symptoms indicative of shift work disorder was high. We argue that three symptom-based questions used in the present study adequately assess shift work disorder in epidemiological studies.

  7. Rationale and design of the Japan molecular epidemiology for lung cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Ando, Masahiko; Ito, Norimasa; Isa, Shun-Ichi; Tamiya, Akihiro; Shimizu, Shigeki; Saka, Hideo; Kubo, Akihito; Koh, Yasuhiro; Matsumura, Akihide

    2013-09-01

    We present the rationale for the Japan Molecular Epidemiology for Lung Cancer study designed to elucidate molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in smokers and never-smokers with non-small-cell lung cancer. This prospective, ongoing, multicenter study is being conducted nationwide in Japan. Although there is no doubt that active smoking is the major cause of lung cancer, the contribution of other possible factors, including environmental tobacco or wood smoke, human papilloma virus, radon, occupational exposures, and genetic susceptibility, is highly likely, based on studies of never-smokers with non-small-cell lung cancer. Because of the predominance of women in the never-smoker subgroup, the role of female hormones in lung cancer development has also been considered. We hypothesize that driver mutations, which are critical for the development of lung cancer, are triggered by the environmental factors with or without the influence of the hormone. The SWOG-led intergroup molecular epidemiology study S0424 was conducted to focus on these issues by using a detailed questionnaire and specimen collection in statistically significant cohorts of smokers and never-smokers from both sexes. The Japan Molecular Epidemiology for Lung Cancer study follows and extends the S0424 molecular epidemiology concept in principle by using a similar approach that will facilitate future comparisons between the studies but with a greater focus on more recently defined driver mutations and broad genomic sequencing.

  8. Metabolomic Approaches in Cancer Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Verma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics is the study of low molecular weight molecules or metabolites produced within cells and biological systems. It involves technologies such as mass spectrometry (MS and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR that can measure hundreds of thousands of unique chemical entities (UCEs. The metabolome provides one of the most accurate reflections of cellular activity at the functional level and can be leveraged to discern mechanistic information during normal and disease states. The advantages of metabolomics over other “omics” include its high sensitivity and ability to enable the analysis of relatively few metabolites compared with the number of genes and messenger RNAs (mRNAs. In clinical samples, metabolites are more stable than proteins or RNA. In fact, metabolomic profiling in basic, epidemiologic, clinical, and translational studies has revealed potential new biomarkers of disease and therapeutic outcome and has led to a novel mechanistic understanding of pathogenesis. These potential biomarkers include novel metabolites associated with cancer initiation, regression, and recurrence. Unlike genomics or even proteomics, however, the degree of metabolite complexity and heterogeneity within biological systems presents unique challenges that require specialized skills and resources to overcome. This article discusses epidemiologic studies of altered metabolite profiles in several cancers as well as challenges in the field and potential approaches to overcoming them.

  9. en epidemiología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. Diez Roux

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La epidemiología sociocultural se caracteriza por la integración de procesos sociales, culturales, económicos y políticos con procesos biológicos en el estudio de los determinantes de la salud. Por definición, esto implica la consideración de determinantes especificados a múltiples niveles, desde los genes hasta las características de la sociedad en su totalidad. En este artículo se analizan diversos problemas metodológicos que surgen en epidemiología (y en las ciencias sociales en general por la presencia de múltiples niveles de organización que pueden ser relevantes para entender las causas de la salud y la enfermedad. Se subraya la necesidad de investigar conjuntamente (o de integrar determinantes de la salud definidos a distintos niveles. El artículo concluye con un examen de las implicaciones de la presencia de múltiples niveles para el estudio de los determinantes sociales o culturales de la salud.

  10. Epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecco Marco Aurélio Sertório

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work an epidemiological analysis on tibial shaft fractures was performed. During four years, our service treated 179 fractures, 132 in male, 47 in female, aged 14 to 83 years. The 21 to 30-year-old patiens were the more injured. Of these, 120 were open and 59 close fractures of which prevailing cause was road traffic accident. The study based on patients promptuaries analyses and radiographs. The fractures occurred 97 times in the middle third (54.18%; 102 times (56.98% presented simple fragments, and 57 (31.38% oblique lines. We treated close and open fractures, respectively, 48 and 38 cases with plaster cast immobilization; 3 and 67 with external fixation after plaster cast immobilization; 5 and 12 with osteosynthesis by means of plate and screws, and 2 and 3 with external fixation only. In both close and open fractures, respectively, 7 and 20 cases of pseudarthrosis and 1 and 11 of infections have occurred. With the data obtained we verified an actual validity of the epidemiological studies as a contribution for better identifying lesions features and their treatment and complications. This allows proceedings and apprenticeship refinement.

  11. [Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesmilo, Gemma

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain does not differ from that reported in other published series. Prevalence rate is approximately 60 cases per million, peak incidence occurs in middle age, more women are affected (61%), and there is a substantial delay between occurrence of the first symptoms and diagnosis. Studies REA (Spanish Acromegaly Registry) and OASIS analyzed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of the disease in Spain. Surgery, performed in more than 80% of patients, has been (and continues to be) the main treatment for the past four decades. In the past decade, however, more patients have received somatostatin analogs (SSAs) as first-line treatment. Use of radiation therapy has significantly decreased in recent decades. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are the most commonly used drugs, administered to 85% of patients; however, only 12%-15% continue on drug treatment alone. The surgical remission rate was 38.4% in the last decade, with a significant improvement over decades. Preoperative treatment with SSAs has no influence on surgical cure rates. Second-line therapies used after surgical failure in the past decade included SSAs in 49% of patients, repeat surgery in 27%, radiotherapy in 11%, pegvisomant in 15%, and dopamine agonists in 5%. Mean cost of acromegaly treatment was 9.668€ (data estimated in 2009 and adjusted in 2010), of which 71% was due to the cost of SSAs. Patients treated with pegvisomant have a more aggressive form of the disease and higher comorbidity rates.

  12. Epidemiology of childhood food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Ashley A; Gupta, Ruchi

    2013-06-01

    Food allergy is a public health problem that affects nearly 6 million children in the United States. The extent to which children, families, and communities live with food allergies varies as much as the range of clinical symptoms associated with the disease itself. Food allergy is defined as the reproducible adverse event that elicits a pathologic immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated or non-IgE-mediated reaction. Once an allergic child ingests a specific food allergen, the reaction can result in clinical symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis.Not surprisingly, food allergies have been shown to limit social interactions and impair children's quality of life due to the ubiquity of food where children live, learn, and play. To ensure the safety of our children, the development of sound policy, clinical practice, and health programs must be informed by current research characterizing childhood food allergy at the population level. To set the stage for understanding the current evidence base, this article reviews: 1) epidemiology of childhood food allergy; 2) severity of symptoms; 3) geographic distribution of childhood food allergy; 4) tolerance; 5) economic impact of childhood food allergy; and 6) future directions in childhood food allergy epidemiological research.

  13. Epidemiology: second-rate science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, M

    1998-01-01

    In recent years epidemiology has come under increasing criticism in regulatory and public arenas for being "unscientific." The tobacco industry has taken advantage of this, insisting for decades that evidence linking cigarettes and lung cancer falls short of proof. Moreover, many epidemiologists remain unduly skeptical and self-conscious about the status of their own causal claims. This situation persists in part because of a widespread belief that only the laboratory can provide evidence sufficient for scientific proof. Adherents of this view erroneously believe that there is no element of uncertainty or inductive inference in the "direct observation" of the laboratory researcher and that epidemiology provides mere "circumstantial" evidence. The historical roots of this attitude can be traced to philosopher John Stuart Mill and physiologist Claude Bernard and their influence on modern experimental thinking. The author uses the debate over cigarettes and lung cancer to examine ideas of proof in medical science and public health, concluding that inductive inference from a limited sample to a larger population is an element in all empirical science.

  14. The dynamics of tuberculosis epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Hans L

    2014-01-01

    A conceptual framework to study the epidemiologic basis of tuberculosis control is provided. The basic model to discuss the epidemiology of tuberculosis is based on a classification of tuberculosis based on its pathogenesis with exposure, latent infection, tuberculosis, and death from tuberculosis, showing the conditional probabilities leading from one to the next step in the chain of events. Historical data are utilized to demonstrate how the dynamics of tuberculosis over multiple decades have contributed to shape the present. It is shown that the key concept to understand the dynamics is related to current and past incidence and prevalence of latent infection with M. tuberculosis. The dynamics of the epidemic are shaped both by the behaviour of the causative organism of tuberculosis as well as the population structure and changes that take place in parallel in which M. tuberculosis thrives. Both the present and the future shape of the epidemic, as well as the principles applied to its control lie very much in the past of a society. While new risk factors such as HIV or diabetes have been or are emerging more strongly, it is noted that the majority of all new cases emerging cannot be pinned to one or the other such factor. It is the historical experience of a population that offers the most valuable key to understanding the present and the future.

  15. Equality in Healthcare: The Formation and Ongoing Legacy of an LGBT Advisory Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, William; Fullerton, Chelsea; Keller, Ronald

    2015-12-01

    This article provides a broad overview of the literature on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) health disparities and workplace discrimination, as well as the context that led to the formation of an institutional LGBT Advisory Council. The Council was developed in order to demonstrate our ongoing commitment to LGBT inclusion and to improve the lived experiences for both LGBT patients and staff. A retrospective approach is utilized to explore the LGBT Advisory Council's journey to spearhead advocacy efforts at our institution. The Council's accomplishments include taking a leadership role in obtaining nationally recognized designations such as the Healthcare Equality Index and the Magnet Exemplar for Cultural Sensitivity, as well as adding sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression fields to our institution's electronic medical record system. Additionally, the Council guides and promotes ongoing house-wide cultural sensitivity staff training efforts. Most recently, the Council marched as a contingency in the world's largest Pride March for the first time in institutional history. It is our hope that our Council will become an inspiration and exemplar for similar groups to form at healthcare institutions and organizations across the nation. Allowing LGBT members of each individual healthcare community the agency to determine the direction of advocacy efforts is incredibly important; however, this must be coupled with an organizational commitment on behalf of leadership to follow through on these initiatives and to provide them with the resources they need in order to be successful.

  16. 4-D noise-based seismology at volcanoes: Ongoing efforts and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenguier, Florent; Rivet, Diane; Obermann, Anne; Nakata, Nori; Boué, Pierre; Lecocq, Thomas; Campillo, Michel; Shapiro, Nikolai

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring magma pressure buildup at depth and transport to surface is a key point for improving volcanic eruption prediction. Seismic waves, through their velocity dependence to stress perturbations, can provide crucial information on the temporal evolution of the mechanical properties of volcanic edifices. In this article, we review past and ongoing efforts for extracting accurate information of temporal changes of seismic velocities at volcanoes continuously in time using records of ambient seismic noise. We will first introduce the general methodology for retrieving accurate seismic velocity changes from seismic noise records and discuss the origin of seismic velocity temporal changes in rocks. We will then discuss in a second part how noise-based monitoring can improve our knowledge about magmatic activity at a long (years) to a short (days) time scale taking example from Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion). We will also mention ongoing efforts for operational noise-based seismic monitoring on volcanoes. Further, we will discuss perspectives for improving the spatial localization of detected velocity changes at depth with a special focus on the use of dense seismic arrays. In the last part, we will finally explore the complex response of volcanic regions to seismic shaking with an example from Japan and show how imaging seismic velocity susceptibility allows characterizing the state of pressurized fluids in volcanic regions.

  17. Epilepsy, scuba diving and risk assessment. Near misses and the need for ongoing vigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Lippmann, John

    2013-03-01

    There is ongoing debate about the safety of scuba diving for individuals with a history of epilepsy. An in-water seizure is highly likely to be fatal. Recommendations for fitness to dive vary with some regarding epilepsy as an absolute contraindication to diving (South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society) and others permitting diving under strict criteria (United Kingdom Sport Diving Medical Committee) with diving to be postponed for a period of three to five years without seizures. Long-term follow up of people with epilepsy shows that at least one-third will have a recurrence and that the risk remains elevated for many years. We present three cases where individuals with a history of epilepsy (or likely epilepsy) almost fell through the cracks of health risk assessment, two with near-fatal consequences. These cases inform the on-going debate about fitness to dive for those with current or past epilepsy, and highlight the importance of education for doctors, dive professionals and divers about the risks associated with epilepsy and diving.

  18. Microglial cystatin F expression is a sensitive indicator for ongoing demyelination with concurrent remyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianmei; Tanaka, Kenji F; Shimizu, Takahiro; Bernard, Claude C A; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Pfeiffer, Steven E; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro

    2011-05-01

    Demyelination coincides with numerous changes of gene expression in the central nervous system (CNS). Cystatin F, which is a papain-like lysosomal cysteine proteinase inhibitor that is normally expressed by immune cells and not in the brain, is massively induced in the CNS during acute demyelination. We found that microglia, which are monocyte/macrophage-lineage cells in the CNS, express cystatin F only during demyelination. By using several demyelinating animal models and the spinal cord tissues from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, we examined spatiotemporal expression pattern of cystatin F by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. We found that the timing of cystatin F induction matches with ongoing demyelination, and the places with cystatin F expression overlapped with the remyelinating area. Most interestingly, cystatin F induction ceased in chronic demyelination, in which remyelinating ability was lost. These findings demonstrate that the expression of cystatin F indicates the occurrence of ongoing demyelination/remyelination and the absence of cystatin F expression indicates the cessation of remyelination in the demyelinating area.

  19. The CCL-K11 ongoing key comparison. Final report for the year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, Michael; Gavalyugov, Veselin; Tamakyarska, Denita; Alqahtani, Nasser; Alfohaid, Mohammad; Moona, Girija; Sharma, Rina; Hapiddin, Asep; Mohamad Boynawan, Ahmad; Ranusawud, Monludee; Tonmueanwai, Anusorn; Hong, Feng-Lei; Ishikawa, Jun; Robertsson, Lennart

    2017-01-01

    Lasers from four national metrological institutes (NMIs) were compared in 2014 as part of the CCL-K11 ongoing key comparison, initiated by the 13th meeting of the Comité Consultative des Longuers (CCL) in 2007. The absolute frequency of R(127) 11-5 transitions of molecular iodine was measured for these lasers following the technical protocol for CCL-K11. The results of these measurements are compiled in the present report. The comparison reports, as communicated by each participant, are included as appendices. This document constitutes the sixth final report for the ongoing key comparison CCL-K11. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. Pulsed Out of Awareness: EEG Alpha oscillations represent a pulsed inhibition of ongoing cortical processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Elliott Mathewson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Alpha oscillations are ubiquitous in the brain, but their role in cortical processing remains a matter of debate. Recently, evidence has begun to accumulate in support of a role for alpha oscillations in attention selection and control. Here we first review evidence that 8-12 Hz oscillations in the brain have a general inhibitory role in cognitive processing, with an emphasis on their role in visual processing. Then, we summarize the evidence in support of our recent proposal that alpha represents a pulsed inhibition of ongoing neural activity. The phase of the ongoing EEG can influence evoked activity and subsequent processing, and we propose that alpha exerts its inhibitory role through alternating microstates of inhibition and excitation. Finally, we discuss evidence that this pulsed inhibition can be entrained to rhythmic stimuli in the environment, such that preferential processing occurs for stimuli at predictable moments. The entrainment of preferential phase may provide a mechanism for temporal attention in the brain. This pulsed inhibitory account of alpha has important implications for many common cognitive phenomena, such as the attentional blink, and seems to indicate that our visual experience may at least some times be coming through in waves.

  1. Tipping Points and the Accommodation of the Abuser: Ongoing Incestuous Abuse during Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick Middleton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Until recently the widespread reality of ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood had attracted no systematic research. The scientific literature was limited to the occasional case study and brief anecdotal references. This minimal literature was supplemented by biographical works written by or about victims of this form of abuse, and by press reports. With the advent of the Josef Fritzl case there was a very marked increase in the press reporting of such abuse, which in turn provided a reference point for more fine-grained data collection and scientific reporting. This paper introduces the subject of prolonged incest via the lens of organised abuse, summarises research on incestuous abuse and draws on multiple clinical examples to elucidate the mechanisms by which such abuse merges with, or develops into, variations of organised abuse, including that centred on the family, on prostitution, or on that involving abuse networks. The abuse practices, the net-working, and the ploys used to avoid prosecution practiced by the father perpetrating ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood have much in common with other variants of organised sexual abuse.

  2. An ongoing collaborative teacher training through action research. A way of changing classroom practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl A. Barba-Martín

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing education training for teachers can be done through different models that could only report or also accompany the process of implementing innovations. The training through reflection processes is presented as essential to make changes in the classroom; also, if it is done collectively with other teachers or between centers, transformations will not only occur in the classroom, but in the whole context. One way leading to a collaborative ongoing education is through action research groups, considering a set of ethical practices whose characteristics allow participants to be trained according to their needs, and through support with other teachers, in order to transform the context. The research we present here is framed in a Teaching Innovation Project, University of Valladolid, through which teachers from three schools that have been trained in inclusive education through action research implementing in their classrooms interactive groups. This collaborative process played by teachers themselves has changed the thinking of teachers, their classroom and their educational contexts in which they work.

  3. The New Epidemiology--A Challenge to Health Administration. Issues in Epidemiology for Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Anne, Ed.; Neuhauser, Duncan, Ed.

    The role of epidemiology in health administration is considered in 11 articles, and three course descriptions and a bibliography are provided. Titles and authors include the following: "The Need for Creative Managerial Epidemiology" (Gary L. Filerman); "The Growing Role of Epidemiology in Health Administration" (Maureen M.…

  4. Shifting boundaries in professional care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, A; Solomon, J; Abelson, J

    1996-07-01

    The nature of the work undertaken by different health professionals and inter-professional boundaries are constantly shifting. The greater knowledge of users of health care, and the increasing technical and organizational complexity of modern medicine, have partly eroded the control of health professionals over the substance of their work. The definition of a field of work as lying within the province of any one profession is culturally rather than scientifically determined. It is evident that care of good quality should be delivered at the lowest possible cost. This might include delivery of care by a less trained person than heretofore, or by someone with limited but focused training. Sharing of skills is a more sensible subject for discussion than transfer of tasks. We review a number of studies which show the effectiveness of inter-professional substitution in various care settings, and also the effectiveness of substitution by those other than health professionals. The views of users of health services on inter-professional substitution need to be considered. Health professionals and others need to work together to devise innovative ways of delivering effective health care. The legal issues need clarification.

  5. Core shift effect in blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, A.; Mohan, P.; Gupta, Alok C.; Mangalam, A.; Volvach, A. E.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Gu, M. F.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Volvach, L. N.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the pc-scale core shift effect using radio light curves for three blazars, S5 0716+714, 3C 279 and BL Lacertae, which were monitored at five frequencies (ν) between 4.8 and 36.8 GHz using the University of Michigan Radio Astronomical Observatory (UMRAO), the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) and Metsähovi Radio Observatory for over 40 yr. Flares were Gaussian fitted to derive time delays between observed frequencies for each flare (Δt), peak amplitude (A) and their half width. Using A ∝ να, we infer α in the range of -16.67-2.41 and using Δ t ∝ ν ^{1/k_r}, we infer kr ∼ 1, employed in the context of equipartition between magnetic and kinetic energy density for parameter estimation. From the estimated core position offset (Ωrν) and the core radius (rcore), we infer that opacity model may not be valid in all cases. The mean magnetic field strengths at 1 pc (B1) and at the core (Bcore) are in agreement with previous estimates. We apply the magnetically arrested disc model to estimate black hole spins in the range of 0.15-0.9 for these blazars, indicating that the model is consistent with expected accretion mode in such sources. The power-law-shaped power spectral density has slopes -1.3 to -2.3 and is interpreted in terms of multiple shocks or magnetic instabilities.

  6. The spirit of St Louis: the contributions of Lee N. Robins to North American psychiatric epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Nancy D

    2014-08-01

    This article takes up the history of North American psychiatric epidemiology with reference to production of knowledge concerning sociopathic or antisocial personality disorder and drug dependence, abuse, and/or addiction. These overlapping arenas provide a microcosm within which to explore the larger shift of postwar psychiatric epidemiology from community studies based on psychological scales to studies based on specific diagnostic criteria. This paper places the figure of sociologist Lee Nelken Robins within the context of the Department of Psychiatry in the School of Medicine at Washington University in St Louis, Missouri. The St Louis research group--to which Robins was both marginal and central--developed the basis for specific diagnostic criteria and was joined by Robert Spitzer, Jean Endicott and other architects of DSM-III in reorienting American psychiatry towards medical, biological and epidemiological models. Robins was a key linchpin working at the nexus of the psychiatric epidemiological and sociological drug addiction research networks. This article situates her work within the broader set of societal and governmental transformations leading to the technologically sophisticated turn in American psychiatric epidemiology and research on the aetiology of drug abuse and mental health and illness.

  7. Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Peeters (Wouter); R. van den Brande (Ruben); S. Polinder (Suzanne); A. Brazinova (Alexandra); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); A.I.R. Maas (Andrew)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a critical public health and socio-economic problem throughout the world, making epidemiological monitoring of incidence, prevalence and outcome of TBI necessary. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in Europe and to

  8. Neuropathic pain: epidemiology, risk factors and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kamerman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain: epidemiology, risk factors and prevention. Presented in a teaching workshop at the 22nd World Congress of Neurology, Santiago, Chile, 2015 (Workshop title: Neuropathic pain - advice for clinical practice; chair: AL Oaklander, USA).The presentation covers the epidemiology of neuropathic pain.

  9. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, T.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy. Epidemiology This thesis shows that the prevalence of self-reported adverse food reactions in children and adults was high: 17-25% for all foods and 10-11% for 24 preselected, so-called priority foods. The prevalence o

  10. Pneumatic, PLC Controlled, Automotive Gear Shifting Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntaser Momani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a gear shifting mechanism was designed and applied to make the shifting process faster and less destructible for the driver. The new device must be reliable, has a small dimensions, low construction and maintenance cost. This paper aims to improve gear shifting process using devices as: a manual four speed gear box, four pneumatic double acting cylinders, four pneumatic two position five ways directional control valves, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC LOGO unit, an electrical motor, an electrical clutch, a belt, two pulleys, limit switches, push buttons, bulbs, a table (holder and power supply. According to suggested gear_ shifting method the driver can select the transmission gear ratio without moving his hands from the steering wheel by putting the gear shifting push buttons on the steering wheel. Using this method leaves to the driver the excitement of choosing the shifting moment.

  11. Comparative genomics of eukaryotic small nucleolar RNAs reveals deep evolutionary ancestry amidst ongoing intragenomic mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoeppner Marc P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small nucleolar (snoRNAs are required for posttranscriptional processing and modification of ribosomal, spliceosomal and messenger RNAs. Their presence in both eukaryotes and archaea indicates that snoRNAs are evolutionarily ancient. The location of some snoRNAs within the introns of ribosomal protein genes has been suggested to belie an RNA world origin, with the exons of the earliest protein-coding genes having evolved around snoRNAs after the advent of templated protein synthesis. Alternatively, this intronic location may reflect more recent selection for coexpression of snoRNAs and ribosomal components, ensuring rRNA modification by snoRNAs during ribosome synthesis. To gain insight into the evolutionary origins of this genetic organization, we examined the antiquity of snoRNA families and the stability of their genomic location across 44 eukaryote genomes. Results We report that dozens of snoRNA families are traceable to the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA, but find only weak similarities between the oldest eukaryotic snoRNAs and archaeal snoRNA-like genes. Moreover, many of these LECA snoRNAs are located within the introns of host genes independently traceable to the LECA. Comparative genomic analyses reveal the intronic location of LECA snoRNAs is not ancestral however, suggesting the pattern we observe is the result of ongoing intragenomic mobility. Analysis of human transcriptome data indicates that the primary requirement for hosting intronic snoRNAs is a broad expression profile. Consistent with ongoing mobility across broadly-expressed genes, we report a case of recent migration of a non-LECA snoRNA from the intron of a ubiquitously expressed non-LECA host gene into the introns of two LECA genes during the evolution of primates. Conclusions Our analyses show that snoRNAs were a well-established family of RNAs at the time when eukaryotes began to diversify. While many are intronic, this association is not

  12. Ongoing change of site conditions important for sustainable forest management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidló, András; Horváth, Adrienn; Gulyás, Krisztina; Gálos, Borbála

    2016-04-01

    Observed tree mortality of the last decades has shown that the vulnerable forest ecosystems are especially affected by the recurrent, long lasting droughts, heat waves and their consequences. From all site conditions climate is changing the fastest, in this way it can be the largest threatening factor in the 21st century. Beyond climate, soil characteristics are playing an important influencing role. Until now, silvicultural technologies and species preferences of many countries are prescribed by binding regulation based on climate conditions that are assumed to be constant over time. Therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the ongoing and projected change of site conditions that are considered to be of primary importance in terms of tree species selection. For a case study region in Hungary (Keszthely Mountains, near to Lake Balaton) long-term climate tendencies have been determined for the period 1961-2100, as well as a detailed soil sample analysis has been carried out including ~100 sites. Results show a 0.5 degree increase of temperature and a 6-7 % decrease of the precipitation amount for the summer months in the last decades. For the future, significant warming and drying of summers is expected. Decrease of the summer precipitation sum can exceed 25 % until the end of the century, probability of extreme hot days may increase. These tendencies together with the unfavourable soil conditions and biotic damages can be the reason of the ongoing forest dieback. One of the characteristic soil type of the region is rendzina with a thin topsoil layer and an unfavourable water holding capacity. These properties are limiting the amount of available water for plants, especially in case of intense precipitation events. Black pine stands planted on rendzinas after many years of grazing; therefore erosion may have played a significant role. Not only microclimate conditions but also soil types show a large diversity within a relatively small distance. However

  13. Empirical isotropic chemical shift surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czinki, Eszter; Csaszar, Attila G. [Eoetvoes University, Laboratory of Molecular Spectroscopy, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary)], E-mail: csaszar@chem.elte.hu

    2007-08-15

    A list of proteins is given for which spatial structures, with a resolution better than 2.5 A, are known from entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and isotropic chemical shift (ICS) values are known from the RefDB database related to the Biological Magnetic Resonance Bank (BMRB) database. The structures chosen provide, with unknown uncertainties, dihedral angles {phi} and {psi} characterizing the backbone structure of the residues. The joint use of experimental ICSs of the same residues within the proteins, again with mostly unknown uncertainties, and ab initio ICS({phi},{psi}) surfaces obtained for the model peptides For-(l-Ala){sub n}-NH{sub 2}, with n = 1, 3, and 5, resulted in so-called empirical ICS({phi},{psi}) surfaces for all major nuclei of the 20 naturally occurring {alpha}-amino acids. Out of the many empirical surfaces determined, it is the 13C{sup {alpha}} ICS({phi},{psi}) surface which seems to be most promising for identifying major secondary structure types, {alpha}-helix, {beta}-strand, left-handed helix ({alpha}{sub D}), and polyproline-II. Detailed tests suggest that Ala is a good model for many naturally occurring {alpha}-amino acids. Two-dimensional empirical 13C{sup {alpha}}-{sup 1}H{sup {alpha}} ICS({phi},{psi}) correlation plots, obtained so far only from computations on small peptide models, suggest the utility of the experimental information contained therein and thus they should provide useful constraints for structure determinations of proteins.

  14. An epidemiological model for proliferative kidney disease in salmonid populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Luca; Mari, Lorenzo; Hartikainen, Hanna; Strepparava, Nicole; Wahli, Thomas; Jokela, Jukka; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea; Bertuzzo, Enrico

    2016-09-05

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) affects salmonid populations in European and North-American rivers. It is caused by the endoparasitic myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which exploits freshwater bryozoans and salmonids as hosts. Incidence and severity of PKD in brown trout populations have recently increased rapidly, causing a decline in fish catches and local extinctions in many river systems. PKD incidence and fish mortality are known to be enhanced by warmer water temperatures. Therefore, environmental change is feared to increase the severity of PKD outbreaks and extend the disease range to higher latitude and altitude regions. We present the first mathematical model regarding the epidemiology of PKD, including the complex life-cycle of its causative agent across multiple hosts. A dynamical model of PKD epidemiology in riverine host populations is developed. The model accounts for local demographic and epidemiological dynamics of bryozoans and fish, explicitly incorporates the role of temperature, and couples intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal dynamics. The former are described in a continuous-time domain, the latter in a discrete-time domain. Stability and sensitivity analyses are performed to investigate the key processes controlling parasite invasion and persistence. Stability analysis shows that, for realistic parameter ranges, a disease-free system is highly invasible, which implies that the introduction of the parasite in a susceptible community is very likely to trigger a disease outbreak. Sensitivity analysis shows that, when the disease is endemic, the impact of PKD outbreaks is mostly controlled by the rates of disease development in the fish population. The developed mathematical model helps further our understanding of the modes of transmission of PKD in wild salmonid populations, and provides the basis for the design of interventions or mitigation strategies. It can also be used to project changes in disease severity and prevalence because

  15. SHIFT: Shared Information Framework and Technology Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    As a result, the information has often been unsystematically gathered, has often been insufficient to meet needs, and in some cases has even led to...unnecessary risk -taking and overlapping or counterproductive actions. SHIFT differs from most of the earlier initiatives because of its emphasis on a...idea is that the SHIFT community will constitute a self- correcting environment. The SHIFT philosophy holds that the risk of false information is

  16. Shifting currents: Progress, setbacks, and shifts in policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Dunning, Charles; Robertson, Dale

    2016-01-01

    clean water future. More than a decade has passed since our first statewide WOW conversation and the report that captured recommendations from its participants: Waters of Wisconsin: The Future of Our Aquatic Ecosystems and Resources. Drawing from a diverse and growing set of stakeholders from across the state, the Wisconsin Academy initiated a new conversation in 2012 (known as WOW II) to assess progress in regard to our 2003 recommendations. We also sought to review the status of waters in Wisconsin today. The result of this renewed conversation is Shifting Currents: Progress, Setbacks, and Shifts in Policy and Practice. The new report assesses progress in brief, and explores in greater depth the continuing and emerging challenges to water quality, supply, and aquatic ecosystems in Wisconsin.In this report, we first review the context and frameworks for public decision-making about water and then examine some of the root causes—or “drivers”—and ecological stressors that underlie many of the symptoms we see in the form of pollution or ecosystem degradation in Wisconsin. This is followed by a summary of current water issues, many of which had been identified in the 2003 report and remain relevant today. We examine progress since 2003 but also setbacks, and discuss issues that we are likely to continue to face in the coming decades, including controlling agricultural runoff, mitigating climate change and grappling with its effects on the state’s waters, protecting groundwater from bacterial contamination and other pollutants, and preventing groundwater depletion. We also attempt to anticipate issues on the horizon. We offer a deeper look at some particular challenges, such as phosphorus pollution and groundwater contamination. We then consider the current decision-making framework and how it is shaping our capacity to respond to water challenges in Wisconsin. Finally, we offer recommendations and identify opportunities to safeguard Wisconsin’s waters in the

  17. Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease

    CERN Document Server

    Danon, Leon; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P; Keeling, Matt J; Roberts, Gareth O; Ross, Joshua V; Vernon, Matthew C

    2010-01-01

    The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent ...

  18. Hepatitis A virus: host interactions, molecular epidemiology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Gilberto; Goncalves Rossi, Livia Maria; Forbi, Joseph C; de Paula, Vanessa S; Purdy, Michael A; Xia, Guoliang; Khudyakov, Yury E

    2014-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the commonest viral cause of liver disease and presents an important public health problem worldwide. Several unique HAV properties and molecular mechanisms of its interaction with host were recently discovered and should aid in clarifying the pathogenesis of hepatitis A. Genetic characterization of HAV strains have resulted in the identification of different genotypes and subtypes, which exhibit a characteristic worldwide distribution. Shifts in HAV endemicity occurring in different parts of the world, introduction of genetically diverse strains from geographically distant regions, genotype displacement observed in some countries and population expansion detected in the last decades of the 20th century using phylogenetic analysis are important factors contributing to the complex dynamics of HAV infections worldwide. Strong selection pressures, some of which, like usage of deoptimized codons, are unique to HAV, limit genetic variability of the virus. Analysis of subgenomic regions has been proven useful for outbreak investigations. However, sharing short sequences among epidemiologically unrelated strains indicates that specific identification of HAV strains for molecular surveillance can be achieved only using whole-genome sequences. Here, we present up-to-date information on the HAV molecular epidemiology and evolution, and highlight the most relevant features of the HAV-host interactions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Epidemiology of Haemophilus ducreyi Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Beiras, Camila; Marks, Michael; Chen, Cheng Y; Roberts, Sally; Mitjà, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    The global epidemiology of Haemophilus ducreyi infections is poorly documented because of difficulties in confirming microbiological diagnoses. We evaluated published data on the proportion of genital and nongenital skin ulcers caused by H. ducreyi before and after introduction of syndromic management for genital ulcer disease (GUD). Before 2000, the proportion of GUD caused by H. ducreyi ranged from 0.0% to 69.0% (35 studies in 25 countries). After 2000, the proportion ranged from 0.0% to 15.0% (14 studies in 13 countries). In contrast, H. ducreyi has been recently identified as a causative agent of skin ulcers in children in the tropical regions; proportions ranged from 9.0% to 60.0% (6 studies in 4 countries). We conclude that, although there has been a sustained reduction in the proportion of GUD caused by H. ducreyi, this bacterium is increasingly recognized as a major cause of nongenital cutaneous ulcers.

  20. [Scientific journalism and epidemiological risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda do Carmo

    2007-01-01

    The importance of the communications media in the construction of symbols has been widely acknowledged. Many of the articles on health published in the daily newspapers mention medical studies, sourced from scientific publications focusing on new risks. The disclosure of risk studies in the mass media is also a topic for editorials and articles in scientific journals, focusing the problem of distortions and the appearance of contradictory news items. The purpose of this paper is to explore the meaning and content of disclosing scientific risk studies in large-circulation daily newspapers, analyzing news items published in Brazil and the scientific publications used as their sources during 2000. The "risk" is presented in the scientific research projects as a "black box" in the meaning of Latour, with the news items downplaying scientific disputes and underscoring associations between behavioral habits and the occurrence of diseases, emphasizing individual aspects of the epidemiological approach, to the detriment of the group.

  1. Trends of Dengue Disease Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cucunawangsih

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengue disease is an emerging mosquito-borne viral infection transmitted between humans by Aedes spp. that are distributed mainly in the tropical and subtropical region along with chikungunya and zika diseases. The distribution of dengue disease is influenced by local variation, such as geography, rainfall, temperature, and rapid urbanization or migration. The epidemy of mosquito-borne infection significantly led to increased number of cases and hyperendemicity which induce a more severe form of dengue accompanied by cocirculation of chikungunya and zika. The rapid global spreading of dengue disease created public health burdens that are presently unfulfilled by the absence of specific therapy, simple diagnosis tool for the early phase, and effective and efficient vector control system. This review highlights the current situation of dengue distribution, epidemiology, and new strategies for early dengue diagnosis and risk prediction of severity that can be used to improve oversight and alleviate the heavy burden of the disease.

  2. Epidemiology and treatment of mucormycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Russell E; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-09-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon but aggressive opportunistic fungal infection that afflicts patients with severe underlying immunosuppression, uncontrolled hyperglycemia and/or ketoacidosis, patients with iron overload resulting from frequent blood transfusions or blood disorders and occasionally healthy patients who are inoculated with fungal spores through traumatic injuries. The clinical presentation of mucormycosis is initially indistinguishable from other common infections, and if not diagnosed early and aggressively treated, it is almost always fatal. In this article we summarize recent changes in the epidemiology of mucormycosis, discuss diagnostic and clinical clues suggestive of the infection and provide a general strategy for managing the infection in the absence of data from well-controlled, prospective clinical trials.

  3. Epidemiology of acute wrist trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Lauritsen, Jens

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiological data on wrist injuries in a population can be used for planning by applying them to criteria for care and thus deriving estimates of provisions for care according to currently desirable standards. In a 1-year study all patients > or = 15 years with acute wrist trauma and treated...... in the emergency room were examined according to an algorithm until a diagnosis was established. The overall incidence of wrist trauma was 69 per 10,000 inhabitants per year. Incidence of wrist trauma requiring x-ray examination was 58 per 10,000 per year. The incidence of distal radius fractures was 27 per 10...... using data from a population-based study. A completeness rate of 0.56 (95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.78) was found. An x-ray had been taken for all patients reporting a fracture thus justifying the use of fractures as an incidence measure when comparing groups of patients with wrist trauma....

  4. Epidemiological studies of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindborg, J J

    1977-06-01

    The FDI has shown considerable interest in the oral cancer and has in recent years arranged three symposia on the subject. The incidence of oral cancer shows marked geographic differences mostly depending upon environmental factors. In the present paper the epidemiology of oral cancer is illustrated by the relative frequency to total number of cancers and incidence rates from a number of countries. Canada has the highest rate of cancer of the vermilion border, which is extremely rare among dark-skinned people. Even within one country differences may be found, a fact which is illustrated by findings from Czechoslovakia and India. In most of the studies dealing with the etiology of oral cancer tobacco usage in its various forms is shown to be the outstanding factor.

  5. Epidemiology of acute wrist trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Lauritsen, Jens

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiological data on wrist injuries in a population can be used for planning by applying them to criteria for care and thus deriving estimates of provisions for care according to currently desirable standards. In a 1-year study all patients > or = 15 years with acute wrist trauma and treated...... in the emergency room were examined according to an algorithm until a diagnosis was established. The overall incidence of wrist trauma was 69 per 10,000 inhabitants per year. Incidence of wrist trauma requiring x-ray examination was 58 per 10,000 per year. The incidence of distal radius fractures was 27 per 10...... using data from a population-based study. A completeness rate of 0.56 (95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.78) was found. An x-ray had been taken for all patients reporting a fracture thus justifying the use of fractures as an incidence measure when comparing groups of patients with wrist trauma....

  6. Unbounded subnormal weighted shifts on directed trees

    CERN Document Server

    Budzynski, Piotr; Jung, Il Bong; Stochel, Jan

    2011-01-01

    A new method of verifying the subnormality of unbounded Hilbert space operators based on an approximation technique is proposed. Diverse sufficient conditions for subnormality of unbounded weighted shifts on directed trees are established. An approach to this issue via consistent systems of probability measures is invented. The role played by determinate Stieltjes moment sequences is elucidated. Lambert's characterization of subnormality of bounded operators is shown to be valid for unbounded weighted shifts on directed trees that have sufficiently many quasi-analytic vectors, which is a new phenomenon in this area. The cases of classical weighted shifts and weighted shifts on leafless directed trees with one branching vertex are studied.

  7. Goos-Haenchen shift in complex crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, Stefano; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Staliunas, Kestutis [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Instituci Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avanats (ICREA), Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    The Goos-Haenchen (GH) effect for wave scattering from complex PT-symmetric periodic potentials (complex crystals) is theoretically investigated, with specific reference to optical GH shift in photonic crystal slabs with a sinusoidal periodic modulation of both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The analysis highlights some distinct and rather unique features as compared to the GH shift found in ordinary crystals. In particular, as opposed to GH shift in ordinary crystals, which is large at the band gap edges, in complex crystals the GH shift can be large inside the reflection (amplification) band and becomes extremely large as the PT symmetry-breaking threshold is approached.

  8. Epidemiology of yaws: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazadi WM

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Walter M Kazadi,1 Kingsley B Asiedu,2 Nsiire Agana,3 Oriol Mitjà4,51Office of the WHO Representative for Papua New Guinea, World Health Organization, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea; 2Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; 3Public Health Division, Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana; 4Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 5Lihir Medical Centre-International SOS, Newcrest Mining, Lihir Island, Papua New GuineaAbstract: Yaws, a neglected tropical disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 through large-scale mass-treatment programs of endemic communities. A key determinant for the success of the eradication campaign is good understanding of the disease epidemiology. We did a review of historical trends and new information from endemic countries, with the aim of assessing the state of knowledge on yaws disease burden. Transmission of yaws is now present in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific. At least 12 countries are known to harbor yaws cases and 21 to 42 million people live in endemic areas. Between 2008 and 2012 more than 300,000 new cases were reported to the World Health Organization. Yaws presented high geographical variation within a country or region, high seasonality for incidence of active disease, and evidence that low standards of hygiene predispose to suffering of the disease. Key data issues include low levels of reporting, potential misdiagnosis, and scarce documentation on prevalence of asymptomatic infections. Currently available data most likely underestimates the magnitude of the disease burden. More effort is needed in order to refine accuracy of data currently being reported. A better characterization of the epidemiology of yaws globally is likely to positively impact on planning and implementation of yaws eradication.Keywords: eradication, Treponema pertenue, endemic countries, prevalence

  9. On the epidemiology of influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scragg Robert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining why influenza is, as Gregg said, "seemingly unmindful of traditional infectious disease behavioral patterns." Recent discoveries indicate vitamin D upregulates the endogenous antibiotics of innate immunity and suggest that the incongruities explored by Hope-Simpson may be secondary to the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency. We identify – and attempt to explain – nine influenza conundrums: (1 Why is influenza both seasonal and ubiquitous and where is the virus between epidemics? (2 Why are the epidemics so explosive? (3 Why do they end so abruptly? (4 What explains the frequent coincidental timing of epidemics in countries of similar latitude? (5 Why is the serial interval obscure? (6 Why is the secondary attack rate so low? (7 Why did epidemics in previous ages spread so rapidly, despite the lack of modern transport? (8 Why does experimental inoculation of seronegative humans fail to cause illness in all the volunteers? (9 Why has influenza mortality of the aged not declined as their vaccination rates increased? We review recent discoveries about vitamin D's effects on innate immunity, human studies attempting sick-to-well transmission, naturalistic reports of human transmission, studies of serial interval, secondary attack rates, and relevant animal studies. We hypothesize that two factors explain the nine conundrums: vitamin D's seasonal and population effects on innate immunity, and the presence of a subpopulation of "good infectors." If true, our revision of Edgar Hope-Simpson's theory has profound implications for the prevention of influenza.

  10. Detecting and quantifying ongoing decay of organic archaeological remains - a discussion of different approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    . Thus, for the management of archaeological sites it is necessary to develop tools and methods that allow us to discover ongoing decay as fast as possible. Furthermore, in order to prioritize between excavation, in situ preservation and mitigation the decay rate should be evaluated on a quantitative...... are well protected and are not undergoing rapid decay, and it requires a detailed knowledge of decay processes and rates. For instance it is well established that the presence of water is of paramount importance for the preservation of organic material, and there are several examples where archaeological...... remains in wetlands have been preserved under waterlogged conditions for thousands of years, only to be degraded within a few years or decades after drainage of the wetland. What is less clear is the importance of the water quality, and exactly how much water is necessary to prevent or minimize decay...

  11. A Kenyan Cloud School. Massive Open Online & Ongoing Courses for Blended and Lifelong Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Jobe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research describes the predicted outcomes of a Kenyan Cloud School (KCS, which is a MOOC that contains all courses taught at the secondary school level in Kenya. This MOOC will consist of online, ongoing subjects in both English and Kiswahili. The KCS subjects offer self-testing and peer assessment to maximize scalability, and digital badges to show progress and completion to recognize and validate non-formal learning. The KCS uses the Moodle LMS with responsive web design to increase ubiquitous access from any device. Access is free and open, and the KCS intends to be a contextualized open educational resource for formal secondary institutions to support blended learning and a free source of non-formal education for lifelong learning. The expected outcomes are that this effort will reduce secondary school dropout rates, improve test scores, become a quality resource for blended learning, as well as validate and recognize lifelong learning in Kenya.

  12. Ongoing Technology and Developing Trend of Ar-blowing Purging Plug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An introduction of the ongoing technology of ar-gon-blowing purging plugs in China was presented in this work.Gel powders were used as starting materials to enhance the high temperature mechanical properties of the purging plugs.Composite purging plug adopting ex-trusion formed gas-purging bar and slit had its surface structural design improved,which enhanced the resist-ances to thermal shock and molten steel penetration,prolonging the service life.In addition,the safety Was greatly improved by upgrading the framework and pro-duction process,enhancing the resistance to breakout.It is indicated that the developing trend is to produce pur-ging plugs of longer service life and better gas purging rate with different starting materials and structure de-signs to meet the requirements of various metallurgical processes.

  13. Patterns of emotion-specific appraisal, coping, and cardiovascular reactivity during an ongoing emotional episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrald, Mary M; Tomaka, Joe

    2002-08-01

    The authors examined emotion-specific patterns of appraisal, coping, and cardiovascular reactivity during real ongoing emotional episodes. In this study, 109 participants performed a neutral opinion-expression task, where a confederate elicited anger, shame, or pride using verbal and nonverbal behavior. The authors assessed cognitive appraisals, emotional reactions, coping, outcomes (state self-esteem and outcome satisfaction), and cardiovascular reactivity. Results indicated substantial and theoretically consistent differences between the 3 emotions (and differences from a nonemotion condition) for cognitive appraisals, self-reported coping, behavioral coping, self-esteem, and cardiovascular reactivity. The results are discussed in relation to their implications for emotion theory and for psychological and physical health. Overall, the results suggest that researchers can study emotion-related issues using authentic emotional reactions.

  14. Ongoing rubella outbreak in Bosnia and Herzegovina, March-July 2009--preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, A; Huebschen, J M; Muller, C P; Tesanovic, M; Bojanic, J

    2009-10-01

    Between 24 March and 31 July 2009, 342 clinically diagnosed cases of rubella were notified in five municipalities in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Fourteen cases were laboratory-confirmed by positive IgG against rubella virus. Four virus isolates were obtained and identified as genotype 2B strains, with one isolate differing by a single mutation in the region of the E1 gene. This ongoing outbreak revealed gaps in the immunisation programme during the war in BiH (1992-1995) and highlights the need to revise legislation to permit immunisation of children above 14 years of age with measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine and to introduce supplemental immunisation activities.

  15. Excessive centrosome abnormalities without ongoing numerical chromosome instability in a Burkitt's lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cin Paola

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical and structural centrosome abnormalities are detected in various human malignancies and have been implicated in the formation of multipolar mitoses, chromosome missegregation, and chromosomal instability. Despite this association between centrosome abnormalities and cancerous growth, a causative role of centrosome aberrations in generating chromosomal instability and aneuploidy has not been universally established. We report here excessive numerical and structural centrosome abnormalities in a malignant Burkitt's lymphoma harboring the characteristic t(8;14 chromosomal translocation. Using conventional karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, we detected no signs of ongoing numerical chromosome instability, although the tumor displayed sporadic multipolar metaphases. These findings demonstrate that centrosome abnormalities are not a universal surrogate marker for chromosomal instability in malignant tumors. Moreover, our results suggest a model in which additional cellular alterations may be required to promote centrosome-related mitotic defects in tumor cells.

  16. Self-organization of a recurrent network under ongoing synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takaaki

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the organization of a recurrent network under ongoing synaptic plasticity using a model of neural oscillators coupled by dynamic synapses. In this model, the coupling weights changed dynamically, depending on the timing between the oscillators. We determined the phase coupling function of the oscillator model, Γ(ϕ), using conductance-based neuron models. Furthermore, we examined the effects of the Fourier zero mode of Γ(ϕ), which has a critical role in the case of spike-time-dependent plasticity-organized recurrent networks. Heterogeneous layered clusters with different frequencies emerged from homogeneous populations as the Fourier zero mode increased. Our findings may provide new insights into the self-assembly mechanisms of neural networks related to synaptic plasticity.

  17. High Pressure - High Temperature Polymorphism in Ta: Resolving an Ongoing Experimental Controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkovsky, L; Chen, S P; Preston, D L; Belonoshko, A B; Rosengren, A; Mikhaylushkin, A S; Simak, S I; Moriarty, J A

    2010-04-07

    Phase diagrams of refractory metals remain essentially unknown. Moreover, there is an ongoing controversy over the high pressure (P) melting temperatures of these metals: results of diamond anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave experiments differ by at least a factor of two. From an extensive ab initio study on tantalum we discovered that the body-centered cubic phase, its physical phase at ambient conditions, transforms to another solid phase, possibly hexagonal omega phase, at high temperature (T). Hence the sample motion observed in DAC experiments is not due to melting but internal stresses accompanying a solid-solid transformation, as explained in more detail in our work. In view of our results on tantalum and previous work on molybdenum, as well as other published data, it is highly plausible that high-PT polymorphism is a general feature of Groups V and VI refractory metals.

  18. Strongyloidiasis in a young French woman raises concern about possible ongoing autochthonous transmission in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Duvignaud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis is one of the most common geohelminth infections in tropical and subtropical areas. Accurate diagnosis remains challenging, leading to an overall underestimation of strongyloidiasis prevalence. The possibility of ongoing autochthonous transmission in some temperate areas and especially in southern Europe is still debated, and data supporting this hypothesis are scarce. The case of a young French woman, who had travelled frequently to Spain and had acquired Strongyloides stercoralis infection as revealed by gastrointestinal symptoms and hypereosinophilia, is reported here. Physicians should keep in mind the risk of being infected in some areas of southern Europe, even if low, in order to avoid the life-threatening manifestations of strongyloidiasis favoured by pathological or therapeutic immunosuppression.

  19. Ongoing functional evolution of the bacterial atrazine chlorohydrolase AtzA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Sajid; Changey, Frédérique; Oakeshott, John G; Scott, Colin; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2014-02-01

    Triazine herbicides such as atrazine and simazine which were heavily used in the latter half of the twentieth century constituted a rich new source of nitrogen for soil microbes. An atzA dechlorinase active against both atrazine and simazine was isolated from various soil bacteria from diverse locations in the mid 1990s. We have surveyed the atzA genes from eight triazine-degrading Aminobacter aminovorans strains isolated from French agricultural soils recurrently exposed to triazines in 2000. Six amino acid differences from the original isolate were each found in more than one of the A. aminovorans strains. Three of these in particular (V92L, A170T and A296T) were recovered from a majority of the isolates and from locations separated by up to 900 km, so may reflect ongoing selection for the new function. Two of the latter (A170T and A296T) were indeed found to confer higher specificity for simazine, albeit not atrazine, and greater affinity for a metal ion required for activity, than did the original variant. In contrast, we found that ongoing maintenance of the original atzA-containing isolate in laboratory culture for 12 years in a medium containing high concentrations of atrazine has led to the fixation of another amino acid substitution that substantially reduces activity for the triazines. The high concentrations of atrazine in the medium may have relaxed the selection for a highly efficient triazine dechlorinase activity, and that there is some, as yet uncharacterised, counter selection against the activity of this enzyme under these conditions.

  20. Ongoing in vivo immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination in chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Andrea; Zan, Hong; Kim, Edmund C; Shah, Shefali; Schattner, Elaine J; Schaffer, András; Casali, Paolo

    2002-12-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) results from the expansion of malignant CD5(+) B cells that usually express IgD and IgM. These leukemic cells can give rise in vivo to clonally related IgG(+) or IgA(+) elements. The requirements and modalities of this process remain elusive. Here we show that leukemic B cells from 14 of 20 CLLs contain the hallmarks of ongoing Ig class switch DNA recombination (CSR), including extrachromosomal switch circular DNAs and circle transcripts generated by direct S micro -->Sgamma, S micro -->Salpha, and S micro -->Sepsilon as well as sequential Sgamma-->Salpha and Sgamma-->Sepsilon CSR. Similar CLL B cells express transcripts for activation-induced cytidine deaminase, a critical component of the CSR machinery, and contain germline I(H)-C(H) and mature V(H)DJ(H)-C(H) transcripts encoded by multiple Cgamma, Calpha, and Cepsilon genes. Ongoing CSR occurs in only a fraction of the CLL clone, as only small proportions of CD5(+)CD19(+) cells express surface IgG or IgA and lack IgM and IgD. In vivo class-switching CLL B cells down-regulate switch circles and circle transcripts in vitro unless exposed to exogenous CD40 ligand and IL-4. In addition, CLL B cells that do not class switch in vivo activate the CSR machinery and secrete IgG, IgA, or IgE upon in vitro exposure to CD40 ligand and IL-4. These findings indicate that in CLL at least some members of the malignant clone actively differentiate in vivo along a pathway that induces CSR. They also suggest that this process is elicited by external stimuli, including CD40 ligand and IL-4, provided by bystander immune cells.

  1. Extraction and characterization of essential discharge patterns from multisite recordings of spiking ongoing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Storchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neural activation patterns proceed often by schemes or motifs distributed across the involved cortical networks. As neurons are correlated, the estimate of all possible dependencies quickly goes out of control. The complex nesting of different oscillation frequencies and their high non-stationariety further hamper any quantitative evaluation of spiking network activities. The problem is exacerbated by the intrinsic variability of neural patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our technique introduces two important novelties and enables to insulate essential patterns on larger sets of spiking neurons and brain activity regimes. First, the sampling procedure over N units is based on a fixed spike number k in order to detect N-dimensional arrays (k-sequences, whose sum over all dimension is k. Then k-sequences variability is greatly reduced by a hierarchical separative clustering, that assigns large amounts of distinct k-sequences to few classes. Iterative separations are stopped when the dimension of each cluster comes to be smaller than a certain threshold. As threshold tuning critically impacts on the number of classes extracted, we developed an effective cost criterion to select the shortest possible description of our dataset. Finally we described three indexes (C,S,R to evaluate the average pattern complexity, the structure of essential classes and their stability in time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We validated this algorithm with four kinds of surrogated activity, ranging from random to very regular patterned. Then we characterized a selection of ongoing activity recordings. By the S index we identified unstable, moderatly and strongly stable patterns while by the C and the R indices we evidenced their non-random structure. Our algorithm seems able to extract interesting and non-trivial spatial dynamics from multisource neuronal recordings of ongoing and potentially stimulated activity. Combined with time-frequency analysis of

  2. Modulation of ongoing EMG by different classes of low-threshold mechanoreceptors in the human hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, P A; Macefield, V G

    2001-12-15

    1. We have previously demonstrated that the input from single FA I and SA II cutaneous mechanoreceptors in the glabrous skin of the human hand is sufficiently strong to modulate ongoing EMG of muscles acting on the digits. Some unresolved issues have now been addressed. 2. Single cutaneous (n = 60), joint (n = 2) and muscle spindle (n = 34) afferents were recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into the median and ulnar nerves at the wrist. Spike-triggered averaging was used to investigate synaptic coupling between these afferents and muscles acting on the digits. The activity of 37 % of FA I (7/19), 20 % of FA II (1/5) and 52 % of SA II afferents (11/21) evoked a reflex response. The discharge from muscle spindles, 15 SA I and two joint afferents did not modulate EMG activity. 3. Two types of reflex responses were encountered: a single excitatory response produced by irregularly firing afferents, or a cyclic modulation evoked by regularly discharging afferents. Rhythmic stimulation of one FA I afferent generated regularly occurring bursts which corresponded to the associated cyclic EMG response. 4. Selectively triggering from the first or last spike of each burst of one FA I afferent altered the averaged EMG profile, suggesting that afferent input modulates the associated EMG and not vice versa. 5. The discharge from single FA I, FA II and SA II afferents can modify ongoing voluntary EMG in muscles of the human hand, presumably via a spinally mediated oligosynaptic pathway. Conversely, we saw no evidence of such modulation by SA I, muscle spindle or joint afferents.

  3. Developing register-based measures for assessment of working time patterns for epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härmä, Mikko; Ropponen, Annina; Hakola, Tarja; Koskinen, Aki; Vanttola, Päivi; Puttonen, Sampsa; Sallinen, Mikael; Salo, Paula; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long working hours and shift work may increase the risk of chronic diseases, but the "toxic" elements remain unclear due to crude assessment of working time patterns based on self-reports. In this methodological paper, we present and evaluate objective register-based algorithms for assessment of working time patterns and validate a method to retrieve standard payroll data on working hours from the employer electronic records. Detailed working hour records from employers' registers were obtained for 12 391 nurses and physicians, a total 14.5 million separate work shifts from 2008-2013. We examined the quality and validity of the obtained register data and designed 29 algorithms characterizing four potentially health-relevant working time patterns: (i) length of the working hours; (ii) time of the day; (iii) shift intensity; and (iv) social aspects of the working hours. The collection of the company-based register data was feasible and the retrieved data matched with the originally published shift plans. The transferred working time records included working time patterns, generated for each year, were stable across the follow-up (year-to-year correlation coefficients from r=0.7-0.9 for 23 variables), their distributions were as expected, and correlations of the variables within the four main dimensions of working hours were plausible. The developed method and algorithms allow a detailed characterization of four main dimensions of working time patterns potentially relevant for health. We recommend this method for future large-scale epidemiological studies.

  4. Early detection of Zika virus infection among travellers from areas of ongoing transmission in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiwen; Jin, Xia; Zhu, Zhaoyin; Huang, Li; Liang, Shaojun; Xu, Yuan; Liao, Ruyan; Zhou, Licheng; Zhang, Yan; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2016-05-01

    Nine imported Zika virus (ZIKV) infections (four through temperature monitoring and epidemiological investigation at entry and five by active surveillance tracking of index case contacts during follow-up; from Venezuela [n = 5], Samoa [n = 3] and both Samoa and Fiji [n = 1]) were detected in mainland China from February 1 to 29, 2016. The minimal incubation period lasted 5.2 days, with mean lag time to diagnosis of 2.6 days. Diagnosis relied on positive real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for ZIKV RNA in serum (n = 7), urine (n = 4) or saliva (n = 3), respectively. All cases recovered rapidly without serious complications.

  5. Association of Rotating Night Shift Work with BMI and Abdominal Obesity among Nurses and Midwives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Peplonska

    Full Text Available Mounting epidemiological evidence suggests that night shift work may contribute to the etiology of increased body weight. The present study aimed to examine association between rotating night shift work and body mass index (BMI, and abdominal adiposity respectively among nurses and midwives.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 724 female nurses and midwives, aged 40-60 years (354 rotating night shift and 370 daytime workers in Łódź, Poland, between 2008 and 2011. Information about occupational history and potential confounders was collected during personal interviews. Anthropometric measurements of body weight, height, waist (WC and hip (HC circumference were made, and body mass index (BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR and waist to height ratio (WHtR were calculated. GLM regression models and multinomial logit regression models were fitted to explore the association between night shift work and anthropometric parameters, with adjustment for age, body silhouette at age 20, current smoking status, packyears, marital status, and menopausal hormone therapy use.Cumulative night shift work showed significant associations with BMI, WC, HC and WHtR, with BMI increasing by 0.477 kg/m2 per 1000 night duties and by 0.432 kg/m2 per 10000 night shift hours, WC increasing respectively by 1.089 cm and 0.99 cm, and HC by 0.72 cm and WHtR by 0.007 cm for both metrics. Both current and cumulative night work was associated with obesity (BMI≥30kg/m2, with OR=3.9 (95%CI:1.5-9.9, in women reporting eight or more night shifts per month.The results of the study support the previously reported relations between night shift work and development of obesity.

  6. Epidemiological studies of the respiratory effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, M D

    1996-05-01

    Environmental epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have been major contributors to the understanding of such effects. The chronic effects of atmospheric pollutants have been studied, but, except for the known respiratory effects of particulate matter (PM), they have not been studied conclusively. There are ongoing studies of the chronic effects of certain pollutant classes, such as ozone, acid rain, airborne toxics, and the chemical form of PM (including diesel exhaust). Acute effects on humans due to outdoor and indoor exposures to several gases/fumes and PM have been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. However, the effects of these environmental factors on susceptible individuals are not known conclusively. These acute effects are especially important because they increase the human burden of minor illnesses, increase disability, and are thought to decrease productivity. They may be related to the increased likelihood of chronic disease as well. Further research is needed in this latter area, to determine the contributions of the time-related activities of individuals in different microenvironments (outdoors, in homes, in transit). Key elements of further studies are the assessment of total exposure to the different pollutants (occurring from indoor and outdoor source) and the interactive effects of pollutants. Major research areas include determination of the contributions of indoor sources and of vehicle emissions to total exposure, how to measure such exposures, and how to measure human susceptibility and responses (including those at the cellular and molecular level). Biomarkers of exposures, doses and responses, including immunochemicals, biochemicals and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) adducts, are beginning to promote some basic knowledge of exposure-response, especially the mechanisms. These will be extremely useful additions to standard physiological, immunological, and clinical instruments, and the understanding of biological

  7. In-line phase shift tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammonds, Jeffrey C.; Price, Ronald R.; Pickens, David R.; Donnelly, Edwin F. [Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to (1) demonstrate laboratory measurements of phase shift images derived from in-line phase-contrast radiographs using the attenuation-partition based algorithm (APBA) of Yan et al.[Opt. Express 18(15), 16074–16089 (2010)], (2) verify that the APBA reconstructed images obey the linearity principle, and (3) reconstruct tomosynthesis phase shift images from a collection of angularly sampled planar phase shift images.Methods: An unmodified, commercially available cabinet x-ray system (Faxitron LX-60) was used in this experiment. This system contains a tungsten anode x-ray tube with a nominal focal spot size of 10 μm. The digital detector uses CsI/CMOS with a pixel size of 50 × 50 μm. The phantoms used consisted of one acrylic plate, two polystyrene plates, and a habanero pepper. Tomosynthesis images were reconstructed from 51 images acquired over a ±25° arc. All phase shift images were reconstructed using the APBA.Results: Image contrast derived from the planar phase shift image of an acrylic plate of uniform thickness exceeded the contrast of the traditional attenuation image by an approximate factor of two. Comparison of the planar phase shift images from a single, uniform thickness polystyrene plate with two polystyrene plates demonstrated an approximate linearity of the estimated phase shift with plate thickness (−1600 rad vs −2970 rad). Tomographic phase shift images of the habanero pepper exhibited acceptable spatial resolution and contrast comparable to the corresponding attenuation image.Conclusions: This work demonstrated the feasibility of laboratory-based phase shift tomosynthesis and suggests that phase shift imaging could potentially provide a new imaging biomarker. Further investigation will be needed to determine if phase shift contrast will be able to provide new tissue contrast information or improved clinical performance.

  8. Effects of ongoing task context and target typicality on prospective memory performance: the importance of associative cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Jessica Lang; Dismukes, Key R.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether prospective memory performance is influenced by contextual cues. In our automatic activation model, any information available at encoding and retrieval should aid recall of the prospective task. The first experiment demonstrated an effect of the ongoing task context; performance was better when information about the ongoing task present at retrieval was available at encoding. Performance was also improved by a strong association between the prospective memory target as it was presented at retrieval and the intention as it was encoded. Experiment 2 demonstrated boundary conditions of the ongoing task context effect, which implicate the association between the ongoing and prospective tasks formed at encoding as the source of the context effect. The results of this study are consistent with predictions based on automatic activation of intentions.

  9. Immune boosting explains regime-shifts in prevaccine-era pertussis dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie S Lavine

    Full Text Available Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying episodic outbreaks of infectious diseases is one of mathematical epidemiology's major goals. Historic records are an invaluable source of information in this enterprise. Pertussis (whooping cough is a re-emerging infection whose intermittent bouts of large multiannual epidemics interspersed between periods of smaller-amplitude cycles remain an enigma. It has been suggested that recent increases in pertussis incidence and shifts in the age-distribution of cases may be due to diminished natural immune boosting. Here we show that a model that incorporates this mechanism can account for a unique set of pre-vaccine-era data from Copenhagen. Under this model, immune boosting induces transient bursts of large amplitude outbreaks. In the face of mass vaccination, the boosting model predicts larger and more frequent outbreaks than do models with permanent or passively-waning immunity. Our results emphasize the importance of understanding the mechanisms responsible for maintaining immune memory for pertussis epidemiology.

  10. Effects of extended work shifts and shift work on patient safety, productivity, and employee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simone M

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated 1.3 million health care errors occur each year and of those errors 48,000 to 98,000 result in the deaths of patients (Barger et al., 2006). Errors occur for a variety of reasons, including the effects of extended work hours and shift work. The need for around-the-clock staff coverage has resulted in creative ways to maintain quality patient care, keep health care errors or adverse events to a minimum, and still meet the needs of the organization. One way organizations have attempted to alleviate staff shortages is to create extended work shifts. Instead of the standard 8-hour shift, workers are now working 10, 12, 16, or more hours to provide continuous patient care. Although literature does support these staffing patterns, it cannot be denied that shifts beyond the traditional 8 hours increase staff fatigue, health care errors, and adverse events and outcomes and decrease alertness and productivity. This article includes a review of current literature on shift work, the definition of shift work, error rates and adverse outcomes related to shift work, health effects on shift workers, shift work effects on older workers, recommended optimal shift length, positive and negative effects of shift work on the shift worker, hazards associated with driving after extended shifts, and implications for occupational health nurses.

  11. Development of practice principles for the management of ongoing suicidal ideation in young people diagnosed with major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Simon M.; Simmons, Magenta B; Alan P. Bailey; Alexandra G Parker; Hetrick, Sarah E; Davey, Christopher G; Mark Phelan; Simon Blaikie; Jane Edwards

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: There is a lack of clear guidance regarding the management of ongoing suicidality in young people experiencing major depressive disorder. This study utilised an expert consensus approach in identifying practice principles to complement relevant clinical guidelines for the treatment of major depressive disorder in young people. The study also sought to outline a broad treatment framework for clinical intervention with young people experiencing ongoing suicidal ideation. Methods: In...

  12. Proceedings of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases International Symposium on Epidemiologic Issues in Urinary Incontinence in Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Jeanette S.; Nyberg, Leroy M.; Kusek, John W.;

    2003-01-01

    The Epidemiologic Issues in Urinary Incontinence: Current Databases and Future Collaborations Symposium included an international group of 29 investigators from 10 countries. The purpose of the symposium was to discuss the current understanding and knowledge gaps of prevalence, incidence......, associated risk factors, and treatment outcomes for incontinence in women. During the symposium, investigators identified existing large databases and ongoing studies that provide substantive information on specific incontinence research questions. The investigators were able to form an international...... collaborative research working group and identify potential collaborative projects to further research on the epidemiology of urinary incontinence and bladder dysfunction....

  13. [Exploring multiple trajectories of causality: collaboration between Anthropology and Epidemiology in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhague, Dominique P; Gonçalves, Helen

    2008-12-01

    Although the relationship between epidemiology and anthropology has a long history, it has generally been comprised of the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods. Only recently have the two fields begun to converge along theoretical lines, leading to a growing mutual interest in explaining rather than simply describing phenomena. This paper aimed to illustrate how ethnographic analyses can be used to assist with the in-depth and theoretically-imbued interpretation of epidemiological results. The anthropological analysis presented in this paper used ethnographic data collected as part of the ongoing 1982 birth cohort study, between 1997 and 2007 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Analyses were framed according to the results presented in two of the epidemiological articles published in this series on the determinants of mental morbidity and age of sexual initiation. The ethnographic results show that statistical associations consist of multiple pathways of influence and causality that generally correspond to the unique experiences of specific subgroups. In exploring these pathways, the paper highlights the importance of an additional set of mediating factors that account for epidemiological results; these include the awareness and experience of inequities, the role of violence in everyday life, traumatic life events, increasing social isolation and emotional introversion as a response to life's difficulties, and differing approaches towards socio-psychological maturation. Theoretical and methodological collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology is important for public health, as it has positively modified both fields.

  14. Language Shift in a Singapore Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anthea Fraser; Yeok, Siew Pui

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the major language shift in Singapore from the familial use of varieties of Chinese other than Mandarin towards the languages of education, English and Mandarin. An ethnographic study is presented of a Singaporean Chinese family that has moved from Cantonese to English, and the underlying pressures leading to this shift are examined. (19…

  15. On the calculation of Mossbauer isomer shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatov, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A quantum chemical computational scheme for the calculation of isomer shift in Mossbauer spectroscopy is suggested. Within the described scheme, the isomer shift is treated as a derivative of the total electronic energy with respect to the radius of a finite nucleus. The explicit use of a finite nuc

  16. Lamb Shift in Nonrelativistic Quantum Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotch, Howard

    1981-01-01

    The bound electron self-energy or Lamb shift is calculated in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics. Retardation is retained and also an interaction previously dropped in other nonrelativistic approaches is kept. Results are finite without introducing a cutoff and lead to a Lamb shift in hydrogen of 1030.9 MHz. (Author/JN)

  17. Pole Inflation - Shift Symmetry and Universal Corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broy, Benedict J.; Galante, Mario; Roest, Diederik; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    An appealing explanation for the Planck data is provided by inflationary models with a singular non-canonical kinetic term: a Laurent expansion of the kinetic function translates into a potential with a nearly shift-symmetric plateau in canonical fields. The shift symmetry can be broken at large

  18. Multiscale regime shifts and planetary boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, T.P.; Carpenter, S.; Rockstrom, J.; Scheffer, M.; Walker, B.

    2013-01-01

    Life on Earth has repeatedly displayed abrupt and massive changes in the past, and there is no reason to expect that comparable planetary-scale regime shifts will not continue in the future. Different lines of evidence indicate that regime shifts occur when the climate or biosphere transgresses a ti

  19. Characteristics of Menstrual Cycle in Shift Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Darkhi, Hamidreza; Kashanian, Maryam; khodarahmian, Mahshad; Dolati, Mandana; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Mohammadi, Saber

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study, the characteristics of menstrual cycle in shift workers employed in the pharmaceutical industry are investigated. Method: This study was conducted in a pharmaceutical industrial complex in Tehran in 2012. 406 female workers in packaging units were studied on the menstrual cycle characteristics. The studied workers were divided into two groups of shift workers and non-shift workers and were compared in terms of the frequency of menstrual disorder (short-term cycle, long-term cycle, irregular cycle and bleeding during menstrual cycle) as well as hormonal values (FSH, LH, TSH, and Prolactin). Results: The odds ratio (OR) for menstrual disorder in the shift workers was 5.54 (95% CI=2.78-11.02) compared to the non-shift workers. The mean difference of hormonal values (except prolactin) between shift workers and non-shift workers was not significant (P> 0.05). Conclusion: This study suggests that shift work may disrupt the menstrual cycle. PMID:23618486

  20. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  1. Machiavellianism, Discussion Time, and Group Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Helmut; Myers, David G.

    1976-01-01

    Social-emotional and rational-cognitive explanations of group risky shift on choice dilemmas (hypothetical life situations) were evaluated by comparing shift in groups of low Mach (emotional) and high Mach (non-emotional) subjects. Effects of Machiavellian beliefs on social functioning are examined. Group composition was not observed to affect…

  2. Gain Shift Corrections at Chi-Nu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Tristan Brooks [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics; Devlin, Matthew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Ambient conditions have the potential to cause changes in liquid scintillator detector gain that vary with time and temperature. These gain shifts can lead to poor resolution in both energy as well as pulse shape discrimination. In order to correct for these shifts in the Chi-Nu high energy array, a laser system has been developed for calibration of the pulse height signals.

  3. Set Shifting Among Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Darcy, Alison; Colborn, Danielle; Gudorf, Caroline; Lock, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective Set shifting difficulties are documented for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, AN typically onsets in adolescents and it is unclear if set-shifting difficulties are a result of chronic AN or present earlier in its course. This study examined whether adolescents with short duration AN demonstrated set shifting difficulties compared to healthy controls (HC). Method Data on set shifting collected from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (DKEFS) and Wisconsin Card Sort Task (WCST) as well as eating psychopathology were collected from 32 adolescent inpatients with AN and compared to those from 22 HCs. Results There were no differences in set-shifting in adolescents with AN compared to HCs on most measures. Conclusion The findings suggest that set-shifting difficulties in AN may be a consequence of AN. Future studies should explore set-shifting difficulties in a larger sample of adolescents with the AN to determine if there is sub-set of adolescents with these difficulties and determine any relationship of set-shifting to the development of a chronic from of AN. PMID:22692985

  4. Hippocampal theta frequency shifts and operant behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Kamp, A.

    1. 1. A shift of hippocampal dominant theta frequency to 6 c/sec has been demonstrated in the post-reward period in two dogs, which occurs consistently related in time to a well defined behavioural pattern in the course of an operant conditioning paradigm. 2. 2. The frequency shift was detected and

  5. The Report-AGE project: a permanent epidemiological observatory to identify clinical and biological markers of health outcomes in elderly hospitalized patients in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustacchini, Silvia; Abbatecola, Angela Marie; Bonfigli, Anna Rita; Chiatti, Carlos; Corsonello, Andrea; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Galeazzi, Roberta; Fabbietti, Paolo; Lisa, Rosamaria; Guffanti, Enrico E; Provinciali, Mauro; Lattanzio, Fabrizia

    2015-12-01

    Italy is expected to experience the largest growth in persons ≥65 years (>20% by 2020). This demographic shift allows for geriatric research on predictive clinical and biological markers of outcomes related to frailty, re-hospitalization and mortality. To describe rationale and methods of the Report-AGE study project of acute care patients in Italian National Research Center on Aging (INRCA) research hospitals. Report-AGE study is a large observational study on health conditions and outcomes of hospitalized elderly patients (≥65 years). The primary objective of the study is to create a high-level data resource of demographics, comprehensive geriatric assessments, clinical and diagnostic information, as well as biological and molecular markers in all older patients admitted to INRCA Hospitals. Assessments in physical and nutritional parameters, co-morbid health conditions, and associations with frailty parameters are ongoing in older hospitalized adults following an acute event. Study collection began in September 2011. Up to date, there are 3479 patients ≥65 years (mean age: 85 ± 7years) with 1543 men and 1936 women enrolled. Data have been recorded regarding functional and clinical parameters before, during hospital admission and at discharge. Data collection for primary outcome analyses related to re-hospitalization and mortality is estimated for September 2016. This study aims at collecting precise clinical data, comprehensive geriatric assessment, risk factors, and biological data from acute care patients. Data will also be used to identify mechanisms underlying frailty in this specific population. This study provides a descriptive epidemiological collection of the health conditions of older in-patients.

  6. An animated depiction of major depression epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Scott B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic estimates are now available for a variety of parameters related to major depression epidemiology (incidence, prevalence, etc.. These estimates are potentially useful for policy and planning purposes, but it is first necessary that they be synthesized into a coherent picture of the epidemiology of the condition. Several attempts to do so have been made using mathematical modeling procedures. However, this information is not easy to communicate to users of epidemiological data (clinicians, administrators, policy makers. Methods In this study, up-to-date data on major depression epidemiology were integrated using a discrete event simulation model. The mathematical model was animated in Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML to create a visual, rather than mathematical, depiction of the epidemiology. Results Consistent with existing literature, the model highlights potential advantages of population health strategies that emphasize access to effective long-term treatment. The paper contains a web-link to the animation. Conclusion Visual animation of epidemiological results may be an effective knowledge translation tool. In clinical practice, such animations could potentially assist with patient education and enhanced long-term compliance.

  7. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie......). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion...

  8. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ashley M; M Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; Coh, Sinisa; Moore, Joel E

    2017-01-25

    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. By analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. Our method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenides such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W(-1). Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells.

  9. Quality of life in shift work syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puca, F M; Perrucci, S; Prudenzano, M P; Savarese, M; Misceo, S; Perilli, S; Palumbo, M; Libro, G; Genco, S

    1996-01-01

    Air Force radar controllers represent an excellent example of night shift workers, as they are obliged to demonstrate perfect alertness during working hours. We set out: a) to assess the quality of life in these shift workers; b) to identify those with shift work syndrome and c) to evaluate the possible effects of triazolam both on their quality of life and sleep. The results reveal an impairment of the quality of life in shift workers, independently of the presence of a circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Quality of life was more severely impaired in subjects with circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Hypnotic therapy brought about an improvement both in the sleep disorder and in the quality of life of subjects affected by shift work syndrome. Selective alertness tests failed to demonstrate any "sedative carry-over" in the treated patients.

  10. World Manufacturing Industry: Structural and Spatial Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA RODIONOVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article estimates countries’ and regions’ posit ions on the world ranking hierarchy in the manufacturing industry. The research is focusing on the characteristic of structural and spatial shift s of the world manufacturing industry. These trends have led to the restructuring of the world economy and main shifts in the manufacturing locations both at regional and global levels occurred. Developing countries have got a great chance to become active players in the world economy. Structural shifts occ ur suddenly both in manufacturing location and in the industrial composition in the recent decades. There have been shifts in the HT-industry compositi on. The shift to developing Asian countries is reve aled.

  11. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ashley M.; M. Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; Coh, Sinisa; Moore, Joel E.

    2017-01-01

    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. By analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. Our method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenides such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W-1. Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells.

  12. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and risk factors

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    Kew MC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael C Kew Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major malignant tumors in the world today. The number of new cases of the tumor increases year by year, and hepatocellular carcinoma almost always runs a fulminant course and carries an especially grave prognosis. It has a low resectability rate and a high recurrence rate after surgical intervention, and responds poorly to anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a uniform geographical distribution: rather, very high incidences occur in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In these regions and populations, the tumor shows a distinct shift in age distribution toward the younger ages, seen to greatest extent in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In all populations, males are more commonly affected. The most common risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-poor populations with a high incidence of the tumor are chronic hepatitis B virus infection and dietary exposure to the fungal hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1. These two causative agents act either singly or synergistically. Both the viral infection and exposure to the fungus occur from early childhood, and the tumor typically presents at an early age. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-rich countries with a low incidence of the tumor. The infection is acquired in adulthood and hepatocellular carcinoma occurs later than it does with hepatitis B virus-induced tumors. In recent years, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have increased markedly in incidence and importance as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in some resource-rich regions. Chronic alcohol abuse remains an important risk factor for malignant transformation of hepatocytes, frequently in association with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Excessive iron

  13. Teaching biostatistics and epidemiology in the veterinary curriculum: what do our fellow lecturers expect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeimet, Ramona; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Doherr, Marcus G

    2015-01-01

    Given veterinary students' varying mathematical knowledge and interest in statistics, teaching statistical concepts to them is often seen as a challenge. Consequently, there is an ongoing debate among lecturers about the best time to introduce the material into the curriculum, and the best thematic content and conceptual approach to teaching in basic biostatistics classes. During a workshop meeting of epidemiology and biostatistics lecturers of Austrian, German, and Swiss veterinary schools, the question was raised as to whether the topics taught in epidemiology and statistics classes are of sufficient relevance to our lecturing colleagues in other fields of veterinary education (i.e., whether our colleagues have certain expectations as to what the students should know about biostatistics before taking their classes). In 2012, an online survey was compiled and carried out at all eight German-speaking veterinary schools to address this issue. There were 266 respondents out of approximately 800 contacted lecturers from all schools and disciplines. Almost 50% responded that the basic biostatistics class should be taught early on (in the second or third year), while only 26% indicated that basic epidemiology should commence before the third year of the veterinary curriculum. There were clear differences in perceived relevance of the 44 epidemiological and biostatistical topics presented in the survey, assessed on a Likert scale from 0 (no relevance) to 4 (very high relevance). The results provide important information about how to revise the content of epidemiology and biostatistics classes, and the approach could also be used for other courses within the veterinary curriculum with a natural science focus.

  14. Ectopic lymphoid structures support ongoing production of class-switched autoantibodies in rheumatoid synovium.

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    Frances Humby

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Follicular structures resembling germinal centres (GCs that are characterized by follicular dendritic cell (FDC networks have long been recognized in chronically inflamed tissues in autoimmune diseases, including the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, it is debated whether these ectopic structures promote autoimmunity and chronic inflammation driving the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA are highly specific markers of RA, predict a poor prognosis, and have been suggested to be pathogenic. Therefore, the main study objectives were to determine whether ectopic lymphoid structures in RA synovium: (i express activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, the enzyme required for somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination (CSR of Ig genes; (ii support ongoing CSR and ACPA production; and (iii remain functional in a RA/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID chimera model devoid of new immune cell influx into the synovium. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using immunohistochemistry (IHC and quantitative Taqman real-time PCR (QT-PCR in synovial tissue from 55 patients with RA, we demonstrated that FDC+ structures invariably expressed AID with a distribution resembling secondary lymphoid organs. Further, AID+/CD21+ follicular structures were surrounded by ACPA+/CD138+ plasma cells, as demonstrated by immune reactivity to citrullinated fibrinogen. Moreover, we identified a novel subset of synovial AID+/CD20+ B cells outside GCs resembling interfollicular large B cells. In order to gain direct functional evidence that AID+ structures support CSR and in situ manufacturing of class-switched ACPA, 34 SCID mice were transplanted with RA synovium and humanely killed at 4 wk for harvesting of transplants and sera. Persistent expression of AID and Igamma-Cmu circular transcripts (identifying ongoing IgM-IgG class-switching was observed in synovial grafts expressing FDCs/CD21L

  15. A systematic review of qualitative evidence on barriers and facilitators to the implementation of task-shifting in midwifery services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Christopher J; de Heer, Jodie; Winterton, Laura; Mellenkamp, Milagros; Glenton, Claire; Noyes, Jane; Lewin, Simon; Rashidian, Arash

    2013-10-01

    to synthesise qualitative research on task-shifting to and from midwives to identify barriers and facilitators to successful implementation. systematic review of qualitative evidence using a 4-stage narrative synthesis approach. We searched the CINAHL, Medline and the Social Science Citation Index databases. Study quality was assessed and evidence was synthesised using a theory-informed comparative case-study approach. midwifery services in any setting in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. midwives, nurses, doctors, patients, community members, policymakers, programme managers, community health workers, doulas, traditional birth attendants and other stakeholders. task shifting to and from midwives. thirty-seven studies were included. Findings were organised under three broad themes: (1) challenges in defining and defending the midwifery model of care during task shifting, (2) training, supervision and support challenges in midwifery task shifting, and (3) teamwork and task shifting. this is the first review to report implementation factors associated with midwifery task shifting and optimisation. Though task shifting may serve as a powerful means to address the crisis in human resources for maternal and newborn health, it is also a complex intervention that generally requires careful planning, implementation and ongoing supervision and support to ensure optimal and safe impact. The unique character and history of the midwifery model of care often makes these challenges even greater. evidence from the review fed into the World Health Organisation's 'Recommendations for Optimizing Health Worker Roles to Improve Access to Key Maternal and Newborn Health Interventions through Task Shifting' guideline. It is appropriate to consider task shifting interventions to ensure wider access to safe midwifery care globally. Legal protections and liabilities and the regulatory framework for task shifting should be designed to accommodate new task shifted practices. © 2013

  16. Network models in epidemiology: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Alun L.; Valeika, Steve

    In this chapter we shall discuss the development and use of network models in epidemiology. While network models have long been discussed in the theoretical epidemiology literature, they have recently received a large amount of attention amongst the statistical physics community. This has been fueled by the desire to better understand the structure of social and large-scale technological networks, and the increases in computational power that have made the simulation of reasonably-sized network models a feasible proposition. A main aim of this review is to bridge the epidemiologic and statistical physics approaches to network models for infectious diseases, highlighting the important contributions made by both research communities.

  17. The ongoing evolution of the core curriculum of a clinical fellowship in pathology informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Quinn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Partners HealthCare system′s Clinical Fellowship in Pathology Informatics (Boston, MA, USA faces ongoing challenges to the delivery of its core curriculum in the forms of: (1 New classes of fellows annually with new and varying educational needs and increasingly fractured, enterprise-wide commitments; (2 taxing electronic health record (EHR and laboratory information system (LIS implementations; and (3 increasing interest in the subspecialty at the academic medical centers (AMCs in what is a large health care network. In response to these challenges, the fellowship has modified its existing didactic sessions and piloted both a network-wide pathology informatics lecture series and regular "learning laboratories". Didactic sessions, which had previously included more formal discussions of the four divisions of the core curriculum: Information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management, now focus on group discussions concerning the fellows′ ongoing projects, updates on the enterprise-wide EHR and LIS implementations, and directed questions about weekly readings. Lectures are given by the informatics faculty, guest informatics faculty, current and former fellows, and information systems members in the network, and are open to all professional members of the pathology departments at the AMCs. Learning laboratories consist of small-group exercises geared toward a variety of learning styles, and are driven by both the fellows and a member of the informatics faculty. The learning laboratories have created a forum for discussing real-time and real-world pathology informatics matters, and for incorporating awareness of and timely discussions about the latest pathology informatics literature. These changes have diversified the delivery of the fellowship′s core curriculum, increased exposure of faculty, fellows and trainees to one another, and more equitably distributed teaching responsibilities among

  18. Heterogeneous source components of intraplate basalts from NE China induced by the ongoing Pacific slab subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan; Xia, Qun-Ke; Ingrin, Jannick; Deloule, Etienne; Bi, Yao

    2017-02-01

    by ongoing Pacific slab subduction. Combined with other basalt localities in eastern China (Shuangliao basalts, Taihang basalts and Shangdong basalts), the contributions of recycled oceanic components in their mantle source are heterogeneous. This spatial heterogeneity of mantle sources may be induced by variable alterations and dehydration during the recycling process of the Pacific slab. Our results show that the source components of Cenozoic intraplate small-volume basalts in eastern China are temporally and spatially heterogeneous, which is likely induced by the ongoing subduction of the Pacific slab. This demonstrates that integrating the temporal variations in geochemical characteristics and tectonic history of a study region can identify the subducted oceanic plate that induced enriched components in the mantle source of intraplate basalts.

  19. The ongoing evolution of the core curriculum of a clinical fellowship in pathology informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Andrew M; Klepeis, Veronica E; Mandelker, Diana L; Platt, Mia Y; Rao, Luigi K F; Riedlinger, Gregory; Baron, Jason M; Brodsky, Victor; Kim, Ji Yeon; Lane, William; Lee, Roy E; Levy, Bruce P; McClintock, David S; Beckwith, Bruce A; Kuo, Frank C; Gilbertson, John R

    2014-01-01

    The Partners HealthCare system's Clinical Fellowship in Pathology Informatics (Boston, MA, USA) faces ongoing challenges to the delivery of its core curriculum in the forms of: (1) New classes of fellows annually with new and varying educational needs and increasingly fractured, enterprise-wide commitments; (2) taxing electronic health record (EHR) and laboratory information system (LIS) implementations; and (3) increasing interest in the subspecialty at the academic medical centers (AMCs) in what is a large health care network. In response to these challenges, the fellowship has modified its existing didactic sessions and piloted both a network-wide pathology informatics lecture series and regular "learning laboratories". Didactic sessions, which had previously included more formal discussions of the four divisions of the core curriculum: Information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management, now focus on group discussions concerning the fellows' ongoing projects, updates on the enterprise-wide EHR and LIS implementations, and directed questions about weekly readings. Lectures are given by the informatics faculty, guest informatics faculty, current and former fellows, and information systems members in the network, and are open to all professional members of the pathology departments at the AMCs. Learning laboratories consist of small-group exercises geared toward a variety of learning styles, and are driven by both the fellows and a member of the informatics faculty. The learning laboratories have created a forum for discussing real-time and real-world pathology informatics matters, and for incorporating awareness of and timely discussions about the latest pathology informatics literature. These changes have diversified the delivery of the fellowship's core curriculum, increased exposure of faculty, fellows and trainees to one another, and more equitably distributed teaching responsibilities among the entirety of the

  20. Working the Night Shift: The Impact of Compensating Wages and Local Economic Conditions on Shift Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colene Trent

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of compensating differentials asserts that night shift workers should receive compensating wage differentials due to undesirable work conditions. In weak local economies, workers may have difficulty finding jobs; thus, these workers might be more likely to accept night shift work and be less concerned with the size of the compensating differential for night shifts. Using CPS data from 2001, this paper employs maximum likelihood estimation of an endogenous switching regression model to analyze wages of day and night shift workers and shift choice. The findings indicate the presence of selection bias, thus emphasizing the importance of correcting for self-selection into night shifts. The average of the estimated wage differentials for night shift work is negative for the overall sample, with differentials varying by worker characteristics. The shift differential is found to be a statistically significant predictor of shift choice, indicating that shift premiums play an important role in motivating individuals to select night shift work. Using two measures of local economic conditions and a new method of analyzing interaction effects in the context of an endogenous switching regression model, this paper finds limited evidence that weak local economic conditions lessen the impact of compensating differentials on shift choice.

  1. Three decades of recurrent declines and recoveries in corals belie ongoing change in fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, T.; Galzin, R.; Kulbicki, M.; Lison de Loma, T.; Claudet, J.

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs are increasingly being altered by a myriad of anthropogenic activities and natural disturbances. Long-term studies offer unique opportunities to understand how multiple and recurrent disturbances can influence coral reef resilience and long-term dynamics. While the long-term dynamics of coral assemblages have been extensively documented, the long-term dynamics of coral reef fish assemblages have received less attention. Here, we describe the changes in fish assemblages on Tiahura reef, Moorea, from 1979 to 2011. During this 33-yr period, Tiahura was exposed to multiple disturbances (crown-of-thorns seastar outbreaks and cyclones) that caused recurrent declines and recoveries of coral cover and changes in the dominant coral genera. These shifts in coral composition were associated with long-term cascading effects on fish assemblages. The composition and trophic structure of fish assemblages continuously shifted without returning to their initial composition, whereas fish species richness remained stable, albeit with a small increase over time. We detected nonlinear responses of fish density when corals were most degraded. When coral cover dropped below 10 % following a severe crown-of-thorns sea star outbreak, the density of most fish trophic groups sharply decreased. Our study shows that historical contingency may potentially be an important but largely underestimated factor explaining the contemporary structure of reef fish assemblages and suggests that temporal stability in their structure and function should not necessarily be the target of management strategies that aim at increasing or maintaining coral reef resilience.

  2. Shifting Authenticities in Scandinavian Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyndahl, Petter; Nielsen, Siw Graabraek

    2014-01-01

    There has been an ongoing tendency, taking place in the Scandinavian countries from the late 1970s onwards, to expand the repertoires and resources of music as an educational matter, an academic field, as well as an area for support and funding from cultural authorities, organisations and institutions. Here, popular music, jazz, folk music and…

  3. Epidemiology of HBV subgenotypes D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaras, Resat; Inanc Balkan, Ilker; Yemisen, Mucahit; Tabak, Fehmi

    2015-02-01

    The natural history of hepatitis B virus infection is not uniform and affected from several factors including, HBV genotype. Genotype D is a widely distributed genotype. Among genotype D, several subgenotypes differentiate epidemiologically and probably clinically. D1 is predominant in Middle East and North Africa, and characterized by early HBeAg seroconversion and low viral load. D2 is seen in Albania, Turkey, Brazil, western India, Lebanon, and Serbia. D3 was reported from Serbia, western India, and Indonesia. It is a predominant subgenotype in injection drug use-related acute HBV infections in Europe and Canada. D4 is relatively rare and reported from Haiti, Russia and Baltic region, Brazil, Kenya, Morocco and Rwanda. Subgenotype D5 seems to be common in Eastern India. D6 has been reported as a rare subgenotype from Indonesia, Kenya, Russia and Baltic region. D7 is the main genotype in Morocco and Tunisia. D8 and D9 are recently described subgenotypes and reported from Niger and India, respectively. Subgenotypes of genotype D may have clinical and/or viral differences. More subgenotype studies are required to conclude on subgenotype and its clinical/viral characteristics.

  4. Epidemiology of Ciguatera in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Elizabeth G; Reich, Andrew; Morris, John Glenn

    2015-08-01

    Ciguatera is the most commonly reported marine food-borne illness worldwide. Because there is a biological plausibility that ciguatera may be impacted by long-term climate variability and Florida is on the northern border of the geographic distribution of ciguatera, it is important to update our understanding of its epidemiology in Florida. We performed an analysis of 291 reports in Florida from 2000 to 2011 and an e-mail survey of 5,352 recreational fishers to estimate incidence and underreporting and identify high risk demographic groups, fish types, and catch locations. Incidence was 5.6 per 100,000 adjusted for underreporting. Hispanics had the highest incidence rate (relative risk [RR] = 3.4) and were more likely to eat barracuda than non-Hispanics. The most common catch locations for ciguatera-causing fish were the Bahamas and Florida Keys. Cases caused by fish from northern Florida were infrequent. These results indicate that ciguatera incidence is higher than estimated from public health reports alone. There is little evidence that incidence or geographic range has increased because of increased seawater temperatures since earlier studies.

  5. Epidemiology of neurocysticercosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapejev, S

    1996-01-01

    A revision of literature was done with the objective of tracing an epidemiologic profile of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in Brazil. The prevalence was 0.12-9% in autopsies. The frequency was 0.03-7.5% in clinical series and 0.68-5.2% in seroepidemiological studies. The disease corresponds to 0.08-2.5% of admissions to general hospitals. Patient origin was rural in 30-63% of cases. The most involved age range (64-100%) was 11 to 60 years, with a predominance (22-67%) between 21 and 40 years. The male sex was the most affected (51-80%). In the severe forms there was a predominance of urban origin (53-62%) and of the female sex (53-75%). The period of hospitalization ranges from 1 to 254 days and 33 to 50% of patients suffer 1.7 +/- 1.4 admissions. The clinical picture was variable, with a predominance of epileptic syndrome (22-92%) and intracranial hypertension (19-89%). Psychiatric manifestations were associated in 9-23% of patients. Lethality was 0.29% in terms of all diseases in general and 4.8-25.9% in terms of neurologic diseases. The asymptomatic form was detected in 6% of patients in clinical series and in 48.5% of case from autopsies. The racemose form and ventricular localization also was observed as asymptomatic form. Among the patients with cutaneous cysticercosis 65% of them showed neurologic manifestations.

  6. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leja, Mārcis; Axon, Anthony; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This review of recent publications related to the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori highlights the origin of the infection, its changing prevalence, transmission, and outcome. A number of studies have addressed the ancestor roots of the bacteria, and the first genomewide analysis of bacterial strains suggests that its coexistence with humans is more ancient than previously thought. As opposed to the generally declining prevalence of H. pylori (including China and Japan), in Sweden, the prevalence of atrophic gastritis in the young population has risen. The prevalence of the infection remains high in the indigenous populations of the Arctic regions, and reinfection rates are high. A high prevalence is permanently found in the Siberian regions of Russia as well. Several studies, some of which used multiplex serology, addressed prevalence of and risks associated with various H. pylori serotypes, thereby enabling more precise risk assessment. Transmission of H. pylori was discussed, specifically fecal-oral transmission and the use of well-water and other unpurified water. Finally, the long-term course of H. pylori infection was considered, with an estimated 89% of noncardia gastric cancer cases being attributable to the infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Global Epidemiology of Campylobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Mitchell, Hazel M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Campylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of the last century. The incidence and prevalence of campylobacteriosis have increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. The dramatic increase in North America, Europe, and Australia is alarming, and data from parts of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East indicate that campylobacteriosis is endemic in these areas, especially in children. In addition to C. jejuni, there is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter ureolyticus. Poultry is a major reservoir and source of transmission of campylobacteriosis to humans. Other risk factors include consumption of animal products and water, contact with animals, and international travel. Strategic implementation of multifaceted biocontrol measures to reduce the transmission of this group of pathogens is paramount for public health. Overall, campylobacteriosis is still one of the most important infectious diseases that is likely to challenge global health in the years to come. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the global epidemiology, transmission, and clinical relevance of Campylobacter infection. PMID:26062576

  8. Epidemiology of sporotrichosis in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Essayag, Sofia; Delgado, Alejandro; Colella, Maria T; Landaeta-Nezer, Maria E; Rosello, Arantza; Perez de Salazar, Celina; Olaizola, Carolina; Hartung, Claudia; Magaldi, Sylvia; Velasquez, Etna

    2013-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is one of the most common subcutaneous mycoses in Venezuela. It is a granulomatous chronic infection with cutaneous or subcutaneous tissue lesions. Regional lymphatic involvement may be present; extracutaneous disease is rare. The causal fungus Sporothrix schenckii has been isolated from soil, vegetation, and animals on numerous occasions and in many localities throughout the world. The aim of this study is to describe clinical and epidemiological features of cases of sporotrichosis observed in Venezuela and review of the literature. We included the demographic data, clinical features, diagnostic methods, treatment, and follow-up of patients with sporotrichosis from 1963 to 2009, diagnosed at the Department of Medical Mycology. One-hundred and thirty-three sporotrichosis cases were diagnosed. Most patients were under the age of 30 years (66.15%). In 61.6% of them, the mode of transmission was not identified. The predominant clinical form in this population was lymphocutaneous (63.15%). Direct microscopic diagnosis was performed in 123 cases, and 57.9% yielded positive results for asteroid body. Sporotrichosis is an endemic subcutaneous mycosis in Venezuela. There are no reports to this date of disseminated forms of the disease, even amongst patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Direct microscopic examination of wet mount slides with saline solution or distilled water in the search for asteroid bodies is paramount. Saturated sodium and potassium iodine solutions continue to be extremely efficacious and affordable to most of our patients, therefore our treatment of choice. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. The epidemiology of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitz, Theodore Robert; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Vast advances have occurred over the past decade with regards to understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of premature ejaculation (PE); however, we still have much to learn about this common sexual problem. As a standardized evidence-based definition of PE has only recently been established, the reported prevalence rates of PE prior to this definition have been difficult to interpret. As a result, a large range of conflicting prevalence rates have been reported. In addition to the lack of a standardized definition and operational criteria, the method of recruitment for study participation and method of data collection have obviously contributed to the broad range of reported prevalence rates. The new criteria and classification of PE will allow for continued research into the diverse phenomenology, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease to be conducted. While the absolute pathophysiology and true prevalence of PE remains unclear, developing a better understanding of the true prevalence of the disease will allow for the completion of more accurate analysis and treatment of the disease.

  10. Epidemiological features of brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors account for 1.4% of all cancers and 2.4% of all cancer-related deaths. The incidence of brain tumors varies and it is higher in developed countries of Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. In Serbia, according to data from 2009, malignant brain tumors account for 2. 2 of all tumors, and from all cancer­related deaths, 3.2% is caused by malignant brain tumors. According to recent statistical reports, an overall incidence of brain tumors for benign and malignant tumors combined is 18.71 per 100,000 persons/year. The most common benign brain tumor in adults is meningioma, which is most present in women, and the most common malignant tumor is glioblastoma, which is most present in adult men. Due to high mortality, especially in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma and significant brain tumor morbidity, there is a constant interest in understanding its etiology in order to possibly prevent tumor occurrence in future and enable more efficient treatment strategies for this fatal brain disease. Despite the continuously growing number of epidemiological studies on possible factors of tumor incidence, the etiology remains unclear. The only established environmental risk factor of gliomas is ionizing radiation exposure. Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields via cell phone use has gained a lot of attention as a potential risk factor of brain tumor development. However, studies have been inconsistent and inconclusive, so more definite results are still expected.

  11. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebi, Leonardo H; Zagari, Rocco M; Bazzoli, Franco

    2014-09-01

    Medline and PubMed databases were searched on epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori for the period of April 2013-March 2014. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of H. pylori is still high in most countries. In north European and North American populations, about one-third of adults are still infected, whereas in south and east Europe, South America, and Asia, the prevalence of H. pylori is often higher than 50%. H. pylori remains highly prevalent in immigrants coming from countries with high prevalence of H. pylori. However, the lower prevalence of infection in the younger generations suggests a further decline of H. pylori prevalence in the coming decades. Low socioeconomic conditions in childhood are confirmed to be the most important risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although the way the infection is transmitted is still unclear, interpersonal transmission appears to be the main route. Finally, H. pylori recurrence after successful eradication can still occur, but seems to be an infrequent event.

  12. Pterandra pyroidea: a case of pollination shift within neotropical Malpighiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellari, Simone C; Haleem, Muhammad A; Marsaioli, Anita J; Tidon, Rosana; Simpson, Beryl B

    2011-06-01

    Most Neotropical species of Malpighiaceae produce floral fatty oils in calyx glands to attract pollinating oil-collecting bees, which depend on this resource for reproduction. This specialized type of pollination system tends to be lost in members of the family that occur outside the geographic distribution (e.g. Africa) of Neotropical oil-collecting bees. This study focused on the pollination ecology, chemical ecology and reproductive biology of an oil flower species, Pterandra pyroidea (Malpighiaceae) from the Brazilian Cerrado. Populations of this species consist of plants with oil-secreting (glandular) flowers, plants with non-oil-secreting flowers (eglandular) or a mix of both plant types. This study specifically aims to clarify the role of eglandular morphs in this species. Data on pollinators were recorded by in situ observations. Breeding system experiments were conducted by isolating inflorescences and by enzymatic reactions. Floral resources, pollen and floral oils offered by this species were analysed by staining and a combination of various spectroscopic methods. Eglandular flowers of P. pyroidea do not act as mimics of their oil-producing conspecifics to attract pollinators. Instead, both oil-producing and oil-free flowers depend on pollen-collecting bees for reproduction, and their main pollinators are bumble-bees. Floral oils produced by glandular flowers are less complex than those described in closely related genera. Eglandular flowers represent a shift in the pollination system in which oil is being lost and pollen is becoming the main reward of P. pyroidea flowers. Pollination shifts of this kind have hitherto not been demonstrated empirically within Neotropical Malpighiaceae and this species exhibits an unusual transition from a specialized towards a generalized pollination system in an area considered the hotspot of oil-collecting bee diversity in the Neotropics. Transitions of this type provide an opportunity to study ongoing evolutionary

  13. Pterandra pyroidea: a case of pollination shift within Neotropical Malpighiaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellari, Simone C.; Haleem, Muhammad A.; Marsaioli, Anita J.; Tidon, Rosana; Simpson, Beryl B.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Most Neotropical species of Malpighiaceae produce floral fatty oils in calyx glands to attract pollinating oil-collecting bees, which depend on this resource for reproduction. This specialized type of pollination system tends to be lost in members of the family that occur outside the geographic distribution (e.g. Africa) of Neotropical oil-collecting bees. This study focused on the pollination ecology, chemical ecology and reproductive biology of an oil flower species, Pterandra pyroidea (Malpighiaceae) from the Brazilian Cerrado. Populations of this species consist of plants with oil-secreting (glandular) flowers, plants with non-oil-secreting flowers (eglandular) or a mix of both plant types. This study specifically aims to clarify the role of eglandular morphs in this species. Methods Data on pollinators were recorded by in situ observations. Breeding system experiments were conducted by isolating inflorescences and by enzymatic reactions. Floral resources, pollen and floral oils offered by this species were analysed by staining and a combination of various spectroscopic methods. Key Results Eglandular flowers of P. pyroidea do not act as mimics of their oil-producing conspecifics to attract pollinators. Instead, both oil-producing and oil-free flowers depend on pollen-collecting bees for reproduction, and their main pollinators are bumble-bees. Floral oils produced by glandular flowers are less complex than those described in closely related genera. Conclusions Eglandular flowers represent a shift in the pollination system in which oil is being lost and pollen is becoming the main reward of P. pyroidea flowers. Pollination shifts of this kind have hitherto not been demonstrated empirically within Neotropical Malpighiaceae and this species exhibits an unusual transition from a specialized towards a generalized pollination system in an area considered the hotspot of oil-collecting bee diversity in the Neotropics. Transitions of this type

  14. Space geodetic monitoring of engineered structures: The ongoing destabilization of the Mosul dam, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, Pietro; Bürgmann, Roland; Lundgren, Paul; Salzer, Jacqueline; Perissin, Daniele; Fielding, Eric; Biondi, Filippo; Milillo, Giovanni

    2016-12-06

    We present a detailed survey of the ongoing destabilization process of the Mosul dam. The dam is located on the Tigris river and is the biggest hydraulic structure in Iraq. From a geological point of view the dam foundation is poor due to a site geology formed by alternating strata of highly soluble materials including gypsum, anhydrite, marl and limestone. Here we present the first multi-sensor cumulative deformation map for the dam generated from space-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements from the Italian constellation COSMO-SkyMed and the European sensor Sentinel-1a over the period 2014-2016 that we compare to an older dataset spanning 2004-2010 acquired with the European Envisat satellite. We found that deformation was rapid during 2004-2010, slowed in 2012-2014 and increased since August 2014 when grouting operations stopped due to the temporary capture of the dam by the self proclaimed Islamic State. We model the inferred deformation using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to solve for change in volume for simple tensile dislocations. Results from recent and historical geodetic datasets suggests that the volume dissolution rate remains constant when the equivalent volume of total concrete injected during re-grouting operations is included in the calculations.

  15. The ongoing cognitive processing of exclusionary social events: evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themanson, Jason R; Schreiber, Jennifer A; Larsen, Amanda D; Dunn, Kaitlin R; Ball, Aaron B; Khatcherian, Stephanie M

    2015-01-01

    Exclusionary social events are known to cause alterations in neural activity and attention-related processes. However, the precise nature of these neural adjustments remains unknown as previous research has been limited to examining social interactions and exclusionary events as unitary phenomena. To address this limitation, we assessed neural activity during both inclusionary and exclusionary social interactions by examining event-related brain potentials at multiple points within each social event. Our results show an initial enhancement of anterior cingulate cortex -related activation, indexed by the anterior N2, in response to specific exclusionary events followed by an enhanced attentional orienting response, indexed by the P3a, to later segments of each exclusionary event. Decreases in this P3a activation from social inclusion to social exclusion were associated with self-reported increases in anxiety, negative affect, and feelings of depression from inclusion to exclusion. Together, these findings provide novel insights into the dynamic and ongoing neural processes associated with attentional allocation toward social exclusion and the nature of the relationships between neural and behavioral reactions to exclusionary social interactions.

  16. Developing laboratory research techniques for an ongoing research program in a high school classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adornato, Philip

    Incorporating research into a high school classroom is an excellent way to teach students fundamental concepts in science. One program that incorporates this approach is the Waksman Student Scholar Program (WSSP), which allows high school students, teachers and Rutgers professors to work side by side on an ongoing molecular biology research program. Students in the program first isolated plasmid clones from bacteria that contain cDNA fragments of genes from the Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana. They then determined the size of the DNA by performing molecular biology experiments. Students then analyzed the DNA sequence and after review from WSSP staff and high school teachers, the student's sequences were published in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. This was often the last step in the project the students performed. However, if the project were being conducted in a research lab instead of a high school, the cDNA clone would often be further analyzed. In the past, safety, convenience, and affordability have limited the availability of these experiments in a high school setting. Although additional bioinformatic experiments could easily be performed in the high school, there is a strong need for additional "wet lab" experiments to keep the students engaged and motivated to work on the project. I have worked on developing three experimental modules that can be performed in a high school setting. These experiments were tested with the students and teachers of the WSSP. This work will expand the scope of experiments that can be performed in a high school environment.

  17. Dynamic synchronization of ongoing neuronal activity across spinal segments regulates sensory information flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Hernández, E; Chávez, D; Rudomin, P

    2015-05-15

    Previous studies on the correlation between spontaneous cord dorsum potentials recorded in the lumbar spinal segments of anaesthetized cats suggested the operation of a population of dorsal horn neurones that modulates, in a differential manner, transmission along pathways mediating Ib non-reciprocal postsynaptic inhibition and pathways mediating primary afferent depolarization and presynaptic inhibition. In order to gain further insight into the possible neuronal mechanisms that underlie this process, we have measured changes in the correlation between the spontaneous activity of individual dorsal horn neurones and the cord dorsum potentials associated with intermittent activation of these inhibitory pathways. We found that high levels of neuronal synchronization within the dorsal horn are associated with states of incremented activity along the pathways mediating presynaptic inhibition relative to pathways mediating Ib postsynaptic inhibition. It is suggested that ongoing changes in the patterns of functional connectivity within a distributed ensemble of dorsal horn neurones play a relevant role in the state-dependent modulation of impulse transmission along inhibitory pathways, among them those involved in the central control of sensory information. This feature would allow the same neuronal network to be involved in different functional tasks.

  18. Impact of Insulin Resistance on Silent and Ongoing Myocardial Damage in Normal Subjects: The Takahata Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Narumi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Insulin resistance (IR is part of the metabolic syndrome (Mets that develops after lifestyle changes and obesity. Although the association between Mets and myocardial injury is well known, the effect of IR on myocardial damage remains unclear. Methods and Results. We studied 2200 normal subjects who participated in a community-based health check in the town of Takahata in northern Japan. The presence of IR was assessed by homeostasis model assessment ratio, and the serum level of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP was measured as a maker of silent and ongoing myocardial damage. H-FABP levels were significantly higher in subjects with IR and Mets than in those without metabolic disorder regardless of gender. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that the presence of IR was independently associated with latent myocardial damage (odds ratio: 1.574, 95% confidence interval 1.1–2.3 similar to the presence of Mets. Conclusions. In a screening of healthy subjects, IR and Mets were similarly related to higher H-FABP levels, suggesting that there may be an asymptomatic population in the early stages of metabolic disorder that is exposed to myocardial damage and might be susceptible to silent heart failure.

  19. Gaps in the HD169142 protoplanetary disk revealed by polarimetric imaging: Signs of ongoing planet formation?

    CERN Document Server

    Quanz, Sascha P; Buenzli, Esther; Garufi, Antonio; Schmid, Hans Martin; Wolf, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    We present H-band VLT/NACO polarized light images of the Herbig Ae/Be star HD169142 probing its protoplanetary disk as close as ~0.1" to the star. Our images trace the face-on disk out to ~1.7" (~250 AU) and reveal distinct sub-structures for the first time: 1) the inner disk (<20 AU) appears to be depleted in scattering dust grains; 2) an unresolved disk rim is imaged at ~25 AU; 3) an annular gap extends from ~40 - 70 AU; 4) local brightness asymmetries are found on opposite sides of the annular gap. We discuss different explanations for the observed morphology among which ongoing planet formation is a tempting - but yet to be proven - one. Outside of ~85 AU the surface brightness drops off roughly r^{-3.3}, but describing the disk regions between 85-120 AU / 120-250 AU separately with power-laws r^{-2.6} / r^{-3.9} provides a better fit hinting towards another discontinuity in the disk surface. The flux ratio between the disk integrated polarized light and the central star is ~4.1 * 10^{-3}. Finally, com...

  20. Ongoing spontaneous activity controls access to consciousness: a neuronal model for inattentional blindness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislas Dehaene

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Even in the absence of sensory inputs, cortical and thalamic neurons can show structured patterns of ongoing spontaneous activity, whose origins and functional significance are not well understood. We use computer simulations to explore the conditions under which spontaneous activity emerges from a simplified model of multiple interconnected thalamocortical columns linked by long-range, top-down excitatory axons, and to examine its interactions with stimulus-induced activation. Simulations help characterize two main states of activity. First, spontaneous gamma-band oscillations emerge at a precise threshold controlled by ascending neuromodulator systems. Second, within a spontaneously active network, we observe the sudden "ignition" of one out of many possible coherent states of high-level activity amidst cortical neurons with long-distance projections. During such an ignited state, spontaneous activity can block external sensory processing. We relate those properties to experimental observations on the neural bases of endogenous states of consciousness, and particularly the blocking of access to consciousness that occurs in the psychophysical phenomenon of "inattentional blindness," in which normal subjects intensely engaged in mental activity fail to notice salient but irrelevant sensory stimuli. Although highly simplified, the generic properties of a minimal network may help clarify some of the basic cerebral phenomena underlying the autonomy of consciousness.