Sample records for one-electron reduced intermediate

  1. Pulse radiolysis studies on the formation and transformation of the one-electron reduced intermediate of Kalafungin and an analogue solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.F.; Packer, J.E. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Chemistry; Brimble, A.; Nairn, M.R. [Sydney Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Chemistry


    Kalafungin 1 is a member of the pyranonaphthoquinone family of antibiotics which are produced various species of Streptomyces and have in common the benzoisochromanquinone skeleton. Apart from their already documented activity against Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and mycoplasmas, it has been suggested that in vivo reduction causes a transformation to an active hydroquinone form which functions as a bis-alkylating agent.{sup 2} Moore{sup 2},{sup 3} has suggested that these pyranonaphthoquinones may exhibit antitumour activity since the proposed mechanism of action resembles that of the anticancer agent mitomycin C 3.{sup 2}. Rapid one-electron reduction of kalafungin 1 and a closely related analogue 2 has been carried out using The University of Auckland`s pulse radiolysis facility. Pulsed electrons (4 Gy in 200 ns from a 4 MeV linear accelerator) were delivered to de-aerated aqueous solutions (10 mmol.L{sup -1} phosphate, pH 7.0) containing 0.1 mol.L{sup -1} sodium formate and 50 - 200 {mu}mol.L{sup -1} kalafungin 1 or lactol 2. Radical formation and transformations were followed by time-resolved uv/visible spectrophotometry. The transformations observed are independent of both the concentration of the parent compound and radiation doses (i.e. semiquinone concentration). The accompanying changes in absorption are consistent with the radical centre of the semiquinone species undergoing intramolecular rearrangement onto the fused non-aromatic ring structure of the compound. Possible ring opening mechanisms and the position of radical relocalisation will be discussed, as well as the involvement of radical transformation and redox chemistry in the biological activity of kalafungin1. Extended abstract. 4 refs., ills.

  2. Simultaneous evaluation of one-electron reducing systems and radical reactions in cells by nitroxyl biradical as probe. (United States)

    Araki, Yoko; Koshiishi, Ichiro


    In the present study, a novel probe for the simultaneous evaluation of one-electron reducing systems (electron transport chain) and one-electron oxidizing systems (free radical reactions) in cells by electron chemical detection was developed. Six-membered cyclic nitroxyl radicals (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl; TEMPO series) are sensitive to one-electron redox systems, generating the hydroxylamine form [TEMPO(H)] via one-electron reduction, and the secondary amine form [TEMPO(N)] via one-electron oxidation in the presence of thiols. In contrast, the sensitivities of five-membered cyclic nitroxyl radicals (2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl; PROXYL series) to the one-electron redox systems are comparatively low. The electron chemical detector can detect 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO), TEMPO(H) and PROXYL but not TEMPO(N). Therefore, nitroxyl biradical, TEMPO-PROXYL, as a probe for the evaluation of one-electron redox systems was employed. TEMPO-PROXYL was synthesized by the conjunction of 4-amino-TEMPO with 3-carboxyl-PROXYL via the conventional dicyclohexyl carbodiimide reaction. TEMPO-PROXYL, TEMPO(H)-PROXYL and TEMPO(N)-PROXYL were simultaneously quantified by HPLC with Coularray detection. Calibration curves for the quantification of TEMPO-PROXYL, TEMPO(H)-PROXYL and TEMPO(N)-PROXYL were linear in the range from 80 nm to 80 μm, and the lowest quantification limit of each molecule was estimated to be <80 nm. The relative standard deviations at 0.8 and 80 μm were within 10% (n = 5). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The mechanism of oxidative halophenol dehalogenation by Amphitrite ornata dehaloperoxidase is initiated by H2O2 binding and involves two consecutive one-electron steps: role of ferryl intermediates. (United States)

    Osborne, Robert L; Coggins, Michael K; Raner, Gregory M; Walla, Mike; Dawson, John H


    The enzymatic globin, dehaloperoxidase (DHP), from the terebellid polychaete Amphitrite ornata is designed to catalyze the oxidative dehalogenation of halophenol substrates. In this study, the ability of DHP to catalyze this reaction by a mechanism involving two consecutive one-electron steps via the normal order of addition of the oxidant cosubstrate (H(2)O(2)) before organic substrate [2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP)] is demonstrated. Specifically, 1 equiv of H(2)O(2) will fully convert 1 equiv of TCP to 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone, implicating the role of multiple ferryl [Fe(IV)O] species. A significant amount of heterolytic cleavage of the O-O bond of cumene hydroperoxide, consistent with transient formation of a Compound I [Fe(IV)O/porphyrin pi-cation radical] species, is observed upon its reaction with ferric DHP. In addition, a more stable high-valent Fe(IV)O-containing DHP intermediate [Compound II (Cpd II) or Compound ES] is characterized by UV-visible absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. Spectral similarities are seen between this intermediate and horse heart myoglobin Cpd II. It is also shown in single-turnover experiments that the DHP Fe(IV)O intermediate is an active oxidant in halophenol oxidative dehalogenation. Furthermore, reaction of DHP with 4-chlorophenol leads to a dimeric product. The results presented herein are consistent with a normal peroxidase order of addition of the oxidant cosubstrate (H(2)O(2)) followed by organic substrate (TCP) and indicate that the enzymatic mechanism of DHP-catalyzed oxidative halophenol dehalogenation involves two consecutive one-electron steps with a dissociable radical intermediate.

  4. Reversible Intramolecular Cyclization in Ruthenium Complexes Induced by Ligand-centered One-electron Transfer on Bidentate Naphthyridine: An Important Intermediate for Both Metal– and Organo–Hydride Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oyama, Dai; Ukawa, Narumi; Hamada, Takashi; Takase, Tsugiko


    ...)-1,8-naphthyridine were prepared. The complexes undergo irreversible ligand-localized one-electron reduction to form redox-induced metallacyclization between the bidentate naphthyridyl ligand and the terminal CO ligand located nearby...

  5. Ligand-solvent interactions in a highly reduced metal chelate complex: medium dependence of the one-electron reduction of the bis(maleonitriledithiolato)gold dianion. (United States)

    LeSuer, Robert J; Geiger, William E


    The one-electron reduction of [Au(mnt)(2)](2-) (mnt = [S(2)C(2)(CN)(2)](2-), maleonitriledithiolate), 1(2-), stands out in the rich redox chemistry of metal-mnt complexes as a chemically reversible but electrochemically irreversible process. Although the E(1/2) value of the primary redox reaction 1(2-)/1(3-) is only slightly medium dependent (ca. -1.36 V to -1.53 V vs FcH in several nonaqueous solvents and supporting electrolytes), its chemical reversibility is dramatically solvent dependent. A quasi-Nernstian process was observed only in tetrahydrofuran (THF) at low supporting electrolyte concentrations. Fast reversible follow-up reactions, ascribed to formation of solvento-complexes [Au(mnt)(2).Solv](3-), were observed through cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies in dichloromethane and acetonitrile. The specifically solvated trianion reverts to "unsolvated" 1(2-) when reoxidized, accounting for the overall chemical reversibility of the process. Owing to the fact that the ligands in 1(3-) are highly negatively charged, the strong specific solvation is likely to involve H-bonding interactions between the solvent and the sulfur atoms of the trianion. Ion-pairing interactions between 1(3-) and electrolyte cations were also shown to have a discernible effect on the 1(2-)/1(3-) couple in THF. The heterogeneous electron-transfer (ET) rate constant (k(s)) for this couple was sufficiently low (k(s) = approximately 10(-3) cm s(-1)) to suggest a square-planar to quasi-tetrahedral structural rearrangement being intrinsic to the 1(2-)/1(3-) ET process. The E(1/2) separation between the 1(-)/1(2-) and 1(2-)/1(3-) couples (ca. 220 mV) is much smaller than any of those previously reported for metal-mnt complexes. The behavior of the gold-mnt trianion is a rare example of a ligand-based solvento-complex, which contrasts with the well-known metal-based solvento-complexes that are commonly observed between electron-deficient complexes and strong donor solvents.

  6. Optimum intermediate fibers for reducing interconnection loss: exact solution. (United States)

    Yablon, Andrew D; Sumetsky, M


    We derive an exact analytical solution for a transmission line of N single-mode intermediate optical fibers that minimize the interconnection loss between any two dissimilar fiber modes that are well described by that paraxial scalar wave equation. Our solution shows that N optimum intermediate fibers reduce the original interconnection loss by a factor of least 1/(N+1) and that the total interconnection loss is only a function of N and the original direct interconnection loss. Our solution is not restricted to axisymmetric fibers or mode fields and therefore could be useful for reducing the interconnection loss between microstructured optical fibers, between certain slab waveguides, or between fibers and optical sources or detectors.

  7. 3,4-Dihydro-1,3-2H-benzoxazines: Novel reducing agents through one electron donation mechanism and their application as the formation of nano-metallic silver coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaewvilai, Attaphon [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand); Wattanathana, Worawat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand); Jongrungruangchok, Suchada [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Rangsit University, Pathumthani, 12000 (Thailand); Veranitisagul, Chatchai [Department of Material and Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Klong 6, Thanyaburi, Pathumthani, 12110 (Thailand); Koonsaeng, Nattamon [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand); Laobuthee, Apirat, E-mail: [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900 (Thailand)


    3,4-dihydro-1,3-2H-benzoxazines as novel one-electron donators for silver(I) ion into nano-metallic silver was firstly found and reported. The silver formation from nano-spherical particles to coral-like and dendrite-like structures was presented. With respect to the characterization results, the feasible reaction mechanism of the silver formation was proposed as an electron donated from benzoxazine to silver(I) ion, resulting in a radical cationic species of benzoxazine and silver(0). Based on this reduction process, a new approach for nano-silver coating on various surfaces such as fumed silica (SiO{sub 2}), titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), carbon black (CB), chitosan (CS) including plastic sheet (polycarbonate, PC) and pellet (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA), was also revealed. Besides the nano-silver coated products were applied as antimicrobials fillers for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 2785 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. - Highlights: • Benzoxazines were discovered to be novel reducing agents for silver(I) ion. • The speculated mechanism of the one electron donation process was investigated. • Dendrite structure of silver was formed from spherical silver nanoparticles. • A new approach for nano metallic-silver coating on various surfaces was revealed. • The nano-silver coated products were applied as antimicrobials fillers.

  8. Reduced growth in hybrid tilapia ( Oreochromis mossambicus ×O. Niloticus) at intermediate stocking density (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cui, Yi-Bo; Yang, Yun-Xia; Cai, Fa-Sheng


    Hybrid tilapia were reared at densities of 1, 5 or 10 fish per tank for four weeks. Mortality was 0 at 1 and 10 fish per tank, but was 25% at 5 fish per tank. Specific growth rate was highest at 1 fish per tank, and lowest at 5 fish per tank. The lower growth rate at the intermediate stocking density was associated with reduced feed efficiency, but there was no reduction in feed intake or digestibility. The results suggested increased metabolic cost caused by aggressive behaviour at intermediate stocking density, which can be suppressed by a further increase in density.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩; 崔奕波; 杨云霞; 蔡发盛


    Hybrid tilapia were reared at densities of 1, 5 or 10 fish per tank for four weeks. Mortality was 0 at 1 and 10 fish per tank, but was 25% at 5 fish per tank. Specific growth rate was highest at 1 fish per tank, and lowest at 5 fish per tank. The lower growth rate at the intermediate stocking density was associated with reduced feed efficiency, but there was no reduction in feed intake or digestibility. The results suggested increased metabolic cost caused by aggressive behaviour at intermediate stocking density, which can be suppressed by a further increase in density.

  10. One-electron physics of the actinides (United States)

    Toropova, A.; Marianetti, C. A.; Haule, K.; Kotliar, G.


    We present a detailed analysis of the one-electron physics of the actinides. Various linear muffin-tin orbital basis sets are analyzed in order to determine a robust bare Hamiltonian for the actinides. The hybridization between f and spd states is compared with the f-f hopping in order to understand the Anderson-like and Hubbard-like contributions to itineracy in the actinides. We show that both contributions decrease strongly as one moves from the light actinides to the heavy actinides, while the Anderson-like contribution dominates in all cases. A real-space analysis of the band structure shows that nearest-neighbor hopping dominates the physics in these materials. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results to the delocalization transition as a function of atomic number across the actinide series.

  11. Pulse radiolysis studies on the release of cytotoxins from electron affinic anticancer prodrugs following their one-electron reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.F.; Ware, D.C.; Denny, W.A.; Lee, H.; Tercel, M.; Wilson, W.R. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand)


    New approaches to killing chemoresistant and radioresistant hypoxic cells of solid tumours include the selective release of potent cytotoxins from relatively non-toxic prodrugs through reductive metabolism and/or radiolytic reduction. Central to these studies, is an understanding of the mechanism of cytotoxin release and the basis of hypoxia-selectivity, since such information can be used to design compounds of high potency against solid tumours. Pulse radiolysis studies can offer unique insights into these underlying mechanisms in aqueous solution through the determination of thermodynamic one-electron reduction potentials of the prodrugs, rate constants for the formation and spectral charaterization of one-electron reduced prodrugs, the kinetics release of the cytotoxins from one-electron reduced prodrugs and the influence of molecular oxygen on the obligate radical intermediates. A series of different triggers, which are found to vary greatly in the rate constant for release of the effectors upon one-electron reduction of the prodrugs, will be discussed. Release of effector from a prodrug does not solely depend upon the type of trigger but can also be dependent on the type of linker and released effector. For example, whereas fast quantitative release of the mustard effector mechlorethamine is seen from the quaternary nitroimidazole upon one electron reduction, release of N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl] acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA), requires a higher level of reduction of the same trigger. Release of cytotoxic ligands from metal complexes requires that the metal centre is reduced. When the metal centre is lower than DACA bound as a ligand, reduction is seen to occur solely on the ligand without release from the metal centre. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  12. Differential cross sections for the one electron two center symmetric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidagan, J.M.; Piacentini, R.D. (Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica); Rivarola, R.D. (Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France). Lab. d' Astrophysique; Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica y Quimica Cuantica)


    We use the two-state atomic expansion with variable nuclear charge to study charge-exchange differential cross sections for symmetrical one-electron systems at intermediate energy. The nonclassical small angle diffraction scattering is discussed. Our results are compared with data for H/sup +/-H collisions.

  13. Cool Flames in Propane-Oxygen Premixtures at Low and Intermediate Temperatures at Reduced-Gravity (United States)

    Pearlman, Howard; Foster, Michael; Karabacak, Devrez


    The Cool Flame Experiment aims to address the role of diffusive transport on the structure and the stability of gas-phase, non-isothermal, hydrocarbon oxidation reactions, cool flames and auto-ignition fronts in an unstirred, static reactor. These reactions cannot be studied on Earth where natural convection due to self-heating during the course of slow reaction dominates diffusive transport and produces spatio-temporal variations in the thermal and thus species concentration profiles. On Earth, reactions with associated Rayleigh numbers (Ra) less than the critical Ra for onset of convection (Ra(sub cr) approx. 600) cannot be achieved in laboratory-scale vessels for conditions representative of nearly all low-temperature reactions. In fact, the Ra at 1g ranges from 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) (or larger), while at reduced-gravity, these values can be reduced two to six orders of magnitude (below Ra(sub cr)), depending on the reduced-gravity test facility. Currently, laboratory (1g) and NASA s KC-135 reduced-gravity (g) aircraft studies are being conducted in parallel with the development of a detailed chemical kinetic model that includes thermal and species diffusion. Select experiments have also been conducted at partial gravity (Martian, 0.3gearth) aboard the KC-135 aircraft. This paper discusses these preliminary results for propane-oxygen premixtures in the low to intermediate temperature range (310- 350 C) at reduced-gravity.

  14. Direct Observation by Rapid-Scan FT-IR Spectroscopy of Two-Electron-Reduced Intermediate of Tetraaza Catalyst [Co(II)N4H(MeCN)](2+) Converting CO2 to CO. (United States)

    Sheng, Hua; Frei, Heinz


    In the search for the two-electron-reduced intermediate of the tetraaza catalyst [Co(II)N4H(MeCN)](2+) (N4H = 2,12-dimethyl-3,7,11,17-tetraazabicyclo[11.3.1]heptadeca-1(17),2,11,13,15-pentaene) for CO2 reduction and elementary steps that result in the formation of CO product, rapid-scan FT-IR spectroscopy of the visible-light-sensitized catalysis, using Ir(ppy)3 in wet acetonitrile (CD3CN) solution, led to the observation of two sequential intermediates. The initially formed one-electron-reduced [Co(I)N4H](+)-CO2 adduct was converted by the second electron to a transient [Co(I)N4H](+)-CO2(-) complex that spontaneously converted CO2 to CO in a rate-limiting step on the second time scale in the dark under regeneration of the catalyst (room temperature). The macrocycle IR spectra of the [Co(I)N4H](+)-CO2(-) complex and the preceding one-electron [Co(I)N4H](+)-CO2 intermediate show close similarity but distinct differences in the carboxylate modes, indicating that the second electron resides mainly on the CO2 ligand. Vibrational assignments are corroborated by (13)C isotopic labeling. The structure and stability of the two-electron-reduced intermediate derived from the time-resolved IR study are in good agreement with recent predictions by DFT electronic structure calculations. This is the first observation of an intermediate of a molecular catalyst for CO2 reduction during the bond-breaking step producing CO. The reaction pathway for the Co tetraaza catalyst uncovered here suggests that the competition between CO2 reduction and proton reduction of a macrocyclic multi-electron catalyst is steered toward CO2 activation if the second electron is directly captured by an adduct of CO2 and the one-electron-reduced catalyst intermediate.

  15. Inhibitory concentrations of 2,4D and its possible intermediates in sulfate reducing biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Cruz, Ulises [Department of Biotechnology, Environmental Science and Technology, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Ave. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Vicentina, 09340 D.F. (Mexico); Celis, Lourdes B. [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Lomas 4a. Seccion, 78216 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Poggi, Hector [Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, CINVESTAV, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 D.F. (Mexico); Meraz, Monica, E-mail: [Department of Biotechnology, Environmental Science and Technology, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Ave. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Vicentina, 09340 D.F. (Mexico)


    Different concentrations of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D) and its possible intermediates such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4DCP), 4-chlorophenol (4CP), 2-chlorophenol (2CP) and phenol, were assayed to evaluate the inhibitory effect on sulfate and ethanol utilization in a sulfate reducing biofilm. Increasing concentrations of the chlorophenolic compounds showed an adverse effect on sulfate reduction rate and ethanol conversion to acetate, being the intermediate 2,4DCP most toxic than the herbicide. The monochlorophenol 4CP (600 ppm) caused the complete cessation of sulfate reduction and ethanol conversion. The ratio of the electron acceptor to the electron donor utilized as well as the sulfate utilization volumetric rates, diminished when chlorophenols and phenol concentrations were increased, pointing out to the inhibition of the respiratory process and electrons transfer. The difference found in the IC{sub 50} values obtained was due to the chemical structure complexity of the phenolic compounds, the number of chlorine atoms as much as the chlorine atom position in the phenol ring. The IC{sub 50} values (ppm) indicated that the acute inhibition on the biofilm was caused by 2,4DCP (17.4) followed by 2,4D (29.0), 2CP (99.8), 4CP (108.0) and phenol (143.8).

  16. Microcanonical distribution for one-electron triatomic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarou, C; Emmanouilidou, A


    We formulate a microcanonical distribution for an arbitrary one-electron triatomic molecule. This distribution can be used to describe the initial state in strongly-driven two-electron triatomic molecules. Namely, in many semiclassical models that describe ionization of two-electron molecules driven by intense infrared laser fields in the tunneling regime initially one electron tunnels while the other electron is bound. The microcanonical distribution presented in this work can be used to describe the initial state of this bound electron.

  17. One-Electron Theory of Metals. Cohesive and Structural Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    by means of the Linear Muffin-Tin Orbital (LMTO) method. It has been the goal of the work to establish how well this one-electron approach describes physical properties such as the crystal structures of the transition metals, the structural phase transitions in the alkali, alkaline earth, and rare earth......The work described in the report r.nd the 16 accompanying publications is based upon a one-electron theory obtained within the local approximation to density-functional theory, and deals with the ground state of metals as obtained from selfconsistent electronic-structure calculations performed...

  18. Redox behaviour of nifuroxazide: generation of the one-electron reduction product. (United States)

    Squella, J A; Letelier, M E; Lindermeyer, L; Nuñez-Vergara, L J


    The electrochemical properties of nifuroxazide have been investigated in aqueous and aqueous-DMF mixed solvents. In aqueous media, a single, irreversible four-electron reduction occurs to give the hydroxylamine derivative. In mixed media, a reversible one-electron reduction to form a nitro radical anion takes place. Cyclic voltammetric studies show that the anion radical product is stable, although the nitro radical anion intermediate shows a tendency to undergo further chemical reactions. A comparison with the voltammetric behaviour of other nitrofurans such as nifurtimox, nitrofurazone and furazolidone is made. The electrochemically-obtained parameters are correlated with the in vivo studies of oxygen consumption on Trypanosoma cruzi cell suspensions.

  19. An intermediate alemtuzumab schedule reduces the incidence of mixed chimerism following reduced-intensity conditioning hematopoietic cell transplantation for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. (United States)

    Marsh, Rebecca A; Kim, Mi-Ok; Liu, Chunyan; Bellman, Denise; Hart, Laura; Grimley, Michael; Kumar, Ashish; Jodele, Sonata; Myers, Kasiani C; Chandra, Sharat; Leemhuis, Tom; Mehta, Parinda A; Bleesing, Jack J; Davies, Stella M; Jordan, Michael B; Filipovich, Alexandra H


    Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) improves the outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Proximal (ie, close to graft infusion) dosing of alemtuzumab is associated with a high incidence of mixed chimerism, whereas distal (ie, distant from graft infusion) dosing is associated with less mixed chimerism but more acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The alemtuzumab dose per kilogram of body weight also influences these outcomes. We hypothesized that an intermediate alemtuzumab dosing schedule would reduce mixed chimerism and maintain a low incidence of acute GVHD. In this study, 24 consecutive HCTs were performed in patients with HLH or a related disorder using a novel intermediate alemtuzumab schedule of 1 mg/kg starting on day -14. The cumulative incidences (CIs) of mixed chimerism, upfront acute GVHD grades II-IV, and receipt of additional hematopoietic cell products after HCT were compared in patients treated with a distal alemtuzumab schedule (n = 15) and those treated with a proximal alemtuzumab schedule (n = 33). All patients received fludarabine and melphalan. The CI of mixed chimerism was 31% in the intermediate group, 72% in the proximal group (P alemtuzumab (P = .03). The CI of acute GVHD grades II-IV before the development of mixed chimerism was 4% in the intermediate group, 0% in the proximal group, and 13% in the distal group (P = .04, proximal versus distal). The 1-year CI of administration of additional hematopoietic cell products for mixed chimerism (donor lymphocyte infusion ± hematopoietic stem cell boost ± repeat HCT) was 14% in the intermediate group, 53% in the proximal group (P = .01), and 38% in the distal ≥2 mg/kg alemtuzumab group (P = .02). Our findings indicate that intermediate RIC reduces the incidence of mixed chimerism, is associated with a low incidence of upfront acute GVHD, and decreases the need for additional hematopoietic cell

  20. Improving high temperature creep resistance of reduced activation steels by addition of nitrogen and intermediate heat treatment (United States)

    Liu, W. B.; Zhang, C.; Xia, Z. X.; Yang, Z. G.


    In the present study, we report an enhanced high-temperature creep resistance in reduced activation ferrite/martensite (RAFM) steels, by introducing nitrogen (0.035 wt%, M3 steel) and employing a novel intermediate heat treatment I-Q-T (intermediate treatment, quenching and tempering). In comparison with all the control groups, the uniaxial tests of the I-Q-T treated M3 steel showed significant increase in rupture time and decrease in elongation. The microstructures of the samples were further characterized to elucidate the origin of the enhanced creep resistance. It is found that, by introducing nitrogen, the primary TaC particles were refined; by employing the I-Q-T heat treatment, the dispersed fine secondary MX precipitates, as well as the lath subgrains containing high-density dislocations, were increased: all are responsible for the improved creep resistance.

  1. Improving high temperature creep resistance of reduced activation steels by addition of nitrogen and intermediate heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.B. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, C., E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xia, Z.X. [Shagang School of Iron and Steel, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China); Yang, Z.G. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)


    In the present study, we report an enhanced high-temperature creep resistance in reduced activation ferrite/martensite (RAFM) steels, by introducing nitrogen (0.035 wt%, M3 steel) and employing a novel intermediate heat treatment I–Q–T (intermediate treatment, quenching and tempering). In comparison with all the control groups, the uniaxial tests of the I–Q–T treated M3 steel showed significant increase in rupture time and decrease in elongation. The microstructures of the samples were further characterized to elucidate the origin of the enhanced creep resistance. It is found that, by introducing nitrogen, the primary TaC particles were refined; by employing the I–Q–T heat treatment, the dispersed fine secondary MX precipitates, as well as the lath subgrains containing high-density dislocations, were increased: all are responsible for the improved creep resistance.

  2. One-electron quantum cyclotron (and implications for cold antihydrogen)

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielse, G; Odom, B; D'Urso, B


    Quantum jumps between Fock states of a one-electron oscillator reveal the quantum limit of a cyclotron accelerator. The states live for seconds when spontaneous emission is inhibited by a factor of 140 within a cylindrical Penning trap cavity. Averaged over hours the oscillator is in thermal equilibrium with black-body photons in the cavity. At 80 mK, quantum jumps occur only when resonant microwave photons are introduced into the cavity, opening a route to improved measurements of the magnetic moments of the electron and positron. The temperature demonstrated is about 60 times lower than the 4.2 K temperature at which charged elementary particles were previously stored. Implications for the production of cold antihydrogen are discussed. (21 refs).

  3. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host (United States)

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; D'Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A.


    Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite’s intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village’s river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis.                            

  4. Nitric oxide reduction to ammonia by TiO₂ electrons in colloid solution via consecutive one-electron transfer steps. (United States)

    Goldstein, Sara; Behar, David; Rajh, Tijana; Rabani, Joseph


    The reaction mechanism of nitric oxide (NO) reduction by excess electrons on TiO2 nanoparticles (e(TiO2)(-)) has been studied under anaerobic conditions. TiO2 was loaded with 10-130 electrons per particle using γ-irradiation of acidic TiO2 colloid solutions containing 2-propanol. The study is based on time-resolved kinetics and reactants and products analysis. The reduction of NO by e(TiO2)(-) is interpreted in terms of competition between a reaction path leading to formation of NH3 and a path leading to N2O and N2. The proposed mechanism involves consecutive one-electron transfers of NO, and its reduction intermediates HNO, NH2O(•), and NH2OH. The results show that e(TiO2)(-) does not reduce N2O and N2. Second-order rate constants of e(TiO2)(-) reactions with NO (740 ± 30 M(-1) s(-1)) and NH2OH (270 ± 30 M(-1) s(-1)) have been determined employing the rapid-mixing stopped-flow technique and that with HNO (>1.3 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) was derived from fitting the kinetic traces to the suggested reaction mechanism, which is discussed in detail.

  5. Generalization of the Kohn-Sham system enabling representing arbitary one electron density matrices

    CERN Document Server

    van Dam, Hubertus J J


    Density functional theory is currently the most widely applied method in electronic structure theory. The Kohn-Sham method, based on a fictitious system of non-interacting particles, is the work horse of the theory. The particular form of the Kohn-Sham wavefunction admits only idem-potent one electron density matrices whereas wavefunctions of correlated electrons in post-Hartree-Fock methods invariably have fractional occupation numbers. Here we show that by generalizing the orbital concept, and introducing a suitable dot-product as well as a probability density a non-interacting system can be chosen that can represent the one-electron density matrix of any system, even one with fractional occupation numbers. This fictitious system ensures that the exact electron density is accessible within density functional theory. It can also serve as the basis for reduced density matrix functional theory. Moreover, to aid the analysis of the results the orbitals may be assigned energies from a mean-field Hamiltonian. Thi...

  6. Does "transition shoe" promote an intermediate biomechanical condition compared to running in conventional shoe and in reduced protection condition? (United States)

    da Silva Azevedo, Ana Paula; Mezêncio, Bruno; Valvassori, Raísa; Mochizuki, Luis; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Júlio Cerca


    This study evaluated if running in a "transition shoe" commercially available results in intermediate mechanical load upon lower extremities compared to conventional shoe and minimalist shoe/barefoot. Kinematic and kinetic parameters while running in different shoe conditions were compared. Fourteen runners (12 men, 2 women; age=28.4±7.3 years), inexperienced in minimalist shoes and barefoot running, ran on an instrumented treadmill within four experimental conditions (conventional shoe - CS, transition shoe - TrS, minimalist shoe - MS, and barefoot - BF). Running was performed at 9km/h for 10min in each experimental condition. Vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) and two-dimensional kinematic variables of lower limbs (both legs) were recorded. Nine data acquisitions (10s) were conducted for each footwear condition. Transition shoe lead to significant changes in VGRF variables related to impact control, while kinematic parameters were little affected. The TrS had smaller first peak of VGRF (Fy1) than CS (p≤0.001) and higher than MS (p=0.050) and BF (p≤0.001). Time to first peak of VGRF (tFy1) of TrS was smaller than CS (p≤0.001) and higher than MS (p≤0.001) and BF (p≤0.001). The TrS and MS induced to lesser knee flexion (prunning shoe to minimalist shoe/barefoot.

  7. EU Think Tank Fora as Transaction Cost Reducers: A Study of Informal Interest Intermediation in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marybel Perez


    Full Text Available By examining the organisational structure of EU think tank fora (seminars, workshops and conferences, this article proposes that fora can play the role of transaction cost reducers in EU policymaking. I argue that certain aspects of EU policymaking, including i controlled processes of consultation, ii diminishing costs of management, and iii the risk of state capture, incentivise EU institutions to outsource part of the consultation activity to policy actors that can help EU institutions fulfil their informational and legitimacy needs. I argue that think tanks are able to play this role because they i reduce information asymmetries by connecting a wide variety of policy actors and ii act as intermediaries that mitigate opportunistic behaviour. The empirical assessment reveals that the dimensions characterising transactions are present in EU think tank fora. It shows that policy actors that do not usually participate in formal consultation processes frequently attend fora where they meet representatives of EU institutions, particularly Parliament and Commission representatives.

  8. Boron-Boron One-Electron Sigma Bonds versus B-X-B Bridged Structures. (United States)

    Kusevska, Elena; Montero-Campillo, M Merced; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel


    The existence of one-electron B-B σ bonds, for two different sets of compounds, was investigated by analyzing their electron density with different tools, namely QTAIM, ELF, NCIPLOT, and NBO approaches. Our results indicate that although the generic label "one-electron sigma bond" is often used in the literature, the nature of these bonds varies considerably, or they even do not exist. The [B2 X6 ](-) radical anions give place to true covalent one-electron σ bonds, the stronger the more electronegative is the X substituent. When both boron atoms are substituents in a rigid aromatic moiety, such as naphthalene, to yield 1,8-disubstituted derivatives, two kinds of equilibrium structures are found, those also stabilized through a one-electron σ bond (X=OH, F, Cl, CN) and those stabilized by the formation of B-X-B bridges (X=H, OMe). These 1,8-BX2 naphthalene derivatives can be considered as analogues of 1,8-NX2 naphthalene proton sponges. While the latter are able to stabilize a proton between the two basic sites, the former are able to stabilize an electron between the two electron-deficient B atoms. Interestingly, when all the H atoms attached to B are substituted by phenyl groups no one-electron σ bonds B-B bonds are formed, due to the dispersion of the unpaired electron in the aromatic substituents.

  9. In situ spectroscopy on intact Leptospirillum ferrooxidans reveals that reduced cytochrome 579 is an obligatory intermediate in the aerobic iron respiratory chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Blake


    Full Text Available Electron transfer reactions among colored biomolecules in intact bacterial cells were monitored using an integrating cavity absorption meter that permitted the acquisition of accurate absorbance data in suspensions of cells that scatter light. The aerobic iron respiratory chain of Leptospirillum ferrooxidans was dominated by the redox status of an abundant cellular cytochrome that had an absorbance peak at 579 nanometers in the reduced state. Intracellular cytochrome 579 was reduced within the time that it took to mix a suspension of the bacteria with soluble ferrous iron at pH 1.7. Steady state turnover experiments were conducted where the initial concentrations of ferrous iron were less than or equal to that of the oxygen concentration. Under these conditions, the initial absorbance spectrum of the oxidized bacterium was always regenerated from that of the iron-reduced bacterium. The kinetics of aerobic respiration on soluble iron by intact L. ferrooxidans conformed to the Michaelis-Menten formalism, where the reduced intracellular cytochrome 579 represented the Michaelis complex whose subsequent oxidation appeared to be the rate-limiting step in the overall aerobic respiratory process. The velocity of formation of ferric iron at any time point was directly proportional to the concentration of the reduced cytochrome 579. Further, the integral over time of the concentraton of the reduced cytochrome was directly proportional to the total concentration of ferrous iron in each reaction mixture. These kinetic data obtained using whole cells were consistent with the hypothesis that reduced cytochrome 579 is an obligatory steady state intermediate in the iron respiratory chain of this bacterium. The capability of conducting visible spectroscopy in suspensions of intact cells comprises a powerful post-reductionist means to study cellular respiration in situ under physiological conditions for the organism.

  10. One-electron singular spectral features of the 1D Hubbard model at finite magnetic field (United States)

    Carmelo, J. M. P.; Čadež, T.


    The momentum, electronic density, spin density, and interaction dependences of the exponents that control the (k , ω)-plane singular features of the σ = ↑ , ↓ one-electron spectral functions of the 1D Hubbard model at finite magnetic field are studied. The usual half-filling concepts of one-electron lower Hubbard band and upper Hubbard band are defined in terms of the rotated electrons associated with the model Bethe-ansatz solution for all electronic density and spin density values and the whole finite repulsion range. Such rotated electrons are the link of the non-perturbative relation between the electrons and the pseudofermions. Our results further clarify the microscopic processes through which the pseudofermion dynamical theory accounts for the one-electron matrix elements between the ground state and excited energy eigenstates.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Electron-redistribution processes in collisions of He-2+ ions on H-2 are studied for energies from 1 to 25 keV amu-1. One-electron capture and target excitation cross sections are determined by photon-emission spectroscopy. At energies exceeding approximately 5 keV amu-1 capture into excited states


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    By means of photon emission spectroscopy we have studied state selective one-electron capture and target-ion excitation in collisions of He-2+ with He. The collision energy has been varied from 1 to 75 keV amu-1 Four-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations have been performed in the energ


    Semiempirical molecular orbital theory and density functional theory are used to compute one-electron oxidation potentials for aniline and a set of 21 mono- and di-substituted anilines in aqueous solution. Linear relationships between theoretical predictions and experiment are co...

  14. Calculation of two-center one-electron molecular integrals with STOs. [BICEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rico, J.F.; Lopez, R.; Paniagua, M.; Ramirez, G. (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica y Quimica Cuantica)


    A program for the calculation of two-center one-electron integrals (overlap, nuclear attraction and kinetic energy) between real Slater-type orbitals (STOs) is reported. The integrals are obtained by recursion over simple auxiliary matrices, whose elements are calculated in terms of further auxiliary functions evaluated in a quick and accurate way. (orig.).

  15. Urinary loss of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates as revealed by metabolomics studies: an underlying mechanism to reduce lipid accretion by whey protein ingestion? (United States)

    Lillefosse, Haldis H; Clausen, Morten R; Yde, Christian C; Ditlev, Ditte B; Zhang, Xumin; Du, Zhen-Yu; Bertram, Hanne C; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn


    Whey protein intake is associated with the modulation of energy metabolism and altered body composition both in human subjects and in animals, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet elucidated. We fed obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice high-fat diets with either casein (HF casein) or whey (HF whey) for 6 weeks. At equal energy intake and apparent fat and nitrogen digestibility, mice fed HF whey stored less energy as lipids, evident both as lower white adipose tissue mass and as reduced liver lipids, compared with HF-casein-fed mice. Explorative analyses of 48 h urine, both by (1)H NMR and LC-MS metabolomic platforms, demonstrated higher urinary excretion of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citric acid and succinic acid (identified by both platforms), and cis-aconitic acid and isocitric acid (identified by LC-MS platform) in the HF whey, relative to in the HF-casein-fed mice. Targeted LC-MS analyses revealed higher citric acid and cis-aconitic acid concentrations in fed state plasma, but not in liver of HF-whey-fed mice. We propose that enhanced urinary loss of TCA cycle metabolites drain available substrates for anabolic processes, such as lipogenesis, thereby leading to reduced lipid accretion in HF-whey-fed compared to HF-casein-fed mice.

  16. Thioredoxin Ch1 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii displays an unusual resistance toward one-electron oxidation. (United States)

    Sicard-Roselli, Cécile; Lemaire, Stéphane; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Favaudon, Vincent; Marchand, Christophe; Houée-Levin, Chantal


    To test thioredoxin resistance to oxidizing free radicals, we have studied the one-electron oxidation of wild-type thioredoxin and of two forms with the point mutations D30A and W35A, using azide radicals generated by gamma-ray or pulse radiolysis. The oxidation patterns of wild-type thioredoxin and D30A are similar. In these forms, Trp35 is the primary target and is 'repaired' by one-electron reduction; first by intramolecular electron transfer from tyrosine, and then from other residues. Conversely, during oxidation of W35A, Trp13 is poorly reactive. For all proteins, activity is conserved showing an unusual resistance toward oxidation.

  17. Crystal Structure of Reduced and of Oxidized Peroxiredoxin IV Enzyme Reveals a Stable Oxidized Decamer and a Non-disulfide-bonded Intermediate in the Catalytic Cycle* (United States)

    Cao, Zhenbo; Tavender, Timothy J.; Roszak, Aleksander W.; Cogdell, Richard J.; Bulleid, Neil J.


    Peroxiredoxin IV (PrxIV) is an endoplasmic reticulum-localized enzyme that metabolizes the hydrogen peroxide produced by endoplasmic reticulum oxidase 1 (Ero1). It has been shown to play a role in de novo disulfide formation, oxidizing members of the protein disulfide isomerase family of enzymes, and is a member of the typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin family. We have determined the crystal structure of both reduced and disulfide-bonded, as well as a resolving cysteine mutant of human PrxIV. We show that PrxIV has a similar structure to other typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins and undergoes a conformational change from a fully folded to a locally unfolded form following the formation of a disulfide between the peroxidatic and resolving cysteine residues. Unlike other mammalian typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins, we show that human PrxIV forms a stable decameric structure even in its disulfide-bonded state. In addition, the structure of a resolving cysteine mutant reveals an intermediate in the reaction cycle that adopts the locally unfolded conformation. Interestingly the peroxidatic cysteine in the crystal structure is sulfenylated rather than sulfinylated or sulfonylated. In addition, the peroxidatic cysteine in the resolving cysteine mutant is resistant to hyper-oxidation following incubation with high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. These results highlight some unique properties of PrxIV and suggest that the equilibrium between the fully folded and locally unfolded forms favors the locally unfolded conformation upon sulfenylation of the peroxidatic cysteine residue. PMID:21994946

  18. Molecular structural formulas as one-electron density and hamiltonian operators: the VIF method extended. (United States)

    Alia, Joseph D


    The valency interaction formula (VIF) method is given a broader and more general interpretation in which these simple molecular structural formulas implicitly include all overlaps between valence atomic orbitals even for interactions not drawn in the VIF picture. This applies for VIF pictures as one-electron Hamiltonian operators as well as VIF pictures as one-electron density operators that constitute a new implementation of the VIF method simpler in its application and more accurate in its results than previous approaches. A procedure for estimating elements of the effective charge density-bond order matrix, Pmunu, from electron configurations in atoms is presented, and it is shown how these lead to loop and line constants in the VIF picture. From these structural formulas, one finds the number of singly, doubly, and unoccupied molecular orbitals, as well as the number of molecular orbitals with energy lower, equal, and higher than -1/2Eh, the negative of the hydrogen atom's ionization energy. The VIF results for water are in qualitative agreement with MP2/6311++G3df3pd, MO energy levels where the simple VIF for water presented in the earlier literature does not agree with computed energy levels. The method presented here gives the simplest accurate VIF pictures for hydrocarbons. It is shown how VIF can be used to predict thermal barriers to chemical reactions. Insertion of singlet carbene into H2 is given as an example. VIF pictures as one-electron density operators describe the ground-state multiplicities of B2, N2, and O2 molecules and as one-electron Hamiltonian operators give the correct electronegativity trend across period two. Previous implementations of VIF do not indicate singly occupied molecular orbitals directly from the pictorial VIF rules for these examples. The direct comparison between structural formulas that represent electron density and those that represent energy is supported by comparison of a simple electronegativity scale, chiD=N/n2, with

  19. The isolable cation radical of disilene: synthesis, characterization, and a reversible one-electron redox system. (United States)

    Inoue, Shigeyoshi; Ichinohe, Masaaki; Sekiguchi, Akira


    The highly twisted tetrakis(di-tert-butylmethylsilyl)disilene 1 was treated with Ph3C+.BAr4- (BAr4-: TPFPB = tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate) in toluene, producing disilene cation radical 3 upon one-electron oxidation. Cation radical 3 was isolated in the form of its borate salt as extremely air- and moisture-sensitive red-brown crystals. The molecular structure of 3 was established by X-ray crystallography, which showed a highly twisted structure (twisting angle of 64.9 degrees) along the central Si-Si bond with a bond length of 2.307(2) A, which is 2.1% elongated relative to that of 1. The cation radical is stabilized by sigma-pi hyperconjugation by the four tBu2MeSi groups attached to the two central sp2-Si atoms. An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of the hyperfine coupling constants (hfcc) of the 29Si nuclei indicates delocalization of the spin over the central two Si atoms. A reversible one-electron redox system between disilene, cation radical, and anion radical is also reported.

  20. Oxygen dependency of one-electron reactions generating ascorbate radicals and hydrogen peroxide from ascorbic acid. (United States)

    Boatright, William L


    The effect of oxygen on the two separate one-electron reactions involved in the oxidation of ascorbic acid was investigated. The rate of ascorbate radical (Asc(-)) formation (and stability) was strongly dependent on the presence of oxygen. A product of ascorbic acid oxidation was measurable levels of hydrogen peroxide, as high as 32.5 μM from 100 μM ascorbic acid. Evidence for a feedback mechanism where hydrogen peroxide generated during the oxidation of ascorbic acid accelerates further oxidation of ascorbic acid is also presented. The second one-electron oxidation reaction of ascorbic acid leading to the disappearance of Asc(-) was also strongly inhibited in samples flushed with argon. In the range of 0.05-1.2 mM ascorbic acid, maximum levels of measurable hydrogen peroxide were achieved with an initial concentration of 0.2 mM ascorbic acid. Hydrogen peroxide generation was greatly diminished at ascorbic acid levels of 0.8 mM or above.

  1. Nitrene Radical Intermediates in Catalytic Synthesis. (United States)

    Kuijpers, Petrus; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar; Schneider, Sven; de Bruin, Bas


    Nitrene radical complexes are reactive intermediates with discrete spin density at the nitrogen-atom of the nitrene moiety. These species have become important intermediates for organic synthesis, being invoked in a broad range of C-H functionalization and aziridination reactions. Nitrene radical complexes have intriguing electronic structures, and are best described as one-electron reduced Fischer-type nitrenes. They can be generated by intramolecular single electron transfer to the 'redox non-innocent' nitrene moiety at the metal. Nitrene radicals generated at open-shell cobalt(II) have thus far received most attention in terms of spectroscopic characterization, reactivity screening, catalytic application and (computational and experimental) mechanistic studies, but some interesting iron and precious metal catalysts have also been employed in related reactions involving nitrene radicals. In some cases, redox-active ligands are used to facilitate intramolecular single electron transfer from the complex to the nitrene moiety. Organic azides are among the most attractive nitrene precursors in this field, typically requiring pre-activated organic azides (e.g. RSO2N3, (RO)2P(=O)N3, ROC(=O)N3 and alike) to achieve efficient and selective catalysis. Challenging, non-activated aliphatic organic azides were recently added to the palette of synthetically useful reactions proceeding via nitrene radical intermediates. This concept article describes the electronic structure of nitrene radical complexes, emphasizes on their usefulness in the catalytic synthesis of various organic products, and highlights the important developments in the field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Local and global properties of eigenfunctions and one-electron densities of Coulombic Schrödinger operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Maria; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Thomas


    We review recent results by the authors on the regularity of molecular eigenfunctions ψ and their corresponding one-electron densities ρ, as well as of the spherically averaged one-electron atomic density ρ. Furthermore, we prove an exponentially decreasing lower bound for ρ in the case when the ...

  3. Hilbert-space partitioning of the molecular one-electron density matrix with orthogonal projectors

    CERN Document Server

    Vanfleteren, Diederik; Bultinck, Patrick; Ayers, Paul W; Waroquier, Michel; 10.1063/1.3521493


    A double-atom partitioning of the molecular one-electron density matrix is used to describe atoms and bonds. All calculations are performed in Hilbert space. The concept of atomic weight functions (familiar from Hirshfeld analysis of the electron density) is extended to atomic weight matrices. These are constructed to be orthogonal projection operators on atomic subspaces, which has significant advantages in the interpretation of the bond contributions. In close analogy to the iterative Hirshfeld procedure, self-consistency is built in at the level of atomic charges and occupancies. The method is applied to a test set of about 67 molecules, representing various types of chemical binding. A close correlation is observed between the atomic charges and the Hirshfeld-I atomic charges.

  4. Frequency-dependent polarizabilities and shielding factors for confined one-electron systems (United States)

    Montgomery, H. E., Jr.; Pupyshev, Vladimir I.


    Frequency-dependent dipole polarizabilities and shielding factors are calculated for the ground state of spherically symmetric screened one-electron systems embedded in an impenetrable spherical cavity. Coulomb, Yukawa, Hulthén and exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potentials are considered. In contrast to free systems, Dirichlet boundary conditions introduce a contribution to the shielding factor that results from an integral over the surface of the confining boundary. This is a fundamental difference between free and confined systems and results in unexpected modifications to some of the classic relations for free systems. The methods derived also give a simple expression for the polarizability of the confined harmonic oscillator as an example of extending the methods of this work to potentials beyond the four studied.

  5. One-electron standard reduction potentials of nitroaromatic and cyclic nitramine explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchimiya, Minori, E-mail: sophie.uchimiya@ars.usda.go [Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Gorb, Leonid [SpecPro Inc, 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Isayev, Olexandr [Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Qasim, Mohammad M. [Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Leszczynski, Jerzy [Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Interdisciplinary Center for Nanotoxicity, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217 (United States)


    Extensive studies have been conducted in the past decades to predict the environmental abiotic and biotic redox fate of nitroaromatic and nitramine explosives. However, surprisingly little information is available on one-electron standard reduction potentials (E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -})). The E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) is an essential thermodynamic parameter for predicting the rate and extent of reductive transformation for energetic residues. In this study, experimental (linear free energy relationships) and theoretical (ab initio calculation) approaches were employed to determine E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) for nitroaromatic, (caged) cyclic nitramine, and nitroimino explosives that are found in military installations or are emerging contaminants. The results indicate a close agreement between experimental and theoretical E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and suggest a key trend: E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) value decreases from di- and tri-nitroaromatic (e.g., 2,4-dinitroanisole) to nitramine (e.g., RDX) to nitroimino compound (e.g., nitroguanidine). The observed trend in E{sup o}(R-NO{sub 2}/R-NO{sub 2}{sup -}) agrees with reported rate trends for reductive degradation, suggesting a thermodynamic control on the reduction rate under anoxic/suboxic conditions. - Reduction of explosives becomes less thermodynamically favorable as the one-electron standard reduction potential decreases from di- and tri-nitroaromatic, nitramine, to nitroimino compounds.

  6. Valence one-electron and shake-up ionization bands of fluorene, carbazole and dibenzofuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza Shojaei, S.H.; Morini, Filippo; Deleuze, Michael S., E-mail:


    Highlights: • The photoelectron spectra of the title compounds are assigned in details. • Shake-up lines are found to severely contaminate both π- and σ-ionization bands. • σ-ionization onsets are subject to severe vibronic coupling complications. • We compare the results of OVGF, ADC(3) and TDDFT calculations. - Abstract: A comprehensive study of the He (I) ultra-violet photoelectron spectra of fluorene, carbazole and dibenzofuran is presented with the aid of one-particle Green’s Function calculations employing the outer-valence Green’s Function (OVGF) approach and the third-order algebraic diagrammatic construction [ADC(3)] scheme, along with Dunning’s correlation consistent basis sets of double and triple zeta quality (cc-pVDZ, cc-pVTZ). Extrapolations of the ADC(3) results for the outermost one-electron π-ionization energies to the cc-pVTZ basis set enable theoretical insights into He (I) measurements within ∼0.15 eV accuracy, up to the σ-ionization onset. The lower ionization energy of carbazole is the combined result of mesomeric and electronic relaxation effects. OVGF/cc-pVDZ or OVGF/cc-pVTZ pole strengths smaller than 0.85 systematically corroborate a breakdown of the orbital picture of ionization at the ADC(3) level. Comparison is made with calculations of the lowest doublet–doublet excitation energies of the radical cation of fluorene, by means of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT)

  7. Solving One-Electron Systems in a Novel Gaussian-Sinc Mixed Basis Set

    CERN Document Server

    Jerke, Jonathan L; Tymczak, C J


    We introduce a novel Gaussian-Sinc mixed basis set for the calculation of the electronic structure of one-electron systems within a uniform magnetic field in three dimensions. As opposed to traditional grid based methods, the Sinc basis is unbiased and invariant to the choice of the grids origin. This is shown to be due to the transformation properties of the Sinc basis functions under translations. The entire method is translational invariant and the potentials are properly calculated and are necessarily off diagonal, as well as variationally bounded. With this method, it was generally found that under arbitrary configurations of the protons that four to six significant digits in the ground state energy accuracy was achievable. This technology was then applied to calculate the ground state energy of H, $H_{2}^{+}$ ion and $H_{3}^{2+}$ ion in magnetic fields up to a magnetic field strength of 1.18x$10^9$ T (5000 au). From this it can be shown that $H_{3}^(2+}$ ion is unstable up to the maximum magnetic field ...

  8. Anomalous one-electron processes in the chemistry of uranium nitrogen multiple bonds. (United States)

    Mullane, Kimberly C; Lewis, Andrew J; Yin, Haolin; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J


    Novel reaction pathways are illustrated in the synthesis of uranium(IV), uranium(V), and uranium(VI) monoimido complexes. In contrast to the straightforward preparation of U(V)(═NSiMe3)[N(SiMe3)2]3 (1), the synthesis of a uranium(V) tritylimido complex, U(V)(═NCPh3)[N(SiMe3)2]3 (4), from U(III)[N(SiMe3)2]3 and Ph3CN3 was found to proceed through multiple one-electron steps. Whereas the oxidation of 1 with copper(II) salts produced the uranium(VI) monoimido complexes U(VI)(═NSiMe3)X[N(SiMe3)2]3 (X = Cl, Br), the reaction of 4 with CuBr2 undergoes sterically induced reduction to form the uranium(VI) monoimido complex U(VI)(═NCPh3)Br2[N(SiMe3)2]2, demonstrating a striking difference in reactivity based on imido substituent. The facile reduction of compounds 1 and 4 with KC8 allowed for the synthesis of the uranium(IV) monoimido derivatives, K[U(IV)(═NSiMe3)[N(SiMe3)2]3] (1-K) and K[U(IV)(═NCPh3)[N(SiMe3)2]3] (4-K), respectively. In contrast, an analogous uranium(IV) monoimido complex, K[U(IV)(═NPh(F))[N(SiMe3)Ph(F)

  9. Ability of Curcuminoid from Curcuma domestica Val. in Reducing the Secretion of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates by Synovial Fluid Monocytes in Patients with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Kertia


    Full Text Available AbstractIncreasing the secretion of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI by monocytes in the synovial fluid is anindicator to determine the severity of joint inflammation. Previous studies have shown that curcumin inhibitthe osteoarthritis progression with its ability to inhibite the activity of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS enzymefrom macrophages. In this prospective randomized open end blinded evaluations = PROBE study, 80 patientswith knee osteoarthritis were eligable. The subject were devided in to two group: group who received 3 x 30mg of curcuminoid from Curcuma domestica Val. extract (curcuminoid group and group who received 3 x 25mg of diclofenac sodium (diclofenac group as comparison. The treatment was for 4 weeks time. The secretionof ROI by sinovial fluid monocytes was calculated by scoring the amount of formazan formation after neutralred staining in nitrobleu tetrazolium reduction assay. The result of this study showed that the secretion of ROIby synovial fluid monocytes was significantly decreased in both groups (p <0.001 respectively. There wasno significant difference in decreasing of ROI secretion of synovial fluid monocytes between both treatmentgroups (p = 0.92.Keywords : curcuminoid, diclofenac sodium, reactive oxygen intermediates, monocyte, osteoarthritis

  10. π to σ Radical Tautomerization in One-Electron Oxidized 1-Methylcytosine and its Analogs (United States)

    Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Bishop, Casandra T.; Wiegand, Tyler J.; Hindi, Ragda M.; Adhikary, Ananya; Sevilla, Michael D.


    In this work iminyl σ-radical formation in several one-electron oxidized cytosine analogs including 1-MeC, cidofovir, 2′-deoxycytidine (dCyd), and 2′-deoxycytidine 5′-monophosphate (5′-dCMP) were investigated in homogeneous aqueous (D2O or H2O) glassy solutions at low temperatures employing electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Employing density functional theory (DFT) (DFT/B3LYP/6-31G* method), the calculated hyperfine coupling constant (HFCC) values of iminyl σ-radical agree quite well with the experimentally observed ones thus confirming its assignment. ESR and DFT studies show that the cytosine-iminyl σ-radical is a tautomer of the deprotonated cytosine π-cation radical (cytosine π-aminyl radical, C(N4-H)•). Employing 1-MeC samples at various pHs ranging ca. 8 to ca. 11, ESR studies show that the tautomeric equilibrium between C(N4-H)• and the iminyl σ-radical at low temperature is too slow to be established without added base. ESR and DFT studies agree that in the iminyl-σ radical, the unpaired spin is localized to the exocyclic nitrogen (N4) in an in-plane pure p-orbital. This gives rise to an anisotropic nitrogen hyperfine coupling (Azz = 40 G) from N4 and a near isotropic β-nitrogen coupling of 9.7 G from the cytosine ring nitrogen at N3. Iminyl σ-radical should exist in its N3-protonated form as the N3-protonated iminyl σ-radical is stabilized in solution by over 30 kcal/mol (ΔG= −32 kcal/mol) over its conjugate base, the N3-deprotonated form. This is the first observation of an isotropic β-hyperfine ring nitrogen coupling in an N-centered DNA-radical. Our theoretical calculations predict that the cytosine iminyl σ-radical can be formed in dsDNA by a radiation-induced ionization–deprotonation process that is only 10 kcal/mol above the lowest energy path. PMID:26237072

  11. South Atlantic intermediate water advances into the North-east Atlantic with reduced Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last glacial period (United States)

    Dubois-Dauphin, Quentin; Bonneau, Lucile; Colin, Christophe; Montero-Serrano, Jean-Carlos; Montagna, Paolo; Blamart, Dominique; Hebbeln, Dierk; Van Rooij, David; Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Hemsing, Freya; Wefing, Anne-Marie; Frank, Norbert


    The Nd isotopic composition (ɛNd) of seawater and cold-water coral (CWC) samples from the Gulf of Cádiz and the Alboran Sea, at a depth of 280-827 m were investigated in order to constrain middepth water mass dynamics within the Gulf of Cádiz over the past 40 ka. ɛNd of glacial and Holocene CWC from the Alboran Sea and the northern Gulf of Cádiz reveals relatively constant values (-8.6 to -9.0 and -9.5 to -10.4, respectively). Such values are similar to those of the surrounding present-day middepth waters from the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW; ɛNd ˜ -9.4) and Mediterranean Sea Water (MSW; ɛNd ˜ -9.9). In contrast, glacial ɛNd values for CWC collected at thermocline depth (550-827 m) in the southern Gulf of Cádiz display a higher average value (-8.9 ± 0.4) compared to the present-day value (-11.7 ± 0.3). This implies a higher relative contribution of water masses of Mediterranean (MSW) or South Atlantic origin (East Antarctic Intermediate Water, EAAIW). Our study has produced the first evidence of significant radiogenic ɛNd values (˜ -8) at 19, 23-24, and 27 ka, which are coeval with increasing iceberg discharges and a weakening of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Since MOW ɛNd values remained stable during the last glacial period, it is suggested that these radiogenic ɛNd values most likely reflect an enhanced northward propagation of glacial EAAIW into the eastern Atlantic Basin.

  12. Nitrite Reduction to Nitrous Oxide and Ammonia by TiO2 Electrons in a Colloid Solution via Consecutive One-Electron Transfer Reactions. (United States)

    Goldstein, Sara; Behar, David; Rajh, Tijana; Rabani, Joseph


    The mechanism of nitrite reduction by excess electrons on TiO2 nanoparticles (eTiO2(-)) was studied under anaerobic conditions. TiO2 was loaded with up to 75 electrons per particle, induced by γ-irradiation of acidic TiO2 colloid solutions containing 2-propanol. Time-resolved kinetics and material analysis were performed, mostly at 1.66 g L(-1) TiO2. At relatively low nitrite concentrations (R = [eTiO2(-)]o/[nitrite]o > 1.5), eTiO2(-) decays via two consecutive processes; at higher concentrations, only one decay step is observed. The stoichiometric ratio Δ[eTiO2(-)]/[nitrite]o of the faster process is about 2. This process involves the one-electron reduction of nitrite, forming the nitrite radical (k1 = (2.0 ± 0.2) × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)), which further reacts with eTiO2(-) (k2) in competition with its dehydration to nitric oxide (NO) (k3). The ratios k2/k3 = (3.0 ± 0.5) × 10(3) M(-1) and k2 > 1 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) were derived from kinetic simulations and product analysis. The major product of this process is NO. The slower stage of the kinetics involves the reduction of NO by eTiO2(-), and the detailed mechanism of this process has been discussed in our earlier publication. The results reported in this study suggest that several intermediates, including NO and NH2OH, are adsorbed on the titanium nanoparticles and give rise to inverse dependency of the respective reaction rates on the TiO2 concentration. It is demonstrated that the reduction of nitrite by eTiO2(-) yields mainly N2O and NH3 via consecutive one-electron transfer reactions.

  13. Ab initio electronic structure study of one-electron reduction of polychlorinated ethylenes. (United States)

    Bylaska, Eric J; Dupuis, Michel; Tratnyek, Paul G


    Polychlorethylene radicals, anions, and radical anions are potential intermediates in the reduction of polychlorinated ethylenes (C(2)Cl(4), C(2)HCl(3), trans-C(2)H(2)Cl(2), cis-C(2)H(2)Cl(2), 1,1-C(2)H(2)Cl(2), C(2)H(3)Cl). Ab initio electronic structure methods were used to calculate the thermochemical properties, (298.15 K), S degrees (298.15 K,1 bar), and DeltaG(S)(298.15 K, 1 bar) of 37 different polychloroethylenyl radicals, anions, and radical anion complexes, C(2)H(y)Cl(3)(-)(y)(*), C(2)H(y)Cl(3)(-)(y)(-), and C(2)H(y))Cl(4)(-)(y)(*)(-) for y = 0-3, for the purpose of characterizing reduction mechanisms of polychlorinated ethylenes. In this study, 8 radicals, 7 anions, and 22 radical anions were found to have stable structures, i.e., minima on the potential energy surfaces. This multitude of isomers for C(2)H(y)Cl(4)(-)(y)(*)(-) radical anion complexes are pi*, sigma*, and -H...Cl(-) structures. Several stable pi* radical anionic structures were obtained for the first time through the use of restricted open-shell theories. On the basis of the calculated thermochemical estimates, the overall reaction energetics (in the gas phase and aqueous phase) for several mechanisms of the first electron reduction of the polychlorinated ethylenes were determined. In almost all of the gas-phase reactions, the thermodynamically most favorable pathways involve -H...Cl(-) complexes of the C(2)H(y)Cl(4)(-)(y)(*)(-) radical anion, in which a chloride ion is loosely bound to a hydrogen of a C(2)H(x)Cl(2)(-)(x))(*) radical. The exception is for C(2)Cl(4), in which the most favorable anionic structure is a loose sigma* radical anion complex, with a nearly iso-energetic pi* radical anion. Solvation significantly changes the product energetics with the thermodynamically most favorable pathway leading to C(2)H(y)Cl(3)(-)(y)(*) + Cl(-). The results suggest that a higher degree of chlorination favors reduction, and that reduction pathways involving the C(2)H(y)Cl(3)(-)(y)(-) anions

  14. Parameter-free one-center model potential for an effective one-electron description of molecular hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Armin Christian; Vanne, Yulian; Saenz, Alejandro


    For the description of an H2 molecule, an effective one-electron model potential is proposed which is fully determined by the exact ionization potential of the H2 molecule. In order to test the model potential and examine its properties, it is employed to determine excitation energies, transition...

  15. One-electron self-interaction and the asymptotics of the Kohn-Sham potential: an impaired relation

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Tobias; Kronik, Leeor; Kümmel, Stephan


    One-electron self-interaction and an incorrect asymptotic behavior of the Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation potential are among the most prominent limitations of many present-day density functionals. However, a one-electron self-interaction-free energy does not necessarily lead to the correct long-range potential. This is here shown explicitly for local hybrid functionals. Furthermore, carefully studying the ratio of the von Weizs\\"acker kinetic energy density to the (positive) Kohn-Sham kinetic energy density, $\\tau_\\mathrm{W}/\\tau$, reveals that this ratio, which frequently serves as an iso-orbital indicator and is used to eliminate one-electron self-interaction effects in meta-generalized-gradient approximations and local hybrid functionals, can fail to approach its expected value in the vicinity of orbital nodal planes. This perspective article suggests that the nature and consequences of one-electron self-interaction and some of the strategies for its correction need to be reconsidered.

  16. One-electron oxidation and reduction of glycosaminoglycan chloramides: a kinetic study. (United States)

    Sibanda, S; Parsons, B J; Houee-Levin, C; Marignier, J-L; Paterson, A W J; Heyes, D J


    Hypochlorous acid and its acid-base counterpart, hypochlorite ions, produced under inflammatory conditions, may produce chloramides of glycosaminoglycans, these being significant components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This may occur through the binding of myeloperoxidase directly to the glycosaminoglycans. The N-Cl group in the chloramides is a potential selective target for both reducing and oxidizing radicals, leading possibly to more efficient and damaging fragmentation of these biopolymers relative to the parent glycosaminoglycans. In this study, the fast reaction techniques of pulse radiolysis and nanosecond laser flash photolysis have been used to generate both oxidizing and reducing radicals to react with the chloramides of hyaluronan (HACl) and heparin (HepCl). The strong reducing formate radicals and hydrated electrons were found to react rapidly with both HACl and HepCl with rate constants of 1-1.7 × 10(8) and 0.7-1.2 × 10(8)M(-1)s(-1) for formate radicals and 2.2 × 10(9) and 7.2 × 10(8)M(-1)s(-1) for hydrated electrons, respectively. The spectral characteristics of the products of these reactions were identical and were consistent with initial attack at the N-Cl groups, followed by elimination of chloride ions to produce nitrogen-centered radicals, which rearrange subsequently and rapidly to produce C-2 radicals on the glucosamine moiety, supporting an earlier EPR study by M.D. Rees et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc.125: 13719-13733; 2003). The oxidizing hydroxyl radicals also reacted rapidly with HACl and HepCl with rate constants of 2.2 × 10(8) and 1.6 × 10(8)M(-1)s(-1), with no evidence from these data for any degree of selective attack on the N-Cl group relative to the N-H groups and other sites of attack. The carbonate anion radicals were much slower with HACl and HepCl than hydroxyl radicals (1.0 × 10(5) and 8.0 × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1), respectively) but significantly faster than with the parent molecules (3.5 × 10(4) and 5.0 × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1

  17. Binding of benzo(a)pyrene to DNA by cytochrome P-450 catalyzed one-electron oxidation in rat liver microsomes and nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalieri, E.L.; Rogan, E.G.; Devanesan, P.D.; Cremonesi, P. (Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (USA)); Cerny, R.L.; Gross, M.L. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA)); Bodell, W.J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))


    To investigate whether cytochrome P-450 catalyzes the covalent binding of substrates to DNA by one-electron oxidation, the ability of both uninduced and 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) induced rat liver microsomes and nuclei to catalyze covalent binding of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to DNA and formation of the labile adduct 7-(benzo(a)pyren-6-yl)guanine (BP-N7Gua) was investigated. In the various systems studied, 1-9 times more BP-N7Gua adduct was isolated than the total amount of stable BP adducts in the DNA. The specific cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 2-((4,6-dichloro-o-biphenyl)oxy)ethylamine hydrobromide (DPEA) reduced or eliminated BP metabolism, binding of BP to DNA, and formation of BP-N7Gua by cytochrome P-450 in both microsomes and nuclei. The effects of the antioxidants cysteine, glutathione, and p-methoxythiophenol were also investigated. This study represents the first demonstration of cytochrome P-450 mediating covalent binding of substrates to DNA via one-electron oxidation and suggests that this enzyme can catalyze peroxidase-type electron-transfer reactions.

  18. R-matrix-incorporating-time theory of one-electron atomic and molecular systems in intense laser fields (United States)

    Broin, Cathal Ó.; Nikolopoulos, L. A. A.


    In this thesis tutorial we discuss the R-matrix-incorporating-time ab initio theoretical framework for the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation of one-electron atomic and molecular systems under strong electromagnetic fields. Within this approach, a division-of-space method is developed with the configuration space of the electron’s coordinates separated over two regions, the inner and outer regions. In the inner region the quantum system’s time-dependent wavefunction is expanded on the eigenstate basis set of its field-free Hamiltonian representation while in the outer region its grid representation is considered. The present tutorial describes in detail the theoretical formulation for one-electron quantum systems. Example calculations are discussed for atomic hydrogen, H, and the molecular hydrogen ion, {{{H}}}2+, in intense laser fields.

  19. Mechanistic studies on the intramolecular one-electron transfer between the two flavins in the human endothelial NOS reductase domain. (United States)

    Nishino, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Keita; Kimura, Shigenobu; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Iyanagi, Takashi


    The object of this study was to clarify the mechanism of electron transfer in the human endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) reductase domain using recombinant eNOS reductase domains; the FAD/NADPH domain containing FAD- and NADPH-binding sites and the FAD/FMN domain containing FAD/NADPH-, FMN-, and a calmodulin-binding sites. In the presence of molecular oxygen or menadione, the reduced FAD/NADPH domain is oxidized via the neutral (blue) semiquinone (FADH(*)), which has a characteristic absorption peak at 520 nm. The FAD/NADPH and FAD/FMN domains have high activity for ferricyanide, but the FAD/FMN domain has low activity for cytochrome c. In the presence or absence of calcium/calmodulin (Ca(2+)/CaM), reduction of the oxidized flavins (FAD-FMN) and air-stable semiquinone (FAD-FMNH(*)) with NADPH occurred in at least two phases in the absorbance change at 457nm. In the presence of Ca(2+)/CaM, the reduction rate of both phases was significantly increased. In contrast, an absorbance change at 596nm gradually increased in two phases, but the rate of the fast phase was decreased by approximately 50% of that in the presence of Ca(2+)/CaM. The air-stable semiquinone form was rapidly reduced by NADPH, but a significant absorbance change at 520 nm was not observed. These findings indicate that the conversion of FADH(2)-FMNH(*) to FADH(*)-FMNH(2) is unfavorable. Reduction of the FAD moiety is activated by CaM, but the formation rate of the active intermediate, FADH(*)-FMNH(2) is extremely low. These events could cause a lowering of enzyme activity in the catalytic cycle.

  20. Prototropic equilibria in DNA containing one-electron oxidized GC: intra-duplex vs. duplex to solvent deprotonation. (United States)

    Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Munafo, Shawn A; Khanduri, Deepti; Sevilla, Michael D


    By use of ESR and UV-vis spectral studies, this work identifies the protonation states of one-electron oxidized G:C (viz. G˙+:C, G(N1–H)˙:C(+H+), G(N1–H)˙:C, and G(N2-H)˙:C) in a DNA oligomer d[TGCGCGCA]2. Benchmark ESR and UV-vis spectra from one electron oxidized 1-Me-dGuo are employed to analyze the spectral data obtained in one-electron oxidized d[TGCGCGCA]2 at various pHs. At pH ≥7, the initial site of deprotonation of one-electron oxidized d[TGCGCGCA]2 to the surrounding solvent is found to be at N1 forming G(N1–H)˙:C at 155 K. However, upon annealing to 175 K, the site of deprotonation to the solvent shifts to an equilibrium mixture of G(N1–H)˙:C and G(N2–H)˙:C. For the first time, the presence of G(N2–H)˙:C in a ds DNA-oligomer is shown to be easily distinguished from the other prototropic forms, owing to its readily observable nitrogen hyperfine coupling (Azz(N2) = 16 G). In addition, for the oligomer in H2O, an additional 8 G N2–H proton HFCC is found. This ESR identification is supported by a UV-vis absorption at 630 nm which is characteristic for G(N2–H)˙ in model compounds and oligomers. We find that the extent of photo-conversion to the C1′ sugar radical (C1′˙) in the one-electron oxidized d[TGCGCGCA]2 allows for a clear distinction among the various G:C protonation states which can not be easily distinguished by ESR or UV-vis spectroscopies with this order for the extent of photo-conversion: G˙+:C > G(N1–H)˙:C(+H+) ≫ G(N1–H)˙:C. We propose that it is the G˙+:C form that undergoes deprotonation at the sugar and this requires reprotonation of G within the lifetime of exited state

  1. Prototropic Equilibria in DNA Containing One-electron Oxidized GC: Intra-duplex vs. Duplex to Solvent Deprotonation (United States)

    Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Munafo, Shawn A.; Khanduri, Deepti; Sevilla, Michael D.


    By use of ESR and UV-vis spectral studies, this work identifies the protonation states of one-electron oxidized G:C (viz. G•+:C, G(N1-H)•:C(+H+), G(N1-H)•:C, and G(N2-H)•:C) in a DNA oligomer d[TGCGCGCA]2. Benchmark ESR and UV-vis spectra from one electron oxidized 1-Me-dGuo are employed to analyze the spectral data obtained in one-electron oxidized d[TGCGCGCA]2 at various pHs. At pH ≥7, the initial site of deprotonation of one-electron oxidized d[TGCGCGCA]2 to the surrounding solvent is found to be at N1 forming G(N1-H)•:C at 155 K. However, upon annealing to 175 K, the site of deprotonation to the solvent shifts to an equilibrium mixture of G(N1-H)•:C and G(N2-H)•:C. For the first time, the presence of G(N2-H)•:C in a ds DNA-oligomer is shown to be easily distinguished from the other prototropic forms, owing to its readily observable nitrogen hyperfine coupling (Azz(N2)= 16 G). In addition, for the oligomer in H2O, an additional 8 G N2-H proton HFCC is found. This ESR identification is supported by a UV-vis absorption at 630 nm which is characteristic for G(N2-H)• in model compounds and oligomers. We find that the extent of photo-conversion to the C1′ sugar radical (C1′•) in the one-electron oxidized d[TGCGCGCA]2 allows for a clear distinction among the various G:C protonation states which can not be easily distinguished by ESR or UV-vis spectroscopies with this order for the extent of photo-conversion: G•+:C > G(N1-H)•:C(+H+) >> G(N1-H)•:C. We propose that it is the G•+:C form that undergoes deprotonation at the sugar and this requires reprotonation of G within the lifetime of exited state. PMID:21491657

  2. Pulsed ELDOR spectroscopy of the Mo(V)/Fe(III) state of sulfite oxidase prepared by one-electron reduction with Ti(III) citrate. (United States)

    Codd, Rachel; Astashkin, Andrei V; Pacheco, Andrew; Raitsimring, Arnold M; Enemark, John H


    The titration of chicken liver sulfite oxidase (SO) with the one-electron reductant Ti(III) citrate, at pH 7.0, results in nearly quantitative selective reduction of the Mo(VI) center to Mo(V), while the b-type heme center remains in the fully oxidized Fe(III) state. The selective reduction of the Mo(VI/V) couple has been established from electronic and EPR spectra. The electronic spectrum of the Fe(III) heme center is essentially unchanged during the titration, and the continuous wave (CW)-EPR spectrum shows the appearance of the well-known Mo(V) signal due to the low pH ( lpH) form of SO. Further confirmation of the selective formation of the Mo(V)/Fe(III) form of SO is provided by the approximately 1:1 ratio of the integrated intensities of the Mo(V) and low-spin Fe(III) EPR signals after addition of one equivalent of Ti(III). The selective generation of the Mo(V)/Fe(III) form of SO is unexpected, considering that previous microcoulometry and flash photolysis investigations have indicated that the Mo(VI/V) and Fe(III/II) couples of SO have similar reduction potentials at pH 7. The nearly quantitative preparation of the one-electron reduced Mo(V)/Fe(III) form of SO by reduction with Ti(III) has enabled the interaction between these two paramagnetic metal centers, which are linked by a flexible loop with no secondary structure, to be investigated for the first time by variable-frequency pulsed electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) spectroscopy. The ELDOR kinetics were obtained from frozen solutions at 4.2 K at several microwave frequencies by pumping on the narrow Mo(V) signal and observing the effect on the Fe(III) primary echo at both higher and lower frequencies within the microwave C-band region. The ELDOR data indicate that freezing the solution of one-electron reduced SO produces localized regions where the concentration of SO approaches that in the crystal structure, which results in the interpair interactions being the dominant dipolar interaction

  3. Electrochemical One-Electron Oxidation of Low-Generation Polyamidoamine-Type Dendrimers with a 1,4-Phenylenediamine Core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerich, Ole; Hansen, Thomas; Thorvildsen, Asbjørn


    A series of polyamidoamine (PAMAM)-type dendrimers with a 1,4-phenylenediamine (PD) core is prepared from PD by procedures including Michael addition of methyl acrylate followed by aminolysis with 1,2-ethanediamine. Their one-electron oxidation potentials are determined by differential pulse...... caused by interactions between the positive charge centered at the core and the neighboring ester or amide dipoles. The relative ease of oxidation of TMePD and the lowest members of the series of the dendrimers can be reproduced theoretically only when solvation was included in the calculations. The DPV...

  4. Establishing the Intermediate Unit. (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    The State of Pennsylvania Act 102 establishes a system of 29 intermediate units, creates intermediate unit boards of directors, spells out their duties and functions, and provides a system of financing their operations. This handbook has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to provide intermediate unit boards of directors,…

  5. Scavenging of the one-electron reduction product from nisoldipine with relevant thiols: electrochemical and EPR spectroscopic evidences. (United States)

    Núñez-Vergara, L J; Díaz-Araya, G; Olea-Azar, C; Atria, A M; Bollo-Dragnic, S; Squella, J A


    To determine the formation of the one-electron reduction product from nisoldipine and its reactivity with relevant thiols in mixed medium. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques were used to determine the one-electron reduction product corresponding to the nitro radical anion. CV was employed to assess both the rate constants corresponding to the decay of the radicals and its interaction with relevant thiols. The nisoldipine radical anion follows second order kinetics, with an association rate constant of 283+/-16 l mol(-1) sec(-1). Nitro radical anion from nisoldipine significantly reacted with thiol compounds. This reactivity was significantly higher than the natural decay of the radical in mixed medium. EPR spectra recorded in situ using DMF/ 0.1 N NaOH (pH 13) confirmed the formation of the nitro radical anion, giving a well-resolved spectra in 35 lines using 0.1 G modulation. Electrochemical and EPR data indicated that all the tested thiols scavenged the nitro radical anion from nisoldipine. The following tentative order of reactivity towards the thiols can be proposed: cysteamine approximately glutathione > N-acetylcysteine > captopril > penicillamine.

  6. Direct observation of pure one-electron capture from the target inner shell in low-energy p+Na collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, S; Morgenstern, R; Hoekstra, R


    One-electron removal in the p+Na collision system has been investigated at low energy (4-25 keV) by means of recoil ion momentum spectroscopy. The focus will be on the contribution of one-electron capture from the Na 2p inner shell into the hydrogen ground state, thereby leaving the Na+ target ion

  7. Potent graft-versus-leukemia effect after reduced-intensity allogeneic SCT for intermediate-risk AML with FLT3-ITD or wild-type NPM1 and CEBPA without FLT3-ITD. (United States)

    Labouré, Gaëlle; Dulucq, Stéphanie; Labopin, Myriam; Tabrizi, Reza; Guérin, Estelle; Pigneux, Arnaud; Lafarge, Xavier; Leguay, Thibaut; Bouabdallah, Krimo; Dilhuydy, Marie-Sarah; Duclos, Cédric; Lascaux, Axelle; Marit, Gérald; Mahon, François-Xavier; Boiron, Jean-Michel; Milpied, Noël; Vigouroux, Stéphane


    To investigate the role of reduced-intensity allogeneic (RIC-allo) stem cell transplant (SCT) as postremission therapy in adult intermediate-risk patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with FLT3-ITD or wild-type NPM1 and CEBPA without FLT3-ITD, we conducted a single-center retrospective study between January 2001 and December 2010. Sixty-six patients were included: 37 treated with RIC-alloSCT and 29 with nonallogeneic SCT therapies. Both groups were comparable concerning age, WBC count at diagnosis, gender, karyotype, genotype, and number of courses of chemotherapy to reach complete remission (CR1). Median follow-up after CR1 was 37 months (range, 11-112 months) and 48 months (range, 9-83 months) in the allo and no-allo groups, respectively. In the allo versus no-allo groups, the 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) rates were 25% ± 8% versus 61% ± 9%; P = .005. The 3-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM), overall survival (OS), and relapse-free survival (RFS) were 22% ± 7% versus 4% ± 4% (P = .005), 52% ± 9% versus 44% ± 10% (P = .75), and 53% ± 9% versus 35% ± 9% (P = .28), respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that CIR was reduced by allo (hazard ratio [HR], 0.32; P = .01). A landmark analysis performed at day 185 after CR1 confirmed a lower CIR after allo. RIC-allo reduces the risk of relapse, suggesting a potent graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect in these patients at a high risk of relapse.

  8. Trimer effects in fragment molecular orbital-linear combination of molecular orbitals calculation of one-electron orbitals for biomolecules. (United States)

    Kobori, Tomoki; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Otsuka, Takao; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Tsuneyuki, Shinji


    The fragment molecular orbital (FMO)-linear combination of molecular orbitals (LCMO) method incorporates as an efficient post-process calculation of one-electron orbitals of the whole system after the FMO total energy calculation. A straightforward way to increase the accuracy is inclusion of the trimer effect. Here, we derive a comprehensive formulation called the FMO3-LCMO method. To keep the computational costs of the trimer term low enough, we use a matrix-size reduction technique. We evaluated the accuracy and efficiency of the FMO3-LCMO scheme in model biological systems (alanine oligomer and chignolin). The results show that delocalized electronic orbitals with covalent and hydrogen bonds are better described at the trimer level, and the FMO3-LCMO method is applicable to quantitative evaluations of a wide range of frontier orbitals in large biosystems.

  9. One-electron oxidation of mitomycin C and its corresponding peroxyl radicals. A steady-state and pulse radiolysis study (United States)

    Getoff, Nikola; Solar, Sonja; Quint, Ruth M.


    The one-electron oxidation of Mitomycin C (MMC) as well as the formation of the corresponding peroxyl radicals were investigated by both steady-state and pulse radiolysis. The steady-state MMC-radiolysis by OH-attack followed at both absorption bands showed different yields: at 218 nm G i (-MMC) = 3.0 and at 364 nm G i (-MMC) = 3.9, indicating the formation of various not yet identified products, among which ammonia was determined, G(NH 3) = 0.81. By means of pulse radiolysis it was established a total κ (OH + MMC) = (5.8 ± 0.2) × 10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1. The transient absorption spectrum from the one-electron oxidized MMC showed absorption maxima at 295 nm ( ɛ = 9950 dm 3 mol -1 cm t-1 ), 410 nm ( ɛ = 1450 dm 3 mol -1 cm -1) and 505 nm ( ɛ = 5420 dm 3 mol -1 cm -1). At 280-320 and 505 nm and above they exhibit in the first 150 μs a first order decay, κ1 = (0.85 ± 0.1) × 10 3 s -1, and followed upto ms time range, by a second order decay, 2 κ = (1.3 ± 0.3) × 10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1. Around 410 nm the kinetics are rather mixed and could not be resolved. The steady-state MMC-radiolysis in the presence of oxygen featured a proportionality towards the absorbed dose for both MMC-absorption bands, resulting in a G i (-MMC) = 1.5. Among several products ammonia-yield was determined G(NH 3) = 0.52. The formation of MMC-peroxyl radicals was studied by pulse radiolysis, likewise in neutral aqueous solution, but saturated with a gas mixture of 80% N 2O and 20% O 2. The maxima of the observed transient spectrum are slightly shifted compared to that of the one-electron oxidized MMC-species, namely: 290 nm ( ɛ = 10100 dm 3 mol -1 cm -1), 410 nm ( ɛ = 2900 dm 3 mol -1 cm -1) and 520 nm ( ɛ = 5500 dm 3 mol -1 cm -1). The O 2-addition to the MMC-one-electron oxidized transients was found to be at 290 to 410 nm gk(MMC·OH + O 2) = 5 × 10 7 dm 3 mol -1 s -1, around 480 nm κ = 1.6 × 10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 and at 510 nm and above, κ = 3 × 10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1. The

  10. Valence one-electron and shake-up ionisation bands of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. IV. The dibenzanthracene species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleuze, Michael S. [Theoretische Chemie, Departement SBG, Universiteit Hasselt, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)], E-mail:


    A comprehensive study of the He (I) ultra-violet photoelectron spectra of the 1.2,3.4; 1.2,5.6 and 1.2,7.8 isomers of dibenzanthracene up to the double ionisation threshold at {approx}18 eV is presented with the aid of one-particle Green's Function calculations performed using the outer-valence Green's Function (OVGF) approach and the third-order algebraic diagrammatic construction [ADC(3)] scheme, along with basis sets of improving quality. Suited extrapolations of the ADC(3) results for the one-electron energies characterising the {pi}-band system ({epsilon} {sub b} < 10 eV) to Dunning's correlation consistent basis set of triple zeta quality (cc-pVTZ) enable theoretical insights into HeI measurements which approach chemical accuracy (1 kcal/mol or 43.4 meV). In contrast, a confrontation of simulated spectral envelopes with high-resolution He I photoelectron spectra indicates that polycyclic aromatic molecules with sterically overcrowded bay regions are more susceptible to undergo vibronic coupling complications at the {sigma}-ionisation onset. OVGF/cc-pVDZ or OVGF/cc-pVTZ pole strengths smaller than 0.85 systematically corroborate a breakdown of the orbital (or one-electron) picture of ionisation at the ADC(3)/6-31G levels. The extent of shake-up bands is correspondingly related to topological, structural and magnetic criteria of aromaticity. Comparison is made with calculations of the lowest doublet-doublet excitation energies of the related radical cations, by means of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT)

  11. One-electron reduction and oxidation studies of the radiation sensitizer gadolinium(III) texaphyrin (PCI-0120) and other water soluble metallotexaphyrins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, J.L.; Tvermoes, N.A.; Allen, W.E. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Guldi, D.M. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Radiation Lab.; Mody, T.D. [Pharmacyclics, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)


    The radiation sensitizer gadolinium(III) texaphyrin 2 (XYTRIN; PCI-0120; Gd-Tex{sup 2+}) and several other water soluble metallotexaphyrin complexes were prepared and studied using pulse radiolysis. All of the metallotexaphyrins were found to react with solvated electrons and hydroxyl radicals, yielding the corresponding one-electron reduced and oxidized metallotexaphyrins, respectively. The rates of the reduction processes range from 3.7 {times} 10{sup 10} to 6.8 {times} 10{sup 10} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} ({+-}10%), while those involving oxidation range from 2.5 {times} 10{sup 9} to 7.4 {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} ({+-}10%). The spectral characteristics of the transformed metallotexaphyrins produced by these reactions, e.g., a broad absorption band with a {lambda}{sup max} centered around 830 nm, are consistent with ligand-centered redox processes. Reaction of the metallotexaphyrins with solvated electrons affords species which exhibit metal dependent behavior. In the absence of hydroxyl radicals, the decays of the reduced metallotexaphyrins produced by reaction with electrons involves an initial protonation event followed by either a dimerization process or a disproportionation step. These latter transformations are followed by a second protonation event.

  12. Intermediate dosimetric quantities. (United States)

    Kellerer, A M; Hahn, K; Rossi, H H


    The transfer of energy from ionizing radiation to matter involves a series of steps. In wide ranges of their energy spectra photons and neutrons transfer energy to an irradiated medium almost exclusively by the production of charged particles which ionize and thereby produce electrons that can ionize in turn. The examination of these processes leads to a series of intermediate quantities. One of these is kerma, which has long been employed as a measure of the energy imparted in the first of the interactions. It depends only on the fluence of uncharged particles and is therefore--unlike absorbed dose and electron fluence--insensitive to local differences of receptor geometry and composition. An analogous quantity for charged-particle fields, cema (converted energy per unit mass), is defined, which quantifies the energy imparted in terms of the interactions of charged particles, disregarding energy dissipation by secondary electrons. Cema can be expressed as an integral over the fluence of ions times their stopping power. However, complications arise when the charged particles are electrons, and when their fluence cannot be separated from that of the secondaries. The resulting difficulty can be circumvented by the definition of reduced cema. This quantity corresponds largely to the concept employed in the cavity theory of Spencer and Attix. In reduced cema not all secondary electrons but all electrons below a chosen cutoff energy, delta, are considered to be absorbed locally. When the cutoff energy is reduced, cema approaches absorbed dose and thereby becomes sensitive to highly local differences in geometry or composition. With larger values of delta, reduced cema is a useful parameter to specify the dose-generating potential of a charged-particle field 'free in air' or in vacuo. It is nearly equal to the mean absorbed dose in a sphere with radius equal to the range of electrons of energy delta. Reduced cema is a function of the fluence at the specified location at

  13. A New Relativistic Study for Interactions in One-electron atoms (Spin ½ Particles with Modified Mie-type Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmadjid Maireche


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel theoretical analytical perform further investigation for the exact solvability of relativistic quantum spectrum systems for modified Mie-type potential (m.m.t. potential is discussed for spin-1/2 particles by means Boopp’s shift method instead to solving deformed Dirac equation with star product, in the framework of noncommutativity three dimensional real space (NC: 3D-RS. The exact corrections for excited states are found straightforwardly for interactions in one-electron atoms by means of the standard perturbation theory. Furthermore, the obtained corrections of energies are depended on four infinitesimal parameter ,which induced by position-position noncommutativity, in addition to the discreet atomic quantum numbers: and (the angular momentum quantum number and we have also shown that, the usual states in ordinary two and three dimensional spaces are canceled and has been replaced by new degenerated sub-states in the new quantum symmetries of (NC: 3D-RS and we have also applied our obtained results to the case of modified Krazer-Futes potential.

  14. Hyperfine-changing transitions in $^3$He II and other one-electron ions by electron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bartschat, Klaus


    We consider the spin-exchange (SE) cross section in electron scattering from $^3$He\\,{\\scriptsize II}, which drives the hyperfine-changing \\hbox{3.46 cm} (8.665 GHz) line transition. Both the analytical quantum defect method --- applicable at very low energies --- and accurate R-matrix techniques for electron-He$^+$ scattering are employed to obtain SE cross sections. The quantum defect theory is also applied to electron collisions with other one-electron ions in order to demonstrate the utility of the method and derive scaling relations. At very low energies, the hyperfine-changing cross sections due to e$-$He$^+$ scattering are much larger in magnitude than for electron collisions with neutral hydrogen, hinting at large rate constants for equilibration. Specifically, we obtain rate coefficients of $K(10\\,{\\rm K}) = 1.10 \\times 10^{-6}\\,\\rm cm^3/s$ and $K(100\\,{\\rm K}) = 3.49\\times 10^{-7}\\,\\rm cm^3/s$.

  15. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.


    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  16. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R


    a reduction in size, caused by crowding, virtually nothing is known about longer-lasting effects after transmission to the definitive host. This study is the first to use in vitro cultivation with feeding of adult trematodes to investigate how numbers of parasites in the intermediate host affect the size......Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer...... and fecundity of adult parasites. For this purpose, we examined two different infracommunities of parasites in crustacean hosts. Firstly, we used experimental infections of Maritrema novaezealandensis in the amphipod, Paracalliope novizealandiae, to investigate potential density-dependent effects in single...

  17. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R


    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  18. Intermediate algebra a textworkbook

    CERN Document Server

    McKeague, Charles P


    Intermediate Algebra: A Text/Workbook, Second Edition focuses on the principles, operations, and approaches involved in intermediate algebra. The publication first takes a look at basic properties and definitions, first-degree equations and inequalities, and exponents and polynomials. Discussions focus on properties of exponents, polynomials, sums, and differences, multiplication of polynomials, inequalities involving absolute value, word problems, first-degree inequalities, real numbers, opposites, reciprocals, and absolute value, and addition and subtraction of real numbers. The text then ex

  19. EPR investigations of electron transfer in one-electron reduced a-1,4 K5[PV2W10O40].3H2O

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C M Varghese; A Shunmugasundaram; R Murugesan; T Jeyabalan


    Heteropoly blues of -1,2 and -1,4 isomers of [PV2W10O40]5- have been prepared by using the electrochemical technique. EPR spectra, measured as a function of temperature over a wide range (20-300 K), are explicable in terms of electronhopping processes in heteropoly blues. Temperature dependence of A||of the isomers suggest that the activation energy for electron hopping is greater for the -1,4 isomer than the -1,2 isomer. Other parameters like stability of the blues and intra-molecular electron transfer rate constants are also evaluated using EPR as the tool.

  20. π-Radical to σ-Radical Tautomerization in One-Electron-Oxidized 1-Methylcytosine and Its Analogs. (United States)

    Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Bishop, Casandra T; Wiegand, Tyler J; Hindi, Ragda M; Adhikary, Ananya; Sevilla, Michael D


    In this work, iminyl σ-radical formation in several one-electron-oxidized cytosine analogs, including 1-MeC, cidofovir, 2'-deoxycytidine (dCyd), and 2'-deoxycytidine 5'-monophosphate (5'-dCMP), were investigated in homogeneous, aqueous (D2O or H2O) glassy solutions at low temperatures by employing electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Upon employing density functional theory (DFT) (DFT/B3LYP/6-31G* method), the calculated hyperfine coupling constant (HFCC) values of iminyl σ-radical agree quite well with the experimentally observed ones, thus confirming its assignment. ESR and DFT studies show that the cytosine iminyl σ-radical is a tautomer of the deprotonated cytosine π-cation radical [cytosine π-aminyl radical, C(N4-H)(•)]. Employing 1-MeC samples at various pHs ranging from ca. 8 to 11, ESR studies show that the tautomeric equilibrium between C(N4-H)(•) and the iminyl σ-radical at low temperature is too slow to be established without added base. ESR and DFT studies agree that, in the iminyl σ-radical, the unpaired spin is localized on the exocyclic nitrogen (N4) in an in-plane pure p-orbital. This gives rise to an anisotropic nitrogen hyperfine coupling (Azz = 40 G) from N4 and a near isotropic β-nitrogen coupling of 9.7 G from the cytosine ring nitrogen at N3. Iminyl σ-radical should exist in its N3-protonated form, as the N3-protonated iminyl σ-radical is stabilized in solution by over 30 kcal/mol (ΔG = -32 kcal/mol) over its conjugate base, the N3-deprotonated form. This is the first observation of an isotropic β-hyperfine ring nitrogen coupling in an N-centered DNA radical. Our theoretical calculations predict that the cytosine iminyl σ-radical can be formed in double-stranded DNA by a radiation-induced ionization-deprotonation process that is only 10 kcal/mol above the lowest energy path.

  1. Mobile communication and intermediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus


    The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...... communicative affordances of mobile devices in order to understand how people choose between them for different purposes. It is argued that mobile communication makes intermediality especially central, as the choice of medium is detached from the location of stationary media and begins to follow the user across...




  3. One-electron properties and electrostatic interaction energies from the expectation value expression and wave function of singles and doubles coupled cluster theory. (United States)

    Korona, Tatiana; Jeziorski, Bogumil


    One-electron density matrices resulting from the explicitly connected commutator expansion of the expectation value were implemented at the singles and doubles coupled cluster (CCSD) level. In the proposed approach the one-electron density matrix is obtained at a little extra cost in comparison to the calculation of the CCSD correlation energy. Therefore, in terms of the computational time the new method is significantly less demanding than the conventional linear-response CCSD theory which requires additionally an expensive calculation of the left-hand solution of the CCSD equations. The quality of the new density matrices was investigated by computing a set of one-electron properties for a series of molecules of varying sizes and comparing the results with data obtained using the full configuration interaction method or higher level coupled cluster theory. It has been found that the results obtained using the new approach are of the same quality as those predicted by the linear-response CCSD method. The novel one-electron density matrices have also been applied to study the energy of the electrostatic interaction for a number of van der Waals complexes, including the benzene and azulene dimers.

  4. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.; et al.


    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  5. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C.; Ankowski, A.M.; Asaadi, J.A.; Ashenfelter, J.; Axani, S.N.; Babu, K.; Backhouse, C.; Band, H.R.; Barbeau, P.S.; Barros, N.; Bernstein, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bishai, M.; Blucher, E.; Bouffard, J.; Bowden, N.; Brice, S.; Bryan, C.; Camilleri, L.; Cao, J.; Carlson, J.; Carr, R.E.; Chatterjee, A.; Chen, M.; Chen, S.; Chiu, M.; Church, E.D.; Collar, J.I.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Convery, M.R.; Cooper, R.L.; Cowen, D.; Davoudiasl, H.; de Gouvea, A.; Dean, D.J.; Deichert, G.; Descamps, F.; DeYoung, T.; Diwan, M.V.; Djurcic, Z.; Dolinski, M.J.; Dolph, J.; Donnelly, B.; Dwyer, D.A.; Dytman, S.; Efremenko, Y.; Everett, L.L.; Fava, A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Fleming, B.; Friedland, A.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Gaisser, T.K.; Galeazzi, M.; Galehouse, D.C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Garvey, G.T.; Gautam, S.; Gilje, K.E.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.; Goodman, M.C.; Gordon, H.; Gramellini, E.; Green, M.P.; Guglielmi, A.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Hackenburg, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Harris, D.; Heeger, K.M.; Herman, M.; Hill, R.; Holin, A.; Huber, P.; Jaffe, D.E.; Johnson, R.A.; Joshi, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kaufman, L.J.; Kayser, B.; Kettell, S.H.; Kirby, B.J.; Klein, J.R.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kriske, R.M.; Lane, C.E.; Langford, T.J.; Lankford, A.; Lau, K.; Learned, J.G.; Ling, J.; Link, J.M.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B.R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lokajicek, M.; Louis, W.C.; Luk, K.; Lykken, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Maricic, J.; Markoff, D.M.; Martinez Caicedo, D.A.; Mauger, C.; Mavrokoridis, K.; McCluskey, E.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Mills, G.; Mocioiu, I.; Monreal, B.; Mooney, M.R.; Morfin, J.G.; Mumm, P.; Napolitano, J.; Neilson, R.; Nelson, J.K.; Nessi, M.; Norcini, D.; Nova, F.; Nygren, D.R.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Palamara, O.; Parsa, Z.; Patterson, R.; Paul, P.; Pocar, A.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Rameika, R.; Ranucci, G.; Ray, H.; Reyna, D.; Rich, G.C.; Rodrigues, P.; Romero, E.Romero; Rosero, R.; Rountree, S.D.; Rybolt, B.; Sanchez, M.C.; Santucci, G.; Schmitz, D.; Scholberg, K.; Seckel, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Smy, M.B.; Soderberg, M.; Sonzogni, A.; Sousa, A.B.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.M.; Stewart, J.; Strait, J.B.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Szelc, A.M.; Tayloe, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Toups, M.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Van de Water, R.G.; Vogelaar, R.B.; Weber, M.; Weng, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; White, B.R.; Whitehead, L.; Whittington, D.W.; Wilking, M.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Wilson, P.; Winklehner, D.; Winn, D.R.; Worcester, E.; Yang, L.; Yeh, M.; Yokley, Z.W.; Yoo, J.; Yu, B.; Yu, J.; Zhang, C.


    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summ...

  6. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C; Ankowski, A M; Asaadi, J A; Ashenfelter, J; Axani, S N; Babu, K; Backhouse, C; Band, H R; Barbeau, P S; Barros, N; Bernstein, A; Betancourt, M; Bishai, M; Blucher, E; Bouffard, J; Bowden, N; Brice, S; Bryan, C; Camilleri, L; Cao, J; Carlson, J; Carr, R E; Chatterjee, A; Chen, M; Chen, S; Chiu, M; Church, E D; Collar, J I; Collin, G; Conrad, J M; Convery, M R; Cooper, R L; Cowen, D; Davoudiasl, H; De Gouvea, A; Dean, D J; Deichert, G; Descamps, F; DeYoung, T; Diwan, M V; Djurcic, Z; Dolinski, M J; Dolph, J; Donnelly, B; Dwyer, D A; Dytman, S; Efremenko, Y; Everett, L L; Fava, A; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Fleming, B; Friedland, A; Fujikawa, B K; Gaisser, T K; Galeazzi, M; Galehouse, D C; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Garvey, G T; Gautam, S; Gilje, K E; Gonzalez-Garcia, M; Goodman, M C; Gordon, H; Gramellini, E; Green, M P; Guglielmi, A; Hackenburg, R W; Hackenburg, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hans, S; Harris, D; Heeger, K M; Herman, M; Hill, R; Holin, A; Huber, P; Jaffe, D E; Johnson, R A; Joshi, J; Karagiorgi, G; Kaufman, L J; Kayser, B; Kettell, S H; Kirby, B J; Klein, J R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kriske, R M; Lane, C E; Langford, T J; Lankford, A; Lau, K; Learned, J G; Ling, J; Link, J M; Lissauer, D; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Lockwitz, S; Lokajicek, M; Louis, W C; Luk, K; Lykken, J; Marciano, W J; Maricic, J; Markoff, D M; Caicedo, D A Martinez; Mauger, C; Mavrokoridis, K; McCluskey, E; McKeen, D; McKeown, R; Mills, G; Mocioiu, I; Monreal, B; Mooney, M R; Morfin, J G; Mumm, P; Napolitano, J; Neilson, R; Nelson, J K; Nessi, M; Norcini, D; Nova, F; Nygren, D R; Gann, G D Orebi; Palamara, O; Parsa, Z; Patterson, R; Paul, P; Pocar, A; Qian, X; Raaf, J L; Rameika, R; Ranucci, G; Ray, H; Reyna, D; Rich, G C; Rodrigues, P; Romero, E Romero; Rosero, R; Rountree, S D; Rybolt, B; Sanchez, M C; Santucci, G; Schmitz, D; Scholberg, K; Seckel, D; Shaevitz, M; Shrock, R; Smy, M B; Soderberg, M; Sonzogni, A; Sousa, A B; Spitz, J; John, J M St; Stewart, J; Strait, J B; Sullivan, G; Svoboda, R; Szelc, A M; Tayloe, R; Thomson, M A; Toups, M; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Van de Water, R G; Vogelaar, R B; Weber, M; Weng, W; Wetstein, M; White, C; White, B R; Whitehead, L; Whittington, D W; Wilking, M J; Wilson, R J; Wilson, P; Winklehner, D; Winn, D R; Worcester, E; Yang, L; Yeh, M; Yokley, Z W; Yoo, J; Yu, B; Yu, J; Zhang, C


    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Tchernycheva


    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with development outcomes for creation method of one-electron wave functions of complex atoms, relatively simple, symmetrical for all atom electrons and free from hard computations. The accuracy and resource intensity of the approach are focused on systematic calculations of cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes of inelastic collisions of atoms or molecules with electrons (ionization, excitation, excitation transfer, and others. Method. The method is based on a set of two iterative processes. At the first iteration step the Schrödinger equation was solved numerically for the radial parts of the electron wave functions in the potential of the atomic core self-consistent field. At the second iteration step the new approximationfor the atomic core field is created that uses found solutions for all one-electron wave functions. The solution optimization for described multiparameter problem is achieved by the use of genetic algorithm. The suitability of the developed method was verified by comparing the calculation results with numerous data on the energies of atoms in the ground and excited states. Main Results. We have created the run-time version of the program for creation of sets of one-electron wave functions and calculation of the cross sections and constants of collisional transition rates in the first Born approximation. The priori available information about binding energies of the electrons for any many-particle system for creation of semi-empirical refined solutions for the one-electron wave functions can be considered at any step of this procedure. Practical Relevance. The proposed solution enables a simple and rapid preparation of input data for the numerical simulation of nonlocal gas discharge plasma. The approach is focused on the calculation of discharges in complex gas mixtures requiring inclusion in the model of a large number of elementary collisional and radiation

  8. Analytic energy gradients for the spin-free exact two-component theory using an exact block diagonalization for the one-electron Dirac Hamiltonian. (United States)

    Cheng, Lan; Gauss, Jürgen


    We report the implementation of analytic energy gradients for the evaluation of first-order electrical properties and nuclear forces within the framework of the spin-free (SF) exact two-component (X2c) theory. In the scheme presented here, referred to in the following as SFX2c-1e, the decoupling of electronic and positronic solutions is performed for the one-electron Dirac Hamiltonian in its matrix representation using a single unitary transformation. The resulting two-component one-electron matrix Hamiltonian is combined with untransformed two-electron interactions for subsequent self-consistent-field and electron-correlated calculations. The "picture-change" effect in the calculation of properties is taken into account by considering the full derivative of the two-component Hamiltonian matrix with respect to the external perturbation. The applicability of the analytic-gradient scheme presented here is demonstrated in benchmark calculations. SFX2c-1e results for the dipole moments and electric-field gradients of the hydrogen halides are compared with those obtained from nonrelativistic, SF high-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess, and SF Dirac-Coulomb calculations. It is shown that the use of untransformed two-electron interactions introduces rather small errors for these properties. As a first application of the analytic geometrical gradient, we report the equilibrium geometry of methylcopper (CuCH(3)) determined at various levels of theory.

  9. Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course. (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…

  10. Dee-Mack Intermediate School (United States)

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2012


    Frank Reliford, the Principal at Dee-Mack Intermediate since 2005, is familiar to almost every child in the community. 260 Students attend Reliford's school, and their status is a point of pride: Dee-Mack Intermediate is consistently one of the highest performing schools in the state. The change in student performance correlates to the…

  11. Copper-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidations of Organic Molecules: Pathways for Two-Electron Oxidation with a Four-Electron Oxidant and a One-Electron Redox-Active Catalyst. (United States)

    McCann, Scott D; Stahl, Shannon S


    Selective oxidation reactions have extraordinary value in organic chemistry, ranging from the conversion of petrochemical feedstocks into industrial chemicals and polymer precursors to the introduction of heteroatom functional groups into pharmaceutical and agrochemical intermediates. Molecular oxygen (O2) would be the ideal oxidant for these transformations. Whereas many commodity-scale oxidations of simple hydrocarbon feedstocks employ O2 as an oxidant, methods for selective oxidation of more complex molecules bearing diverse functional groups are often incompatible with existing aerobic oxidation methods. The latter limitation provides the basis for our interest in the development of new catalytic transformations and the elucidation of mechanistic principles that underlie selective aerobic oxidation reactions. One challenge inherent in such methods is the incommensurate redox stoichiometry associated with the use of O2, a four-electron oxidant, in reactions that achieve two-electron oxidation of organic molecules. This issue is further complicated by the use of first-row transition-metal catalysts, which tend to undergo facile one-electron redox steps. In recent years, we have been investigating Cu-catalyzed aerobic oxidation reactions wherein the complexities just noted are clearly evident. This Account surveys our work in this area, which has emphasized three general classes of reactions: (1) single-electron-transfer reactions for oxidative functionalization of electron-rich substrates, such as arenes and heterocycles; (2) oxidative carbon-heteroatom bond-forming reactions, including C-H oxidations, that proceed via organocopper(III) intermediates; and (3) methods for aerobic oxidation of alcohols and amines that use Cu(II) in combination with an organic redox-active cocatalyst to dehydrogenate the carbon-heteroatom bond. These reaction classes demonstrate three different pathways to achieve two-electron oxidation of organic molecules via the cooperative

  12. Many-electron effects in photoelectron spectroscopy. [Deviations from Koopman's one-electron model, satellite structure, configuration interaction, mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.L.


    The deviations from Koopmans' one-electron model of photoionization which lead to satellite structure in the photoelectron spectrum are examined within the formalism of configuration interaction (CI). The mechanisms which contribute to satellite intensity may be classified as continuum state configuration interaction, final ionic state configuration interaction, and initial state configuration interaction. The discussion centers around the last two mechanisms, these being the prime contributors to the satellite intensity well above threshold. Specific examples of theoretical ''spectra'' are presented for the F(1s) region of HF and the 1s region of neon. The agreement between theory and experiment is found to be excellent. In these two instances, initial state configuration interaction contributions increase the satellite intensity and are of nearly equal importance to the final ionic state mixing.

  13. A manganese(V)-oxo π-cation radical complex: influence of one-electron oxidation on oxygen-atom transfer. (United States)

    Prokop, Katharine A; Neu, Heather M; de Visser, Sam P; Goldberg, David P


    One-electron oxidation of Mn(V)-oxo corrolazine 2 affords 2(+), the first example of a Mn(V)(O) π-cation radical porphyrinoid complex, which was characterized by UV-vis, EPR, LDI-MS, and DFT methods. Access to 2 and 2(+) allowed for a direct comparison of their reactivities in oxygen-atom transfer (OAT) reactions. Both complexes are capable of OAT to PPh(3) and RSR substrates, and 2(+) was found to be a more potent oxidant than 2. Analysis of rate constants and activation parameters, together with DFT calculations, points to a concerted OAT mechanism for 2(+) and 2 and indicates that the greater electrophilicity of 2(+) likely plays a dominant role in enhancing its reactivity. These results are relevant to comparisons between Compound I and Compound II in heme enzymes.

  14. Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. (United States)

    Brett, Daniel J L; Atkinson, Alan; Brandon, Nigel P; Skinner, Stephen J


    High temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), typified by developers such as Siemens Westinghouse and Rolls-Royce, operate in the temperature region of 850-1000 degrees C. For such systems, very high efficiencies can be achieved from integration with gas turbines for large-scale stationary applications. However, high temperature operation means that the components of the stack need to be predominantly ceramic and high temperature metal alloys are needed for many balance-of-plant components. For smaller scale applications, where integration with a heat engine is not appropriate, there is a trend to move to lower temperatures of operation, into the so-called intermediate temperature (IT) range of 500-750 degrees C. This expands the choice of materials and stack geometries that can be used, offering reduced system cost and, in principle, reducing the corrosion rate of stack and system components. This review introduces the IT-SOFC and explains the advantages of operation in this temperature regime. The main advances made in materials chemistry that have made IT operation possible are described and some of the engineering issues and the new opportunities that reduced temperature operation affords are discussed. This tutorial review examines the advances being made in materials and engineering that are allowing solid oxide fuel cells to operate at lower temperature. The challenges and advantages of operating in the so-called 'intermediate temperature' range of 500-750 degrees C are discussed and the opportunities for applications not traditionally associated with solid oxide fuel cells are highlighted. This article serves as an introduction for scientists and engineers interested in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells and the challenges and opportunities of reduced temperature operation.

  15. Detection of the Sn(III) intermediate and the mechanism of the Sn(IV)/Sn(II) electroreduction reaction in bromide media by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electrochemical microscopy. (United States)

    Chang, Jinho; Bard, Allen J


    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) were used to investigate the reduction of Sn(IV) as the hexabromo complex ion in a 2 M HBr-4 M NaBr medium. CV at scan rates to 100 V/s and SECM indicated the reaction pathway involves ligand-coupled electron transfer via an ECEC-DISP process: (1) one-electron reduction of Sn(IV)Br6(2-) to Sn(III)Br6(3-); (2) bromide dissociation of the reduced Sn(III)Br6(3-) to Sn(III)Br5(2-); (3) disproportionation of the reduced 2Sn(III)Br5(2-) to Sn(IV)Br5(-) and Sn(II)Br5(3-); (4) one-electron reduction of Sn(III)Br5(2-) to Sn(II)Br5(3-); (5) bromide dissociation from Sn(II)Br5 to Sn(II)Br4(2-). The intermediate Sn(III) species was confirmed by SECM(3-), where the Sn(III) generated at the Au tip was collected on a Au substrate in the tip generation/substrate collection mode when the distance between the tip and substrate was a few hundred nanometers.

  16. Gulf of Maine intermediate water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, T.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY); Garfield, N. III


    The thermohaline dynamics of the Gulf of Maine are analyzed from the two year, eight cruise, data set of Colton, Marak, Nickerson, and Stoddard (1968). Six water masses are described: the Maine Surface Water, Maine Intermediate Water, and the Maine Bottom Water as interior water masses; and the Scotian Shelf Water, the Slope Water, and the Georges Bank Water as exterior water masses. Particular attention is given to the formation and disposition of the Maine Intermediate Water. Salt balance, T-S volume, and T-S drift analyses are used to provide transport and mixing estimates for the year 1966. The Slope Water entered at depth through the Northeast Channel at a rate of 2600 km/sup 3//yr; while the Scotian Shelf Water entered the surface and intermediate layers, mostly during winter intrusions, at a rate of 5200 km/sup 3//yr. The surface and intermediate layers exported a total of 7900 km/sup 3//yr in a 3:5 ratio, respectively. The Maine Intermediate Water tends to collect over the Wilkinson Basin during the stratified season, to exit via the Great South Channel during early spring, and to exit via the Northeast Channel during spring and summer. Comparisons are made between the estimated winter heat loss of 280 Ly/d and the observed heat losses of 230 Ly/d (surface layers) and 360 Ly/d (surface and intermediate layers). A limit for the Scotian Shelf Water contribution is about -70 Ly/d. It is concluded that the Maine Intermediate Water is produced locally and that it is exported in significant quantities.

  17. A new Nonrelativistic Investigation for Interactions in One-electron Atoms with Modified Vibrational-Rotational Analysis of Supersingular plus Quadratic Potential: Extended Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmadjid Maireche


    Full Text Available In our recent work, three-dimensional modified time-independent Schrödinger equation (MSE of modified vibrational-rotational analysis of supersingular plus quadratic potential (v.r.a.s.q. potential was solved using Boopp’s shift method instead to apply star product, in the framework of both noncommutativity three dimensional real space and phase (NC: 3D-RSP. Furthermore, the exact correction for ground state and first excited state are found straightforwardly for interactions in one-electron atoms has been solved using standard perturbation theory. Furthermore, the obtained corrections of energies are depended on infinitesimal parameters and which are induced by position-position and momentum-momentum noncommutativity, respectively, in addition to the discreet atomic quantum numbers: and . Moreover, the usual states in ordinary quantum mechanics for vibrational-rotational analysis of supersingular plus quadratic potential are canceled and has been replaced by new degenerated sub-states in the extended new quantum symmetries of (NC: 3D-RSP.

  18. One-electron oxidation of ferrocenes by short-lived N-oxyl radicals. The role of structural effects on the intrinsic electron transfer reactivities. (United States)

    Baciocchi, Enrico; Bietti, Massimo; D'Alfonso, Claudio; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Lapi, Andrea; Salamone, Michela


    A kinetic study of the one electron oxidation of substituted ferrocenes (FcX: X = H, COPh, COMe, CO(2)Et, CONH(2), CH(2)OH, Et, and Me(2)) by a series of N-oxyl radicals (succinimide-N-oxyl radical (SINO), maleimide-N-oxyl radical (MINO), 3-quinazolin-4-one-N-oxyl radical (QONO) and 3-benzotriazin-4-one-N-oxyl radical (BONO)), has been carried out in CH(3)CN. N-oxyl radicals were produced by hydrogen abstraction from the corresponding N-hydroxy derivatives by the cumyloxyl radical. With all systems, the rate constants exhibited a satisfactory fit to the Marcus equation allowing us to determine self-exchange reorganization energy values (λ(NO˙/NO(-))) which have been compared with those previously determined for the PINO/PINO(-) and BTNO/BTNO(-) couples. Even small modification of the structure of the N-oxyl radicals lead to significant variation of the λ(NO˙/NO(-)) values. The λ(NO˙/NO(-)) values increase in the order BONO < BTNO < QONO < PINO < SINO < MINO which do not parallel the order of the oxidation potentials. The higher λ(NO˙/NO(-)) values found for the MINO and SINO radicals might be in accordance with a lower degree of spin delocalization in the radicals MINO and SINO and charge delocalization in the anions MINO(-) and SINO(-) due to the absence of an aromatic ring in their structure.

  19. Element Yields of Intermediate-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, R B C


    Intermediate mass stars occupy the mass range between 0.8-8 solar masses. In this review, evolutionary models of these stars from numerous sources are compared in terms of their input physics and predicted yields. In particular, the results of Renzini & Voli, van den Hoek & Groenewegen, and Marigo are discussed. Generally speaking, it is shown that yields of He-4, C-12, and N-14 decrease with increasing metallicity, reduced mass loss rate, and increased rotation rate. Integrated yields and recently published chemical evolution model studies are used to assess the relative importance of intermediate mass and massive stars in terms of their contributions to universal element buildup. Intermediate mass stars appear to play a major role in the chemical evolution of N-14, a modest role in the case of C-12, and a small role for He-4. Furthermore, the time delay in their release of nuclear products appears to play an important part in explaining the apparent bimodality in the distribution of damped Lyman alp...

  20. Organophosphate Poisoning and Intermediate Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yilmaz


    Full Text Available Toxic effects that occur after acute organophosphate poisoning (OP can manifest three phases, namely, acute cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome and delayed-type polyneuropathy. Clinical signs and symptoms of organophosphate poisoning depend on the accumulation of acetylcholine at the nerve junction. Organophosphate poisoning causes three main clinical findings; acute cholinergic crisis consisting of muscarinic, nicotinic and central nervous system symptoms, intermediate syndrome with recurrence of cholinergic symptoms or muscle weakness without fasciculation 24-96 hours after poisoning and delayed-type polyneuropathy that can usually occur several days or weeks after acute exposure to organic phosphorus compounds. In this article, intermediate syndrome, which is a late complication, has been reviewed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(1.000: 70-83

  1. Nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Radhey


    Full Text Available In the domain of Nuclear reactions at intermediate energies, the QCD coupling constant αs is large enough (~ 0.3 - 0.5 to render the perturbative calculational techniques inapplicable. In this regime the quarks are confined into colorless hadrons and it is expected that effective field theories of hadron interactions via exchange of hadrons, provide useful tools to describe such reactions. In this contribution we discuss the application of one such theory, the effective Lagrangian model, in describing the hadronic reactions at intermediate energies whose measurements are the focus of a vast international experimental program.

  2. One-electron versus electron-electron interaction contributions to the spin-spin coupling mechanism in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: analysis of basic electronic effects. (United States)

    Gräfenstein, Jürgen; Cremer, Dieter


    For the first time, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-spin coupling mechanism is decomposed into one-electron and electron-electron interaction contributions to demonstrate that spin-information transport between different orbitals is not exclusively an electron-exchange phenomenon. This is done using coupled perturbed density-functional theory in conjunction with the recently developed J-OC-PSP [=J-OC-OC-PSP: Decomposition of J into orbital contributions using orbital currents and partial spin polarization)] method. One-orbital contributions comprise Ramsey response and self-exchange effects and the two-orbital contributions describe first-order delocalization and steric exchange. The two-orbital effects can be characterized as external orbital, echo, and spin transport contributions. A relationship of these electronic effects to zeroth-order orbital theory is demonstrated and their sign and magnitude predicted using simple models and graphical representations of first order orbitals. In the case of methane the two NMR spin-spin coupling constants result from totally different Fermi contact coupling mechanisms. (1)J(C,H) is the result of the Ramsey response and the self-exchange of the bond orbital diminished by external first-order delocalization external one-orbital effects whereas (2)J(H,H) spin-spin coupling is almost exclusively mitigated by a two-orbital steric exchange effect. From this analysis, a series of prediction can be made how geometrical deformations, electron lone pairs, and substituent effects lead to a change in the values of (1)J(C,H) and (2)J(H,H), respectively, for hydrocarbons.

  3. Cestina pro Pokrocile (Intermediate Czech). (United States)

    Kabat, Grazyna; And Others

    The textbook in intermediate Czech is designed for second-year students of the language and those who already have a basic knowledge of Czech grammar and vocabulary. It is appropriate for use in a traditional college language classroom, the business community, or a government language school. It can be covered in a year-long conventional…

  4. Material Voices: Intermediality and Autism (United States)

    Trimingham, Melissa; Shaughnessy, Nicola


    Autism continues to be regarded enigmatically; a community that is difficult to access due to perceived disruptions of interpersonal connectedness. Through detailed observations of two children participating in the Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project "Imagining Autism: Drama, Performance and Intermediality as Interventions for…

  5. Learning through Literature: Geography, Intermediate. (United States)

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    This resource book provides specific strategies and activities for integrating the intermediate geography curriculum with related children's literature selections. The book includes the following sections: (1) "World Geography Overview"; (2) "Oceans"; (3) "Polar Regions"; (4) "Islands"; (5) "Rain Forests"; (6) "Mountains"; (7) "Forests"; (8)…

  6. A synthetic model of the putative Fe(II)-iminobenzosemiquinonate intermediate in the catalytic cycle of o-aminophenol dioxygenases. (United States)

    Bittner, Michael M; Lindeman, Sergey V; Fiedler, Adam T


    The oxidative ring cleavage of aromatic substrates by nonheme Fe dioxygenases is thought to involve formation of a ferrous-(substrate radical) intermediate. Here we describe the synthesis of the trigonal-bipyramdial complex Fe((Ph2)Tp)(ISQ(tBu)) (2), the first synthetic example of an iron(II) center bound to an iminobenzosemiquinonate (ISQ) radical. The unique electronic structure of this S = 3/2 complex and its one-electron oxidized derivative ([3](+)) have been established on the basis of crystallographic, spectroscopic, and computational analyses. These findings further demonstrate the viability of Fe(2+)-ISQ intermediates in the catalytic cycles of o-aminophenol dioxygenases.

  7. [Intermediate care units and noninvasive ventilation]. (United States)

    Becker, Heinrich F; Schönhofer, Bernd; Vogelmeier, Claus


    Intermediate care units (IMC) have been introduced to provide optimal patient management according to disease severity and to bridge the gap between intensive care (ICU) and general wards. Most patients that are referred to an IMC need monitoring and intensive analgetic treatment. Over the past years noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and weaning have emerged as important new forms of active treatment in the IMC. Most studies that have been published so far demonstrate that an IMC improves patient outcome and lowers costs, although randomized controlled trials are missing. NIV reduces mortality, the need for intubation as well as ICU and hospital length of stay in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other disorders that cause respiratory failure. In many cases NIV can be performed in the IMC, a fact that reduces the number of ICU admissions, lowers costs and improves patient care. The high prevalence of pulmonary diseases and NIV emphasizes the importance of pneumologists as directors of both ICU and IMC.


    Pichi, Francesco; Srivastava, Sunil K; Nucci, Paolo; Baynes, Kimberly; Neri, Piergiorgio; Lowder, Careen Y


    To examine cases of intermediate uveitis complicated by retinoschisis and review the pathogenetic hypothesis. A retrospective chart review of patients with intermediate uveitis. Data were collected at three uveitis referral centers on sex, age, best-corrected visual acuity, degree of vitritis, extent and location of snowbanking, presence of hard exudates, neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage, and extent and nature of retinal elevations. A series of 23 eyes of 20 patients were examined; patient's age ranged from 10 years to 70 years and follow-up period from 8 months to 6 years. Twenty-two eyes had retinoschisis (95.6%), and 1 had retinoschisis associated with serous retinal detachment (4.3%). Extensive inferior pars plana exudates with snowbanking were present in 12 eyes (52.2%), whereas 3 eyes had inferior snowballs over the elevated retina. Neovascularization of the vitreous base accompanied by vitreous hemorrhage occurred in one eye. There was no coexisting macular pathology in 16 eyes, whereas 4 eyes had cystoid macular edema. The appearance of peripheral retinoschisis in this series of uncontrolled intermediate uveitis patients seems to be secondary to a complex balance between the persistent fluorescein leakage, a subclinical peripheral ischemia, and the constant low-grade vitreous inflammation that causes vitreous shrinkage and traction. The results of this study suggest that the absence of macroscopic changes in the retina does not preclude ischemic peripheral abnormalities, and the detection of a peripheral retinoschisis in an intermediate uveitis patient with active fluorescein leakage must suggest the need for a more aggressive form of treatment despite the good visual acuity.

  9. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments. (United States)

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward


    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation.

  10. Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile


    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600

  11. Intermediate energy neutron beams from the MURR. (United States)

    Brugger, R M; Herleth, W H


    Several reactors in the United States are potential candidates to deliver beams of intermediate energy neutrons for NCT. At this time, moderators, as compared to filters, appear to be the more effective means of tailoring the flux of these reactors. The objective is to sufficiently reduce the flux of fast neutrons while producing enough intermediate energy neutrons for treatments. At the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), the code MCNP has recently been used to calculate doses in a phantom. First, "ideal" beams of 1, 35, and 1000 eV neutrons were analyzed to determine doses and advantage depths in the phantom. Second, a high quality beam that had been designed to fit in the thermal column of the MURR, was reanalyzed. MCNP calculations of the dose in phantom in this beam confirmed previous calculations and showed that this beam would be a nearly ideal one with neutrons of the desired energy and also a high neutron current. However, installation of this beam will require a significant modification of the thermal column of the MURR. Therefore, a second beam that is less difficult to build and install, but of lower neutron current, has been designed to fit in MURR port F. This beam is designed using inexpensive A1, S, and Pb. The doses calculated in the phantom placed in this beam show that it will be satisfactory for sample tests, animal tests, and possible initial patient trials. Producing this beam will require only modest modifications of the existing tube.

  12. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Margiotta


    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway.

  13. Intermedial Strategies of Memory in Contemporary Novels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sara


    In her article "Intermedial Strategies and Memory in Contemporary Novels" Sara Tanderup discusses a tendency in contemporary literature towards combining intermedial experiments with a thematic preoccupation with memory and trauma. Analyzing selected works by Steven Hall, Jonathan Safran Foer...

  14. Pelamis WEC - intermediate scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yemm, R.


    This report describes the successful building and commissioning of an intermediate 1/7th scale model of the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter (WEC) and its testing in the wave climate of the Firth of Forth. Details are given of the design of the semi-submerged articulated structure of cylindrical elements linked by hinged joints. The specific programme objectives and conclusions, development issues addressed, and key remaining risks are discussed along with development milestones to be passed before the Pelamis WEC is ready for full-scale prototype testing.

  15. ESL intermediate/advanced writing

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Page, Mary Ellen; Jaskiewicz, Mary


    Master ESL (English as a Second Language) Writing with the study guide designed for non-native speakers of English. Skill-building lessons relevant to today's topics help ESL students write complete sentences, paragraphs, and even multi-paragraph essays. It's perfect for classroom use or self-guided writing preparation.DETAILS- Intermediate drills for improving skills with parallel structure, mood, correct shifting errors & dangling participles- Advanced essay drills focusing on narrative, descriptive, process, reaction, comparison and contrast- Superb preparation for students taking the TOEFL

  16. Intermediate Filaments in Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Zuela, Noam; Gruenbaum, Yosef


    More than 70 different genes in humans and 12 different genes in Caenorhabditis elegans encode the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF) proteins. In C. elegans, similar to humans, these proteins are expressed in a cell- and tissue-specific manner, can assemble into heteropolymers and into 5-10nm wide filaments that account for the principal structural elements at the nuclear periphery, nucleoplasm, and cytoplasm. At least 5 of the 11 cytoplasmic IFs, as well as the nuclear IF, lamin, are essential. In this chapter, we will include a short review of our current knowledge of both cytoplasmic and nuclear IFs in C. elegans and will describe techniques used for their analyses.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    采用脉冲辐解技术,以羟基自由基和硫酸根自由基作为氧化剂,研究了9,10-菲醌(PhQ)在水溶液中的单电子氧化行为,获取了瞬态产物的吸收光谱和有关动力学数据.在中性pH条件下,PhQ与羟基自由基以(1.5±0.2)(1010 dm3·mol-1·s-1的速率反应,生成一个初级瞬态产物.该瞬态产物的吸收光谱呈现出位于370nm的吸收峰和在较长波长下的一个宽吸收带.进一步实验观察到,随着短波长区初级吸收的衰减,可见光区的吸收同步增加,在400nm处形成最大吸收峰,并产生以500nm为中心的宽吸收带,表明次级瞬态产物的形成.PH9.9条件下得到的结果与中性pH的一致.降低pH至2-4,尽管初始瞬态吸收谱也呈现出位于370nm的最大吸收峰,但伴随着初始吸收的衰减,没有观察到可见区域吸收的增加.在中性pH条件下,硫酸根自由基与PhQ反应的速率常数测定为(4.0±0.6)(109dm3·mol-1·s-1,生成的瞬态吸收谱与氢氧自由基反应得到的次级吸收谱一致,呈现以400nm和500nm为中心的两个吸收带.基于光谱的相似性和动力学分析,以及羟基自由基和硫酸根自由基的特性,本工作推断反应机理如下:PhQ羟基自由基反应首先生成OH加成产物,OH加成产物脱水生成阳离子自由基;阳离子自由基亦可通过硫酸根自由基的氧化直接产生.%The one-electron oxidation of phenanthrenequinone (PhQ) in aqueous solutions was investigated by pulse radiolysis using hydroxyl radical and sulphate radical as oxidants. Spectral and kinetic properties of the transients formed due to the reaction of PhQ with the oxidants were obtained. The reaction of hydroxyl radical with PhQ results in an initial species with an absorption spectrum centered at 370nm and a weak broad band in the long wavelength regions at neutral pH. The bimolecular rate constant for the formation of initial species was determined to be (1.5±0.2)(1010dm3·mol-1·s-1. The absorption in the

  18. 34 CFR 200.17 - Intermediate goals. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate goals. 200.17 Section 200.17 Education... Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.17 Intermediate goals. Each State must establish intermediate goals that increase in equal increments over the period...

  19. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, M C


    The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (roughly 3-20 solar masses), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (millions to billions of solar masses), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with hundreds to thousands of solar masses. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work t...

  20. Surface Intermediates on Metal Electrodes at High Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse


    The mechanisms widely suggested for the O2-reduc-tion or H2-oxidation SOFC reactions involve inter-mediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In airat moderate temperatures (500øC) Pt in contact with YSZ ...... is covered with adsorbed oxygen which vanishes at high temperature (1000øC). On Ni (YSZ) a specific layer of NiO is observed abovethe equilibrium potential while no surface species can identified at SOFC anode conditions....

  1. Intermediate view synthesis from stereoscopic images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Chaohui; An Ping; Zhang Zhaoyang


    A new method is proposed for synthesizing intermediate views from a pair of stereoscopic images. In order to synthesize high-quality intermediate views, the block matching method together with a simplified multi-window technique and dynamic programming is used in the process of disparity estimation. Then occlusion detection is performed to locate occluded regions and their disparities are compensated. After the projecton of the left-to-right and right-to-left disparities onto the intermediate image, intermediate view is synthesized considering occluded regions. Experimental results show that our synthesis method can obtain intermediate views with higher quality.

  2. Analysis of the interfacial admittance in the case of a two-step two-electron electrode reaction with a diffusing intermediate, with application to the reduction of pyrazine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueda, M.; Sluyters-Rehbach, M.; Sluyters, J.H.


    A critical evaluation is presented of the analysis of impedance or admittance data in the case of an electrode reaction proceeding by two consecutive one-electron transfers with a stable, solution-soluble intermediate. It is shown that the expression for this case, as derived by Armstrong and

  3. Application of citrate as a tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediate, prevents diabetic-induced heart damages in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Liang


    Conclusion: Results indicate that application of citrate, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediate, might alleviate cardiac dysfunction by reducing cardiac inflammation, apoptosis, and increasing cardiac EC.

  4. Intermediate electrostatic field for the generalized elongation method. (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Korchowiec, Jacek; Aoki, Yuriko


    An intermediate electrostatic field is introduced to improve the accuracy of fragment-based quantum-chemical computational methods by including long-range polarizations of biomolecules. The point charge distribution of the intermediate field is generated by a charge sensitivity analysis that is parameterized for five different population analyses, namely, atoms-in-molecules, Hirshfeld, Mulliken, natural orbital, and Voronoi population analysis. Two model systems are chosen to demonstrate the performance of the generalized elongation method (ELG) combined with the intermediate electrostatic field. The calculations are performed for the STO-3G, 6-31G, and 6-31G(d) basis sets and compared with reference Hartree-Fock calculations. It is shown that the error in the total energy is reduced by one order of magnitude, independently of the population analyses used. This demonstrates the importance of long-range polarization in electronic-structure calculations by fragmentation techniques.

  5. Displays for future intermediate UAV (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel; Metzler, James; Blakesley, David; Rister, Courtney; Nuhu, Abdul-Razak


    The Dedicated Autonomous Extended Duration Airborne Long-range Utility System (DAEDALUS) is a prototype Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that won the 2007 AFRL Commander's Challenge. The purpose of the Commander's Challenge was to find an innovative solution to urgent warfighter needs by designing a UAV with increased persistence for tactical employment of sensors and communication systems. DAEDALUS was chosen as a winning prototype by AFRL, AFMC and SECAF. Follow-on units are intended to fill an intermediate role between currently fielded Tier I and Tier II UAV's. The UAV design discussed in this paper, including sensors and displays, will enter Phase II for Rapid Prototype Development with the intent of developing the design for eventual production. This paper will discuss the DAEDALUS UAV prototype system, with particular focus on its communications, to include the infrared sensor and electro-optical camera, but also displays, specifically man-portable.

  6. Intermediate Jacobians of moduli spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Arapura, D; Arapura, Donu; Sastry, Pramathanath


    Let $SU_X(n,L)$ be the moduli space of rank n semistable vector bundles with fixed determinant L on a smooth projective genus g curve X. Let $SU_X^s(n,L)$ denote the open subset parametrizing stable bundles. We show that if g>3 and n > 1, then the mixed Hodge structure on $H^3(SU_X^s(n, L))$ is pure of type ${(1,2),(2,1)}$ and it carries a natural polarization such that the associated polarized intermediate Jacobian is isomorphic J(X). This is new when deg L and n are not coprime. As a corollary, we obtain a Torelli theorem that says roughly that $SU_X^s(n,L)$ (or $SU_X(n,L)$) determines X. This complements or refines earlier results of Balaji, Kouvidakis-Pantev, Mumford-Newstead, Narasimhan-Ramanan, and Tyurin.

  7. Intermediate inflation from rainbow gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D


    It is possible to dualize theories based on deformed dispersion relations and Einstein gravity so as to map them into theories with trivial dispersion relations and rainbow gravity. This often leads to "dual inflation" without the usual breaking of the strong energy condition. We identify the dispersion relations in the original frame which map into "intermediate" inflationary models. These turn out to be particularly simple: power-laws modulated by powers of a logarithm. The fluctuations predicted by these scenarios are near, but not exactly scale-invariant, with a red running spectral index. These dispersion relations deserve further study within the context of quantum gravity and the phenomenon of dimensional reduction in the ultraviolet.

  8. A New Vaccinia Virus Intermediate Transcription Factor


    Sanz, Patrick; Moss, Bernard


    Transcription of the vaccinia virus genome is mediated by a virus-encoded multisubunit DNA-dependent RNA polymerase in conjunction with early-, intermediate-, and late-stage-specific factors. Previous studies indicated that two virus-encoded proteins (capping enzyme and VITF-1) and one unidentified cellular protein (VITF-2) are required for specific transcription of an intermediate promoter template in vitro. We have now extensively purified an additional virus-induced intermediate transcript...

  9. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnhard, D.


    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  10. One-electron oxidation of 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoic and 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)cyclopropanecarboxylic acids in aqueous solution. the involvement of radical cations and the influence of structural effects and pH on the side-chain fragmentation reactivity. (United States)

    Bietti, Massimo; Capone, Alberto


    A product and time-resolved kinetic study on the one-electron oxidation of 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoic acid (2), 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (3), and of the corresponding methyl esters (substrates 4 and 5, respectively) has been carried out in aqueous solution. With 2, no direct evidence for the formation of an intermediate radical cation 2*+ but only of the decarboxylated 4-methoxycumyl radical has been obtained, indicating either that 2*+ is not formed or that its decarboxylation is too fast to allow detection under the experimental conditions employed (k > 1 x 10(7) s(-1)). With 3, oxidation leads to the formation of the corresponding radical cation 3*+ or radical zwitterion -3*+ depending on pH. At pH 1.0 and 6.7, 3*+ and -3*+ have been observed to undergo decarboxylation as the exclusive side-chain fragmentation pathway with rate constants k = 4.6 x 10(3) and 2.3 x 10(4) s(-1), respectively. With methyl esters 4 and 5, direct evidence for the formation of the corresponding radical cations 4*+ and 5*+ has been obtained. Both radical cations have been observed to display a very low reactivity and an upper limit for their decay rate constants has been determined as k or=10, with the latter process that becomes the major fragmentation pathway around pH 12.

  11. Nitric oxide: an intermediate in nitrate reduction in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Abdulla, J.M.; Aleem, M.I.H.


    When K. pneumoniae cells were grown anaerobically with nitrate as the final electron acceptor, there was a rapid reduction of nitrate to nitrite. The latter was further reduced to hydroxylamine and finally to ammonia. Nitrate, nitrite and nitric oxide, but not nitrous oxide, could accept electrons from the respiratory chain. During growth of the organism it was possible to trap nitric oxide with alkaline permanganate. The trapped gas represented only a small portion of the reduced electron acceptor. It would appear that a major portion of nitric oxide produced from nitrite reduction must be converted to an unknown nitrogenous intermediate with an oxidation state of +1 before its reduction to hydroxylamine. The possible nature of this elusive intermediate should be discussed.

  12. Some Intermediate-Level Violin Concertos. (United States)

    Abramson, Michael


    Contends that many violin students attempt difficult concertos before they are technically or musically prepared. Identifies a variety of concertos at the intermediate and advanced intermediate-level for students to study and master before attempting the advanced works by Bach and Mozart. Includes concertos by Vivaldi, Leclair, Viotti, Haydn,…

  13. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the:...

  14. Air Conditioning. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course. (United States)

    Long, William

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of seven terminal objectives for an intermediate air conditioning course. The titles of the seven terminal objectives are Refrigeration Cycle, Job Requirement Skills, Air Conditioning, Trouble Shooting, Performance Test, Shop Management, and S.I.E.…

  15. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course. (United States)

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

  16. Air Conditioning. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course. (United States)

    Long, William

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of seven terminal objectives for an intermediate air conditioning course. The titles of the seven terminal objectives are Refrigeration Cycle, Job Requirement Skills, Air Conditioning, Trouble Shooting, Performance Test, Shop Management, and S.I.E.…

  17. Enhancing the performance of Q-cascade for separating intermediate components (United States)

    Zeng, S.; Jiang, D. J.; Zhang, Y. N.; Borisevich, V. D.; Sulaberidze, G. A.; Smirnov, A. Yu


    It has been shown recently that Q-cascade with an expansion of the entering flow at the intermediate withdrawal point is able to obtain a concentration of an intermediate component far exceeding the concentration limit available from an end withdrawal. To enhance the applicability of this approach, it is necessary to reduce the relative total flow while maintaining the concentration of the intermediate target component unchanged. Optimization is carried out by using the technique of cascade segmentation, and using the mass numbers of the virtual components in the segments and the lengths of the segments as decision variables. The results demonstrate that the relative total flow is considerably reduced through optimization.

  18. Effect of Intermediate Hosts on Emerging Zoonoses. (United States)

    Cui, Jing-An; Chen, Fangyuan; Fan, Shengjie


    Most emerging zoonotic pathogens originate from animals. They can directly infect humans through natural reservoirs or indirectly through intermediate hosts. As a bridge, an intermediate host plays different roles in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. In this study, we present three types of pathogen transmission to evaluate the effect of intermediate hosts on emerging zoonotic diseases in human epidemics. These types are identified as follows: TYPE 1, pathogen transmission without an intermediate host for comparison; TYPE 2, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as an amplifier; and TYPE 3, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as a vessel for genetic variation. In addition, we established three mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms underlying zoonotic disease transmission according to these three types. Stability analysis indicated that the existence of intermediate hosts increased the difficulty of controlling zoonotic diseases because of more difficult conditions to satisfy for the disease to die out. The human epidemic would die out under the following conditions: TYPE 1: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]; TYPE 2: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]; and TYPE 3: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] Simulation with similar parameters demonstrated that intermediate hosts could change the peak time and number of infected humans during a human epidemic; intermediate hosts also exerted different effects on controlling the prevalence of a human epidemic with natural reservoirs in different periods, which is important in addressing problems in public health. Monitoring and controlling the number of natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts at the right time would successfully manage and prevent the prevalence of emerging zoonoses in humans.

  19. Selective insertion of sulfur dioxide reduction intermediates on graphene oxide. (United States)

    Humeres, Eduardo; Debacher, Nito A; Smaniotto, Alessandra; de Castro, Karen M; Benetoli, Luís O B; de Souza, Eduardo P; Moreira, Regina de F P M; Lopes, Cristiane N; Schreiner, Wido H; Canle, Moisés; Santaballa, J Arturo


    Graphite microparticles (d50 6.20 μm) were oxidized by strong acids, and the resultant graphite oxide was thermally exfoliated to graphene oxide sheets (MPGO, C/O 1.53). Graphene oxide was treated with nonthermal plasma under a SO2 atmosphere at room temperature. The XPS spectrum showed that SO2 was inserted only as the oxidized intermediate at 168.7 eV in the S 2p region. Short thermal shocks at 600 and 400 °C, under an Ar atmosphere, produced reduced sulfur and carbon dioxide as shown by the XPS spectrum and TGA analysis coupled to FTIR. MPGO was also submitted to thermal reaction with SO2 at 630 °C, and the XPS spectrum in the S 2p region at 164.0 eV showed that this time only the nonoxidized episulfide intermediate was inserted. Plasma and thermal treatment produced a partial reduction of MPGO. The sequence of thermal reaction followed by plasma treatment inserted both sulfur intermediates. Because oxidized and nonoxidized intermediates have different reactivities, this selective insertion would allow the addition of selective types of organic fragments to the surface of graphene oxide.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, William


    from each port can be subdivided into several separate beams, each of which can serve an independent experimental station. All told, 50 or more scientific teams can simultaneously and independently conduct research using intense photon beams from a single intermediate-energy synchrotron radiation facility.

  1. Crystal structure from one-electron theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, H. L.


    The authors have studied the crystal structure of all the 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals at zero pressure and temperature by means of the linear muffin-tin orbital method and Andersen's force theorem. They find that, although the structural energy differences seem to be overestimated by the the......The authors have studied the crystal structure of all the 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals at zero pressure and temperature by means of the linear muffin-tin orbital method and Andersen's force theorem. They find that, although the structural energy differences seem to be overestimated...... by the theory, the predicted crystal structures are in accord with experiment in all cases except 79Au. In addition, they have investigated the effect of pressure upon the alkali metals (3Li, 11Na, 37Rb, 55Cs) and selected lanthanide metals (57La, 58Ce, 71Lu) and actinide metals (90Th, 91Pa). In these cases...

  2. An experimental comparison of the Marcus-Hush and Butler-Volmer descriptions of electrode kinetics applied to cyclic voltammetry. The one electron reductions of europium (III) and 2-methyl-2-nitropropane studied at a mercury microhemisphere electrode (United States)

    Henstridge, Martin C.; Wang, Yijun; Limon-Petersen, Juan G.; Laborda, Eduardo; Compton, Richard G.


    We present a comparative experimental evaluation of the Butler-Volmer and Marcus-Hush models using cyclic voltammetry at a microelectrode. Numerical simulations are used to fit experimental voltammetry of the one electron reductions of europium (III) and 2-methyl-2-nitropropane, in water and acetonitrile, respectively, at a mercury microhemisphere electrode. For Eu (III) very accurate fits to experiment were obtained over a wide range of scan rates using Butler-Volmer kinetics, whereas the Marcus-Hush model was less accurate. The reduction of 2-methyl-2-nitropropane was well simulated by both models, however Marcus-Hush required a reorganisation energy lower than expected.

  3. Language in use intermediate : classroom book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian


    ach of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  4. Language in use intermediate : teacher's book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian


    Each of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  5. Biocatalysis: synthesis of chiral intermediates for drugs. (United States)

    Patel, Ramesh N


    Chirality is a key factor in the safety and efficacy of many drug products and thus the production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand for the bulk preparation of drug substances and agricultural products. There has been an increasing awareness of the enormous potential of the use of microorganisms and microorganism-derived enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral intermediates for drugs.

  6. Thermal Runaway during Intermediate-Depth Earthquake Rupture (United States)

    Prieto, German; Florez, Manuel; Barrett, Sarah; Beroza, Gregory; Pedraza, Patricia; Blanco, Jose; Poveda, Esteban


    Intermediate-depth earthquakes occur at depths of 50 to 300 km in subducting lithosphere. Despite their ubiquity in earthquake catalogs, their physical mechanism remains unclear because ambient temperatures and pressures are expected to lead to ductile, rather than brittle deformation. There are two leading explanations for the physical mechanism that enables these earthquakes. In the first, high pore pressure from metamorphic dehydration reactions in the subducting slab reduces the effective normal stress sufficiently to enable frictional failure. In the second, slow deformation generates heat, which leads to weakening, further deformation, and a self-localizing thermal shear runaway. We use the nest of intermediate-depth earthquakes under Bucaramanga, Colombia as recorded by the digital RSNC (Red Sísmica Nacional de Colombia) regional seismic network to explore these two possibilities. We observe a combination of high stress drop and low radiation efficiency for Mw 4-5 earthquakes in the Bucaramanga Nest that points to the importance of thermal effects. If we assume a cm-scale fault-zone width, this combination implies a temperature increase of 600-1,000ºC during earthquake failure, which suggests that substantial shear heating, and possibly partial melting, occurs during intermediate-depth earthquake failure. Our observations support thermal shear runaway as the mechanism for intermediate-depth earthquakes. This mechanism could help explain differences in their behavior, such as the paucity of aftershocks, compared to shallow earthquakes. Although we have inferred these mechanisms for intermediate depth earthquakes, it's likely that they would apply for rapid deformation on the deep extensions of fault zones as well - particularly during large earthquakes, such as the 2012 Mw 8.6 strike-slip event off Sumatra, which is inferred to have ruptured well into the oceanic mantle.

  7. Homoleptic organocobalt(III) compounds with intermediate spin. (United States)

    García-Monforte, M Angeles; Ara, Irene; Martín, Antonio; Menjón, Babil; Tomás, Milagros; Alonso, Pablo J; Arauzo, Ana B; Martínez, Jesús I; Rillo, Conrado


    Homoleptic organocobalt(III) compounds with formula [NBu4][Co(III)(C6X5)4] [X = F (3), Cl (4)] were obtained in reasonable yields by chemical oxidation of the corresponding divalent species [NBu4]2[Co(II)(C6X5)4] [X = F (1), Cl (2)]. The [Co(III)(C6X5)4](-)/[Co(II)(C6X5)4](2-) couples are electrochemically related by quasi-reversible, one-electron exchange processes at moderate potential: E1/2 = -0.29 (X = F) and -0.36 V (X = Cl) versus saturated calomel electrode. The [Co(III)(C6X5)4](-) anions in salts 3 and 4 show an unusual square-planar geometry as established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. According to their stereochemistry, these Co(III) derivatives (d(6)) are paramagnetic non-Kramers systems with a large zero-field splitting contribution and no observable electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum. The thermal dependence of their magnetic susceptibilities can be explained in terms of a spin-Hamiltonian formalism with S = 1 ground state (intermediate spin) and substantial spin-orbit contribution. The magnetic properties of the square-planar d(7) parent species [NBu4]2[Co(II)(C6X5)4] were also thoroughly studied both at microscopic (EPR) and macroscopic levels (alternating current and direct current magnetization measurements). They behave as S = 1/2 (low spin) systems with mainly (dz(2))(1) electron configuration and a certain degree of s-orbital admixture that has been quantified. The electronic structures of all four open-shell [Co(C6X5)4](q-) compounds (q = 1, 2) accounting for their respective magnetic properties are based on a common orbital energy-level diagram.

  8. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert


    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  9. Simplifying biochemical models with intermediate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten


    canonical model that characterizes crucial dynamical properties, such as mono- and multistationarity and stability of steady states, of all models in the class. We show that if the core model does not have conservation laws, then the introduction of intermediates does not change the steady...... techniques, we study systematically the effects of intermediate, or transient, species in biochemical systems and provide a simple, yet rigorous mathematical classification of all models obtained from a core model by including intermediates. Main examples include enzymatic and post-translational modification...... systems, where intermediates often are considered insignificant and neglected in a model, or they are not included because we are unaware of their existence. All possible models obtained from the core model are classified into a finite number of classes. Each class is defined by a mathematically simple...

  10. The second national audit of intermediate care. (United States)

    Young, John; Gladman, John R F; Forsyth, Duncan R; Holditch, Claire


    Intermediate care services have developed internationally to expedite discharge from hospital and to provide an alternative to an emergency hospital admission. Inconsistencies in the evidence base and under-developed governance structures led to concerns about the care quality, outcomes and provision of intermediate care in the NHS. The National Audit of Intermediate Care was therefore established by an interdisciplinary group. The second national audit reported in 2013 and included crisis response teams, home-based and bed-based services in approximately a half of the NHS. The main findings were evidence of weak local strategic planning, considerable under-provision, delays in accessing the services and lack of mental health involvement in care. There was a very high level of positive patient experience reported across all types of intermediate care, though reported involvement with care decisions was less satisfactory.

  11. Bangladesh: planning intermediate growth centers. (United States)


    In Bangladesh the current level of urbanization--about 10% of a total population of 90 million--is still low compared with most of the developing countries of the world. Yet, urban growth has been very rapid. From 1960 to 1980 the urban population more than tripled. Much of this growth can be attributed to the fact that the agricultural sector cannot absorb any further population, and nonagricultural employment is available only in urban areas. Additionally, almost 1/2 of the rural population is practically landless. These factors along with natural calamities such as the floods, cyclones, and shifting river beds which displace thousands of rural people, contribute to rural-urban migration. Since 1971 the population of Dacca has quadrupled, creating problems of unmanageable proportions. A lack of adequate city services leads to serious health and sanitation problems. The characteristics distinguishing developing countries from those countries already industrialized at the time of most rapid urbanization are outlined. The growth trend of urban areas in Bangladesh indicates the emergence of some 20 cities, one with a population of more than 5 million and 5 others with populations of 1-2 million. These cities will compare with large metropolitan cities of developed countries only in their number of residents, not in terms of their physical infrastructure, services, or modern amenities. To cope with the problems of rapid urbanization, Bangladesh is adopting policies, strategies, and programs in 3 broad areas: the reduction of population growth rates in urban and rural areas; the development of an urban settlement system with wider and more equitable distribution of urban growth and containment of larger cities within manageable limits; and the improvement of infrastructures and services in urban areas. In regard to the goal of reducing population growth rates, attempts are being made to provide greater access to family planning information, education, and suitable

  12. Crystal structure of a blue laccase from Lentinus tigrinus: evidences for intermediates in the molecular oxygen reductive splitting by multicopper oxidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovleva Ludmila A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laccases belong to multicopper oxidases, a widespread class of enzymes implicated in many oxidative functions in pathogenesis, immunogenesis and morphogenesis of organisms and in the metabolic turnover of complex organic substances. They catalyze the coupling between the four one-electron oxidations of a broad range of substrates with the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. These catalytic processes are made possible by the contemporaneous presence of at least four copper ion sites, classified according to their spectroscopic properties: one type 1 (T1 site where the electrons from the reducing substrates are accepted, one type 2 (T2, and a coupled binuclear type 3 pair (T3 which are assembled in a T2/T3 trinuclear cluster where the electrons are transferred to perform the O2 reduction to H2O. Results The structure of a laccase from the white-rot fungus Lentinus (Panus tigrinus, a glycoenzyme involved in lignin biodegradation, was solved at 1.5 Å. It reveals a asymmetric unit containing two laccase molecules (A and B. The progressive reduction of the copper ions centers obtained by the long-term exposure of the crystals to the high-intensity X-ray synchrotron beam radiation under aerobic conditions and high pH allowed us to detect two sequential intermediates in the molecular oxygen reduction pathway: the "peroxide" and the "native" intermediates, previously hypothesized through spectroscopic, kinetic and molecular mechanics studies. Specifically the electron-density maps revealed the presence of an end-on bridging, μ-η1:η1 peroxide ion between the two T3 coppers in molecule B, result of a two-electrons reduction, whereas in molecule A an oxo ion bridging the three coppers of the T2/T3 cluster (μ3-oxo bridge together with an hydroxide ion externally bridging the two T3 copper ions, products of the four-electrons reduction of molecular oxygen, were best modelled. Conclusion This is the first structure of a

  13. Partially folded intermediates during trypsinogen denaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins N.F.


    Full Text Available The equilibrium unfolding of bovine trypsinogen was studied by circular dichroism, differential spectra and size exclusion HPLC. The change in free energy of denaturation was = 6.99 ± 1.40 kcal/mol for guanidine hydrochloride and = 6.37 ± 0.57 kcal/mol for urea. Satisfactory fits of equilibrium unfolding transitions required a three-state model involving an intermediate in addition to the native and unfolded forms. Size exclusion HPLC allowed the detection of an intermediate population of trypsinogen whose Stokes radii varied from 24.1 ± 0.4 Å to 26.0 ± 0.3 Å for 1.5 M and 2.5 M guanidine hydrochloride, respectively. During urea denaturation, the range of Stokes radii varied from 23.9 ± 0.3 Å to 25.7 ± 0.6 Å for 4.0 M and 6.0 M urea, respectively. Maximal intrinsic fluorescence was observed at about 3.8 M urea with 8-aniline-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS binding. These experimental data indicate that the unfolding of bovine trypsinogen is not a simple transition and suggest that the equilibrium intermediate population comprises one intermediate that may be characterized as a molten globule. To obtain further insight by studying intermediates representing different stages of unfolding, we hope to gain a better understanding of the complex interrelations between protein conformation and energetics.

  14. The Integral- and Intermediate-Screened Coupled-Cluster Method

    CERN Document Server

    Sørensen, L K


    We present the formulation and implementation of the integral- and intermediate-screened coupled-cluster method (ISSCC). The IISCC method gives a simple and rigorous integral and intermediate screening (IIS) of the coupled-cluster method and will significantly reduces the scaling for all orders of the CC hierarchy exactly like seen for the integral-screened configuration-interaction method (ISCI). The rigorous IIS in the IISCC gives a robust and adjustable error control which should allow for the possibility of converging the energy without any loss of accuracy while retaining low or linear scaling at the same time. The derivation of the IISCC is performed in a similar fashion as in the ISCI where we show that the tensor contractions for the nested commutators are separable up to an overall sign and that this separability can lead to a rigorous IIS. In the nested commutators the integrals are screened in the first tensor contraction and the intermediates are screened in all successive tensor contractions. The...

  15. Dominance of many-body effects over the one-electron mechanism for band structure doping dependence in Nd{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4}: the LDA+GTB approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korshunov, M M [L V Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Gavrichkov, V A [L V Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikov, S G [L V Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Nekrasov, I A [Institute of Electrophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, 620016 Yekaterinburg, Amundsena 106 (Russian Federation); Kokorina, E E [Institute of Electrophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, 620016 Yekaterinburg, Amundsena 106 (Russian Federation); Pchelkina, Z V [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Division, 620041 Yekaterinburg, GSP-170 (Russian Federation)


    In the present work we report band structure calculations for the high-temperature superconductor Nd{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4} in the regime of strong electronic correlations within an LDA+GTB method, which combines the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized tight-binding method (GTB). The two mechanisms of band structure doping dependence were taken into account. Namely, the one-electron mechanism provided by the doping dependence of the crystal structure, and the many-body mechanism provided by the strong renormalization of the fermionic quasiparticles due to the large on-site Coulomb repulsion. We have shown that, in the antiferromagnetic and in the strongly correlated paramagnetic phases of the underdoped cuprates, the main contribution to the doping evolution of the band structure and Fermi surface comes from the many-body mechanism.

  16. The impact of intermediate care services on job satisfaction, skills and career development opportunities. (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan


    The purpose of this study was to examine, in depth, the impact of intermediate care services on staff job satisfaction, skills development and career development opportunities. Recruitment and retention difficulties present a major barrier to the effective delivery of intermediate care services in the UK. The limited existing literature is contradictory, but points to the possibility of staff deskilling and suggests that intermediate care is poorly understood and may be seen by other practitioners as being of lower status than hospital work. These factors have the potential to reduce staff morale and limit the possibilities of recruiting staff. The research is based on interviews with 26 staff from case studies of two intermediate care services in South Yorkshire. Participants reported high levels of job satisfaction, which was because of the enabling philosophy of care, increased autonomy, the setting of care and the actual teams within which the workers were employed. For most disciplines, intermediate care facilitated the application of existing skills in a different way; enhancing some skills, while restricting the use of others. Barriers to career development opportunities were attributed to the relative recency of intermediate care services, small size of the services and lack of clear career structures. Career development opportunities in intermediate care could be improved through staff rotations through acute, community and intermediate care to increase their awareness of the roles of intermediate care staff. The non-hierarchical management structures limits management career development opportunities, instead, there is a need to enhance professional growth opportunities through the use of consultant posts and specialization within intermediate care. This study provides insight into the impact of an increasingly popular model of care on the roles and job satisfaction of workers and highlights the importance of this learning for recruitment and retention of

  17. On the Blue Loops of Intermediate-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Walmswell, J J; Eldridge, J J


    We consider the blue loops in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram that occur when intermediate-mass stars begin core helium burning. It has long been known that the excess of helium above the burning shell, the result of the contraction of the convective core during core hydrogen burning, has the effect of making such stars redder and larger than they would be otherwise. The outward motion of the burning shell in mass removes this excess and triggers the loop. Hitherto nobody has attempted to demonstrate why the excess helium has this effect. We consider the effect of the local opacity, which is reduced by excess helium, the shell fuel supply, which is also reduced, and the local mean molecular weight, which is increased. We demonstrate that the mean molecular weight is the decisive reddening factor. The opacity has a much smaller effect and a reduced fuel supply actually favours blueward motion.

  18. Outflow forces in intermediate mass star formation

    CERN Document Server

    van Kempen, T A; van Dishoeck, E F; Kristensen, L E; Belloche, A; Klaassen, P D; Leurini, S; Jose-Garcia, I San; Aykutalp, A; Choi, Y; Endo, A; Frieswijk, W; Harsono, D; Karska, A; Koumpia, E; van der Marel, N; Nagy, Z; Perez-Beaupuits, J P; Risacher, C; van Weeren, R J; Wyrowski, F; Yildiz, U A; Guesten, R; Boland, W; Baryshev, A


    Intermediate mass protostarsprovide a bridge between theories of low- and high-mass star formation. Emerging molecular outflows can be used to determine the influence of fragmentation and multiplicity on protostellar evolution through the correlation of outflow forces of intermediate mass protostars with the luminosity. The aim of this paper is to derive outflow forces from outflows of six intermediate mass protostellar regions and validate the apparent correlation between total luminosity and outflow force seen in earlier work, as well as remove uncertainties caused by different methodology. By comparing CO 6--5 observations obtained with APEX with non-LTE radiative transfer model predictions, optical depths, temperatures, densities of the gas of the molecular outflows are derived. Outflow forces, dynamical timescales and kinetic luminosities are subsequently calculated. Outflow parameters, including the forces, were derived for all sources. Temperatures in excess of 50 K were found for all flows, in line wi...

  19. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  20. Digital intermediate frequency QAM modulator using parallel processing (United States)

    Pao, Hsueh-Yuan; Tran, Binh-Nien


    The digital Intermediate Frequency (IF) modulator applies to various modulation types and offers a simple and low cost method to implement a high-speed digital IF modulator using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The architecture eliminates multipliers and sequential processing by storing the pre-computed modulated cosine and sine carriers in ROM look-up-tables (LUTs). The high-speed input data stream is parallel processed using the corresponding LUTs, which reduces the main processing speed, allowing the use of low cost FPGAs.

  1. Status and prospects of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bangwu Liu; Yue Zhang


    Compared with conventional electric power generation systems, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has many advantages because of its unique features. High temperature SOFC has been successfully developed to its commercial applications, but it still faces many problems which hamper large-scale commercial applications of SOFC. To reduce the cost of SOFC, intermediate tem-perature solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC) is presently under rapid development. The status of IT-SOFC was reviewed with emphasis on discussion of their component materials.

  2. Wearable electronics formed on intermediate layer on textiles

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa


    One manner of producing more desirable clothing with electronic capabilities is to manufacture electronics, such as the charging wires or devices themselves, directly onto the textile materials. Textile materials generally do not support the manufacturing of electronic devices, in part because the surface of the textile is too rough for electronic devices or the processes used to manufacturing electronic devices. An intermediate layer (204) may be placed on the textile material (202) to reduce the roughness of the surface of the textile material and provide other beneficial characteristics for the placement of electronic devices (206) directly on the textile material.

  3. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.


    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities.

  4. Blue outliers among intermediate redshift quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, P; Stirpe, G M; Dultzin, D; Del Olmo, A; Martínez-Carballo, M A


    [Oiii]{\\lambda}{\\lambda}4959,5007 "blue outliers" -- that are suggestive of outflows in the narrow line region of quasars -- appear to be much more common at intermediate z (high luminosity) than at low z. About 40% of quasars in a Hamburg ESO intermediate-z sample of 52 sources qualify as blue outliers (i.e., quasars with [OIII] {\\lambda}{\\lambda}4959,5007 lines showing large systematic blueshifts with respect to rest frame). We discuss major findings on what has become an intriguing field in active galactic nuclei research and stress the relevance of blue outliers to feedback and host galaxy evolution.

  5. Governance-Default Risk Relationship and the Demand for Intermediated and Non-Intermediated Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Aldamen


    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of corporate governance on the demand for intermediated debt (asset finance, bank debt, non-bank private debt and non-intermediated debt (public debt in the Australian debt market. Relative to other countries the Australian debt market is characterised by higher proportions of intermediated or private debt with a lower inherent level of information asymmetry in that private lenders have greater access to financial information (Gray, Koh & Tong 2009. Our firm level, cross-sectional evidence suggests that higher corporate governance impacts demand for debt via the mitigation of default risk. However, this relationship is not uniform across all debt types. Intermediated debt such as bank and asset finance debt are more responsive to changes in governance-default risk relationship than non-bank and non-intermediated debt. The implication is that a firm’s demand for different debt types will reflect its governance-default risk profile.

  6. Freeze-quench magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopic study of the very rapid intermediate in xanthine oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.M.; Inscore, F.E.; Hille, R.; Kirk, M.L.


    of the Mo{double{underscore}bond}O bond relative to the ene-1,2-dithiolate chelate. Poor overlap between the Mo d{sub xy} orbital and the S{sub ip} orbitals of the dithiolate in the oxidized enzyme geometry may provide a means of preventing one-electron reduction of the active site, resulting in enzyme inhibition with respect to the two-electron oxidation of native substrates.

  7. What Should be Taught in Intermediate Macroeconomics? (United States)

    de Araujo, Pedro; O'Sullivan, Roisin; Simpson, Nicole B.


    A lack of consensus remains on what should form the theoretical core of the undergraduate intermediate macroeconomic course. In determining how to deal with the Keynesian/classical divide, instructors must decide whether to follow the modern approach of building macroeconomic relationships from micro foundations, or to use the traditional approach…

  8. The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mawji, Edward; Schlitzer, Reiner; Dodas, Elena Masferrer; Abadie, Cyril; Abouchami, Wafa; Anderson, Robert F.; Baars, Oliver; Bakker, Karel; Baskaran, Mark; Bates, Nicholas R.; Bluhm, Katrin; Bowie, Andrew; Bown, Johann; Boye, Marie; Boyle, Edward A.; Branellec, Pierre; Bruland, Kenneth W.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Bucciarelli, Eva; Buesseler, Ken; Butler, Edward; Cai, Pinghe; Cardinal, Damien; Casciotti, Karen; Chaves, Joaquin; Cheng, Hai; Chever, Fanny; Church, Thomas M.; Colman, Albert S.; Conway, Tim M.; Croot, Peter L.; Cutter, Gregory A.; de Souza, Gregory F.; Dehairs, Frank; Deng, Feifei; Huong Thi Dieu, [Unknown; Dulaquais, Gabriel; Echegoyen-Sanz, Yolanda; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Fitzsimmons, Jessica; Fleisher, Martin; Frank, Martin; Friedrich, Jana; Fripiat, Francois; Galer, Stephen J. G.; Gamo, Toshitaka; Solsona, Ester Garcia; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; Godoy, Jose Marcus; Gonzalez, Santiago; Grossteffan, Emilie; Hatta, Mariko; Hayes, Christopher T.; Heller, Maija Iris; Henderson, Gideon; Huang, Kuo-Fang; Jeandel, Catherine; Jenkins, William J.; John, Seth; Kenna, Timothy C.; Klunder, Maarten; Kretschmer, Sven; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Laan, Patrick; Labatut, Marie; Lacan, Francois; Lam, Phoebe J.; Lannuzel, Delphine; le Moigne, Frederique; Lechtenfeld, Oliver J.; Lohan, Maeve C.; Lu, Yanbin; Masque, Pere; McClain, Charles R.; Measures, Christopher; Middag, Rob; Moffett, James; Navidad, Alicia; Nishioka, Jun; Noble, Abigail; Obata, Hajime; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Owens, Stephanie; Planchon, Frederic; Pradoux, Catherine; Puigcorbe, Viena; Quay, Paul; Radic, Amandine; Rehkaemper, Mark; Remenyi, Tomas; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Rintoul, Stephen; Robinson, Laura F.; Roeske, Tobias; Rosenberg, Mark; van der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers; Ryabenko, Evgenia; Saito, Mak A.; Roshan, Saeed; Salt, Lesley; Sarthou, Geraldine; Schauer, Ursula; Scott, Peter; Sedwick, Peter N.; Sha, Lijuan; Shiller, Alan M.; Sigman, Daniel M.; Smethie, William; Smith, Geoffrey J.; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Speich, Sabrina; Stichel, Torben; Stutsman, Johnny; Swift, James H.; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Thomas, Alexander; Tsunogai, Urumu; Twining, Benjamin S.; van Aken, Hendrik M.; van Heuven, Steven; van Ooijen, Jan; van Weerlee, Evaline; Venchiarutti, Celia; Voelker, Antje H. L.; Wake, Bronwyn; Warner, Mark J.; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Wu, Jingfeng; Wyatt, Neil; Yoshikawa, Hisayuki; Zheng, Xin-Yuan; Xue, Zichen; Zieringer, Moritz; Zimmer, Louise A.; de Baar, Henricus


    The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2014 (IDP2014) is the first publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2013. It consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 200 trace

  9. Intermediate Amharic Cultural Reader. Final Report. (United States)

    Leslau, Wolf

    This reader is intended to provide material for the intermediate-level student of Amharic, as well as to introduce the student to the cultural and social life of Ethiopia. The 39 texts were each prepared by a different student at Haile Selassie I University, thus providing the reader with a variety of language styles. The Amharic texts are…

  10. Bismuth phosphates as intermediate temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Christensen, Erik; Shuai, Qin


    Proton conducting electrolyte materials operational in the intermediate temperature range of 200-400 °C are of special interest for applications in fuel cells and water electrolysers. Bismuth phosphates in forms of polycrystalline powders and amorphous glasses are synthesized and investigated...

  11. Modern Persian: Intermediate Level, Vol. 2. (United States)

    Windfuhr, Gernot; And Others

    The second of three volumes of an intergrated course in intermediate Persian is presented. This volume encompasses material appropriate for students entering the second year of Persian studies who have strong preparation in elementary Persian. Verbal skills should be on a level which will allow comprehensive discussion of a topic using simple,…

  12. Multiphase Gas in Intermediate Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, C W; Charlton, J; Januzzi, B; Churchill, Chris; Mellon, Rick; Charlton, Jane


    We present 40 quasar absorption line systems at intermediate redshifts (z~1), with focus on one of the most kinematically complex known, as examples of how the unique capabilities of space-based and ground-based facilities can be combined to glean much broader insights into astrophysical systems.

  13. Intermediality and politics in theatre and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapp, G.S.


    This dissertation applies the concepts of intermediality and politics to five performances by Rimini Protokoll, Christoph Schlingensief, and Igneous, and analyzes the implications that emerge on both a significational and a theoretical level. Based on the specific mediality involved, it argues that

  14. Trusted intermediating agents in electronic trade networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Klos (Tomas); F. Alkemade (Floortje)


    htmlabstract Electronic commerce and trading of information goods significantly impact the role of intermediaries: consumers can bypass intermediating agents by forming direct links to producers. One reason that traditional intermediaries can still make a profit, is that they have more knowledge of

  15. Teaching Vocabulary and Morphology in Intermediate Grades (United States)

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Hunt, Carolyn V.


    Direct vocabulary instruction of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words in intermediate-grade curricula is an important tool of literacy instruction because English is a language grafted from many roots and has not developed a one-to-one phoneme-grapheme correspondence. In addition to knowing graphemes and phonemes, students must formally learn words that cross…

  16. On financial equilibrium with intermediation costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar


    This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium correspond...

  17. Essays in corporate finance and financial intermediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, Elisabeth


    This thesis consists of three chapters in corporate finance and financial intermediation. The first two chapters explore sources of incentives and learning for finance professionals. Specifically, the first chapter studies how the option to go work for an investment bank affects the incentives of cr

  18. Korean Intermediate Course. Selected Newspaper Articles. (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this material is to provide reading matter for the last phase of the Defense Language Institute's extended and intermediate courses in Korean. (See ED 024 943 for the Korean Basic Course, Lesson Units 1-112.) The content of this volume is current, introduces important vocabulary not encountered elsewhere in the courses, and calls…

  19. What Should be Taught in Intermediate Macroeconomics? (United States)

    de Araujo, Pedro; O'Sullivan, Roisin; Simpson, Nicole B.


    A lack of consensus remains on what should form the theoretical core of the undergraduate intermediate macroeconomic course. In determining how to deal with the Keynesian/classical divide, instructors must decide whether to follow the modern approach of building macroeconomic relationships from micro foundations, or to use the traditional approach…

  20. Intermediate Tamil: A Self-Instructional Method. (United States)

    Schiffman, Harold

    This self-instructional method for learning an intermediate level of Tamil is designed to follow an elementary level such as "Conversational Tamil." The material in this text concentrates on grammatical constructions not covered in that elementary text, particularly negatives of all kinds; in addition, this text uses the same transcription and the…

  1. Changes to the Intermediate Accounting Course Sequence (United States)

    Davidson, Lesley H.; Francisco, William H.


    There is an ever-growing amount of information that must be covered in Intermediate Accounting courses. Due to recent accounting standards and the implementation of IFRS this trend is likely to continue. This report incorporates the results of a recent survey to examine the trend of spending more course time to cover this additional material.…

  2. Synthesis of the key intermediate of ramelteon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Bao Yu; Hao Min Liu; Yu Luo; Wei Lu


    Asymmetric conjugated addition of allylcopper reagents derived from an allyl Grignard reagent and CuBr·Me2S to chiral α,β-unsaturated N-acyl oxazolidinones has been achieved. The synthetic procedure was applied to the preparation of the key intermediate of the novel nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic drug, ramelteon.

  3. Using Drosophila for Studies of Intermediate Filaments. (United States)

    Bohnekamp, Jens; Cryderman, Diane E; Thiemann, Dylan A; Magin, Thomas M; Wallrath, Lori L


    Drosophila melanogaster is a useful organism for determining protein function and modeling human disease. Drosophila offers a rapid generation time and an abundance of genomic resources and genetic tools. Conservation in protein structure, signaling pathways, and developmental processes make studies performed in Drosophila relevant to other species, including humans. Drosophila models have been generated for neurodegenerative diseases, muscular dystrophy, cancer, and many other disorders. Recently, intermediate filament protein diseases have been modeled in Drosophila. These models have revealed novel mechanisms of pathology, illuminated potential new routes of therapy, and make whole organism compound screens feasible. The goal of this chapter is to outline steps to study intermediate filament function and model intermediate filament-associated diseases in Drosophila. The steps are general and can be applied to study the function of almost any protein. The protocols outlined here are for both the novice and experienced Drosophila researcher, allowing the rich developmental and cell biology that Drosophila offers to be applied to studies of intermediate filaments.

  4. C and C* among intermediate rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sack; S. Watson


    Given a completely regular Hausdorff space X, an intermediate ring A(X) is a ring of real valued continuous functions between C*(X) and C(X). We discuss two correspondences between ideals in A(X) and z-filters on X, both reviewing old results and introducing new results. One correspondence, ZA, exte

  5. C and C* among intermediate rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sack, J.; Watson, S.


    Given a completely regular Hausdorff space X, an intermediate ring A(X) is a ring of real valued continuous functions between C*(X) and C(X). We discuss two correspondences between ideals in A(X) and z-filters on X, both reviewing old results and introducing new results. One correspondence, ZA, exte

  6. MNE Entrepreneurial Capabilities at Intermediate Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoenen, Anne K.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Ambos, Björn


    and on the heterogeneous information that is generated through dissimilar markets within the region. Our study opens up for an interesting discussion of the independence of these mechanisms. In sum, we contribute to the understanding of the entrepreneurial role of intermediate units in general and RHQs in particular....

  7. Software Testing An ISEB Intermediate Certificate

    CERN Document Server

    Hambling, Brian


    Covering testing fundamentals, reviews, testing and risk, test management and test analysis, this book helps newly qualified software testers to learn the skills and techniques to take them to the next level. Written by leading authors in the field, this is the only official textbook of the ISEB Intermediate Certificate in Software Testing.

  8. Intermediates and Generic Convergence to Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas, Michael Marcondes de; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda


    Known graphical conditions for the generic or global convergence to equilibria of the dynamical system arising from a reaction network are shown to be invariant under the so-called successive removal of intermediates, a systematic procedure to simplify the network, making the graphical conditions...

  9. Bridge: Intelligent Tutoring with Intermediate Representations (United States)


    Research and Development Center and Psychology Department University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA. 15260 The Artificial Intelligence and Psychology...problem never introduces more than one unfamiliar plan. Inteligent Tutoring With Intermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunniigbam 4 You must have a... Inteligent Tutoring With ntermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunningham 7 The requirements are specified at four differcnt levels, corresponding to

  10. Trusted intermediating agents in electronic trade networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klos, T.B.; Alkemade, F.


    Electronic commerce and trading of information goods significantly impact the role of intermediaries: consumers can bypass intermediating agents by forming direct links to producers. One reason that traditional intermediaries can still make a profit, is that they have more knowledge of the market, s

  11. The costs and service implications of substituting intermediate care for acute hospital care. (United States)

    Mayhew, Leslie; Lawrence, David


    Intermediate care is part of a package of initiatives introduced by the UK Government mainly to relieve pressure on acute hospital beds and reduce delayed discharge (bed blocking). Intermediate care involves caring for patients in a range of settings, such as in the home or community or in nursing and residential homes. This paper considers the scope of intermediate care and its role in relation to acute hospital services. In particular, it develops a framework that can be used to inform decisions about the most cost-effective care pathways for given clinical situations, and also for wider planning purposes. It does this by providing a model for evaluating the costs of intermediate care services provided by different agencies and techniques for calibrating the model locally. It finds that consistent application of the techniques over a period of time, coupled with sound planning and accounting, should result in savings to the health economy.

  12. Sonolytic degradation of dimethoate: kinetics, mechanisms and toxic intermediates controlling. (United States)

    Yao, Juan-Juan; Hoffmann, Michael R; Gao, Nai-Yun; Zhang, Zhi; Li, Lei


    The sonolytic degradation of aqueous solutions of dimethoate, O,O-dimethyl S-[2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl]dithiophosphate, was examined. Optimal degradation rates were obtained at 619 kHz for continuous sonolysis and 406 kHz for pulse sonolysis. The primary pathways for degradation include hydroxyl radical oxidation, hydrolysis and pyrolysis on collapsing cavitation bubble interfaces. Reaction mechanisms coupled with the corresponding kinetic models are proposed to reproduce the observed concentration versus time profiles for dimethoate, omethoate and N-(methyl) mercaptoacetamide during sonolysis. The oxidation and hydrolysis of dimethoate and omethoate occurred at the water-bubble interface was the rate-determining step for sonolytic overall degradation of dimethoate. More than 90% toxicity of dimethoate was reduced within 45 min ultrasonic irradiation. Ferrous ion at micro molar level can significantly enhance the sonolytic degradation of dimethoate and effectively reduce the yields of toxic intermediate omethoate.

  13. Isoporphyrin Intermediate in Heme Oxygenase Catalysis (United States)

    Evans, John P.; Niemevz, Fernando; Buldain, Graciela; de Montellano, Paul Ortiz


    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the O2- and NADPH-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The first step involves regiospecific insertion of an oxygen atom at the α-meso carbon by a ferric hydroperoxide and is predicted to proceed via an isoporphyrin π-cation intermediate. Here we report spectroscopic detection of a transient intermediate during oxidation by hHO-1 of α-meso-phenylheme-IX, α-meso-(p-methylphenyl)-mesoheme-III, and α-meso-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-mesoheme-III. In agreement with previous experiments (Wang, J., Niemevz, F., Lad, L., Huang, L., Alvarez, D. E., Buldain, G., Poulos, T. L., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 42593–42604), only the α-biliverdin isomer is produced with concomitant formation of the corresponding benzoic acid. The transient intermediate observed in the NADPH-P450 reductase-catalyzed reaction accumulated when the reaction was supported by H2O2 and exhibited the absorption maxima at 435 and 930 nm characteristic of an isoporphyrin. Product analysis by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the product generated with H2O2 identified it as an isoporphyrin that, on quenching, decayed to benzoylbiliverdin. In the presence of H218O2, one labeled oxygen atom was incorporated into these products. The hHO-1-isoporphyrin complexes were found to have half-lives of 1.7 and 2.4 h for the p-trifluoromethyl- and p-methyl-substituted phenylhemes, respectively. The addition of NADPH-P450 reductase to the H2O2-generated hHO-1-isoporphyrin complex produced α-biliverdin, confirming its role as a reaction intermediate. Identification of an isoporphyrin intermediate in the catalytic sequence of hHO-1, the first such intermediate observed in hemoprotein catalysis, completes our understanding of the critical first step of heme oxidation. PMID:18487208

  14. Maximum host survival at intermediate parasite infection intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stjernman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although parasitism has been acknowledged as an important selective force in the evolution of host life histories, studies of fitness effects of parasites in wild populations have yielded mixed results. One reason for this may be that most studies only test for a linear relationship between infection intensity and host fitness. If resistance to parasites is costly, however, fitness may be reduced both for hosts with low infection intensities (cost of resistance and high infection intensities (cost of parasitism, such that individuals with intermediate infection intensities have highest fitness. Under this scenario one would expect a non-linear relationship between infection intensity and fitness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus in southern Sweden, we investigated the relationship between the intensity of infection of its blood parasite (Haemoproteus majoris and host survival to the following winter. Presence and intensity of parasite infections were determined by microscopy and confirmed using PCR of a 480 bp section of the cytochrome-b-gene. While a linear model suggested no relationship between parasite intensity and survival (F = 0.01, p = 0.94, a non-linear model showed a significant negative quadratic effect (quadratic parasite intensity: F = 4.65, p = 0.032; linear parasite intensity F = 4.47, p = 0.035. Visualization using the cubic spline technique showed maximum survival at intermediate parasite intensities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that failing to recognize the potential for a non-linear relationship between parasite infection intensity and host fitness may lead to the potentially erroneous conclusion that the parasite is harmless to its host. Here we show that high parasite intensities indeed reduced survival, but this effect was masked by reduced survival for birds heavily suppressing their parasite intensities. Reduced survival among hosts with low

  15. Evolutionary Characteristics of China's Intermediate Manufactures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minsung Kang; Jeong-Dong Lee


    China's economic development is characterized by progressive integration with international production chains as an assembly producer. Japan and South Korea are the major partners providing intermediate products to China. The present paper analyzes the Chinese intermediate sector's present condition and evolutionary characteristics revealed in bilateral trade with Japan and South Korea. The analysis uses the framework of new trade theory represented by "intra-industry trade". Trade statistics from 1997 to 2004 are analyzed using the database published by the OECD. Results show that China's inter-industrial evolution is characterized by its expanding positioning in the manner of the flying geese development paradigm of Asian countries. Furthermore, intra-industrial evolution is characterized by a concentration on price competitiveness. The framework and results of the industrial analysis presented in this paper assist in the understanding of China's manufacturing evolution and of the policy-making decisions taken in the process.

  16. Being back home after intermediate care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bente; Harder, Ingegerd; Norlyk, Annelise


    Older people may face many challenges and experience insecurity after discharge from hospital to home. To bridge the potential gap between general hospital and home, the concept ‘Intermediate Care’ (IC) was developed at the beginning of 2000. IC aims to safeguard older people from being discharged....... Transcripts were analysed using a phenomenological approach. The essential meaning of being back home after a stay in an IC unit was characterised by ‘uncertainty’. Four constituents emerged: ‘in a state of shock about coming home’, ‘dependence on informal helpers’, ‘a sense of isolation’, and ‘fear of losing...... functional ability permanently’. Key words: intermediate care, older people, discharge, interview, phenomenology...

  17. Is TW Pictoris really an intermediate polar?

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, A J


    We present the results of a long ROSAT HRI observation of the candidate intermediate polar TW Pic. The power spectrum shows no sign of either the previously proposed white dwarf spin period or the proposed binary orbital period (1.996 hr and 6.06 hr respectively). The limits to the X-ray modulation are less than 0.3% in each case. In the absence of a coherent X-ray pulsation, the credentials of TW Pic for membership of the intermediate polar subclass must be suspect. We further suggest that the true orbital period of the binary may be the shorter of the two previously suggested, and that the longer period may represent a quasi-periodic phenomenon associated with the accretion disc.

  18. Emission of intermediate mass fragments during fission (United States)

    Chen, S. L.; de Souza, R. T.; Cornell, E.; Davin, B.; Hamilton, T. M.; Hulbert, D.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lou, Y.; Viola, V. E.; Korteling, R. G.; Wile, J. L.


    Ternary fission in the reaction 4He + 232Th at Elab=200 MeV has been observed. Intermediate mass fragments (IMF: 3fission. The widths of the energy spectra are relatively constant for neck fragments with Z>=4, suggesting little variability in the scission configurations. A linear dependence of on Z is observed for the neck IMFs. The observed trend is compared with a Coulomb trajectory model.

  19. Intermedial Strategies of Memory in Contemporary Novels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sara


    , and Judd Morrissey and drawing on the theoretical perspectives of N. Katherine Hayles (media studies) and Andreas Huyssen (cultural memory studies), Tanderup argues that recent intermedial novels reflect a certain nostalgia celebrating and remembering the book as a visual and material object in the age...... of digital media while also highlighting the influence of new media on our cultural understanding and representation of memory and the past....

  20. Essays in corporate finance and financial intermediation



    This thesis consists of three chapters in corporate finance and financial intermediation. The first two chapters explore sources of incentives and learning for finance professionals. Specifically, the first chapter studies how the option to go work for an investment bank affects the incentives of credit rating analysts, and shows that this "revolving door" strengthens analysts' incentives to issue accurate ratings. The second chapter analyzes the value of experience for mutual fund managers a...

  1. International express student's book : pre-intermediate

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Liz


    The New Edition of International Express Pre-Intermediate retains all the keys features of this popular and successel four-level course. It combines engaging, up-to-date topics with a time-efficient and student-centred approach to language work, and clearly focused activities that reflect learner's real communicative needs - the ideal course for professional adults who use English for work, travel, and socializing.

  2. Discovery of the intermediate W boson

    CERN Multimedia


    Press conference on 25 January 1983 when the announcement was made of the discovery of the intermediate W boson at CERN. From right to left: Carlo Rubbia, spokesman of the UA1 experiment; Simon van der Meer, responsible for developing the stochastic cooling technique; Herwig Schopper, Director- General of CERN; Erwin Gabathuler, Research Director at CERN, and Pierre Darriulat, spokesman of the UA2 experiment, whose results confirmed those from Carlo Rubbia's experiment.

  3. Capturing a flavivirus pre-fusion intermediate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Kaufmann


    Full Text Available During cell entry of flaviviruses, low endosomal pH triggers the rearrangement of the viral surface glycoproteins to a fusion-active state that allows the release of the infectious RNA into the cytoplasm. In this work, West Nile virus was complexed with Fab fragments of the neutralizing mAb E16 and was subsequently exposed to low pH, trapping the virions in a pre-fusion intermediate state. The structure of the complex was studied by cryo-electron microscopy and provides the first structural glimpse of a flavivirus fusion intermediate near physiological conditions. A radial expansion of the outer protein layer of the virion was observed compared to the structure at pH 8. The resulting approximately 60 A-wide shell of low density between lipid bilayer and outer protein layer is likely traversed by the stem region of the E glycoprotein. By using antibody fragments, we have captured a structural intermediate of a virus that likely occurs during cell entry. The trapping of structural transition states by antibody fragments will be applicable for other processes in the flavivirus life cycle and delineating other cellular events that involve conformational rearrangements.

  4. Be alert to the alterations in the biological characteristics in heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Zhou


    Full Text Available The development of reduced vancomycin susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus in many cases appears to be associated with characteristic changes. These changes may have pitfall of identifying S. aureus by automated testing methods like Vitek 32. In this study, we retested 24 heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus haemolyticus (h-VISH collected in 2008-2010 at the Department of Clinical Microbiology by conventional biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA reversion test and electron microscopic examination were also used. Six isolates of 24 h-VISH possessed nuc, coa, and 16S rRNA genes, and could be reversed into S. aureus. It suggested that biochemical and morphological changes in hVISA and vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA should be considered, and the detection of S. aureus, especially reduced vancomycin susceptibility isolates, requires more attention and different techniques.

  5. In vitro insulin refolding: Characterization of the intermediates and the putative folding pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The in vitro refolding process of the double-chain insulin was studied based on the investigation of in vitro single-chain insulin refolding. Six major folding intermediates, named P1A, P2B, P3A, P4B, P5B, and P6B, were captured during the folding process. The refolding experiments indicate that all of these intermediates are on-pathway. Based on these intermediates and the formation of hypothetic transients, we propose a two-stage folding pathway of insulin. (1) At the early stage of the folding process, the reduced A chain and B chain individually formed the intermediates: two A chain intermediates (P1A and P3A), and four B chain intermediates (P2B, P4B, P5B, and P6B). (2) In the subsequent folding process, transient Ⅰ was formed from P3A through thiol/disulfide exchange reaction; then, transients Ⅱ and Ⅲ, each containing two native disulfides, were formed through the recognition and interaction of transient Ⅰ with P4B or P6B and the thiol group's oxidation reaction mainly using GSSG as oxidative reagent; finally, transients Ⅱ and Ⅲ, through thiol/mixture disulfide exchange reaction, formed the third native disulfide of insulin to complete the folding.

  6. Effects of intermediate plasmonic structures on the performance of ultra-thin-film tandem solar cells (United States)

    Mashooq, Kishwar; Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman


    Although solar cells can meet the increasing demand for energy of modern world, their usage is not as widespread as expected because of their high production cost and low efficiency. Thin-film and ultra-thin-film solar cells with single and multiple active layers are being investigated to reduce cost. Additionally, multiple active layers of different energy bandgaps are used in tandem in order to absorb the solar spectra more efficiently. However, the efficiency of ultra-thin-film tandem solar cells may suffer significantly mainly because of low photon absorption and current mismatch between active layers. In this work, we study the effects of intermediate plasmonic structures on the performance of ultra-thin-film tandem solar cells. We consider three structures| each with a top amorphous silicon layer and a bottom micro-crystalline silicon layer, and an intermediate plasmonic layer between them. The intermediate layer is either a metal layer with periodic holes or periodic metal strips or periodic metal nano-clusters. Using a finite difference time domain technique for incident AM 1.5 solar spectra, we show that these intermediate layers help to excite different plasmonic and photonic modes for different light polarizations, and thereby, increase the absorption of light significantly. We find that the short-circuit current density increases by 12%, 6%, and 9% when the intermediate plasmonic structure is a metal hole-array, strips, and nano-clusters, respectively, from that of a structure that does not have the intermediate plasmonic layer.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzeta SALIHOVIKJ


    Full Text Available Stuttering therapy very often demands combination of various approaches or its modification. The main purpose of this study was to present an integrated approach to stuttering modification therapy and fluency shaping therapy for an intermediate school-age male stutterer (11 years old.The therapy for the child lasted for 12 months, sessions have been carried out twice a week, each session lasted for 45 minutes. The child still attends the therapy. The therapy uses integration of stuttering modification therapy and fluency shaping therapy. For the purpose of the fluency shaping therapy, delayed auditory feedback program is applied. During the stuttering modification therapy the child has been taught how to stutter more easily which implies prolongation of all sounds in words on which child stutters, with easy and soft transition from one sound to another. It is continuously being worked with the child on reducing negative feelings and attitudes as well as elimination of avoidance of words and speaking situations. We explained to the parents the treatment program and their role in the program realization. We also explained the possible causes of stuttering, and tried to identify and reduce fluency distractors, and engage the child in as many situations as possible which improved speech fluency.After the application of this program the child has improved fluency during the conversation in clinical and nonclinical conditions (environment. This fluency consists of spontaneous and controlled fluency. Furthermore, fear of speaking and avoidance of speech situations are significantly reduced. On the basis of the applied therapy on the child at intermediate stuttering level it can be concluded that it is possible to integrate successfully both approaches: stuttering modification therapy and fluency shaping therapy.

  8. Catalytic Ozonation of Phenolic Wastewater: Identification and Toxicity of Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Farzadkia


    Full Text Available A new strategy in catalytic ozonation removal method for degradation and detoxification of phenol from industrial wastewater was investigated. Magnetic carbon nanocomposite, as a novel catalyst, was synthesized and then used in the catalytic ozonation process (COP and the effects of operational conditions such as initial pH, reaction time, and initial concentration of phenol on the degradation efficiency and the toxicity assay have been investigated. The results showed that the highest catalytic potential was achieved at optimal neutral pH and the removal efficiency of phenol and COD is 98.5% and 69.8%, respectively. First-order modeling demonstrated that the reactions were dependent on the initial concentration of phenol, with kinetic constants varying from 0.038 min−1  ([phenol]o = 1500 mg/L to 1.273 min−1 ([phenol]o = 50 mg/L. Bioassay analysis showed that phenol was highly toxic to Daphnia magna (LC50 96 h=5.6 mg/L. Comparison of toxicity units (TU of row wastewater (36.01 and the treated effluent showed that TU value, after slightly increasing in the first steps of ozonation for construction of more toxic intermediates, severely reduced at the end of reaction (2.23. Thus, COP was able to effectively remove the toxicity of intermediates which were formed during the chemical oxidation of phenolic wastewaters.

  9. The axial topographic high at intermediate and fast spreading ridges (United States)

    Carbotte, Suzanne M.; MacDonald, Ken C.


    An axial topographic high is commonly observed at both fast spreading ridges and some segments of intermediate spreading ridges. At fast rates the axial high is primarily created by the buoyancy of hot rock and magma beneath the rise. As newly formed crust is transported off axis, little vestige of an axial high is observed on the ridge flanks. In contrast, at intermediate rates, a significant component of the positive topography may be a volcanic construction, preserved on the ridge flanks as abyssal hills, which are slit axial volcanoes. We suggest this difference in the nature of the axial high reflects a lithosphere strong enough to support construction of a volcanic crestal ridge at intermediate spreading rates, but only rarely at fast rates. Relict overlap ridges, found within the discordant zones left by overlapping spreading centers, is one class of ridge-flank topography which appears to have a significant volcanic constructional component even at fast spreading ridges. Unlike topography away from these discontinuities, the relief and shape of overlapping spreading centers is preserved as relict ridge tips are rafted onto the ridge flanks. Reduced magma supply at these discontinuities may give rise to an axial lithosphere strong enough to support volcanic construction of overlap ridges. Low axial lithospheric strength may also account for the lack of normal faults within the innermost 1-2 km of fast, and some intermediate, spreading ridges. With a thin/weak brittle layer at the ridge crest, tensile failure will predominate and few normal faults will form. Depths to the axial magma chamber reflector observed in multi-channel seismic data limit the thickness of the brittel layer on axis to less than 1-2 km for much of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). This depth is comparable to depths over which tensile failure within the oceanic crust will predominate, estimated from the Griffith criteria for fracture initiation (approx. 0.5-1.5 km). As the brittle layer

  10. A Simple Treatment of the Liquidity Trap for Intermediate Macroeconomics Courses (United States)

    Buttet, Sebastien; Roy, Udayan


    Several leading undergraduate intermediate macroeconomics textbooks now include a simple reduced-form New Keynesian model of short-run dynamics (alongside the IS-LM model). Unfortunately, there is no accompanying description of how the zero lower bound on nominal interest rates affects the model. In this article, the authors show how the…

  11. A Simple Treatment of the Liquidity Trap for Intermediate Macroeconomics Courses (United States)

    Buttet, Sebastien; Roy, Udayan


    Several leading undergraduate intermediate macroeconomics textbooks now include a simple reduced-form New Keynesian model of short-run dynamics (alongside the IS-LM model). Unfortunately, there is no accompanying description of how the zero lower bound on nominal interest rates affects the model. In this article, the authors show how the…

  12. Intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: an electrophysiological reappraisal and systematic review. (United States)

    Berciano, José; García, Antonio; Gallardo, Elena; Peeters, Kristien; Pelayo-Negro, Ana L; Álvarez-Paradelo, Silvia; Gazulla, José; Martínez-Tames, Miriam; Infante, Jon; Jordanova, Albena


    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most frequent form of inherited neuropathy with great variety of phenotypes, inheritance patterns, and causative genes. According to median motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), CMT is divided into demyelinating (CMT1) with MNCV below 38 m/s, axonal (CMT2) with MNCV above 38 m/s, and intermediate CMT with MNCV between 25 and 45 m/s. In each category, transmission may be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked. The nosology of intermediate CMT is controversial because of concerns about electrophysiological delimitation. A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted on PubMed, using the following MeSH: (1) intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth; (2) X-linked intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth; and (3) X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth and electrophysiology. We retrieved 225 articles reporting X-linked CMT or intermediate CMT with electrophysiological information. After eligibility, 156 papers were used for this review. In assessing median MNCV, compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes were taken into account. In cases with attenuated CMAP and wherever possible, proximal median MNCV was used for accurate definition of conduction slowing in the intermediate range. In the vast majority of males with X-linked CMT associated with GJB1 mutation (CMTX1), median MNCV was intermediate. CMT associated with DRP2 mutation is another well-documented X-linked intermediate disorder. Autosomal dominant intermediate CMT (DI-CMT) encompasses 11 different types; six of them with assigned phenotype MIM number and the remaining five being unnumbered. Based on available electrophysiological information, we wonder if DI-CMTA should be reclassified within CMT2. Autosomal recessive intermediate CMT (RI-CMT) covers four numbered MIM phenotypes though, in accordance with reported electrophysiology, two of them (RI-CMTB and RI-CMTD) should probably be reclassified within AR-CMT2. We conclude that intermediate CMT is a complex

  13. Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Marcie [Bandgap Engineering, Lincoln, MA (United States)


    This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.

  14. Intermediate filaments: from cell architecture to nanomechanics. (United States)

    Herrmann, Harald; Bär, Harald; Kreplak, Laurent; Strelkov, Sergei V; Aebi, Ueli


    Intermediate filaments (IFs) constitute a major structural element of animal cells. They build two distinct systems, one in the nucleus and one in the cytoplasm. In both cases, their major function is assumed to be that of a mechanical stress absorber and an integrating device for the entire cytoskeleton. In line with this, recent disease mutations in human IF proteins indicate that the nanomechanical properties of cell-type-specific IFs are central to the pathogenesis of diseases as diverse as muscular dystrophy and premature ageing. However, the analysis of these various diseases suggests that IFs also have an important role in cell-type-specific physiological functions.

  15. q-Gamow States for intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Plastino, A; Zamora, D J


    In a recent paper [Nuc. Phys. A {\\bf 948}, (2016) 19] we have demonstrated the possible existence of Tsallis' q-Gamow states. Now, accelerators' experimental evidence for Tsallis' distributions has been ascertained only at very high energies. Here, instead, we develop a different set of q-Gamow states for which the associated q-Breit-Wigner distribution could easily be found at intermediate energies, for which accelerators are available at many locations. In this context, it should be strongly emphasized [Physica A {\\bf 388} (2009) 601] that, empirically, one never exactly and unambiguously "detects" pure Gaussians, but rather q-Gaussians. A prediction is made via Eq.(3.30)

  16. The intermediate age open cluster NGC 2660

    CERN Document Server

    Sandrelli, S; Tosi, M P; Marconi, G


    We present CCD UBVI photometry of the intermediate old open cluster NGC2660, covering from the red giants region to about seven magnitudes below the main sequence turn-off. Using the synthetic Colour - Magnitude Diagram method, we estimate in a self-consistent way values for distance modulus ((m-M)0 ~= 12.2), reddening (E(B-V) ~= 0.40), metallicity ([Fe/H] about solar), and age (age ~ 1 Gyr). A 30% population of binary stars turns out to be probably present.

  17. Organophosphate poisoning: Diagnosis of intermediate syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poojara L


    Full Text Available Organophosphate compound (OPC poisoning with suicidal intent is common in Indian ICUs. The effect of OPCs is to produce a persistent depolarization of the neuromuscular junction leading to muscle weakness. After initial recovery from cholinergic crisis, some patients have resurgence of respiratory muscle paralysis requiring continued ventilatory support. This is termed intermediate syndrome (IMS. This could be due to a change in the type of neuromuscular block to a non depolarisation block characterized by a fade on tetanic stimulation. However peripheral nerve stimulation using train-of-four ratio (TOF and/tetanus have failed to consistently show such a change. We elected to study whether electro physiological monitoring using repetitive nerve stimulation might show a decremental response during IMS. Material & Methods: This was a prospective blinded study done from April 2002 to March 2003 in our ICU. 45 consecutive patients of OPC poisoning admitted during this period were included in this study. Repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS using a train of ten at 3Hz 10Hz and 30Hz (slow , intermediate and fast speeds respectively at the median nerve was done on all patients on day 1, 4, 7 and every 4th day thereafter until discharge. Patients were ventilated until ready to wean as per our usual protocol. The results of the RNS study were not revealed to the intensivist. Results: 9 out of 45 patients required ventilation for more than 6 days and showed overt signs of intermediate syndrome - proximal muscle weakness, twitching and respiratory weakness. Only 2 patients out of the 9 had a decremental response on RNS at 3Hz indicating a post-junctional dysfunction at the motor end-plate, Both patients had consumed a very large quantity of OPC and were deeply comatose for >4 days and required ventilation for >12 days. All other patients with IMS showed no changes on RNS. The exact type of poison consumed varied with each individual patient. Conclusion: RNS

  18. Photofissility of heavy nuclei at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deppman, A.; Arruda Neto, J.D.T.; Likhachev, V.P. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Tavares, O.A.P.; Duarte, S.B.; Oliveira, E.C. de [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    We use the recently developed MCMC/MCEF (Multi Collisional Monte Carlo plus Monte Carlo for Evaporation-Fission calculations) model to calculate the photo fissility and the photofission cross section at intermediate energies for the {sup 243} Am and for {sup 209} Bi, and compare them to results obtained for other actinides and to available experimental data. As expected, the results for {sup 243} Am are close to those for {sup 237} Np. The fissility for pre actinide nuclei is nearly one order of magnitude lower than that for the actinides. Both fissility and photofission cross section for {sup 209} Bi are in good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  19. Observational constraints on dual intermediate inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D; Magueijo, João


    We explore the observational implications of models of intermediate inflation driven by modified dispersion relations, specifically those representing the phenomenon of dimensional reduction in the ultraviolet limit. These models are distinct from the standard ones because they do not require violations of the strong energy condition, and this is reflected in their structure formation properties. We find that they can naturally accommodate deviations from exact scale-invariance. They also make clear predictions for the running of the spectral index and tensor modes, rendering the models straightforwardly falsifiable. We discuss the observational prospects for these models and the implications these may have for quantum gravity scenarios.

  20. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop (United States)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd


    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  1. Ligand Intermediates in Metal-Catalyzed Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladysz, John A.


    The longest-running goal of this project has been the synthesis, isolation, and physical chemical characterization of homogeneous transition metal complexes containing ligand types believed to be intermediates in the metal-catalyzed conversion of CO/H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and similar raw materials to organic fuels, feedstocks, etc. In the current project period, complexes that contain unusual new types of C{sub x}(carbide) and C{sub x}O{sub y} (carbon oxide) ligands have been emphasized. A new program in homogeneous fluorous phase catalysis has been launched as described in the final report.

  2. Opening the Black Box of Intermediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowinska, Agnieszka

    ) and at the interfirm level (between partners and within alliances and associations).The tentative results show that both of these levels are important in defining the intermediating firms' business models and in answering their environmental threats and in building up competitive advantage. The paper ends with a short...... dynamics. This paper draws on qualitative data originating with interviews with industry representatives and can also be regarded as a preliminary approach to a broader project. The analysis distinguishes between relational capital at the intrafirm level (the network among the company's employees...

  3. Storage Stability and Improvement of Intermediate Moisture Foods (United States)

    Labuza, T. P.


    Shelf life tests are used to estimate the rate of nonenzymatic browning; however, controlling the reducing sugar levels below 23:1 molar ratio to amines, slows the rate. In addition, liquid glycols surpress browning. The protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis W can be used to estimate nutrition losses during browning. At high temperatures (80 to 120 C) used in processing intermediate moisture foods (IMF), vitamin C destruction shifts to a zero order mechanism. BHA and BHT are the most effective antioxidants against rancidity. In shelf life testing however, 45 C should be the maximum temperature used. Water binding agents are studied. The five isotherms of thirteen humectants were determined. The results show that neither the method of addition nor sequence of addition affects the a sub u lowering ability of these humectants. Results were used to formulate shelf stable IMF processed cheese foods with at least four months shelf life.

  4. An Intermediate Water Cherenkov Detector at J-PARC

    CERN Document Server



    Recent neutrino oscillation results have shown that the existing long baseline experiments have some sensitivity to the effects of CP violation in the neutrino sector. This sensitivity is currently statistically limited, but the next generation of experiments, DUNE and Hyper-K, will provide an order of magnitude more events. To reach the full potential of these datasets we must achieve a commensurate improvement in our understanding of the systematic uncertainties that beset them. This talk describes two proposed intermediate detectors for the current and future long baseline oscillation experiments in Japan, TITUS and NuPRISM. These detectors are discussed in the context of the current T2K oscillation analysis, highlighting the ways in which they could reduce the systematic uncertainty on this measurement. The talk also describes the short baseline oscillation sensitivity of NuPRISM along with the neutrino scattering measurements the detector makes possible.

  5. 49 CFR 37.201 - Intermediate and rest stops. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intermediate and rest stops. 37.201 Section 37.201... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.201 Intermediate and rest stops. (a) Whenever an OTRB makes an intermediate or rest stop, a passenger with a disability, including an individual using a...

  6. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter


    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...

  7. Surface Intermediate Zone of Submerged Turbulent Buoyant Jet in Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H. B.; Larsen, Torben


    This paper deals with the intermediate zone between the jet and plume stages of a submerged buoyant discharge from sea outfall in current. The stability criteria, plume width and height after the intermediate zone and the dilution within the intermediate region have been studied theoretically...

  8. Financial Intermediation, Monetary Uncertainty, and Bank Interest Margins Financial Intermediation, Monetary Uncertainty, and Bank Interest Margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Hernández


    Full Text Available Financial Intermediation, Monetary Uncertainty, and Bank Interest Margins This paper studies a simple model of financial intermediation in order to understand how the lending-borrowing spread or interest margin charged by financial intermediaries is determined in equilibrium in a monetary economy. The main conclusion of the paper concerns the effect on the spread of changes in the distribution of monetary innovations. Thus, changes in the monetary-policy-rule followed by the Central Bank which alter the volatility of inflation will have important effects on the interest margin and also on the amount of credit available to investors. A crosssection empirical analysis strongly supports our hypothesis:

  9. Keto-Enol Thermodynamics of Breslow Intermediates. (United States)

    Paul, Mathias; Breugst, Martin; Neudörfl, Jörg-Martin; Sunoj, Raghavan B; Berkessel, Albrecht


    Breslow intermediates, first postulated in 1958, are pivotal intermediates in carbene-catalyzed umpolung. Attempts to isolate and characterize these fleeting amino enol species first met with success in 2012 when we found that saturated bis-Dipp/Mes imidazolidinylidenes readily form isolable, though reactive diamino enols with aldehydes and enals. In contrast, triazolylidenes, upon stoichiometric reaction with aldehydes, gave exclusively the keto tautomer, and no isolable enol. Herein, we present the synthesis of the "missing" keto tautomers of imidazolidinylidene-derived diamino enols, and computational thermodynamic data for 15 enol-ketone pairs derived from various carbenes/aldehydes. Electron-withdrawing substituents on the aldehyde favor enol formation, the same holds for N,N'-Dipp [2,6-di(2-propyl)phenyl] and N,N'-Mes [2,4,6-trimethylphenyl] substitution on the carbene component. The latter effect rests on stabilization of the diamino enol tautomer by Dipp substitution, and could be attributed to dispersive interaction of the 2-propyl groups with the enol moiety. For three enol-ketone pairs, equilibration of the thermodynamically disfavored tautomer was attempted with acids and bases but could not be effected, indicating kinetic inhibition of proton transfer.

  10. Fission in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmy, J.B.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Blaich, T.; Boissevain, J.; Fowler, M.M.; Gavron, A.; Jacak, B.V.; Lysaght, P.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Britt, H.C.; Fields, D.J.; Hansen, L.F.; Lanier, R.G.; Massoletti, D.J.; Namboodiri, M.M.; Remington, B.A.; Sangster, T.C.; Struble, G.L.; Webb, M.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Chan, Y.D.; Dacai, A.; Harmon, A.; Leyba, J.; Pouliot, J.; Stokstad, R.G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Hansen, O.; Levine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Trautmann, W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Dichter, B.; Kaufman, S.; Videbaek, F. (Argonne National Lab. (USA)); Fraenkel, Z.; Mamane, G. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel)); Cebra, D.; Westfall, G.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))


    A systematic study of reaction mechanisms at intermediate energies (50-100 MeV/A) has been performed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's BeValac using medium weight projectiles on medium and heavy element targets. A gas and plastic phoswich detector system was employed which gave large geometric coverage and a wide dynamic response. The particles identified with the gas detectors could be characterized into three components - intermediate mass fragments (IMF), fission fragments (FF) and heavy residues (HR). Major observed features are: The reaction yields are similar in the 50 to 100 MeV/A range, central collisions have high multiplicty of IMF's with broad angular correlations consistent with a large participant region, effects of final state Coulomb interactions are observed and give information on the size and temporal behavior of the source, true fission yields are dependent on target fissility and correlated with relatively peripheral collisions. Analysis of fission and evaporation yields implies limiting conditions for which fission decay remains a viable deexcitation channel. (orig.).

  11. Statistical and dynamical aspects of intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghetti, R.


    Studies of intermediate energy heavy ion reactions have revealed that the probability of emitting n-fragments is reducible to the probability of emitting a single fragment through the binomial distribution. The resulting one-fragment probability shows a dependence on the thermal energy that is characteristic of statistical decay. Similarly, the charge distributions associated with n-fragment emission are reducible to the one-fragment charge distribution, and thermal scaling is observed. The reducibility equation for the n-fragment charge distribution contains a quantity with a value that starts from zero, at low transverse energies, and saturates at high transverse energies. This evolution may signal a transition from a coexistence phase to a vapour phase. In the search for a signal of liquid-gas phase transition, the appearance of intermittency is reconsidered. Percolation calculations, as well as data analysis, indicate that an intermittent-like signal appears from classes of events that do not coincide with the critical one. 232 refs.

  12. Wind-driven mixing at intermediate depths in an ice-free Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Lincoln, Ben J.; Rippeth, Tom P.; Lenn, Yueng-Djern; Timmermans, Mary Louise; Williams, William J.; Bacon, Sheldon


    Recent seasonal Arctic Ocean sea ice retreat is a major indicator of polar climate change. The Arctic Ocean is generally quiescent with the interior basins characterized by low levels of turbulent mixing at intermediate depths. In contrast, under conditions of reduced sea ice cover, there is evidence of energetic internal waves that have been attributed to increased momentum transfer from the atmosphere to the ocean. New measurements made in the Canada Basin during the unusually ice-free and stormy summer of 2012 show previously observed enhancement of internal wave energy associated with ice-free conditions. However, there is no enhancement of mixing at intermediate depths away from significant topography. This implies that contrary to expectations of increased wind-induced mixing under declining Arctic sea ice cover, the stratification in the central Canada Basin continues to suppress turbulent mixing at intermediate depths and to effectively isolate the large Atlantic and Pacific heat reservoirs from the sea surface.

  13. Slab tears and intermediate-depth seismicity (United States)

    Meighan, Hallie E.; Ten Brink, Uri; Pulliam, Jay


    Active tectonic regions where plate boundaries transition from subduction to strike slip can take several forms, such as triple junctions, acute, and obtuse corners. Well-documented slab tears that are associated with high rates of intermediate-depth seismicity are considered here: Gibraltar arc, the southern and northern ends of the Lesser Antilles arc, and the northern end of Tonga trench. Seismicity at each of these locations occurs, at times, in the form of swarms or clusters, and various authors have proposed that each marks an active locus of tear propagation. The swarms and clusters start at the top of the slab below the asthenospheric wedge and extend 30–60 km vertically downward within the slab. We propose that these swarms and clusters are generated by fluid-related embrittlement of mantle rocks. Focal mechanisms of these swarms generally fit the shear motion that is thought to be associated with the tearing process.

  14. Intermediate thinnings as a source of energywood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sammallahti, K.; Laespae, O.; Nurmi, J. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)), e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:


    During 2008 and 2009 10 hectares of spruce stand was harvested with an energy wood method and 3,8 hectares with a conventional method. Average DBH was 21 cm, length 19 m and the number of stems per hectare was 674. The harvester productivity was in this study 10 % higher with the conventional method (36,2 m3 / ha) than with the energy wood method (32,6 m3 / ha). The second part of the study consisted baling with a Timberjack 1490D residue baler on an intermediate thinning. In 2008 residues were baled from a total area of 8,7 hectares. Total yield was 218 bales and yield per hectare was 26 bales. Yield per hour was 19,7 bales and the average time consumption per bale was 3,18 minutes. (orig.)

  15. Turned Back: Mad Men as Intermedial Melodrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Rooney


    Full Text Available This essay draws on definitions of gesture (Giorgio Agamben and Peter Brooks and catachresis (Peter Brooks, Jacques Derrida to examine the primacy of non-verbal signifiers as communicators of meaning in AMC’s Mad Men. Beginning with an analysis of Mad Men’s credit sequence, it draws attention to Mad Men’s use of gesture and catachresis in relation to melodrama’s privileging of non-verbal and naturalistic expression and its persistence as an intermedial mode that has moved back and forth between various media (theatre, novel, cinema, television and now digital formats. It argues that Mad Men’s melodramatic aesthetic is one that obliquely, and via a gestural and rhetorical ‘turned back’, communicates its relation to the past and the present.

  16. Simulations of Oligomeric Intermediates in Prion Diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Mobley, D L; Singh, R R P; Kulkarni, R V; Slepoy, A; Mobley, David L.; Cox, Daniel L.; Singh, Rajiv R. P.; Kulkarni, Rahul V.; Slepoy, Alexander


    We extend our previous stochastic cellular automata based model for areal aggregation of prion proteins on neuronal surfaces. The new anisotropic model allow us to simulate both strong beta-sheet and weaker attachment bonds between proteins. Constraining binding directions allows us to generate aggregate structures with the hexagonal lattice symmetry found in recently observed in vitro experiments. We argue that these constraints on rules may correspond to underlying steric constraints on the aggregation process. We find that monomer dominated growth of the areal aggregate is too slow to account for some observed doubling time-to-incubation time ratios inferred from data, and so consider aggregation dominated by relatively stable but non-infectious oligomeric intermediates. We compare a kinetic theory analysis of oligomeric aggregation to spatially explicit simulations of the process. We find that with suitable rules for misfolding of oligomers, possibly due to water exclusion by the surrounding aggregate, th...

  17. [The intermediate syndrome during organophosphorus pesticide poisoning]. (United States)

    Benslama, A; Moutaouakkil, S; Charra, B; Menebhi, L


    Acute intoxication by organophosphate pesticides is frequent in Morocco. We report two cases of malathion poisoning complicated by intermediate syndrome. The purpose of this work is to describe distinctive features of this syndrome, it arises 48-96 h after the cholinergic crisis and it is characterized by respiratory paresis with difficulties of weaning from the assisted respiratory, deficit of proximal limbs, neck flexors, and cranial nerves. This syndrome coincides with the prolonged inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase, and is not due to the necrosis of muscular fiber's necrosis. Both clinical and electromyographic features are explained by a combined pre- and postsynaptic dysfunction of the neuromuscular transmission. The difficulty of this syndrome lies in its rarity and also its severity, because of the respiratory failure, which justifies medical supervision in intensive care unit, for at least 96 h, in expectation for the respiratory distress, all the more cholinergic syndrome is intense.

  18. Intermediate state trapping of a voltage sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacroix, Jérôme J; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Maragliano, Luca


    Voltage sensor domains (VSDs) regulate ion channels and enzymes by undergoing conformational changes depending on membrane electrical signals. The molecular mechanisms underlying the VSD transitions are not fully understood. Here, we show that some mutations of I241 in the S1 segment of the Shaker...... Kv channel positively shift the voltage dependence of the VSD movement and alter the functional coupling between VSD and pore domains. Among the I241 mutants, I241W immobilized the VSD movement during activation and deactivation, approximately halfway between the resting and active states......, and drastically shifted the voltage activation of the ionic conductance. This phenotype, which is consistent with a stabilization of an intermediate VSD conformation by the I241W mutation, was diminished by the charge-conserving R2K mutation but not by the charge-neutralizing R2Q mutation. Interestingly, most...

  19. Intermediate Care Unit - defining substituyable admissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Hanne; Ekmann, Anette Addy

    Background: Elderly patients have excess risk of functional decline and development of delirium. Studies have shown that 14-27 % of hospitalizations among elderly patients are substitutable. To lower the risk of unwanted consequences of hospitalizations, we implemented an Intermediate Care Unit...... (TUE). TUE was established in collaboration between Bispebjerg Hospital and the City of Copenhagen and took in patients whose hospitalization was regarded as substitutable. TUE offered a quick diagnostic assessment by a cross sectoral team of hospital doctors and community nurses. Home care was offered...... Care Unit.' Methods: From September 17, 2012 - June 24, 2014, 969 patients were treated at TUE. We registered both demographic-, treatment- and medical data and furthermore functional related variables. We used logistic regression to test the association between a combined graded variable of EWS...

  20. Picornavirus uncoating intermediate captured in atomic detail (United States)

    Ren, Jingshan; Wang, Xiangxi; Hu, Zhongyu; Gao, Qiang; Sun, Yao; Li, Xuemei; Porta, Claudine; Walter, Thomas S.; Gilbert, Robert J.; Zhao, Yuguang; Axford, Danny; Williams, Mark; McAuley, Katherine; Rowlands, David J.; Yin, Weidong; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I.; Rao, Zihe; Fry, Elizabeth E.


    It remains largely mysterious how the genomes of non-enveloped eukaryotic viruses are transferred across a membrane into the host cell. Picornaviruses are simple models for such viruses, and initiate this uncoating process through particle expansion, which reveals channels through which internal capsid proteins and the viral genome presumably exit the particle, although this has not been clearly seen until now. Here we present the atomic structure of an uncoating intermediate for the major human picornavirus pathogen CAV16, which reveals VP1 partly extruded from the capsid, poised to embed in the host membrane. Together with previous low-resolution results, we are able to propose a detailed hypothesis for the ordered egress of the internal proteins, using two distinct sets of channels through the capsid, and suggest a structural link to the condensed RNA within the particle, which may be involved in triggering RNA release. PMID:23728514

  1. q-Gamow states for intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plastino, A. [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Rocca, M.C., E-mail: [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ferri, G.L. [Fac. de C. Exactas, National University La Pampa, Peru y Uruguay, Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina); Zamora, D.J. [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)


    In a recent paper Plastino and Rocca (2016) [18] we have demonstrated the possible existence of Tsallis' q-Gamow states. Now, accelerators' experimental evidence for Tsallis' distributions has been ascertained only at very high energies. Here, instead, we develop a different set of q-Gamow states for which the associated q-Breit–Wigner distribution could easily be found at intermediate energies, for which accelerators are available at many locations. In this context, it should be strongly emphasized Vignat and Plastino (2009) [2] that, empirically, one never exactly and unambiguously “detects” pure Gaussians, but rather q-Gaussians. A prediction is made via Eq. (3.4).

  2. Flow angle from intermediate mass fragment measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, F.; Crochet, P.; Dona, R.; De Schauenburg, B.; Wagner, P.; Alard, J.P.; Andronic, A.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Bendarag, A.; Berek, G.; Best, D.; Caplar, R.; Devismes, A.; Dupieux, P.; Dzelalija, M.; Eskef, M.; Fodor, Z.; Gobbi, A.; Grishkin, Y.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Hong, B.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Merlitz, H.; Mohren, S.; Moisa, D.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Plettner, C.; Reisdorf, W.; Schuell, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stockmeir, M.; Vasiliev, M.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Yushmanov, I.; Zhilin, A


    Directed sideward flow of light charged particles and intermediate mass fragments was measured in different symmetric reactions at bombarding energies from 90 to 800 A MeV. The flow parameter is found to increase with the charge of the detected fragment up to Z = 3-4 and then turns into saturation for heavier fragments. Guided by simple simulations of an anisotropic expanding thermal source, we show that the value at saturation can provide a good estimate of the flow angle, {theta}{sub flow}, in the participant region. It is found that {theta}{sub flow} depends strongly on the impact parameter. The excitation function of {theta}{sub flow} reveals striking deviations from the ideal hydrodynamical scaling. The data exhibit a steep rise of {theta}{sub flow} to a maximum at around 250 - 400 A MeV, followed by a moderate decrease as the bombarding energy increases further.

  3. Fission dynamics with systems of intermediate fissility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Vardaci; A Di Nitto; P N Nadtochy; A Brondi; G La Rana; R Moro; M Cinausero; G Prete; N Gelli; E M Kozulin; G N Knyazheva; I M Itkis


    A 4 light charged particle spectrometer, called 8 LP, is in operation at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy, for studying reaction mechanisms in low-energy heavy-ion reactions. Besides about 300 telescopes to detect light charged particles, the spectrometer is also equipped with an anular PPAC system to detect evaporation residues and a two-arm time-of-flight spectrometer to detect fission fragments. The spectrometer has been used in several fission dynamics studies using as a probe light charged particles in the fission and evaporation residues (ER) channels. This paper proposes a journey within some open questions about the fission dynamics and a review of the main results concerning nuclear dissipation and fission time-scale obtained from several of these studies. In particular, the advantages of using systems of intermediate fissility will be discussed.

  4. On the Intermediate Line Region in AGNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tek P. Adhikari


    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the intermediate line region (ILR by using the photoionisation simulations of the gas clouds present at different radial distances from the center, corresponding to the locations from BLR out to NLR in four types of AGNs. We let for the presence of dust whenever conditions allow for dust existence. All spectral shapes are taken from the recent multi-wavelength campaigns. The cloud density decreases with distance as a power law. We found that the slope of the power law density profile does not affect the line emissivity radial profiles of major emission lines: Hβ, He II, Mg II, C III, and O III. When the density of the cloud at the sublimation radius is as high as 1011.5 cm−3, the ILR should clearly be seen in the observations independently of the shape of the illuminating radiation. Moreover, our result is valid for low ionization nuclear emission regions of active galaxies.

  5. Precalibrating an intermediate complexity climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Neil R. [The Open University, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom); Cameron, David [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Rougier, Jonathan [University of Bristol, Department of Mathematics, Bristol (United Kingdom)


    Credible climate predictions require a rational quantification of uncertainty, but full Bayesian calibration requires detailed estimates of prior probability distributions and covariances, which are difficult to obtain in practice. We describe a simplified procedure, termed precalibration, which provides an approximate quantification of uncertainty in climate prediction, and requires only that uncontroversially implausible values of certain inputs and outputs are identified. The method is applied to intermediate-complexity model simulations of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and confirms the existence of a cliff-edge catastrophe in freshwater-forcing input space. When uncertainty in 14 further parameters is taken into account, an implausible, AMOC-off, region remains as a robust feature of the model dynamics, but its location is found to depend strongly on values of the other parameters. (orig.)

  6. A traditional intermediate moisture meat: Beef cecina. (United States)

    Reyes-Cano, R; Dorantes-Alvarez, L; Hernandez-Sanchez, H; Gutierrez-Lopez, G F


    Cecina is an intermediate moisture meat produced and consumed to a large extent in Mexico. Four samples of cecina coming from different States of this country, were tested for water activity, colour, texture, fat, protein, moisture and chloride content. Sensory and microbiological analyses were also performed. Different fabrication methods for producing cecina were identified, involving large variations in the formulation of the product. There was a significant difference (P < 0·05) among samples regarding fat and chloride content, colour and texture. Differences in colour and saltiness were recorded through sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed higher counts than those recommended in the Mexican Official Standard for chopped and raw meat, due to poor sanitary conditions during production and marketing.

  7. Melting of metallic intermediate level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huutoniemi, Tommi; Larsson, Arne; Blank, Eva [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    This report presents a feasibility study of a melting facility for core components and reactor internals. An overview is given of how such a facility for treatment of intermediate level waste might be designed, constructed and operated and highlights both the possibilities and challenges. A cost estimate and a risk analysis are presented in order to make a conclusion of the technical feasibility of such a facility. Based on the authors' experience in operating a low level waste melting facility, their conclusion is that without technical improvements such a facility is not feasible today. This is based on the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, in conjunction with the radiological risks associated with operation and the uncertain benefits to disposal and long term safety.

  8. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu


    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  9. Connectomic intermediate phenotypes for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eFornito


    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are phenotypically heterogeneous entities with a complex genetic basis. To mitigate this complexity, many investigators study so-called intermediate phenotypes that putatively provide a more direct index of the physiological effects of candidate genetic risk variants than overt psychiatric syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a particularly popular technique for measuring such phenotypes because it allows interrogation of diverse aspects of brain structure and function in vivo. Much of this work however, has focused on relatively simple measures that quantify variations in the physiology or tissue integrity of specific brain regions in isolation, contradicting an emerging consensus that most major psychiatric disorders do not arise from isolated dysfunction in one or a few brain regions, but rather from disturbed interactions within and between distributed neural circuits; i.e., they are disorders of brain connectivity. The recent proliferation of new MRI techniques for comprehensively mapping the entire connectivity architecture of the brain, termed the human connectome, has provided a rich repertoire of tools for understanding how genetic variants implicated in mental disorder impact distinct neural circuits. In this article, we review research using these connectomic techniques to understand how genetic variation influences the connectivity and topology of human brain networks. We highlight recent evidence from twin and imaging genetics studies suggesting that the penetrance of candidate risk variants for mental illness, such as those in SLC6A4, MAOA, ZNF804A and APOE, may be higher for intermediate phenotypes characterised at the level of distributed neural systems than at the level of spatially localised brain regions. The findings indicate that imaging connectomics provides a powerful framework for understanding how genetic risk for psychiatric disease is expressed through altered structure and function of

  10. Covalent functionalization of graphene with reactive intermediates. (United States)

    Park, Jaehyeung; Yan, Mingdi


    Graphene, a material made exclusively of sp(2) carbon atoms with its π electrons delocalized over the entire 2D network, is somewhat chemically inert. Covalent functionalization can enhance graphene's properties including opening its band gap, tuning conductivity, and improving solubility and stability. Covalent functionalization of pristine graphene typically requires reactive species that can form covalent adducts with the sp(2) carbon structures in graphene. In this Account, we describe graphene functionalization reactions using reactive intermediates of radicals, nitrenes, carbenes, and arynes. These reactive species covalently modify graphene through free radical addition, CH insertion, or cycloaddition reactions. Free radical additions are among the most common reaction, and these radicals can be generated from diazonium salts and benzoyl peroxide. Electron transfer from graphene to aryl diazonium ion or photoactivation of benzoyl peroxide yields aryl radicals that subsequently add to graphene to form covalent adducts. Nitrenes, electron-deficient species generated by thermal or photochemical activation of organic azides, can functionalize graphene very efficiently. Because perfluorophenyl nitrenes show enhanced bimolecular reactions compared with alkyl or phenyl nitrenes, perfluorophenyl azides are especially effective. Carbenes are used less frequently than nitrenes, but they undergo CH insertion and C═C cycloaddition reactions with graphene. In addition, arynes can serve as a dienophile in a Diels-Alder type reaction with graphene. Further study is needed to understand and exploit the chemistry of graphene. The generation of highly reactive intermediates in these reactions leads to side products that complicate the product composition and analysis. Fundamental questions remain about the reactivity and regioselectivity of graphene. The differences in the basal plane and the undercoordinated edges of graphene and the zigzag versus arm-chair configurations

  11. Exploring the chemical kinetics of partially oxidized intermediates by combining experiments, theory, and kinetic modeling. (United States)

    Hoyermann, Karlheinz; Mauß, Fabian; Olzmann, Matthias; Welz, Oliver; Zeuch, Thomas


    Partially oxidized intermediates play a central role in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. In this perspective, we focus on the chemical kinetics of alkoxy radicals, peroxy radicals, and Criegee intermediates, which are key species in both combustion and atmospheric environments. These reactive intermediates feature a broad spectrum of chemical diversity. Their reactivity is central to our understanding of how volatile organic compounds are degraded in the atmosphere and converted into secondary organic aerosol. Moreover, they sensitively determine ignition timing in internal combustion engines. The intention of this perspective article is to provide the reader with information about the general mechanisms of reactions initiated by addition of atomic and molecular oxygen to alkyl radicals and ozone to alkenes. We will focus on critical branching points in the subsequent reaction mechanisms and discuss them from a consistent point of view. As a first example of our integrated approach, we will show how experiment, theory, and kinetic modeling have been successfully combined in the first infrared detection of Criegee intermediates during the gas phase ozonolysis. As a second example, we will examine the ignition timing of n-heptane/air mixtures at low and intermediate temperatures. Here, we present a reduced, fuel size independent kinetic model of the complex chemistry initiated by peroxy radicals that has been successfully applied to simulate standard n-heptane combustion experiments.

  12. Efficient short step synthesis of Corey's tamiflu intermediate. (United States)

    Kipassa, Nsiama Tienabe; Okamura, Hiroaki; Kina, Kengo; Hamada, Toshiyuki; Iwagawa, Tetsuo


    Corey's tamiflu intermediate was synthesized from a bicyclolactam adduct obtained by base-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction of N-nosyl-3-hydroxy-2-pyridone with ethyl acrylate. A compound that has the same array of functional groups with the Corey's intermediate was obtained in four steps from the DA adduct in 47% overall yield. The intermediate itself was also prepared efficiently by simply changing the protective group.

  13. Structure Characterization of the Folding Intermediates of Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Although the native state and the fully unfolded state of proteins have been extensively studied, the folding pathway and intermediates in the protein folding process have not been thoroughly investigated.To understand the mechanisms of protein folding, the early intermediates in the protein folding process must be clearly characterized.The present paper is a mini review containing 20 references involving studies on folding intermediates of several proteins.

  14. Structure and Mechanistic Implications of a Tryptophan Synthase Quinonoid Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barends,T.; Domratcheva, T.; Kulik, V.; Blumenstein, L.; Niks, D.; Dunn, M.; Schlichting, I.


    Quinonoid intermediates play a key role in the catalytic mechanism of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes. Whereas structures of other PLP-bound reaction intermediates have been determined, a high-quality structure of a quinonoid species has not been reported. We present the crystal structure of the indoline quinonoid intermediate of tryptophan synthase (see figure) and discuss its implications for the enzymatic mechanism and allosteric regulation.

  15. Intergalactic stellar populations in intermediate redshift clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Melnick, J; Toledo, I; Selman, F J; Quintana, H


    A substantial fraction of the total stellar mass in rich clusters of galaxies resides in a diffuse intergalactic component usually referred to as the Intra-Cluster Light (ICL). Theoretical models indicate that these intergalactic stars originate mostly from the tidal interaction of the cluster galaxies during the assembly history of the cluster, and that a significant fraction of these stars could have formed in-situ from the late infall of cold metal-poor gas clouds onto the cluster. The models make predictions about the age distribution of the ICL stars, which may provide additional observational constraints. However, these models also over-predict the fraction of stellar mass in the ICL by a substantial margin. Here we present population synthesis models for the ICL of a dumb-bell dominated intermediate redshift (z=0.29) X-ray cluster for which we have deep MOS data obtained with the FORS2 instrument. In a previous paper we have proposed that the dumbell galaxy act as a grinding machine tearing to pieces t...

  16. La escritura intermedial en la escena actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Thenon


    Full Text Available Las escrituras artísticas actuales integran, en el marco determinado por las realidades intermediales de la escena tecnológica, el concepto de diseño como manipulación perceptiva del espacio, lo que constituye uno de los instrumentos determinantes en la puesta en marcha de un cuadro compositivo de resonancias transformacionales. Podríamos en este sentido hablar de una nueva ecología artística y en especial, teatral. En la renovación del pensamiento teatral actualizado, fuertemente influenciado por la estructura discursiva cinematográfica y por los universos sensoriales de la cultura tecnológica de la imagen y del sonido, está la base de la multiplicación diegética, de la superposición, de la fragmentación de los discursos y de la praxis inter-relacional en la que radica, en gran medida, la potencia intermedial de la escena actual.

  17. Corrosion inhibitors for intermediate cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, I.; Suhr, L.


    The selected inhibitors were tested for heat and radiation stability and corrosion protection on the bench scale. Based on the results from these tests two of the products were selected, Bycoguard 81 and Bycoguard MP4S for continuing corrosion tests in an autoclave loop at 90 degrees C and 120 degrees C. Oxygen saturated deionized water with an addition of 1 ppm chloride was recirculated in the loop. Samples of copper and carbon steel were exposed to the water in the autoclave for periods up to 10 weeks. The purpose of this project was to find a substitute for hydrazine and chromates. Besides good corrosion protection qualities the toxic and environmental effect of the inhibitors should be minimal. The investigation has shown that the copper inhibitor BTA (benzotriazole) loses its corrosion protection qualities at a water temperature of 120 degrees C. The protection effects at 90 degrees C were satisfactory for both of the materials. The corrosion rates measured were 0.01 mm/y or less for the copper and carbon steel samples. The environment in the autoclave during the testing was more corrosive than is to be found in intermediate cooling systems. Due to the low corrosion rates measured the two inhibitors are to be recommended as alternatives to hydrazine and chromates.

  18. Molecular phylogeny of metazoan intermediate filament proteins. (United States)

    Erber, A; Riemer, D; Bovenschulte, M; Weber, K


    We have cloned cytoplasmic intermediate filament (IF) proteins from a large number of invertebrate phyla using cDNA probes, the monoclonal antibody IFA, peptide sequence information, and various RT-PCR procedures. Novel IF protein sequences reported here include the urochordata and nine protostomic phyla, i.e., Annelida, Brachiopoda, Chaetognatha, Echiura, Nematomorpha, Nemertea, Platyhelminthes, Phoronida, and Sipuncula. Taken together with the wealth of data on IF proteins of vertebrates and the results on IF proteins of Cephalochordata, Mollusca, Annelida, and Nematoda, two IF prototypes emerge. The L-type, which includes 35 sequences from 11 protostomic phyla, shares with the nuclear lamins the long version of the coil 1b subdomain and, in most cases, a homology segment of some 120 residues in the carboxyterminal tail domain. The S-type, which includes all four subfamilies (types I to IV) of vertebrate IF proteins, lacks 42 residues in the coil 1b subdomain and the carboxyterminal lamin homology segment. Since IF proteins from all three phyla of the chordates have the 42-residue deletion, this deletion arose in a progenitor prior to the divergence of the chordates into the urochordate, cephalochordate, and vertebrate lineages, possibly already at the origin of the deuterostomic branch. Four phyla recently placed into the protostomia on grounds of their 18S rDNA sequences (Brachiopoda, Nemertea, Phoronida, and Platyhelminthes) show IF proteins of the L-type and fit by sequence identity criteria into the lophotrochozoic branch of the protostomia.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Intermediate Filament Proteins. (United States)

    Charrier, Elisabeth E; Janmey, Paul A


    Purified intermediate filament (IF) proteins can be reassembled in vitro to produce polymers closely resembling those found in cells, and these filaments form viscoelastic gels. The cross-links holding IFs together in the network include specific bonds between polypeptides extending from the filament surface and ionic interactions mediated by divalent cations. IF networks exhibit striking nonlinear elasticity with stiffness, as quantified by shear modulus, increasing an order of magnitude as the networks are deformed to large strains resembling those that soft tissues undergo in vivo. Individual IFs can be stretched to more than two or three times their resting length without breaking. At least 10 different rheometric methods have been used to quantify the viscoelasticity of IF networks over a wide range of timescales and strain magnitudes. The mechanical roles of different classes of cytoplasmic IFs on mesenchymal and epithelial cells in culture have also been studied by an even wider range of microrheological methods. These studies have documented the effects on cell mechanics when IFs are genetically or pharmacologically disrupted or when normal or mutant IF proteins are exogenously expressed in cells. Consistent with in vitro rheology, the mechanical role of IFs is more apparent as cells are subjected to larger and more frequent deformations.

  20. Is T Leonis a superoutbursting intermediate polar?

    CERN Document Server

    Vrielmann, S; Schmitt, J H M M


    We present an XMM-Newton analysis of the cataclysmic variable T Leo. The X-ray light curve shows sinusoidal variation on a period P_x equal to 0.89^{+0.14}_{-0.10} times the previously spectroscopically determined orbital period. Furthermore, we find a signal in the power spectrum at 414 sec that could be attributed to the spin period of the white dwarf. If true, T Leo would be the first confirmed superoutbursting intermediate polar IP). The spin profile is double-peaked with a peak separation of about 1/3 spin phases. This appears to be a typical feature for IPs with a small magnetic field and fast white dwarf rotation. An alternative explanation is that the 414 sec signal is a Quasi-periodic Oscillation (QPO) that is caused by mass transfer variation from the secondary, a bright region (``blob'') rotating in the disc at a radius of approximately ~9 Rwd or - more likely - a travelling wave close to the inner disc edge of a dwarf nova with a low field white dwarf. The XMM-Newton RGS spectra reveal double peak...

  1. Fluorine production in intermediate-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mowlavi, N; Arnould, M


    The 19F production during the first dozen thermal pulses of AGB stars with (M=3,Z=0.02), (M=6,Z=0.02) and (M=3,Z=0.001) is investigated on grounds of detailed stellar models and of revised rates for 15N(a,g)19F and 18O(a,g)22Ne. These calculations confirm an early expectation that 19F {\\it is} produced in AGB thermal pulses. They also enlarge substantially these previous results by showing that the variations of the level of 19F production during the evolution is very sensitive to the maximum temperature reached at the base of the pulse. These variations are analyzed in detail, and are shown to result from a subtle balance between different nuclear effects (mainly 19F production or destruction in a pulse, and 15N synthesis during the interpulse), possibly super-imposed on dilution effects in more or less extended pulse convective tongues. Our calculations, as most others, do not predict the third dredge-up self- consistently. When parametrized, it appears that our models of intermediate-mass AGB stars are abl...

  2. Methanogenic toluene metabolism: community structure and intermediates. (United States)

    Fowler, S Jane; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Suflita, Joseph M; Gieg, Lisa M


    Toluene is a model compound used to study the anaerobic biotransformation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Reports indicate that toluene is transformed via fumarate addition to form benzylsuccinate or by unknown mechanisms to form hydroxylated intermediates under methanogenic conditions. We investigated the mechanism(s) of syntrophic toluene metabolism by a newly described methanogenic enrichment from a gas condensate-contaminated aquifer. Pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA revealed that the culture was comprised mainly of Clostridiales. The predominant methanogens affiliated with the Methanomicrobiales. Methane production from toluene ranged from 72% to 79% of that stoichiometrically predicted. Isotope studies using (13)C(7) toluene showed that benzylsuccinate and benzoate transiently accumulated revealing that members of this consortium can catalyse fumarate addition and subsequent reactions. Detection of a BssA gene fragment in this culture further supported fumarate addition as a mechanism of toluene activation. Transient formation of cresols, benzylalcohol, hydroquinone and methylhydroquinone suggested alternative mechanism(s) for toluene metabolism. However, incubations of the consortium with (18)O-H(2)O showed that the hydroxyl group in these metabolites did not originate from water and abiotic control experiments revealed abiotic formation of hydroxylated species due to reactions of toluene with sulfide and oxygen. Our results suggest that toluene is activated by fumarate addition, presumably by the dominant Clostridiales. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Interconnects for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (United States)

    Huang, Wenhua

    Presently, one of the principal goals of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) research is to reduce the stack operating temperature to between 600 and 800°C. However, one of the principal technological barriers is the non-availability of a suitable material satisfying all of the stability requirements for the interconnect. In this work two approaches for intermediate temperature SOFC interconnects have been explored. The first approach comprises an interconnect consisting of a bi-layer structure, a p-type oxide (La0.96Sr0.08MnO 2.001/LSM) layer exposed to a cathodic environment, and an n-type oxide (Y0.08Sr0.88Ti0.95Al0.05O 3-delta/YSTA) layer exposed to anodic conditions. Theoretical analysis based on the bi-layer structure has established design criteria to implement this approach. The analysis shows that the interfacial oxygen partial pressure, which determines the interconnect stability, is independent of the electronic conductivities of both layers but dependent on the oxygen ion layer interconnects, the oxygen ion conductivities of LSM and YSTA were measured as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. Based on the measured data, it has been determined that if the thickness of YSTA layer is around 0.1cm, the thickness of LSM layer should be around 0.6 mum in order to maintain the stability of LSM. In a second approach, a less expensive stainless steel interconnect has been studied. However, one of the major concerns associated with the use of metallic interconnects is the development of a semi-conducting or insulating oxide scale and chromium volatility during extended exposure to the SOFC operating environment. Dense and well adhered Mn-Cu spinet oxide coatings were successfully deposited on stainless steel by an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. It was found that the Mn-Cu-O coating significantly reduced the oxidation rate of the stainless steel and the volatility of chromium. The area specific resistance (ASR) of coated Crofer 22 APU is

  4. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  5. Intermediate frequency magnetic field and chick embryotoxicity. (United States)

    Nishimura, Izumi; Tanaka, Keiko; Negishi, Tadashi


    Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MFs) have widely been used in industrial machines and home appliances, such as induction heating cookers, although toxicity studies to evaluate the potential health risks of such fields are insufficient. In induction heating cookers, the MF source (i.e. hobs), is located near the abdominal position of a person cooking. Hence, developmental effects on the fetus may be a concern in case the person is a pregnant woman. Fertile White Leghorn eggs (60/group) were either exposed to 20 kHz, 1.1 mT(rms) or 60 kHz, 0.11 mT(rms) sinusoidal MFs for 19 days during embryogenesis. The same number of eggs served as a control group. In addition, a sham-sham experiment was conducted to validate the equality between exposure and control facilities. After exposure, embryos were examined for mortality rate and stage. Live embryos were evaluated for developmental stage and gross and skeletal anomalies. Length of upper beak and leg digits was also measured. Examinations were conducted in a blinded fashion to ensure quality assurance; experiments were triplicated for each frequency to confirm the outcome reproducibility. Mortality rate and stage, incidence of malformed embryos, and developmental variables in live embryos were found to be similar between the MF-exposed and corresponding control group. Incidence of gross anomalies such as mandibular edema and skeletal anomalies such as coccyx defects were low across the experiments, and no significant group differences were noted. In conclusion, exposure to 20 kHz or 60 kHz MF did not produce any significant teratogenic developmental effects in chick embryos.

  6. "Super-Reducing" Photocatalysis: Consecutive Energy and Electron Transfers with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Brasholz, Malte


    Donation welcome: Recent developments in visible-light photocatalysis allow the utilization of increasingly negative reduction potentials. Successive energy and electron transfer with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons enables the catalytic formation of strongly reducing arene radical anions, classical stoichiometric reagents for one-electron reduction in organic synthesis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. "Affective Encounters": Live Intermedial Spaces in Sites of Trauma (United States)

    Scott, Jo


    This article addresses live intermediality as a tool for creative learning in the context of workshops carried out with young people in the town of Terezin, in the Czech Republic, site of the Nazi concentration camp, Theresienstadt. Live intermediality, as a mode of live media practice, involves the real time mixing and merging of sound, image,…

  8. Incoherence in the South African Labour Market for Intermediate Skills (United States)

    Kraak, Andre


    This article is concerned with the production and employment of technically skilled labour at the intermediate level in South Africa. Three differing labour market pathways to intermediate skilling are identified. These are: the traditional apprenticeship route, the new "Learnerships" pathway (similar to the "modern…

  9. 21 CFR 312.315 - Intermediate-size patient populations. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate-size patient populations. 312.315... for Treatment Use § 312.315 Intermediate-size patient populations. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for the treatment of a patient population smaller than...

  10. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakrishnan, K.; Scholte, H.S.; Groen, I.I.A.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Ghebreab, S.


    The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible

  11. An architecture for recycling intermediates in a column-store

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, M.G.; Kersten, M.L.; Nes, N.J.; Goncalves, R.A.


    Automatic recycling intermediate results to improve both query response time and throughput is a grand challenge for state-of-the-art databases. Tuples are loaded and streamed through a tuple-at-a-time processing pipeline, avoiding materialisation of intermediates as much as possible. This limits th

  12. Molecular diagnosis of intermediate and severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Nordestgaard, B G; Lange, P;


    We tested whether intermediate (MZ, SZ) and severe (ZZ) alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency affects lung function in the population at large.......We tested whether intermediate (MZ, SZ) and severe (ZZ) alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency affects lung function in the population at large....

  13. A highly efficient synthesis of itraconazole intermediates and their analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Chong Il; Myoung, Young Chan; Choi, Ha Young; Kim, Seung Jin [Agency for Technology and Standards, Gwacheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Itraconazole is an important drug for oral treatment of histoplasmosis and blastomycosis. Itraconazole has been the targets of many synthetic efforts due to their diverse antifungal activities. In this study, an efficient synthetic route for Itraconazole intermediates has been developed using new procedures. Also, Itraconazole analogues introducing 2- and 3-methoxy group instead of Itraconazole intermediates with 4-methoxy group were synthesized.

  14. "Affective Encounters": Live Intermedial Spaces in Sites of Trauma (United States)

    Scott, Jo


    This article addresses live intermediality as a tool for creative learning in the context of workshops carried out with young people in the town of Terezin, in the Czech Republic, site of the Nazi concentration camp, Theresienstadt. Live intermediality, as a mode of live media practice, involves the real time mixing and merging of sound, image,…

  15. 29 CFR 452.81 - Rights in intermediate body elections. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights in intermediate body elections. 452.81 Section 452... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.81 Rights in intermediate body elections. While the literal language in section 401(c) relating to distribution of campaign literature and...

  16. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Ramakrishnan; H.S. Scholte; I.I.A. Groen; A.W.M. Smeulders; S. Ghebreab


    The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HM

  17. Regional boreal biodiversity peaks at intermediate human disturbance. (United States)

    Mayor, S J; Cahill, J F; He, F; Sólymos, P; Boutin, S


    The worldwide biodiversity crisis has intensified the need to better understand how biodiversity and human disturbance are related. The 'intermediate disturbance hypothesis' suggests that disturbance regimes generate predictable non-linear patterns in species richness. Evidence often contradicts intermediate disturbance hypothesis at small scales, and is generally lacking at large regional scales. Here, we present the largest extent study of human impacts on boreal plant biodiversity to date. Disturbance extent ranged from 0 to 100% disturbed in vascular plant communities, varying from intact forest to agricultural fields, forestry cut blocks and oil sands. We show for the first time that across a broad region species richness peaked in communities with intermediate anthropogenic disturbance, as predicted by intermediate disturbance hypothesis, even when accounting for many environmental covariates. Intermediate disturbance hypothesis was consistently supported across trees, shrubs, forbs and grasses, with temporary and perpetual disturbances. However, only native species fit this pattern; exotic species richness increased linearly with disturbance.

  18. Reducing energy costs in nursing homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The handbook presents ideas and techniques for energy conservation in nursing homes. Case studies were developed of nursing homes located in different parts of the US. The typical nursing home assessed was proprietary, of intermediate-care level, medicaid-certified, and had less than 200 beds. Specific energy conservation measures were analyzed to determine the energy and dollar savings that could be realized. These include reducing heat loss through the building shell; reducing hot water costs; recovering the heat generated by dryers; reducing lighting costs; reducing heating and cooling costs, and analyzing fuels and fuel rates. A case for converting electric clothes dryers to gas was analyzed. (MCW)

  19. Ndel1 promotes axon regeneration via intermediate filaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Toth

    Full Text Available Failure of axons to regenerate following acute or chronic neuronal injury is attributed to both the inhibitory glial environment and deficient intrinsic ability to re-grow. However, the underlying mechanisms of the latter remain unclear. In this study, we have investigated the role of the mammalian homologue of aspergillus nidulans NudE, Ndel1, emergently viewed as an integrator of the cytoskeleton, in axon regeneration. Ndel1 was synthesized de novo and upregulated in crushed and transected sciatic nerve axons, and, upon injury, was strongly associated with neuronal form of the intermediate filament (IF Vimentin while dissociating from the mature neuronal IF (Neurofilament light chain NF-L. Consistent with a role for Ndel1 in the conditioning lesion-induced neurite outgrowth of Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG neurons, the long lasting in vivo formation of the neuronal Ndel1/Vimentin complex was associated with robust axon regeneration. Furthermore, local silencing of Ndel1 in transected axons by siRNA severely reduced the extent of regeneration in vivo. Thus, Ndel1 promotes axonal regeneration; activating this endogenous repair mechanism may enhance neuroregeneration during acute and chronic axonal degeneration.

  20. Radiation induced decomposition of a refractory cefathiamidine intermediate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiburi Bao; Lujun Chen; Jianlong Wang


    Diisopropylthiourea (DPT),an intermediate of a widely used cephalosporin,has been found to be one of the most refractory components in cephalosporin synthesis wastewater.This compound cannot be completely removed by conventional biological processes due to its antimicrobial property.Ionizing radiation has been applied in the decomposition of refractory pollutants in recent years and has proved effective.Therefore,the decomposition of DPT by γ-irradiation was studied.The compound was irradiated at the dose of 150-2000 Gy before a change of concentration and UV absorption of the solutions was detected.Furthermore,the decomposition kinetics and radiation yield (G-value) of DPT was investigated.The results of radiation experiments on DPT-containing aqueous showed that the DPT can be effectively degraded by γ-radiation.DPT concentration decreased with increasing absorbed doses.G-values of radiolytic decomposition for DPT (20 mg/L) were 1.04 and 0.47 for absorbed doses of 150 and 2000 Gy,respectively.The initial concentration and pH of the solutions affected the degradation.As the concentration of substrate increased,the decomposition was reduced.The decrease of removal rate and radiation efficacy under alkaline condition suggested that lower pH values benefit the γ-induced degradation.UV absorption from 190 to 250 nm decreased after radiation while that from 250 to 300 nm increased,indicating the formation of by-products.

  1. Capital Regulation, the Cost of Financial Intermediation and Bank Profitability: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Zheng


    Full Text Available In response to the recent global financial crisis, the regulatory authorities in many countries have imposed stringent capital requirements in the form of the BASEL III Accord to ensure financial stability. On the other hand, bankers have criticized new regulation on the ground that it would enhance the cost of funds for bank borrowers and deteriorate the bank profitability. In this study, we examine the impact of capital requirements on the cost of financial intermediation and bank profitability using a panel dataset of 32 Bangladeshi banks over the period from 2000 to 2015. By employing a dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM estimator, we find robust evidence that higher bank regulatory capital ratios reduce the cost of financial intermediation and increase bank profitability. The results hold when we use equity to total assets ratio as an alternative measure of bank capital. We also observe that switching from BASEL I to BASEL II has no measurable impact on the cost of financial intermediation and bank profitability in Bangladesh. In the empirical analysis, we further observe that higher bank management and cost efficiencies are associated with the lower cost of financial intermediation and higher bank profitability. These results have important implications for bank regulators, academicians, and bankers.

  2. Physical Mechanisms for Earthquakes at Intermediate Depths (United States)

    Green, H. W.; Green, H. W.


    Conventional brittle shear failure it is strongly inhibited by pressure because it relies on local tensile failure. In contrast, plastic flow processes are thermally activated, making them sensitive functions of temperature, but their pressure dependence is only moderate. As a consequence, in Earth, faulting by unassisted brittle failure is probably restricted to depths less than ~ 30 km because the rocks flow at lower stresses than they fracture. To enable faulting at greater depths, mineral reactions must occur that generate a fluid or fluid-like solid that is much weaker than the parent assemblage. Although a variety of plastic instabilities have been and continue to be proposed to explain earthquakes at depth, dehydration embrittlement remains the only experimentally verified faulting mechanism consistent with the pressures and compositions existing at depths of 50-300km within subducting lithosphere. However, low pressure hydrous phases potentially abundant in subducting lithosphere (e.g. chlorite and antigorite) exhibit a temperature maximum in their stability, implying that the bulk volume change at depths of more than 70-100 km. becomes negative, thereby raising questions about mechanical instability upon dehydration. Further, it is now well-accepted that intermediate-depth earthquakes occur within the descending slab (double seismic zones present in several slabs dramatically demonstrate this fact), in conflict with the maximum depth of 10-12 km accepted for hydration of the lithosphere at oceanic spreading centers. Thus, on the one hand these earthquakes may be evidence that hydrous phases exist deep within subducting slabs but on the other hand, a mechanism for hydration to such depths is not known. One possibility is that large earthquakes outboard of trenches break the surface and allow hydration of the fault zone that can later dehydrate to yield earthquakes at depth, but no mechanism is known for pumping H2O into such fault zones to depths of tens of

  3. Talassemia β intermediária em gestante Intermediate β thalassemia in a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Sakamoto


    Full Text Available A talassemia β é a forma considerada clinicamente a mais importante dentre as talassemias, em virtude do grau de morbidade e mortalidade, em consequência da anemia hemolítica. O presente relato de caso refere-se a uma gestante portadora da talassemia β intermediária, identificada em programa de rastreamento de anemia hemolítica e tem como objetivo demonstrar a importância do diagnóstico precoce e adequado de uma anemia hereditária, durante o pré-natal. Ressalta também a necessidade de orientação aos portadores em relação aos seus descendentes e a eficiência do acompanhamento por uma equipe multidisciplinar especializada.β-thalassemia is clinically the most important form of thalassemia due to its high level of morbidity and mortality as a result of intense hemolytic anemia. The present case report describes the case a pregnant woman who is an intermediate β-thalassemia carrier identified in a screening program for hemolytic anemia. This work aims at showing the importance of correct and early diagnosis of inherited anemia during pregnancy. It also stresses the need of guidance for carriers in respect to their progeny and discusses the efficiency of follow ups by a multidisciplinary team during pregnancy.

  4. Location of an intermediate hub for port activities (United States)

    Burciu, Ş.; Ştefănică, C.; Roşca, E.; Dragu, V.; Ruscă, F.


    An intermediate hub might increase the accessibility level of ports but also hinterland and so it can be considered more than a facility with a transhipment role. These hubs might lead to the development of other transport services and enhance their role in gathering and covering economic centres within hinterlands and also getting the part of logistic facility for the ports, with effects on port utilization and its connectivity to global economy. A new location for a hub terminal leads to reduced transport distances within hinterland, with decreased transport costs and external effects, so with gains in people's life quality. Because the production and distribution systems are relatively fixed on short and medium term and the location decisions are strategic and on long term, the logistic chains activities location models have to consider the uncertainties regarding the possible future situations. In most models, production costs are considered equal, the location problem reducing itself to a problem that aims to minimize the total transport costs, meaning the transport problem. The main objective of the paper is to locate a hub terminal that links the producers of cereals that are going to be exported by naval transportation with the Romanian fluvial-maritime ports (Galaţi, Brăila). GIS environment can be used to integrate and analyse a great amount of data and has the ability of using functions as location - allocation models necessary both to private and public sector, being able to determine the optimal location for services like factories, warehouses, logistic platforms and other public services.

  5. Intermediates in the ferrous oxidase cycle of bleomycin. (United States)

    Caspary, W J; Lanzo, D A; Niziak, C


    We have previously shown that the bleomycin-induced autooxidation of ferrous iron follows Michaelis--Menten kinetics which are characteristic of enzymatic reactions [Caspary, W. J., Lanzo, D. A., Niziak, C., Friedman, R., & Bachur, N. R. (1979) Mol. Pharmacol. 16, 256]. In this paper, we identify the iron complexes formed during this reaction. The first is a ferrous iron--bleomycin complex which can be considered the catalyst substrate complex. The product of this reaction is a ferric iron--bleomycin complex which is found in a low-spin and a high-spin form. The relative concentrations of these two forms are a function of pH. Glutathione, a biologically relevant reducing agent, binds to the ferric iron--bleomycin complex, reduces it, and may serve as a model for the reduction of the ferric iron--bleomycin complex to the ferrous state during the catalytic cycle. Oxygen uptake induced by bleomycin and ferrous iron is not inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase. In the absence of bleomycin, catalase strongly inhibits oxygen uptake. This suggests the presence of a relatively stable intermediate in which the superoxide radical is not readily accessible to superoxide dismutase. At pH 9.3, we are able to observe a transient species by electron spin resonance (ESR). When potassium superoxide is added to the ferric iron--bleomycin complex, the same ESR spectrum is produced. We suggest that a transient species composed of a ferric iron, the superoxide ion, and bleomycin is formed. The precise nature of the binding cannot be determined from the data presented.

  6. Confinement matrices for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (United States)

    Laverov, N. P.; Omel'Yanenko, B. I.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Stefanovsky, S. V.


    Mining of uranium for nuclear fuel production inevitably leads to the exhaustion of natural uranium resources and an increase in market price of uranium. As an alternative, it is possible to provide nuclear power plants with reprocessed spent nuclear fuel (SNF), which retains 90% of its energy resource. The main obstacle to this solution is related to the formation in the course of the reprocessing of SNF of a large volume of liquid waste, and the necessity to concentrate, solidify, and dispose of this waste. Radioactive waste is classified into three categories: low-, intermediate-, and high-level (LLW, ILW, and HLW); 95, 4.4, and 0.6% of the total waste are LLW, ILW, and HLW, respectively. Despite its small relative volume, the radioactivity of HLW is approximately equal to the combined radioactivity of LLW + ILW (LILW). The main hazard of HLW is related to its extremely high radioactivity, the occurrence of long-living radionuclides, heat release, and the necessity to confine HLW for an effectively unlimited time period. The problems of handling LILW are caused by the enormous volume of such waste. The available technology for LILW confinement is considered, and conclusion is drawn that its concentration, vitrification, and disposal in shallow-seated repositories is a necessary condition of large-scale reprocessing of SNF derived from VVER-1000 reactors. The significantly reduced volume of the vitrified LILW and its very low dissolution rate at low temperatures makes borosilicate glass an ideal confinement matrix for immobilization of LILW. At the same time, the high corrosion rate of the glass matrix at elevated temperatures casts doubt on its efficient use for immobilization of heat-releasing HLW. The higher cost of LILW vitrification compared to cementation and bitumen impregnation is compensated for by reduced expenditure for construction of additional engineering barriers, as well as by substantial decrease in LLW and ILW volume, localization of shallow

  7. Dynamical aspects of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisons (United States)

    Dempsey, James Francis


    The production of neutrons, light charged particles (LCPs), and intermediate-mass fragments (IMFs), from the four reactions 55 MeV/A [124,136Xe] + [112,124Sn], is studied with an experimental apparatus which is highly efficient for the detection of both charged particles and neutrons. The IMFs are found more localized in the mid-velocity region (parallel velocity close to center of mass) than are the LPCs, and the detected multiplicity of IMFs depends linearly on the charge lost from the projectile. IMF multiplicity is found to be largely independent of the neutron excess of the system, aside from a slight increase with increasing neutron excess that is expected from statistical-model simulations. Remnants of the projectile, with very little velocity reduction, are found for most of the reaction cross section. Isotopic and isobaric fragment yields in the projectile-velocity region indicate that charge-to- mass ratio neutralization is generally not achieved but is approached when little remains of the projectile. For all systems, the fragments found in the mid-velocity region are substantially more neutron rich than those found in the velocity region dominated by the emission from the projectile. This observation can be qualitatively accounted for if the mid-velocity source (or sources) is either more neutron rich or smaller, with the same neutron-to-proton ratio, than the source with the velocity of the projectile. The observations of this work suggest that the intermediate mass fragments are, to a large extent, formed dynamically by a multiple neck rupture or a proximity-fission type mechanism. Though it remains unexplained, this process enhances the neutron- to-proton ratio of the emitted fragments. This scenario is reminiscent of low-energy ternary fission and one predicted by Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) calculations. However, these calculations predict too much velocity damping of the projectile remnant and do not produce a mid-velocity neutron

  8. Status of art report on intermediate energy nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ouk; Chang, Jong Hwa


    Nuclear reaction data of intermediate energy ranging above 20 MeV upto a few GeV form an important ingredient of several nuclear energy application, such as medical research, astrophysics, transmutation of radioactive waste and accelerator-driven reactor. Current status of the intermediate energy nuclear data cannot satisfy the requirements of these applications. Despite the fact that theories and models with suitable parameterization and fitting to the experimental data can be used for filling gaps in the available experimental database, current theories and models for intermediate nuclear energy nuclear reaction are still under development. This report summarizes required intermediate energy nuclear data and their physical quantities for the relevant research fields. Theories/models and codes developed up to now for the intermediate nuclear reaction are also outlined and transport codes based on these models are briefly introduced in this report. Available experimental facilities and data libraries are filed and trend of activities in the foreign countries on intermediate energy nuclear data are summarized. It is hoped that this report provide a part of information for the research activity on intermediate energy nuclear data in Korea to establish its long-term plan. (author). 14 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Improved cycling behavior of ZEBRA battery operated at intermediate temperature of 175 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.


    Operation of the sodium-nickel chloride battery at temperatures below 200°C reduces cell degradation and improves cyclability. One of the main technical issues with operating this battery at intermediate temperatures such as 175°C is the poor wettability of molten sodium on β”-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE), which causes reduced active area and limits charging. In order to overcome the poor wettability of molten sodium on BASE at 175°C, a Pt grid was applied on the anode side of the BASE using a screen printing technique. Cells with their active area increased by metallized BASEs exhibited deeper charging and stable cycling behavior.

  10. Citric acid cycle intermediates in cardioprotection. (United States)

    Czibik, Gabor; Steeples, Violetta; Yavari, Arash; Ashrafian, Houman


    Over the last decade, there has been a concerted clinical effort to deliver on the laboratory promise that a variety of maneuvers can profoundly increase cardiac tolerance to ischemia and/or reduce additional damage consequent upon reperfusion. Here we will review the proximity of the metabolic approach to clinical practice. Specifically, we will focus on how the citric acid cycle is involved in cardioprotection. Inspired by cross-fertilization between fundamental cancer biology and cardiovascular medicine, a set of metabolic observations have identified novel metabolic pathways, easily manipulable in man, which can harness metabolism to robustly combat ischemia-reperfusion injury. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Language in use intermediate : self-study workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian


    Each of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  12. Microbial/enzymatic synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates. (United States)

    Patel, Ramesh N


    Chirality is a key factor in the efficacy of many drugs; thus, the production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand from the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries for the preparation of bulk drug substances and agricultural products. There has been an increasing awareness of the enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivity. In this article, biocatalytic processes for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates are described.

  13. Parameters of the Disk Loaded Waveguide structure for intermediate particles acceleration in the intermediate energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Paramonov, V


    The Disk Loaded Waveguide (DLW) is the mostly used high frequency structure for acceleration of lightweight particles - electrons in the high energy range. In some physical experiments acceleration of more heavy particles - muons to medium energies is required. DLW parameters are considered for particle velocity 0.04 < \\beta < 1 both for the fundamental and the nearest backward spatial harmonics. Physical and technical restrictions for DLW application in the low \\beta range and lower frequency (the L-band range) are analyzed. Basing on particularities of acceleration with Traveling Wave (TW), deep optimization of DLW cells dimensions, the choice of optimal operating phase advance for each DLW section and combination of forward and backward TW modes, it is possible to create simple, cost effective acceleration system for acceleration in the velocity range 0.2 < \\beta < 1 intermediate particles, in some parameters overcoming accelerating system with RF cavities in Standing Wave (SW) mode. Design cri...

  14. Drought impact functions as intermediate step towards drought damage assessment (United States)

    Bachmair, Sophie; Svensson, Cecilia; Prosdocimi, Ilaria; Hannaford, Jamie; Helm Smith, Kelly; Svoboda, Mark; Stahl, Kerstin


    While damage or vulnerability functions for floods and seismic hazards have gained considerable attention, there is comparably little knowledge on drought damage or loss. On the one hand this is due to the complexity of the drought hazard affecting different domains of the hydrological cycle and different sectors of human activity. Hence, a single hazard indicator is likely not able to fully capture this multifaceted hazard. On the other hand, drought impacts are often non-structural and hard to quantify or monetize. Examples are impaired navigability of streams, restrictions on domestic water use, reduced hydropower production, reduced tree growth, and irreversible deterioration/loss of wetlands. Apart from reduced crop yield, data about drought damage or loss with adequate spatial and temporal resolution is scarce, making the development of drought damage functions difficult. As an intermediate step towards drought damage functions we exploit text-based reports on drought impacts from the European Drought Impact report Inventory and the US Drought Impact Reporter to derive surrogate information for drought damage or loss. First, text-based information on drought impacts is converted into timeseries of absence versus presence of impacts, or number of impact occurrences. Second, meaningful hydro-meteorological indicators characterizing drought intensity are identified. Third, different statistical models are tested as link functions relating drought hazard indicators with drought impacts: 1) logistic regression for drought impacts coded as binary response variable; and 2) mixture/hurdle models (zero-inflated/zero-altered negative binomial regression) and an ensemble regression tree approach for modeling the number of drought impact occurrences. Testing the predictability of (number of) drought impact occurrences based on cross-validation revealed a good agreement between observed and modeled (number of) impacts for regions at the scale of federal states or

  15. Semiannually alternating exchange of intermediate waters east of the Philippines (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Song, Lina; Li, Yuanlong; Liu, Chuanyu; Wang, Jianing; Lin, Pengfei; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Jun; Diao, Xinyuan; Zhang, Dongxiao; Hu, Dunxin


    Intermediate water exchange in the northwest tropical Pacific is explored with the temperature, salinity, and current measurements of a mooring system deployed at 8°N, 127.05°E during 2010-2014. For the first time, prominent semiannual variability (SAV; with the maximum power at ~ 187 days) of subthermocline meridional flow along the Mindanao coast is revealed. A significant correlation between meridional flow and salinity is found at intermediate depths. This provides direct evidence for the alternating transports of South Pacific and North Pacific Intermediate Waters by northward and southward undercurrents, respectively. Further analysis with an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model demonstrates that the SAV is generated locally near the western boundary, manifesting as large-scale subthermocline recirculation and leading to alternating northward and southward flows near the Mindanao coast, which plays an efficient role in the intermediate water exchange of the northwest tropical Pacific. Mechanisms underlying the observed SAV are discussed.

  16. Neck Emission of Intermediate Mass Fragments During Fission (United States)

    de Souza, R. T.; Chen, S. L.; Cornell, E. W.; Davin, B.; Hamilton, T. M.; Hulburt, D.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lou, Y.; Viola, V. E.; Wile, J. L.; Korteling, R.


    Ternary fission of heavy nuclei provides a unique opportunity to constrain models of the dissipative forces which occur during fission. We have measured neck emission of Intermediate mass fragments (IMF:3 model are made.

  17. Detection of low-populated reaction intermediates with hyperpolarized NMR. (United States)

    Jensen, Pernille R; Meier, Sebastian; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan H; Duus, Jens Ø; Karlsson, Magnus; Lerche, Mathilde H


    Hyperpolarized (13)C NMR spectroscopy can provide the sensitivity and spectral resolution to detect, identify and quantify low-populated reaction intermediates, thus yielding direct chemical information on reaction mechanisms in real-time assays.

  18. Functionalization of the corrole ring: the role of isocorrole intermediates. (United States)

    Tortora, Luca; Nardis, Sara; Fronczek, Frank R; Smith, Kevin M; Paolesse, Roberto


    Bromination of 3-nitro-5,10,15-triarylcorrole selectively provides two regioisomers, depending on the reaction pathway. An isocorrole species is the key intermediate to drive the reaction towards the 2-Br-17-nitro regioisomer.

  19. Improved enzymatic production of phenolated glycerides through alkyl phenolate intermediate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Feddern, Vivian; Glasius, Marianne


    This work reported a novel approach for synthesis of dihydrocaffoylated glycerides, consisting of 2 steps: enzymatic synthesis of octyl dihydrocaffeate (as a synthetic intermediate) from octanol and dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), and enzymatic interesterification of triglycerides with octyl dihydroc...

  20. Proteomics characterization of intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) flour proteins (United States)

    Thinopyrum intermedium, commonly known as intermediate wheatgrass (IWG), is a perennial crop with favorable agronomic characteristics and nutritional benefits. IWG lines are deficient in high molecular weight glutenins (HMWG), responsible for dough strength. A detailed characterization of IWG flou...

  1. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter


    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...... are blended into end products to minimise the total operational costs under production and storage capacity limitations. A comprehensive mixed-integer linear model is developed for the problem. The model is applied on a data set collected from a real-life case. The trade-offs between capacity limitations...... and operational costs are analysed, and the effects of different types of cost parameters and capacity limitations on the selection of intermediates and end-product recipes are investigated....

  2. Analysis of Preference Data Using Intermediate Test Statistic Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 1, 2013 ... Intermediate statistic is a link between Friedman test statistic and the multinomial statistic. The statistic is ... The null hypothesis Ho .... [7] Taplin, R.H., The Statistical Analysis of Preference Data, Applied Statistics, No. 4, pp.

  3. Banking on fewer children: financial intermediation, fertility and economic development. (United States)

    Lehr, C S


    This study examines the influence of financial intermediation on fertility rate and labor allocation decisions. A panel Vector Autoregression model using three variables of interest, specifically, financial intermediation, fertility, and industrial employment data in 87 countries, was estimated. This convenient methodology allows the relationship between the variables to change over time. Findings indicate that the increase in wages led some households to shift from traditional labor intensive methods of production to modern sector firms. Since it is optimal for households in the modern sector to have fewer children then the labor allocation decision leads to a lower national fertility. Furthermore, results imply that the emergence and development of the financial intermediation sector will enhance modern sector employment and lower total fertility rates. Thus, the financial intermediation process is an important part of the overall developmental process.

  4. Assembly characteristics of plant keratin intermediate filaments in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵光伟; 杨澄; 佟向军; 翟中和


    After selective extraction and purification, plant keratin intermediate filaments were reassembled in vitro. Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs showed that acidic keratins and basic keratins can assemble into dimers and further into 10 nm filaments in vitro. In higher magnification images, it can be seen that fully assembled plant keratin intermediate filaments consist of several thinner filaments of 3 nm in diameter, which indicates the formation of protofilaments in the assembly processes. One of the explicit features of plant keratin intermediate filaments is a 24—25 nm periodic structural repeat alone the axis of beth the 10 nm filaments and protofilaments. The periodic repeat is one of the fundamental characteristic of all intermediate filaments, and demonstrates the half staggered arrangement of keratin molecules within the filaments.

  5. 22 CFR 140.10 - Intermediate credit institutions. (United States)


    ... as a foreign government entity. Intermediate credit institutions (“ICIs”) shall be subject to either... included in agreements with all ICIs requiring that any loan greater than $1,000 provided by the ICI to...

  6. An intermediate distribution between Gaussian and Cauchy distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tong; Dai, Wu-Sheng; Xie, Mi


    In this paper, we construct an intermediate distribution linking the Gaussian and the Cauchy distribution. We provide the probability density function and the corresponding characteristic function of the intermediate distribution. Because many kinds of distributions have no moment, we introduce weighted moments. Specifically, we consider weighted moments under two types of weighted functions: the cut-off function and the exponential function. Through these two types of weighted functions, we can obtain weighted moments for almost all distributions. We consider an application of the probability density function of the intermediate distribution on the spectral line broadening in laser theory. Moreover, we utilize the intermediate distribution to the problem of the stock market return in quantitative finance.

  7. The Intermediate Impossible: A Prewriting Activity for Creative Problem Solving. (United States)

    Karloff, Kenneth


    Adapts Edward de Bono's "Intermediate Impossible" strategy--for considering ideas that normally would be discarded as stepping-stones to new ideas--for use as a prewriting activity to enhance creative problem solving. (HTH)

  8. Control of nonenzymatic browning in intermediate-moisture foods (United States)

    Buckle, K. A.; Labruza, T. P.; Warmbier, H. C.


    Series of compounds called humectants were found to decrease rate of browning when added to intermediate-moisture foods. Twenty percent level of humectant can increase shelf life of foods by factor of 5 or 6.

  9. Development of Intermediate Cooling Technology and Its Control for Two-Stand Plate Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhang


    Full Text Available In a plate rolling production line, thermomechanically controlled processing is critical for plate quality. In this paper, a set of intermediate cooling equipment of a two-stand plate mill with super density nozzles, medium pressure, and small flow is developed. Based on a simplified dynamic model, a cooling control scheme with combined feedforward, feedback, and adaptive algorithms is put forward. The new controlled rolling process and the highly efficient control system improve the controlled rolling efficiency by an average of 17.66%. The proposed intermediate cooling system can also effectively inhibit the growth of austenite grain, improve the impact toughness and yield strength of Q345B steel plate, reduce the formation of secondary oxide scale on the plate surface and the chromatic aberration of the plate surface, and greatly improve the surface quality of the steel plate.

  10. Water Oxidation Mechanisms of Metal Oxide Catalysts by Vibrational Spectroscopy of Transient Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Miao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Frei, Heinz [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Water oxidation is an essential reaction of an artificial photosystem for solar fuel generation because it provides electrons needed to reduce carbon dioxide or protons to a fuel. Earth-abundant metal oxides are among the most attractive catalytic materials for this reaction because of their robustness and scalability, but their efficiency poses a challenge. Knowledge of catalytic surface intermediates gained by vibrational spectroscopy under reaction conditions plays a key role in uncovering kinetic bottlenecks and provides a basis for catalyst design improvements. Recent dynamic infrared and Raman studies reveal the molecular identity of transient surface intermediates of water oxidation on metal oxides. In conclusion, combined with ultrafast infrared observations of how charges are delivered to active sites of the metal oxide catalyst and drive the multielectron reaction, spectroscopic advances are poised to play a key role in accelerating progress toward improved catalysts for artificial photosynthesis.

  11. Measuring the Impact of Financial Intermediation: Linking Contract Theory to Econometric Policy Evaluation. (United States)

    Townsend, Robert M; Urzua, Sergio S


    We study the impact that financial intermediation can have on productivity through the alleviation of credit constraints in occupation choice and/or an improved allocation of risk, using both static and dynamic structural models as well as reduced form OLS and IV regressions. Our goal in this paper is to bring these two strands of the literature together. Even though, under certain assumptions, IV regressions can recover accurately the true model-generated local average treatment effect, these are quantitatively different, in order of magnitude and even sign, from other policy impact parameters (e.g., ATE and TT). We also show that laying out clearly alternative models can guide the search for instruments. On the other hand adding more margins of decision, i.e., occupation choice and intermediation jointly, or adding more periods with promised utilities as key state variables, as in optimal multi-period contracts, can cause the misinterpretation of IV as the causal effect of interest.

  12. Enhanced Arabian Sea intermediate water flow during glacial North Atlantic cold phases (United States)

    Jung, Simon J. A.; Kroon, Dick; Ganssen, Gerald; Peeters, Frank; Ganeshram, Raja


    During the last glacial period, polar ice cores indicate climate asynchrony between the poles at the millennial time-scale. Yet, surface ocean circulation in large parts of the globe varied in tune with Greenland temperature fluctuations suggesting that any anti-phase behavior to a substantial degree must lie in the deeper global ocean circulation which is poorly understood outside the Atlantic Ocean. Here we present data from the north-western Indian Ocean which indicate that the timing of maxima in northward extensions of glacial Antarctic Intermediate Water (GAAIW) coincides with dramatically reduced thermohaline overturn in the North Atlantic associated with the Heinrich-ice surge events (HE). The repeated expansion of the GAAIW during HEs, recorded far north of the equator in the Arabian Sea, suggests that southern hemisphere driven intermediate water mass variability forms an integral part of the inter-hemisphere asynchronous climate change behavior at the millennial time-scale.

  13. Design and operation of a filter reactor for continuous production of a selected pharmaceutical intermediate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Müller; Pedersen, Michael Jønch; Dam-Johansen, Kim;


    A novel filter reactor system for continuous production of selected pharmaceutical intermediates is presented and experimentally verified. The filter reactor system consists of a mixed flow reactor equipped with a bottom filter, to retain solid reactant particles, followed by a conventional plug...... flow reactor, where residual reactant is converted by titration. A chemical case study, production of the pharmaceutical intermediate allylcarbinol by a reaction between allylmagnesium chloride and 2-chloro-thioxanthone, in the presence of a side reaction is considered. The synthesis is conducted......-batch operation, are reduced impurity formation and the use of much lower reactor volumes (factor of 1000 based on the laboratory reactor) and less solvent consumption (from 5.8 to 2.3L/kg reactant). Added challenges include handling of continuous solid powder feeding, stable pumping of reactive slurries...

  14. On the Representation of Intermediate States in the Velocity Basis

    CERN Document Server

    Tay, B A


    We explore the implication of applying the "minimally complex" representation to study intermediate states. We propose an interpretation of the "velocity variables" used in the "minimally complex" representation so as to make the construction consistent with the kinematics of the underlying scattering process under consideration. We also show that this choice of representation advocates the use of velocity basis over momentum basis in studying intermediate states.

  15. Responding to diversity: workforce intermediation in a transitioning regional economy


    Nichola J. Lowe


    In this paper I examine workforce intermediation as a tool for regional economic transition. While most studies of workforce intermediation in the United States focus on targeted programs that work with less-advantaged socioeconomic groups, I examine strategies adopted by state-funded community colleges that have a more encompassing or universalistic mandate. Through a case study of North Carolina’s BioWork initiative I examine college-level strategies for assisting two distinct groups of job...

  16. Superlattice Intermediate Band Solar Cell on Gallium Arsenide (United States)


    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0048 TR-2015-0048 SUPERLATTICE INTERMEDIATE BAND SOLAR CELL ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE Alexandre Freundlich...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-13-1-0232 Superlattice Intermediate Band Solar Cell on Gallium Arsenide 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT solar cell incorporating low dimensional structures made with dilute nitrogen alloys of III-V semiconductors is investigated theoretically and

  17. Intermediate energy light sources and the SSRF project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Advances in insertion device technology, top-up operation and superconducting RF cavities make it possible to generate high brightness X-ray with intermediate energy light sources, which leads a new trend in designing and constructing third generation light sources around the world. The development status and the remarkable technical features of intermediate energy light sources are reviewed, and the main SSRF properties are described in this paper.

  18. On Physical and Mechanical Behavior of Natural Marine Intermediate Deposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ming-lei; DENG Xue-jun


    Coastal structures may be built on natural sedimentary intermediate grounds, which mainly consist of silty soils and fine sandy soils. In this study, extensive field and laboratory tests were performed on the natural marine intermediate deposits to demonstrate the difference in behavior between natural marine clayey soils and natural marine intermediate deposits. The natural intermediate deposits have almost the same ratios of natural water content to liquid limit as those of the soft natural marine clays, but the former have much higher in-situ strength and sensitivity than the latter. The research results indicate that grain size distributions of soils affect significantly tip resistance obtained in field cone penetration tests. The mechanical parameters of natural marine intermediate deposits are also significantly affected by sample disturbance due to their high sensitivity and relatively large permeability. Unconfined compression shear tests largely underestimate the strength of natural marine intermediate soils. The triaxial consolidated compression shear tests with simulated in-situ confined pressure give results much better than those of uncomfined compression shear tests.

  19. Final repository for Denmark's low- and intermediate level radioactive waste (United States)

    Nilsson, B.; Gravesen, P.; Petersen, S. S.; Binderup, M.


    Bertel Nilsson*, Peter Gravesen, Stig A. Schack Petersen, Merete Binderup Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark, * email address The Danish Parliament decided in 2003 that the temporal disposal of the low- and intermediate level radioactive waste at the nuclear facilities at Risø should find another location for a final repository. The Danish radioactive waste must be stored on Danish land territory (exclusive Greenland) and must hold the entire existing radioactive waste, consisting of the waste from the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities at Risø, and the radioactive waste produced in Denmark from hospitals, universities and industry. The radioactive waste is estimated to a total amount of up to 10,000 m3. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, GEUS, is responsible for the geological studies of suitable areas for the repository. The task has been to locate and recognize non-fractured Quaternary and Tertiary clays or Precambrian bedrocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surroundings the coming more than 300 years. Twenty two potential areas have been located and sequential reduced to the most favorable two to three locations taking into consideration geology, hydrogeology, nature protection and climate change conditions. Further detailed environmental and geology investigations will be undertaken at the two to three potential localities in 2013 to 2015. This study together with a study of safe transport of the radioactive waste and an investigation of appropriate repository concepts in relation to geology and safety analyses will constitute the basis upon which the final decision by the Danish Parliament on repository concept and repository location. The final repository is planned to be established and in operation at the earliest 2020.

  20. DHIGLS: DRAO H i Intermediate Galactic Latitude Survey (United States)

    Blagrave, K.; Martin, P. G.; Joncas, G.; Kothes, R.; Stil, J. M.; Miville-Deschênes, M. A.; Lockman, Felix J.; Taylor, A. R.


    Observations of Galactic H i gas for seven targeted regions at intermediate Galactic latitude are presented at 1\\prime angular resolution using data from the DRAO Synthesis Telescope (ST) and the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The DHIGLS data are the most extensive arcminute-resolution measurements of the diffuse atomic interstellar medium beyond those in the Galactic plane. The acquisition, reduction, calibration, and mosaicking of the DRAO ST data and the cross calibration and incorporation of the short-spacing information from the GBT are described. The high quality of the resulting DHIGLS products enables a variety of new studies in directions of low Galactic column density. We analyze the angular power spectra of maps of the integrated H i emission (column density) from the data cubes for several distinct velocity ranges. In fitting power-spectrum models based on a power law, but including the effects of the synthesized beam and noise at high spatial frequencies, we find exponents ranging from ‑2.5 to ‑3.0. Power spectra of maps of the centroid velocity for these components give similar results. These exponents are interpreted as being representative of the three-dimensional density and velocity fields of the atomic gas, respectively. We find evidence for dramatic changes in the H i structures in channel maps over even small changes in velocity. This narrow line emission has counterparts in absorption spectra against bright background radio sources, quantifying that the gas is cold and dense and can be identified as the cold neutral medium phase. Fully reduced DHIGLS H i data cubes and other data products are available at

  1. Intermediate care: for better or worse? Process evaluation of an intermediate care model between a university hospital and a residential home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmaat Tonnie ACM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermediate care was developed in order to bridge acute, primary and social care, primarily for elderly persons with complex care needs. Such bridging initiatives are intended to reduce hospital stays and improve continuity of care. Although many models assume positive effects, it is often ambiguous what the benefits are and whether they can be transferred to other settings. This is due to the heterogeneity of intermediate care models and the variety of collaborating partners that set up such models. Quantitative evaluation captures only a limited series of generic structure, process and outcome parameters. More detailed information is needed to assess the dynamics of intermediate care delivery, and to find ways to improve the quality of care. Against this background, the functioning of a low intensity early discharge model of intermediate care set up in a residential home for patients released from an Amsterdam university hospital has been evaluated. The aim of this study was to produce knowledge for management to improve quality of care, and to provide more generalisable insights into the accumulated impact of such a model. Methods A process evaluation was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methods. Registration forms and patient questionnaires were used to quantify the patient population in the model. Statistical analysis encompassed T-tests and chi-squared test to assess significance. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 staff members representing all disciplines working with the model. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using both 'open' and 'framework' approaches. Results Despite high expectations, there were significant problems. A heterogeneous patient population, a relatively unqualified staff and cultural differences between both collaborating partners impeded implementation and had an impact on the functioning of the model. Conclusion We concluded that setting up a low intensity

  2. Analysis of dynein intermediate chains, light intermediate chains and light chains in a cohort of hereditary peripheral neuropathies. (United States)

    Tey, Shelisa; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Drew, Alexander P; Shahrizaila, Nortina; Nicholson, Garth A; Kennerson, Marina L


    The cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain (DYNC1H1) gene has been increasingly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2), intellectual disability and malformations of cortical development. In addition, evidence from mouse models (Loa, catabolite repressor-activator (Cra) and Sprawling (Swl)) has shown that mutations in Dync1h1 cause a range of neurodegenerative phenotypes with motor and sensory neuron involvement. In this current study, we examined the possible contribution of other cytoplasmic dynein subunits that bind to DYNC1H1 as a cause of inherited peripheral neuropathy. We focused on screening the cytoplasmic dynein intermediate, light intermediate and light chain genes in a cohort of families with inherited peripheral neuropathies. Nine genes were screened and ten variants were detected, but none was identified as pathogenic, indicating that cytoplasmic dynein intermediate, light intermediate and light chains are not a cause of neuropathy in our cohort.

  3. Perspective: Spectroscopy and kinetics of small gaseous Criegee intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yuan-Pern, E-mail: [Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan and Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)


    The Criegee intermediates, carbonyl oxides proposed by Criegee in 1949 as key intermediates in the ozonolysis of alkenes, play important roles in many aspects of atmospheric chemistry. Because direct detection of these gaseous intermediates was unavailable until recently, previous understanding of their reactions, derived from indirect experimental evidence, had great uncertainties. Recent laboratory detection of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH{sub 2}OO and some larger members, produced from ultraviolet irradiation of corresponding diiodoalkanes in O{sub 2}, with various methods such as photoionization, ultraviolet absorption, infrared absorption, and microwave spectroscopy opens a new door to improved understanding of the roles of these Criegee intermediates. Their structures and spectral parameters have been characterized; their significant zwitterionic nature is hence confirmed. CH{sub 2}OO, along with other products, has also been detected directly with microwave spectroscopy in gaseous ozonolysis reactions of ethene. The detailed kinetics of the source reaction, CH{sub 2}I + O{sub 2}, which is critical to laboratory studies of CH{sub 2}OO, are now understood satisfactorily. The kinetic investigations using direct detection identified some important atmospheric reactions, including reactions with NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, water dimer, carboxylic acids, and carbonyl compounds. Efforts toward the characterization of larger Criegee intermediates and the investigation of related reactions are in progress. Some reactions of CH{sub 3}CHOO are found to depend on conformation. This perspective examines progress toward the direct spectral characterization of Criegee intermediates and investigations of the associated reaction kinetics, and indicates some unresolved problems and prospective challenges for this exciting field of research.

  4. Disassembly intermediates of RbsD protein remain oligomeric despite the loss of an intact secondary structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Many proteins exist as homo-oligomers in living organisms wherein the change of oligomeric status apparently serves as an effective means for modulating their biological activities. We have previously reported that the homo-decameric RbsD from Escherichia coli undergoes stepwise disassembly and non-stepwise reassembly. Here the structural status of the urea-induced RbsD disassembly intermediates was examined, mainly using urea-containing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and chemical cross-linking. Such intermediates were found to remain oligomeric while losing their intact secondary structures. Such disassembly intermediates were able to effectively refold when the concentration of the urea denaturant was reduced to a lower level, or to refold/reassemble into the native decamers when urea was completely removed, as detected by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These novel observations strongly suggest that the assembly of oligomeric proteins may occur before the completion of subunit folding.

  5. Disruption of Esrom and Ryk identifies the roof plate boundary as an intermediate target for commissure formation. (United States)

    Hendricks, Michael; Mathuru, Ajay Sriram; Wang, Hui; Silander, Olin; Kee, Michelle Zhi Ling; Jesuthasan, Suresh


    Growth cones are guided to their final destination by intermediate targets. Here, we identify intermediate targets and signaling components acting on zebrafish habenula commissural axons. Live imaging establishes that axons pause at the medial habenula before and after crossing the roof plate. esrom mutants axons fail to advance beyond the ipsilateral medial habenula. Tsc2 function is reduced in mutant axons, indicating cell autonomous defects in signaling. Consistent with signaling properties changing outside the roof plate, EphB is surface localized on axon segments within a zone demarcated by the medial habenula. wnt4a is expressed in the medial habenula and morpholino knockdown causes loss of the commissure. Electroporation of truncated Ryk causes axons to reenter the midline after reaching the contralateral habenula. These data identify Esrom as a mediator of growth cone navigation at an intermediate target and underscore the importance of midline boundaries as signaling centers for commissure formation.

  6. One-electron oxidations of ferrocenes: a pulse radiolysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, Moshe; Weinraub, Dany; Broitman, Federico; DeFelippis, M.R.; Klapper, M.H.


    Using the pulse radiolysis technique we have studied the oxidation by various inorganic radicals of four water soluble ferrocene derivatives, hydroxyethyl, dimethylaminomethyl, monocarboxylic acid and dicarboxylic acid. We report the second order rate constants for these reactions, the stabilities and spectral properties of the ferrocinium products, and the electrochemically determined ferrocinium/ferrocene redox potentials. We also present preliminary estimates of tyrosine and tryptophan radical redox potentials obtained with the dicarboxylic acid ferrocene derivative as reference, and we discuss the relationship between redox potential differences and the reactivities of the ferrocenes with the inorganic radicals.

  7. One-electron oxidations of ferrocenes: A pulse radiolysis study (United States)

    Faraggi, Moshe; Weinraub, Dany; Broitman, Federico; DeFelippis, Michael R.; Klapper, Michael H.

    Using the pulse radiolysis technique we have studied the oxidation by various inorganic radicals of four water soluble ferrocene derivatives, hydroxyethyl, dimethylaminomethyl, monocarboxylic acid and dicarboxylic acid. We report the second order rate constants for these reactions, the stabilities and spectral properties of the ferrocinium products, and the electrochemically determined ferrocinium/ferrocene redox potentials. We also present preliminary estimates of tyrosine and tryptophan radical redox potentials obtained with the dicarboxylic acid ferrocene derivative as reference, and we discuss the relationship between redox potential differences and the reactivities of the ferrocenes with the inorganic radicals.

  8. Chasing the limits of the one electron approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kędziera, Dariusz [Department of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Mentel, Łukasz M. [Section of Theoretical Chemistry, VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Rapid progress in the development of computational methods for quantum chemistry is not properly balanced by the development of basis sets. Even in the case of few-electron systems it is hard to find basis set which are able to reproduce the ECG benchmarks with the mhartree accuracy. In this paper we show early work on improvements of the basis sets for small atomic and molecular systems. As a starting point the ground state of lithium atom and the lowest states of lithium dimer will be investigated. The exploratory optimization of the exponents of primitive gaussians will be based on even tempered scheme combined with CISD method.

  9. Intermediate tree cover can maximize groundwater recharge in the seasonally dry tropics (United States)

    Ilstedt, U.; Bargués Tobella, A.; Bazié, H. R.; Bayala, J.; Verbeeten, E.; Nyberg, G.; Sanou, J.; Benegas, L.; Murdiyarso, D.; Laudon, H.; Sheil, D.; Malmer, A.


    Water scarcity contributes to the poverty of around one-third of the world’s people. Despite many benefits, tree planting in dry regions is often discouraged by concerns that trees reduce water availability. Yet relevant studies from the tropics are scarce, and the impacts of intermediate tree cover remain unexplored. We developed and tested an optimum tree cover theory in which groundwater recharge is maximized at an intermediate tree density. Below this optimal tree density the benefits from any additional trees on water percolation exceed their extra water use, leading to increased groundwater recharge, while above the optimum the opposite occurs. Our results, based on groundwater budgets calibrated with measurements of drainage and transpiration in a cultivated woodland in West Africa, demonstrate that groundwater recharge was maximised at intermediate tree densities. In contrast to the prevailing view, we therefore find that moderate tree cover can increase groundwater recharge, and that tree planting and various tree management options can improve groundwater resources. We evaluate the necessary conditions for these results to hold and suggest that they are likely to be common in the seasonally dry tropics, offering potential for widespread tree establishment and increased benefits for hundreds of millions of people.

  10. Computational study on the carboligation reaction of acetohidroxyacid synthase: new approach on the role of the HEThDP- intermediate. (United States)

    Jaña, Gonzalo; Jiménez, Verónica; Villà-Freixa, Jordi; Prat-Resina, Xavier; Delgado, Eduardo; Alderete, Joel


    Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) is a thiamin diphosphate dependent enzyme that catalyses the decarboxylation of pyruvate to yield the hydroxyethyl-thiamin diphosphate (ThDP) anion/enamine intermediate (HEThDP(-)). This intermediate reacts with a second ketoacid to form acetolactate or acetohydroxybutyrate as products. Whereas the mechanism involved in the formation of HEThDP(-) from pyruvate is well understood, the role of the enzyme in controlling the carboligation reaction of HEThDP(-) has not been determined yet. In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed to identify the aminoacids involved in the carboligation stage. These MD studies were carried out over the catalytic subunit of yeast AHAS containing the reaction intermediate (HEThDP(-)) and a second pyruvate molecule. Our results suggest that additional acid-base ionizable groups are not required to promote the catalytic cycle, in contrast with earlier proposals. This finding leads us to postulate that the formation of acetolactate relies on the acid-base properties of the HEThDP(-) intermediate itself. PM3 semiempirical calculations were employed to obtain the energy profile of the proposed mechanism on a reduced model of the active site. These calculations confirm the role of HEThDP(-) intermediate as the ionizable group that promotes the carboligation and product formation steps of the catalytic cycle. Proteins 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Optimization of intermediate cooling and intermediate heating in the gas turbine process; Optimierung der Zwischenkuehlung und der Zwischenerhitzung beim Gasturbinenprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerrlein, K.


    The author investigated how the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine process can be improved by intermediate cooling, intermediate heating, or combined intermediate cooling and heating. The focus was on the pressure ratios of low-pressure compressors and high-pressure turbines. The numeric calculations were carried out using real gas characteristics. The findings suggest that intermediate coling inside the compressor has much more influence on the thermal efficiency than intermediate heating inside the turbine. However, the latter is advantageous in the case of gas turbines for combined cycle operation, as the off-gas temperatures required for steam generation are reached even at relatively low turbine inlet temperatures, so that NOx emissions of the gas turbine combustion chamber will be low. It is recommended that solitary gas turbines should be operated with intermediate cooling and gas turbines in combined cycle operation with intermediate heating. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit soll untersucht werden, in welcher Weise sich der thermische Wirkungsgrad des Gasturbinen-Prozesses durch Zwischenkuehlung, Zwischenerhitzung bzw. Zwischenkuehlung und Zwischenerhitzung verbessern laesst. Dabei sollen in erster Linie die Druckverhaeltnisse von ND-Verdichter bzw. HD-Turbine bestimmt werden, bei denen Zwischenkuehlung und Zwischenerhitzung vorgenommen werden sollen, um eine optimale Verbesserung des thermischen Wirkungsgrades zu erreichen. Die numerische Durchrechnung soll mit den Stoffwerten des realen Gases durchgefuehrt werden. Die numerischen Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Zwischenkuehlung im Verdichter einen weit groesseren Einfluss auf den thermischen Wirkungsgrad hat als die Zwischenerhitzung in der Turbine. Letztere ist aber bei Gasturbinen fuer den Kombibetrieb von Vorteil, erreicht man doch die fuer die Dampferzeugung notwendigen Abgastemperaturen der Gasturbine schon bei relativ niedrigen Turbineneintrittstemperaturen, so dass die NO{sub x}-Emission der

  12. Effect of intermediate annealing on the microstructure and mechanical property of ZK60 magnesium alloy produced by twin roll casting and hot rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hongmei, E-mail: [Provincial Key Lab of Advanced Welding Technology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Zang, Qianhao [Provincial Key Lab of Advanced Welding Technology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Yu, Hui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300132 (China); Zhang, Jing [School of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhang Jiagang 215600 (China); Jin, Yunxue [Provincial Key Lab of Advanced Welding Technology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China)


    Twin roll cast (designated as TRC in short) ZK60 magnesium alloy strip with 3.5 mm thickness was used in this paper. The TRC ZK60 strip was multi-pass rolled at different temperatures, intermediate annealing heat treatment was performed when the thickness of the strip changed from 3.5 mm to 1 mm, and then continued to be rolled until the thickness reached to 0.5 mm. The effect of intermediate annealing during rolling process on microstructure, texture and room temperature mechanical properties of TRC ZK60 strip was studied by using OM, TEM, XRD and electronic universal testing machine. The introduction of intermediate annealing can contribute to recrystallization in the ZK60 sheet which was greatly deformed, and help to reduce the stress concentration generated in the rolling process. Microstructure uniformity and mechanical properties of the ZK60 alloy sheet were also improved; in particular, the room temperature elongation was greatly improved. When the TRC ZK60 strip was rolled at 300 °C and 350 °C, the room temperature elongation of the rolled sheet with 0.5 mm thickness which was intermediate annealed during the rolling process was increased by 95% and 72% than that of no intermediate annealing, respectively. - Highlights: • Intermediate annealing was introduced during hot rolling process of twin roll cast ZK60 alloy. • Intermediate annealing can contribute to recrystallization and reduce the stress concentration in the deformed ZK60 sheet. • Microstructure uniformity and mechanical properties of the ZK60 sheet were improved, in particular, the room temperature elongation. • The elongation of the rolled ZK60 sheet after intermediate annealed was increased by 95% and 72% than that of no intermediate annealing.

  13. Analysis of heat recovery of diesel engine using intermediate working fluid (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Zhang, Jiang; Tan, Gangfeng; Liu, Huaming


    The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is an effective way to recovery the engine exhaust heat. The thermal stability of the evaporation system is significant for the stable operation of the ORC system. In this paper, the performance of the designed evaporation system which combines with the intermediate fluid for recovering the exhaust waste heat from a diesel engine is evaluated. The thermal characteristics of the target diesel engine exhaust gas are evaluated based on the experimental data firstly. Then, the mathematical model of the evaporation system is built based on the geometrical parameters and the specific working conditions of ORC. Finally, the heat transfer characteristics of the evaporation system are estimated corresponding to three typical operating conditions of the diesel engine. The result shows that the exhaust temperature at the evaporator outlet increases slightly with the engine speed and load. In the evaporator, the heat transfer coefficient of the Rankine working fluid is slightly larger than the intermediate fluid. However, the heat transfer coefficient of the intermediate fluid in the heat exchanger is larger than the exhaust side. The heat transfer areas of the evaporator in both the two-phase zone and the preheated zone change slightly along with the engine working condition while the heat transfer areas of the overheated zone has changed obviously. The maximum heat transfer rate occurs in the preheating zone while the minimum value occurs in the overheating zone. In addition, the Rankine working fluid temperature at the evaporator outlet is not sensitively affected by the torque and speed of the engine and the organic fluid flow is relatively stable. It is concluded that the intermediate fluid could effectively reduce the physical changes of Rankine working fluid in the evaporator outlet due to changes in engine operating conditions.

  14. Krebs cycle intermediates modulate thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) production in rat brain in vitro. (United States)

    Puntel, Robson L; Nogueira, Cristina W; Rocha, João B T


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Krebs cycle intermediates on basal and quinolinic acid (QA)- or iron-induced TBARS production in brain membranes. Oxaloacetate, citrate, succinate and malate reduced significantly the basal and QA-induced TBARS production. The potency for basal TBARS inhibition was in the order (IC50 is given in parenthesis as mM) citrate (0.37) > oxaloacetate (1.33) = succinate (1.91) > > malate (12.74). alpha-Ketoglutarate caused an increase in TBARS production without modifying the QA-induced TBARS production. Cyanide (CN-) did not modify the basal or QA-induced TBARS production; however, CN- abolished the antioxidant effects of succinate. QA-induced TBARS production was enhanced by iron ions, and abolished by desferrioxamine (DFO). The intermediates used in this study, except for alpha-ketoglutarate, prevented iron-induced TBARS production. Oxaloacetate, citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate and malate, but no succinate and QA, exhibited significantly iron-chelating properties. Only alpha-ketoglutarate and oxaloacetate protected against hydrogen peroxide-induced deoxyribose degradation, while succinate and malate showed a modest effect against Fe2+/H2O2-induced deoxyribose degradation. Using heat-treated preparations citrate, malate and oxaloacetate protected against basal or QA-induced TBARS production, whereas alpha-ketoglutarate induced TBARS production. Succinate did not offer protection against basal or QA-induced TBARS production. These results suggest that oxaloacetate, malate, succinate, and citrate are effective antioxidants against basal and iron or QA-induced TBARS production, while alpha-ketoglutarate stimulates TBARS production. The mechanism through which Krebs cycle intermediates offer protection against TBARS production is distinct depending on the intermediate used. Thus, under pathological conditions such as ischemia, where citrate concentrations vary it can assume an important role as a modulator of oxidative

  15. Differential effects of heptanoate and hexanoate on myocardial citric acid cycle intermediates following ischemia-reperfusion. (United States)

    Okere, Isidore C; McElfresh, Tracy A; Brunengraber, Daniel Z; Martini, Wenjun; Sterk, Joseph P; Huang, Hazel; Chandler, Margaret P; Brunengraber, Henri; Stanley, William C


    In the normal heart, there is loss of citric acid cycle (CAC) intermediates that is matched by the entry of intermediates from outside the cycle, a process termed anaplerosis. Previous in vitro studies suggest that supplementation with anaplerotic substrates improves cardiac function during myocardial ischemia and/or reperfusion. The present investigation assessed whether treatment with the anaplerotic medium-chain fatty acid heptanoate improves contractile function during ischemia and reperfusion. The left anterior descending coronary artery of anesthetized pigs was subjected to 60 min of 60% flow reduction and 30 min of reperfusion. Three treatment groups were studied: saline control, heptanoate (0.4 mM), or hexanoate as a negative control (0.4 mM). Treatment was initiated after 30 min of ischemia and continued through reperfusion. Myocardial CAC intermediate content was not affected by ischemia-reperfusion; however, treatment with heptanoate resulted in a more than twofold increase in fumarate and malate, with no change in citrate and succinate, while treatment with hexanoate did not increase fumarate or malate but increased succinate by 1.8-fold. There were no differences among groups in lactate exchange, glucose oxidation, oxygen consumption, and contractile power. In conclusion, despite a significant increase in the content of carbon-4 CAC intermediates, treatment with heptanoate did not result in improved mechanical function of the heart in this model of reversible ischemia-reperfusion. This suggests that reduced anaplerosis and CAC dysfunction do not play a major role in contractile and metabolic derangements observed with a 60% decrease in coronary flow followed by reperfusion.

  16. Nitrous oxide production from reactive nitrification intermediates: a concerted action of biological and chemical processes (United States)

    Brüggemann, Nicolas; Heil, Jannis; Liu, Shurong; Wei, Jing; Vereecken, Harry


    This contribution tries to open up a new perspective on biogeochemical N2O production processes, taking the term bio-geo-chemistry literally. What if a major part of N2O is produced from reactive intermediates of microbiological N turnover processes ("bio…") leaking out of the involved microorganisms into the soil ("…geo…") and then reacting chemically ("…chemistry") with the surrounding matrix? There are at least two major reactive N intermediates that might play a significant role in these coupled biological-chemical reactions, i.e. hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and nitrite (NO2-), both of which are produced during nitrification under oxic conditions, while NO2- is also produced during denitrification under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, NH2OH is assumed to be also a potential intermediate of DNRA and/or anammox. First, this contribution will summarize information about several chemical reactions involving NH2OH and NO2- leading to the formation of N2O. These abiotic reactions are: reactions of NO2- with reduced metal cations, nitrosation reactions of NO2- and soil organic matter (SOM), the reaction between NO2- and NH2OH, and the oxidation of NH2OH by oxidized metal ions. While these reactions can occur over a broad range of soil characteristics, they are ignored in most current N trace gas studies in favor of biological processes only. Disentangling microbiological from purely chemical N2O production is further complicated by the fact that the chemically formed N2O is either undiscernible from N2O produced during nitrification, or shows an intermediate 15N site preference between that of N2O from nitrification and denitrification, respectively. Results from experiments with live and sterilized soil samples, with artificial soil mixtures and with phenolic lignin decomposition model compounds will be presented that demonstrate the potential contribution of these abiotic processes to soil N trace gas emissions, given a substantial leakage rate of these reactive

  17. Neutrino Oscillations in Intermediate States.II -- Wave Packets

    CERN Document Server

    Asahara, A; Shimomura, T; Yabuki, T


    We analyze oscillations of intermediate neutrinos in terms of scattering of particles described by Gaussian wave packets. We study a scalar model as in the previous paper (I) but in realistic situations, where two particles of the initial state and final state are wave packets and neutrinos are in the intermediate state. The oscillation of the intermediate neutrino is found from the time evolution of the total transition probability between the initial state and final state. The effect of a finite lifetime and a finite relaxation time $\\tau$ are also studied. We find that the oscillation pattern depends on the magnitude of wave packet sizes of particles in the initial state and final state and the lifetime of the initial particle. For $\\Delta m^2=10^{-2}$ eV$^2$, the oscillation probability deviates from the standard formula, if the wave packet sizes are around $10^{-13}$ m for 0.4 MeV neutrino.

  18. Replicative intermediates of maize streak virus found during leaf development. (United States)

    Erdmann, Julia B; Shepherd, Dionne N; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind; Rybicki, Edward P; Jeske, Holger


    Geminiviruses of the genera Begomovirus and Curtovirus utilize three replication modes: complementary-strand replication (CSR), rolling-circle replication (RCR) and recombination-dependent replication (RDR). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we now show for the first time that maize streak virus (MSV), the type member of the most divergent geminivirus genus, Mastrevirus, does the same. Although mastreviruses have fewer regulatory genes than other geminiviruses and uniquely express their replication-associated protein (Rep) from a spliced transcript, the replicative intermediates of CSR, RCR and RDR could be detected unequivocally within infected maize tissues. All replicative intermediates accumulated early and, to varying degrees, were already present in the shoot apex and leaves at different maturation stages. Relative to other replicative intermediates, those associated with RCR increased in prevalence during leaf maturation. Interestingly, in addition to RCR-associated DNA forms seen in other geminiviruses, MSV also apparently uses dimeric open circular DNA as a template for RCR.

  19. Intermediation in Open Development: A Knowledge Stewardship Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. A. Reilly


    Full Text Available Open Development (OD is a subset of ICT4D that studies the potential of IT-enabled openness to support social change among poor or marginalized populations. Early OD work examined the potential of IT-enabled openness to decentralize power and enable public engagement by disintermediating knowledge production and dissemination. However, in practice, intermediaries have emerged to facilitate open data and related knowledge production activities in development processes. We identify five models of intermediation in OD work: decentralized, arterial, ecosystem, bridging, and communities of practice and examine the implications of each for stewardship of open processes. We conclude that studying OD through these five forms of intermediation is a productive way of understanding whether and how different patterns of knowledge stewardship influence development outcomes. We also offer suggestions for future research that can improve our understanding of how to sustain openness, facilitate public engagement, and ensure that intermediation contributes to open development.

  20. Characterization of the Partially Folded Monomeric Intermediate of Creatine Kinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴龙斗; 周海梦


    The importance of understanding the protein folding pathway and intermediates is well recognized on the basis of extensive studies of protein folding in vitro and in vivo. Creatine kinase (CK) is a typical model for studying unfolding and refolding of proteins due to several interesting properties. Recent studies on the folding of CK show that its partially folded monomeric intermediate is present kinetically and is stable at equilibrium. The present paper contains 33 References as a mini review to characterize the properties of CK from studies on the CK folding pathway. Characterization of these intermediates is an essential step toward understanding the mechanism of protein folding. Some well-determined schemes are suggested as protein folding models.

  1. Intermediate filament transcription in astrocytes is repressed by proteasome inhibition (United States)

    Middeldorp, Jinte; Kamphuis, Willem; Sluijs, Jacqueline A.; Achoui, Dalila; Leenaars, Cathalijn H. C.; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.; van Tijn, Paula; Fischer, David F.; Berkers, Celia; Ovaa, Huib; Quinlan, Roy A.; Hol, Elly M.


    Increased expression of the astrocytic intermediate filament protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a characteristic of astrogliosis. This process occurs in the brain during aging and neurodegeneration and coincides with impairment of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Inhibition of the proteasome impairs protein degradation; therefore, we hypothesized that the increase in GFAP may be the result of impaired proteasomal activity in astrocytes. We investigated the effect of proteasome inhibitors on GFAP expression and other intermediate filament proteins in human astrocytoma cells and in a rat brain model for astrogliosis. Extensive quantitative RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and Western blot analysis resulted unexpectedly in a strong decrease of GFAP mRNA to Hol, E. M. Intermediate filament transcription in astrocytes is repressed by proteasome inhibition. PMID:19332645

  2. Deglacial intermediate water reorganization: new evidence from the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Romahn


    Full Text Available The importance of intermediate water masses in climate change and ocean circulation has been emphasized recently. In particular, Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW is thought to have acted as an active interhemispheric transmitter of climate anomalies. Here we reconstruct changes in AAIW signature and spatial and temporal evolution based on a 40 kyr time series of oxygen and carbon isotopes as well as planktic Mg/Ca based thermometry from a site in the western Indian Ocean. Our data suggest that AAIW transmitted Antarctic temperature trends to the equatorial Indian Ocean via the "oceanic tunnel" mechanism. Moreover, our results reveal that deglacial AAIW carried a signature of aged Southern Ocean deep water. We find no evidence of increased formation of intermediate waters during the deglaciation.

  3. Intermediate distance correlators in hot Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, M; Vuorinen, A


    Lattice measurements of spatial correlation functions of the operators FF and FF-dual in thermal SU(3) gauge theory have revealed a clear difference between the two channels at "intermediate" distances, x ~ 1/(pi T). This is at odds with the AdS/CFT limit which predicts the results to coincide. On the other hand, an OPE analysis at short distances (x 1/(pi T)) as well as effective theory methods at long distances (x 1/(pi T)) suggest differences. Here we study the situation at intermediate distances by determining the time-averaged spatial correlators through a 2-loop computation. We do find unequal results, however the numerical disparity is small. Apart from theoretical issues, a future comparison of our results with time-averaged lattice measurements might also be of phenomenological interest in that understanding the convergence of the weak-coupling series at intermediate distances may bear on studies of the thermal broadening of heavy quarkonium resonances.

  4. Compressing Green's function using intermediate representation between imaginary-time and real-frequency domains (United States)

    Shinaoka, Hiroshi; Otsuki, Junya; Ohzeki, Masayuki; Yoshimi, Kazuyoshi


    Model-independent compact representations of imaginary-time data are presented in terms of the intermediate representation (IR) of analytical continuation. We demonstrate the efficiency of the IR through continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo calculations of an Anderson impurity model. We find that the IR yields a significantly compact form of various types of correlation functions. This allows the direct quantum Monte Carlo measurement of Green's functions in a compressed form, which considerably reduces the computational cost and memory usage. Furthermore, the present framework will provide general ways to boost the power of cutting-edge diagrammatic/quantum Monte Carlo treatments of many-body systems.

  5. Pressure-Resistant Intermediate Valence in the Kondo Insulator SmB_{6}. (United States)

    Butch, Nicholas P; Paglione, Johnpierre; Chow, Paul; Xiao, Yuming; Marianetti, Chris A; Booth, Corwin H; Jeffries, Jason R


    Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy was used to determine the pressure dependence of the f-electron occupancy in the Kondo insulator SmB_{6}. Applied pressure reduces the f occupancy, but surprisingly, the material maintains a significant divalent character up to a pressure of at least 35 GPa. Thus, the closure of the resistive activation energy gap and onset of magnetic order are not driven by stabilization of an integer valent state. Over the entire pressure range, the material maintains a remarkably stable intermediate valence that can in principle support a nontrivial band structure.

  6. Generalized classical, quantum and intermediate statistics and the Polya urn model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niven, Robert K. [School of Aerospace, Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of New South Wales at ADFA, Northcott Drive, Canberra, ACT, 2600 (Australia); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen O (Denmark)], E-mail:; Grendar, Marian [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Bel University, Tajovskeho 40, 974 01 Banska Bystrica (Slovakia)], E-mail:


    Generalized probability distributions for Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics, with unequal source ('prior') probabilities q{sub i} for each level i, are obtained by combinatorial reasoning. For equiprobable degenerate sublevels, these reduce to those given by Brillouin in 1930, more commonly given as a statistical weight for each statistic. These distributions and corresponding cross-entropy (divergence) functions are shown to be special cases of the Polya urn model, involving neither independent nor identically distributed ('ninid') sampling. The most probable Polya distribution is shown to contain the Acharya-Swamy intermediate statistic.

  7. "TIVAL" — A development in spectrum tailoring for intermediate-energy neutron beam production (United States)

    Constantine, G.


    Beams of intermediate-energy neutrons produced by filtering offer significant advantages over thermal neutrons for boron neutron capture therapy. Preconditioning the spectrum within the reactor prior to filtering can increase the intensity and lower the mean neutron energy, to give reduced proton recoil damage in normal tissue. Aluminium with a small proportion of D 2O has been proposed as a spectrum shifter to achieve this. We describe here calculations that demonstrate considerable further softening of the spectrum by TIVAL, a mixture of aluminium together with small quantities of titanium and vanadium.

  8. A catalytic intermediate and several flavin redox states stabilized by folate-dependent tRNA methyltransferase from Bacillus subtilis. (United States)

    Hamdane, Djemel; Guerineau, Vincent; Un, Sun; Golinelli-Pimpaneau, Beatrice


    The flavoprotein TrmFO catalyzes the C5 methylation of uridine 54 in the TΨC loop of tRNAs using 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (CH(2)THF) as a methylene donor and FAD as a reducing agent. Here, we report biochemical and spectroscopic studies that unravel the remarkable capability of Bacillus subtilis TrmFO to stabilize, in the presence of oxygen, several flavin-reduced forms, including an FADH(•) radical, and a catalytic intermediate endowed with methylating activity. The FADH(•) radical was characterized by high-field electron paramagnetic resonance and electron nuclear double-resonance spectroscopies. Interestingly, the enzyme exhibited tRNA methylation activity in the absence of both an added carbon donor and an external reducing agent, indicating that a reaction intermediate, containing presumably CH(2)THF and FAD hydroquinone, is present in the freshly purified enzyme. Isolation by acid treatment, under anaerobic conditions, of noncovalently bound molecules, followed by mass spectrometry analysis, confirmed the presence in TrmFO of nonmodified FAD. Addition of formaldehyde to the purified enzyme protects the reduced flavins from decay by probably preventing degradation of CH(2)THF. The absence of air-stable reduced FAD species during anaerobic titration of oxidized TrmFO, performed in the absence or presence of added CH(2)THF, argues against their thermodynamic stabilization but rather implicates their kinetic trapping by the enzyme. Altogether, the unexpected isolation of a stable catalytic intermediate suggests that the flavin-binding pocket of TrmFO is a highly insulated environment, diverting the reduced FAD present in this intermediate from uncoupled reactions.

  9. Receptor- and reactive intermediate-mediated mechanisms of teratogenesis. (United States)

    Wells, Peter G; Lee, Crystal J J; McCallum, Gordon P; Perstin, Julia; Harper, Patricia A


    Drugs and environmental chemicals can adversely alter the development of the fetus at critical periods during pregnancy, resulting in death, or in structural and functional birth defects in the surviving offspring. This process of teratogenesis may not be evident until a decade or more after birth. Postnatal functional abnormalities include deficits in brain function, a variety of metabolic diseases, and cancer. Due to the high degree of fetal cellular division and differentiation, and to differences from the adult in many biochemical pathways, the fetus is highly susceptible to teratogens, typically at low exposure levels that do not harm the mother. Insights into the mechanisms of teratogenesis come primarily from animal models and in vitro systems, and involve either receptor-mediated or reactive intermediate-mediated processes. Receptor-mediated mechanisms involving the reversible binding of xenobiotic substrates to a specific receptor are exemplified herein by the interaction of the environmental chemical 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or "dioxin") with the cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which translocates to the nucleus and, in association with other proteins, binds to AH-responsive elements (AHREs) in numerous genes, initiating changes in gene transcription that can perturb development. Alternatively, many xenobiotics are bioactivated by fetal enzymes like the cytochromes P450 (CYPs) and prostaglandin H synthases (PHSs) to highly unstable electrophilic or free radical reactive intermediates. Electrophilic reactive intermediates can covalently (irreversibly) bind to and alter the function of essential cellular macromolecules (proteins, DNA), causing developmental anomalies. Free radical reactive intermediates can enhance the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules and/or altered signal transduction. The teratogenicity of reactive intermediates is determined to a large extent

  10. On the polarization of fermion in an intermediate state

    CERN Document Server

    Kaloshin, A E


    We show that calculation of a scattered fermion polarization (for a pure initial state) is equivalent to the problem of looking for complete polarization axis of bispinor. This gives the method for calculation of polarization applicable for both final and intermediate state fermions. We suggest to use fermion propagator (bare or dressed) in form of spectral representation, which gives the orthogonal off-shell energy projectors. This representation leads to covariant separation of particle and antiparticle contributions and gives a natural definition for polarization of intermediate state fermion.

  11. Surface intermediates on metal electrodes at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse;


    in contact with YSZ is covered with adsorbed oxygen which vanishes at high temperature (1000 degrees C). On Ni (YSZ) a specific layer of NiO is observed above the equilibrium potential while no surface species involving hydrogen can be identified at SOFC anode conditions. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier......The mechanisms widely conceived for the O(2)-reduction or H(2)-oxidation reactions in SOFC's involve intermediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In air at moderate temperatures (500 degrees C) Pt...





    The argument that any exchange rate regimes other than firmly fixed and freely floating rates were infeasible — the so-called bipolarity thesis — acquired great popularity in the wake of the Asian crisis of a decade ago, but it has almost vanished today. One reason is surely the unkind empirical evidence, which shows that intermediate regimes — measured as those where both reserve and exchange rate changes lie in an intermediate range — are not in fact tending to disappear (Levy Yeyati and St...

  13. Gravitational Radiation of Binaries Coalescence into Intermediate Mass Black Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑾; 仲元红; 潘宇


    This paper discusses the gravitation waveforms of binaries coalescence into intermediate mass black holes (about 30 times of the solar mass). We focus on the non-spinning intermediate mass black hole located less than 100 Mpc from earth. By comparing two simulation waveforms (effective one body numerical relativity waveform (EOBNR), phenomenological waveform), we discuss the relationship between the effective distance and frequency; and through analyzing large amounts of data in event, we find that the phenomenological waveform is much smoother than EOBNR waveform, and has higher accuracy at the same effective distance.

  14. Intermediate Mass Fragments Emission in Peripheral Heavy-Ion Collisions (United States)

    Bini, M.; Casini, G.; Maurenzig, P. R.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S.; Poggi, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Taccetti, N.

    The collision 116Sn + 93Nb at 29.5 AMeV in direct and reverse kinematics has been studied at LNS in Catania. In particular the emission pattern in the νperp - νpar plane of Intermediate Mass Fragments with Z=3-7 (IMF's) shows that for peripheral reactions most of IMF's are emitted at velocities intermediate between those of the projectile- and target-like products. From coulomb trajectory calculations one can infere that these IMF's are produced mainly in the interaction zone, in a short time interval at the end of the target-projectile interaction.

  15. Reactive intermediates in the gas phase generation and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Setser, D W


    Reactive Intermediates in the Gas Phase: Generation and Monitoring covers methods for reactive intermediates in the gas phase. The book discusses the generation and measurement of atom and radical concentrations in flow systems; the high temperature flow tubes, generation and measurement of refractory species; and the electronically excited long-lived states of atoms and diatomic molecules in flow systems. The text also describes the production and detection of reactive species with lasers in static systems; the production of small positive ions in a mass spectrometer; and the discharge-excite

  16. Do observations reveal accretion discs in intermediate polars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellier, C. (University Coll., London (UK). Mullard Space Science Lab.)


    It has been proposed that intermediate polars do not accrete through discs and that they may not possess discs. Observations of eclipses and emission lines provide strong evidence that discs are present in many intermediate polars, although it is less clear whether the accretion flows through these discs. An analysis of the EXOSAT database shows that many systems have orbital and beat period modulations which are small compared to the spin-pulses, suggesting disc accretion. There are, though, exceptions, notably TX Col where dominant orbital and beat period modulations indicate discless accretion. (author).

  17. Isomerization Intermediates In Solution Phase Photochemistry Of Stilbenes (United States)

    Doany, F. E.; Hochstrasser, R. M.; Greene, B. I.


    Picosecond and subpicosecond spectroscopic studies have revealed evidence for an isomerization intermediate between cis and trans in the photoinduced isomerism of both stilbene and biindanyledene ("stiff" stilbene). In stiff stilbene, a transient absorption at 351 nm displays time evolution and viscosity dependence consistent with absorption by a twisted intermediate ("phantom" state) with a lOps lifetime. An analagous bottleneck state with a life-time of 4ps is also consistent with the ground state recovery dynamics of t-stilbene following excitation of c-stilbene when monitored with 0.1ps resolution.

  18. Sobre o teorema do valor intermediário


    Morais, Fabio Maia de [UNESP


    In this work we study the Intermediate Value Theorem and we present some applications. This kind of theorem is typical from Calculus in graduation courses. But it is easy to understand and it can be used to solve problems related to topics from high school, for example, to guarantee the existence of solutions for certain equations Neste trabalho estudamos o Teorema do Valor Intermediário e apresentamos várias aplica ções. Embora seja um teorema visto em cursos universitários, o teorema e d...

  19. Engineering high performance intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (United States)

    Ahn, Jin Soo

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are an efficient, fuel flexible energy conversion device, capable of operating on fuels ranging from natural gas to gasoline, diesel, and biofuels, as well as hydrogen. However, to this point the marketability of SOFCs has been limited by their high operating temperatures. Achieving high power at intermediate temperatures (IT, 500 -- 700 °C) would be a significant breakthrough, as low temperature operation would result in better stability and allow for a broader range of material options for the SOFC components as well as the balance of plant, such as stainless steel interconnects (which are only viable at open circuit potential (OCP) by more than 0.1 V resulting in a 140 % increase in power. Further investigations into this molecular AFL showed that a multilayered AFL can further reduce the ASR and increase the maximum power density. Secondly, the potential use of Sm0.075Nd0.075Ce0.85O 2-delta as an electrolyte has been investigated. The current-voltage (I-V) performance of the cell exhibits a maximum power density reaching 1.38 W/cm2 with an area specific resistance (ASR) of 0.087 Ocm 2 at 650 °C with 90 sccm of air and wet hydrogen. Also, the high OCP achieved at 500 °C (0.96 V) as well as the high performance confirmed the viability of Sm0.075Nd0.075Ce0.85 O2-delta as an alternative electrolyte material. The cathode used for this study was La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe 0.8O3 (LSCF) -- Gd0.1Ce0.9O 2 (GDC) composite. Finally, Er0.8Bi1.2O3 (ESB)/GDC bilayered electrolyte combined with recently developed ESB/Bi2Ru2O7 (BRO) composite cathodes was tested. In this work a maximum power density of 2 W/cm2 was achieved at 650 °C with the help of the novel AFL and tapecast anode supports. This is the highest power yet achieved in the IT range and I believe redefines the expectation level for maximum power under IT-SOFC operating conditions.

  20. PAVE: Write-print Creation with MapReduce (United States)


    Suzanne J. Matthews Abstract—Cyber- crime is becoming alarmingly common through the use of anonymous e-mails. Author attribution helps digital...To utilize MapReduce, programmers are required to implement two functions: map () and reduce(). The underlying scheduling framework au- tomates of the process. The map () function processes the input and produces an intermediate set of (key, value) pairs. The reduce() function combines and

  1. Study of glycolytic intermediates in hereditary elliptocytosis with thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavri Roshan


    Full Text Available Glycolytic intermediates like ATP, DPG and GSH have been studied in a family with. hereditary elliptocytosis and thalassemia. Results indicate a fall in ATP with a concomitant rise in DPG in the Patient. Findings are discussed in relation to other data.

  2. The INTEGRAL view of intermediate long X-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CONCLUSIONS Most intermediate bursts are observed from low luminosity sources and are interpreted as long pure He bursts. If no H is accreted, they are consistent with the burning of a slowly accreted, thick He layer, in Ultra Compact X-ray Binaries (UCXB) where the donor star is probably a degen...

  3. An Evaluation of An Intermediate Course in Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      Courrsebooks are important in teaching and education. An e-valuation of a coursebook cal ed An Intermediate Course in Writing is made from the aspects of background, fitness to the curriculum, physical characters, logical characters and teachability.

  4. Optimizing the marketing interventions mix in intermediate-term CRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rust, RT; Verhoef, PC


    W e provide a fully personalized model for optimizing multiple marketing interventions in intermediate-term customer relationship management (CRM). We derive theoretically based propositions on the moderating effects of past customer behavior and conduct a longitudinal validation test to compare the

  5. Teaching New Keynesian Open Economy Macroeconomics at the Intermediate Level (United States)

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo


    For the open economy, the workhorse model in intermediate textbooks still is the Mundell-Fleming model, which basically extends the investment and savings, liquidity preference and money supply (IS-LM) model to open economy problems. The authors present a simple New Keynesian model of the open economy that introduces open economy considerations…

  6. Bibliografia Especializada: Educacion Media (Specialized Bibliography: Intermediate Education). (United States)

    Boletin del Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa, 1969


    This specialized international bibliography on various issues in intermediate education lists almost 70 articles and books, written between 1957 and 1969, in Argentina, Brazil, Belgium, Chile, Spain, France, Mexico, and the United States. Articles appear in Spanish, French, Portuguese, and English. Several articles were sponsored by international…

  7. The Intermediate Piano Stage: Exploring Teacher Perspectives and Insights (United States)

    Daniel, Ryan; Bowden, Julia


    While many piano students successfully progress beyond beginner status to reach what is commonly referred to as the intermediate stage, there is minimal research specific to this area of practice. This is despite the fact that there is a high drop-out rate at this stage. This research study therefore set out to develop an in-depth understanding of…

  8. Association between intermediate uveitis and toxocariasis in the Korean population. (United States)

    Kwon, Jin-Woo; Sim, Yoonseob; Jee, Donghyun


    The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of ocular toxocariasis (OT) presenting with intermediate uveitis in the Korean population.We studied intermediate uveitis patients using ocular and systemic evaluations and a Toxocara IgG serology test.Of 50 intermediate uveitis patients, 19 were seropositive for Toxocara IgG. Of the 19 OT patients, 4 presented with recurrence within 6 months and were significantly younger than nonrecurrence patients (P = 0.009). Thirteen patients had a history of eating raw cow liver.There were 14 males and 5 females in the OT group, and 11 males and 20 females in the non-OT group (P = 0.009). There was bilateral involvement in 7 out of 19 patients in the OT group, and 20 out of 31 patients in non-OT group (P = 0.033).Intermediate uveitis patients in OT were predominately male and had more unilateral presentation than non-OT patients.

  9. The impact of liquidity regulation on bank intermediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, Clemens; Eijffinger, Sylvester C. W.


    We analyze the impact of a requirement similar to the Basel III Liquidity Coverage Ratio on the bank intermediation applying Regression Discontinuity Designs. Using a unique dataset on Dutch banks, we show that a liquidity requirement causes long-term borrowing and lending rates as well as demand fo

  10. N-Acyliminium Intermediates in Solid-Phase Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quement, Sebastian Thordal le; Petersen, Rico; Meldal, M.


    N-Acyliminium ions are powerful intermediates in synthetic organic chemistry. Examples of their use are numerous in solution-phase synthesis, but there are unmerited few reports on these highly reactive electrophiles in solid-phase synthesis. The present review covers the literature to date and i...

  11. An Overview of the The Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory Surveys (United States)

    Bellm, Eric Christopher; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory Collaboration


    The Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) has conducted a range of time-domain surveys since 2013. As iPTF concludes, I will review the these goals of surveys, their on-sky performance, and implications for next-generation surveys such as the Zwicky Transient Facility and LSST. Finally, I will describe the public data products being released.

  12. Diet, intermediate risk markers and risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, I.


    This thesis aimed to study the relation of diet with risk of type 2 diabetes and intermediate risk markers of diabetes. We investigated the effect of cis9, trans11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11 CLA) supplementation on pulse wave velocity and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized, controlled

  13. Error Analysis in Composition of Iranian Lower Intermediate Students (United States)

    Taghavi, Mehdi


    Learners make errors during the process of learning languages. This study examines errors in writing task of twenty Iranian lower intermediate male students aged between 13 and 15. A subject was given to the participants was a composition about the seasons of a year. All of the errors were identified and classified. Corder's classification (1967)…

  14. Population synthesis for low and intermediate mass binaries


    Yungelson, L. R.


    A review of the basic principles of the population synthesis for binary stars is presented. We discuss the break-up of low and intermediate mass close binaries over different evolutionary scenarios and, as an example, briefly consider results of the population synthesis for SN Ia.

  15. Optimizing the marketing interventions mix in intermediate-term CRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rust, RT; Verhoef, PC


    W e provide a fully personalized model for optimizing multiple marketing interventions in intermediate-term customer relationship management (CRM). We derive theoretically based propositions on the moderating effects of past customer behavior and conduct a longitudinal validation test to compare the

  16. An intermediate targets method for time parallelization in optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Maday, Yvon; Riahi, Kamel


    In this paper, we present a method that enables to solve in parallel the Euler-Lagrange system associated with the optimal control of a parabolic equation. Our approach is based on an iterative update of a sequence of intermediate targets and gives rise independent sub-problems that can be solved in parallel. Numerical experiments show the efficiency of our method.

  17. The utility of Earth system Models of Intermediate Complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, S.L.


    Intermediate-complexity models are models which describe the dynamics of the atmosphere and/or ocean in less detail than conventional General Circulation Models (GCMs). At the same time, they go beyond the approach taken by atmospheric Energy Balance Models (EBMs) or ocean box models by

  18. 40 CFR 86.246-94 - Intermediate temperature testing. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate temperature testing. 86.246-94 Section 86.246-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.246-94...

  19. On the Use of Writing Assignments in Intermediate Microeconomic Theory (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick B.


    A typical writing assignment in upper level required courses is a term paper. However many economics majors, particularly those in business schools, need to develop skill at writing shorter pieces. In this paper I describe numerous examples of shorter writing assignments that I have incorporated into an Intermediate Microeconomic Theory course.…

  20. Deriving the Dividend Discount Model in the Intermediate Microeconomics Class (United States)

    Norman, Stephen; Schlaudraff, Jonathan; White, Karianne; Wills, Douglas


    In this article, the authors show that the dividend discount model can be derived using the basic intertemporal consumption model that is introduced in a typical intermediate microeconomics course. This result will be of use to instructors who teach microeconomics to finance students in that it demonstrates the value of utility maximization in…

  1. An Exploratory Comparison of Novice, Intermediate, and Expert Orchestral Conductors (United States)

    Bergee, Martin J.


    This study compared novice, "intermediate" (graduate student), and expert orchestral conductors. Two novice conductors, one graduate student in orchestral conducting, and one expert conductor led a university symphony orchestra in part of the first movement of Brahms's Symphony No. 2. Wired for sound, conductors attempted to verbalize their…

  2. Neutrino interactions with nucleons and nuclei at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, L; Mosel, U


    We investigate neutrino-nucleus collisions at intermediate energies incorporating quasielastic scattering and Delta(1232) excitation as elementary processes, together with Fermi motion, Pauli blocking and mean-field potentials in the nuclear medium. A full coupled-channel treatment of final state interactions is achieved with a semiclassical BUU transport model. Results for inclusive reactions and nucleon knockout are presented.

  3. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Iranian Upper-Intermediate EFL Learners (United States)

    Khatib, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed


    This study examines the preferred vocabulary learning strategies of Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners. In order to identify the aforementioned group in terms of language proficiency, a TOEFL test was administered to a population of 146 undergraduate EFL students at the university of Vali-e-Asr in Rafsanjan, Iran. Those scoring above 480 were…

  4. The Intermediate Piano Stage: Exploring Teacher Perspectives and Insights (United States)

    Daniel, Ryan; Bowden, Julia


    While many piano students successfully progress beyond beginner status to reach what is commonly referred to as the intermediate stage, there is minimal research specific to this area of practice. This is despite the fact that there is a high drop-out rate at this stage. This research study therefore set out to develop an in-depth understanding of…

  5. Transmission of intermediate data rates - The Mercury experience (United States)

    Harman, M. W.


    The process by which a company with no existing earth stations procured equipment which would comply with the latest specifications for intermediate data rate digital services is discussed. The various operational needs and engineering design considerations that were necessary in order for earth-station equipment to meet the requirements are described.

  6. A Memetic Algorithm for the Orienteering Problem with Intermediate Facilities


    Divsalar, Ali; Vansteenwegen, Pieter; Cattrysse, Dirk


    The Orienteering Problem with Intermediate facilities (OPIF) is a new variant of the orienteering problem. In this variant, the objective is to find a given number of connected trips while maximizing the sum of collected scores. OPIF has been introduced by us in a recent publication under the name of orienteering problem with hotel selection.

  7. A critique on the theory of financial intermediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wensveen, D.M.N.; Scholtens, Bert

    This comment discusses the review by Franklin Alien and Anthony Santomero of the theory of financial intermediation in the 20th anniversary special issue of the Journal of Banking and Finance. We do not fully agree with their view that risk management is only of recent importance to the financial


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The commercial intermediation is a complex juridical operation which includes a different number of juridical relationships that takes place between contractual partners either on a national or international level. These partners bare different naming due to their different set of rights and obligations set forth by the law or by the parties, and it is from this that the classification of the intermediation can be set forth. The commercial intermediation represents the activity that one person executes either in the name and on behalf of another person, or using its own name but on behalf of another person, or, finally, using its own name but on behalf of acting towards a common goal with the person who mandated her (the principal, in relation with who it is either a proxy or an independent intermediary, only negotiating or both negotiating and binding the principal. The purpose of the paper is to strictly define and set in order the various variations of the juridical operation that is the commercial intermediation, presented both in the light of the actual legal framework and also by reference to the New Civil Code. Also, the purpose is to highlight and systematize the contractual relationships from which the parties involved in a commercial intermediary operation may choose and the rights and obligations specific to each contract.

  9. Optimizing the marketing interventions mix in intermediate-term CRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Rust (Roland); P.C. Verhoef (Peter)


    textabstractWe provide a fully personalized model for optimizing multiple marketing interventions in intermediate-term customer relationship management (CRM). We derive theoretically based propositions on the moderating effects of past customer behavior and conduct a longitudinal validation test to

  10. Elimination of intermediate species in multiscale stochastic reaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelletti, Daniele; Wiuf, Carsten


    We study networks of biochemical reactions modelled by continuoustime Markov processes. Such networks typically contain many molecular species and reactions and are hard to study analytically as well as by simulation. Particularly, we are interested in reaction networks with intermediate species ...

  11. Resource Unit on Egypt for the Intermediate Grades. (United States)

    Husbands, Kenneth; Taylor, Bob

    Resources for teaching about modern and ancient Egypt are provided in this guide for intermediate grade social studies teachers. Material includes: a detailed outline for a unit on Egypt which contains a geographic overview followed by sections on the Nile River Valley, agriculture, the pharaohs, religion, architecture, science, hieroglyphics,…

  12. A critique on the theory of financial intermediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wensveen, D.M.N.; Scholtens, Bert


    This comment discusses the review by Franklin Alien and Anthony Santomero of the theory of financial intermediation in the 20th anniversary special issue of the Journal of Banking and Finance. We do not fully agree with their view that risk management is only of recent importance to the financial in

  13. Intermediate scattering function of an anisotropic active Brownian particle (United States)

    Kurzthaler, Christina; Leitmann, Sebastian; Franosch, Thomas


    Various challenges are faced when animalcules such as bacteria, protozoa, algae, or sperms move autonomously in aqueous media at low Reynolds number. These active agents are subject to strong stochastic fluctuations, that compete with the directed motion. So far most studies consider the lowest order moments of the displacements only, while more general spatio-temporal information on the stochastic motion is provided in scattering experiments. Here we derive analytically exact expressions for the directly measurable intermediate scattering function for a mesoscopic model of a single, anisotropic active Brownian particle in three dimensions. The mean-square displacement and the non-Gaussian parameter of the stochastic process are obtained as derivatives of the intermediate scattering function. These display different temporal regimes dominated by effective diffusion and directed motion due to the interplay of translational and rotational diffusion which is rationalized within the theory. The most prominent feature of the intermediate scattering function is an oscillatory behavior at intermediate wavenumbers reflecting the persistent swimming motion, whereas at small length scales bare translational and at large length scales an enhanced effective diffusion emerges. We anticipate that our characterization of the motion of active agents will serve as a reference for more realistic models and experimental observations.

  14. Teaching Inflation Targeting: An Analysis for Intermediate Macro. (United States)

    Walsh, Carl E.


    States many central banks have adopted policies known as inflation targeting. Declares that students need experience with the implications of these policies. Provides a simple graphical device involving the output gap and the inflation rate to overcome these problems that can be used to teach intermediate macroeconomics students about inflation…

  15. Computer Literacy: Intermediate and Secondary Grades, Second Edition. (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    This curriculum guide outlines a course on computer literacy for junior or senior high school students reflecting the technology of the early 1980s. A chart shows computer literacy scope and sequence for students in kindergarten, grades 1-2, grades 3-6, and grades 7-9. Forty lessons for the intermediate grades and high school are then presented,…

  16. Experimental Studies of Few-nucleon Systems at Intermediate Energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephan, E.; Kistryn, St.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.


    Systems composed of 3 nucleons are a subject of precise experimental studies for many years. At the first stage the investigations were mainly focused on elastic nucleon-deuteron scattering, slowly extending to systematic measurements of the deuteron breakup reaction. Intermediate energies, below th

  17. The critical iron-oxygen intermediate in human aromatase. (United States)

    Gantt, Stephanie L; Denisov, Ilia G; Grinkova, Yelena V; Sligar, Stephen G


    Aromatase (CYP19) is the target of several therapeutics used for breast cancer treatment and catalyzes the three-step conversion of androgens to estrogens, with an unusual C-C cleavage reaction in the third step. To better understand the CYP19 reaction, the oxy-ferrous complex of CYP19 with androstenedione substrate was cryotrapped, characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, and cryoreduced to generate the next reaction cycle intermediate. EPR analysis revealed that the initial intermediate observed following cryoreduction is the unprotonated g(1)=2.254 peroxo-ferric intermediate, which is stable up to 180K. Upon gradual cryoannealing, the low-spin (g(1)=2.39) product complex is formed, with no evidence for accumulation of the g(1)=2.30 hydroperoxo-ferric intermediate. The relative stabilization of the peroxo-ferric heme and the lack of observed hydroperoxo-ferric heme distinguish CYP19 from other P450s, suggesting that the proton delivery pathway is more hindered in CYP19 than in most other P450s.

  18. Optimizing the marketing interventions mix in intermediate-term CRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Rust (Roland); P.C. Verhoef (Peter)


    textabstractWe provide a fully personalized model for optimizing multiple marketing interventions in intermediate-term customer relationship management (CRM). We derive theoretically based propositions on the moderating effects of past customer behavior and conduct a longitudinal validation test to

  19. Lifetime enhancement for multiphoton absorption in intermediate band solar cells (United States)

    Bezerra, Anibal T.; Studart, Nelson


    A semiconductor structure consisting of two coupled quantum wells embedded into the intrinsic region of a p-i-n junction is proposed as an intermediate band solar cell with a photon ratchet state, which would lead to increasing the cell efficiency. The conduction subband of the right-hand side quantum well works as the intermediated band, whereas the excited conduction subband of the left-hand side quantum well operates as the ratchet state. The photoelectrons in the intermediate band are scattered through the thin wells barrier and accumulated into the ratchet subband. A rate equation model for describing the charge transport properties is presented. The efficiency of the current generation is analyzed by studying the occupation of the wells subbands, taking into account the charge dynamic behavior provided by the electrical contacts connected to the cell. The current generation efficiency depends essentially from the relations between the generation, recombination rates and the scattering rate to the ratchet state. The inclusion of the ratchet states led to both an increase and a decrease in the cell current depending on the transition rates. This suggests that the coupling between the intermediate band and the ratchet state is a key point in developing an efficient solar cell.

  20. Intermediate coupling vibrational descriptions of odd mass gold isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Vieu, C; Paar, V


    The theoretical analysis of /sup 193-195/Au levels is semi qualitatively performed in the frame of the intermediate coupling vibrational models of Kisslinger-Sorensen and Alaga. From the comparison between the experimental data and the corresponding predictions of the two models, conclusions are drawn on the influence of the clusters and broken pairs.

  1. Mitigating TCP Degradation over Intermittent Link Failures using Intermediate Buffers (United States)


    buffering strategy, retransmission strategy, TCP state management, intermediate ac- knowledgment, custody considerations, and leader election considerations...availability are all ripe for research in strategic buffering. One final custodial area open for pursuit is a leader election protocol. Along a route with

  2. Modified Methods for the Synthesis of Triazinyl Fluorescent Brightener Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Parach


    Full Text Available The production of triazinyl fluorescent brightener intermediates in high yields is described. The method involves a simplified work-up for the preparation of 4-nitro-toluene-2-sulfonic acid and the use of diethylene glycol instead of water in the preparation of 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid.

  3. Intermediate- and extended-range order in phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuya, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Research Institute, Ako, Hyogo (Japan)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Price, D.L.; Loong, Chun-Keung [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Martin, S.W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering


    The structure of sodium ultraphosphate glasses, (Na{sub 2}O){sub x}(P{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub 100-x} (x = 0, 10, 20), and alkali metaphosphate glasses, MePO{sub 3} (Me = Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs) have been studied by neutron diffraction. Structural features in the neutron structure factors S(Q) characteristic of intermediate-range (Q {approx_lt} 3 {angstrom}{sup -1}) order were identified. The feature of intermediate-range order in the pure phosphate glass (v-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is accounted for by the P{sub 4}O{sub 10} molecule packing model. The addition of the alkali metal modifier, Na, has drastic affect on the intermediate-range structure due to destruction of the PO{sub 4} network structure. Around x {approximately} 50 a new peak arises at lower Q than the intermediate-range order peak, which is found in the S(Q)`s of all alkali metaphosphate glasses, associated with extended-range order. The length scale of extended-range order increases with Me{sup +} size. These phenomena can be explained by the behavior of oxygen atoms. i.e. PO{sub 4} chain-like units ordering around the Me{sup +}.

  4. Complexity of the Ibero-Magrhebian region: intermediate depth earthquakes (United States)

    Buforn, Elisa; Cesca, Simone; Del Fresno, Carmen; Udias, Agustin


    Complexity of the Ibero-Magrhebian region: intermediate depth earthquakes Buforn E. (1), Cesca S.(2), del Fresno C.(3), Udías, A. (1) (1) Dpt. Geofísica y Meteorología. Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain (2) Institute of Geophysics, University of Hamburg, Germany (3) Instituto Geográfico Nacional, Madrid (Spain) The Ibero-Magrhebian region is located at the plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa and it is a tectonically complex region. A sign of the complexity, is the occurrence of intermediate depth earthquakes (40Intermediate depth shocks are mostly confined within a relatively narrow region (50 km width) located East of Gibraltar, extending NNE-SSW from the Malaga (Spain) area to a region offshore the Moroccan coast. The moderate magnitude of the intermediate depth events (less than 5.5), the heterogeneity of the crustal structure in the region, and the strong influence of microseismic noise on seismic data represent significant challenges for the inversion of focal mechanism based on waveform modelling. We have estimated the focal mechanisms of 9 intermediate depth earthquakes (Mw 3.3 to 4.5) occurred in the period 2002-2009 from moment tensor inversion of broad-band data at regional distances, using the recently developed Kiwi tools. Moment tensor inversion is carried out by fitting body waves amplitude spectra, solving for strike, dip, rake, scalar moment and improving the original hypocentral depth. For each earthquake, we carry out a set of inversions, comparing results using different station subsets, seismic phases and earth models. The new obtained results, together with other selected solutions estimated previously using different methods, show a change on the stress pattern: to the west of 4.5°W, focal mechanisms show vertical tension axis, while to the east

  5. Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and citric acid cycle intermediates during high cardiac power generation. (United States)

    Sharma, Naveen; Okere, Isidore C; Brunengraber, Daniel Z; McElfresh, Tracy A; King, Kristen L; Sterk, Joseph P; Huang, Hazel; Chandler, Margaret P; Stanley, William C


    A high rate of cardiac work increases citric acid cycle (CAC) turnover and flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH); however, the mechanisms for these effects are poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that an increase in cardiac energy expenditure: (1) activates PDH and reduces the product/substrate ratios ([NADH]/[NAD(+)] and [acetyl-CoA]/[CoA-SH]); and (2) increases the content of CAC intermediates. Measurements were made in anaesthetized pigs under control conditions and during 15 min of a high cardiac workload induced by dobutamine (Dob). A third group was made hyperglycaemic (14 mm) to stimulate flux through PDH during the high work state (Dob + Glu). Glucose and fatty acid oxidation were measured with (14)C-glucose and (3)H-oleate. Compared with control, the high workload groups had a similar increase in myocardial oxygen consumption ( and cardiac power. Dob increased PDH activity and glucose oxidation above control, but did not reduce the [NADH]/[NAD(+)] and [acetyl-CoA]/[CoA-SH] ratios, and there were no differences between the Dob and Dob + Glu groups. An additional group was treated with Dob + Glu and oxfenicine (Oxf) to inhibit fatty acid oxidation: this increased [CoA-SH] and glucose oxidation compared with Dob; however, there was no further activation of PDH or decrease in the [NADH]/[NAD(+)] ratio. Content of the 4-carbon CAC intermediates succinate, fumarate and malate increased 3-fold with Dob, but there was no change in citrate content, and the Dob + Glu and Dob + Glu + Oxf groups were not different from Dob. In conclusion, compared with normal conditions, at high myocardial energy expenditure (1) the increase in flux through PDH is regulated by activation of the enzyme complex and continues to be partially controlled through inhibition by fatty acid oxidation, and (2) there is expansion of the CAC pool size at the level of 4-carbon intermediates that is largely independent of myocardial fatty acid oxidation.

  6. Intermediates in the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase reaction. (United States)

    Jaworowski, A; Hartman, F C; Rose, I A


    At least two intermediates of the D-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (EC reaction were liberated in detectable amounts when the functioning enzyme from Rhodospirillum rubrum was quenched in acid. Using substrate labeled with 32P in C-1, [32P]orthophosphate (Pi) was found when the quenched solution was rapidly processed for extraction of Pi as the acid molybdate complex. Reaction with sodium borohydride under mildly alkaline conditions immediately after acid quenching of the carboxylase reaction decreased the amount of 32Pi that was observed by 68%. The compound whose degradation to Pi was prevented by reaction with sodium borohydride decomposed under both acid and neutral conditions with a half-time of about 5 min at 25 degrees C and was assigned to the beta-keto acid recently demonstrated for the spinach enzyme ( Schloss , J.V., and Lorimer , G.H. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 4691-4694). It was sufficiently stable upon neutralization to react productively with fresh enzyme. As substrate CO2 concentration was decreased below the steady state Km value, the proportion of the 32P that did not react with sodium borohydride increased, indicative of a second unstable intermediate that precedes the carboxylation step. The decomposition of the latter intermediate to Pi, which occurs with a t1/2 less than or equal to 6 ms, was prevented if I2 was present in the acid quench medium. These are properties expected of the 2,3- enediol form of ribulose bisphosphate. Both intermediates reach their maximum levels when product formation is most rapid and disappear when product formation is complete as expected of reaction intermediates.

  7. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandan eRamakrishnan


    Full Text Available The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HMAX model and Bag of Words (BoW model from computer vision. Both these computational models use visual dictionaries, candidate features of intermediate complexity, to represent visual scenes, and the models have been proven effective in automatic object and scene recognition. These models however differ in the computation of visual dictionaries and pooling techniques. We investigated where in the brain and to what extent human fMRI responses to short video can be accounted for by multiple hierarchical levels of the HMAX and BoW models. Brain activity of 20 subjects obtained while viewing a short video clip was analyzed voxel-wise using a distance-based variation partitioning method. Results revealed that both HMAX and BoW explain a significant amount of brain activity in early visual regions V1, V2 and V3. However BoW exhibits more consistency across subjects in accounting for brain activity compared to HMAX. Furthermore, visual dictionary representations by HMAX and BoW explain significantly some brain activity in higher areas which are believed to process intermediate features. Overall our results indicate that, although both HMAX and BoW account for activity in the human visual system, the BoW seems to more faithfully represent neural responses in low and intermediate level visual areas of the brain.

  8. Levantine Intermediate Water characteristics: an astounding general misunderstanding!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Millot


    Full Text Available Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW is a warm salty water formed in one out of four main zones of dense water formation in the Mediterranean Sea. LIW spreads as a density current and first appears on a ϴ-S diagram as a sharp peak that then smoothens out, often leading to the so-called “scorpion-tail” image with a ϴ (S maximum above (below the expected core. Both maxima have always been considered, somewhat fuzzily (even by us, as LIW characteristics without having ever been analysed theoretically. We question neither the “scorpion-tail” image nor the “core-method” nor qualitative analyses of either LIW or other waters characterized by similar extrema. But data from the Strait of Gibraltar demonstrate that characterizing and/or delimiting LIW by these maxima gives LIW a much greater importance than it actually merits so all quantitative analyses of LIW musts be reconsidered. Calculations made as simple as possible to simulate a warm salty layer of intermediate water (IW mixing with waters lying above and below suggest that these maxima i can be understood only when all three waters are considered together, ii can evolve in different ways, iii generally tend to move from the core of the IW layer outwards, and hence iv can neither characterize nor delimit the IW in any way. Actual simulations with more sophisticated parameterizations are obviously needed. In addition, we suggest that what has to date been called LIW in the western basin in fact represents all intermediate waters formed in all zones of dense water formation in the eastern basin, i.e. not only Levantine waters but also, in particular, Aegean/Cretan waters. To provide a logical counterpart to WIW (Western Intermediate Water, we therefore suggest that, from the Channel of Sicily downstream, LIW should be renamed Eastern Intermediate Water (EIW.

  9. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain. (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Kandan; Scholte, H Steven; Groen, Iris I A; Smeulders, Arnold W M; Ghebreab, Sennay


    The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HMAX model and Bag of Words (BoW) model from computer vision. Both these computational models use visual dictionaries, candidate features of intermediate complexity, to represent visual scenes, and the models have been proven effective in automatic object and scene recognition. These models however differ in the computation of visual dictionaries and pooling techniques. We investigated where in the brain and to what extent human fMRI responses to short video can be accounted for by multiple hierarchical levels of the HMAX and BoW models. Brain activity of 20 subjects obtained while viewing a short video clip was analyzed voxel-wise using a distance-based variation partitioning method. Results revealed that both HMAX and BoW explain a significant amount of brain activity in early visual regions V1, V2, and V3. However, BoW exhibits more consistency across subjects in accounting for brain activity compared to HMAX. Furthermore, visual dictionary representations by HMAX and BoW explain significantly some brain activity in higher areas which are believed to process intermediate features. Overall our results indicate that, although both HMAX and BoW account for activity in the human visual system, the BoW seems to more faithfully represent neural responses in low and intermediate level visual areas of the brain.

  10. Mechanistic studies of cyclohexanone monooxygenase: chemical properties of intermediates involved in catalysis. (United States)

    Sheng, D; Ballou, D P; Massey, V


    Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO), a bacterial flavoenzyme, carries out an oxygen insertion reaction on cyclohexanone to form a seven-membered cyclic product, epsilon-caprolactone. The reaction catalyzed involves the four-electron reduction of O2 at the expense of a two-electron oxidation of NADPH and a two-electron oxidation of cyclohexanone to form epsilon-caprolactone. Previous studies suggested the participation of either a flavin C4a-hydroperoxide or a flavin C4a-peroxide intermediate during the enzymatic catalysis [Ryerson, C. C., Ballou, D. P., and Walsh, C. (1982) Biochemistry 21, 2644-2655]. However, there was no kinetic or spectral evidence to distinguish between these two possibilities. In the present work we used double-mixing stopped-flow techniques to show that the C4a-flavin-oxygen adduct, which is formed rapidly from the reaction of oxygen with reduced enzyme in the presence of NADP, can exist in two states. When the reaction is carried out at pH 7.2, the first intermediate is a flavin C4a-peroxide with maximum absorbance at 366 nm; this intermediate becomes protonated at about 3 s(-1) to form what is believed to be the flavin C4a-hydroperoxide with maximum absorbance at 383 nm. These two intermediates can be interconverted by altering the pH, with a pK(a) of 8.4. Thus, at pH 9.0 the flavin C4a-peroxide persists mainly in the deprotonated form. Further kinetic studies also demonstrated that only the flavin C4a-peroxide intermediate could oxygenate the substrate, cyclohexanone. The requirement in catalysis of the deprotonated flavin C4a-peroxide, a nucleophile, is consistent with a Baeyer-Villiger rearrangement mechanism for the enzymatic oxygenation of cyclohexanone. In the course of these studies, the Kd for cyclohexanone to the C4a-peroxyflavin form of CHMO was determined to be approximately 1 microM. The rate-determining step in catalysis was shown to be the release of NADP from the oxidized enzyme.

  11. Molecular Events for Promotion of Vancomycin Resistance in Vancomycin Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (United States)

    Hu, Qiwen; Peng, Huagang; Rao, Xiancai


    Vancomycin has been used as the last resort in the clinical treatment of serious Staphylococcus aureus infections. Vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) was discovered almost two decades ago. Aside from the vancomycin-intermediate phenotype, VISA strains from the clinic or laboratory exhibited common characteristics, such as thickened cell walls, reduced autolysis, and attenuated virulence. However, the genetic mechanisms responsible for the reduced vancomycin susceptibility in VISA are varied. The comparative genomics of vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA)/VISA pairs showed diverse genetic mutations in VISA; only a small number of these mutations have been experimentally verified. To connect the diversified genotypes and common phenotypes in VISA, we reviewed the genetic alterations in the relative determinants, including mutations in the vraTSR, graSR, walKR, stk1/stp1, rpoB, clpP, and cmk genes. Especially, we analyzed the mechanism through which diverse mutations mediate vancomycin resistance. We propose a unified model that integrates diverse gene functions and complex biochemical processes in VISA upon the action of vancomycin. PMID:27790199

  12. A Novel Intermediate in the Reaction of Seleno CYP119 with m-Chloroperbenzoic Acid† (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Santhosh; Ouellet, Hugues; Du, Jing; McLean, Kirsty J.; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Dawson, John H.; Munro, Andrew W.; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.


    Cytochrome P450 mediated monooxygenation generally proceeds via a reactive ferryl intermediate coupled to a ligand radical [Fe(IV)=O]+. referred to as Compound I (Cpd I). The proximal cysteine thiolate ligand is a critical determinant of the spectral and catalytic properties of P450 enzymes. To explore the effect of increased electron donation by the proximal ligand in the P450 catalytic cycle, we recently reported successful incorporation of SeCys into the active site of CYP119, a thermophilic cytochrome P450. Here we report relevant physical properties of SeCYP119 and a detailed analysis of the reaction of SeCYP119 with m-chloroperbenzoic acid. Our results indicate that the selenolate anion reduces rather than stabilizes Cpd I and also protects the heme from oxidative destruction, leading to the generation of a new stable species with an absorbance maximum at 406 nm. This stable intermediate can be returned to the normal ferric state by reducing agents and thiols, in agreement with oxidative modification of the selenolate ligand itself. Thus, in the seleno protein, the oxidative damage shifts from the heme to the proximal ligand, presumably because (a) increased electron donation more efficiently quenches reactive species such as Cpd I, and (b) the protection of the thiolate ligand provided by the protein active site structure is insufficient to shield the more oxidizable selenolate ligand. PMID:21381758

  13. A novel intermediate in the reaction of seleno CYP119 with m-chloroperbenzoic acid. (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Santhosh; Ouellet, Hugues; Du, Jing; McLean, Kirsty J; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Dawson, John H; Munro, Andrew W; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R


    Cytochrome P450-mediated monooxygenation generally proceeds via a reactive ferryl intermediate coupled to a ligand radical [Fe(IV)═O]+• termed Compound I (Cpd I). The proximal cysteine thiolate ligand is a critical determinant of the spectral and catalytic properties of P450 enzymes. To explore the effect of an increased level of donation of electrons by the proximal ligand in the P450 catalytic cycle, we recently reported successful incorporation of SeCys into the active site of CYP119, a thermophilic cytochrome P450. Here we report relevant physical properties of SeCYP119 and a detailed analysis of the reaction of SeCYP119 with m-chloroperbenzoic acid. Our results indicate that the selenolate anion reduces rather than stabilizes Cpd I and also protects the heme from oxidative destruction, leading to the generation of a new stable species with an absorbance maximum at 406 nm. This stable intermediate can be returned to the normal ferric state by reducing agents and thiols, in agreement with oxidative modification of the selenolate ligand itself. Thus, in the seleno protein, the oxidative damage shifts from the heme to the proximal ligand, presumably because (a) an increased level of donation of electrons more efficiently quenches reactive species such as Cpd I and (b) the protection of the thiolate ligand provided by the protein active site structure is insufficient to shield the more oxidizable selenolate ligand.

  14. Dimerization interface of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase tunes the formation of its catalytic intermediate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhi Xu

    Full Text Available 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD, EC is a homodimeric enzyme localized in the mitochondrial matrix, which catalyzes the third step in fatty acid β-oxidation. The crystal structures of human HAD and subsequent complexes with cofactor/substrate enabled better understanding of HAD catalytic mechanism. However, numerous human diseases were found related to mutations at HAD dimerization interface that is away from the catalytic pocket. The role of HAD dimerization in its catalytic activity needs to be elucidated. Here, we solved the crystal structure of Caenorhabditis elegans HAD (cHAD that is highly conserved to human HAD. Even though the cHAD mutants (R204A, Y209A and R204A/Y209A with attenuated interactions on the dimerization interface still maintain a dimerization form, their enzymatic activities significantly decrease compared to that of the wild type. Such reduced activities are in consistency with the reduced ratios of the catalytic intermediate formation. Further molecular dynamics simulations results reveal that the alteration of the dimerization interface will increase the fluctuation of a distal region (a.a. 60-80 that plays an important role in the substrate binding. The increased fluctuation decreases the stability of the catalytic intermediate formation, and therefore the enzymatic activity is attenuated. Our study reveals the molecular mechanism about the essential role of the HAD dimerization interface in its catalytic activity via allosteric effects.

  15. Mixed fuel strategy for carbon deposition mitigation in solid oxide fuel cells at intermediate temperatures. (United States)

    Su, Chao; Chen, Yubo; Wang, Wei; Ran, Ran; Shao, Zongping; Diniz da Costa, João C; Liu, Shaomin


    In this study, we propose and experimentally verified that methane and formic acid mixed fuel can be employed to sustain solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to deliver high power outputs at intermediate temperatures and simultaneously reduce the coke formation over the anode catalyst. In this SOFC system, methane itself was one part of the fuel, but it also played as the carrier gas to deliver the formic acid to reach the anode chamber. On the other hand, the products from the thermal decomposition of formic acid helped to reduce the carbon deposition from methane cracking. In order to clarify the reaction pathways for carbon formation and elimination occurring in the anode chamber during the SOFC operation, O2-TPO and SEM analysis were carried out together with the theoretical calculation. Electrochemical tests demonstrated that stable and high power output at an intermediate temperature range was well-maintained with a peak power density of 1061 mW cm(-2) at 750 °C. With the synergic functions provided by the mixed fuel, the SOFC was running for 3 days without any sign of cell performance decay. In sharp contrast, fuelled by pure methane and tested at similar conditions, the SOFC immediately failed after running for only 30 min due to significant carbon deposition. This work opens a new way for SOFC to conquer the annoying problem of carbon deposition just by properly selecting the fuel components to realize their synergic effects.

  16. Detecting reduced renal function in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Erlandsen, Erland J


    Background The aim of this study was to compare the ability of renal indicators [serum creatinine (SCr), cystatin C (SCysC)] and glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-models to discriminate normal and reduced renal function. As a single cut-off level will always lead to false classifications, we propose...... function was defined as a GFR ofmodels were compared for their ability to correctly classify renal function as normal or reduced. Cut-off levels were determined so as to give 99 % certainty outside the gray zone...... using two cut-off levels, dividing renal function into normal or reduced, with an intermediate "gray zone" of indeterminable results.Methods Glomerular filtration rate was measured by plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA (13.7–147.4 mL/min/1.73 m2) in 119 children (age range 2.3–14.9 years).Reduced renal...

  17. Improved cycling behavior of ZEBRA battery operated at intermediate temperature of 175°C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.


    Operation of sodium-nickel chloride battery at temperatures lower than 200°C reduces cell degradation and improves the cyclability. One of the main technical issues in terms of operating this battery at intermediate temperatures such as 175°C is the poor wettability of molten sodium on β”-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) causing reduced active area and limited charging . In order to overcome the problem related to poor wettability of Na melt on BASE at 175°C, Pt grid was applied on the anode side of BASE using a screen printing technique. Deeper charging and improved cycling behavior was observed on the cells with metalized BASEs due to extended active area.

  18. Bonding mechanism of a yttrium iron garnet film on Si without the use of an intermediate layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantzas, Konstantinos, E-mail: [CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, F-91460 Marcoussis (France); Institut P' , CNRS-Université de Poitiers - ENSMA - UPR 3346, SP2MI - Téléport 2 Bd Marie Pierre Curie, B.P. 30179, F-86962, Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Patriarche, Gilles; Talneau, Anne [CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, F-91460 Marcoussis (France); Youssef, Jamal Ben [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, 6 avenue Le Gorgeu, 29238 Brest Cedex 3 (France)


    Direct bonding of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) on silicon without the use of an intermediate bonding layer is demonstrated and characterized using scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. During the bonding experiment, the garnet is reduced in the presence of oxide-free silicon. As a result, a 5 nm thick SiO{sub 2}/amorphous-YIG bilayer is formed and welds the garnet to silicon.

  19. Comparison of the one-electron oxidations of CO-bridged vs unbridged bimetallic complexes: Electron-transfer chemistry of Os2Cp2(CO)4 and Os2Cp∗2(μ-CO)2(CO)2 (Cp = η5-C5H5, Cp∗ = η5-C5Me5)

    KAUST Repository

    Laws, Derek R.


    The one-electron oxidations of two dimers of half-sandwich osmium carbonyl complexes have been examined by electrochemistry, spectro-electrochemistry, and computational methods. The all-terminal carbonyl complex Os2Cp2(CO)4 (1, Cp = η5-C5H5) undergoes a reversible one-electron anodic reaction at E1/2 = 0.41 V vs ferrocene in CH2Cl2/0.05 M [NBu4][B(C6F5)4], giving a rare example of a metal-metal bonded radical cation unsupported by bridging ligands. The IR spectrum of 1+ is consistent with an approximately 1:1 mixture of anti and gauche structures for the 33 e- radical cation in which it has retained all-terminal bonding of the CO ligands. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations, including orbital-occupancy-perturbed Mayer bond-order analyses, show that the highest-occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs) of anti-1 and gauche-1 are metal-ligand delocalized. Removal of an electron from 1 has very little effect on the Os-Os bond order, accounting for the resistance of 1+ to heterolytic cleavage. The Os-Os bond distance is calculated to decrease by 0.10 å and 0.06 å as a consequence of one-electron oxidation of anti-1 and gauche-1, respectively. The CO-bridged complex Os2Cp∗2(μ-CO)2(CO)2 (Cp∗ = η5-C5Me5), trans-2, undergoes a more facile oxidation, E1/2 = -0.11 V, giving a persistent radical cation shown by solution IR analysis to preserve its bridged-carbonyl structure. However, ESR analysis of frozen solutions of 2+ is interpreted in terms of the presence of two isomers, most likely anti-2+ and trans-2+, at low temperature. Calculations show that the HOMO of trans-2 is highly delocalized over the metal-ligand framework, with the bridging carbonyls accounting for about half of the orbital makeup. The Os-Os bond order again changes very little with

  20. Boundary-corrected four-body continuum-intermediate-state method: Single-electron capture from heliumlike atomic systems by fast nuclei (United States)

    Mančev, Ivan; Milojević, Nenad; Belkić, Dževad


    Single charge exchange in collisions between bare projectiles and heliumlike atomic systems at intermediate and high incident energies is examined by using the four-body formalism of the first- and second-order theories. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the relative importance of the intermediate ionization continua of the captured electron compared to the usual direct path of the single electron transfer from a target to a projectile. In order to achieve this goal, comprehensive comparisons are made between the four-body boundary-corrected continuum-intermediate-states (BCIS-4B) method and the four-body boundary-corrected first Born (CB1-4B) method. The perturbation potential is the same in the CB1-4B and BCIS-4B methods. Both methods satisfy the correct boundary conditions in the entrance and exit channels. However, unlike the CB1-4B method, the second-order BCIS-4B method takes into account the electronic Coulomb continuum-intermediate states in either the entrance or the exit channel depending on whether the post or the prior version of the transition amplitude is used. Hence, by comparing the results from these two theories, the relative importance of the intermediate ionization electronic continua can be assessed within the four-body formalism of scattering theory. The BCIS-4B method predicts the usual second-order effect through double scattering of the captured electron on two nuclei as a quantum-mechanical counterpart of the Thomas classical two-step, billiard-type collision. The physical mechanism for this effect in the BCIS-4B method is also comprised of two steps such that ionization occurs first. This is followed by capture of the electron by the projectile with both processes taking place on the energy shell. Moreover, the role of the second, noncaptured electron in a heliumlike target is revisited. To this end, the BCIS-4B method describes the effect of capture of one electron by the interaction of the projectile nucleus with

  1. New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan J. Jacobson


    Operation of SOFCs at intermediate temperatures (500-800 C) requires new combinations of electrolyte and electrode materials that will provide both rapid ion transport across the electrolyte and electrode-electrolyte interfaces and efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction and fuel oxidation reactions. This project concentrates on materials and issues associated with cathode performance that are known to become limiting factors as the operating temperature is reduced. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to develop cathode materials that meet the electrode performance targets of 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 0.7 V in combination with YSZ at 700 C and with GDC, LSGM or bismuth oxide based electrolytes at 600 C. The performance targets imply an area specific resistance of {approx}0.5 {Omega}cm{sup 2} for the total cell. The research strategy is to investigate both established classes of materials and new candidates as cathodes, to determine fundamental performance parameters such as bulk diffusion, surface reactivity and interfacial transfer, and to couple these parameters to performance in single cell tests. The initial choices for study were perovskite oxides based on substituted LaFeO{sub 3} (P1 compositions), where significant data in single cell tests exist at PNNL for example, for La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3} cathodes on both YSZ and CSO/YSZ. The materials selection was then extended to La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4} compositions (K1 compositions), and then in a longer range task we evaluated the possibility of completely unexplored group of materials that are also perovskite related, the ABM{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}}. A key component of the research strategy was to evaluate for each cathode material composition, the key performance parameters, including ionic and electronic conductivity, surface exchange rates, stability with respect to the specific electrolyte choice, and thermal expansion coefficients. In the initial phase, we did this in parallel with

  2. Aggregation and Stability of Reduced Graphene Oxide: Complex Roles of Divalent Cations, pH, and Natural Organic Matter (United States)

    The aggregation and stability of graphene oxide (GO) and three successively reduced GO (rGO) nanomaterials were investigated. Reduced GO species were partially reduced GO (rGO-1h), intermediately reduced GO (rGO-2h), and fully reduced GO (rGO-5h). Specifically, influence of pH, i...

  3. Management of intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism: uncertainties and challenges. (United States)

    Klok, Frederikus Albertus; Meyer, Guy; Konstantinides, Stavros


    Current guidelines on the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) recommend stratification of hemodynamically stable patients in 'low risk' and 'intermediate risk'. Validated risk scores, cardiac biomarkers, and imaging of the right ventricle all help in distinguishing both patient categories. The relevance of this risk stratification lies in the determination of the most optimal treatment for the individual patient. In this clinical review, we will discuss how patients with 'intermediate-risk' PE can be identified as well as recent advances in their therapeutic management. Based on a clinical case, we will highlight the indications for reperfusion therapy and the current experience with non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulant (NOACs) in this specific patient's category.

  4. Intermediate scalings in holographic RG flows and conductivities

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Goutéraux, Blaise


    We construct numerically finite density domain-wall solutions which interpolate between two $AdS_4$ fixed points and exhibit an intermediate regime of hyperscaling violation, with or without Lifshitz scaling. Such RG flows can be realized in gravitational models containing a dilatonic scalar and a massive vector field with appropriate choices of the scalar potential and couplings. The infrared $AdS_4$ fixed point describes a new ground state for strongly coupled quantum systems realizing such scalings, thus avoiding the well-known extensive zero temperature entropy associated with $AdS_2 \\times \\mathbb{R}^2$. We also examine the zero temperature behavior of the optical conductivity in these backgrounds and identify two scaling regimes before the UV CFT scaling is reached. The scaling of the conductivity is controlled by the emergent IR conformal symmetry at very low frequencies, and by the intermediate scaling regime at higher frequencies.

  5. Transport code and nuclear data in intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Odama, Naomitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Maekawa, F.; Ueki, K.; Kosaka, K.; Oyama, Y.


    We briefly reviewed the problems of intermediate energy nuclear data file and transport codes in connection with processing of the data. This is a summary of our group in the task force on JENDL High Energy File Integral Evaluation (JHEFIE). In this article we stress the necessity of the production of intermediate evaluated nuclear data file up to 3 GeV for the application of accelerator driven transmutation (ADT) system. And also we state the necessity of having our own transport code system to calculate the radiation fields using these evaluated files from the strategic points of view to keep our development of the ADT technology completely free from other conditions outside of our own such as imported codes and data with poor maintenance or unknown accuracy. (author)

  6. Metal — metal multiple bonded intermediates in catalysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    John F Berry


    Metal–metal bonded Rh2 and Ru2 complexes having a paddlewheel-type structure are exceptional catalysts for a broad range of organic transformations. I review here the recent efforts towards the observation and characterization of intermediates in these reactions that have previously eluded detection. Specifically, mechanistic investigations of carbenoid and nitrenoid reactions of Rh2(II,II)-tetracarboxylate compounds have led to the observation of a metastable Rh2(II,II) carbene complex as well as a mixed-valent Rh2(II,III)-amido intermediate. Related Ru2 nitrido compounds have been studied and found to undergo intramolecular C–H amination reactions as well as intermolecular reaction with triphenylphosphine

  7. VHTR engineering design study: intermediate heat exchanger program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The work reported is the result of a follow-on program to earlier Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) studies. The primary use of the VHTR is to provide heat for various industrial processes, such as hydrocarbon reforming and coal gasification. For many processes the use of an intermediate heat transfer barrier between the reactor coolant and the process is desirable; for some processes it is mandatory. Various intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts for the VHTR were investigated with respect to safety, cost, and engineering design considerations. The reference processes chosen were steam-hydrocarbon reforming, with emphasis on the chemical heat pipe, and steam gasification of coal. The study investigates the critically important area of heat transfer between the reactor coolant, helium, and the various chemical processes.

  8. Intermediate-band Photometry of Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, X; Zhang, T; Li, Z; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Tianmeng; Li, Zongwei


    We present optical light curves of five Type Ia supernovae (2002er, 2002fk, 2003cg, 2003du, 2003fk). The photometric observations were performed in a set of intermediate-band filters. SNe 2002er, 2003du appear to be normal SN Ia events with similar light curve shapes, while SN 2003kf shows the behavior of a brighter SN Ia with slower decline rate after maximum. The light curves of SN 2003cg is unusual; they show a fast rise and dramatic decline near maximum and do not display secondary peak at longer wavelengths during 15-30 days after maximum light. This suggests that SN 2003cg is likely to be an intrinsically subluminous, 91bg-like SN Ia. Exploration of SN Ia feature lines through intermediate-band photometry is briefly discussed.

  9. Methods for Determining the Cellular Functions of Vimentin Intermediate Filaments. (United States)

    Ridge, Karen M; Shumaker, Dale; Robert, Amélie; Hookway, Caroline; Gelfand, Vladimir I; Janmey, Paul A; Lowery, Jason; Guo, Ming; Weitz, David A; Kuczmarski, Edward; Goldman, Robert D


    The type III intermediate filament protein vimentin was once thought to function mainly as a static structural protein in the cytoskeleton of cells of mesenchymal origin. Now, however, vimentin is known to form a dynamic, flexible network that plays an important role in a number of signaling pathways. Here, we describe various methods that have been developed to investigate the cellular functions of the vimentin protein and intermediate filament network, including chemical disruption, photoactivation and photoconversion, biolayer interferometry, soluble bead binding assay, three-dimensional substrate experiments, collagen gel contraction, optical-tweezer active microrheology, and force spectrum microscopy. Using these techniques, the contributions of vimentin to essential cellular processes can be probed in ever further detail.

  10. Evidence for photogenerated intermediate hole polarons in ZnO (United States)

    Sezen, Hikmet; Shang, Honghui; Bebensee, Fabian; Yang, Chengwu; Buchholz, Maria; Nefedov, Alexei; Heissler, Stefan; Carbogno, Christian; Scheffler, Matthias; Rinke, Patrick; Wöll, Christof


    Despite their pronounced importance for oxide-based photochemistry, optoelectronics and photovoltaics, only fairly little is known about the polaron lifetimes and binding energies. Polarons represent a crucial intermediate step populated immediately after dissociation of the excitons formed in the primary photoabsorption process. Here we present a novel approach to studying photoexcited polarons in an important photoactive oxide, ZnO, using infrared (IR) reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) with a time resolution of 100 ms. For well-defined (10-10) oriented ZnO single-crystal substrates, we observe intense IR absorption bands at around 200 meV exhibiting a pronounced temperature dependence. On the basis of first-principles-based electronic structure calculations, we assign these features to hole polarons of intermediate coupling strength.

  11. GPR91: expanding the frontiers of Krebs cycle intermediates. (United States)

    de Castro Fonseca, Matheus; Aguiar, Carla J; da Rocha Franco, Joao Antônio; Gingold, Rafael N; Leite, M Fatima


    Since it was discovered, the citric acid cycle has been known to be central to cell metabolism and energy homeostasis. Mainly found in the mitochondrial matrix, some of the intermediates of the Krebs cycle are also present in the blood stream. Currently, there are several reports that indicate functional roles for Krebs intermediates out of its cycle. Succinate, for instance, acts as an extracellular ligand by binding to a G-protein coupled receptor, known as GPR91, expressed in kidney, liver, heart, retinal cells and possibly many other tissues, leading to a wide array of physiological and pathological effects. Through GPR91, succinate is involved in functions such as regulation of blood pressure, inhibition of lipolysis in white adipose tissue, development of retinal vascularization, cardiac hypertrophy and activation of stellate hepatic cells by ischemic hepatocytes. Along the current review, these new effects of succinate through GPR91 will be explored and discussed.

  12. Composite intermediate case manufacturing scale-up for advanced engines (United States)

    Ecklund, Rowena H.


    This Manufacturing Technology for Propulsion Program developed a process to produce a composite intermediate case for advanced gas turbine engines. The method selected to manufacture this large, complex part uses hard tooling for surfaces in the airflow path and trapped rubber to force the composite against the mold. Subelements were manufactured and tested to verify the selected design, tools, and processes. The most significant subelement produced was a half-scale version of a composite intermediate case. The half-scale subelement maintained the geometry and key dimensions of the full-scale case, allowing relevant process development and structural verification testing to be performed on the subelement before manufacturing the first full-scale case.

  13. Intermediate Frequency Digital Receiver Based on Multi-FPGA System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengchang Zhang


    Full Text Available Aiming at high-cost, large-size, and inflexibility problems of traditional analog intermediate frequency receiver in the aerospace telemetry, tracking, and command (TTC system, we have proposed a new intermediate frequency (IF digital receiver based on Multi-FPGA system in this paper. Digital beam forming (DBF is realized by coordinated rotation digital computer (CORDIC algorithm. An experimental prototype has been developed on a compact Multi-FPGA system with three FPGAs to receive 16 channels of IF digital signals. Our experimental results show that our proposed scheme is able to provide a great convenience for the design of IF digital receiver, which offers a valuable reference for real-time, low power, high density, and small size receiver design.

  14. Exact theory of intermediate phases in two dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfino, Gesualdo, E-mail:; Squarcini, Alessio, E-mail:


    We show how field theory yields the exact description of intermediate phases in the scaling limit of two-dimensional statistical systems at a first order phase transition point. The ability of a third phase to form an intermediate wetting layer or only isolated bubbles is explicitly related to the spectrum of excitations of the field theory. The order parameter profiles are determined and interface properties such as passage probabilities and internal structure are deduced from them. The theory is illustrated through the application to the q-state Potts model and the Ashkin–Teller model. The latter is shown to provide the first exact solution of a bulk wetting transition. -- Highlights: •Phase separation with appearance of a third phase is studied exactly. •Interfacial properties are derived from field theory. •Exact solution of bulk wetting transition is provided.

  15. Search for gravitational waves from intermediate mass binary black holes (United States)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S.; Barayoga, J. C. B.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Beck, D.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Belletoile, A.; Belopolski, I.; Benacquista, M.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogan, C.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, W.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M.; Coulon, J.-P.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, R. M.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Del Pozzo, W.; del Prete, M.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Paolo Emilio, M.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Endrőczi, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Flanigan, M.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P. J.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Geng, R.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, N.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gupta, R.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Ha, T.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hendry, M. A.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Herrera, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, Y. J.; Jaranowski, P.; Jesse, E.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.


    We present the results of a weakly modeled burst search for gravitational waves from mergers of nonspinning intermediate mass black holes in the total mass range 100-450M⊙ and with the component mass ratios between 1∶1 and 4∶1. The search was conducted on data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between November of 2005 and October of 2007. No plausible signals were observed by the search which constrains the astrophysical rates of the intermediate mass black holes mergers as a function of the component masses. In the most efficiently detected bin centered on 88+88M⊙, for nonspinning sources, the rate density upper limit is 0.13 per Mpc3 per Myr at the 90% confidence level.

  16. Intermediality and the Aesthetic of the Pastiche: "Little me"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fusillo


    Full Text Available The pastiche is not strictly confined to the realm of comic or humour: sometimes it can be a pure exercise of rewriting or linguistic contamination in a total neutral way. Nevertheless, it is true that its dominant feature is usually a joking one, in all its possible shades, from aggressive laugh to the finest irony.  The present article will start from a theoretical definition of  pastiche, as usually opposed to parody, and will shed light on how the pastiche fits perfectly the new textual configurations of our contemporary era, expecially if we look at intermedial phenomena. In the last part, an example of an unknown example of intermedial pastiche (a camp rewrting of classic cinema will be provided.

  17. Simplification of Process Integration Studies in Intermediate Size Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Henrik; Petersen, P. M.; Qvale, Einar Bjørn


    It can be argued that the largest potential for energy savings based on process integration is in the intermediate size industry. But this is also the industrial scale in which it is most difficult to make the introduction of energy saving measures economically interesting. The reasons...... associated with a given process integration study in an intermediate size industry. This is based on the observation that the systems that eventually result from a process integration project and that are economically and operationally most interesting are also quite simple. Four steps that may be used...... separately or in series ahead of or simultaneously with the conventional process integration procedures (for example, the pinch point method) are described and are applied to an industrial case study. It might be feared that the use of preselections and groupings would limit the "freedom of movement...

  18. One-electron capture into Li-like autoionising N/sup 4 +/ (1s2ln'l') configurations by metastable N/sup 5 +/ (1s2s/sup 3/S) multicharged ions in collisions with He and H/sub 2/, observed by electron spectrometry at 3. 4 keV amu/sup -1/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A.; Dousson, S.; Hitz, D.


    One-electron capture into N/sup 4 +/ (1s2ln'l') configurations, with n'=2 to 4, has been observed by electron spectrometry when a N/sup 5 +/ (1s2s /sup 3/S) multicharged ion beam encounters an He or H/sub 2/ target, at low collision velocity (upsilon=0.37 au) within single-collision conditions. Contributions of other 1s2l metastable states and of the 1s/sup 2/ ground state may be disregarded. A small indication of two-electron capture by 1s2s /sup 3/S ions into (1s2s /sup 3/S)3l3l' configurations is also seen.

  19. Rupturing the hemi-fission intermediate in membrane fission under tension: Reaction coordinates, kinetic pathways, and free-energy barriers. (United States)

    Zhang, Guojie; Müller, Marcus


    Membrane fission is a fundamental process in cells, involved inter alia in endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, and virus infection. Its underlying molecular mechanism, however, is only incompletely understood. Recently, experiments and computer simulation studies have revealed that dynamin-mediated membrane fission is a two-step process that proceeds via a metastable hemi-fission intermediate (or wormlike micelle) formed by dynamin's constriction. Importantly, this hemi-fission intermediate is remarkably metastable, i.e., its subsequent rupture that completes the fission process does not occur spontaneously but requires additional, external effects, e.g., dynamin's (unknown) conformational changes or membrane tension. Using simulations of a coarse-grained, implicit-solvent model of lipid membranes, we investigate the molecular mechanism of rupturing the hemi-fission intermediate, such as its pathway, the concomitant transition states, and barriers, as well as the role of membrane tension. The membrane tension is controlled by the chemical potential of the lipids, and the free-energy landscape as a function of two reaction coordinates is obtained by grand canonical Wang-Landau sampling. Our results show that, in the course of rupturing, the hemi-fission intermediate undergoes a "thinning → local pinching → rupture/fission" pathway, with a bottle-neck-shaped cylindrical micelle as a transition state. Although an increase of membrane tension facilitates the fission process by reducing the corresponding free-energy barrier, for biologically relevant tensions, the free-energy barriers still significantly exceed the thermal energy scale kBT.

  20. Type Ia SNe along redshift: the R(Si II) ratio and the expansion velocities in intermediate z supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Altavilla, G; Balastegui, A; Méndez, J; Irwin, M; Espana-Bonet, C; Schamaneche, K; Balland, C; Ellis, Richard S; Fabbro, S; Folatelli, G; Goobar, A; Hillebrandt, W; McMahon, R M; Mouchet, M; Mourao, A; Nobili, S; Pain, R; Stanishev, V; Walton, N A


    We study intermediate--z SNe Ia using the empirical physical diagrams which enable to learn about those SNe explosions. This information can be very useful to reduce systematic uncertainties of the Hubble diagram of SNe Ia up to high z. The study of the expansion velocities and the measurement of the ratio $\\mathcal{R}$(\\SiII) allow to subtype those SNe Ia as done for nearby samples. The evolution of this ratio as seen in the diagram $\\mathcal{R}$(\\SiII)--(t) together with $\\mathcal{R}$(\\SiII)$_{max}$ versus (B-V)$_{0}$ indicate consistency of the properties at intermediate z compared with local SNe. At intermediate--z, the expansion velocities of Ca II and Si II are similar to the nearby counterparts. This is found in a sample of 6 SNe Ia in the range 0.033$\\leq z \\leq$0.329 discovered within the {\\it International Time Programme} (ITP) of {\\it Cosmology and Physics with SNe Ia} during the spring of 2002. Those supernovae were identified using the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope. Two SNe Ia at intermediate z...

  1. The Value of Intermediate Targets in Implementing Monetary Policy


    Benjamin M. Friedman


    This paper reports empirical results indicating that there is no compelling evidence in favor of singling outany one variable as "the intermediate target" of monetary policy. Of the variables considered here - including money (M1), credit, a long-term interest rate, and whichever of either reserves or a short-term interest rate the Federal Reserve System does not set directly by open market operations -- most do contain at least some statistically significant information about the future grow...

  2. Manifestation of intermediate meson loop effects in charmonium decays (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Jiang; Li, Gang; Zhao, Qiang


    We report the progress on understanding some of those existing puzzles in charmonium decays. We show that the intermediate meson loops (IML) as a long-distance transition mechanism will provide novel insights into these issues. In particular, we show that the IML mechanism would be essentially important for understanding the Ψ(3770) non-Dbar D decays. We also comment that such a mechanism is correlated with the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka (OZI) rule evasions in charmonium hadronic decays.

  3. Aromatic fluorine compounds. VIII. Plant growth regulators and intermediates (United States)

    Finger, G.C.; Gortatowski, M.J.; Shiley, R.H.; White, R.H.


    The preparation and properties of 41 fluorophenoxyacetic acids, 4 fluorophenoxypropionic acids, 2 fluorobenzoic acids, several indole derivatives, and a number of miscellaneous compounds are described. Data are given for many intermediates such as new fluorinated phenols, anisoles, anilines and nitrobenzenes. Most of the subject compounds are related to a number of well-known herbicides or plant growth regulators such as 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and others.

  4. Identification of a Chemoreceptor for Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Intermediates (United States)

    Lacal, Jesús; Alfonso, Carlos; Liu, Xianxian; Parales, Rebecca E.; Morel, Bertrand; Conejero-Lara, Francisco; Rivas, Germán; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan L.; Krell, Tino


    We report the identification of McpS as the specific chemoreceptor for 6 tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and butyrate in Pseudomonas putida. The analysis of the bacterial mutant deficient in mcpS and complementation assays demonstrate that McpS is the only chemoreceptor of TCA cycle intermediates in the strain under study. TCA cycle intermediates are abundantly present in root exudates, and taxis toward these compounds is proposed to facilitate the access to carbon sources. McpS has an unusually large ligand-binding domain (LBD) that is un-annotated in InterPro and is predicted to contain 6 helices. The ligand profile of McpS was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry of purified recombinant LBD (McpS-LBD). McpS recognizes TCA cycle intermediates but does not bind very close structural homologues and derivatives like maleate, aspartate, or tricarballylate. This implies that functional similarity of ligands, such as being part of the same pathway, and not structural similarity is the primary element, which has driven the evolution of receptor specificity. The magnitude of chemotactic responses toward these 7 chemoattractants, as determined by qualitative and quantitative chemotaxis assays, differed largely. Ligands that cause a strong chemotactic response (malate, succinate, and fumarate) were found by differential scanning calorimetry to increase significantly the midpoint of protein unfolding (Tm) and unfolding enthalpy (ΔH) of McpS-LBD. Equilibrium sedimentation studies show that malate, the chemoattractant that causes the strongest chemotactic response, stabilizes the dimeric state of McpS-LBD. In this respect clear parallels exist to the Tar receptor and other eukaryotic receptors, which are discussed. PMID:20498372

  5. Parareal in time intermediate targets methods for optimal control problem

    CERN Document Server

    Maday, Yvon; Salomon, Julien


    In this paper, we present a method that enables solving in parallel the Euler-Lagrange system associated with the optimal control of a parabolic equation. Our approach is based on an iterative update of a sequence of intermediate targets that gives rise to independent sub-problems that can be solved in parallel. This method can be coupled with the parareal in time algorithm. Numerical experiments show the efficiency of our method.

  6. Stingray-inspired robot with simply actuated intermediate motion (United States)

    Neely, Lincoln; Gaiennie, Jack; Noble, Nick; Erickson, Jonathan C.


    Batoids, or rays, utilize unique forms of locomotion that may offer more efficient techniques of motorized propulsion in various marine environments. We present a novel biomimetic engineering design and assembly of a stingray-inspired robot swimmer. The robots locomotion mimics the Dasyatis americana, or southern stingray, whose distinction among rays is its intermediate motion, characterized by sweeping strokes that propagate between 1/2-1 wavelength of the fin profile in the posterior direction. Though oscillatory ( wavelengths) ray-based robots have been created, this project demonstrates new engineering possibilities in what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first intermediately propelled batoid-based robot. The robots fins were made of silicone rubber, cast in a 3-D printed mold, with wingspan of 42 cm (1/2 - 1/5 scale for males and females, respectively, scale of model organism). Two anteriorly placed servomotors per fin were used, all controlled by one wirelessly enabled Arduino microcontroller. Each servomotor oscillated a flexible rod with cylindrical joint, whose frequency, speed, and front-back phase delay were user-programmed over wireless connection. During free-swimming tests, the fin profile developed about 0.8 wavelength, qualifying for successful mimicry of its biological inspiration. The robot satisfactorily maintained straight-line motion, reaching average peak velocity of 9.4+/-1.0 cm/s (0.27-0.03 body lengths/second) at its optimum flapping frequency of 1.4 Hz. This is in the same order of magnitude of speed normalized to body length achieved by others in two recent batoid-based projects. In summary, our robot performed intermediate stingray locomotion with relatively fewer components, which reveals robust potential for innovation of the simple intermediate batoid-based robot swimmer.

  7. Chimera microscopic approach to heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukasik, J.; Majka, Z. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Inst. Fizyki


    A microscopic model based on a molecular dynamics concept is presented. The model simulates some quantum effects and thus enables studies of large fermionic systems. It was devised to investigate the dynamics of heavy ion collision at intermediate energies. The model was applied to study an early phase of the {sup 84}Kr+{sup 159}Tb reaction at 45 MeV/nucleon. (author). 30 refs, 9 figs.

  8. International express student's book : intermediate : with pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, Keith


    The New Edition of International Express Intermediate retains all the key features of this popular and successful four-level course. It combines engaging, up-to-date topics with a time-efficient and student-centred approach to language work, and clearly focused activities that reflect learners' real communicative needs - the ideal course for professional adults who use English for work, travel, and socializing.

  9. Isolation of the intermediate filament protein vimentin by chromatofocusing. (United States)

    Bloemendal, H; Willemsen, M; Groenewoud, G; Oomen, P


    A novel, simple and relatively rapid method is described for the isolation of the intermediate-sized filament protein vimentin from eye lens tissue. Chromatofocusing is applied as the sole purification step. The apparent isoelectric point of the protein in 6 M urea and at 22 degrees C is 4.9. Electrophoretic mobility on one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels, solubility in 6 M urea and amino acid composition were used for identification.

  10. Isotope analysis in central heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies (United States)

    Geraci, E.; Abbondanno, U.; Bardelli, L.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Bruno, M.; Cannata, F.; Casini, G.; Chiari, M.; D'Agostino, M.; de Sanctis, J.; Giussani, A.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Lanchais, A. L.; Marini, P.; Moroni, A.; Nannini, A.; Olmi, A.; Ordine, A.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S.; Poggi, G.; Vannini, G.; Nucl-Ex Collaboration


    Symmetry energy is a key quantity in the study of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. Heavy ion collisions at low and intermediate energies, performed at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, can be used to extract information on the symmetry energy coefficient Csym, which is currently poorly known but relevant both for astrophysics and for deeper knowledge of the structure of exotic nuclei.

  11. Nucleus-associated intermediate filaments from chicken erythrocytes



    Chicken erythrocyte nuclei prepared by isolation in isotonic KCl and Nonidet P-40 detergent were found to contain numerous attached filaments with a mean diameter of 11.0 nm. In polypeptide content and solubility properties, they resembled the vimentin type of intermediate filament found in cells of mesenchymal origin. Examination of their association with the nucleus suggests that more than a simple membrane attachment is involved.

  12. IGR J17303-0601 is a new intermediate polar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaensicke, B.T.; Marsh, T.R.; Edge, A.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.; Steeghs, D.; Araujo-Betancor, S.; Harlaftis, E.; Giannakis, O.; Pyrzas, S.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Aungwerojwit, A.


    We have identified IGR J17303-0601 (1RXS J173021.5-055933) as an intermediate polar (IP). The optical counterpart is USNOA2.0 0825_10606993 (RA=17h30m21.9s Dec=-05d59m31s). Using optical photometry obtained in 2003 at the JKT and at the OGS we determine the white dwarf spin period to be 120s, which

  13. Snapshot of a phosphorylated substrate intermediate by kinetic crystallography


    Käck, Helena; Gibson, Katharine J.; Lindqvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter


    The ATP-dependent enzyme dethiobiotin synthetase from Escherichia coli catalyses the formation of dethiobiotin from CO2 and 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid. The reaction is initiated by the formation of a carbamate and proceeds through a phosphorylated intermediate, a mixed carbamic phosphoric anhydride. Here, we report the crystal structures at 1.9- and 1.6-Å resolution, respectively, of the enzyme–MgATP–diaminopelargonic acid and enzyme–MgADP–carbamic–phosphoric acid anhydride complexes, observe...

  14. Recent questions about the excitation mechanism at intermediate velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adoui, L.; Chabot, M.; Chetioui, A.; Despiney, I.; Guiraud, L.; L' Hoir, A.; Politis, M.F.; Rozet, J.P.; Schmaus, D.; Stephan, C.; Touati, A.; Vernhet, D.; Wohrer, K.; Cassimi, A.; Grandin, J.P.; Ramillon, J.M.; Macias, A.; Martin, F.; Riera, A.; Sanz, J.L.; Gayet, R. (G.P.S., Univ. Paris 7 et Paris 6, 75 Paris (France) CIRIL, 14 Caen (France) Dept. de Quimica, Faculdad de Ciencias, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain) Lab. des Collisions Atomiques, Univ. de Bordeaux 1, 33 Talence (France))


    For both fundamental reasons and potential applications, the process of K-excitation by heavy ions at intermediate velocity has been re-investigated experimentally and theoretically and the main results are described here. The nature and the origin of the so-called saturation effect'' at high exciting charge is not yet elucidated. The importance of K-excitation is outlined in connection with problems of radiation damage. (orig.)

  15. Peripheral Vasculitis, Intermediate Uveitis and Interferon Use in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Esgin


    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. A 40-year-old female patient with a 12-year history of MS was admitted to our clinic with blurred vision and floaters in her right eye for about 1 month. Here, we share the findings and the management of intermediate uveitis and retinal periphlebitis in an MS case being treated with interferon beta-1a for 7 years.

  16. Mode and Intermediate Waters in Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanadesikan, Anand [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Sarmiento, Jorge L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)


    This report describes work done as part of a joint Princeton-Johns Hopkins project to look at the impact of mode and intermediate waters in Earth System Models. The Johns Hopkins portion of this work focussed on the role of lateral mixing in ventilating such waters, with important implications for hypoxia, the uptake of anthropogenic carbon, the dynamics of El Nino and carbon pumps. The Johns Hopkins group also collaborated with the Princeton Group to help develop a watermass diagnostics framework.

  17. Properties and Application of Intermediate Entangled State Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Qian-Jun


    @@ We introduce the intermediate entangled state |α> and discuss its properties of|α>λ,ν. We obtain the expression of the two-mode Wigner operator in the |α>λ,ν representation. We find that the projection operator |α>λ,νλ,ν λ,ν representation, we successfully obtain the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a bipartite system coupled in a quite complicated way.

  18. Intermediate-generalized Chaplygin gas inflationary universe model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Ramon; Olivares, Marco; Videla, Nelson [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Casilla, Valparaiso (Chile)


    An intermediate inflationary universe model in the context of a generalized Chaplygin gas is considered. For the matter we consider two different energy densities; a standard scalar field and a tachyon field, respectively. In general, we discuss the conditions of an inflationary epoch for these models. We also, use recent astronomical observations from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe seven year data for constraining the parameters appearing in our models. (orig.)

  19. Migration to Intermediate XML for Electronic Data(MIXED)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    MIXED is a digital preser vation project.It uses a strategy of converting data to intermediate XML.In this paperwe position this strategy with respect to the well-known emulation and migration strategies.Then we detail the MIXED strategy and explain why it is an optimized,economical way of migration.Finally,we describe how DANS is implementing a soft-ware tool that can perform the migrations needed for this strategy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Nős


    Full Text Available There are two operating facilities for management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Hungary. Experience with radioactive waste has a relatively long history and from its legacy some problems are to be solved, like the question of the historical waste in the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility (RWTDF. Beside the legacy problems the current waste arising from the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP has to be dealt with a safe and economically optimized way.

  1. Biologically produced succinic acid: A new route to chemical intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The national laboratory consortium has undertaken an R&D project with the Michigan Biotechnology Institute (MBI) to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a chemical intermediate, succinic acid, and various derivatives, from renewable agricultural resources. The projects near-term goal is to demonstrate an economically competetive process for producing 1,4-butanediol and other derivatives from biologically produced succinic acid without generating a major salt waste. The competitiveness to the petrochemical process must be demonstrated.

  2. Mechanism for the Suppression of Intermediate-Mass Black Holes


    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S G; Samarchenko, D. A.


    A model for the formation of supermassive primordial black holes in galactic nuclei with the simultaneous suppression of the formation of intermediate-mass black holes is presented. A bimodal mass function for black holes formed through phase transitions in a model with a "Mexican hat" potential has been found. The classical motion of the phase of a complex scalar field during inflation has been taken into account. Possible observational manifestations of primordial black holes in galaxies an...

  3. The Value of Intermediate Targets in Implementing Monetary Policy


    Benjamin M. Friedman


    This paper reports empirical results indicating that there is no compelling evidence in favor of singling outany one variable as "the intermediate target" of monetary policy. Of the variables considered here - including money (M1), credit, a long-term interest rate, and whichever of either reserves or a short-term interest rate the Federal Reserve System does not set directly by open market operations -- most do contain at least some statistically significant information about the future grow...

  4. Isotope analysis in central heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Geraci, E; Bardelli, L; Barlini, S; Bini, M; Bruno, M; Cannata, F; Casini, G; Chiari, M; D'Agostino, M; De Sanctis, J; Giussani, A; Gramegna, F; Kravchuk, V L; Lanchais, A L; Marini, P; Moroni, A; Nannini, A; Olmi, A; Ordine, A; Pasquali, G; Piantelli, S; Poggi, G; Vannini, G


    Symmetry energy is a key quantity in the study of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. Heavy ion collisions at low and intermediate energies, performed at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, can be used to extract information on the symmetry energy coefficient Csym, which is currently poorly known but relevant both for astrophysics and for structure of exotic nuclei.

  5. Effect of intermediate defense measures in voluntary vaccination games (United States)

    Iwamura, Yoshiro; Tanimoto, Jun; Fukuda, Eriko


    We build a model to reproduce the decision-making process of getting a vaccination based on the evolutionary game theory dovetailed with the SIR model for epidemic spreading. Unlike the two extreme options of whether or not getting a vaccination leads to perfect immunity, we consider whether ‘intermediate defense measures’ including masking, gargling, and hand-washing lead to imperfect effects of preventing infection. We consider introducing not only a ‘third strategy’ as a discrete intermediate measure but also a continuous strategy space connecting the cases of getting and not getting a vaccination. Interestingly, our evolutionary analysis suggests that the introduction of intermediate measures makes no difference for the case of a 2-strategy system in which only either getting or not getting a vaccination is allowed, even does not ameliorate, or say, gets worse to prevent spreading a disease. This seems quite different from what was observed in 2-player and 2-strategy (2  ×  2) prisoner’s dilemma (PD) games with relatively stronger chicken-type dilemma than the stag-hunt one in which the introduction of middle-course strategies significantly enhances cooperation.

  6. Efficacy of Ozurdex implant in treatment of noninfectious intermediate uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Palla


    Full Text Available Aims: To report our experiences using Ozurdex, a biodegradable implant, containing 0.7 mg of dexamethasone in the treatment of noninfectious intermediate uveitis. Settings and Design: Retrospective study design. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of medical records of patients with noninfectious intermediate uveitis having either cystoid macular edema (CME or vitritis who were not responsive to standard treatment and subsequently received Ozurdex implant from March 2011 to April 2013. The outcomes measured were best-corrected visual acuity, central retinal thickness (CRT, and vitreous haze score. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test was used to test the significance of difference between quantitative variables. A P < 0.05 is taken to denote significant relationship. Results: Twenty eyes of 15 patients with mean age of 39.8 years who received Ozurdex implant were included in the study. The mean baseline visual acuity improved from 0. 666 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR units to 0.479 logMAR units at 6 weeks after the implant. The mean CRT improved from 536.1 to 361.4 microns at 6 weeks postimplant both parameters were statistically significant. The ocular inflammation was controlled in almost all the patients. Cataract and raised intraocular pressure were documented complications. Conclusion: Ozurdex implant is a promising treatment option and efficient in controlling the inflammation and CME in cases of noninfectious intermediate uveitis not responding to standard treatment.

  7. Electron microscopic analysis of rotavirus assembly-replication intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Crystal E.; Kelly, Deborah F. [Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine and Research Institute, Roanoke, VA (United States); McDonald, Sarah M., E-mail: [Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine and Research Institute, Roanoke, VA (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia—Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA (United States)


    Rotaviruses (RVs) replicate their segmented, double-stranded RNA genomes in tandem with early virion assembly. In this study, we sought to gain insight into the ultrastructure of RV assembly-replication intermediates (RIs) using transmission electron microscopy (EM). Specifically, we examined a replicase-competent, subcellular fraction that contains all known RV RIs. Three never-before-seen complexes were visualized in this fraction. Using in vitro reconstitution, we showed that ~15-nm doughnut-shaped proteins in strings were nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) bound to viral RNA transcripts. Moreover, using immunoaffinity-capture EM, we revealed that ~20-nm pebble-shaped complexes contain the viral RNA polymerase (VP1) and RNA capping enzyme (VP3). Finally, using a gel purification method, we demonstrated that ~30–70-nm electron-dense, particle-shaped complexes represent replicase-competent core RIs, containing VP1, VP3, and NSP2 as well as capsid proteins VP2 and VP6. The results of this study raise new questions about the interactions among viral proteins and RNA during the concerted assembly–replicase process. - Highlights: • Rotaviruses replicate their genomes in tandem with early virion assembly. • Little is known about rotavirus assembly-replication intermediates. • Assembly-replication intermediates were imaged using electron microscopy.

  8. Synthetic Routes to Methylerythritol Phosphate Pathway Intermediates and Downstream Isoprenoids (United States)

    Jarchow-Choy, Sarah K; Koppisch, Andrew T; Fox, David T


    Isoprenoids constitute the largest class of natural products with greater than 55,000 identified members. They play essential roles in maintaining proper cellular function leading to maintenance of human health, plant defense mechanisms against predators, and are often exploited for their beneficial properties in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. Most impressively, all known isoprenoids are derived from one of two C5-precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). In order to study the enzyme transformations leading to the extensive structural diversity found within this class of compounds there must be access to the substrates. Sometimes, intermediates within a biological pathway can be isolated and used directly to study enzyme/pathway function. However, the primary route to most of the isoprenoid intermediates is through chemical catalysis. As such, this review provides the first exhaustive examination of synthetic routes to isoprenoid and isoprenoid precursors with particular emphasis on the syntheses of intermediates found as part of the 2C-methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. In addition, representative syntheses are presented for the monoterpenes (C10), sesquiterpenes (C15), diterpenes (C20), triterpenes (C30) and tetraterpenes (C40). Finally, in some instances, the synthetic routes to substrate analogs found both within the MEP pathway and downstream isoprenoids are examined. PMID:25009443

  9. Therapeutic options for intermediate-advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-Ming Zhang; Jin-Xing Guo; Zi-Chao Zhang; Nan Jiang; Zhen-Ya Zhang; Li-Jie Pan


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies, ranking the sixth in the world, with 55% of cases occurring in China. Usually, patients withHCC did not present until the late stage of the disease,thus limiting their therapeutic options. Although surgical resection is a potentially curative modality for HCC,most patients with intermediate-advanced HCC are not suitable candidates. The current therapeutic modalities for intermediate-advanced HCC include: (1) surgical procedures,such as radical resection, palliative resection,intraoperative radiofrequency ablation or cryosurgical ablation, intraoperative hepatic artery and portal vein chemotherapeutic pump placement, two-stage hepatectomy and livertransplantation; (2) interventional treatment,such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization,portal vein embolization and image-guided locoregional therapies; and (3) molecularly targeted therapies. So far, how to choose the therapeutic modalities remains controversial. Surgeons are faced with the challenge of providing the most appropriate treatment for patients with intermediate-advanced HCC. This review focuses on the optional therapeutic modalities for intermediateadvanced HCC.

  10. Source Analysis of Bucaramanga Nest Intermediate-Depth Earthquakes (United States)

    Prieto, G. A.; Pedraza, P.; Dionicio, V.; Levander, A.


    Intermediate-depth earthquakes are those that occur at depths of 50 to 300 km in subducting lithosphere and can occasionally be destructive. Despite their ubiquity in earthquake catalogs, their physical mechanism remains unclear because ambient temperatures and pressures at such depths are expected to lead to ductile flow, rather than brittle failure, as a response to stress. Intermediate-depth seismicity rates vary substantially worldwide, even within a single subduction zone having highly clustered seismicity in some cases (Vrancea, Hindu-Kush, etc.). One such places in known as the Bucaramanga Nest (BN), one of the highest concentration of intermediate-depth earthquakes in the world. Previous work on these earthquakes has shown 1) Focal mechanisms vary substantially within a very small volume. 2) Radiation efficiency is small for Mfamilies. For the larger events we will determine source parameters and radiation efficiencies. Preliminary results show that reverse polarity events are present and that two main focal mechanisms, with their corresponding reverse polarity events are dominant. Our results have significant implications in our understanding of intermedaite-depth earthquakes and the stress conditions that are responsible for this unusual cluster of seismicity.

  11. Intermediate probability lung scans (IPLS): retrospective review of 82 cases. (United States)

    Wong, W Y; Ng, D C; Ang, E S; Goh, A S; Sundram, F X


    In the light of a reported 30-40% prevalence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in intermediate probability lung scans (IPLS) based on results of the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) study, we examined the frequency of documented PE in 82 patients with IPLS, the management strategy employed in these patients with regards to additional imaging (e.g. further evaluation with venous sonography or spiral computed tomographic angiography (CTA)), anticoagulation therapy, and subsequent follow-up outcomes. Retrospective review of the medical records of 82 patients with intermediate probability ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) lung scans from January 1998 to July 1999. 14.1% of V/Q scans were reported as having an intermediate probability of PE. 72% of IPLS were subject to further evaluation with venous Doppler ultrasound and/or CTA, and 39% of these patients had evidence of thrombo-embolic disease. All patients with imaging evidence of thromboembolic disease were started on anticoagulation therapy. In addition, 19 patients were treated based on clinical judgement. Amongst the 35 patients who were not treated, 17 (49%) were based on clinical findings without further imaging. There was no mortality on follow-up of 28 cases of untreated IPLS. The majority of IPLS will have further imaging, out of which over one-third will have thrombo-embolic disease. Approximately half of IPLS cases will receive anticoagulation therapy. No mortality or PE was found on follow-up of patients who were not treated.

  12. [Intermediate coronary care units: rationale, infrastructure, equipment, and referral criteria]. (United States)

    Alonso, Joaquín J; Sanz, Ginés; Guindo, Josep; García-Moll, Xavier; Bardají, Alfredo; Bueno, Héctor


    The Spanish Working Group on Coronary Artery Disease of Spanish Society of Cardiology has considered to be necessary the development of this document on the need, structure and organization of Intermediate Cardiac Care Units (ICCU). Acute coronary syndrome registries show that an important percentage of patients receive a suboptimal care, due to an inadequate management of health resources or absence of them. Intermediate cardiac care units arise to solve these challenges and to manage in an efficient way these expensive and limited resources. Their aims are: a) to provide each patient the level of care required; b) to optimize the structural, technical and human resources, and c) to make easier continuous care and care gradient. As a result, ICCU should be established as an essential part of the cardiology department aim to cardiac patients requiring monitoring and medical care superior to those available in a regular cardiac ward but whose risk does not justify the technical and human costs of a Coronary Unit. This document describes the structure (equipment, human resources, management) required to reach the goals previously reported and includes recommendations about indications of admission in a ICCU. These indications include: a) patients with NSTE-ACS with intermediate or high risk but hemodynamically stable, and b) low risk STEAMI or high risk STEAMI stabilized after an initial admission at the Coronary Unit. The admission of some patients undergoing invasive procedures or suffering non-coronary acute cardiac diseases, is also considered.

  13. RXTE and XMM observations of intermediate polar candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Butters, O W; Mukai, K; Tomsick, J A


    Aims. To determine the credentials of nine candidate intermediate polars in order to confirm whether or not they are magnetic cataclysmic variables. Methods. Frequency analysis of RXTE and XMM data was used to search for temporal variations which could be associated with the spin period of the magnetic white dwarf. X-ray spectral analysis was carried out to characterise the emission and absorption properties of each target. Results. The hard X-ray light curve of V2069 Cyg shows a pulse period of 743.2 s, and its spectrum is fit by an absorbed bremsstrahlung model with an iron line, confirming this to be a genuine intermediate polar. The hard X-ray light curve of the previously confirmed intermediate polar IGR J00234+6141 is shown to be consistent with the previous low energy X-ray detection of a 563.5 s pulse period. The likely polar IGR J14536-5522 shows no coherent modulation at the previously identified period of 3.1 hr, but does exhibit a clear signal at periods likely to be harmonically related to it. Wh...

  14. Role of physical anthropology in intermediate and secondary education. (United States)

    Ashmore, Pamela C


    The role of physical anthropology in precollegiate education has been limited, but has the potential to play a vital and integral role in promoting students' understanding of themselves and others. This study describes the development, implementation, and results of a program constructed on an inquiry-based learning model that introduces middle and high school students to the content of physical anthropology. Demonstrated student learning indicates that intermediate and secondary students are capable of acquiring and applying complex content about human evolution and diversity. Program findings indicate that students frequently had previous knowledge about the hominid fossil record but little information about the significance of human biological diversity. Teaching intermediate and high school students about our common evolutionary heritage and the fact that humans exhibit clinal variation were found to be both powerful and effective content material. The fact that program participants lacked previous knowledge about the relationship between human biological diversity (illustrated in this program by light and dark skin color) and the erroneous sociocultural construction of this diversity confirmed the suspicion that this content is not being addressed in precollegiate education. Traditionally, intermediate and secondary students are taught about human variation within the context of social studies, reading, communication, and fine-arts classes. This program identifies a new paradigm for teaching about human variation. Providing students with scientific knowledge about human origins and diversity provides a constructive starting point, creating a common platform and knowledge base on which to then frame discussions about cultural variation. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Characterization of a structural intermediate of flavivirus membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Stiasny


    Full Text Available Viral membrane fusion proceeds through a sequence of steps that are driven by triggered conformational changes of viral envelope glycoproteins, so-called fusion proteins. Although high-resolution structural snapshots of viral fusion proteins in their prefusion and postfusion conformations are available, it has been difficult to define intermediate structures of the fusion pathway because of their transient nature. Flaviviruses possess a class II viral fusion protein (E mediating fusion at acidic pH that is converted from a dimer to a trimer with a hairpin-like structure during the fusion process. Here we show for tick-borne encephalitis virus that exposure of virions to alkaline instead of acidic pH traps the particles in an intermediate conformation in which the E dimers dissociate and interact with target membranes via the fusion peptide without proceeding to the merger of the membranes. Further treatment to low pH, however, leads to fusion, suggesting that these monomers correspond to an as-yet-elusive intermediate required to convert the prefusion dimer into the postfusion trimer. Thus, the use of nonphysiological conditions allows a dissection of the flavivirus fusion process and the identification of two separate steps, in which membrane insertion of multiple copies of E monomers precedes the formation of hairpin-like trimers. This sequence of events provides important new insights for understanding the dynamic process of viral membrane fusion.

  16. Evolution of emission line activity in intermediate mass young stars

    CERN Document Server

    Manoj, P; Maheswar, G; Muneer, S


    We present optical spectra of 45 intermediate mass Herbig Ae/Be stars. Together with the multi-epoch spectroscopic and photometric data compiled for a large sample of these stars and ages estimated for individual stars by using pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks, we have studied the evolution of emission line activity in them. We find that, on average, the H_alpha emission line strength decreases with increasing stellar age in HAeBe stars, indicating that the accretion activity gradually declines during the PMS phase. This would hint at a relatively long-lived (a few Myr) process being responsible for the cessation of accretion in Herbig Ae/Be stars. We also find that the accretion activity in these stars drops substantially by ~ 3 Myr. This is comparable to the timescale in which most intermediate mass stars are thought to lose their inner disks, suggesting that inner disks in intermediate mass stars are dissipated rapidly after the accretion activity has fallen below a certain level. We, further find a r...

  17. Evaluation of microleakage in hybrid composite restoration with different intermediate layers and curing cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan R Sakri


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of bulk or incremental curing of hybrid composite resin with different intermediate layers on interfacial microleakage. Materials and Methods: The recently extracted, sixty noncarious human mandibular molars were selected for the study. The standardized mesio-occluso-distal cavity with the occlusal cavity of 2 mm depth, 3 mm buccolingual width and proximal box dimension of 4 mm buccolingual width and 2 mm depth was prepared on all experimental teeth. The samples were divided into six groups of ten each. Group I was without an intermediate layer. Group II and III had 1 mm flowable composite liner, with incremental and bulk curing cycle, respectively. The Group IV, V, and VI had a self-cure composite liner with incremental and bulk curing. The teeth subjected to thermocycling and kept in 0.5% basic fuchsine dye for 24 h. The teeth were sectioned and observed under a stereomicroscope to grade them according to the extent of microleakage. The obtained data were statistically analyzed with Kruskal–Wallis and post hoc comparison test to understand the difference between the groups. Results: The Group II with flowable composite along incremental curing showed the least microleakage at both enamel (0.30 and cementum surface (0.50. The groups with self-cure composite liner were less effective than flowable composite. The microleakage at the enamel interface was less compared cementum interface across the groups. The groups with bulk curing were more prone to microleakage than incremental curing cycle. Conclusions: Within the limitation of the study, it was concluded that intermediate flowable composite with incremental curing was better suited to reduce microleakage.

  18. Multifragmentation in intermediate energy 129Xe-induced heavy-ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tso, Kin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The 129Xe-induced reactions on natCu, 89Y, 165Ho, and 197Au at bombarding energies of E/A = 40 & 60 MeV have been studied theoretically and experimentally in order to establish the underlying mechanism of multifragmentation at intermediate energy heavy-Ion collisions. Nuclear disks formed in central heavy-ion collisions, as simulated by means of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations, break up into several fragments due to a new kind of Rayleigh-like surface instability. A sheet of liquid, stable in the limit of non-interacting surfaces, is shown to become unstable due to surface-surface interactions. The onset of this instability is determined analytically. A thin bubble behaves like a sheet and is susceptible to the surface instability through the crispation mode. The Coulomb effects associated with the depletion of charges in the central cavity of nuclear bubbles are investigated. The onset of Coulomb instability is demonstrated for perturbations of the radial mode. Experimental intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for the 129Xe-induced reactions are shown to be binomial at each transverse energy. From these distributions, independent of the specific target, an elementary binary decay probability p can be extracted that has a thermal dependence. Thus it is inferred that multifragmentation is reducible to a combination of nearly independent emission processes. If sequential decay is assumed, the increase of p with transverse energy implies a contraction of the emission time scale. The sensitivity of p to the lower Z threshold in the definition of intermediate-mass-fragments points to a physical Poisson simulations of the particle multiplicities show that the weak auto-correlation between the fragment multiplicity and the transverse energy does not distort a Poisson distribution into a binomial distribution. The effect of device efficiency on the experimental results has also been studied.

  19. Molecular assessment of trematode co-infection and intraspecific competition in molluscan intermediate hosts. (United States)

    Thiele, Elizabeth A; Minchella, Dennis J


    In natural populations of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni, parasite distribution among snail intermediate hosts is generally overdispersed, such that a small proportion of hosts harbor the majority of parasite genotypes. Within these few infected snails, researchers have found that it can be common for hosts to harbor multiple parasite genotypes, creating circumstances in which co-infecting parasites are faced with potential competition over limited host resources. Much theoretical modeling has focused on parasite competition, especially regarding the influence of co-infection on parasite exploitation strategy evolution. However, particularly in the case of intra-molluscan intermediate stages, empirical investigations of parasite-parasite competition have often hinged on the untested assumption that co-exposure produces co-infection. That is, infected hosts exposed to multiple strains have been assumed to harbor multiple strains, regardless of the true nature of the infection outcome. Here we describe a real-time quantitative PCR method to distinguish the conditions of multiple- versus single-strain infection, as well as quantify the relative larval output of co-infecting strains. We applied the method to an empirical investigation of intraspecific parasite competition between S. mansoni strains within the intermediate snail host Biomphalaria glabrata, assessing co-exposure's effects on parasite infectivity and productivity and the concomitant effects on host fitness. Overall, there was no effect of parasite co-infection on snail life history traits relative to single-strain infection. Parasite infectivity significantly increased as a result of increasing overall miracidial dose, rather than co-exposure, though strain-specific productivity was significantly reduced in co-infections in manner consistent with resource competition. Moreover, we show that less than half of infected, co-exposed hosts had patent co-infections and demonstrate the utility of this

  20. Intermediate blades in slow radial blowers. Final report; Zwischenschaufeln - Zwischenschaufeln in langsamlaeufigen Radialventilatoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolus, T.; Basile, R.


    The effects of intermediate blades on the aerodynamic characteristics of slow radial blowers was investigated. It was found that the installation of intermediate blades of optimized design will slightly raise the pressure coefficients at comparable performance, especially if the initial number of blades was low. Stall will be reduced as well. On the basis of extensive investigations, a design diagram was drawn up which enables producers of blowers to assess the optimal intermediate blade configuration for a given blower quickly and easily. (orig.) [German] Der Einfluss von Zwischenschaufeln auf die aerodynamischen Kennwerte langsamlaeufiger Radialventilatorlaufraeder mit rueckwaertsgekruemmten Schaufeln wurde untersucht. Als Einflussparameter wurden die Hauptschaufelzahl, der Schaufelwinkel, das Breitenverhaeltnis, das Durchmesserverhaeltnis und die Zwischenschaufellaenge und -position in Betracht gezogen. Um eine moeglichst umfassende Bewertung dieser Zwischenschaufeln zu erhalten, wurden fuer eine Vielzahl von Parameterkombinationen die Stromfelder numerisch berechnet und daraus die aerodynamischen Kennwerte ermittelt. Dazu wurden zunaechst verschiedene Rechenverfahren und Rechenraumgrenzen untersucht und anhand von Messungen und Plausibilitaetsbetrachtungen bewertet. Als taugliches Rechenverfahren erwies sich ein dreidimensionales Navier-Stokes-Verfahren mit einem Rechenraum, der Einlaufduese, Radialspalt, Saugmund und Schaufelkanal umfasst. Die Ergebnisse systematischer Variationen der Einflussparameter zeigen, dass die aerodynamischen Kennwerte von allen oben genannten Parametern abhaengen. Der Einbau optimal ausgefuehrter Zwischenschaufeln in ein Ausgangsrad ohne Zwischenschaufeln fuehrt zu einer - wenn auch moderaten - Steigerung der Druckzahlen bei vergleichbaren Wirkungsgraden, insbesondere bei niedriger Hauptschaufelzahl des Ausgangsrades. Eine Minderung der Versperrung (d.h. eine Reduktion der Volumenzahl) ist mit Zwischenschaufeln moeglich. Mit den

  1. Improved conductivity of indium-tin-oxide film through the introduction of intermediate layer (United States)

    Ng, S. W.; Yam, F. K.; Beh, K. P.; Tneh, S. S.; Hassan, Z.


    A thin intermediate layer (Ag, AuSn, In, Ni, Sn, SiO2) was individually deposited on glass substrates prior to the deposition of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering employing ITO target (composition ratio of In2O3:SnO2 = 9:1). The structural, optical and electrical properties were investigated to compare the ITO thin film with and without an intermediate layer. The preferential orientation of all ITO films was along (222) plane. Although all thin films were polycrystalline, the presence of intermediate layer promoted the overall crystallinity. The sheet resistance and resistivity of the ITO film were reduced from ∼68 Ω/□ to ∼29-45 Ω/□, and 16.2 × 10-4 Ω cm up to 7.58 × 10-4 Ω cm, respectively, by inserting a thin metal layer underneath the ITO film, and it is dependent on the degree of crystallization. The optical transmittance in the visible region varies from 40 to 88% for different samples. Based on the evaluation from Tauc plot, the optical band gap falls in the range of 4.02-4.12 eV. Physical film thickness was compared with that evaluated by optical measurement in the visible range and the physical thickness was found to be smaller. Similarly, the carrier concentration/scattering time from Hall effect measurement were also compared with that from optical measurement in the infrared region. Haacke's figure of merit (FOM) was employed to assess the quality of the ITO films, and the highest FOM is credited to ITO/In up to ∼8 × 10-3 Ω-1 in the visible light region.

  2. Dynamic Source Inversion of Intermediate Depth Earthquakes in Mexico (United States)

    Yuto Sho Mirwald, Aron; Cruz-Atienza, Victor Manuel; Krishna Singh-Singh, Shri


    The source mechanisms of earthquakes at intermediate depth (50-300 km) are still under debate. Due to the high confining pressure at depths below 50 km, rocks ought to deform by ductile flow rather than brittle failure, which is the mechanism originating most earthquakes. Several source mechanisms have been proposed, but for neither of them conclusive evidence has been found. One of two viable mechanisms is Dehydration Embrittlement, where liberation of water lowers the effective pressure and enables brittle fracture. The other is Thermal Runaway, a highly localized ductile deformation (Prieto et. al., Tecto., 2012). In the Mexican subduction zone, intermediate depth earthquakes represent a real hazard in central Mexico due to their proximity to highly populated areas and the large accelerations induced on ground motion (Iglesias et. al., BSSA, 2002). To improve our understanding of these rupture processes, we use a recently introduced inversion method (Diaz-Mojica et. al., JGR, 2014) to analyze several intermediate depth earthquakes in Mexico. The method inverts strong motion seismograms to determine the dynamic source parameters based on a genetic algorithm. It has been successfully used for the M6.5 Zumpango earthquake that occurred at a depth of 62 km in the state of Guerrero, Mexico. For this event, high radiated energy, low radiation efficiency and low rupture velocity were determined. This indicates a highly dissipative rupture process, suggesting that Thermal Runaway could probably be the dominant source process. In this work we improved the inversion method by introducing a theoretical consideration for the nucleation process that minimizes the effects of rupture initiation and guarantees self-sustained rupture propagation (Galis et. al., GJInt., 2014). Preliminary results indicate that intermediate depth earthquakes in central Mexico may vary in their rupture process. For instance, for a M5.9 normal-faulting earthquake at 55 km depth that produced very

  3. Hospital discharge of elderly patients to primary health care, with and without an intermediate care hospital – a qualitative study of health professionals’ experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unni Alice Dahl


    Full Text Available Introduction: Intermediate care is an organisational approach to improve the coordination of health care services between health care levels. In Central Norway an intermediate care hospital was established in a municipality to improve discharge from a general hospital to primary health care. The aim of this study was to investigate how health professionals experienced hospital discharge of elderly patients to primary health care with and without an intermediate care hospital. Methods: A qualitative study with data collected through semi-structured focus groups and individual interviews.Results: Discharge via the intermediate care hospital was contrasted favourably compared to discharge directly from hospital to primary health care. Although increased capacity to receive patients from hospital and prepare them for discharge to primary health care was viewed as a benefit, professionals still requested better communication with the preceding care level concerning further treatment and care for the elderly patients.Conclusions: The intermediate care hospital reduced the coordination challenges during discharge of elderly patients from hospital to primary health care. Nevertheless, the intermediate care was experienced more like an extension of hospital than an included part of primary health care and did not meet the need for communication across care levels.

  4. Hospital discharge of elderly patients to primary health care, with and without an intermediate care hospital – a qualitative study of health professionals’ experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unni Alice Dahl


    Full Text Available Introduction: Intermediate care is an organisational approach to improve the coordination of health care services between health care levels. In Central Norway an intermediate care hospital was established in a municipality to improve discharge from a general hospital to primary health care. The aim of this study was to investigate how health professionals experienced hospital discharge of elderly patients to primary health care with and without an intermediate care hospital.  Methods: A qualitative study with data collected through semi-structured focus groups and individual interviews. Results: Discharge via the intermediate care hospital was contrasted favourably compared to discharge directly from hospital to primary health care. Although increased capacity to receive patients from hospital and prepare them for discharge to primary health care was viewed as a benefit, professionals still requested better communication with the preceding care level concerning further treatment and care for the elderly patients. Conclusions: The intermediate care hospital reduced the coordination challenges during discharge of elderly patients from hospital to primary health care. Nevertheless, the intermediate care was experienced more like an extension of hospital than an included part of primary health care and did not meet the need for communication across care levels.

  5. Understanding the Development and Stabilization of Mn(III) Intermediates during Microbial Manganese Reduction (United States)

    Johnson, J. E.; Savalia, P.; Kocar, B. D.; Webb, S. M.; Nealson, K. H.; Fischer, W. W.


    The dominant products of Mn(II) oxidation are manganese(IV)-oxide phases, which act as important environmental oxidants and sorbents in soils, freshwater, and marine sediments. Mn(IV) oxides also provide favorable electron acceptors for metal-reducing microbes, but the intermediates and final products formed are highly dependent on environmental conditions, and challenging to predict thermodynamically. We engineered a flow-through reactor system to study the Mn phases during microbial Mn(IV) reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in real time, using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to monitor redox and mineralogical changes. These 10-20 hour experiments capture Mn XAS spectra every 20 minutes and thus we can observe both transient phases and stable products under different experimental conditions. We also record the pH, collect solution and filtered solid samples throughout the experiments for later solute measurements, and confirm mineral identifications with synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements. With excess organic carbon and high (mM) phosphate (like in a soil), Mn(IV) oxides are reduced to Mn(II) and immediately form Mn(II) phosphate in a clearly binary system. This experiment demonstrates that while there may be two successive single-electron transfer reactions from outer membrane cytochromes (Lin et al, 2012), the microbial reduction of Mn(IV) oxides is effectively a two-electron process. However, with minimal phosphate, a transient Mn(III) oxyhydroxide forms before all manganese is reduced to Mn(II) in solution and precipitates a final Mn(II)-carbonate product. We propose this Mn(III) intermediate phase forms due to reaction of Mn2+ in solution with Mn(IV)-oxide surfaces to form Mn(III)OOH, similar to experimental results from this abiotic comproportionation reaction (Elzinga, 2011). Recently, we stabilized this Mn(III) intermediate by limiting the organic carbon available to S. oneidensis, producing Mn(III)OOH and Mn(II) phases

  6. Hydrogen/Oxygen Reactions at High Pressures and Intermediate Temperatures: Flow Reactor Experiments and Kinetic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Glarborg, Peter

    A series of experimental and numerical investigations into hydrogen oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures has been conducted. The experiments were carried out in a high pressure laminar flow reactor at 50 bar pressure and a temperature range of 600–900 K. The equivalence ratio......, ignition occurs at the temperature of 775–800 K. In general, the present model provides a good agreement with the measurements in the flow reactor and with recent data on laminar burning velocity and ignition delay time.......A series of experimental and numerical investigations into hydrogen oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures has been conducted. The experiments were carried out in a high pressure laminar flow reactor at 50 bar pressure and a temperature range of 600–900 K. The equivalence ratio......, the mechanism is used to simulate published data on ignition delay time and laminar burning velocity of hydrogen. The flow reactor results show that at reducing, stoichiometric, and oxidizing conditions, conversion starts at temperatures of 750–775 K, 800–825 K, and 800–825 K, respectively. In oxygen atmosphere...

  7. Orbital modulation of millennial-scale climate variability in an earth system model of intermediate complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Friedrich


    Full Text Available The effect of orbital variations on simulated millennial-scale variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC is studied using the earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM. It is found that for present-day topographic boundary conditions low obliquity values (~22.1° favor the triggering of internally generated millennial-scale variability in the North Atlantic region. Reducing the obliquity leads to changes of the pause-pulse ratio of the corresponding AMOC oscillations. Stochastic excitations of the density-driven overturning circulation in the Nordic Seas can create regional sea-ice anomalies and a subsequent reorganization of the atmospheric circulation. The resulting remote atmospheric anomalies over the Hudson Bay can release freshwater pulses into the Labrador Sea leading to a subsequent reduction of convective activity. The millennial-scale AMOC oscillations disappear if LGM bathymetry (with closed Hudson Bay is prescribed. Furthermore, our study documents the marine and terrestrial carbon cycle response to millennial-scale AMOC variability. Our model results support the notion that stadial regimes in the North Atlantic are accompanied by relatively high levels of oxygen in thermocline and intermediate waters off California – in agreement with paleo-proxy data.

  8. Suppression of predation on the intermediate host by two trophically-transmitted parasites when uninfective. (United States)

    Weinreich, F; Benesh, D P; Milinski, M


    Trophically-transmitted parasites generally need to undergo a period of development in the intermediate host before reaching infectivity. During this vulnerable period, manipulation of the host to reduce susceptibility to predation would be advantageous for parasites, because it increases the probability of surviving until infectivity and thus the probability of transmission. We tested this 'predation suppression' hypothesis in 2 parasite species that use copepods as first hosts: the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus and the nematode Camallanus lacustris. In a series of prey choice experiments, we found that copepods harbouring uninfective, still-developing worm larvae were less frequently consumed by stickleback predators than uninfected copepods. The levels of predation suppression were similar in the two parasite species, suggestive of convergent evolution. Additionally, copepods harbouring 2 worms of a given species were not more susceptible to predation than those with 1 worm, suggesting that excessive larval parasite growth does not increase host susceptibility to predation. Our results support the idea that parasites can suppress intermediate host susceptibility to predation while uninfective, but we also note that the available studies suggest that this effect is weaker than the frequently observed enhancement of host predation by infective helminth larvae.

  9. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase enables anaplerotic refilling of TCA cycle intermediates in stroke-affected brain. (United States)

    Rink, Cameron; Gnyawali, Surya; Stewart, Richard; Teplitsky, Seth; Harris, Hallie; Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K; Khanna, Savita


    Ischemic stroke results in excessive release of glutamate, which contributes to neuronal cell death. Here, we test the hypothesis that otherwise neurotoxic glutamate can be productively metabolized by glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to maintain cellular energetics and protect the brain from ischemic stroke injury. The GOT-dependent metabolism of glutamate was studied in primary neural cells and in stroke-affected C57-BL6 mice using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and GC-MS. Extracellular Glu sustained cell viability under hypoglycemic conditions and increased GOT-mediated metabolism in vitro Correction of stroke-induced hypoxia using supplemental oxygen in vivo lowered Glu levels as measured by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. GOT knockdown abrogated this effect and caused ATP loss in the stroke-affected brain. GOT overexpression increased anaplerotic refilling of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in mouse brain during ischemic stroke. Furthermore, GOT overexpression not only reduced ischemic stroke lesion volume but also attenuated neurodegeneration and improved poststroke sensorimotor function. Taken together, our results support a new paradigm that GOT enables metabolism of otherwise neurotoxic extracellular Glu through a truncated tricarboxylic acid cycle under hypoglycemic conditions.-Rink, C., Gnyawali, S., Stewart, R., Teplitsky, S., Harris, H., Roy, S., Sen, C. K., Khanna, S. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase enables anaplerotic refilling of TCA cycle intermediates in stroke-affected brain. © FASEB.

  10. Factors influencing adherence with therapeutic sunlight exposure in older people in intermediate care facilities. (United States)

    Durvasula, Seeta; Sambrook, Philip N; Cameron, Ian D


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing low adherence with therapeutic sunlight exposure in a randomized controlled trial conducted with older people living in intermediate care facilities. The study involved participants in the FREEDOM (Falls Risk Epidemiology: Effect of vitamin D on skeletal Outcomes and other Measures) study, a randomized controlled trial of therapeutic sun exposure to reduce falls in older people in intermediate care facilities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirty participants in the FREEDOM trial, and with ten sunlight officers who were employed to facilitate the sun exposure. Two focus groups involving 10 participants in the FREEDOM trial were also held at the end of the intervention period. Common themes were derived from the interview and focus group transcripts. The study showed that the perceived health benefits did not influence adherence with the sun exposure. Factors such as socializing with others and being outdoors were more important in encouraging attendance. The main barriers to adherence included the perceived inflexibility and regimentation of daily attendance, clash with other activities, unsuitable timing and heat discomfort. This study showed that providing greater flexibility and autonomy to older people in how and when they receive sun exposure is likely to improve adherence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Remodeling Tumor Vasculature to Enhance Delivery of Intermediate-Sized Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Huang, Yuhui; An, Yi; Kim, Betty Y S


    Restoration of dysfunctional tumor vasculature can reestablish the pressure gradient between intravascular and interstitial space that is essential for transporting nanomedicines into solid tumors. Morphologic and functional normalization of tumor vessels improves tissue perfusion to facilitate intratumoral nanoparticle delivery. However, this remodeling process also reduces tumor vessel permeability, which can impair nanoparticle transport. Although nanoparticles sized below 10 nm maximally benefited from tumor vessel normalization therapy for enhanced nanomedicine delivery, the small particle size severely limits its applicability. Here, we show that intermediate-sized nanoparticles (20-40 nm) can also benefit from tumor vasculature remodeling. We demonstrate that a window of opportunity exists for a two-stage transport strategy of different nanoparticle sizes. Overall, tumor vessel remodeling enhances the transvascular delivery of intermediate-size nanoparticles of up to 40 nm. Once within the tumor matrix, however, smaller nanoparticles experience a significantly lesser degree of diffusional hindrance, resulting in a more homogeneous distribution within the tumor interstitium. These findings suggest that antiangiogenic therapy and nanoparticle design can be combined in a multistage fashion, with two sets of size-inclusion criteria, to achieve optimal nanomedicine delivery into solid tumors.

  12. Analysis of the need for intermediate and peaking technologies in the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrager, S.M.; Campbell, G.L.


    This analysis was conducted to assess the impact of load management on the future need for intermediate- and peak-generating technologies (IPTs) such as combustion turbines, pumped storage, and cycling coal plants. There will be a reduced need for IPTs if load-management activities such as time-of-use pricing, together with customer-owned energy-storage devices, hot-water-heater controls, and interruptible service, can economically remove most of the variation from electric-power demands. Therefore, the analysis assesses the need for IPTs in an uncertain future, which will probably include load management and time-differentiated electricity prices. Section 2 provides a condensed description of the models used in the analysis. (Details and data sets are contained in the appendixes.) Results of sensitivities on growth rates, model parameters, and appliance saturations are discussed in Section 3, which also contains the analysis of the potential impacts of customer energy storage, appliance control, and time-of-use pricing. The future need for intermediate and peaking technologies is analyzed in Section 4.

  13. Microfinance Institutions’ Social Intermediation and Micro and Small Enterprises Survival in Thika Town, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZabronChege Wairimu


    Full Text Available The continuous rapid growth of microfinance institutions in Kenya seems not to offer enough solution to the micro and small enterprises survival challenges with more than a one-third of MSEs start-ups collapsing within the first three years. It is the high rate of collapse and low rate of survival of MSEs that motivated this research to fill the existing gap on the missing linkage between MFIs and MSEs survival. This study looked at the role of the social intermediation services offered by MFIs on survival of MSEs in Thika Town which is both an industrial town and a business hub. A descriptive study design was adopted. Stratified and purposive sampling methods were used to select a sample 272 MSEs. Findings indicated that; regular microfinance participation help reduce loan application and payment bureaucracy while keeping entrepreneur updated on available opportunities. Training equips MSEs owners with necessary managerial skills on financial management, book keeping, and business operations. Group liability eliminates the need for collateral security when accessing loan while it increases the amount of loan accessed. Networking increases business link widening goods and services markets and allows for formation of business clubs. Finally, it was found that training was the most sought service followed by group liability, microfinance participation, and networking. From the study findings, the researcher recommends that MSEs continue seeking for social intermediation services and especially networking to improve their competitiveness and create a competitive advantage over their competitors boosting their survival.

  14. Visible Light Photocatalysis for the Generation and Use of Reactive Azolyl and Polyfluoroaryl Intermediates. (United States)

    Arora, Amandeep; Weaver, Jimmie D


    Photocatalysis offers several mechanistically unique pathways that are not rivaled by mainstream catalysis. Primarily, the ability to convert photochemical energy into single electron oxidation and reduction events provides a new dimension for chemists to consider when choosing how to activate a molecule or approach a complex synthesis. Since most organic molecules do not absorb light in the visible region, they are impervious to direct visible light photochemistry, which provides an opportunity for photocatalysis in which a visible light absorbing compound can serve as a mediator. In this Account, we discuss the consequences of catalyst mediated, photoinduced electron transfer to several classes of reducible arenes. While the bulk of the work discussed within this Account utilizes iridium-based photocatalysts, in principle the chemistry is not limited to this class of photocatalyst, and the principles should be more general. Instead, this Account focuses largely on the consequences of single electron transfer to poly- and perfluorinated arenes and 2-halo azoles. Electron transfer converts these stable molecules into reactive intermediates whose behavior often depends entirely on the identity of the halogen that undergoes substitution. The result is both diverse chemistry and an alternative way of thinking about the chemical reactivity of these motifs. Specifically, we discuss our efforts and those of others to develop strategies for the generation of radicals or radical anions from perfluoroarenes and azoles and the behavior of these intermediates as implied by reactions in which they participate. The divergent pathway is illustrated by 2-bromoazoles, which yield azolyl radicals and can be utilized for addition to π-bonds, while use of the 2-chloroazole substrate leads to an entirely different reaction profile. Under the appropriate reaction conditions, the reactive and transient intermediates are useful coupling partners and often provide unrivaled access to new

  15. 75 FR 33824 - Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates, Fourth Review: Advice Concerning the Addition of Certain Products to the Pharmaceutical Appendix to the HTS AGENCY: United States International... (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-520, Pharmaceutical Products and Chemical Intermediates,...

  16. Intermediate species measurement during iso-butanol auto-ignition

    KAUST Repository

    Ji, Weiqi


    © 2015 The Combustion Institute.Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This work presents the time histories of intermediate species during the auto-ignition of iso-butanol at high pressure and intermediate temperature conditions obtained using a rapid compression machine and recently developed fast sampling system. Iso-butanol ignition delays were acquired for iso-butanol/O2 mixture with an inert/O2 ratio of 7.26, equivalence ratio of 0.4, in the temperature range of 840-950 K and at pressure of 25 bar. Fast sampling and gas chromatography were used to acquire and quantify the intermediate species during the ignition delay of the same mixture at P = 25.3 bar and T = 905 K. The ignition delay times and quantitative measurements of the mole fraction time histories of methane, ethene, propene, iso-butene, iso-butyraldehyde, iso-butanol, and carbon monoxide were compared with predictions from the detailed mechanisms developed by Sarathy et al., Merchant et al., and Cai et al. It is shown that while the Sarathy mechanism well predicts the overall ignition delay time, it overpredicts ethene by a factor of 6-10, underpredicts iso-butene by a factor of 2, and overpredicts iso-butyraldehyde by a factor of 2. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were carried out to identify the reactions responsible for the observed inadequacy. The rates of iso-butanol hydrogen atom abstraction by OH radical and the beta-scission reactions of hydroxybutyl radicals were updated based on recently published quantum calculation results. Significant improvements were achieved in predicting ignition delay at high pressures (25 and 30 bar) and the species concentrations of ethene and iso-butene. However, the updated mechanism still overpredicts iso-butyraldehyde concentrations. Also, the updated mechanism degrades the prediction in ignition delay at lower pressure (15 bar) compared to the original mechanism developed by Sarathy et al.

  17. Improving Staffing and Nurse Engagement in a Neuroscience Intermediate Unit. (United States)

    Nadolski, Charles; Britt, Pheraby; Ramos, Leah C


    The neuroscience intermediate unit is a 23-bed unit that was initially staffed with a nurse-to-patient ratio of 1:4 to 1:5. In time, the unit's capacity to care for the exceeding number of progressively acute patients fell short of the desired goals in the staff affecting the nurse satisfaction. The clinical nurses desired a lower nurse-patient ratio. The purpose of this project was to justify a staffing increase through a return on investment and increased quality metrics. This initiative used mixed methodology to determine the ideal staffing for a neuroscience intermediate unit. The quantitative section focused on a review of the acuity of the patients. The qualitative section was based on descriptive interviews with University Healthcare Consortium nurse managers from similar units. The study reviewed the acuity of 9,832 patient days to determine the accurate acuity of neuroscience intermediate unit patients. Nurse managers at 12 University Healthcare Consortium hospitals and 8 units at the Medical University of South Carolina were contacted to compare staffing levels. The increase in nurse staffing contributed to an increase in many quality metrics. There were an 80% decrease in controllable nurse turnover and a 75% reduction in falls with injury after the lowered nurse-patient ratio. These 2 metrics established a return on investment for the staffing increase. In addition, the staffing satisfaction question on the Press Ganey employee engagement survey increased from 2.44 in 2013 to 3.72 in 2015 in response to the advocacy of the bedside nurses.

  18. Improving interMediAte Risk management. MARK study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Gil Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk functions fail to identify more than 50% of patients who develop cardiovascular disease. This is especially evident in the intermediate-risk patients in which clinical management becomes difficult. Our purpose is to analyze if ankle-brachial index (ABI, measures of arterial stiffness, postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, self-measured blood pressure and presence of comorbidity are independently associated to incidence of vascular events and whether they can improve the predictive capacity of current risk equations in the intermediate-risk population. Methods/Design This project involves 3 groups belonging to REDIAPP (RETICS RD06/0018 from 3 Spanish regions. We will recruit a multicenter cohort of 2688 patients at intermediate risk (coronary risk between 5 and 15% or vascular death risk between 3-5% over 10 years and no history of atherosclerotic disease, selected at random. We will record socio-demographic data, information on diet, physical activity, comorbidity and intermittent claudication. We will measure ABI, pulse wave velocity and cardio ankle vascular index at rest and after a light intensity exercise. Blood pressure and anthropometric data will be also recorded. We will also quantify lipids, glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in a fasting blood sample and postprandial capillary glucose. Eighteen months after the recruitment, patients will be followed up to determine the incidence of vascular events (later follow-ups are planned at 5 and 10 years. We will analyze whether the new proposed risk factors contribute to improve the risk functions based on classic risk factors. Discussion Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases is a priority in public health policy of developed and developing countries. The fundamental strategy consists in identifying people in a high risk situation in which preventive measures are effective and efficient. Improvement of these predictions in our country

  19. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren


    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating e...

  20. On the Analysis of Intermediate-Energy Coulomb Excitation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Scheit, Heiko; Glasmacher, Thomas; Motobayashi, Tohru


    In a recent publication (Bertulani et al., PLB 650 (2007) 233 and arXiv:0704.0060v2) the validity of analysis methods used for intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiments was called into question. Applying a refined theory large corrections of results in the literature seemed needed. We show that this is not the case and that the large deviations observed are due to the use of the wrong experimental parameters. We furthermore show that an approximate expression derived by Bertulani et al. is in fact equivalent to the theory of Winther and Alder (NPA 319 (1979) 518), an analysis method often used in the literature.