WorldWideScience

Sample records for one-dimensional material synthesis

  1. Synthesis and engineering of quasi-one dimensional nano-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pai-Chun

    Quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) nanoscale systems have been intensively investigated and proven to be of great potential as nanoelectronics building blocks. Nanowires made from organic, inorganic are now available and give research opportunities for understanding of nanomaterials and future applications. In this field, the research can be divided into three categories: nanomaterial synthesis, material characterizations, device fabrication for applications. These three main thrusts govern the research route to understand the Q1D systems. This dissertation also follows these three basic elements and consists of eight chapters. Chapter 1 will give an introduction of low dimensional systems. Chapter 2 and 3 will discuss how nanowires be synthesized in vapor phase. Chapter 4 and 5 will investigate the liquid phase growth. In Chapter 6, unique properties of nanowires due to the shrinkage in size will be depicted. Chapter 7 demonstrates a process to implement high performance nanowire field effect transistors, which are the basic element in nanoelectronics devices. In the last chapter, few possible future directions of nanoelectronic applications will be given and discussed.

  2. Synthesis and micro-structural study of one-dimensional nano-materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周光文; 张泽; 俞大鹏

    1999-01-01

    Silicon nano-wires (SiNWs) and boron nitride nano-tubules (BN-NTs) were successfully synthesized by excimer laser ablation at high temperature. These one-dimensional nano-materials synthesized by this method have a very high yield, a uniform diameter distribution, and a high purity. Micro-structures of these nano-materials were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SiNWs have a high density of structural defects of microtwin, stacking faults, and low-angle boundary, which ere closely related to the formation of SiNWs and the determination of morphology of the nano-wires. BN-NTs ere mainly single atomic-layered and the outer surface of tubules is clean without any attachment. The formation of single atomic-layered tubule is attributed to the catalyst effect which makes the axial rate of BN-NTs much higher than the radial growth.

  3. Facile synthesis of one-dimensional zinc vanadate nanofibers for high lithium storage anode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Lei [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Advanced Functional Textile Materials, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Fei, Yaqian; Chen, Ke; Li, Dawei; Wang, Xin [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wang, Qingqing [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Advanced Functional Textile Materials, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wei, Qufu, E-mail: qfwei@jiangnan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); International Joint Research Laboratory for Advanced Functional Textile Materials, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Qiao, Hui [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2015-11-15

    One-dimensional (1D) zinc vanadate (α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}) nanofibers have been synthesized through electrospinning combined with an annealing process. When used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), electrospun 1D α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanofibers exhibit a reversible capacity of ∼708 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g{sup −1}. A good rate capability is also achieved even at higher current densities. When cycled at a current density of 2000 mA g{sup −1}, the electrode can still show a reversible capacity of ∼311 mAh g{sup −1}. The excellent cycle performance and rate capability may be due to the 1D nanofiber architectures, mesoporous structures, and relatively large specific surface area, which can provide a short ion diffusion path and continuous electron transportation. Therefore, this work presents a simple and efficient approach for fabrication of 1D α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanofibers, which are promising high-performance anode materials for LIBs. - Highlights: • Electrospun 1D α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanofibers are first synthesized for anode material. • The electrochemical reaction mechanism of this material is discussed. • A reversible capacity of ∼708 mAh g{sup −1} is obtained after 100 cycles at 50 mA g{sup −1}. • 1D α-Zn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanofiber anodes show excellent rate capability for LIBs.

  4. One-dimensional nanomaterials: Synthesis and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bo

    My research mainly covers three types of one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials: metal oxide nanowires, transition metal oxide core-shell nanowires and single-walled carbon nanotubes. This new class of nanomaterials has generated significant impact in multiple fields including electronics, medicine, computing and energy. Their peculiar, fascinating properties are promising for unique applications on electronics, spintronics, optical and chemical/biological sensing. This dissertation will summarize my research work on these three 1D nanomaterials and propose some ideas that may lead to further development. Chapter 1 will give a brief introduction of nanotechnology journey and 1D nanomaterials. Chapter 2 and 3 will discuss indium oxide nanowires, as the representative of metal oxide nanwires. More specifically, chapter 2 is focused on the synthesis, material characterization, transport studies and doping control of indium oxide nanowires; Chapter 3 will give a comprehensive review of our systematic studies on molecular memory applications based on molecule/indium oxide nanowire heterostructures. Chapter 4 will introduce another 1D nanomaterial-transition metal oxide (TMO) core-shell nanowires. The discuss will focus on the synthesis of TMO nanowires, material analysis and their electronic properties as a function of temperature and magnetic field. Chapter 5 is dedicated to aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on synthesis with rational control of position and orientation, detailed characterization and construction of scaled top-gated transistors. This chapter presents a way to produce the p- and n-type nanotube transistors based on gate voltage polarity control during electrical breakdown. Finally, chapter 6 summarizes the above discussions and proposes some suggestions for future studies.

  5. One-dimensional Nanostructured Materials From Organic Precursor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. F. Cai

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction One-dimensional nanostructured materials, such as nanowires, nanobelts, nanotubes and nanocables have been attracting a great research interest in the last decade due to their superior electrical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties, and many methods have been explored to synthesis of the materials, e.g., arc discharge, laser ablation, chemical vapor deposition, thermal evaporation, sol-gel method, template method and so on. In this work, we present a novel and simple method to one-dimensional nanostructured materials by pyrolysis of organic precursor.

  6. On the anomalies in gold nanoparticles prepared by micelle nanolithography and their impact on one-dimensional material synthesis. Role of substrate, size effects and impurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbenkum, B.N.

    2007-07-23

    The synthesis of one-dimensional (1-D) inorganic semiconductor materials such as nanotubes and silicon (Si) nanowires is usually achieved by catalyst nanoparticlemediated synthetic routes. Despite the well-established nature of this technique, problems such as low temperature synthesis and adequate control of catalyst nanoparticle diameter in order to control 1-D material diameter still prevail. Additionally, the expansion of this technology from crystalline to cheaper substrates such as glass remains demanding. This work employs a previously established selfassembly route to produce controlled spatial distribution of substrate anchored small diameter gold nanoparticles with controlled size. This enabled successful synthesis of Si 1-D structures with controlled diameters less than 20 nm. Low temperature synthesis due to enhanced catalytic activity was achieved via introduction of impurity by treatment of gold nanoparticles in different plasma environments. This enabled Si 1-D structure growth on Si, SiO{sub x}/Si and borosilicate glass substrates at 320 C. Substrate-induced stress affected Si diffusion at the gold nanoparticle determining whether Si nanowires or nanotubes were grown. These results are of technological relevance because low temperature synthesis provides an economical approach and controlled diameter enhances material functionality. Additionally, exploiting substrate-induced stress to influence Si diffusion in nanoparticles provides an alternate route to tuning Si 1-D structure. (orig.)

  7. Distibines, New One-Dimensional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    Diarsines, Distibines * and Dibismuthines," XI International Conference on Organometallic * Chemistry , Pine Mountain, Georgia, October 1983. (vi...D-R158 534 DISTIINES NEW ONE-DIMENSIONAL MTERILS(U) ICHIGAN i/UNJY ANN ARBOR DEPT OF CHEMISTRY A J ASHE 17 NAY 85 RFOSR-TR-85-9592 RFOSR-81-909 N...ADDRESS (Ci, Stett, and ZIP Code) Department of Chemistry , University Building 410, Bolling AFS, D.C. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 20332-6448 Sa

  8. Synthesis and application of one-dimensional nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daihua

    My research has been focused on the synthesis, characterization and application of three types of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures, including metal oxide nanowires, transition metal oxide core-shell nanocables, and carbon nanotubes. They represent a new class of materials that have attracted steadily growing interest due to their peculiar properties and unique applications complementary to bulk materials. This dissertation will summarize my studies on these three 1D nanomaterials, as well as propose future research work that may lead to further development of this field. Following a brief introduction to 1D nanomaterials in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 will focus on the first material - metal oxide nanowires. The discussion starts from the synthesis approach and material characterization of metal oxide nanowires, and then shifts to the electron transport properties and potential applications. A series of functional devices based on In2O 3 and SnO2 nanowires will be demonstrated and evaluated, which range from field effect transistors (FETs), nonvolatile memories, to photo-detecting devices and chemical sensors. Chapter 3 will discuss the fabrication of transition metal oxide (TMO) core-shell nanocables and their electron transport properties as a function of temperature and external magnetic field. The discussion will primarily focus on one of the TMO materials---magnetite (Fe3O 4) core-shell nanowires and nanotubes. Chapter 4 focuses on the application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in macroelectronics and explores the feasibility of using CNT films as transparent electrodes for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Chapter 5, in the end, summarizes the above discussions and proposes future research directions in 1D nanomaterials.

  9. Solution-phase Synthesis of One-dimensional Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfeng YE; Limin QI

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of one-dimensional (1D) semiconductor nanostructures has been studied intensively for a wide range of materials due to their unique structural and physical properties and promising potential for future technological applications. Among various strategies for synthesizing 1D semiconductor nanostructures, solution-phase synthetic routes are advantageous in terms of cost, throughput, modulation of composition, and the potential for large-scale and environmentally benign production. This article gives a concise review on the recent developments in the solution-phase synthesis of 1D semiconductor nanostructures of different compositions, sizes, shapes, and architectures. We first introduce several typical solution-phase synthetic routes based on controlled precipitation from homogeneous solutions, including hydrothermal/solvothermal process, solution-liquid-solid (SLS) process, high-temperature organic-solution process, and low-temperature aqueous-solution process. Subsequently, we discuss two solution-phase synthetic strategies involving solid templates or substrates, such as the chemical transformation of 1D sacrificial templates and the oriented growth of 1D nanostructure arrays on solid substrates. Finally, prospects of the solution-phase approaches to 1D semiconductor nanostructures will be briefly discussed.

  10. Resonance Raman spectroscopy in one-dimensional carbon materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dresselhaus Mildred S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has played an important role in the development and use of resonance Raman spectroscopy as a powerful characterization tool for materials science. Here we present a short history of Raman scattering research in Brazil, highlighting the important contributions to the field coming from Brazilian researchers in the past. Next we discuss recent and important contributions where Brazil has become a worldwide leader, that is on the physics of quasi-one dimensional carbon nanotubes. We conclude this article by presenting results from a very recent resonance Raman study of exciting new materials, that are strictly one-dimensional carbon chains formed by the heat treatment of very pure double-wall carbon nanotube samples.

  11. One-Dimensional Perovskite Manganite Oxide Nanostructures: Recent Developments in Synthesis, Characterization, Transport Properties, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Liang, Lizhi; Wu, Heng; Zhu, Xinhua

    2016-12-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures, including nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes, nanofibers, and nanobelts, have promising applications in mesoscopic physics and nanoscale devices. In contrast to other nanostructures, one-dimensional nanostructures can provide unique advantages in investigating the size and dimensionality dependence of the materials' physical properties, such as electrical, thermal, and mechanical performances, and in constructing nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. Among the one-dimensional nanostructures, one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures have been received much attention due to their unusual electron transport and magnetic properties, which are indispensable for the applications in microelectronic, magnetic, and spintronic devices. In the past two decades, much effort has been made to synthesize and characterize one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures in the forms of nanorods, nanowires, nanotubes, and nanobelts. Various physical and chemical deposition techniques and growth mechanisms are explored and developed to control the morphology, identical shape, uniform size, crystalline structure, defects, and homogenous stoichiometry of the one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures. This article provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art research activities that focus on the rational synthesis, structural characterization, fundamental properties, and unique applications of one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures in nanotechnology. It begins with the rational synthesis of one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures and then summarizes their structural characterizations. Fundamental physical properties of one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures are also highlighted, and a range of unique applications in information storages, field-effect transistors, and spintronic devices are discussed. Finally, we conclude this review with some perspectives/outlook and future

  12. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of ZnS Nanostructures: A Simple and Rapid Method for One-Dimensional Materials by Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Hu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, ZnS one-dimensional (1D nanostructures including tetrapods, nanorods, nanobelts, and nanoslices were selectively synthesized by using RF thermal plasma in a wall-free way. The feeding rate and the cooling flow rate were the critical experimental parameters for defining the morphology of the final products. The detailed structures of synthesized ZnS nanostructures were studied through transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. A collision-controlled growth mechanism was proposed to explain the growth process that occurred exclusively in the gas current by a flowing way, and the whole process was completed in several seconds. In conclusion, the present synthetic route provides a facile way to synthesize ZnS and other hexagonal-structured 1D nanostructures in a rapid and scalable way.

  13. Compaction of quasi-one-dimensional elastoplastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaebani, M. Reza; Najafi, Javad; Farnudi, Ali; Bonn, Daniel; Habibi, Mehdi

    2017-06-01

    Insight into crumpling or compaction of one-dimensional objects is important for understanding biopolymer packaging and designing innovative technological devices. By compacting various types of wires in rigid confinements and characterizing the morphology of the resulting crumpled structures, here, we report how friction, plasticity and torsion enhance disorder, leading to a transition from coiled to folded morphologies. In the latter case, where folding dominates the crumpling process, we find that reducing the relative wire thickness counter-intuitively causes the maximum packing density to decrease. The segment size distribution gradually becomes more asymmetric during compaction, reflecting an increase of spatial correlations. We introduce a self-avoiding random walk model and verify that the cumulative injected wire length follows a universal dependence on segment size, allowing for the prediction of the efficiency of compaction as a function of material properties, container size and injection force.

  14. Nucleation and growth of nanoscaled one-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongtao

    Nanoscaled one-dimensional materials have attracted great interest due to their novel physical and chemical properties. The purpose of this dissertation is to study the nucleation and growth mechanisms of carbon nanotubes and silicon nitride nanowires with their field emission applications in mind. As a result of this research, a novel methodology has been developed to deposit aligned bamboo-like carbon nanotubes on substrates using a methane and ammonia mixture in microwave plasma enhanced chemical deposition. Study of growth kinetics suggests that the carbon diffusion through bulk catalyst particles controls growth in the initial deposition process. Microstructures of carbon nanotubes are affected by the growth temperature and carbon concentration in the gas phase. High-resolution transmission electron microscope confirms the existence of the bamboo-like structure. Electron diffraction reveals that the iron-based catalyst nucleates and sustains the growth of carbon nanotubes. A nucleation and growth model has been constructed based upon experimental data and observations. In the study of silicon nitride nanoneedles, a vapor-liquid-solid model is employed to explain the nucleation and growth processes. Ammonia plasma etching is proposed to reduce the size of the catalyst and subsequently produce the novel needle-like nanostructure. High-resolution transmission electron microscope shows the structure is well crystallized and composed of alpha-silicon nitride. Other observations in the structure are also explained.

  15. One dimensional coordination polymers: Synthesis, crystal structures and spectroscopic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaağaç, Dursun; Kürkçüoğlu, Güneş Süheyla; Şenyel, Mustafa; Şahin, Onur

    2016-11-01

    Two new one dimensional (1D) cyanide complexes, namely [M(4-aepy)2(H2O)2][Pt(CN)4], (4-aepy = 4-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine M = Cu(II) (1) or Zn(II) (2)), have been synthesized and characterized by vibrational (FT-IR and Raman) spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, thermal and elemental analyses techniques. The crystallographic analyses reveal that 1 and 2 are isomorphous and isostructural, and crystallize in the monoclinic system and C2 space group. The Pt(II) ions are coordinated by four cyanide-carbon atoms in the square-planar geometry and the [Pt(CN)4]2- ions act as a counter ion. The M(II) ions display an N4O2 coordination sphere with a distorted octahedral geometry, the nitrogen donors belonging to four molecules of the organic 4-aepy that act as unidentate ligands and two oxygen atoms from aqua ligands. The crystal structures of 1 and 2 are similar each other and linked via intermolecular hydrogen bonding, Pt⋯π interactions to form 3D supramolecular network. Vibration assignments of all the observed bands are given and the spectral features also supported to the crystal structures of the complexes.

  16. Phononic crystals with one-dimensional defect as sensor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Arafa H.; Mehaney, Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Recently, sensor technology has attracted great attention in many fields due to its importance in many engineering applications. In the present work, we introduce a study using the innovative properties of phononic crystals in enhancing a new type of sensors based on the intensity of transmitted frequencies inside the phononic band gaps. Based on the transfer matrix method and Bloch theory, the expressions of the reflection coefficient and dispersion relation are presented. Firstly, the influences of filling fraction ratio and the angle of incidence on the band gap width are discussed. Secondly, the localization of waves inside band gaps is discussed by enhancing the properties of the defected phononic crystal. Compared to the periodic structure, localization modes involved within the band structure of phononic crystals with one and two defect layers are presented and compared. Trapped localized modes can be detected easily and provide more information about defected structures. Such method could increase the knowledge of manufacturing defects by measuring the intensity of propagated waves in the resonant cavities and waveguides. Moreover, several factors enhance the role of the defect layer on the transmission properties of defected phononic crystals are presented. The acoustic band gap can be used to detect or sense the type of liquids filling the defect layer. The liquids make specific resonant modes through the phononic band gaps that related to the properties of each liquid. The frequency where the maximum resonant modes occur is correlated to material properties and allows to determine several parameters such as the type of an unknown material.

  17. Phononic crystals with one-dimensional defect as sensor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Arafa H.; Mehaney, Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    Recently, sensor technology has attracted great attention in many fields due to its importance in many engineering applications. In the present work, we introduce a study using the innovative properties of phononic crystals in enhancing a new type of sensors based on the intensity of transmitted frequencies inside the phononic band gaps. Based on the transfer matrix method and Bloch theory, the expressions of the reflection coefficient and dispersion relation are presented. Firstly, the influences of filling fraction ratio and the angle of incidence on the band gap width are discussed. Secondly, the localization of waves inside band gaps is discussed by enhancing the properties of the defected phononic crystal. Compared to the periodic structure, localization modes involved within the band structure of phononic crystals with one and two defect layers are presented and compared. Trapped localized modes can be detected easily and provide more information about defected structures. Such method could increase the knowledge of manufacturing defects by measuring the intensity of propagated waves in the resonant cavities and waveguides. Moreover, several factors enhance the role of the defect layer on the transmission properties of defected phononic crystals are presented. The acoustic band gap can be used to detect or sense the type of liquids filling the defect layer. The liquids make specific resonant modes through the phononic band gaps that related to the properties of each liquid. The frequency where the maximum resonant modes occur is correlated to material properties and allows to determine several parameters such as the type of an unknown material.

  18. Quasi-one dimensional (Q1D) nanostructures: Synthesis, integration and device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chung-Jen

    Quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) nanostructures such as nanotubes and nanowires have been widely regarded as the potential building blocks for nanoscale electronic, optoelectronic and sensing devices. In this work, the content can be divided into three categories: Nano-material synthesis and characterizations, alignment and integration, physical properties and application. The dissertation consists of seven chapters as following. Chapter 1 will give an introduction to low dimensional nano-materials. Chapter 2 explains the mechanism how Q1D nanostructure grows. Chapter 3 describes the methods how we horizontally and vertically align the Q1D nanostructure. Chapter 4 and 5 are the electrical and optical device characterization respectively. Chapter 6 demonstrates the integration of Q1D nanostructures and the device application. The last chapter will discuss the future work and conclusion of the thesis.

  19. Facile Synthesis and Tensile Behavior of TiO2 One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shu-you

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High-yield synthesis of TiO2 one-dimensional (1D nanostructures was realized by a simple annealing of Ni-coated Ti grids in an argon atmosphere at 950 °C and 760 torr. The as-synthesized 1D nanostructures were single crystalline rutile TiO2 with the preferred growth direction close to [210]. The growth of these nanostructures was enhanced by using catalytic materials, higher reaction temperature, and longer reaction time. Nanoscale tensile testing performed on individual 1D nanostructures showed that the nanostructures appeared to fracture in a brittle manner. The measured Young’s modulus and fracture strength are ~56.3 and 1.4 GPa, respectively.

  20. One-dimensional CdS nanostructures: synthesis, properties, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Tianyou; Fang, Xiaosheng; Li, Liang; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2010-02-01

    One-dimensional (1D) semiconductor nanostructures are of prime interest due to their potential in investigating the size and dimensionality dependence of the materials' physical properties and constructing nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is an important semiconductor compound of the ii-vi group, and its synthesis and properties have been of growing interest owing to prominent applications in several fields. This article provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art research activities that focus on the rational synthesis, novel properties and unique applications of 1D CdS nanostructures in nanotechnology. It begins with the rational design and synthesis of 1D CdS nanostructures, and then highlights a range of unique properties and applications (e.g. photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, electrochemiluminescence, photocatalysis, lasers, waveguides, modulators, solar cells, field-effect transistors, photodetectors, field-emitters, and nanogenerators) associated with them. Finally, the review is concluded with the author outlook of the perspectives with respect to future research on 1D CdS nanostructures.

  1. One-Dimensional SnO2 Nanostructures: Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale semiconducting materials such as quantum dots (0-dimensional and one-dimensional (1D structures, like nanowires, nanobelts, and nanotubes, have gained tremendous attention within the past decade. Among the variety of 1D nanostructures, tin oxide (SnO2 semiconducting nanostructures are particularly interesting because of their promising applications in optoelectronic and electronic devices due to both good conductivity and transparence in the visible region. This article provides a comprehensive review of the recent research activities that focus on the rational synthesis and unique applications of 1D SnO2 nanostructures and their optical and electrical properties. We begin with the rational design and synthesis of 1D SnO2 nanostructures, such as nanotubes, nanowires, nanobelts, and some heterogeneous nanostructures, and then highlight a range of applications (e.g., gas sensor, lithium-ion batteries, and nanophotonics associated with them. Finally, the review is concluded with some perspectives with respect to future research on 1D SnO2 nanostructures.

  2. One dimensional Si/Sn - based nanowires and nanotubes for lithium-ion energy storage materials

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Nam-Soon

    2011-01-01

    There has been tremendous interest in using nanomaterials for advanced Li-ion battery electrodes, particularly to increase the energy density by using high specific capacity materials. Recently, it was demonstrated that one dimensional (1D) Si/Sn nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs) have great potential to achieve high energy density as well as long cycle life for the next generation of advanced energy storage applications. In this feature article, we review recent progress on Si-based NWs and NTs as high capacity anode materials. Fundamental understanding and future challenges on one dimensional nanostructured anode are also discussed. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Modeling of Z-scan characteristics for one-dimensional nonlinear photonic bandgap materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuqi; Zang, Weiping; Schülzgen, Axel; Liu, Xin; Tian, Jianguo; Moloney, Jerome V; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2009-12-01

    We propose a Z-scan theory for one-dimensional nonlinear photonic bandgap materials. The Z-scan characteristics for this material are analyzed. Results show that the Z-scan curves for photonic bandgap materials with nonlinear refraction are similar to those of uniform materials exhibiting both nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption simultaneously. Effects of nonlinear absorption on reflected and transmitted Z-scan results are also discussed.

  4. One-pot synthesis of one-dimensional CdTe-cystine nanocomposite for humidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhisong; Wang, Jing; Xie, Jiale; Li, Chang Ming

    2014-03-01

    Quantum dot (QD)-incorporated one-dimensional (1D) nanocomposites offer great application potential. However, a facile one-step synthesis of the nanocomposites and fabrication of their free-standing film for sensing has not been accomplished. Herein a rod-shaped nanocomposite is one-pot synthesized via an L-cysteine-assisted hydrothermal approach, in which synthesis parameters including L-cysteine amount, temperature and reaction duration are tailored to control the composite nanostructures. CdTe nanocrystals are incorporated into the L-cystine matrices to form the nanorods, which tangle each other to network an intact film structure via a simple drying process. The free-standing CdTe-cystine nanorod film is directly utilized as a humidity sensor. This work provides a one-pot synthesis approach to grow 1D CdTe incorporated nanocomposites, demonstrating their great potential in film sensing applications.

  5. Template-free Synthesis of One-dimensional Cobalt Nanostructures by Hydrazine Reduction Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Tianmin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One-dimensional cobalt nanostructures with large aspect ratio up to 450 have been prepared via a template-free hydrazine reduction route under external magnetic field assistance. The morphology and properties of cobalt nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The roles of the reaction conditions such as temperature, concentration, and pH value on morphology and magnetic properties of fabricated Co nanostructures were investigated. This work presents a simple, low-cost, environment-friendly, and large-scale production approach to fabricate one-dimensional magnetic Co materials. The resulting materials may have potential applications in nanodevice, catalytic agent, and magnetic recording.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of One-dimensional and Two-Dimensional Porphyrin Polymers* (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Porphyrin polymers are of interest in relation to conductive materials[1, 2], catalysts for photosynthetic charge separation[3], or the fundamental features in biological systems[4]. There have been many versatile studies about them[5,6]. The one-dimensional “Shish Kebab” porphyrin polymers synthesized with a new method different from those reported and Schiff base porphyrin polymers with two-dimensional nano-structure have provided a new field of study. The present paper covers highly ordered porphyrin polymers.

  7. Transmission gaps in one-dimensional Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure containing epsilon-negative materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hadi Rahimi; Abdolrahman Namdar; Samad Roshan Entezar; Habib Tajalli

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the transmission properties of one-dimensional Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure consisting of dispersive and lossless epsilon-negative (ENG) materials. It is found that for both TE and TM polarizations with normal and oblique incidences, there exist transmission gaps which are invariant with a change of scale and sensitive to incident angles. Analytical methods based on transfer matrices and effective medium theory have been used to explain the properties of transmission gaps.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Synthesis of One-Dimensional Molybdenum Oxide Nanostructures in Flame Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shubham

    The past few decades have seen a great amount of interest in the field of nanotechnology. As our world moves towards miniaturized devices nanotechnology is set to revolutionize the electronics, storage and sensing industry. Various methods for synthesis of different types of nanoparticles are being explored. A few of these processes that hold great promise for the future are the flame synthesis methods. These methods are highly efficient but at the same time it is difficult to control the morphology of the produced nanoparticles due to a high number of control parameters involved because of the complex flow processes. These issues demand a better understanding before these processes can be exploited to their maximum potential. Most numerical methods developed cater to the simulation of spherical nanoparticles. However, it is now being increasingly understood that the shape and structure of a nanoparticle plays critical role in determining its chemical, physical and electronic properties. Therefore a high level of control on the shape of nanoparticles is highly imperative. With this purpose in mind this work proposes a novel numerical scheme to simulate the synthesis of one-dimensional nanorods and further presents mathematical simulations based on it followed by validation with experimental results. The ability to predict the morphology of a nanoparticle formed by a synthesis process adds a distinct advantage. Therefore, intricate solutions have been found for the fluid flow and these have been coupled to each stage of nanoparticle development, namely monomer formation, nucleation, particle growth and particle transport. The numerical scheme takes into account all the details of the complex surface phenomena taking place on a nanorod. Later, factors are studied which transition the growth characteristics of a nanoparticle from one dimensional to a spherical structure, thus encompassing all the factors that influence the particle shape. Group characteristics of

  9. Green's functions of one-dimensional quasicrystal bi-material with piezoelectric effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Wu, Di; Xu, Wenshuai; Yang, Lianzhi; Ricoeur, Andreas; Wang, Zhibin; Gao, Yang

    2016-09-01

    Based on the Stroh formalism of one-dimensional quasicrystals with piezoelectric effect, the problems of an infinite plane composed of two different quasicrystal half-planes are taken into account. The solutions of the internal and interfacial Green's functions of quasicrystal bi-material are obtained. Moreover, numerical examples are analyzed for a quasicrystal bi-material subjected to line forces or line dislocations, showing the contour maps of the coupled fields. The impacts of changing material constants on the coupled field components are investigated.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of One-dimensional and Two-Dimensional Porphyrin Polymers* (

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xiang-qing

    2001-01-01

    Porphyrin polymers are of interest in relation to conductive materials[1, 2], catalysts for  photosynthetic charge separation[3], or the fundamental features in biological systems[4].There have been many versatile studies about them[5,6]. The one-dimensional “Shish Kebab”porphyrin polymers synthesized with a new method different from those reported and Schiff base porphyrin polymers with two-dimensional nano-structure have provided a new field of study. The present paper covers highly ordered porphyrin polymers.……

  11. Analysis and synthesis of one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals using coupled mode theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghirzadeh Darki, Behnam; Nezhad, Abolghasem Zeidaabadi; Firouzeh, Zaker Hossein

    2017-03-01

    We utilize our previously developed temporal coupled mode approach to investigate the performance of one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals (MPCs). We analytically demonstrate that a double-defect MPC provides adequate degrees of freedom to design a structure for arbitrary transmittance and Faraday rotation. By using our developed analytic approach along with the numerical transfer matrix method, we present a procedure for the synthesis of an MPC to generate any desired transmittance and Faraday rotation in possible ranges. However it is seen that only discrete values of transmittance and Faraday rotation are practically obtainable. To remedy this problem along with having short structures, we introduce a class of MPC heterostructures which are combinations of stacks with high and low optical contrast ratios.

  12. Green's functions of one-dimensional quasicrystal bi-material with piezoelectric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liangliang [College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Sinomatech Wind Power Blade Co., Ltd, Beijing 100092 (China); Wu, Di [College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, Wenshuai [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Lianzhi [Civil and Environmental Engineering School, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Ricoeur, Andreas; Wang, Zhibin [Institute of Mechanics, University of Kassel, 34125 Kassel (Germany); Gao, Yang, E-mail: gaoyangg@gmail.com [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-09-16

    Based on the Stroh formalism of one-dimensional quasicrystals with piezoelectric effect, the problems of an infinite plane composed of two different quasicrystal half-planes are taken into account. The solutions of the internal and interfacial Green's functions of quasicrystal bi-material are obtained. Moreover, numerical examples are analyzed for a quasicrystal bi-material subjected to line forces or line dislocations, showing the contour maps of the coupled fields. The impacts of changing material constants on the coupled field components are investigated. - Highlights: • Green's functions of 1D piezoelectric quasicrystal bi-material are studied. • The coupled fields subjected to line forces or line dislocations are obtained. • Mechanical behavior under the effect of different material constants is researched.

  13. Design and fabrication of one-dimensional focusing X-ray compound lens with Al material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zichun Le; Ming Zhang; Jingqiu Liang; Wen Dong; Kai Liu; Bisheng Quan

    2006-01-01

    @@ A method based on Fourier spectrum analysis for predicting the performances of the X-ray compound lenses is briefly introduced,the theoretical result obtained is the same as that of Fresnel-Kirchhoff approach.A kind of technique named moulding is developed for fabricating the one-dimensional (1D) compound X-ray lens with Al material and the fabrication process is presented.In addition,a two-time coating method is used to improve the numerical apertures of the compound lenses.Furthermore,the focusing performance of the Al compound X-ray lens under the high energy X-rays is measured.

  14. Synthesis and structure of solution-stable one-dimensional palladium wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael G; Powers, David C; Raynaud, Jean; Graham, Michael J; Xie, Ping; Lee, Eunsung; Ritter, Tobias

    2011-11-13

    One-dimensional metal wires are valuable materials because of their optical and electronic anisotropy, and they have potential utility in devices such as photovoltaic cells and molecular sensors. However, despite more than a century of research, only a few examples exist of well-defined one-dimensional (1D) metal wires that allow for the rational variation of conductivity. Herein we describe the first examples of 1D molecular wires supported by Pd-Pd bonds, the thin-film conductive properties of which can be altered by controlled molecular changes. Wires based on Pd(III) give semiconducting films with a modifiable bandgap, whereas wires based on Pd(2.5) give films that display metallic conductivity above 200 K: a metallic state has not been reported previously for any polymer composed of 1D metal wires. The wires are infinite in the solid state and maintain 1D structures in solution with lengths of up to 750 nm. Solution stability enables thin film coating, a requisite for device fabrication using molecular wires.

  15. Benign-by-Design Solventless Mechanochemical Synthesis of Three-, Two-, and One-Dimensional Hybrid Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodlowski, Alexander D; Yépez, Alfonso; Luque, Rafael; Camacho, Luis; de Miguel, Gustavo

    2016-11-21

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted significant attention owing to their extraordinary optoelectronic properties with applications in the fields of solar energy, lighting, photodetectors, and lasers. The rational design of these hybrid materials is a key factor in the optimization of their performance in perovskite-based devices. Herein, a mechanochemical approach is proposed as a highly efficient, simple, and reproducible method for the preparation of four types of hybrid perovskites, which were obtained in large amounts as polycrystalline powders with high purity and excellent optoelectronics properties. Two archetypal three-dimensional (3D) perovskites (MAPbI3 and FAPbI3 ) were synthesized, together with a bidimensional (2D) perovskite (Gua2 PbI4 ) and a "double-chain" one-dimensional (1D) perovskite (GuaPbI3 ), whose structure was elucidated by X-ray diffraction.

  16. Synthesis of a fullerene-based one-dimensional nanopolymer through topochemical transformation of the parent nanowire

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Junfeng; Reid, David G; Skelton, Paul; Wheatley, Andrew E H; Solov'yov, Andrey V; Johnson, Brian F G

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale practical applications of fullerene (C60) in nanodevices could be significantly facilitated if the commercially-available micrometer-scale raw C60 powder were further processed into a one-dimensional (1D) nanowire-related polymer displaying covalent bonding as molecular interlinks and resembling traditional important conjugated polymers. However, there has been little study thus far in this area despite the abundant literature on fullerene. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of such a C60-based nanowire polymer, (-C60TMB-)n, where TMB=1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, which displays a well-defined crystalline structure, exceptionally large length-to-width ratio and excellent thermal stability. The material is prepared by first growing the corresponding nanowire through a solution phase of C60 followed by a topochemical polymerization reaction in the solid state. Gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance evidence is provided for the nature of the covalent bonding...

  17. Controlled synthesis and energy applications of one-dimensional conducting polymer nanostructures: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Zhigang; Zheng, Qingdong [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian (China)

    2012-02-15

    The past decade has witnessed increasing attention in the synthesis, properties, and applications of one-dimensional (1D) conducting polymer nanostructures. This overview first summarizes the synthetic strategies for various 1D nanostructures of conjugated polypyrrole (PPy), polyaniline (PANI), polythiophene (PTh), poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) and derivatives thereof. By using template-directed or template-free methods, nanoscale rods, wires/fibers, belts/ribbons, tubes, arrays, or composites have been successfully synthesized. With their unique structures and advantageous characteristics (e.g., high conductivity, high carrier mobility, good electrochemical activity, large specific surface area, short and direct path for charge/ion transportation, good mechanical properties), 1D conducting polymer nanostructures are demonstrated to be very useful for energy applications. Next, their applications in solar cells, fuel cells, rechargeable lithium batteries, and electrochemical supercapacitors are highlighted, with a strong emphasis on recent literature examples. Finally, this review ends with a summary and some perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this emerging area of research. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Synthesis and magneticproperties of one-dimensional Mn(Ⅱ) complexes linked bydithiooxalato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Three dithiooxalato (Dto) bridging one-dimensional Mn(Ⅱ) complexes [Mn(L)Dto](L = Phen (1), Bpy (2) and en (3)) were synthesized. All of the complexes have the similar one-dimensional structure through Dto bridge. The measurement of the variable temperature magnetic susceptibility of complex 1 showed that there are weak antiferromag- netic interactions between the Mn(Ⅱ) ions.

  19. Supercritical synthesis and characterization of SWNT-based one dimensional nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian; Lian, Yongfu; Guan, Lunhui; Yue, Dongmei; Guo, Xihong; Zhao, Shixiong; Zhao, Yuliang; Ibrahim, Kurash; Wang, Jiaou; Qian, Haijie; Dong, Jinquan; Yuan, Hui; Xing, Gengmei; Sun, Baoyun

    2011-08-01

    The present study developed a novel, fast and efficient method to synthesize one dimensional nanotube-based materials via supercritical reactions and supercritical fluids. It was proved that supercritical organic fluids were good media to take materials into the nanocavity, not only as solvents but also as reaction agents. Different kinds of metals (Ni, Cu, Ag) and fullerenes (C(60), C(70), C(78), C(84), Gd@C(82), Er@C(82), Ho@C(82), Y@C(82)) were successfully inserted into nanotubes with small diameters by this technique, with various supercritical fluids such as C(2)H(5)OH, CH(3)OH or C(6)H(5)CH(3). The filling rates were proved to be more than 90%. The high filling efficiency and the properties of the as-generated materials were characterized by TEM, Raman, EDS and XPS. In principle, this technique can be applied to construct new types of nanomaterials, if we choose the appropriate supercritical reaction and fluid in the CNTs.

  20. One-dimensional motion of a material with a strain theshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Farina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the one-dimensional shearing motion of a material exhibiting elastic behaviour when the stress is below some threshold. The threshold represents a limit to the deformability, i.e. no further deformation can occur on increasing the stress. The mathematical formulation leads to a free boundary problem for the wave equation, whose structure depends on whether the stress (and the velocity are continuous across the propagating interface for the strain threshold .Local existence and uniqueness are proved for the continuous case (in which the interface propagation is subsonic. Some explicit solutions are calculated for another case (with a supersonic interface. It is shown that the model with strain threshold is never the limit of hyperelastic systems.

  1. One-Dimensional Modeling of Thermogenerator Elements with Linear Material Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrocki, K.; Müller, E.; Seifert, W.

    2010-09-01

    Graded and segmented thermoelectric elements have been studied for a long time with the aim of improving the performance of thermogenerators that are exposed to a large temperature difference. However, it has been shown that simply adjusting the maximum figure of merit ZT in each segment of a stacked or graded thermoelectric (TE) element is not a sufficient strategy to maximize thermoelectric device performance. Global optimization of a performance parameter is commonly based on a one-dimensional continua-theoretical model. Following the proposal by Müller and coworkers, the temperature profile T( x) can be calculated within a model-free setup directly from the one-dimensional (1D) thermal energy balance, e.g., based on continuous monotonic gradient functions for all material profiles, and independent and free variability of the material parameters S( x), σ( x), and κ( x) is assumed primarily, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, and σ and κ are the electrical and thermal conductivities, respectively. Thus the optimum current density can be determined from the maximum of the global performance parameter. This has been done up to now by means of numerical procedures using a 1D thermoelectric (TE) finite-element method (FEM) code or the algorithm of multisegmented elements. Herein, an analytical solution of the 1D thermal energy balance has been found for constant gradients, based on Bessel functions. For a constant electrical conductivity but linear profiles S( x) and κ( x), first results for the electrical power output of a thermogenerator are presented.

  2. Photonic gaps in one dimensional cylindrical photonic crystal that incorporates single negative materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Sahar A.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we theoretically study electromagnetic waves that propagate in one-dimensional cylindrical photonic crystals (1DCPC) containing single negative materials. We examine the optical properties of three gaps namely; the zero-effective phase (zero- ϕ), the zero-permittivity (zero- ɛ) and the zero-permeability (zero- μ). We calculate the optical reflectance for transverse electric(magnetic) TE(TM) polarizations using the transfer matrix method in the cylindrical coordinates. We study the effect of azimuthal mode number ( m) and the starting radius on these gaps. The results show that the zero- μ (zero- ɛ) gap is found for TE(TM) polarization at frequency where μ( ɛ) changes its sign for m ≥ 1. The width of the gap increases by decreasing the starting radius or by increasing m, whereas the zero- ϕ gap remains invariant. In addition, we present a brief design of 1D-CPC that has a polarization-independent wide gap especially for high azimuthal mode number ( m > 2). Our results can help improve the performance of microwave devices independent of the source wave polarization.

  3. Exciton size and binding energy limitations in one-dimensional organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraner, S., E-mail: stefan.kraner@iapp.de; Koerner, C.; Leo, K. [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Scholz, R. [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Dresden Center of Computational Materials Science, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Plasser, F. [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-12-28

    In current organic photovoltaic devices, the loss in energy caused by the charge transfer step necessary for exciton dissociation leads to a low open circuit voltage, being one of the main reasons for rather low power conversion efficiencies. A possible approach to avoid these losses is to tune the exciton binding energy to a value of the order of thermal energy, which would lead to free charges upon absorption of a photon, and therefore increase the power conversion efficiency towards the Shockley-Queisser limit. We determine the size of the excitons for different organic molecules and polymers by time dependent density functional theory calculations. For optically relevant transitions, the exciton size saturates around 0.7 nm for one-dimensional molecules with a size longer than about 4 nm. For the ladder-type polymer poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline), we obtain an exciton binding energy of about 0.3 eV, serving as a lower limit of the exciton binding energy for the organic materials investigated. Furthermore, we show that charge transfer transitions increase the exciton size and thus identify possible routes towards a further decrease of the exciton binding energy.

  4. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of Nd Doped One-dimensional Hexagonal CePO_4 Nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新奇

    2012-01-01

    One-dimensional Nd doped CePO4 hexagonal nanowires have been synthesized for the first time at 140 ℃ for 24 hours via a hydrothermal method using P123 surfactant as the template.The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction,transmission electron microscopy,photoluminescence and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.Compared with CePO4,one-dimensional nanomaterials we have synthesized,Nd doped CePO4 nanomaterials remain their hexagonal one-dimensional morphology and smooth surface.However,their photoluminescence emissions are greatly enhanced at the wavelength of 348 nm.With their novel fluorescence-emission property,the Nd doped CePO4 nanomaterials are potential in many fields such as optics and electronics.

  5. One-dimensional titania nanostructures: Synthesis and applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials and Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Guo, Zhiguang, E-mail: zguo@licp.cas.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials and Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Shimin [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials and Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Liu, Weimin [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-05-02

    One-dimensional (1D) titania (TiO{sub 2}) in the form of nanorods, nanowires, nanobelts and nanotubes have attracted much attention due to their unique physical, chemical and optical properties enabling extraordinary performance in biomedicine, sensors, energy storage, solar cells and photocatalysis. In this review, we mainly focus on synthetic methods for 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures and the applications of 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Traditional nanoparticle-based DSCs have numerous grain boundaries and surface defects, which increase the charge recombination from photoanode to electrolyte. 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures can provide direct and rapid electron transport to the electron collecting electrode, indicating a promising choice for DSCs. We divide the applications of 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures in DSCs into four parts, that is, 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures only, 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructure/nanoparticle composites, branched 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures, and 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures combined with other materials. This work will provide guidance for preparing 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures, and using them as photoanodes in efficient DSCs. - Graphical abstract: 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures which can provide direct and rapid pathways for electron transport have promising applications in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The synthetic methods and applications of 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures in DSCs are summarized in this review article.

  6. Recent progress in design, synthesis, and applications of one-dimensional TiO2 nanostructured surface heterostructures: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jian; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Kumar, Anil; Boughton, Robert I; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional TiO2 nanostructured surface heterostructures (1D TiO2NSHs) have been comprehensively studied during the past two decades because of the possible practical applications in various fields, including photocatalysis, dye-sensitized solar cells, sensors, lithium batteries, biomedicine, catalysis, and supercapacitors. Combining extensive advancements in materials science and nanotechnology, a 1D TiO2NSH material with well-controlled size, morphology, and composition has been designed and synthesized. More importantly, its superior properties, including a high aspect ratio structure, chemical stability, large specific surface area, excellent electronic or ionic charge transfer, and a specific interface effect, have attracted a great deal of interest in improving current performance and exploring new applications. In this tutorial review, we introduce the characteristics of 1D TiO2 nanostructures, the design principles for the fabrication of 1D TiO2NSHs, and we also summarize the recent progress in developing synthesis methods and applications of 1D TiO2NSHs in different fields. The relationship between the secondary phase and the 1D TiO2 nanostructure and between the performance in applications and the excellent physical properties of 1D TiO2NSHs are also discussed.

  7. Synthesis and Application of One-Dimensional La(OH)3 Nanostructures: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Xiao; Yu Huang; Fan Dong

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) semiconductor nanomaterials are of particular importance owing to their unique properties and potential applications. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive introduction of 1D La(OH)3 nanostructures including nanowires, nanoneedles, nanobelts, and nanorods. Firstly, various strategies developed to fabricate the 1D La(OH)3 nanostructures are discussed, such as precipitation and composite-hydroxide-mediated, hydrothermal, and solvothermal methods, accompanying the ...

  8. Synthesis and characterization of two one-dimensional lanthanide coordination polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Mingcai; Sun Jutang

    2004-11-03

    Two lanthanide coordination polymers [Eu(H{sub 2}sal)(Hsal)(sal){center_dot}H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (1) and {l_brace}[Tb(FUR){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{center_dot}DMF{r_brace}{sub n} (2) (H{sub 2}sal, salicylic acid; Hsal{sup -}, o-HOC{sub 6}H{sub 4}CO{sub 2}{sup -}; HFUR, {alpha}-furancarboxylic acid; DMF, N,N-dimethylformamide) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, TG, IR, and luminescence spectra. The crystal structures were determined by X-ray single crystal analysis. Both complexes are one-dimensional polymers. Probably the luminescence quenching of complex 1 is assigned to its special one-dimensional ribbon structure. The vibration energy level caused by the one-dimensional ribbon and located between {sup 5}D{sub 0} and {sup 7}F{sub j} maybe is the main reason. Complex 2 displays intense green luminescence under the excitation of UV light. The emission bands at 486, 541, 584, and 618 nm are attributed to the characteristic {sup 5}D{sub 4}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub j} (j = 6, 5, 4, 3) transitions of Tb(III) ions, respectively.

  9. Facile synthesis of one-dimensional organometallic-organic hybrid polymers based on a diphosphorus complex and flexible bipyridyl linkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed Moussa, M; Attenberger, B; Peresypkina, E V; Fleischmann, M; Balázs, G; Scheer, M

    2016-08-21

    The selective synthesis of a series of new "ladderlike" one-dimensional organometallic-organic hybrid polymers is shown. The polymers are obtained from the reaction of the diphosphorus ligand complex [Cp2Mo2(CO)4(η(2)-P2)] with the copper salt [Cu(CH3CN)4]BF4 in the presence of flexible organic bipyridyl linkers in high selectivity. This unique behaviour is supported by DFT calculations.

  10. Solvothermal Synthesis and Optical Performance of One-dimensional Strontium Hydroxyapatite Nanorod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁张磊; 常志东; 李文军; 孙长艳; 张经华; 刘洋

    2012-01-01

    One-dimensional strontium hydroxyapatite (Sr-HAp) nanorods were successfully synthesized by a simple solvothermal method. The products were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (.FT-IR), .cold field emission.sc.anning.elec.tron microscopy_.(FESEM), transmission.electron microscopy (TEM),photoluminescence (PL) excitation and emission spectra. The experimental results indicated that oleic acid as a surfactant played a key role in confining the growth of the Sr-HAp powders. A possible formation mechanism of the one-dimensional nanorod was proposed and elaborated. Moreover, the as-obtained Sr-HAp samoles showed an intense and bright emission band centered at 460 nm under long-wavelength UV light excitation and the contents of NaOH used in the synthetic process had an obvious impact on the optical performance of Sr-HAp powders. The possible luminescent mechanism of the Sr-HAp samples was discussed.

  11. The Synthesis and Photocatalytic Performance of Peapod-Like One Dimensional Nanocomposites Composed of Au Nanoparticles and TiO2 Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Taiji; Chen, Fenghua; Ma, Yurong; Qi, Limin

    2016-06-01

    Recently, material scientists have paid a lot of attention on the synthesis of one dimensional peapod-like nanostructures composed of metal nanoparticles and inorganic nanofibers due to their superior properties. In this work, we realized the synthesis of Au-TiO2 nanopeapods by using Au-bacteria cellulose nanofibers as templates in aqueous solution through a simple sol-gel method. Reaction conditions such as the Au contents in the gold-bacteria cellulose nanofibers, the reaction times and the calcination temperatures were investigated in detail for the synthesis of nanopeapods of Au-TiO2. The photocatalytic degradation tests show that the presence of a small amount of Au nanoparticles can improve the photocatalytic performance of Au-TiO2 nanocomposites compared with pure TiO2 nanofibers. The strategy to synthesize peapodlike Au-TiO2 nanocomposites by using biotemplates may shed light for the synthesis of other peapod-like nanostructures.

  12. Synthesis and Application of One-Dimensional La(OH3 Nanostructures: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional (1D semiconductor nanomaterials are of particular importance owing to their unique properties and potential applications. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive introduction of 1D La(OH3 nanostructures including nanowires, nanoneedles, nanobelts, and nanorods. Firstly, various strategies developed to fabricate the 1D La(OH3 nanostructures are discussed, such as precipitation and composite-hydroxide-mediated, hydrothermal, and solvothermal methods, accompanying the description of the corresponding growth mechanisms. Then, the unique properties such as novel physical properties of 1D La(OH3 nanostructures resulting from their unique electronic structures and numerous transition modes involving the 4f shells of these ions are represented in detail. Also, the wide applications in photocatalyst, capacitors, and photoluminescence based on the unique properties are discussed. Finally, the paper ends with a summary and some perspectives on the challenges and new directions in this emerging area.

  13. Synthesis of One-Dimensional SiC Nanostructures from a Glassy Buckypaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Mengning; Star, Alexander

    2013-02-21

    A simple and scalable synthetic strategy was developed for the fabrication of one-dimensional SiC nanostructures - nanorods and nanowires. Thin sheets of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared by vacuum filtration and were washed repeatedly with sodium silicate (Na₂SiO₃) solution. The resulting “glassy buckypaper” was heated at 1300 - 1500 °C under Ar/H₂ to allow a solid state reaction between C and Si precursors to form a variety of SiC nanostructures. The morphology and crystal structures of SiC nanorods and nanowires were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive xray spectroscopy (EDX), electron diffraction (ED) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Furthermore, electrical conductance measurements were performed on SiC nanorods, demonstrating their potential applications in high-temperature sensors and control systems.

  14. One dimensional CuO nanocrystals synthesis by electrical explosion: A study on structural, optical and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Shutesh, E-mail: shutesh.k@onsemi.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); ON Semiconductor Package Innovation and Development Center, 70450 Seremban (Malaysia); Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Johan, Mohd Rafie [Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • One-dimensional CuO nanoflakes were synthesized by novel wire explosion technique. • A physical synthesis method capable of producing high aspect ratio (1:16) nanocrystals. • Most energy efficient and eco-friendly synthesis of low-dimensional transition metal oxide nanocrystals. -- Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) copper oxide (CuO) nanocrystals were synthesized using a novel wire explosion in de-ionized (DI) water without any chemical additives. Highly crystalline 1D CuO nanocrystals with 1:16 aspect ratio were successfully synthesized using this technique. The chemical nature and physical structure of the nanocrystals were controlled by simply modulating the exploding medium temperature. The results showed that nanocrystals produced at explosion temperatures 65 °C and 95 °C are pure CuO with optical band-gap energy of 2.38 eV. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope analysis (HRTEM) indicates that the CuO nanocrystals are with growth in [1{sup ¯}11] and [1 1 1] directions. The epitaxial crystal growth kinetics of the 1D nanostructure by aggregation was discussed. The incorporation of microstructural features like edge dislocations and porosity in the growth mechanism was examined. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization indicates the formation of high purity CuO nanocrystals with valence state +2. This study provides an energy efficient and eco-friendly synthesis method of 1D transition metal oxide nanocrystals for electronic applications.

  15. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of the One-dimensional Chain Chlorodibenzyltin 2-Quininate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Wu-Jiu; YANG Nian-Fa; KUANG Dai-Zhi; FENG Yong-Lan; ZHANG Fu-Xing; WANG Jian-Qiu; LIU Meng-Qin; YU Jiang-Xi

    2011-01-01

    A one-dimensional chain chlorodibenzyltin 2-quininate has been synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR spectra and elemental analysis. The crystal structure has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic system, space group I4(—) with a = 19.1171(10), b = 19.1171(10), c = 12.5158(6) , Z = 8, V = 4574.1(4) 3, Dc = 1.477 g·cm-3, μ(MoKα) = 1.252 mm-1, F(000) = 2032, R = 0.0259 and wR = 0.0723. In the complex, the tin atom is six-coordinated to adopt a distorted octahedral configuration with bridging carboxyl of quinoline-2-carboxylic acid. The result of fluorescence spectrum analysis shows that the title complex at room temperature exhibits an intense photoluminescence with maximum emission at 364.2 nm (λex = 303.0 nm).

  16. Synthesis of one-dimensional silver oxide nanoparticle arrays and silver nanorods templated by Langmuir monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Guo; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Chang-Wei; Xue, Qingbin; Chen, Xiao; Lee, Yong-Ill; Hao, Jingcheng; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2007-10-01

    One-dimensional (1D) silver oxide nanoparticle arrays were synthesized by illuminating the composite Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of porphyrin derivatives/Ag(+) and n-hexadecyl dihydrogen phosphate (n-HDP)/Ag(+) deposited on carbon-coated copper grids with daylight and then exposing them to air. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation shows that the nanoparticle size is around 3 nm, with the separation of about 2-3 nm. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) investigation indicates that the particles are made up of Ag(2)O. Ag nanorods with the width of 15-35 nm and the length of several hundreds of nanometers were synthesized by irradiating the composite Langmuir monolayers of porphyrin derivatives/Ag(+) and n-HDP/Ag(+) by UV-light directly at the air/water interface at room temperature. HRTEM image and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern indicate that the nanorods are single crystals with the (110) face of the face-centered cubic (fcc) silver parallel to the air/water interface. The formation of the 1D arrays and the nanorods should be attributed to the templating effect of the linear supramolecules formed by porphyrin derivative or n-HDP molecules in Langmuir monolayers through non-covalent interactions.

  17. A one-dimensional material transfer model for HECTR version 1. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, A.S.; Wong, C.C.

    1991-08-01

    HECTR (Hydrogen Event Containment Transient Response) is a lumped-parameter computer code developed for calculating the pressure-temperature response to combustion in a nuclear power plant containment building. The code uses a control-volume approach and subscale models to simulate the mass, momentum, and energy transfer occurring in the containment during a loss-of-collant-accident (LOCA). This document describes one-dimensional subscale models for mass and momentum transfer, and the modifications to the code required to implement them. Two problems were analyzed: the first corresponding to a standard problem studied with previous HECTR versions, the second to experiments. The performance of the revised code relative to previous HECTR version is discussed as is the ability of the code to model the experiments. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. The application of quasi-one dimensional nano-materials in nanoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    As the scaling of silicon based electronic devices is approaching limitations set by the physical and materials properties, several nano-sized materials have gained much interest as possible substitutions of silicon for future electronics. This thesis focuses on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and germanium nanowires (GeNWs) due to their unique properties. Single walled carbon nanotubes are molecular quantum wires (diameter ˜1nm) which are highly chemically stable and exhibit outstanding electrical conductivity. However, typical synthesis of SWNTs yields a mixture of both metallic and semiconducting varieties with a range of diameters. Several methods have been reported to separate SWNTs and anion exchange (IEC) chromatography has shown the most promise for electronic type separation. In the first part of the dissertation, I will discuss the characterization of IEC separation efficiency by combining spectroscopy and electrical measurements. In the early experiment, the SWNTs were separated according to diameter and electronic types and the separation efficiency decreased with increasing tube diameter. The separation efficiency was much improved by using the new DNA sequence to suspend the SWNTs and single-chirality-enrichment was achieved. Graphene is single layer graphite, which is predicted to exhibit bandgaps useful for room temperature transistor operations with excellent switching speed and high mobilities when made into narrow ribbons (sub-10 nm). The all-semiconducting nature of sub-10 nm GNRs could bypass the problem of extreme chirality dependence of metal or semiconductor carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for future electronics. Currently, making GNRs remains challenging by lithographic, chemical or sonochemical methods. It is difficult to obtain GNRs with smooth edges and controllable width at high yields. In the second part of the thesis, I will show an interesting approach to making GNRs by unzipping multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) by

  19. A Novel Process for High-efficient Synthesis of One-dimensional Carbon Nanoraaterials from Flames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang QI; Jun ZHANG; Chunxu PAN

    2008-01-01

    The substrate pre-treatment plays a key role in obtaining hollow-cored carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and solidcored carbon nanofibers (CNFs) from flames. This paper introduces a simply and high-efficient process by coating a NiSO4 or FeSO4 layer on the substrate as catalyst precursors. Comparing with the regular pretreatment methods, the present experiments showed that the coating pre-treatment provided the following advantages: 1) greatly shortening the synthesis time; 2) available variant substrates and carbon sources; 3) narrowing the diameters distribution. The sulfate is considered to be a crucial factor at the growth of CNTs and CNFs, because it increases the surface energy of catalyst particles and the surface specificity of sulfurs action in metallic grains. This novel process provides a possibility for high quality and mass production of CNTs and CNFs from flames.

  20. A new pressure relaxation closure model for one-dimensional two-material Lagrangian hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rider W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new model for closing a system of Lagrangian hydrodynamics equations for a two-material cell with a single velocity model. We describe a new approach that is motivated by earlier work of Delov and Sadchikov and of Goncharov and Yanilkin. Using a linearized Riemann problem to initialize volume fraction changes, we require that each material satisfy its own p dV equation, which breaks the overall energy balance in the mixed cell. To enforce this balance, we redistribute the energy discrepancy by assuming that the corresponding pressure change in each material is equal. This multiple-material model is packaged as part of a two-step time integration scheme. We compare results of our approach with other models and with corresponding pure-material calculations, on two-material test problems with ideal-gas or stiffened-gas equations of state.

  1. Facile hydrothermal synthesis of one-dimensional nanostructured α-MnO2 for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongmei; Wang, Jinxing; Yang, Shengwei; Zhang, Yangyang; Li, Tengfei; Zhao, Shuoqing

    2016-09-01

    α-MnO2 recently becomes a promising candidate of electrode materials for high effective supercapacitors in which it possesses of unique structure of 2×2 tunnels that can provide more electrons and ions diffusion paths. In this work, different morphologies MnO2 with α-phase crystalline structure have been prepared via a one-step facile hydrothermal method by adding various reagents. Compositions, microstructures and morphologies of these as-synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical properties of α-MnO2 electrodes were studied by the cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution. The specific capacitance of nanowires were 158 F g-1 while the specific capacitance of nanorods were 106 F g-1 at current density of 4 A g-1, and improved performance of the wire-like electrode material was probably ascribed to the larger specific surface area that can provide relatively more active sites for high capacity. Meanwhile, both the nanowires and nanorods of MnO2 presented fine cycle stability after continuous multiple charge/discharge times.

  2. Synthesis of one-dimensional boron-related nanostructures by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li

    Motivated by the extensive research on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), boron and its related nano-structures have attracted increasing interest for potential applications in nanodevices and nanotechnologies, due to their extraordinary properties. In this work, different types of B-related nanostructures were successfully grown on oxidized Si substrates with or without transition metal catalysts in CVD processes. The gas chemistry was monitored by in-situ mass-spectroscopy and optical emission spectroscopy. These helped to identify the gas reactive species during the deposition, creating thereby a controllable, optimum synthesis process and helping in identifying the growth mechanism. The boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were successfully synthesized at the low substrate temperatures of 600-800°C by a microwave plasma CVD process, using diborane and ammonia as the gas precursors. The optimum growth conditions of BNNTs were investigated by varying the experimental parameters, such as catalyst film thickness, substrate temperature, diborane flow rate, and growth time. The dense and crystalline BNNT deposits were obtained on 1nm nickel (Ni) or cobalt (Co) thin film coated oxidized Si (111) at a temperature of 800°C, a pressure of 15 torr, microwave power of 800 W, diborane flow rate (5 vol.% in hydrogen) of 5 sccm, ammonia flow rate of 27.5 sccm, hydrogen flow rate of 10sccm, and a deposition time of 1 hour. These nanotubes were either self-assembled in bundles or as a single tube with a diameter less than 10 nm. Raman spectra together with electron diffraction pattern indicated a hexagonal crystalline structure for these BN nanostructures. A growth mechanism of BNNTs involving dissolution-supersaturation-precipitation of BN in the metal catalysts was proposed. It was shown that the growth of BN nanostructures strongly depended on the catalyst and its film thickness, which resulted in the selective growth of BNNTs on the patterned catalyst islands. Ni dots with the diameters

  3. ONE-DIMENSIONAL PLASMONIC NANO-PHOTOCATALYSTS: SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND PHOTOCATALYTIC ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, S.

    2011-08-14

    This study describes a simple two-step approach to coat gold nanorods with a silica/titania shell. Gold nanorods with an aspect ratio of 2.5 (L = 48 {+-} 2 and d = 19 {+-} 1) are synthesized by a silver-seed mediated growth approach according to our previously reported procedure (Hunyadi Murph ACS Symposium Series, Volume 1064, Chapter 8, 2011, 127-163 and reference herein). Gold nanorods are grown on pre-formed gold nano-seeds in the presence of surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and a small amount of silver ions. A bifunctional linker molecule which has a thiol group at one end and a silane group at the other is used to derivatize gold nanorods. The silane group is subsequently reacted with both sodium silicate and titanium isopropoxide to a silica/titania shell around the gold nanorods. By fine tuning the reaction conditions, the silica/titania shell thickness can be controlled from {approx}5 to {approx}40nm. The resulting nanomaterials are stable, amenable to scale up and can be isolated without core aggregation or decomposition. These new materials have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis. Photocatalytic activity of Au-silica/titania nanomaterials under visible and UV illumination is measured via degradation of a model dye, methyl orange (MO) under visible and UV illumination. The results indicate a 3 fold improvement in the photocatalytic decomposition rate of MO under visible illumination vs. UV illumination.

  4. Tunable photonic band-gaps in one-dimensional photonic crystals containing linear graded index material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bipin K.; Kumar, Pawan; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2014-12-01

    We have demonstrated control of the photonic band gaps (PBGs) in 1-D photonic crystals using linear graded index material. The analysis of PBG has been done in THz region by considering photonic crystals in the form of ten periods of second, third and fourth generation of the Fibonacci sequence as unit cell. The unit cells are constituted of two kinds of layers; one is taken of linear graded index material and other of normal dielectric material. For this investigation, we used a theoretical model based on transfer matrix method. We have obtained a large number of PBGs and their bandwidths can be tuned by changing the grading profile and thicknesses of linear graded index layers. The number of PBGs increases with increase in the thicknesses of layers and their bandwidths can be controlled by the contrast of initial and final refractive index of the graded layers. In this way, we provide more design freedom for photonic devices such as reflectors, filters, optical sensors, couplers, etc.

  5. Transmission properties of one-dimensional Photonic crystals containing double-negative and single-negative materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Li; Kang Xie; Haiming Jiang

    2008-01-01

    The transmission properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals containing double-negative and singlenegative materials are studied theoretically.A special kind of photonic band gap is found in this structure.This gap is invariant with scaling and insensitive to thickness fluctuation.But when changing the ratio of the thickness of two media.the width of the gap could be enlarged.The defect modes are analyzed by inducing a linear defect layer in the structure.It is found that the number of defect modes will increase when the thickness of the defect layer becomes larger.

  6. One-Dimensional Dielectric/Metallic Hybrid Materials for Photonic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong Jun; Xiong, Xiao; Zou, Chang-Ling; Ren, Xi Feng; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2015-08-01

    Explorations of 1D nanostructures have led to great progress in the area of nanophotonics in the past decades. Based on either dielectric or metallic materials, a variety of 1D photonic devices have been developed, such as nanolasers, waveguides, optical switches, and routers. What's interesting is that these dielectric systems enjoy low propagation losses and usually possess active optical performance, but they have a diffraction-limited field confinement. Alternatively, metallic systems can guide light on deep subwavelength scales, but they suffer from high metallic absorption and can work as passive devices only. Thus, the idea to construct a hybrid system that combines the merits of both dielectric and metallic materials was proposed. To date, unprecedented optical properties have been achieved in various 1D hybrid systems, which manifest great potential for functional nanophotonic devices. Here, the focus is on recent advances in 1D dielectric/metallic hybrid systems, with a special emphasis on novel structure design, rational fabrication techniques, unique performance, as well as their wide application in photonic components. Gaining a better understanding of hybrid systems would benefit the design of nanophotonic components aimed at optical information processing.

  7. Ultra-narrow bandwidth optical filters consisting of one-dimensional photonic crystals with anomalous dispersion materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jiang-Tao; Zhou Yun-Song; Wang Fu-He; Gu Ben-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    We present a new type of optical filter with an ultra-narrow bandwidth and a wide field-of-view (FOV). This kind of optical filter consists of one-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) incorporating an anomalous-dispersion-material (ADM) with, for instance, an anomalous dispersion of 6P3/2 ← 6S1/2 hyperfine structure transition of a caesium atom.The transmission spectra of optical filters are calculated by using the transfer-matrix method. The simulation results show that the designed optical filter has a bandwidth narrower than 0.33GHz and a wide FOV of ±30° as well. The response of transmission spectrum to an external magnetic field is also investigated.

  8. Comparison of one-dimensional probabilistic finite element method with direct numerical simulation of dynamically loaded heterogeneous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Joshua; Voth, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Material response to dynamic loading is often dominated by microstructure such as grain topology, porosity, inclusions, and defects; however, many models rely on assumptions of homogeneity. We use the probabilistic finite element method (WK Liu, IJNME, 1986) to introduce local uncertainty to account for material heterogeneity. The PFEM uses statistical information about the local material response (i.e., its expectation, coefficient of variation, and autocorrelation) drawn from knowledge of the microstructure, single crystal behavior, and direct numerical simulation (DNS) to determine the expectation and covariance of the system response (velocity, strain, stress, etc). This approach is compared to resolved grain-scale simulations of the equivalent system. The microstructures used for the DNS are produced using Monte Carlo simulations of grain growth, and a sufficient number of realizations are computed to ensure a meaningful comparison. Finally, comments are made regarding the suitability of one-dimensional PFEM for modeling material heterogeneity. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Synthesis and structures of ligand-dominated one-dimensional silver(I)-bis(pyridylmethyl)amine coordination chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Jui; Liu, Yu-Chiao; Tseng, Yu-Jui; Wu, Jing-Yun

    2016-10-01

    Reactants slow diffusion of Ag(I) salts with 3,4‧-bis(pyridylmethyl)amine (3,4‧-bpma), an unsymmetric bis-pyridyl ligand equipped with a non-innocent amine backbone, afforded polymeric coordination adducts 1-5 having a general formula {[Ag(3,4‧-bpma)(solv)]X}n (solv = H2O, CH3OH, and none; X= CF3CO2-, BF4-, ClO4-, CF3SO3-, and SbF6-). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) analyses reveal that colorless crystals of Ag(I) coordination polymers (CPs) 1-5 have very similar one-dimensional (1D) non-flat chain structures, which are preferentially depicted as a "zipper-like" rather than a ladder-like or a double-stranded chain topologies. The 3,4‧-bpma ligand in these Ag(I) CPs displays a μ3-bridging mode with a gauche-trans (1,4, and 5) and a trans-trans (2 and 3) conformations. Noteworthy, anions do not show strong influence on structural modulation of Ag(I) CPs in the solid state, but really affect CP conformations and packing fashions, indicative of a ligand-dominated assembly process for such a Ag(I)-3,4‧-bpma system. Thermal stabilities and solid-state photoluminescence properties of crystalline materials 1-5 were investigated.

  10. Synthesis,M(o)ssbauer Spectra and Magnetic Properties of Quasi-One-Dimensional Fe3O4 Nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛德胜; 张丽英; 高存绪; 许雪飞; 桂安标

    2004-01-01

    Quasi-one-dimensional Fe3O4 nanowires in diameter of about 200nm were assembled into anodic aluminium oxide templates via electrodepositing and heat-treating processes. The nanowires have a polycrystalline spinel structure with a = 8.317A, and each nanowire is composed of fine Fe3O4 crystallites with size of about 30nm.The magnetic moments of Fe3 O4 crystallites in nanowires have a preferred orientation leaning to the wire axis but not parallel to the wire axis. Mossbauer spectra (MS) were used to verify the presence of Fe3 O4 further and the existence of superparamagnetic particles in nanowires. A perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was observed obviously. Temperature dependence of the magnetic moments (M-T) shows that the Verwey transition for the Fe3 O4 nanowires occurs at 50 K, and the behaviour of the M-T curve is different from that of other magnetite materials. These characteristic magnetic properties of Fe3 O4 nanowires are mainly due to the reduced dimension and the configuration of preferred orientation in the nanowires caused by the shape anisotropy.

  11. TECHNICAL NOTE: Review of the mechanics of materials models for one-dimensional surface-bonded piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Bandar A.; Alghamdi, Abdulmalik A. A.

    2003-06-01

    This note reviews the commonest and simplest theoretical models used in modelling one-dimensional smart structures. These models can be used for any type of induced strain; however, the piezoelectric actuator is used here as a typical active element. A numerical example is given to show the differences among these models especially as regards the strain induced in the beam.

  12. Local states in one-dimensional CDW (charge density wave) materials: Spectral signatures for polarons and bipolarons in MX chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, B. I.; Donohoe, R. J.; Worl, L. A.; Bulou, A. D.F.; Arrington, C. A.; Gammel, J. T.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A. R.

    1990-01-01

    We have undertaken a combined theoretical and experimental effort directed toward the examination of both the ground and defect states in halide-bridged mixed-valence metal linear chains materials as they are tuned within and between broken symmetry phases. Novel low-dimensional highly correlated electronic materials offer a difficult theoretical challenge as we must span from a description of electronic structure on a molecular scale to the meso scale structure that is intrinsic to these solids. Our theoretical effort at Los Alamos combines quantum chemistry, band structure calculations, and many body modeling using Peierls-Hubbard Hamiltonians in order to model ground and local states. The experimental effort combines synthesis and a variety of microscopic structural and spectroscopic probes and macroscopic measurements in an effort to fully characterize both ground and local states as these materials are tuned in the phase boundary regions between broken symmetry states. The present article summarizes some of our recent research using optical spectroscopy to obtain signatures of photoexcited and intrinsic local states and compares these experimental results with Peierls-Hubbard calculations of the optical properties of these materials. Details concerning the theoretical and experimental approaches can be found elsewhere.

  13. "Dual-template" synthesis of one-dimensional conductive nanoparticle superstructures from coordination metal-peptide polymer crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Martínez, Marta; Puigmartí-Luis, Josep; Imaz, Inhar; Dittrich, Petra S; Maspoch, Daniel

    2013-12-20

    Bottom-up fabrication of self-assembled structures made of nanoparticles may lead to new materials, arrays and devices with great promise for myriad applications. Here a new class of metal-peptide scaffolds is reported: coordination polymer Ag(I)-DLL belt-like crystals, which enable the dual-template synthesis of more sophisticated nanoparticle superstructures. In these biorelated scaffolds, the self-assembly and recognition capacities of peptides and the selective reduction of Ag(I) ions to Ag are simultaneously exploited to control the growth and assembly of inorganic nanoparticles: first on their surfaces, and then inside the structures themselves. The templated internal Ag nanoparticles are well confined and closely packed, conditions that favour electrical conductivity in the superstructures. It is anticipated that these Ag(I)-DLL belts could be applied to create long (>100 μm) conductive Ag@Ag nanoparticle superstructures and polymetallic, multifunctional Fe3 O4 @Ag nanoparticle composites that marry the magnetic and conductive properties of the two nanoparticle types.

  14. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a One-Dimensional Coordination Polymer Containing Unusual Na2Cu2 Tetrametallacyclic Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO,En-Qing(高恩庆); SUN,Hai-Ying(孙海英); LIAO,Dai-Zheng(廖代正); JIANG,Zong-Hui(姜宗慧); YAN Shi-Ping(阎世平)

    2002-01-01

    A unique coordination polymer, {[CuLNa(ClO4)]@ H2O}n (1), was isolated from the solution containing sodium perchlorate and the neutral macrocyclic oxamidocopper(Ⅱ) complex [CuL] (H2L = 2,3-dioxo-5,6:13,14-dibenzo-7,12-bis(ethoxycarbonyl)-1, 4, 8, 11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-7, 11-diene). The complex is composed of [Na2Cu2] tetrametallavycles bridged by perchlorate ions to form infinite one-dimensional chains which are stacked via π-π interactions and weak coordination bonds to result in a two-dimensional supramolecular network. The perclorate ions were found to coordinate to sodium atoms in the unusual bridging chelating tridentate mode of μ2-(O:O′,O").

  15. Facile synthesis of highly efficient one-dimensional plasmonic photocatalysts through Ag@Cu₂O core-shell heteronanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinyan; Li, Zhen; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Shanqing; Wang, Lianzhou; Dou, Shixue

    2014-09-24

    A novel class of one-dimensional (1D) plasmonic Ag@Cu2O core-shell heteronanowires have been synthesized at room temperature for photocatalysis application. The morphology, size, crystal structure and composition of the products were investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, and UV-vis instruments. It was found the reaction time and the amount of Ag nanowires play crucial roles in the formation of well-defined 1D Ag@Cu2O core-shell heteronanowires. The resultant 1D Ag@Cu2O NWs exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity toward degradation of organic contaminants than Ag@Cu2O core-shell nanoparticles or pure Cu2O nanospheres under solar light irradiation. The drastic enhancement in photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance and the electron sink effect of the Ag NW cores, and the unique 1D core-shell nanostructure.

  16. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a One-dimensional Copper(Ⅱ) Complex%Hydrothermal Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a One-dimensional Copper(Ⅱ) Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiu-Mei; WANG Qing-Wei; LIU Bo

    2012-01-01

    A metal-organic coordination polymer [Cu(cbba)2(bix)]n(Hcbba = 2-(4'-chlorine-benzoyl)-benzoic acid,bix = 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-benzene) 1 has been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis,IR,TG,UV and single-crystal X-ray diffraction.Blue crystals crystallize in the monoclinic system,space group C2/c with a = 26.127(3),b = 10.6143(14),c = 14.5676(19) ,β = 111.289(2),V = 3764.3(8) 3,C42H30Cl2CuN4O6,Mr = 821.14,Dc = 1.449 g/cm3,F(000) = 1684,Z = 4,μ(MoKα) = 0.777 mm 1,the final R = 0.0528 and wR = 0.1200 for 2241 observed reflections(I 〉 2(I)).The structure of 1 exhibits a one-dimensional chain-like structure.

  17. Synthesis, Characterization and Crystal Structure Determination of a Thiocyanato Bridged One-dimensional Polymeric Complex of Cadmium(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yan; PAN Xiao-Jing; DANG Dong-Bin; SHANG Wei-Li; WANG Jing-Ping

    2008-01-01

    A new one-dimensional polymeric complex [Cd(SCN)2(H2O)]L (L = N,N'-bis(furan-2-ylmethylene)hydrazine) has been synthesized and characterized by IR, UV spectra, TG-DTA technique and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It crystallizes in triclinic, pace group P1 with a = 5.9268(8), b = 10.8678(15), c = 13.3671(19) A, α = 109.295(2), β = 95.092(2), γ =97.8580(10)°, V - 796.70(19) A3, Z = 2, C12H10CdN4O3S2, Mr = 434.76, μ = 1.648 mm-1, Dc = 1.812 g/cm3, F(000) = 428, R = 0.0308 and wR = 0.0769. The crystal structure reveals that the structure of [Cd(SCN)E(H2O)]n features di-μ-1,3-thiocyante bridges and 1D chains. The octahedrally coordinated Cd atom is surrounded by one oxygen atom from water molecule, three S atoms and two N atoms from five di-μ-1,3 thiocyanato bridges. The Cd atoms are connected by two di-μ-1,3 thiocyanato bridges with the Cd(1)…Cd(1A) separation of 4.239(1) (A) and Cd(1)…Cd(1B) of 5.852(1)(A). In addition, the one-dimensional straight chain structure is further connected by multiform intermolicular N-H…O hydrogen bonds and π…π interactions to form a three-dimensional supramolecular structure.

  18. Synthesis,Structure,and Photoluminescence Property of a Novel One-dimensional Inorganic-organic Hybrid Gallophosphate JGP-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu-lin; FAN Rui-qing; JIANG Zhao-hua; WANG Fu-ping; LIU Yun-ling; PANG Wen-qin

    2009-01-01

    A novel one-dimensional inorganic-organic hybrid gallophosphate compound,Ga(2,2'-bipy)(HPO4)·(H2PO4)(denoted JGP-2) was synthesized hydrothermaily with 2,2'-bipyridine as a ligand and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD),elemental analysis,inductively coupled plasma(ICP),TGA analysis,solid-state 31p NMR,and luminescence spectra and structurally determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.JGP-2 crystallized in the triclinic system,space group Pi(No.2),with a=0.7818(1) nm,b=0.8611(2) nm,c=1.0908(2) nm,V=0.6727(2)nm3 and Z=2 with R1=0.0223.The structure of JGP-2 was built up by alternate arrangement of GaO4N2 octahedra,and HPO4(or H2PO4) tetrahedra to form an infinite one-dimensional corner-sharing-corncr(CSC) chain.Through P sites,the CSC chains link with an unusual edge-sharing dimmer,Ga2F4(H2O)2,giving rise to a 4,10-membered ring net layered structure of JGP-7.On excitation at 254 nm,JGP-2 can emit strong blue light at λmax=388 nm.JGP-7 presents a strong fluorescence emission band centered at 394 nm(λex=340 nm),the emission energy of JGP-7 is red-shifted compared with that of JGP-2.

  19. Highly conducting one-dimensional solids

    CERN Document Server

    Evrard, Roger; Doren, Victor

    1979-01-01

    Although the problem of a metal in one dimension has long been known to solid-state physicists, it was not until the synthesis of real one-dimensional or quasi-one-dimensional systems that this subject began to attract considerable attention. This has been due in part to the search for high­ temperature superconductivity and the possibility of reaching this goal with quasi-one-dimensional substances. A period of intense activity began in 1973 with the report of a measurement of an apparently divergent conduc­ tivity peak in TfF-TCNQ. Since then a great deal has been learned about quasi-one-dimensional conductors. The emphasis now has shifted from trying to find materials of very high conductivity to the many interesting problems of physics and chemistry involved. But many questions remain open and are still under active investigation. This book gives a review of the experimental as well as theoretical progress made in this field over the last years. All the chapters have been written by scientists who have ...

  20. Synthesis, Characterization and Fluorescence of a One-dimensional Cadmium( Ⅱ ) Compound Involving Covalent and Hydrogen Bonds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Fen-Yan; WANG Rui-Hu; HAN Lei; HONG Mao-Chun

    2005-01-01

    The title compound [Cd(Hq)2(Hdpa)2] (Hq = 8-hydroxyquinoline, H2dpa = diphenic acid) has been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It crystallizes in monoclinic, space group C2/c with a = 20.6880(5), b = 14.2584(4), c = 13.4776(4) (A), β = 113.434(2)°, C46H28Cd1N2O10, Mr = 881.10, V = 3647.68(17) (A)3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.604 g/cm3, F(000) = 1784,μ = 0.668 mm-1, the final R = 0.0576 and wR = 0.1157 for 2631 observed reflections with I >2σ(Ⅰ). The centrosymmetric Cd(Ⅱ) ion is six-coordinated in a slightly distorted octahedral geometry.The intermolecular hydrogen bonds extend the mononuclear structure into a one-dimensional supramolecular framework. The fluorescence spectrum of the compound exhibits intense emission at 520 nm when excited at 330 nm in solid state at room temperature.

  1. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Thermochemical Properties of a One-Dimensional Chain Complex [Cd(succ)PIP]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 赵文杰; 刘飞; 谭金婷; 冯星; 卢颖莉; 杨旭武

    2012-01-01

    A new complex, [Cd(succ)PIP], (PIP=2-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-J]l,10-phenanthroline, H2-succ=succinate), was synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, elemental analysis, and TG-DTG. The results show that the complex crystallizes in an orthorhombic space group Pcca; a=14.065(2) A, b=9.901(8) A, c=28.933(2) A and Z=8. The structure of the complex is one-dimensional chain [Cd(succ)PIP],, and each Cd2+ is five-coordinated by two chelating nitrogen atoms from one PIP ligand, three oxygen atoms from three different succ dianionic ligands to form a distorted trigonal-bipyramida geometry. The constant-volume combustion energy of the complex, AoU, was determined by an intelligent micro-rotating-bomb calorimeter (IMRBC-type I) at 298.15 K. Then the standard mo- lar enthalpy of combustion, AcHm, and the standard molar enthalpy of formation, △fHm have been calculated.

  2. Synthesis, Optical Properties, and Photocatalytic Activity of One-Dimensional CdS@ZnS Core-Shell Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Le

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One-dimensional (1D CdS@ZnS core-shell nanocomposites were successfully synthesized via a two-step solvothermal method. Preformed CdS nanowires with a diameter of ca. 45 nm and a length up to several tens of micrometers were coated with a layer of ZnS shell by the reaction of zinc acetate and thiourea at 180 °C for 10 h. It was found that uniform ZnS shell was composed of ZnS nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. 4 nm, which anchored on the nanowires without any surface pretreatment. The 1D CdS@ZnS core-shell nanocomposites were confirmed by XRD, SEM, TEM, HR-TEM, ED, and EDS techniques. The optical properties and photocatalytic activities of the 1D CdS@ZnS core-shell nanocomposites towards methylene blue (MB and 4-chlorophenol (4CP under visible light (λ > 420 nm were separately investigated. The results show that the ZnS shell can effectively passivate the surface electronic states of the CdS cores, which accounts for the enhanced photocatalytic activities of the 1D CdS@ZnS core-shell nanocomposites compared to that of the uncoated CdS nanowires.

  3. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of a One-Dimensional Copper(Ⅰ) Halide Cluster with 1,10-Phenanthroline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU,Jie-Hui(于杰辉); WANG,Tie-Gang(王铁钢); SHI,Zhan(施展); XU,Ji-Qinf(徐吉庆); CUI,Xiao-Bing(崔小兵); DING,Hong(丁红); JING,Wei-Jie(荆维杰); CHU,De-Qing(储德清); HUA,Jia(华佳); XU,Jia-Ning(徐家宁)

    2002-01-01

    The title compound Cu2Cl2phen (phen= 1, 10-plenanthroline,C12H8N2) 1 was synthesized from CuCl2@2H2O, CuCl and phen by hydrothermal method and its structure was determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. With phen, CuCl forms one-dimensional chains, which conprise two zigzag chains based on fused Cu-X units and connected via covalent bonds. The compound contains two crystallographically unique monovalent copper ions, Cu(1) and Cu(2). The Cu(1) atom in the tetrahedral site, is coordinated to two bridging Cl- and two N atoms in phen. The Cu(2) atom with a slightly distorted triangular planar geometry, is coordinated to three Cl-. The compoumd 1 was crystallized in monoclinic, space group P21/n with a =0.37338(4), b=1.9510(2), c= 1.68008(19) nm, β=95.605 (3)°, R=0.0458, and was characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectrum and TGA analysis.

  4. One-dimensional photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Huaizhong; Wang, Zhanhua; Wu, Yuxin; Yang, Bai

    2016-01-01

    A one-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC), which is a periodic nanostructure with a refractive index distribution along one direction, has been widely studied by scientists. In this review, materials and methods for 1DPC fabrication are summarized. Applications are listed, with a special emphasis

  5. Diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone)-assisted solvothermal synthesis and optical properties of one-dimensional CdS nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jing [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhao Gaoling, E-mail: glzhao@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yang Jinjian; Han Gaorong [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-06-09

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > 1-Dimensional CdS is prepared by diphenylthiocarbazone-assisted solvothermal method. > Diphenylthiocarbazone promotes the preferential growth of CdS along [0 0 2] direction. > CdS nanowires are synthesized with an appropriate diphenylthiocarbazone amount. > CdS nanowires exhibit unique optical absorption properties due to nanometer effect. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanostructures with various aspect ratios were successfully synthesized by a diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone)-assisted solvothermal method. The results showed that the dithizone-assisted synthesized samples had larger aspect ratio than that prepared in the absence of dithizone, and CdS nanowires with the highest aspect ratio were obtained with an appropriate dithizone amount (0.03 g/50 ml ethylenediamine in the present system). All the 1D CdS nanostructures were in hexagonal wurtzite phase. The as-synthesized large-scale CdS nanowires were in diameters ranging from 70 to 80 nm, length up to 20 {mu}m, and aspect ratios of 250-285. Further characterization indicated that the CdS nanowires were single crystalline with a preferential growth orientation of [0 0 2], c-axis. Two optical absorption peaks were observed at about 488 nm and 502 nm for the CdS nanowire sample with high aspect ratio in the optical absorption spectroscopy, which could be attributed to the nanometer effect of nanowires. It was found that the additive dithizone was a crucial factor in controlling the morphology and optical properties of the 1D CdS nanostructures. The growth mechanism of 1D CdS nanostructure and the effects of dithizone in the present system were discussed.

  6. Synthesis of one-dimensional N-doped Ga2O3 nanostructures: different morphologies and different mechanisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Vanithakumari; K K Nanda

    2011-12-01

    N-doped monoclinic Ga2O3 nanostructures of different morphologies have been synthesized by heating Ga metal in ambient air at 1150°C to 1350°C for 1 to 5 h duration. Neither catalyst nor any gas flow has been used for the synthesis of N-doped Ga2O3 nanostructures. The morphology was controlled by monitoring the curvature of the Ga droplet. Plausible growth mechanisms are discussed to explain the different morphology of the nanostructures. Elemental mapping by electron energy loss spectroscopy of the nanostructures indicate uniform distribution of Ga, O and N. It is interesting to note that we have used neither nitride source nor any gas flow but the synthesis was carried out in ambient air. We believe that ambient nitrogen acts as the source of nitrogen. Unintentional nitrogen doping of the Ga2O3 nanostructures is a straightforward method and such nanostructures could be promising candidates for white light emission.

  7. A Coordination Chemistry Approach for Lithium-Ion Batteries: The Coexistence of Metal and Ligand Redox Activities in a One-Dimensional Metal-Organic Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaihua; Yang, Hao; Li, Fengcai; Cheng, Fangyi; Shi, Wei; Chen, Jun; Cheng, Peng

    2016-05-16

    We demonstrate herein the use of a one-dimensional metal-organic material as a new type of electrode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in place of the classic porous three-dimensional materials, which are subject to the size of the channel for lithium-ion diffusion and blocking of the windows of the framework by organic solvents during the charging and discharging processes. Introducing a one-dimensional coordination compound can keep organic active substances insoluble in the electrolyte during the charging and discharging processes, providing a facile and general new system for further studies. The results show that both the aromatic ligand and the metal center can participate in lithium storage simultaneously, illustrating a new energy storage mechanism that has been well-characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. In addition, the fact that the one-dimensional chains are linked by weak hydrogen bonds rather than strong π-π stacking interactions or covalent bonds is beneficial for the release of capacity entirely without the negative effect of burying the active sites.

  8. One-dimensional turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstein, A.R. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    One-Dimensional Turbulence is a new turbulence modeling strategy involving an unsteady simulation implemented in one spatial dimension. In one dimension, fine scale viscous and molecular-diffusive processes can be resolved affordably in simulations at high turbulence intensity. The mechanistic distinction between advective and molecular processes is thereby preserved, in contrast to turbulence models presently employed. A stochastic process consisting of mapping {open_quote}events{close_quote} applied to a one-dimensional velocity profile represents turbulent advection. The local event rate for given eddy size is proportional to the velocity difference across the eddy. These properties cause an imposed shear to induce an eddy cascade analogous in many respects to the eddy cascade in turbulent flow. Many scaling and fluctuation properties of self-preserving flows, and of passive scalars introduced into these flows, are reproduced.

  9. The phonon-polariton spectrum of one-dimensional Rudin-Shapiro photonic superlattices with uniaxial polar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Urrea, H. A.; Duque, C. A.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.

    2015-11-01

    The properties of the optical-phonon-associated polaritonic modes that appear under oblique light incidence in 1D superlattices made of photonic materials are studied. The investigated systems result from the periodic repetition of quasiregular Rudin-Shapiro (RS) multilayer units. It is assume that the structure consists of both passive non-dispersive layers of constant refraction index and active layers of uniaxial polar materials. In particular, we consider III-V wurtzite nitrides. The optical axis of these polaritonic materials is taken along the growth direction. Maxwell equations are solved using the transfer matrix technique for all admissible values of the incidence angle.

  10. A pressure relaxation closure model for one-dimensional, two-material Lagrangian hydrodynamics based on the Riemann problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Despite decades of development, Lagrangian hydrodynamics of strengthfree materials presents numerous open issues, even in one dimension. We focus on the problem of closing a system of equations for a two-material cell under the assumption of a single velocity model. There are several existing models and approaches, each possessing different levels of fidelity to the underlying physics and each exhibiting unique features in the computed solutions. We consider the case in which the change in heat in the constituent materials in the mixed cell is assumed equal. An instantaneous pressure equilibration model for a mixed cell can be cast as four equations in four unknowns, comprised of the updated values of the specific internal energy and the specific volume for each of the two materials in the mixed cell. The unique contribution of our approach is a physics-inspired, geometry-based model in which the updated values of the sub-cell, relaxing-toward-equilibrium constituent pressures are related to a local Riemann problem through an optimization principle. This approach couples the modeling problem of assigning sub-cell pressures to the physics associated with the local, dynamic evolution. We package our approach in the framework of a standard predictor-corrector time integration scheme. We evaluate our model using idealized, two material problems using either ideal-gas or stiffened-gas equations of state and compare these results to those computed with the method of Tipton and with corresponding pure-material calculations.

  11. Reconstruction of material properties profiles in one-dimensional macroscopically inhomogeneous rigid frame porous media in the frequency domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ryck, L; Lauriks, W; Leclaire, P; Groby, J P; Wirgin, A; Depollier, C

    2008-09-01

    The present paper deals with the inverse scattering problem involving macroscopically inhomogeneous rigid frame porous media. It consists of the recovery, from acoustic measurements, of the profiles of spatially varying material parameters by means of an optimization approach. The resolution is based on the modeling of acoustic wave propagation in macroscopically inhomogeneous rigid frame porous materials, which was recently derived from the generalized Biot's theory. In practice, the inverse problem is solved by minimizing an objective function defined in the least-square sense by the comparison of the calculated reflection (and transmission) coefficient(s) with the measured or synthetic one(s), affected or not by additive Gaussian noise. From an initial guess, the profiles of the x-dependent material parameters are reconstructed iteratively with the help of a standard conjugate gradient method. The convergence rate of the latter and the accuracy of the reconstructions are improved by the availability of an analytical gradient.

  12. One-dimensional carbon nanotube/SnO2/noble metal nanoparticle hybrid nanostructure: synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Youxing; Guo, Shaojun; Zhu, Chengzhou; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang

    2010-08-02

    Herein we report a facile and efficient method for self-assembling noble-metal nanoparticles (NPs) to the surface of SnO(2)-coated carbon nanotubes (CNT@SnO(2)) to construct CNT@SnO(2)/noble metal NP hybrids. By using SnCl(4) as the precursor of the SnO(2) shell on the surface of CNTs, the hydrolysis speed of SnCl(4) was slowed down in ethanol containing a trace amount of urea and water. The coaxial nanostructure of CNT@SnO(2) was confirmed by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the coating layer of SnO(2) was homogeneous with the mean thickness of 8 nm. The CNT@SnO(2)/noble-metal NP hybrids were obtained by mixing noble-metal NPs with as-prepared CNT@SnO(2) coaxial nanocables by means of a self-assembly strategy. With the amino group terminated, the CNT@SnO(2) coaxial nanocable can readily adsorb the as-prepared noble-metal NPs (Au, Ag, Au-Pt, and Au-Pd NPs). The presence of an amino group at the surface of SnO(2) was proved by use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In addition, H(2)O(2) sensing by amperometric methods could serve as detection models for investigating the electrocatalytic ability of as-prepared hybrid materials. It was found that wide linear ranges and low detection limits were obtained by using the enzyme-free CNT@SnO(2)@Au-Pt modified electrode, which indicated the potential utilizations of the hybrid based on CNT@SnO(2) for electrochemical sensing.

  13. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Electrochemical Properties of a One-dimensional Chain Coordination Polymer [Mn(NAA)2(4,4'-bipy)(H2O)4]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ying-Qun; LI Chang-Hong; LI Wei; KUANG Yun-Fei

    2008-01-01

    A novel one-dimensional chain coordination polymer [Mn(NAA)2(4,4'-bipy)(H2O)4]n has been synthesized with α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 4,4'-bipy and manganese(Ⅱ) sulfate as raw materials. Crystal data for this complex: monoclinic, space group P21/c, a = 1.1421(2), b=1.6337(3), c=0.94177(19) nm, β = 112.15(3)°, V= 1.6275(6) nm3, Dc = 1.407 g/cm3, Z = 2,μ(MoKα) = 0.467 mm-1, F(000) = 722, S = 1.007, R= 0.0412 and wR = 0.1022. The crystal structure shows that two neighboring manganese(Ⅱ) ions are linked together by one 4,4'-bipy molecule, and the whole complex molecule forms a one-dimensional chain structure. Each manganese(Ⅱ) ion is coordinated with two oxygen atoms of two α-naphthaleneacetic acid molecules, two nitrogen atoms of two 4,4'-bipy molecules and two oxygen atoms from two water molecules, giving a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The electrochemical properties were also analyzed.

  14. Facile Synthesis of Quasi-One-Dimensional Au/PtAu Heterojunction Nanotubes and Their Application as Catalysts in an Oxygen-Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kai; Liu, Jiawei; Zhang, Huan; Huang, Zhao; Lu, Zhicheng; Foda, Mohamed F; Li, Tingting; Han, Heyou

    2015-05-11

    An intermediate-template-directed method has been developed for the synthesis of quasi-one-dimensional Au/PtAu heterojunction nanotubes by the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Au on Te/Pt core-shell nanostructures in aqueous solution. The synthesized porous Au/PtAu bimetallic nanotubes (PABNTs) consist of porous tubular framework and attached Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). The reaction intermediates played an important role in the preparation, which fabricated the framework and provided a localized reducing agent for the reduction of the Au and Pt precursors. The Pt7 Au PABNTs showed higher electrocatalytic activity and durability in the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR) in 0.1 M HClO4 than porous Pt nanotubes (PtNTs) and commercially available Pt/C. The mass activity of PABNTs was 218 % that of commercial Pt/C after an accelerated durability test. This study demonstrates the potential of PABNTs as highly efficient electrocatalysts. In addition, this method provides a facile strategy for the synthesis of desirable hetero-nanostructures with controlled size and shape by utilizing an intermediate template. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A review on one dimensional perovskite nanocrystals for piezoelectric applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qian Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, one-dimensional piezoelectric nanomaterials have become a research topic of interest because of their special morphology and excellent piezoelectric properties. This article presents a short review on one dimensional perovskite piezoelectric materials in different systems including Pb(Zr,TiO3, BaTiO3 and (K,NaNbO3 (KNN. We emphasize KNN as a promising lead-free piezoelectric compound with a high Curie temperature and high piezoelectric properties and describe its synthesis and characterization. In particular, details are presented for nanoscale piezoelectricity characterization of a single KNN nanocrystal by piezoresponse force microscopy. Finally, this review describes recent progress in applications based on one dimensional piezoelectric nanostructures with a focus on energy harvesting composite materials.

  16. Quasi-one-dimensional nanostructured cobalt (Co) intercalated vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}): Peroxovanadate sol gel synthesis and structural study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langie da Silva, Douglas, E-mail: douglas.langie@ufpel.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, Pelotas 96010-900 (Brazil); Moreira, Eduardo Ceretta [Laboratório de Espectroscopia, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Campus Bagé, Bagé 96400-970 (Brazil); Dias, Fábio Teixeira; Neves Vieira, Valdemar das [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, Pelotas 96010-900 (Brazil); Brandt, Iuri Stefani; Cas Viegas, Alexandre da; Pasa, André Avelino [Laboratório de Filmes Finos e Superfícies, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Caixa Postal 476, Florianópolis 88.040-900 (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Nanostructured cobalt vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) xerogels spread onto crystalline Si substrates were synthesized via peroxovanadate sol gel route. The resulting products were characterized by distinct experimental techniques. The surface morphology and the nanostructure of xerogels correlate with Co concentration. The decrease of the structural coherence length is followed by the formation of a loose network of nanopores when the concentration of intercalated species was greater than 4 at% of Co. The efficiency of the synthesis route also drops with the increase of Co concentration. The interaction between the Co(OH{sub 2}){sub 6}{sup 2+} cations and the (H{sub 2}V{sub 10}O{sub 28}){sup 4−} anions during the synthesis was suggested as a possible explanation for the incomplete condensation of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} gel. Finally the experimental results points for the intercalation of Co between the bilayers of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. In this scenario two possible preferential occupation sites for the metallic atoms in the framework of the xerogel were proposed. - Graphical abstract: Quasi-one-dimensional nanostructured cobalt (Co) intercalated vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanoribbons synthesized by peroxovanadate sol gel route. - Highlights: • Nanostructured cobalt V{sub 2}O{sub 5} gel spread onto c{sub S}i were synthesized via peroxovanadate sol gel route. • The micro and nanostructure correlates with the cobalt content. • The efficiency of the synthesis route shows to be also dependent of Co content. • The experimental results points for the intercalation of Co between the bilayers of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} xerogel.

  17. Synthesis of one-dimensional gold nanostructures and the electrochemical application of the nanohybrid containing functionalized graphene oxide for cholesterol biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandini, Seetharamaiah; Nalini, Seetharamaiah; Reddy, M B Madhusudana; Suresh, Gurukar Shivappa; Melo, Jose Savio; Niranjana, Pathappa; Sanetuntikul, Jakkid; Shanmugam, Sangaraju

    2016-08-01

    This manuscript reports a new approach for the synthesis of one dimensional gold nanostructure (AuNs) and its application in the development of cholesterol biosensor. Au nanostructures have been synthesized by exploiting β-diphenylalanine (β-FF) as an sacrificial template, whereas the Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized by ultrasound irradiation. X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) have been employed to characterize the morphology and composition of the prepared samples. With the aim to develop a highly sensitive cholesterol biosensor, cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was immobilized on AuNs which were appended on the graphite (Gr) electrode via chemisorption onto thiol-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-SH). This Gr/GO-SH/AuNs/ChOx biosensor has been characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry. CV results indicated a direct electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode surface. A new potentiostat intermitant titration technique (PITT) has been studied to determine the diffusion coefficient and maxima potential value. The proposed biosensor showed rapid response, high sensitivity, wide linear range and low detection limit. Furthermore, our AuNs modified electrode showed excellent selectivity, repeatability, reproducibility and long term stability. The proposed electrode has also been used successfully to determine cholesterol in serum samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonlinear Localization due to a Double Negative Defect Layer in a One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Containing Single Negative Material Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Munazza Zulfiqar Ali; Tariq Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of introducing a defect layer in a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing single negative material layers on the transmission properties.The width of the defect layer js taken to be the same or smaller than the period of the structure.Different cases of the defect layer being linear or nonlinear and double positive or double negative are discussed.It is found that only a nonlinear double negative layer givas rises to a localized mode within the zero-φeff gap in this kind of structure.It is also shown that the important characteristics of the nonlinear defect mode such as its frequency,its FWHM and the threshold of the associated bistability can be controlled by changing the widths of the defect layer and the host layers.

  19. One-Dimensionality and Whiteness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    This article is a theoretical discussion that links Marcuse's concept of one-dimensional society and the Great Refusal with critical race theory in order to achieve a more robust interrogation of whiteness. The author argues that in the context of the United States, the one-dimensionality that Marcuse condemns in "One-Dimensional Man" is best…

  20. One-Dimensionality and Whiteness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    This article is a theoretical discussion that links Marcuse's concept of one-dimensional society and the Great Refusal with critical race theory in order to achieve a more robust interrogation of whiteness. The author argues that in the context of the United States, the one-dimensionality that Marcuse condemns in "One-Dimensional Man" is best…

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of a two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate via a metastable one-dimensional phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre-Fernández, Laura; Khainakova, Olena A. [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Espina, Aránzazu [Servicios Científico Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Amghouz, Zakariae, E-mail: amghouz.uo@uniovi.es [Servicios Científico Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Khainakov, Sergei A. [Servicios Científico Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Alfonso, Belén F.; Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); García, José R.; García-Granda, Santiago [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    A two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, formulated as (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12}){sub 1.5}(Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4})·H{sub 2}O (2D), was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c, a=8.1165(3) Å, b=26.2301(10) Å, c=8.3595(4) Å, and β=110.930(5)°) and the hydrogen atom positions were optimized by DFT calculations. A single-crystal corresponding to one-dimensional metastable phase, (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12})Co{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.7}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O (1D), was also isolated and the crystal structure was determined (monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c, a=8.9120(6) Å, b=14.0290(1) Å, c=12.2494(5) Å, and β=130.884(6)°). The bulk was characterized by chemical (C–H–N) analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), powder X-ray thermodiffractometry (HT-XRD), transmission electron microscopy (STEM(DF)-EDX and EFTEM), and thermal analysis (TG/SDTA-MS), including activation energy data of its thermal decomposition. The magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements show no magnetic ordering down to 4 K. - Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal synthesis and structural characterization of a two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12}){sub 1.5}(Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4})·H{sub 2}O (2D), have been reported. The crystal structure of a one-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12})Co{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.7}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O (1D) a metastable phase during the hydrothermal synthesis, was also determined. The thermal behavior of 2D compound is strongly dependent on the selected heating rate and the magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements show no magnetic ordering down to 4 K. - Highlights: • A 2D piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate has been synthesized and characterized. • Crystal

  2. Synthesis of novel AuPd nanoparticles decorated one-dimensional ZnO nanorod arrays with enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Zhang, Junlong; Ge, Lei; Han, Changcun; Qiu, Ping; Fang, Siman

    2016-12-01

    The vertically aligned one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorod arrays decorated with AuPd alloy nanoparticles have been synthesized with ZnO nanorod arrays as template via a mild hydrothermal method. In this work, the as-prepared AuPd/ZnO nanorod arrays demonstrated high light-harvesting efficiency. The microstructures, morphologies and chemical properties of the obtained AuPd/ZnO composite photocatalyst were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoelectrochemical (PEC) performances of as-obtained AuPd/ZnO nanorod arrays were examined, and the photocurrent density was up to 0.98mAcm(-2) at 0.787V versus Ag/AgCl, which was about 2.4 times higher than the pure ZnO sample. A possible photocatalytic mechanism of the AuPd/ZnO hybrid nanostructures under the simulated sunlight irradiation was proposed to guide further improvement of other desirable materials. According to the above experiment results, it can be clearly found that AuPd/ZnO composite nanorod arrays showed excellent PEC performance and had promising applications in the utilization of solar energy.

  3. Prediction and Synthesis of Strain Tolerant RbCuTe Crystals Based on Rotation of One-Dimensional Nano Ribbons within a Three-Dimensional Inorganic Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Michael J DeVries; Zhang, Xiuwen; Trimarchi, Giancarlo; Donakowski, Martin D; Chupas, Peter J; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R; Zunger, Alex

    2015-09-09

    A unique possibility for a simple strain tolerant inorganic solid is envisioned whereby a set of isolated, one-dimensional (1D) nano objects are embedded in an elastically soft three-dimensional (3D) atomic matrix thus forming an interdimensional hybrid structure (IDHS). We predict theoretically that the concerted rotation of 1D nano objects could allow such IDHSs to tolerate large strain values with impunity. Searching theoretically among the 1:1:1 ABX compounds of I-I-VI composition, we identified, via first-principles thermodynamic theory, RbCuTe, which is a previously unreported but now predicted-to-be-stable compound in the MgSrSi-type structure, in space group Pnma. The predicted structure of RbCuTe consists of ribbons of copper and telluride atoms placed antipolar to one another throughout the lattice with rubidium atoms acting as a matrix. A novel synthetic adaptation utilizing liquid rubidium and vacuum annealing of the mixed elemental reagents in fused silica tubes as well as in situ (performed at the Advanced Photon Source) and ex situ structure determination confirmed the stability and predicted structure of RbCuTe. First-principles calculations then showed that the application of up to ∼30% uniaxial strain on the ground-state structure result in a buildup of internal stress not exceeding 0.5 GPa. The increase in total energy is 15-fold smaller than what is obtained for the same RbCuTe material but in structures having a contiguous set of 3D chemical bonds spanning the entire crystal. Furthermore, electronic structure calculations revealed that the HOMO is a 1D energy band localized on the CuTe ribbons and that the 1D insulating band structure is also resilient to such large strains. This combined theory and experiment study reveals a new type of strain tolerant inorganic material.

  4. Synthesis of pseudo-one dimensional carbon crystal `Carbolite` and the relation of Carbolite to carbyne; Giichijigensei tanso kessho CALBOLITE no sosei, awasete CARBYNE tono kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanuma, S.; Palnichenko, A. [Iwaki Meisei University, Fukushima (Japan)

    1995-09-10

    This paper summarizes the pseudo-one dimensional carbon crystal `Carbolite`. The name was coined on a pseudo-one dimensional carbon crystal generated by quenching carbon arc on a copper substrate. A name of Carbolite 1 was given if argon atmosphere is used for the production, and Carbolite 2 if H2/Ar is used. The size of unit grid derived by analyzing the diffraction pattern differs from that for a group of carbyine which is a bond of pseudo-one dimensional carbons. Values of the average C-C bonding distance in carbon chains in Carbolite and the distance between carbon chains support the pseudo-one dimensional crystal structure. It was confirmed that K and Na intercalate between chains in Carbolite. Much stronger reaction was observed in 1{sub 2}, which changed the base structure. Although no conductivity measurement has yet been made, superconductivity may be expected. Carbyine has densities from 3.43 to 2.68, while Carbolite 1 and 2 have 1.46, showing the inter-chain distance being greater in the latter. Both substances share pseudo-one dimensionality with the carbon chains oriented along the C-axis, but they are different species in terms of quantification. Carbolite has a possibility of being a thermodynamically non-equilibrium substance. 11 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Synthesis of an S T = 7 [Mn 3 ] Mixed-Valence Complex Based on 1,3-Propanediol Ligand Derivatives and Its One-Dimensional Assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jian

    2013-10-07

    Controlled organization of high-spin complexes and single-molecule magnets is a great challenge in molecular magnetism in order to study the effect of the intercomplex magnetic interactions on the intrinsic properties of a given magnetic object. In this work, a new ST = 7 trinuclear mixed-valence Mn complex, [MnIIIMnII 2(LA) 2(Br)4(CH3OH)6] ·Br· (CH3OH)1.5·(H2O)0.5 (1), is reported using a pyridinium-functionalized 1,3-propanediol ligand (H 2LABr = 1-(3-bromo-2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propyl)pyridinium bromide). Using azido anions as bridging ligands and different pyridinium-functionalized 1,3-propanediol ligands (H2LBBr = 1-(3-bromo-2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propyl)-4-picolinium bromide; H 2LCBr = 1-(3-bromo-2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propyl)-3,5- lutidinium bromide), the linear [MnIIIMnII 2L2X4]+ building block has been assembled into one-dimensional coordination networks: [MnIIIMn II 2(LA)2(Br)4(CH 3OH)4(N3)]·((C2H 5)2O)1.25 (2∞), [MnIIIMn II 2(LB)2(Br)4(C 2H5OH)(CH3OH)(H2O) 2(N3)]·(H2O)0.25 (3∞), and [MnIIIMnII 2(LC) 2(Cl)3.8(Br)0.2(C2H 5OH)3(CH3OH)(N3)] (4∞). The syntheses, characterization, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of these new [Mn3]-based materials are reported. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  6. One-Dimensional (1-D) Nanoscale Heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guozhen SHEN; Di CHEN; Yoshio BANDO; Dmitri GOLBERG

    2008-01-01

    One-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures have been attracted much attention as a result of their exceptional properties, which are different from bulk materials. Among 1-D nanostructures, 1-D heterostructures with modulated compositions and interfaces have recently become of particular interest with respect to potential applications in nanoscale building blocks of future optoelectronic devices and systems. Many kinds of methods have been developed for the synthesis of 1-D nanoscale heterostructures. This article reviews the most recent development, with an emphasize on our own recent efforts, on 1-D nanoscale heterostructures, especially those synthesized from the vapor deposition methods, in which all the reactive precursors are mixed together in the reaction chamber. Three types of 1-D nanoscale heterostructures, defined from their morphologies characteristics, are discussed in detail, which include 1-D co-axial core-shell heterostructures, 1-D segmented heterostructures and hierarchical heterostructures. This article begins with a brief survey of various methods that have been developed for synthesizing 1-D nanoscale heterostructures and then mainly focuses on the synthesis, structures and properties of the above three types of nanoscale heterostructures. Finally, this review concludes with personal views towards the topic of 1-D nanoscale heterostructures.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis of one-dimensional assemblies of Pt nanoparticles and their sensor application for simultaneous determination of dopamine and ascorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wei [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Nanostructured Materials (China); Wang Qingxiang [Zhangzhou Normal University (China); Zhang Zhikun, E-mail: zhangzk@qust.edu.c [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Nanostructured Materials (China)

    2008-12-15

    One-dimensional assemblies of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) with the size range of 10-20 nm have been synthesized via a simple hydrothermal route using soluble starch as both template and reducing agent. The formation mechanism of the product was studied in details. The electrochemical behavior of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) on the prepared one-dimensionally assembled Pt NPs modified glassy carbon electrode were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques and showed satisfactory results for the simultaneous determination of DA and AA by resolving the overlapping voltammetric responses of DA and AA into two voltammetric peaks.

  8. Duality Symmetries in Driven One-Dimensional Hopping Models(Frontiers in Nonequilibrium Physics-Fundamental Theory, Glassy & Granular Materials, and Computational Physics-)

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, SOLLICH; Robert L., JACK; Department of Mathematics, King's College London; Department of Physics, University of Bath

    2010-01-01

    We consider some duality relations for models of non-interacting particles hopping on disordered one-dimensional chains. In particular, we discuss symmetries of bulk-driven barrier and trap models, and relations between boundary-driven and equilibrium models with related energy landscapes. We discuss the relationships between these duality relations and similar results for interacting many-body systems.

  9. Slow-Reduction Synthesis of a Thiolate-Protected One-Dimensional Gold Cluster Showing an Intense Near-Infrared Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Shinjiro; Yamazoe, Seiji; Koyasu, Kiichirou; Tsukuda, Tatsuya

    2015-06-10

    Slow reduction of Au ions in the presence of 4-(2-mercaptoethyl)benzoic acid (4-MEBA) gave Au76(4-MEBA)44 clusters that exhibited a strong (3 × 10(5) M(-1) cm(-1)) near-infrared absorption band at 1340 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction studies indicated that the Au core has a one-dimensional fcc structure that is elongated along the {100} direction.

  10. Kinetically Controlled Synthesis of Pt-Based One-Dimensional Hierarchically Porous Nanostructures with Large Mesopores as Highly Efficient ORR Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Shaofang; Zhu, Chengzhou; Song, Junhua; Engelhard, Mark H.; Xia, Haibing; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-12-28

    Rational design and construction of Pt-based porous nanostructures with large mesopores have triggered significant considerations because of their high surface area and more efficient mass transport. Hydrochloric acid-induced kinetic reduction of metal precursors in the presence of soft template F-127 and hard template tellurium nanowires has been successfully demonstrated to construct one-dimensional hierarchical porous PtCu alloy nanostructures with large mesopores. Moreover, the electrochemical experiments demonstrated that the resultant PtCu hierarchically porous nanostructures with optimized composition exhibit enhanced electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction.

  11. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Electrochemical Properties of a One-dimensional Chain Coordination Polymer [Mn(phen)(2,4,6-TMBA)2(H2O)]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional chain-like coordination polymer [Mn(phen)(2,4,6-TMBA)2(H2O)]n has been synthesized from 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid, 1,10-phenanthioline and anhydrous manganese(Ⅱ) sulfate and then characterized. Crystal data for this complex: tetragonal, space group I41, a = 2.05643(16), b = 2.05643(16), c = 1.3939(2) nm, V= 5.8946(11) nm3, Mr = 579.54, Z = 8, Dc = 1.306 g/cm3, λ(MoKα) = 0.490 mm-1, F(000) = 2424, S = 0.985, the final R = 0.0411 and wR = 0.0950. The Flack factor is -0.01(2). The crystal structure shows that two neighboring man-ganese(Ⅱ) ions are linked together by one bridge-chelating 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic group, forming a one-dimensional chain structure. The manganese(Ⅱ) ion is coordinated with two nitrogen atoms of one 1,10-phenanthroline, three oxygen atoms from three 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acids and one water oxygen atom, giving a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The cyclic voltametric behavior of the complex was also investigated.

  12. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Characterization of a One-dimensional Supramolecular Rare Earth Complex of N-(6-(4-Methylpyridinyl))ketoacetamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; TANG Kuan-Zhen; MA Yu-Fei; TANG Yu; TAN Min-Yu

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional (1D) supramolecular rare earth complex [Nd(NO3)2L2-(C3H6O)][NdL(NO3)4]} (L=N-(6-(4-methylpyridinyl))ketoacetamide) has been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and electronic spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P-1 with a=0.9146(6), b=1.2581(8), c=2.2316(14) nm, α=99.352(10),β=97.209(9), γ=103.935(9)°, V=2.422(3) nm3, Dc=1.776 g/cm3, C33H42N12Nd2O25, Mr=1295.27, Z=2, F(000)=1288, μ=2.217 mm-1, R=0.0508and wR=0.1046 for 5173 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). In the structure of the title complex,one-dimensional supramolecular double-chains are formed by intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions.

  13. Coordination of lanthanide cation to an Anderson type polyoxometalate anion leads to isomorphous metal-oxide based one-dimensional inorganic solids: Synthesis, crystal structure and spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vaddypally Shivaiah; Tanmay Chatterjee; Samar K Das

    2014-09-01

    One-dimensional isomorphous inorganic polymers containing Anderson type heteropoly anion as a basic building unit, namely [La(H2O)7Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]·4nH2O (1), [Gd(H2O)7Cr(OH)6Mo6O18]·4nH2O (2), [Gd(H2O)7Al(OH)6Mo6O18]·4nH2O (3), and [Eu(H2O)7Al(OH)6Mo6O18]·4nH2O (4) have been synthesized and studied by the powdered X-ray diffraction, TGA, IR, electronic and ESR spectroscopy, and unambiguously by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Isomorphous compounds 1-4 are crystallized in orthorhombic system with 21 space group. The crystal structure analysis reveals a one-dimensional extended chain in which the Anderson type heteropolyanion, acting as the building unit, is linked by rare earth metal ions in a zig-zag fashion. In the crystal structure, all types of oxygens of the heteropolyanion, lattice waters, lanthanum coordinated waters are extensively involved in O—H…O hydrogen bonding interactions. Compounds are additionally characterized by UV-visible and ESR spectroscopy.

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure, and proton conductivity of one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional zirconium phosphonates based on glyphosate and glyphosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Marco; Donnadio, Anna; Costantino, Ferdinando; Vivani, Riccardo; Casciola, Mario

    2013-10-21

    The reaction of two small phosphono-amino acids based on glycine (glyphosine and glyphosate) with zirconium under mild conditions led to the attainment of three related zirconium derivatives with 1D, 2D, and 3D structures of formulas ZrF[H3(O3PCH2NHCH2COO)2] (1), Zr3H8[(O3PCH2)2NCH2COO]4·2H2O (2), and Zr[(O3PCH2)(HO3PCH2)NHCH2COOH]2·2H2O (3), respectively, whose structures were solved by X-ray powder and single-crystal diffraction data. The glyphosate derivative has 1D ribbon-type structure whereas the dimensionality of the glyphosine-derived materials (2D and 3D) can be tuned by changing the synthesis conditions. The low-dimensional compounds (1 and 2) can be directly produced in the form of nanoparticles with different size and morphology whereas the 3D compound (3) has a higher crystallinity and can be obtained as single crystals with a prismatic shape. The different structural dimensionality reflects the shape and size of the crystals and also differently affects the proton conductivity properties, measured over a wide range of temperature at 95% relative humidity. Their high thermal and chemical stability together with the small size may promote their use as fillers for polymeric electrolyte membranes for fuel cells applications.

  15. Sol-hydrothermal synthesis and optical properties of Eu3+, Tb(3+)-codoped one-dimensional strontium germanate full color nano-phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liangwu; Sun, Xinyuan; Jiang, Yao; He, Yuehui

    2013-12-21

    Novel near-UV and blue excited Eu(3+), Tb(3+)-codoped one dimensional strontium germanate full-color nano-phosphors have been successfully synthesized by a simple sol-hydrothermal method. The morphologies, internal structures, chemical constitution and optical properties of the resulting samples were characterized using FE-SEM, TEM, HRTEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR, XPS, PL and PLE spectroscopy and luminescence decay curves. The results suggested that the obtained Eu(3+), Tb(3+)-codoped strontium germanate nanowires are single crystal nanowires with a diameter ranging from 10 to 80 nm, average diameter of around 30 nm and the length ranging from tens to hundreds micrometers. The results of PL and PLE spectra indicated that the Eu(3+), Tb(3+)-codoped single crystal strontium germanate nanowires showed an intensive blue, blue-green, green, orange and red or green, orange and red light emission under excitation at 350-380 nm and 485 nm, respectively, which may attributed to the coexistent Eu(3+), Eu(2+) and Tb(3+) ions, and the defects located in the strontium germanate nanowires. A possible mechanism of energy transfer among the host, Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions was proposed. White-emission can be realized in a single-phase strontium germanate nanowire host by codoping with Tb(3+) and Eu(3+) ions. The Eu(3+), Tb(3+)-codoped one-dimensional strontium germanate full-color nano-phosphors have superior stability under electron bombardment. Because of their strong PL intensity, good CIE chromaticity and stability, the novel 1D strontium germanate full-color nano-phosphors have potential applications in W-LEDs.

  16. One Dimensional Ballistic Electron Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Research in low-dimensional semiconductor systems over the last three decades has been largely responsible for the current progress in the areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The ability to control and manipulate the size, the carrier density, and the carrier type in two-, one-, and zero- dimensional structures has been widely exploited to study various quantum transport phenomena. In this article, a brief introduction is given to ballistic electron transport in one-dimensional quantum wires.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of one-dimensional Ag-doped ZnO/Ga-doped ZnO coaxial nanostructure diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsien-Ming; Chang, Yu-Tsui; Wu, Wen-Wei; Wu, Jenn-Ming

    2014-04-09

    In the pursuit of high injection current diode nanodevices, entire one-dimensional (1D) ZnO coaxial nanostructures with p-n homojunctions is one of the ideal structures. In this study, we synthesized entire 1D ZnO-based coaxial homojunction diodes with p-type Ag-doped ZnO (SZO) nanostructure shells covering n-type Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) nanopagoda (NPG) cores by a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. The entire 1D SZO-GZO and SZO-ZnO coaxial nanostructures exhibit better diode characteristics, such as lower threshold voltage, better rectification ratios, and better ideality factor n, than that reported for either 2D or 2D-1D p-n heterojunction and/or homojunction diodes. The binding energies of Ga and Ag were evaluated by low-temperature and temperature-dependent photoluminescence. In comparison, the SZO-GZO coaxial p-n nanostructures display better diode performance than the SZO-ZnO ones.

  18. Synthesis of dendron-protected porphyrin wires and preparation of a one-dimensional assembly of gold nanoparticles chemically linked to the pi-conjugated wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Hiroaki; Kawao, Masahiro; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Takuji

    2007-05-22

    A one-dimensional assembly of gold nanoparticles chemically bonded to pi-conjugated porphyrin polymers was prepared on a chemically modified glass surface and on an undoped naturally oxidized silicon surface by the following methods: pi-conjugated porphyrin polymers were prepared by oxidative coupling of 5,15-diethynyl-10,20-bis-((4-dendron)phenyl) porphyrin (6), and its homologues (larger than 40-mer) were collected by analytical gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The porphyrin polymers (>40-mer) were deposited using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method on substrate surfaces, which were then soaked in a solution of gold nanoparticles (2.7 +/- 0.8 nm) protected with t-dodecanethiol and 4-pyridineethanethiol. The topographical images of the surface observed by tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the polymers could be dispersed on both substrates, with a height of 2.8 +/- 0.5 nm on the modified glass and 3.1 +/- 0.5 nm on silicon. The height clearly increased after soaking in the gold nanoparticle solution, to 5.3 +/- 0.5 nm on glass and 5.4 +/- 0.7 nm on silicon. The differences in height (2.5 nm on glass and 2.3 nm on silicon) corresponded to the diameter of the gold nanoparticles bonded to the porphyrin polymers. The distance between gold nanoparticles observed in scanning electron microscopic images was ca. 5 nm, indicating that they were bonded at every four or five porphyrin units.

  19. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a One-dimensional Infinite Chain Organotin Complex [(n-Bu)3Sn(OCOC5H4NO)]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A novel organotin complex [(n-Bu)3Sn(OCOC5H4NO)]n has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and 1H NMR. The crystal structure has been determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The crystal belongs to monoclinic, space group P21/c with a =8.982(2), b = 17.908(4), c = 13.219(3) A, β= 96.981 (4)°, Z = 4, V= 2110.6(8) A3, Dc = 1.347 g/cm3,μ(MoKα) = 12.23 cm-1, F(000) = 880, R = 0.0497 and wR = 0.1263. In the molecular structure of the title complex, the tin atoms are five-coordinated in a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. A one-dimensional linear polymer is formed through an interaction between the O atoms of pyridine-3-carboxylic acid N-oxide and tin atoms of an adjacent molecule.

  20. One-dimensional Bi2MoxW1-xO6 sosoloids: controllable synthesis by electrospinning process and enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinyu; Lu, Qifang; Ji, Xueyang; Liu, Zhendong; Wei, Mingzhi; Guo, Enyan

    2017-06-01

    One-dimensional Bi2MoxW1-xO6 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.67, and 1) photocatalysts have been successfully synthesized for the first time by a straightforward electrospinning technique with a calcination process. The as-formed Bi2MoxW1-xO6 nanofibers are composed of inter-linked nanosheets of 30-50 nm in size and characterized by thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric, Fourier transform infrared, Raman spectra, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, transmission electron microscope, UV-Vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence, HPLC, and EIS. The photodegradation behaviors towards organic dyes, including rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB) are investigated, and the results illustrate that Bi2Mo0.25W0.75O6 nanofibers exhibit the highest photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation than Bi2MoxW1-xO6 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.67, and 1) samples. The possible mechanisms of the enhanced photocatalytic properties are discussed in detail.

  1. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of a one-dimensional copper(II) polymer bridged by different double end-on azide bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Fang; Yu, Ming-Ming; Ni, Zhong-Hai; Cui, Ai-Li; Kou, Hui-Zhong

    2011-12-01

    A one-dimensional (1D) copper(II) complex [Cu 3(μ 1,1-N 3) 6(dmp) 2] n ( 1) has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The molecular structure of 1 is constructed by trimeric [Cu 3(μ 1,1-N 3) 6(dmp) 2] units formed through two double symmetric (basal-to-basal) end-on (EO) azide bridges and the trimeric units are connected further by double asymmetric (basal-to-apical) EO azide bridges, giving 1D chain-like structure. The chains of 1 are linked together by N-H⋯N azide hydrogen bonds and very weak Cu⋯N azide coordination interactions from μ-1,1,3,3-N 3 fashion to form two-dimensional (2D) supramolecular architecture. The magnetic structure can be considered as uniform 1D chain formed by linear trimeric Cu II-Cu II-Cu II units and the dominating magnetic coupling occurs within the trimeric Cu3II unit. The magnetic study shows that the compound exhibits ferromagnetic interactions with Jt = + 8.36(2) cm -1 and Jc = + 0.35(4) cm -1 for intratrimeric and intertrimeric Cu3II unit based on 1D magnetic model, respectively.

  2. Synthesis,Crystal Structure and Fluorescent Properties of a New One-Dimensional Polymer [Sm(sal)4(phen)2Na]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Cunjin; Yang Hui

    2005-01-01

    The title complex, [Sm(sal)4(phen)2Na]n (Ⅰ), where Hsal=salicylic acid, phen=1, 10-phenanthroline, was synthesized by the reaction of samarium chloride with phen and Hsal in ethanol solution and its crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction. The crystal is monoclinic, space group C2/c with cell dimensions of a=2.84989 (7) nm, b=0.93347 (2) nm, c=2.27954 (5) nm, β=132.4010 (8), V=4.4781 (2) nm3, Z=4, μ (Mo Kα)=13.97 cm-1, Dc=1.605 g*cm-3. The title complex is a compound, with centre of the Sm and Na atoms which are bridged by two carboxylate ligands. The structure of the complex demonstrates one-dimensional chain bridged by carboxyl groups. The fluorescence spectrum of the complex indicates that the second ligand phen shows enhancement effect on the fluorescence of the complex.

  3. Synthesis and properties of one-dimensional Ni(Ⅱ) and Ni(Ⅱ)Cu(Ⅱ) complexes linked by hydrogen bond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI; Jianzhong(崔建中); SHI; Wei(师唯); CHENG; Peng(程鹏); LIAO; Daizheng(廖代正); YAN; Shiping(阎世平); JIANG; Zonghui(姜宗慧); WANG; Genglin(王耕霖); YAO; Xinkan(姚心侃); WANG; Honggen(王宏根)

    2002-01-01

    Four dithiooxalato (Dto) bridged one-dimensional Ni(II) and Ni(II)Cu(II) complexes (Me6[14]dieneN4)Ni2(Dto)2) (1), (Me6[14]dieneN4)CuNi(Dto)2 (2), (Me6[14]aneN4)Ni2(Dto)2 (3), and (Me6[14]aneN4)CuNi(Dto)2 (4), were synthesized. These complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV and ESR spectra. The crystal structure of complex 3 was determined. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group C2/c with a = 2.2425(4) nm, b = 1.0088(2) nm, c = 1.4665(3) nm, β = 125.32(3)° ; Z = 4; R = 0.076, Rw = 0.079. In the complex, Ni(1) coordinates four sulphur atoms of two Dto ligands in plane square environment. Ni(2) lies in the center of macrocyclic ligand. For Dto ligand, two sulphur atoms coordinate Ni(1), and O(1) coordinates Ni(2) and forms weak coordination bond. O(2) is linked to N(2) of macrocyclic ligand through hydrogen bond.

  4. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a New One-dimensional Zn(II) Nitronyl Nitroxide Complex Bridged by Pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylate Anion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Dong-Zhao; LI Li-Cun; LIAO Dai-Zheng; JIANG Zong-Hui; YAN Shi-Ping

    2006-01-01

    A new one-dimensional (1-D) Zn(II) nitronyl nitroxide complex bridged by pyri- dine-2,4-dicarboxylate anion, [Zn(NIT4Py)(2,4-PDA)(H2O)2]n (NIT4Py = 2-(4'-pyridyl)-4,4,5,5- tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide and 2,4-PDA = pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylate anion), has been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 16.834(2), b = 7.4376(10), c = 18.295(3) (A), β = 102.848(2)°, V = 2233.2(5)(A)3, C19H23N4O8Zn, Mr = 500.78, Dc = 1.489 g/cm3, μ(MoKα) = 1.152 mm-1, F(000) = 1036, Z = 4, the final R = 0.0390 and wR = 0.0915 for 3234 observed reflections. In the complex, each zinc(II) ion is six-coordinated by one nitrogen atom of the radical ligand (NIT4Py), one nitrogen atom and two oxygen atoms of two 2,4-PDA anions and two oxygen atoms of two water molecules. Each 2,4-PDA anion bridges two Zn(II) ions via a tridentate mode into a 1-D chain, and these 1-D chains are further linked into a 2-D network via hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  5. One-dimensional isothermal multicomponent diffusion-reaction model and its application to methanol synthesis over commercial Cu-based catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Kun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work was a study on global reaction rate of methanol synthesis. We measured experimentally the global reaction rate in the internal recycle gradientless reactor over catalyst SC309. The diffusion-reaction model of methanol synthesis was suggested. For model we chose the hydrogenation of CO and CO2 as key reaction. CO and CO2 were key components in our model. The internal diffusion effectiveness factors of CO and CO2 in the catalyst were calculated by the numerical integration. A comparison with the experiment showed that all the absolute values of the relative error were less than 10%. The simulation results showed that decreasing reaction temperature and catalyst diameter were conducive to reduce the influence of the internal diffusion on the methanol synthesis.

  6. One-Dimensional Simulation of Clay Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siljan Siljan

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Drying of clay is simulated by a one-dimensional model. The background of the work is to form a better basis for investigation of the drying process in production of clay-based building materials. A model of one-dimensional heat and mass transfer in porous material is used and modified to simulate drying of clay particles. The convective terms are discretized by first-order upwinding, and the diffusive terms are discretized by central differencing. DASSL was used to solve the set of algebraic and differential equations. The different simulations show the effect of permeability, initial moisture content and different boundary conditions. Both drying of a flat plate and a spherical particle are modelled.

  7. Thermodynamically driven one-dimensional evolution of anatase TiO2 nanorods: one-step hydrothermal synthesis for emerging intrinsic superiority of dimensionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiazang; Yang, Hong Bin; Miao, Jianwei; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Liu, Bin

    2014-10-29

    In photoelectrochemical cells, there exists a competition between transport of electrons through the porous semiconductor electrode toward the conducting substrate and back-reaction of electrons to recombine with oxidized species on the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which determines the charge collection efficiency and is strongly influenced by the density and distribution of electronic states in band gap and architectures of the semiconductor electrodes. One-dimensional (1D) anatase TiO2 nanostructures are promising to improve charge transport in photoelectrochemical devices. However, the conventional preparation of 1D anatase nanostructures usually steps via a titanic acid intermediate (e.g., H2Ti3O7), which unavoidably introduces electronic defects into the host lattice, resulting in undesired shielding of the intrinsic role of dimensionality. Here, we manage to promote the 1D growth of anatase TiO2 nanostructures by adjusting the growth kinetics, which allows us to grow single-crystalline anatase TiO2 nanorods through a one-step hydrothermal reaction. The synthesized anatase nanorods possess a lower density of trap states and thus can simultaneously facilitate the diffusion-driven charge transport and suppress the electron recombination. Moreover, the electronically boundary free nanostructures significantly enhance the trap-free charge diffusion coefficient of the anatase nanorods, which enables the emergence of the intrinsic superiority of dimensionality. By virtue of these merits, the anatase nanorods synthesized in this work take obvious advantages over the conventional anatase counterparts in photoelectrochemical systems (e.g., dye-sensitized solar cells) by showing more efficient charge transport and collection and higher energy conversion efficiency.

  8. Facile synthesis and enhanced magnetic, photocatalytic properties of one-dimensional Ag@Fe3O4-TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaohua; Dai, Rongrong; Lian, Dandan; Han, Song; Wu, Xiangyang; Song, Haojie

    2017-01-01

    Fe3O4-TiO2 heterostructures were synthesized through co-precipitation method based on TiO2 nanobelts. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibration sample magnetometry (VSM) were used to characterize the heterostructure nanocomposites. The results of XRD proved that the TiO2 nanobelt was anatase which was the most suitable crystal form for photocatalysis. SEM and TEM analysis indicated that Fe3O4 nanoparticles were adhere to TiO2 nanobelts which have one-dimensional structure with 100-200 nm in width. The VSM measurements showed that the photocatalyst can be easily recovered by an extemal magnetic field. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of Ag@Fe3O4-TiO2 nanocomposites studies confirm that Ag is in Ag0 state. Finally, the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) by the obtained magnetic photocatalyst was investigated via UV-vis absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activity of the composites was observed to be lower compared to bare TiO2 due to the higher degree of recombination reactions after combined with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. After coated the composite of 15% Fe3O4-TiO2 with Ag, the new nanocomposite of Ag@Fe3O4-TiO2 can be easily recovered after photocatalysis by an extemal magnetic field and showed enhanced photocatalytic activity. The mechanisms for the exhibited enhanced photocatalytic effect of Ag nanoparticle decorated Fe3O4-TiO2 nanocomposites with surface heterostructures are discussed.

  9. Porous, one-dimensional and high aspect ratio nanofibric network of cobalt manganese oxide as a high performance material for aqueous and solid-state supercapacitor (2 V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwan, Jai; Sivasankaran, V.; Yadav, K. L.; Sharma, Yogesh

    2016-09-01

    Porous nanofibric network of spinel CoMn2O4 (CMO) are fabricated by facile electrospinning process and characterized by XRD, BET, TGA, FTIR, FESEM, TEM, XPS techniques. CMO nanofibers are employed as supercapacitor electrode for first time which exhibits high specific capacitance (Cs) of 320(±5) F g-1 and 270(±5) F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and 5 A g-1, respectively in 1 M H2SO4. CMO nanofibers exhibit excellent cyclability (till 10,000 cycles @ 5 A g-1). To examine practical performance, solid-state symmetric supercapacitor (SSSC) is also fabricated using PVA-H2SO4 as gel electrolyte. The SSSC evinces high energy density of 75 W h kg-1 (comparable to Pb-acid and Ni-MH battery) along with high power density of 2 kW kg-1. Furthermore, a red colored LED (1.8 V @ current 20 mA) was lit for 5 min using single SSSC device supporting its output voltage of 2 V. This high performance of CMO in both aqueous and SSSC is attributed to one dimensional nanofibers consisting of voids/gaps with minimum inter-particle resistance that facilitates smoother transportation of electrons/ions. These voids/gaps in CMO (structural as well as morphological) act as intercalation/de-intercalation sites for extra storage performance, and also works as buffering space to accommodate stress/strain produced while long term cyclings.

  10. Synthesis of one-dimensional CdS@TiO₂ core-shell nanocomposites photocatalyst for selective redox: the dual role of TiO₂ shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siqi; Zhang, Nan; Tang, Zi-Rong; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2012-11-01

    One-dimensional (1D) CdS@TiO₂ core-shell nanocomposites (CSNs) have been successfully synthesized via a two-step solvothermal method. The structure and properties of 1D CdS@TiO₂ core-shell nanocomposites (CdS@TiO₂ CSNs) have been characterized by a series of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible-light (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), photoluminescence spectra (PL), and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that 1D core-shell structure is formed by coating TiO₂ onto the substrate of CdS nanowires (NWs). The visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared 1D CdS@TiO₂ CSNs are evaluated by selective oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes under mild conditions. Compared to bare CdS NWs, an obvious enhancement of both conversion and yield is achieved over 1D CdS@TiO₂ CSNs, which is ascribed to the prolonged lifetime of photogenerated charge carriers over 1D CdS@TiO₂ CSNs under visible-light irradiation. Furthermore, it is disclosed that the photogenerated holes from CdS core can be stuck by the TiO₂ shell, as evidenced by controlled radical scavenger experiments and efficiently selective reduction of heavy-metal ions, Cr(VI), over 1D CdS@TiO₂ CSNs, which consequently leads to the fact that the reaction mechanism of photocatalytic oxidation of alcohols over 1D CdS@TiO₂ CSNs is apparently different from that over 1D CdS NWs under visible-light irradiation. It is hoped that our work could not only offer useful information on the fabrication of various specific 1D core-shell nanostructures, but also open a new doorway of such 1D core-shell semiconductors as visible-light photocatalysts in the promising field of selective transformations.

  11. Material properties of one-dimensional systems studied by path-integral quantum Monte Carlo simulations and an analytical many-body model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Michael C.; Schulte, Joachim; Utrera, Luis

    Feynman path-integral quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations and an analytic many-body approach are used to study the ground state properties of one-dimensional (1D) chains in the theoretical framework of model Hamiltonians of the Hubbard type. The QMC algorithm is employed to derive position-space quantities, while band structure properties are evaluated by combining QMC data with expressions derived in momentum (k) space. Bridging link between both representations is the quasi-chemical approximation (QCA). Electronic charge fluctuations and the fluctuations of the magnetic local moments are studied as a function of the on-site density and correlation strength, which is given by the ratio between two-electron interaction and kinetic hopping. Caused by the non-analytic behaviour of the chemical potential μ = ∂E/∂ (with E denoting the electronic energy), strict 1D systems with an on-site density of 1·0 do not exhibit the properties of a conductor for any non-zero interaction beyond the mean-field approximation. The QMC simulations lead to straightforward access to the probabilities Pi(n) of finding n = 0, 1, 2 electrons at the ith lattice site. The Pi(n) elements allow to calculate the enhancement factors on the electron spin susceptibility χ, effective electronic mass m* and Knight shift κ. m* is enhanced by a bandwidth renormalization factor D-10, κ by an element ηK mapping the additional localization of the correlated electrons in the presence of an external magnetic field B and χ by the product D-10 ηK. Available experimental data are discussed in the light of the present theoretical findings.

  12. Comparison of one-dimensional and two-dimensional functionally graded materials for the backing shell of the cemented acetabular cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedia, H S

    2005-08-01

    Among the factors that have been suggested as contributing to the failure of a total joint replacement are stress shielding and the subsequent bone resorption. Recent studies have shown that when a backing shell made from a Ti alloy is used, high stresses are generated in the cement at the edges of the cup, and low stresses are generated at the dome of the bone in the acetabulum; thus, the bone at the dome suffers stress shielding and the cement edge suffers high stresses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of using a functionally graded material (FGM), instead of Ti alloy, for the backing shell (BS) on the stress distribution in the BS-cement-bone system. Finite-element and optimization techniques were used to obtain the optimal distribution of materials in the tangential direction only of the backing (1D FGM) as well as in the tangential and radial directions of the backing (2D FGM). It was found that the stress distribution in the BS-cement-bone system was about the same, regardless of whether the BS was fabricated from a 1D or 2D FGM. The stress-shielding factor in the bone at the dome of the acetabulum and the maximum von Mises stress in cement at the cement interfaces for 1D and 2D FGM were reduced by about 51%, 69%, and 50%, respectively, compared to the case when the shell was fabricated from a Ti alloy. The optimal elastic modulus of the 1D FGM was obtained with the materials graded from HA at the dome of the acetabulum to a Ti alloy at the rim of the shell. The optimal elastic modulus of the 2D FGM was obtained with the materials graded from Ti alloy at the right edge of the rim, to Bioglass 45S5 at the left edge of the rim, and to HA at the dome of the shell.

  13. Combinatorial materials synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Takeuchi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The pace at which major technological changes take place is often dictated by the rate at which new materials are discovered, and the timely arrival of new materials has always played a key role in bringing advances to our society. It is no wonder then that the so-called combinatorial or high-throughput strategy has been embraced by practitioners of materials science in virtually every field. High-throughput experimentation allows simultaneous synthesis and screening of large arrays of different materials. Pioneered by the pharmaceutical industry, the combinatorial method is now widely considered to be a watershed in accelerating the discovery and optimization of new materials1–5.

  14. Influence of graded index materials on the photonic localization in one-dimensional quasiperiodic (Thue-Mosre and Double-Periodic) photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bipin K.; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present the investigation on the photonic localization and band gaps in quasi-periodic photonic crystals containing graded index materials using a transfer matrix method in region 150-750 THz of the electromagnetic spectrum. The graded layers have a space dispersive refractive index, which vary in a linear and exponential fashion as a function of the depth of layer. The considered quasiperiodic structures are taken in the form of Thue-Morse and Double-Periodic sequences. The grading profile in the layers affects the position of reflection dips and forbidden bands, and frequency region of the bands. We observed that vast number of forbidden band gaps and dips are developed in its reflection spectra by increasing the number of quasi-periodic generation. Moreover, we compare the total forbidden bandwidths with increasing the generation of the quasi-periodic sequences for the structures with linear and exponential graded layer. Results show that the different graded profiles with same boundary refractive index can change the position of localization modes, number of photonic bands and change the frequency region of the bands. Therefore, we can achieve suitable photonic band gaps and modes by choosing the different gradation profiles of the refractive index and generation of the quasi-periodic sequences.

  15. Approximate Analytical Solution for One-Dimensional Solidification Problem of a Finite Superheating Phase Change Material Including the Effects of Wall and Thermal Contact Resistances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid El Qarnia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports an analytical solution for the solidification of a superheating phase change material (PCM contained in a rectangular enclosure with a finite height. The analytical solution has been obtained by solving nondimensional energy equations by using the perturbation method for a small perturbation parameter: the Stefan number, ε. This analytical solution, which takes into account the effects of the superheating of PCM, finite height of the enclosure, thickness of the wall, and wall-solid shell interfacial thermal resistances, was expressed in terms of nondimensional temperature distributions of the bottom wall of the enclosure and both PCM phases, and the dimensionless solid-liquid interface position and its dimensionless speed. The developed solution was firstly compared with that existing in the literature for the case of nonsuperheating PCM. The predicted results agreed well with those published in the literature. Next, a parametric study was carried out in order to study the impacts of the dimensionless control parameters on the dimensionless temperature distributions of the wall, the solid shell, and liquid phase of the PCM, as well as the solid-liquid interface position and its dimensionless speed.

  16. Synthesis of One Dimensional Gold Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchen Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanostructures with shapes of rod, dumbbells, and dog bone have been fabricated by an improved seed-mediated method. It is found that the pH change (the addition of HNO3 or HCl and the presence of Ag+ ions have a great influence on the growth process and aspect ratios of these Au nanocrystals. UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra for the Au colloidal show that the transverse plasmon absorption band locates at ~520 nm, while the longitudinal plasmon absorption band shifts in a wide spectra region of 750–1100 nm. The obtained Au nanostructures have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometer. Based on the characterizations and FDTD simulations, most of the obtained Au nanorods are single crystals, possessing an octagonal cross-section bounded by {110} and {100} faces. One model for the anisotropic growth has been proposed. It is found that slow kinetics favor the formation of single-crystalline Au nanorods.

  17. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Electrochemical Properties of One-dimensional Chain Coordination Polymer [Co(Ⅱ)(C6H5CH=CHCOOH)2(4,4'-bipy)(H2O)5]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional chain coordination polymer [Co(Ⅱ)(C6H5CH=CHCOOH)2(4,4'-bipy)(H2O)5]n has been synthesized with cinnamylic acid, 4,4'-bipy and cobaltous chloride as raw materials. Crystal data for this complex: monoclinic, space group P21/c, a - 1.1481(3), b =1.1230(2), c = 1.1759(3) nm, β = 97.054(4)°, V = 1.5046(6) nm3, Mr= 617.50, Dc = 1.363 g/cm3, Z= 2, μ(MoKα) = 0.627 mm-1, F(000) = 646, S = 1.062, R 0.0443 and wR = 0.1178. The crystal structure shows that two neighboring cobalt(Ⅱ) ions are linked together by one 4,4'-bipy, and the whole complex molecule adopts a one-dimensional chain structure. Each cobalt(Ⅱ) ion is coordinated with two nitrogen atoms from two 4,4'-bipy molecules and four oxygen atoms from four water molecules, giving a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The electrochemical properties were analyzed by combining with the crystal structure.

  18. Synthesis of superhard materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir L. Solozhenko

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of solids at high pressures and temperatures is an important area of modern condensed matter physics, chemistry, and materials science. The last decade has seen revolutionary developments in the field of high-pressure experimentation: new types of cells allow a wider range of experiments at higher pressures, and third-generation synchrotrons have brought the possibility of conducting X-ray diffraction experiments that were unthinkable only 10 years ago. In this review, we give some recent examples to illustrate how modern high-pressure tools, such as the diamond anvil cell (DAC, multianvil press, and shock compression, can be used to answer questions relevant to the synthesis of new advanced materials. Our examples will be related mostly to superhard materials.

  19. One-dimensional mesoporous Fe2O3@TiO2 core-shell nanocomposites: Rational design, synthesis and application as high-performance photocatalyst in visible and UV light region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Xie, Yaping; Chen, Haoxin; Guo, Jinxue; Meng, Alan; Li, Chunfang

    2014-10-01

    An ideal photocatalyst for degradation of organic pollutants should combine the features of efficient visible light response, fast electron transport, high electron-hole separation efficiency, and large specific surface area. However, these requirements usually cannot be achieved simultaneously in the present state-of-the-art research. In this work, we develop a rational synthesis strategy for the preparation of one-dimensional (1D) mesoporous Fe2O3@TiO2 core-shell composites. In this strategy, FeOOH nanorods are firstly coated by TiO2 shell, followed by a calcination process. The as-prepared composites are thoroughly investigated with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, UV-visible diffuse-reflectance spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. Endowed with the advantages of its composition and specific structural features, the presented sample possesses the combined advantages mentioned above, thus delivering evidently enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange under UV light irradiation and Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. And the possible mechanism of the enhanced photocatalytic performance is proposed.

  20. One Dimensional Locally Connected S-spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kunen, Joan E Hart Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    We construct, assuming Jensen's principle diamond, a one-dimensional locally connected hereditarily separable continuum without convergent sequences. The construction is an inverse limit in omega_1 steps, and is patterned after the original Fedorchuk construction of a compact S-space. To make it one-dimensional, each space in the inverse limit is a copy of the Menger sponge.

  1. One-dimensional organic lead halide perovskites with efficient bluish white-light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhao; Zhou, Chenkun; Tian, Yu; Shu, Yu; Messier, Joshua; Wang, Jamie C.; van de Burgt, Lambertus J.; Kountouriotis, Konstantinos; Xin, Yan; Holt, Ethan; Schanze, Kirk; Clark, Ronald; Siegrist, Theo; Ma, Biwu

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid metal halide perovskites, an emerging class of solution processable photoactive materials, welcome a new member with a one-dimensional structure. Herein we report the synthesis, crystal structure and photophysical properties of one-dimensional organic lead bromide perovskites, C4N2H14PbBr4, in which the edge sharing octahedral lead bromide chains [PbBr4 2-]∞ are surrounded by the organic cations C4N2H14 2+ to form the bulk assembly of core-shell quantum wires. This unique one-dimensional structure enables strong quantum confinement with the formation of self-trapped excited states that give efficient bluish white-light emissions with photoluminescence quantum efficiencies of approximately 20% for the bulk single crystals and 12% for the microscale crystals. This work verifies once again that one-dimensional systems are favourable for exciton self-trapping to produce highly efficient below-gap broadband luminescence, and opens up a new route towards superior light emitters based on bulk quantum materials.

  2. One-dimensional organic lead halide perovskites with efficient bluish white-light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhao; Zhou, Chenkun; Tian, Yu; Shu, Yu; Messier, Joshua; Wang, Jamie C.; van de Burgt, Lambertus J.; Kountouriotis, Konstantinos; Xin, Yan; Holt, Ethan; Schanze, Kirk; Clark, Ronald; Siegrist, Theo; Ma, Biwu

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid metal halide perovskites, an emerging class of solution processable photoactive materials, welcome a new member with a one-dimensional structure. Herein we report the synthesis, crystal structure and photophysical properties of one-dimensional organic lead bromide perovskites, C4N2H14PbBr4, in which the edge sharing octahedral lead bromide chains [PbBr4 2−]∞ are surrounded by the organic cations C4N2H14 2+ to form the bulk assembly of core-shell quantum wires. This unique one-dimensional structure enables strong quantum confinement with the formation of self-trapped excited states that give efficient bluish white-light emissions with photoluminescence quantum efficiencies of approximately 20% for the bulk single crystals and 12% for the microscale crystals. This work verifies once again that one-dimensional systems are favourable for exciton self-trapping to produce highly efficient below-gap broadband luminescence, and opens up a new route towards superior light emitters based on bulk quantum materials. PMID:28051092

  3. Essentials of inorganic materials synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, C N R

    2015-01-01

    This compact handbook describes all the important methods of synthesis employed today for synthesizing inorganic materials. Some features: Focuses on modern inorganic materials with applications in nanotechnology, energy materials, and sustainability Synthesis is a crucial component of materials science and technology; this book provides a simple introduction as well as an updated description of methods Written in a very simple style, providing references to the literature to get details of the methods of preparation when required

  4. One-dimensional mesoporous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@TiO{sub 2} core–shell nanocomposites: Rational design, synthesis and application as high-performance photocatalyst in visible and UV light region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao; Xie, Yaping; Chen, Haoxin; Guo, Jinxue, E-mail: gjx1213@126.com; Meng, Alan; Li, Chunfang

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • 1D porous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@TiO{sub 2} core–shell composites are synthesized as high-performance photocatalyst. • Core–shell heterostructures result in the efficient electron–hole separation process. • Porous features and 1D core–shell structures are beneficial for the photocatalytic reaction. • The composites show excellent photocatalytic performance under UV and visible light irradiation. • Good thermal stability endows the composites with outstanding photocatalytic durability. - Abstract: An ideal photocatalyst for degradation of organic pollutants should combine the features of efficient visible light response, fast electron transport, high electron–hole separation efficiency, and large specific surface area. However, these requirements usually cannot be achieved simultaneously in the present state-of-the-art research. In this work, we develop a rational synthesis strategy for the preparation of one-dimensional (1D) mesoporous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@TiO{sub 2} core–shell composites. In this strategy, FeOOH nanorods are firstly coated by TiO{sub 2} shell, followed by a calcination process. The as-prepared composites are thoroughly investigated with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms, UV–visible diffuse-reflectance spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. Endowed with the advantages of its composition and specific structural features, the presented sample possesses the combined advantages mentioned above, thus delivering evidently enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange under UV light irradiation and Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. And the possible mechanism of the enhanced photocatalytic performance is proposed.

  5. Exactly solvable one-dimensional inhomogeneous models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrida, B.; France, M.M.; Peyriere, J.

    1986-11-01

    The authors present a simple way of constructing one-dimensional inhomogeneous models (random or quasiperiodic) which can be solved exactly. They treat the example of an Ising chain in a varying magnetic field, but their procedure can easily be extended to other one-dimensional inhomogeneous models. For all the models they can construct, the free energy and its derivatives with respect to temperature can be computed exactly at one particular temperature.

  6. One-dimensional mercury(II) halide coordination polymers of 3,6-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine ligand: Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic and DFT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghatforoush, Lotfali, E-mail: saghatforoush@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, PO Box 19395-4697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshtarkib, Zeinab [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, PO Box 19395-4697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amani, Vahid [Department of Chemistry,Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bakhtiari, Akbar; Hakimi, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, PO Box 19395-4697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keypour, Hassan [Department of Chemistry, Buali University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Three new coordination polymers, [Hg(μ-bptz)X{sub 2}]{sub n} (X=Cl (1), Br (2)) and [Hg{sub 2}(μ-bptz)(μ-I){sub 2}I{sub 2}]{sub n} (3) (bptz=3,6-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine) were synthesized. X-ray structural analysis indicated that compounds 1 and 2 are composed of one-dimensional (1D) linear chains while the compound 3 has 1D stair-stepped structure. The electronic band structure along with density of states (DOS) calculated by the DFT method indicates that compound 1 and 2 are direct band gap semiconductors; however, compound 3 is an indirect semiconductor. The linear optical properties of the compounds are also calculated by DFT method. According to the DFT calculations, the observed emission band of the compounds in solid state is due to electron transfer from an excited bptz-π* state (CBs) to the top of VBs. {sup 1}H NMR spectra of the compounds indicate that, in solution phase, the compounds don’t decompose completely. Thermal stability of the compounds is studied using TG, DTA methods. - Graphical abstract: Synthesis, crystal structure and emission spectra of [Hg(μ-bptz)X{sub 2}]{sub n} (X=Cl and Br) and [Hg{sub 2}(μ-bptz)(μ-I){sub 2}I{sub 2}]{sub n} are presented. The electronic band structure and linear optical properties of the compounds are calculated by the DFT method. - Highlights: • Three 1D Hg(II) halide coordination polymers with bptz ligand have been prepared. • The structures of the compounds are determined by single crystal XRD. • DFT calculations show that [Hg(μ-bptz)X{sub 2}]{sub n} (X=Cl and Br) have a direct band gap. • DFT calculations show that [Hg{sub 2}(μ-bptz)(μ-I){sub 2}I{sub 2}]{sub n} has an indirect band gap. • The compounds show an intraligand electron transfer emission band in solid state.

  7. Stationary one-dimensional dispersive shock waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V

    2011-01-01

    We address shock waves generated upon the interaction of tilted plane waves with negative refractive index defect in defocusing media with linear gain and two-photon absorption. We found that in contrast to conservative media where one-dimensional dispersive shock waves usually exist only as nonstationary objects expanding away from defect or generating beam, the competition between gain and two-photon absorption in dissipative medium results in the formation of localized stationary dispersive shock waves, whose transverse extent may considerably exceed that of the refractive index defect. One-dimensional dispersive shock waves are stable if the defect strength does not exceed certain critical value.

  8. 纳米级的一维II-VI族化合物的合成及其电子结构研究%One-dimensional (1D) Ⅱ-Ⅳ Based Nanostructures-synthesis and Electronic Structure Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Various single crystalline IIB-VIA one-dimensional nanostructures have been fabricated using thermal evaporation. Although these nanostructures possess large amount of unpassivated surface, it does not lead to dissociation of excitons, which fact indicates the high purity and high quality of the electronic structure of these nanostructures.

  9. One-dimensional oscillator in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Division Quimica Teorica, Blvd 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: paolo@ucol.mx, E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar

    2010-01-15

    We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results with accurate numerical ones.

  10. QUASI-ONE DIMENSIONAL CLASSICAL FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K.Percus

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the equilibrium statistical mechanics of simple fluids in narrow pores. A systematic expansion is made about a one-dimensional limit of this system. It starts with a density functional, constructed from projected densities, which depends upon projected one and two-body potentials. The nature of higher order corrections is discussed.

  11. One-dimensional nano-interconnection formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianlong; Zhou, Zhaoying; Yang, Xing; Zhang, Wendong; Sang, Shengbo; Li, Pengwei

    2013-09-23

    Interconnection of one-dimensional nanomaterials such as nanowires and carbon nanotubes with other parts or components is crucial for nanodevices to realize electrical contacts and mechanical fixings. Interconnection has been being gradually paid great attention since it is as significant as nanomaterials properties, and determines nanodevices performance in some cases. This paper provides an overview of recent progress on techniques that are commonly used for one-dimensional interconnection formation. In this review, these techniques could be categorized into two different types: two-step and one-step methods according to their established process. The two-step method is constituted by assembly and pinning processes, while the one-step method is a direct formation process of nano-interconnections. In both methods, the electrodeposition approach is illustrated in detail, and its potential mechanism is emphasized.

  12. Ferroic materials synthesis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Virk, Hardev Singh

    2015-01-01

    Ferroics is the generic name given to the study of ferromagnets, ferroelectrics, and ferroelastics. The basis of this study is to understand the large changes in physical characteristics that occur over a very narrow temperature range. In recent years, a new class of ferroic materials has been attracting increased interest. These multiferroics exhibit more than one ferroic property simultaneously in a single phase. The present volume: ""Ferroic Materials: Synthesis and Applications"" has ten Chapters, spread over areas as diverse as Magnetic Oxide Nanomaterials, Ferrites Synthesis, Hexaferrite

  13. Research on Ultraviolet Absorption Spectroscopy of One-dimensional SiO2 Nano Materials%一维二氧化硅纳米材料紫外吸收光谱理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许莹; 徐灿

    2011-01-01

    运用含时密度泛函B3LYP方法6-31G(d)基组水平上,计算了二氧化硅一维纳米材料单链(1NL)、双链(2NL)以及含羟基单链(1NLW)、双链(2NLW)与尺寸相关的电子吸收光谱,并从电子结构和态密度角度对其进行分析.无羟基结构的紫外吸收光谱较强峰的频率随尺寸减小红移,含羟基结构随尺寸减小明显蓝移.分析表明羟基上的H与Si相互作用使分子未占据轨道能量明显升高,造成结构吸收光谱随尺寸变小蓝移,羟基的加成可以改变二氧化硅纳米结构的光学性质.紫外吸收光谱研究以及对羟基作用的确定对SiO纳米材料的深入研究具有指导意义.%On the hasis of 6-31G (d) of DFT B3LYP method,one dimensional nanostructures silica single-chain ( 1NL ), double-stranded (2NL)and hydroxy-containing single-stranded ( 1NLW ) ,doublechain (2NLW) and size-related electronic absorption spectra are calculated and analyzed from the perspective of electronic structure and density of stales.Non-hydroxyl structure UV adsorption spectra strong peak frequency redshifts as size decreases,while hydroxyl structure size blueshift Analysis showed that H and Si interaction molecular in hydroxyl which unoccupied orbital energy increased significantly,resulting in structures absorption spectra blue shift,addition of hydroxyl groups can change the optical properties of nanoatructured silica.The research of UV asorption spectra and ascertain hydroxy funcation are of great guiding significance to SiO2 nano-materials in-depth study.

  14. One-Dimensional Tunable Josephson Metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Butz, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel approach to the experimental realization of tunable, superconducting metamaterials. Therefore, conventional resonant meta-atoms are replaced by meta-atoms that contain Josephson junctions, which renders their resonance frequency tunable by an external magnetic field. This tunability is theoretically and experimentally investigated in one-dimensional magnetic and electric metamaterials. For the magnetic metamaterial, the effective, magnetic permeability is determined.

  15. Vectorlike representation of one-dimensional scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Soto, L L; Barriuso, A G; Monzon, J J

    2004-01-01

    We present a self-contained discussion of the use of the transfer-matrix formalism to study one-dimensional scattering. We elaborate on the geometrical interpretation of this transfer matrix as a conformal mapping on the unit disk. By generalizing to the unit disk the idea of turns, introduced by Hamilton to represent rotations on the sphere, we develop a method to represent transfer matrices by hyperbolic turns, which can be composed by a simple parallelogramlike rule.

  16. Momentum Dynamics of One Dimensional Quantum Walks

    CERN Document Server

    Fuss, I; Sherman, P J; Naguleswaran, S; Fuss, Ian; White, langord B.; Sherman, Peter J.; Naguleswaran, Sanjeev

    2006-01-01

    We derive the momentum space dynamic equations and state functions for one dimensional quantum walks by using linear systems and Lie group theory. The momentum space provides an analytic capability similar to that contributed by the z transform in discrete systems theory. The state functions at each time step are expressed as a simple sum of three Chebyshev polynomials. The functions provide an analytic expression for the development of the walks with time.

  17. 一维纳米结构氧化锌的水热法制备及紫外光敏特性研究%Hydrothermal Synthesis of One Dimensional Nanostructure ZnO and Its Ultraviolet Photosensitivity Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祥涛; 吴起白; 张海燕; 魏爱香; 刘俊

    2009-01-01

    在陶瓷衬底上制作叉指状金电极,采用低温水热法生长一维纳米结构氧化锌,制得氧化锌紫外光电导型探测器.探讨了反应溶液的浓度对氧化锌纳米结构形貌及紫外光电导特性的影响.X射线衍射分析表明,产物为六方纤锌矿结构的ZnO.扫描电镜观察显示.产物为一维纳米结构,因反应溶液浓度的不同直径介于80~500nm.光电测试表明,一维纳米结构氧化锌的紫外光电导特性受其表面形貌的影响显著.%Comb-shaped Au electrodes are prepared on ceramic substrate firstly, and then the one dimensional nanostructure is synthesised by hydrothermal method in order to get ZnO UV detector. The effect of the concentration of solution on the growth of nanostructure ZnO and UV sensitivity has been studied. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the product is pure phase zinc oxide. The morphology of one dimensional nanostructure is characterized by SEM. The diameter of one dimensional nanostructure ZnO obtained is 80~500nm. Test shows that the UV conductivity properties of ZnO are affected by their surface topography.

  18. Analysis of necking based on a one-dimensional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audoly, Basile; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-12-01

    Dimensional reduction is applied to derive a one-dimensional energy functional governing tensile necking localization in a family of initially uniform prismatic solids, including as particular cases rectilinear blocks in plane strain and cylindrical bars undergoing axisymmetric deformations. The energy functional depends on both the axial stretch and its gradient. The coefficient of the gradient term is derived in an exact and general form. The one-dimensional model is used to analyze necking localization for nonlinear elastic materials that experience a maximum load under tensile loading, and for a class of nonlinear materials that mimic elastic-plastic materials by displaying a linear incremental response when stretch switches from increasing to decreasing. Bifurcation predictions for the onset of necking from the simplified theory compared with exact results suggest the approach is highly accurate at least when the departures from uniformity are not too large. Post-bifurcation behavior is analyzed to the point where the neck is fully developed and localized to a region on the order of the thickness of the block or bar. Applications to the nonlinear elastic and elastic-plastic materials reveal the highly unstable nature of necking for the former and the stable behavior for the latter, except for geometries where the length of the block or bar is very large compared to its thickness. A formula for the effective stress reduction at the center of a neck is established based on the one-dimensional model, which is similar to that suggested by Bridgman (1952).

  19. Synthesis,Crystal Structure and Electrochemical Properties of a One-dimensional Chain Coordination Polymer[Cu(phen)(2,4,6-TMBA)2(H2O)]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; LI Chang-Hong; YANG Ying-Qun; KUANG Yun-Fei

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional chain coordination polymer[Cu(phen)(2,4,6-TMBA)2(H2O)]n has been synthesized by reacting 2,4,6-trimethyl-benzoic acid,1,10-phenanthroline and Cu(Ⅱ)per-chlorate and its structure Was characterized.Crystal data for this complex:tetragonal,space group I41,a=2.0293(3),b=2.0293(3),c=113758(2)nm,a=β=γ=90°,V=5.6657(13)nm3,Dc=1.379g/cm3,Z=8,μ(MoKa)=0.815mm-1,Mr=588.14,F(000)=2456,S=1.047,R=0.0459 and wR=O.1053.The crystal structure shows that two neighboring Cu(Ⅱ)ions are linked together by one bridging-chelating 2,4,6-trimethyl-benzoic group,forming a one-dimensional chain structure.Each Cu(Ⅱ)ion is coordinated with two nitrogen atoms from one 1,10-phenanthroline molecule,three oxygen atoms from three 2,4,6-trimethyl-benzoic acid molecules and one oxygen atom from one water molecule,giving a six-coordinate distorted octahedral coordination geometry.The cyclic voltamrnetry behavior of the complex was also investigated.

  20. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of One-dimensional Chain Zinc(II) Coordination Polymer:{Na[ZnL(H2O)2]}n(L=2-Hydroxyl-2-hydroxylate-malonate Trivalent Anion)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石敬民; 朱思成; 吴长举

    2004-01-01

    A one-dimensional chain complex {Na[ZnL(H2O)2]}n was synthesized by sodium 2,2-dihydroxyl-malonate (Na2L′) and hydrate zinc perchlorate. The crystal belongs to the mono- clinic system, space group P21/n with a = 5.936(2), b = 7.203(3), c = 19.356(8) A,Z= 95.264(6)°, V = 824.2(6)A3, Z = 4, C3H5NaO8Zn, Mr = 257.43, Dc = 2.075 g/cm3, F(000) = 512 and ( = 3.045 mm-1. The structure was refined to R = 0.0381 and Wr = 0.0766 for 1188 observed reflections (I>2σ(I)). In the complex the zinc(II) atom is coordinated to six oxygen atoms from two H2O mole- cules, two carboxylate groups, one ionized hydroxyl group and one hydroxyl group. By the coordi- nation of zinc(II) ions and bridging ligand 2-hydroxyl-2-hydroxylate-malonate trivalent anion the one-dimensional chain is constructed.

  1. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a One-dimensional Azido-bridged Manganese (II) Compound [Mn(N3)2(H2O)3·C6H12N4]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hui; WANG Wen-Guo; ZHANG Xiao-Feng; CHEN Chang-Neng; LIU Qiu-Tian

    2006-01-01

    A new one-dimensional azido-bridged manganese compound has been prepared and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. The complex [Mn(N3)2(H2O)3·C6H12N4]n crystallizes in space group Pnma with a = 6.5252 (5), b = 9.3226(7), c = 22.2070(15)(A), V = 1350.89(17)(A)3, Z = 4, Mr = 333.24, Dc = 1.639 g/cm3, μ= 1.005 mm-1 and F(000) = 692. The final refinement gave R = 0.0328 and wR = 0.0777 for 1085 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). The structure contains [Mn- (N3)2(H2O)3]n polymeric chains and uncoordinated hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) molecules with Mn/HMTA molar ratio of 1:1. The Mn atoms are bridged by end-to-end azido ligands to construct one-dimensional zig-zag infinite chains. Each Mn atom is six-coordinated by three N atoms of three azido ligands and three water O atoms, resulting in an octahedral geometry. Extending hydrogen- bonding interactions involving water O atoms, azido and HMTA N atoms link the chains and HMTA molecules into a three-dimensional network.

  2. One-Dimensional Anisotropic Band Gap Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The band gap structure of one-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystal has been studied by means of the transfer matrix formalism. From the analytic expressions and numeric calculations we see some general characteristics of the band gap structure of anisotropic photonic crystals, each band separates into two branches and the two branches react to polarization sensitively. In the practical case of oblique incidence, gaps move towards high frequency when the angle of incidence increases. Under some special conditions, the two branches become degenerate again.

  3. One-dimensional nanostructures principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhai, Tianyou

    2012-01-01

    Reviews the latest research breakthroughs and applications Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, one-dimensional nanostructures have been at the forefront of nanotechnology research, promising to provide the building blocks for a new generation of nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. With contributions from 68 leading international experts, this book reviews both the underlying principles as well as the latest discoveries and applications in the field, presenting the state of the technology. Readers will find expert coverage of all major classes of one-di

  4. One-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomopoulos, N; Maschke, D; Koh, C Y; Thomas, E L; Tremel, W; Butt, H-J; Fytas, G

    2010-03-10

    We report experimental observation of a normal incidence phononic band gap in one-dimensional periodic (SiO(2)/poly(methyl methacrylate)) multilayer film at gigahertz frequencies using Brillouin spectroscopy. The band gap to midgap ratio of 0.30 occurs for elastic wave propagation along the periodicity direction, whereas for inplane propagation the system displays an effective medium behavior. The phononic properties are well captured by numerical simulations. The porosity in the silica layers presents a structural scaffold for the introduction of secondary active media for potential coupling between phonons and other excitations, such as photons and electrons.

  5. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Ca(Ⅰ) Complex with One-Dimensional Chain Structure%一维链状铜配合物的合成及结构表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海军; 李冬平; 李国清

    2009-01-01

    The Copper (Ⅰ) complex [Cu(tpy)(CN)]n [L=4'-(4-cyanophenyl)-2,2' :6',2"-terpyridine] has been synthe-sized by reaction of ligand L with CuCN using solvothermal method and characterized by IR, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction single-crystal structure analysis. The crystal structure indicates that the complex crystallizes in monoclinic system, space group P21/c with a=0.884 45(18) nm, b=0.819 55(16) nm, c=2.702 90(7) nm, β=102.780 complex has a slightly distorted tetrahedron coordination geometry. Each Cu+ is coordinated with two nitrogen atoms from two pyridine ring of 4'-(4-cyanophenyl)-2,2' :6' ,2"-terpyridine, and then linked by two CN- ligands with neighbor Cu+ forming a zigzag infinite one-dimensional chain structure. CCDC: 686952.

  6. Localized chaos in one-dimensional hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humm, D.C.; Saltz, D.; Nayfeh, M.H. (Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (USA))

    1990-08-01

    We calculate the response of hydrogen to the presence of both a strong dc electric field (necessary to isolate a nearly one-dimensional motion) and a strong radiation field of higher frequency than the binding energy of the system, a regime that has not previously been examined by theory or experiment. We determine the classical ionization threshold, the quantum-delocalization threshold, and the threshold of {ital n} mixing due to chaotic effects. The analysis indicates that the dc field can have a dramatic effect on the quantum localization of classically chaotic diffusion, changing the delocalization threshold by more than an order of magnitude. Moreover, this system provides a large spectral region in which quantum-mechanical localization inhibits classical chaotic diffusion. This theory is well suited to experimental testing.

  7. One-dimensional spinon spin currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirobe, Daichi; Sato, Masahiro; Kawamata, Takayuki; Shiomi, Yuki; Uchida, Ken-Ichi; Iguchi, Ryo; Koike, Yoji; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Saitoh, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    Quantum spin fluctuation in a low-dimensional or frustrated magnet breaks magnetic ordering while keeping spin correlation. Such fluctuation has been a central topic in magnetism because of its relevance to high-Tc superconductivity and topological states. However, utilizing such spin states has been quite difficult. In a one-dimensional spin-1/2 chain, a particle-like excitation called a spinon is known to be responsible for spin fluctuation in a paramagnetic state. Spinons behave as a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid at low energy, and the spin system is often called a quantum spin chain. Here we show that a quantum spin chain generates and carries spin current, which is attributed to spinon spin current. This is demonstrated by observing an anisotropic negative spin Seebeck effect along the spin chains in Sr2CuO3. The results show that spin current can flow even in an atomic channel owing to long-range spin fluctuation.

  8. Collapsing of chaos in one dimensional maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guocheng; Yorke, James A.

    2000-02-01

    In their numerical investigation of the family of one dimensional maps f l(x)=1-2∣x∣ l, where l>2 , Diamond et al. [P. Diamond et al., Physica D 86 (1999) 559-571] have observed the surprising numerical phenomenon that a large fraction of initial conditions chosen at random eventually wind up at -1, a repelling fixed point. This is a numerical artifact because the continuous maps are chaotic and almost every (true) trajectory can be shown to be dense in [-1,1]. The goal of this paper is to extend and resolve this obvious contradiction. We model the numerical simulation with a randomly selected map. While they used 27 bit precision in computing f l, we prove for our model that this numerical artifact persists for an arbitrary high numerical prevision. The fraction of initial points eventually winding up at -1 remains bounded away from 0 for every numerical precision.

  9. Superfluid helium-4 in one dimensional channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duk Y.; Banavar, Samhita; Chan, Moses H. W.; Hayes, John; Sazio, Pier

    2013-03-01

    Superfluidity, as superconductivity, cannot exist in a strict one-dimensional system. However, the experiments employing porous media showed that superfluid helium can flow through the pores of nanometer size. Here we report a study of the flow of liquid helium through a single hollow glass fiber of 4 cm in length with an open id of 150 nm between 1.6 and 2.3 K. We found the superfluid transition temperature was suppressed in the hollow cylinder and that there is no flow above the transition. Critical velocity at temperature below the transition temperature was determined. Our results bear some similarity to that found by Savard et. al. studying the flow of helium through a nanohole in a silicon nitrite membrane. Experimental study at Penn State is supported by NSF Grants No. DMR 1103159.

  10. One-dimensional reduction of viscous jets

    CERN Document Server

    Pitrou, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    We build a general formalism to describe thin viscous jets as one-dimensional objects with an internal structure. We present in full generality the steps needed to describe the viscous jets around their central line, and we argue that the Taylor expansion of all fields around that line is conveniently expressed in terms of symmetric trace-free tensors living in the two dimensions of the fiber sections. We recover the standard results of axisymmetric jets and we report the first and second corrections to the lowest order description, also allowing for a rotational component around the axis of symmetry. When applied to generally curved fibers, the lowest order description corresponds to a viscous string model whose sections are circular. However, when including the first corrections we find that curved jets generically develop elliptic sections. Several subtle effects imply that the first corrections cannot be described by a rod model, since it amounts to selectively discard some corrections. However, in a fast...

  11. One-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, John M.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that the Vlasov equilibrium of a plasma of charged particles in an electromagnetic field is closely related to a fluid equilibrium, where only a few moments of the velocity distribution of the plasma are considered. In this fluid equilibrium the electric field should be calculated from Ohm's law, rather than the Poisson equation. In practice, only one-dimensional equilibria are treated, because the symmetry makes this case tractable. The emphasis here is on gaining a better understanding of the subject, but an alternate way of doing the calculations is suggested. It is shown that particle distributions can be found that are consistent with any reasonable electromagnetic field profile.

  12. Lateral shift in one-dimensional quasiperiodic chiral photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da, Jian, E-mail: dajian521@sina.com [Department of Information Engineering, Huaian Senior Vocational and Technical School, Feiyao road, Huaian 223005, Jiangsu Province (China); Mo, Qi, E-mail: moqiyueyang@163.com [School of Software, Yunnan University, Cuihu Bai Road, Kunming City, Yunnan Province 650091 (China); Cheng, Yaokun [Department of Information Engineering, Huaian Senior Vocational and Technical School, Feiyao road, Huaian 223005, Jiangsu Province (China); Liu, Taixiang [Taishan Vocational College of Nursing, Shandong Province 271000 (China)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the lateral shift of a one-dimensional quasiperiodic photonic crystal consisting of chiral and conventional dielectric materials. The effect of structural irregularity on lateral shift is evaluated by stationary-phase approach. Our results show that the lateral shift can be modulated by varying the structural irregularity in quasiperiodic structure. Besides, the position of peak in lateral shift spectrum stays sensitive to the chiral factor of chiral materials. In comparison with that of periodic structure, quasiperiodic structure provides an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the lateral shift.

  13. One-Dimensional Metals Conjugated Polymers, Organic Crystals, Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, Siegmar

    2004-01-01

    Low-dimensional solids are of fundamental interest in materials science due to their anisotropic properties. Written not only for experts in the field, this book explains the important concepts behind their physics and surveys the most interesting one-dimensional systems and discusses their present and emerging applications in molecular scale electronics. The second edition of this successful book has been completely revised to include the remarkable achievements of the last ten years of research and applications. Chemists, polymer and materials scientists as well as students will find this bo

  14. Synthesis of one-dimensional α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} heterostructures by electrospinning process with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jie [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass & Functional Ceramics, School of Material Science and Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China); Lu, Qifang, E-mail: luqf0110@126.com [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass & Functional Ceramics, School of Material Science and Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China); Wei, Mingzhi [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass & Functional Ceramics, School of Material Science and Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China); Wang, Cuiqing [Lunan Research Institute of Coal Chemistry, Jining 272000 (China)

    2015-10-15

    One-dimensional (1D) α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} heterostructures have been prepared by the electrospinning in combination with the calcination process. The length of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} heterostructures calcined at 500 °C for 2 h was up to several millimeters, and the diameter was approximately 100–150 nm. The as-prepared samples were characterized by thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV–vis DRS). The photocatalytic degradation tests reveal that the obtained α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} heterostructures exhibit the higher degradation rate of methylene blue (MB) than the pure Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} nanofibers and TiO{sub 2} (Degussa P25) under the simulated sunlight irradiation. The construction of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} heterostructures can effectively impede the recombination of photoelectrons and holes and the possible photocatalytic mechanism has also been discussed in details. - Graphical abstract: The gel nanofibers show the well defined 1D nanostructure with the random distribution. And the appearance of the surface of the as-prepared nanofibers is smooth and homogeneous. 1D nanostructures still preserve except for a lot of spherical particles existed in the fibers calcined at 500 °C for 2 h. In addition, the construction of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} heterojunctions is be beneficial to hinder the recombination of photo-induced electron/hole, and thus improves the photocatalytic efficiency under the simulated sunlight irradiation. - Highlights: • One-dimensional α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} heterostructures were prepared by electrospinning process. • The ratio of Bi to Fe ascertained by XPS is basically identical to the original data. • α-Fe{sub 2}O

  15. Synthesis of new nanocrystal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Yasser Hassan Abd El-Fattah

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have sparked great excitement in the scientific community in last two decades. NCs are useful for both fundamental research and technical applications in various fields owing to their size and shape-dependent properties and their potentially inexpensive and excellent chemical processability. These NCs are versatile fluorescence probes with unique optical properties, including tunable luminescence, high extinction coefficient, broad absorption with narrow photoluminescence, and photobleaching resistance. In the past few years, a lot of attention has been given to nanotechnology based on using these materials as building blocks to design light harvesting assemblies. For instant, the pioneering applications of NCs are light-emitting diodes, lasers, and photovoltaic devices. Synthesis of the colloidal stable semiconductor NCs using the wet method of the pyrolysis of organometallic and chalcogenide precursors, known as hot-injection approach, is the chart-topping preparation method in term of high quality and monodisperse sized NCs. The advancement in the synthesis of these artificial materials is the core step toward their applications in a broad range of technologies. This dissertation focuses on exploring various innovative and novel synthetic methods of different types of colloidal nanocrystals, both inorganic semiconductors NCs, also known as quantum dots (QDs), and organic-inorganic metal halide-perovskite materials, known as perovskites. The work presented in this thesis focuses on pursuing fundamental understanding of the synthesis, material properties, photophysics, and spectroscopy of these nanostructured semiconductor materials. This thesis contains 6 chapters and conclusions. Chapters 1?3 focus on introducing theories and background of the materials being synthesized in the thesis. Chapter 4 demonstrates our synthesis of colloidal linker--free TiO2/CdSe NRs heterostructures with CdSe QDs grown in the presence of Ti

  16. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a New One-dimensional Double Helical-chain Polymer, {Zn(O2CC12H8CO2)(H2O)}n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new zinc polymer, {Zn(O2CC12H8CO2)(H2O)}n or {Zn(DPHA)(H2O)}n (O2CC12-H8CO2, DPHA = 1,1 ′-biphenyl-2,2′-dicarboxylate dianion) has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal is of monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 12.8418(5), b = 5.9505(2),c = 17.2989(5) (A), β = 104.020(2)°, V= 1282.52(8)(A)3, C14H10O5Zn, Mr= 323.61, Z = 4, Dc = 1.676g/cm3,μ = 1.930 mm- 1, F(000) = 656, R = 0.0766 and wR = 0.1871 for 1775 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). It consists of Zn2(DPHA)2(H2O)2 units, which are further extended into a one-dimensional double helical-chain polymer via Zn-O bonding. The hydrogen bonding interactions extend the helical chains into a two-dimensional layer structure.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of one-dimensional and molecular M(tren)InAsS4 (M = Mn, Co, and Zn) compounds with a noncondensed AsS3(3-) unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenqing; Zhang, Hongjie; Wang, Cheng

    2009-09-07

    Four transition-metal-amine complexes incorporating indium thioarsenates with the general formula M(tren)InAsS(4) (M = Mn, Co, and Zn) and a noncondensed AsS(3)(3-) unit have been prepared and characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses show that compound 1 (M = Mn) crystallizes in the triclinic crystal system (space group: P1) and consists of a one-dimensional (1D) inorganic (1)(infinity){[InAsS(4)](2-)} chain and [Mn(tren)](2+) groups bonded to the opposite sides of an eight-membered In(2)As(2)S(4) ring along the backbone of the infinite inorganic chains. Compounds 2 (M = Mn), 3 (M = Zn), and 4 (M = Co) are isomorphous molecular compounds. They all crystallize in the monoclinic crystal system (space group: P2(1)/c). The Mn(2+) cation of [Mn(tren)](2+) in 1 has a distorted octahedral environment, while the transition-metal cations of [M(tren)](2+) in the other three compounds locate in trigonal-bipyramidal environments. This difference results in different bonding modes of [M(tren)](2+) to indium thioarsenates between compound 1 and the other three compounds.

  18. Few quantum particles on one dimensional lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valiente Cifuentes, Manuel

    2010-06-18

    There is currently a great interest in the physics of degenerate quantum gases and low-energy few-body scattering due to the recent experimental advances in manipulation of ultracold atoms by light. In particular, almost perfect periodic potentials, called optical lattices, can be generated. The lattice spacing is fixed by the wavelength of the laser field employed and the angle betwen the pair of laser beams; the lattice depth, defining the magnitude of the different band gaps, is tunable within a large interval of values. This flexibility permits the exploration of different regimes, ranging from the ''free-electron'' picture, modified by the effective mass for shallow optical lattices, to the tight-binding regime of a very deep periodic potential. In the latter case, effective single-band theories, widely used in condensed matter physics, can be implemented with unprecedent accuracy. The tunability of the lattice depth is nowadays complemented by the use of magnetic Feshbach resonances which, at very low temperatures, can vary the relevant atom-atom scattering properties at will. Moreover, optical lattices loaded with gases of effectively reduced dimensionality are experimentally accessible. This is especially important for one spatial dimension, since most of the exactly solvable models in many-body quantum mechanics deal with particles on a line; therefore, experiments with one-dimensional gases serve as a testing ground for many old and new theories which were regarded as purely academic not so long ago. The physics of few quantum particles on a one-dimensional lattice is the topic of this thesis. Most of the results are obtained in the tight-binding approximation, which is amenable to exact numerical or analytical treatment. For the two-body problem, theoretical methods for calculating the stationary scattering and bound states are developed. These are used to obtain, in closed form, the two-particle solutions of both the Hubbard and

  19. One-Dimensional Time to Explosion (Thermal Sensitivity) of ANPZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hust, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McClelland, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gresshoff, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-12

    Incidents caused by fire and combat operations can heat energetic materials that may lead to thermal explosion and result in structural damage and casualty. Some explosives may thermally explode at fairly low temperatures (< 100 C) and the violence from thermal explosion may cause a significant damage. Thus it is important to understand the response of energetic materials to thermal insults. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been used for decades to measure times to explosion, threshold thermal explosion temperature, and determine kinetic parameters of energetic materials. Samples of different configurations (pressed part, powder, paste, and liquid) can be tested in the system. The ODTX testing can also provide useful data for assessing the thermal explosion violence of energetic materials. This report summarizes the recent ODTX experimental data and modeling results for 2,6-diamino-3,5-dintropyrazine (ANPZ).

  20. Electrospinning synthesis and luminescent properties of one-dimensional Ca{sub 2}Gd{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} microfibers and microbelts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Chong; Li, Guogang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hou, Zhiyao [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Shang, Mengmeng [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Lin, Jun, E-mail: jlin@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-10-15

    One-dimensional Ca{sub 2}Gd{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} microfibers and microbelts were fabricated by a simple and cost-effective electrospinning method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL), cathodoluminescence (CL) and decay kinetics were used to characterize the resulting samples. The diameters of the Ca{sub 2}Gd{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} microfibers annealed at 1000 Degree-Sign C were in the range of 130-210 nm. The width and the thickness of Ca{sub 2}Gd{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} microbelts annealed at 1000 Degree-Sign C were in the range of 290-500 nm and 110-160 nm, respectively. When the samples were excited by ultraviolet (275 nm), intense red emission from Eu{sup 3+} ions was observed. The charge transfer band of microbelts was broader than microfibers and the peak of charge transfer band moved to lower energy area. Under low-voltage electron beams (3-5 kV) excitation, the Ca{sub 2}Gd{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} microfibers also showed strong red emission. -- Graphical abstract: In the excitation spectra, the charge transfer band of microbelts is broader than microfibers and the peak of charge transfer band moves to lower energy area because the cell volume of microbelts is larger than that of microfibers. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca{sub 2}Gd{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} microfibers and microbelts by electronspinning technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Eu{sup 3+}-O{sup 2-} charge transfer band of microbelts is broader than microfibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum concentration of Eu{sup 3+} is about 11% in microfibers.

  1. 晶种和磁场诱导联合法制备一维Fe3O4粒子%Seed-Mediated Synthesis of One-Dimensional Fe3O4 Particles under Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨喜云; 于培峰; 张晓峰

    2012-01-01

    One-dimensional Fe3O4 particles were prepared by combination of seed-mediated growth and magnetic field induction. The effects of seed size, magnetic field intensity, seed volume and the steps of seed addition on the shape of samples were discussed. The results show that the number of rod-like Fe3O4 particles increases with magnetic field increasing and the aspect-ratio of particles increases with an increase of steps of seed addition. A three-step seeding method leads to preparation of particles with an aspect ratio of 9.0. A small amount of seeds are favorable to rod formation with uniform shape and aspect-ratio while large size seeds tend to obtain chain-like particles. The effects of magnetic field and the size of seeds on particle shape were analyzed based on the forces between neighboring particles.%本文采用晶种和磁场诱导结合的方法制备出了一维Fe3O4纳米粒子,研究了晶种粒径大小、磁场强度、晶种添加量以及晶种分步次数对Fe3O4产品形貌的影响.结果表明,磁场强度增加,棒形颗粒数目增加;晶种分步次数增加,棒形粒子轴比增加;采用三次晶种可以得到轴比为9.0的棒形颗粒;少量的晶种有利于得到轴比一致、形貌均匀的棒形颗粒;大尺寸的晶种有利于得到链形颗粒.同时从颗粒间的相互作用能分析了磁场强度和晶种大小对形貌的影响.

  2. New Quasi-One-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Material: 1,3-Bis(4-piperidiniumpropane Pentachlorobismuthate(III Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Spectroscopic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hela Ferjani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic-inorganic hybrid compound (C13H28N2 BiCl5 was synthesized by solvothermal method. The crystal structure was solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system space group Cmc21 with a=15.826(4 Å, b=18.746(6 Å, c=7.470(3 Å, and Z=4. The crystal structure was refined down to R=0.019. It consists of corrugated layers of [BiCl5]2− chains, separated by organic [H2TMDP]2+ cations (TMDP=1,3-Bis(4-piperidylpropane = C13H26N2. The crystal cohesion is achieved by hydrogen bonds N–H⋯Cl joining the organic and inorganic layers. The influence of the organic cations' flexibility is discussed. Raman and infrared spectra of the title compound were recorded in the range of 50–400 and 400–4000 cm−1, respectively. Semiempirical parameter model three (PM3 method has been performed to derive the calculated IR spectrum. The crystal shape morphology was simulated using the Bravais-Friedel and Donnay-Harker model.

  3. One-Dimensional TiO2 Nanostructures as Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is star materials due to its remarkable optical and electronic properties, resulting in various applications, especially in the fields of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Photoanode is the most important part of the DSSCs, which help to adsorb dye molecules and transport the injected electrons. The size, structure, and morphology of TiO2 photoanode have been found to show significant influence on the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. In this paper, we briefly summarize the synthesis and properties of one-dimensional (1D TiO2 nanomaterials (bare 1D TiO2 nanomaterial and 1D hierarchical TiO2 and their photovoltaic performance in DSSCs.

  4. SUSY-inspired one-dimensional transformation optics

    CERN Document Server

    Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Christodoulides, Demetrios N

    2014-01-01

    Transformation optics aims to identify artificial materials and structures with desired electromagnetic properties by means of pertinent coordinate transformations. In general, such schemes are meant to appropriately tailor the constitutive parameters of metamaterials in order to control the trajectory of light in two and three dimensions. Here we introduce a new class of one-dimensional optical transformations that exploits the mathematical framework of supersymmetry (SUSY). This systematic approach can be utilized to synthesize photonic configurations with identical reflection and transmission characteristics, down to the phase, for all incident angles, thus rendering them perfectly indistinguishable to an external observer. Along these lines, low-contrast dielectric arrangements can be designed to fully mimic the behavior of a given high-contrast structure that would have been otherwise beyond the reach of available materials and existing fabrication techniques. Similar strategies can also be adopted to re...

  5. Novel superconducting phenomena in quasi-one-dimensional Bechgaard salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Denis; Yonezawa, Shingo

    2016-03-01

    It is the saturation of the transition temperature Tc in the range of 24 K for known materials in the late sixties that triggered the search for additional materials offering new coupling mechanisms leading in turn to higher Tc's. As a result of this stimulation, superconductivity in organic matter was discovered in tetramethyl-tetraselenafulvalene-hexafluorophosphate, (TMTSF)2PF6, in 1979, in the laboratory founded at Orsay by Professor Friedel and his colleagues in 1962. Although this conductor is a prototype example for low-dimensional physics, we mostly focus in this article on the superconducting phase of the ambient-pressure superconductor (TMTSF)2ClO4, which has been studied most intensively among the TMTSF salts. We shall present a series of experimental results supporting nodal d-wave symmetry for the superconducting gap in these prototypical quasi-one-dimensional conductors. xml:lang="fr"

  6. MARCUSE’S ONE-DIMENSIONAL SOCIETY IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOS RASTOVIC

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Marcuse’s main book One-Dimensional Man is almost obsolete, or rather passé. However, there are reasons to renew the reading of his book because of “the crisis of capitalism,” and the prevailing framework of technological domination in “advanced industrial society” in which we live today. “The new forms of control” in “advanced industrial societies” have replaced traditional methods of political and economic administration. The dominant structural element of “advanced industrial society” has become a technical and scientific apparatus of production and distribution of technology and administrative practice based on application of impersonal rules by a hierarchy of associating authorities. Technology has been liberated from the control of particular interests, and it has become the factor of domination in itself. Technological domination stems from the technical development of the productive apparatus that reproduces its ability into all spheres of social life (cultural, political, and economic. Based upon this consideration, in this paper, I will examine Marcuse’s ideas of “the new forms of control,” which creates a one–dimensional society. Marcuse’s fundamental thesis in One-Dimensional Man is that technological rationality is the most dominant factor in an “advanced industrial society,” which unites two earlier opposing forces of dissent: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.

  7. Synthesis of Ordered Biosilica Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Li-Jun(王荔军); WANG,Yun-Hua(王运华); LI,Min(李敏); FAN,Ming-Sheng(范明生); ZHANG,Fu-Suo(张福锁); WU,Xue-Min(吴学民); YANG,Wen-Sheng(杨文胜); LI,Tie-Jin(李铁津)

    2002-01-01

    Biogenic silica with amazing diversity of nanostructure shells,fibers and granules in diatoms and sponges is mediated by proteins and polysaccharides and forms at ambient pressure and temperatures. Chemical synthetic methods, in contrast,have to rely on extreme pH and/or surfactants to induce the condensation of silica precursors into specific patterns. One kind of benign synthesis method through plant cell wall template-directed ordered biosilica materials under ambient conditions is intriguing in this context. Organized silica materials in intercellular spaces of epidermal cells of tall fescue leaves were synthesized through molecular recognition between Si-OH and polysaccharide-OH or glycoprotein-OH of main components of plant cell walls and cellular processing as well when Si(OEt)4 was supplied rather than monosilicic acid. The biosynthesis of structural silica in tall fescue plant was correlated with the Si species applied, reflecting the slower coudensation from tetraethoxrsilane (TEOS) and thus providing greater opportunities for structural control by the underlying matrix of cell walls. The composition was estimated by energy dispersive Xray (EDX) spectra on a scanning electron microscope. All organized structures showed carbon, oxygen and silicon peaks,indicating that their formations differ from natural siliceous process.

  8. Transport Imaging in the One Dimensional Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Bracewell, R., The Fourier Transform and Its Applications, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1999) 13. Arfken , G. B., Weber, H. J., Mathematical ... method makes it possible to extract key materials parameters, such as diffusion lengths and minority carrier mobility, from a single charge coupled...transport imaging technique will be expanded to examine spatial luminescence from 1D structures in order to develop a contact free method of measuring

  9. Analytical models of optical response in one-dimensional semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm, E-mail: tgp@nano.aau.dk

    2015-09-04

    The quantum mechanical description of the optical properties of crystalline materials typically requires extensive numerical computation. Including excitonic and non-perturbative field effects adds to the complexity. In one dimension, however, the analysis simplifies and optical spectra can be computed exactly. In this paper, we apply the Wannier exciton formalism to derive analytical expressions for the optical response in four cases of increasing complexity. Thus, we start from free carriers and, in turn, switch on electrostatic fields and electron–hole attraction and, finally, analyze the combined influence of these effects. In addition, the optical response of impurity-localized excitons is discussed. - Highlights: • Optical response of one-dimensional semiconductors including excitons. • Analytical model of excitonic Franz–Keldysh effect. • Computation of optical response of impurity-localized excitons.

  10. Magnons in one-dimensional k-component Fibonacci structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C. H.; Vasconcelos, M. S.

    2014-05-01

    We have studied the magnon transmission through of one-dimensional magnonic k-component Fibonacci structures, where k different materials are arranged in accordance with the following substitution rule: Sn(k)=Sn-1(k)Sn-k(k) (n ≥k=0,1,2,…), where Sn(k) is the nth stage of the sequence. The calculations were carried out in exchange dominated regime within the framework of the Heisenberg model and taking into account the RPA approximation. We have considered multilayers composed of simple cubic spin-S Heisenberg ferromagnets, and, by using the powerful transfer-matrix method, the spin wave transmission is obtained. It is demonstrated that the transmission coefficient has a rich and interesting magnonic pass- and stop-bands structures, which depends on the frequency of magnons and the k values.

  11. Magnons in one-dimensional k-component Fibonacci structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, C. H., E-mail: carloshocosta@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M. S. [Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)

    2014-05-07

    We have studied the magnon transmission through of one-dimensional magnonic k-component Fibonacci structures, where k different materials are arranged in accordance with the following substitution rule: S{sub n}{sup (k)}=S{sub n−1}{sup (k)}S{sub n−k}{sup (k)} (n≥k=0,1,2,…), where S{sub n}{sup (k)} is the nth stage of the sequence. The calculations were carried out in exchange dominated regime within the framework of the Heisenberg model and taking into account the RPA approximation. We have considered multilayers composed of simple cubic spin-S Heisenberg ferromagnets, and, by using the powerful transfer-matrix method, the spin wave transmission is obtained. It is demonstrated that the transmission coefficient has a rich and interesting magnonic pass- and stop-bands structures, which depends on the frequency of magnons and the k values.

  12. Gibbs measures and phase transitions in one-dimensional models

    OpenAIRE

    Mallak, Saed

    2000-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Mathematics and the Institute of Engineering and Sciences of Bilkent University, 2000. Thesis (Ph.D.) -- Bilkent University, 2000. Includes bibliographical references leaves 63-64 In this thesis we study the problem of limit Gibbs measures in one-dimensional models. VVe investigate uniqueness conditions for the limit Gibbs measures for one-dimensional models. VVe construct a one-dimensional model disproving a uniqueness conjecture formulated before for...

  13. A One-Dimensional Synthetic-Aperture Microwave Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Terence; Piepmeier, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    A proposed one-dimensional synthetic- aperture microwave radiometer could serve as an alternative to either the two-dimensional synthetic-aperture radiometer described in the immediately preceding article or to a prior one-dimensional one, denoted the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR), mentioned in that article. The proposed radiometer would operate in a pushbroom imaging mode, utilizing (1) interferometric cross-track scanning to obtain cross-track resolution and (2) the focusing property of a reflector for along-track resolution. The most novel aspect of the proposed system would be the antenna (see figure), which would include a cylindrical reflector of offset parabolic cross section. The reflector could be made of a lightweight, flexible material amenable to stowage and deployment. Other than a stowage/deployment mechanism, the antenna would not include moving parts, and cross-track scanning would not entail mechanical rotation of the antenna. During operation, the focal line, parallel to the cylindrical axis, would be oriented in the cross-track direction, so that placement of receiving/radiating elements at the focal line would afford the desired along-track resolution. The elements would be microwave feed horns sparsely arrayed along the focal line. The feed horns would be oriented with their short and long cross-sectional dimensions parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the cylindrical axis to obtain fan-shaped beams having their broad and narrow cross-sectional dimensions parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the cylindrical axis. The interference among the beams would be controlled in the same manner as in the ESTAR to obtain along-cylindrical- axis (cross-track) resolution and cross-track scanning.

  14. Materials synthesis: Two-dimensional gallium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koratkar, Nikhil A.

    2016-11-01

    Graphene is used as a capping sheet to synthesize 2D gallium nitride by means of migration-enhanced encapsulation growth. This technique may allow the stabilization of 2D materials that are not amenable to synthesis by traditional methods.

  15. One dimensional Convolutional Goppa Codes over the projective line

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, J A Domínguez; Sotelo, G Serrano

    2011-01-01

    We give a general method to construct MDS one-dimensional convolutional codes. Our method generalizes previous constructions of H. Gluesing-Luerssen and B. Langfeld. Moreover we give a classification of one-dimensional Convolutional Goppa Codes and propose a characterization of MDS codes of this type.

  16. One-dimensional diffusion model in an Inhomogeneous region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fedotov, I

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional model is developed to describe atomic diffusion in a graphite tube atomizer for electrothermal atomic adsorption spectrometry. The underlying idea of the model is the solution of an inhomogeneous one-dimensional diffusion equation...

  17. A disorder-enhanced quasi-one-dimensional superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, A P; Ansermet, D; Chernyshov, D; Hoesch, M; Salloum, D; Gougeon, P; Potel, M; Boeri, L; Panagopoulos, C

    2016-01-01

    A powerful approach to analysing quantum systems with dimensionality d>1 involves adding a weak coupling to an array of one-dimensional (1D) chains. The resultant quasi-1D (q1D) systems can exhibit long-range order at low temperature, but are heavily influenced by interactions and disorder due to their large anisotropies. Real q1D materials are therefore ideal candidates not only to provoke, test and refine theories of strongly correlated matter, but also to search for unusual emergent electronic phases. Here we report the unprecedented enhancement of a superconducting instability by disorder in single crystals of Na2-δMo6Se6, a q1D superconductor comprising MoSe chains weakly coupled by Na atoms. We argue that disorder-enhanced Coulomb pair-breaking (which usually destroys superconductivity) may be averted due to a screened long-range Coulomb repulsion intrinsic to disordered q1D materials. Our results illustrate the capability of disorder to tune and induce new correlated electron physics in low-dimensional materials.

  18. Controlled Growth of One-Dimensional Oxide Nanomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaosheng FANG; Lide ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the recent developments in the controlled growth of one-dimensional (1D) oxide nanomaterials, including ZnO, SnO2, In2O3, Ga2O3, SiOx, MgO, and Al2O3. The growth of 1D oxide nanomaterials was carried out in a simple chemical vapor transport and condensation system. This article will begin with a survey of nanotechnology and 1D nanomaterials achieved by many researchers, and then mainly discuss on the controlled growth of 1D oxide nanomaterials with their morphologies, sizes, compositions, and microstructures controlled by altering experimental parameters, such as the temperature at the source material and the substrate, temperature gradient in the tube furnace, the total reaction time, the heating rate of the furnace, the gas flow rate, and the starting material. Their roles in the formation of various morphologies are analyzed and discussed. Finally, this review will be concluded with personal perspectives on the future research directions of this area.

  19. Stepwise Nanopore Evolution in One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Jang Wook

    2010-04-14

    We report that established simple lithium (Li) ion battery cycles can be used to produce nanopores inside various useful one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as zinc oxide, silicon, and silver nanowires. Moreover, porosities of these 1D nanomaterials can be controlled in a stepwise manner by the number of Li-battery cycles. Subsequent pore characterization at the end of each cycle allows us to obtain detailed snapshots of the distinct pore evolution properties in each material due to their different atomic diffusion rates and types of chemical bonds. Also, this stepwise characterization led us to the first observation of pore size increases during cycling, which can be interpreted as a similar phenomenon to Ostwald ripening in analogous nanoparticle cases. Finally, we take advantage of the unique combination of nanoporosity and 1D materials and demonstrate nanoporous silicon nanowires (poSiNWs) as excellent supercapacitor (SC) electrodes in high power operations compared to existing devices with activated carbon. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  20. Torsional Detwinning Domino in Nanotwinned One-Dimensional Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haofei; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Ying; Liu, Zishun; Yang, Wei; Gao, Huajian

    2015-09-09

    How to maintain sustained deformation in one-dimensional nanostructures without localized failure is an important question for many applications of nanotechnology. Here we report a phenomenon of torsional detwinning domino that leads to giant rotational deformation without localized failure in nanotwinned one-dimensional metallic nanostructures. This mechanism is demonstrated in nanotwinned Cu nanorods via molecular dynamics simulations, where coherent twin boundaries are transformed into twist boundaries and then dissolved one by one, resulting in practically unlimited rotational deformation. This finding represents a fundamental advance in our understanding of deformation mechanisms in one-dimensional metallic nanostructures.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of one dimensional zinc oxide nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chun

    In this thesis, one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures with controlled morphologies, defects and alignment have been fabricated by a simple vapor transfer method. The crystal structures, interfaces, growth mechanisms and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Great efforts have been devoted to the patterned growth and assembly of ZnO nanostructures as well as the stability of ZnO nanowires (NWs). Using carbonized photoresists, a simple and very effective method has been developed for fabricating and patterning high-quality ZnO NW arrays. ZnO NWs from this method show excellent alignment, crystal quality, and optical properties that are independent of the substrates. The carbonized photoresists provide perfect nucleation sites for the growth of aligned ZnO NWs and also perfectly connect to the NWs to form ideal electrodes. This approach is further extended to realize large area growth of different forms of ZnO NW arrays (e.g., the horizontal growth and multilayered ZnO NW arrays) on other kinds of carbon-based materials. In addition, the as-synthesized vertically aligned ZnO NW arrays show a low weighted reflectance (Rw) and can be used as antireflection coatings. Moreover, non c-axis growth of 1D ZnO nanostructures (e.g., nanochains, nanobrushes and nanobelts) and defect related 1D ZnO nanostructures (e.g., Y-shaped twinned nanobelts and hierarchical nanostructures decorated by flowers induced by screw dislocations) is also present. Using direct oxidization of pure Zn at high temperatures in air, uniformed ZnO NWs and tetrapods have been fabricated. The spatially-resolved PL study on these two kinds of nanostructures suggests that the defects leading to the green luminescence (GL) should originate from the structural changes along the legs of the tetrapods. Surface defects in these ZnO nanostructures play an unimportant

  2. Combustion synthesis of advanced composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John J.

    1993-01-01

    Self-propagating high temperature (combustion) synthesis (SHS), has been investigated as a means of producing both dense and expanded (foamed) ceramic and ceramic-metal composites, ceramic powders and whiskers. Several model exothermic combustion synthesis reactions were used to establish the importance of certain reaction parameters, e.g., stoichiometry, green density, combustion mode, particle size, etc. on the control of the synthesis reaction, product morphology and properties. The use of an in situ liquid infiltration technique and the effect of varying the reactants and their stoichiometry to provide a range of reactant and product species i.e., solids, liquids and gases, with varying physical properties e.g., volatility and thermal conductivity, on the microstructure and morphology of synthesized composite materials is discussed. Conducting the combustion synthesis reaction in a reactive gas environment to take advantage of the synergistic effects of combustion synthesis and vapor phase transport is also examined.

  3. A NEW ONE-DIMENSIONAL CHAOTIC MAP WITH INFINITE COLLAPSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Yuehong; He Chen; Zhu Hongwen

    2002-01-01

    This letter presents a new one-dimensional chaotic map with infinite collapses. Theoretical analyses show that the map has complicated dynamical behavior and ideal distribution.The map can be applied in chaotic spreading spectrum communication and chaotic cipher.

  4. One-dimensional spatially dependent solute transport in semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One-dimensional spatially dependent solute transport in semi-infinite porous media: an analytical solution. ... Journal Home > Vol 9, No 4 (2017) > ... In this mathematical model the dispersion coefficient is considered spatially dependent while ...

  5. One-Dimensional Tunable Photonic-Crystal IR Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MetroLaser proposes to design and develop an innovative narrowband tunable IR filter based on the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a...

  6. One-Dimensional Tunable Photonic-Crystal IR Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MetroLaser proposes to design and develop an innovative narrowband tunable IR filter based on the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a...

  7. One dimensional models of excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia Decebal; Duclos, P.; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable.......Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable....

  8. An investigation of dopping profile for a one dimensional heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaohui

    2005-03-01

    A one-dimensional junction is formed by joining two silicon nanowires whose surfaces are terminated with capping groups of different electronegativity and polarizability. If this heterostructure is doped (with e.g. phosphorous) on the side with the higher bandgap, the system becomes a modulation doped heterostructure with novel one-dimensional electrostatics. We use density functional theory calculations in the pseudopotential approximation, plus empirical model calculations, to investigate doping profiles in this new class of nanostructures.

  9. Fidelity of an electron in one-dimensional determined potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Wen-Guang; Tong Pei-Qing

    2009-01-01

    We numerically study the fidelity of an electron in the one-dimensional Harper model and in the one-dimensional slowly varying potential model. Our results show that many properties of the two models can be well reflected by the fidelity: (i) the mobility edge and metal-insulator transition can be characterized by the static fidelity; (ii) the extended state and localized state can be identified by the dynamic fidelity. Therefore, it may broaden the applied areas of the fidelity.

  10. One-Dimensional Electron Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujwal K. Thakur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The electron diffusion length (Ln is smaller than the hole diffusion length (Lp in many halide perovskite semiconductors meaning that the use of ordered one-dimensional (1D structures such as nanowires (NWs and nanotubes (NTs as electron transport layers (ETLs is a promising method of achieving high performance halide perovskite solar cells (HPSCs. ETLs consisting of oriented and aligned NWs and NTs offer the potential not merely for improved directional charge transport but also for the enhanced absorption of incoming light and thermodynamically efficient management of photogenerated carrier populations. The ordered architecture of NW/NT arrays affords superior infiltration of a deposited material making them ideal for use in HPSCs. Photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs as high as 18% have been demonstrated for HPSCs using 1D ETLs. Despite the advantages of 1D ETLs, there are still challenges that need to be overcome to achieve even higher PCEs, such as better methods to eliminate or passivate surface traps, improved understanding of the hetero-interface and optimization of the morphology (i.e., length, diameter, and spacing of NWs/NTs. This review introduces the general considerations of ETLs for HPSCs, deposition techniques used, and the current research and challenges in the field of 1D ETLs for perovskite solar cells.

  11. A Smart Colorful Supercapacitor with One Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cihui; Liu, Xing; Xuan, Hongyun; Ren, Jiaoyu; Ge, Liqin

    2015-12-01

    To meet the pressing demands for portable and flexible equipment in contemporary society, developing flexible, lightweight, and sustainable supercapacitor systems with large power densities, long cycle life, and ease of strongly required. However, estimating the state-of-charge of existing supercapacitors is difficult, and thus their service life is limited. In this study, we fabricate a flexible color indicative supercapacitor device with mesoporous polyaniline (mPANI)/Poly(N-Isopropyl acrylamide-Graphene Oxide-Acrylic Acid) (P(NiPPAm-GO-AA)) one dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs) as the electrode material through a low-cost, eco-friendly, and scalable fabrication process. We found that the state-of-charge could be monitored by the structural color oscillation due to the change in the photonic band gap position of the 1DPCs. The flexible 1DPCs supercapacitor is thin at 3 mm and exhibits good specific capacitance of 22.6 F g-1 with retention of 91.1% after 3,000 cycles. This study shows the application of the 1DPCs supercapacitor as a visual ultrathin power source. The technology may find many applications in future wearable electronics.

  12. One-Dimensional Electron Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ujwal K.; Kisslinger, Ryan; Shankar, Karthik

    2017-01-01

    The electron diffusion length (Ln) is smaller than the hole diffusion length (Lp) in many halide perovskite semiconductors meaning that the use of ordered one-dimensional (1D) structures such as nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs) as electron transport layers (ETLs) is a promising method of achieving high performance halide perovskite solar cells (HPSCs). ETLs consisting of oriented and aligned NWs and NTs offer the potential not merely for improved directional charge transport but also for the enhanced absorption of incoming light and thermodynamically efficient management of photogenerated carrier populations. The ordered architecture of NW/NT arrays affords superior infiltration of a deposited material making them ideal for use in HPSCs. Photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs) as high as 18% have been demonstrated for HPSCs using 1D ETLs. Despite the advantages of 1D ETLs, there are still challenges that need to be overcome to achieve even higher PCEs, such as better methods to eliminate or passivate surface traps, improved understanding of the hetero-interface and optimization of the morphology (i.e., length, diameter, and spacing of NWs/NTs). This review introduces the general considerations of ETLs for HPSCs, deposition techniques used, and the current research and challenges in the field of 1D ETLs for perovskite solar cells. PMID:28468280

  13. A Smart Colorful Supercapacitor with One Dimensional Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cihui; Liu, Xing; Xuan, Hongyun; Ren, Jiaoyu; Ge, Liqin

    2015-12-22

    To meet the pressing demands for portable and flexible equipment in contemporary society, developing flexible, lightweight, and sustainable supercapacitor systems with large power densities, long cycle life, and ease of strongly required. However, estimating the state-of-charge of existing supercapacitors is difficult, and thus their service life is limited. In this study, we fabricate a flexible color indicative supercapacitor device with mesoporous polyaniline (mPANI)/Poly(N-Isopropyl acrylamide-Graphene Oxide-Acrylic Acid) (P(NiPPAm-GO-AA)) one dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs) as the electrode material through a low-cost, eco-friendly, and scalable fabrication process. We found that the state-of-charge could be monitored by the structural color oscillation due to the change in the photonic band gap position of the 1DPCs. The flexible 1DPCs supercapacitor is thin at 3 mm and exhibits good specific capacitance of 22.6 F g(-1) with retention of 91.1% after 3,000 cycles. This study shows the application of the 1DPCs supercapacitor as a visual ultrathin power source. The technology may find many applications in future wearable electronics.

  14. Transmission properties of one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiveshwari, Laxmi [Department of Physics, K. B. Womens' s College, Hazaribagh 825 301 (India); Awasthi, S. K. [Department of Physics and Material Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida 201 304 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Omnidirectional photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals (PPC) composed of single negative metamaterials. The band characteristics and transmission properties are investigated through the transfer matrix method. We show that the proposed structure can trap light in three-dimensional space due to the elimination of Brewster's angle transmission resonance allowing the existence of complete PBG. The results are discussed in terms of incident angle, layer thickness, dielectric constant of the dielectric material, and number of unit cells (N) for TE and TM polarizations. It is seen that PBG characteristics is apparent even in an N ≥ 2 system, which is weakly sensitive to the incident angle and completely insensitive to the polarization. Finite PPC could be used for multichannel transmission filter without introducing any defect in the geometry. We show that the locations of the multichannel transmission peaks are in the allowed band of the infinite structure. The structure can work as a single or multichannel filter by varying the number of unit cells. Binary PPC can also work as a polarization sensitive tunable filter.

  15. Radiation synthesis of materials and compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Kharisov, Boris Ildusovich; Ortiz Méndez, Ubaldo

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and engineers working in nuclear laboratories, nuclear electric plants, and elsewhere in the radiochemical industries need a comprehensive handbook describing all possible radiation-chemistry interactions between irradiation and materials, the preparation of materials under distinct radiation types, the possibility of damage of materials under irradiation, and more. Radiation nanotechnology is still practically an undeveloped field, except for some achievements in the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles under ionizing flows. Radiation Synthesis of Materials and Compounds presents the state of the art of the synthesis of materials, composites, and chemical compounds, and describes methods based on the use of ionizing radiation. It is devoted to the preparation of various types of materials (including nanomaterials) and chemical compounds using ionizing radiation (alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, and neutron, proton, and ion beams). The book presents contributions from leaders ...

  16. Inorganic materials synthesis in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Janiak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of "inorganic materials from ionic liquids" (ILs is a young and dynamically growing research area for less than 10 years. The ionothermal synthesis in ILs is often connected with the preparation of nanomaterials, the use of microwave heating and in part also ultrasound. Inorganic material synthesis in ILs allows obtaining phases which are not accessible in conventional organic or aqueous solvents or with standard methods of solid-state chemistry or under such mild conditions. Cases at hand include "ligand-free" metal nanoparticles without added stabilizing capping ligands, inorganic or inorganic-organic hybrid solid-state compounds, large polyhedral clusters and exfoliated graphene from low-temperature synthesis. There are great expectations that ILs open routes towards new, possibly unknown, inorganic materials with advantageous properties that cannot (or only with great difficulty be made via conventional processes.

  17. Gas Sensors Based on One Dimensional Nanostructured Metal-Oxides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. M. A. Haseeb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently one dimensional (1-D nanostructured metal-oxides have attracted much attention because of their potential applications in gas sensors. 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides provide high surface to volume ratio, while maintaining good chemical and thermal stabilities with minimal power consumption and low weight. In recent years, various processing routes have been developed for the synthesis of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides such as hydrothermal, ultrasonic irradiation, electrospinning, anodization, sol-gel, molten-salt, carbothermal reduction, solid-state chemical reaction, thermal evaporation, vapor-phase transport, aerosol, RF sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy, chemical vapor deposition, gas-phase assisted nanocarving, UV lithography and dry plasma etching. A variety of sensor fabrication processing routes have also been developed. Depending on the materials, morphology and fabrication process the performance of the sensor towards a specific gas shows a varying degree of success. This article reviews and evaluates the performance of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxide gas sensors based on ZnO, SnO2, TiO2, In2O3, WOx, AgVO3, CdO, MoO3, CuO, TeO2 and Fe2O3. Advantages and disadvantages of each sensor are summarized, along with the associated sensing mechanism. Finally, the article concludes with some future directions of research.

  18. Gas sensors based on one dimensional nanostructured metal-oxides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, M M; Dinan, B; Akbar, Sheikh A; Haseeb, A S M A

    2012-01-01

    Recently one dimensional (1-D) nanostructured metal-oxides have attracted much attention because of their potential applications in gas sensors. 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides provide high surface to volume ratio, while maintaining good chemical and thermal stabilities with minimal power consumption and low weight. In recent years, various processing routes have been developed for the synthesis of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides such as hydrothermal, ultrasonic irradiation, electrospinning, anodization, sol-gel, molten-salt, carbothermal reduction, solid-state chemical reaction, thermal evaporation, vapor-phase transport, aerosol, RF sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy, chemical vapor deposition, gas-phase assisted nanocarving, UV lithography and dry plasma etching. A variety of sensor fabrication processing routes have also been developed. Depending on the materials, morphology and fabrication process the performance of the sensor towards a specific gas shows a varying degree of success. This article reviews and evaluates the performance of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxide gas sensors based on ZnO, SnO(2), TiO(2), In(2)O(3), WO(x), AgVO(3), CdO, MoO(3), CuO, TeO(2) and Fe(2)O(3). Advantages and disadvantages of each sensor are summarized, along with the associated sensing mechanism. Finally, the article concludes with some future directions of research.

  19. One dimensional speckle fields generated by three phase level diffusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, L.; Amaya, D.; Bolognini, N.; Lencina, A.

    2015-02-01

    Speckle patterns have usually been obtained by using ground glass as random diffusers. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators have opened the possibility of engineering tailored speckle fields obtained from designed diffusers. In this work, one-dimensional Gaussian speckle fields with fully controllable features are generated. By employing a low-cost liquid-crystal spatial light modulator, one-dimensional three phase level diffusers are implemented. These diffusers make it possible to control average intensity distribution and statistical independence among the generated patterns. The average speckle size is governed by an external slit pupil. A theoretical model to describe the generated speckle patterns is developed. Experimental and theoretical results confirming the generation of one-dimensional speckle fields are presented. Some possible applications of these speckles, such as atom trapping and super-resolution imaging, are briefly envisaged.

  20. Analysis of one dimensional and two dimensional fuzzy controllers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ban Xiaojun; Gao Xiaozhi; Huang Xianlin; Wu Tianbao

    2006-01-01

    The analytical structures and the corresponding mathematical properties of the one dimensional and two dimensional fuzzy controllers are first investigated in detail.The nature of these two kinds of fuzzy controllers is next probed from the perspective of control engineering. For the one dimensional fuzzy controller, it is concluded that this controller is a combination of a saturation element and a nonlinear proportional controller, and the system that employs the one dimensional fuzzy controller is the combination of an open-loop control system and a closedloop control system. For the latter case, it is concluded that it is a hybrid controller, which comprises the saturation part, zero-output part, nonlinear derivative part, nonlinear proportional part, as well as nonlinear proportional-derivative part, and the two dimensional fuzzy controller-based control system is a loop-varying system with varying number of control loops.

  1. Hardening transition in a one-dimensional model for ferrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Mario Alberto; Menzel, Andreas M.; Löwen, Hartmut

    2013-05-01

    We introduce and investigate a coarse-grained model for quasi one-dimensional ferrogels. In our description the magnetic particles are represented by hard spheres with a magnetic dipole moment in their centers. Harmonic springs connecting these spheres mimic the presence of a cross-linked polymer matrix. A special emphasis is put on the coupling of the dipolar orientations to the elastic deformations of the matrix, where a memory effect of the orientations is included. Although the particles are displaced along one spatial direction only, the system already shows rich behavior: as a function of the magnetic dipole moment, we find a phase transition between "soft-elastic" states with finite interparticle separation and finite compressive elastic modulus on the one hand, and "hardened" states with touching particles and therefore diverging compressive elastic modulus on the other hand. Corresponding phase diagrams are derived neglecting thermal fluctuations of the magnetic particles. In addition, we consider a situation in which a spatially homogeneous magnetization is initially imprinted into the material. Depending on the strength of the magneto-mechanical coupling between the dipole orientations and the elastic deformations, the system then relaxes to a uniaxially ferromagnetic, an antiferromagnetic, or a spiral state of magnetization to minimize its energy. One purpose of our work is to provide a largely analytically solvable approach that can provide a benchmark to test future descriptions of higher complexity. From an applied point of view, our results could be exploited, for example, for the construction of novel damping devices of tunable shock absorbance.

  2. Characterization for defect modes of one-dimensional photonic crystals containing metamaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Tang; Lei Gao; Jianxing Fang

    2008-01-01

    Transmission studies for one-dimensional photonic crystals(1DPCs)containing single-negative(SNG)materials inserted with multiple defects are presented.The numbers and positions of the defect modes inside zero-phase(zero-φeff)gap are found to be well characterized by effective medium theory.

  3. Sol-gel fabrication of one-dimensional photonic crystals with predicted transmission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinykh, V. A.; Matyushkin, L. B.

    2016-08-01

    One-dimensional multilayer structures of periodically alternating low refractive index (silica) and high refractive index (titania) materials have been deposited by sol-gel spincoating. Experimental spectra of the structures are in agreement with spectra calculated by transfer matrix technique. As an example, theoretical and experimental spectra with a stop band corresponding 600 nm-reflection are shown.

  4. One-dimensional models of excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia Decebal; Duclos, Pierre; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2004-01-01

    Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one-dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable.......Excitons in carbon nanotubes may be modeled by two oppositely charged particles living on the surface of a cylinder. We derive three one-dimensional effective Hamiltonians which become exact as the radius of the cylinder vanishes. Two of them are solvable....

  5. Branching solutions to one-dimensional variational problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, A O

    2001-01-01

    This book deals with the new class of one-dimensional variational problems - the problems with branching solutions. Instead of extreme curves (mappings of a segment to a manifold) we investigate extreme networks, which are mappings of graphs (one-dimensional cell complexes) to a manifold. Various applications of the approach are presented, such as several generalizations of the famous Steiner problem of finding the shortest network spanning given points of the plane. Contents: Preliminary Results; Networks Extremality Criteria; Linear Networks in R N; Extremals of Length Type Functionals: The

  6. Microemulsion-based synthesis of nanocrystalline materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Ashok K; Ganguly, Aparna; Vaidya, Sonalika

    2010-02-01

    Microemulsion-based synthesis is found to be a versatile route to synthesize a variety of nanomaterials. The manipulation of various components involved in the formation of a microemulsion enables one to synthesize nanomaterials with varied size and shape. In this tutorial review several aspects of microemulsion based synthesis of nanocrystalline materials have been discussed which would be of interest to a cross-section of researchers working on colloids, physical chemistry, nanoscience and materials chemistry. The review focuses on the recent developments in the above area with current understanding on the various factors that control the structure and dynamics of microemulsions which can be effectively used to manipulate the size and shape of nanocrystalline materials.

  7. Some New Band Characteristics in One-Dimensional Plasma Dielectric Photonic Crystals%Some New Band Characteristics in One-Dimensional Plasma Dielectric Photonic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laxmi SHIVESHWARI

    2011-01-01

    Propagation of electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma dielectric photonic crystals, the superlattice structure consisting of alternating plasma and dielectric materials, is studied theoretically for oblique incidence by using the transfer matrix method. Our results show that complete photonic band gaps for all polarizations can be obtained in one-dimensional plasma dielectric photonic crystals. These structures can exhibit a new type of band or gap, for the incidence other than the normal one, near frequencies where the electric permittivity of the plasma layer changes sign. This new band or gap arises, from the dispersive properties of the plasma layer, only for transverse magnetic polarized waves, and its width increases with the increase in incident angle. This differential behavior under polarization can be utilized in the design of an efficient polarization splitter. The existence of both photonic gaps and resonance transmission bands is demonstrated for experimentally realizable structures such as double electromagnetic barriers.

  8. Symmetricity of Distribution for One-Dimensional Hadamard Walk

    CERN Document Server

    Konno, N; Soshi, T; Konno, Norio; Namiki, Takao; Soshi, Takahiro

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we study a one-dimensional quantum random walk with the Hadamard transformation which is often called the Hadamard walk. We construct the Hadamard walk using a transition matrix on probability amplitude and give some results on symmetricity of probability distributions for the Hadamard walk.

  9. The electromagnetic Brillouin precursor in one-dimensional photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitham, R.; Hoenders, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    We have calculated the electromagnetic Brillouin precursor that arises in a one-dimensional photonic crystal that consists of two homogeneous slabs which each have a single electron resonance. This forerunner is compared with the Brillouin precursor that arises in a homogeneous double-electron reson

  10. Time correlation functions for the one-dimensional Lorentz gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazo, R.M.; Beijeren, H. van

    1983-01-01

    The velocity autocorrelation function and related quantities are investigated for the one-dimensional deterministic Lorentz gas, consisting of randomly distributed fixed scatterers and light particles moving back and forth between two of these at a constant given speed. An expansion for the velocity

  11. Current-Voltage Characteristics of Quasi-One-Dimensional Superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vodolazov, D.Y.; Peeters, F.M.; Piraux, L.

    2003-01-01

    The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of quasi-one-dimensional superconductors were discussed. The I-V characteristics exhibited an unusual S behavior. The dynamics of superconducting condensate and the existence of two different critical currents resulted in such an unusual behavior....

  12. The Long Decay Model of One-Dimensional Projectile Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattery, Mark Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a research study on student model formation and development in introductory mechanics. As a point of entry, I present a detailed analysis of the Long Decay Model of one-dimensional projectile motion. This model has been articulated by Galileo ("in De Motu") and by contemporary students. Implications for instruction are…

  13. The electromagnetic Brillouin precursor in one-dimensional photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitham, R.; Hoenders, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    We have calculated the electromagnetic Brillouin precursor that arises in a one-dimensional photonic crystal that consists of two homogeneous slabs which each have a single electron resonance. This forerunner is compared with the Brillouin precursor that arises in a homogeneous double-electron

  14. Quasi-one-dimensional scattering in a discrete model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valiente, Manuel; Mølmer, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    that more than one confinement-induced resonances appear due to the nonseparability of the center-of-mass and relative coordinates on the lattice. This is done by solving its corresponding Lippmann-Schwinger-like equation. We characterize the effective one-dimensional interaction and compare it with a model...

  15. One-dimensional Bose gas on an atom chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amerongen, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    We describe experiments investigating the (coherence) properties of a finite-temperature one-dimensional (1D) Bose gas with repulsive interactions. The confining magnetic field is generated with a micro-electronic circuit. This microtrap for atoms or `atom chip' is particularly suited to generate a

  16. Quantum Dynamics of One-Dimensional Nanocrystalline Solids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁建文; 颜晓红; 曹觉先; 王登龙

    2002-01-01

    A novel ballistic-nonballistic dynamic transition in one-dimensional nanocrystalline solids is found upon varyingthe strength of the composition modulation and the grain-boundary effect. This can contribute to the under-standing of the strange electronic transport properties of nanostructured systems.

  17. One-dimensional models of thermal activation under shear stress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of thermal activation under shear stress in three- and even two-dimensional models presents unresolved problems. The analysis of one-dimensional models presented here may illuminate the study of more realistic models. For the model...

  18. How good are one-dimensional Josephson junction models?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomdahl, P. S.; Olsen, O.H.; Eilbeck, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of Josephson junctions of overlap type is presented and shown to reduce to the usual one-dimensional (1D) model in the limit of a very narrow junction. Comparisons between the stability limits for fluxon reflection obtained from the two models suggest that the many results...

  19. Quasi-one-dimensional intermittent flux behavior in superconducting films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qviller, A. J.; Yurchenko, V. V.; Galperin, Y. M.

    2012-01-01

    . The intermittent behavior shows no threshold value in the applied field, in contrast to conventional flux jumping. The results strongly suggest that the quasi-one-dimensional flux jumps are of a different nature than the thermomagnetic dendritic (branching) avalanches that are commonly found in superconducting...

  20. Radiative decay of the one-dimensional large acoustic polaron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivic, Zoran; Zekovic, Slobodan; Przulj, Zeljko

    2002-12-30

    Finite temperature dynamics and stability of the adiabatic large acoustic polaron in one-dimensional systems have been examined by means of the perturbation method based upon the inverse scattering transform. Polaron life-time was estimated in dependence of temperature and electron (exciton)-phonon coupling constant.

  1. An algebraic study of unitary one dimensional quantum cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, P

    2005-01-01

    We provide algebraic characterizations of unitary one dimensional quantum cellular automata. We do so both by algebraizing existing decision procedures, and by adding constraints into the model which do not change the quantum cellular automata's computational power. The configurations we consider have finite but unbounded size.

  2. Novel Progress in One-Dimensional Carbon Nanotubes Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ One-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNT) have received considerable attention from researchers worldwide. It is not only because of their unique physical properties, but also their potential applications. Recently, researchers of the CAS Institute of Physics have made new progress in the field.

  3. Quantum transport in strongly interacting one-dimensional nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agundez, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we study quantum transport in several one-dimensional systems with strong electronic interactions. The first chapter contains an introduction to the concepts treated throughout this thesis, such as the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the Kondo effect, the Fano effect and quantum state transfer.

  4. Bloch oscillations in an aperiodic one-dimensional potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moura, FABF; Lyra, ML; Dominguez-Adame, F; Malyshev, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    We study the dynamics of an electron subjected to a static uniform electric field within a one-dimensional tight-binding model with a slowly varying aperiodic potential. The unbiased model is known to support phases of localized and extended one-electron states separated by two mobility edges. We sh

  5. Lie symmetry algebra of one-dimensional nonconservative dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Cui-Mei; Wu Run-Heng; Fu Jing-Li

    2007-01-01

    Lie symmetry algebra of linear nonconservative dynamical systems is studied in this paper. By using 1-1 mapping,the Lie point and Lie contact symmetry algebras are obtained from two independent solutions of the one-dimensional linear equations of motion.

  6. Intertwining technique for the one-dimensional stationary Dirac equation

    CERN Document Server

    Nieto, L M; Samsonov, B F; Samsonov, Boris F.

    2003-01-01

    The technique of differential intertwining operators (or Darboux transformation operators) is systematically applied to the one-dimensional Dirac equation. The following aspects are investigated: factorization of a polynomial of Dirac Hamiltonians, quadratic supersymmetry, closed extension of transformation operators, chains of transformations, and finally particular cases of pseudoscalar and scalar potentials. The method is widely illustrated by numerous examples.

  7. One Dimensional Quasi-Exactly Solvable Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Fasihi, Mohammad A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper by means of similarity transformation we find some one-dimensional quasi-exactly solvable differential equations and their related Hamiltonians which appear in physical problems. We have provided also two examples with application of these differential equations.

  8. Quantum dynamics of one-dimensional nanocrystalline solids

    CERN Document Server

    Ding Jian Wen; Cao Jue Xian; Wang Deng Long

    2002-01-01

    A novel ballistic-non-ballistic dynamic transition in one-dimensional nanocrystalline solids is found upon varying the strength of the composition modulation and the grain-boundary effect. This can contribute to the understanding of the strange electronic transport properties of nano-structured systems

  9. Exact results for one dimensional fluids through functional integration

    CERN Document Server

    Fantoni, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    We review some of the exactly solvable one dimensional continuum fluid models of equilibrium classical statistical mechanics under the unified setting of functional integration in one dimension. We make some further developments and remarks concerning fluids with penetrable particles. We then apply our developments to the study of the Gaussian core model for which we are unable to find a well defined thermodynamics.

  10. Transport through a Finite One-Dimensional Crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Hekking, F.W.J.; Wees, B.J. van; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Timmering, C.E.; Foxon, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the magnetotransport properties of an artificial one-dimensional crystal. The crystal consists of a sequence of fifteen quantum dots, defined in the two-dimensional electron gas of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure by means of a split-gate technique. At a fixed magnetic field of 2 T, two

  11. 一维碳纳米管与金属氧化物材料研究%Study on One Dimensional Carbon Nanotubes and Metal Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭欣; 赵新宇

    2016-01-01

    One dimensional nanostructures have attracted much attention because they are the most fascinating functional ma-terials. The one dimensional morphologies can easily enhance the unique properties of the nanostructures, which make them suit-able for a wide variety of applications, including gas sensors, electro-chromic devices, light-emitting diodes, field emitters, supercapacitors, nanoelectronics, and nanogenerators. Therefore, much effort has been made to synthesize and characterize one dimensional nanostructures in the forms of nanorods, nanowires, nanotubes, nanobelts, etc. This article mainly introduced the one dimensional nanostructures carbon nanotubes and metal oxide, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of two kinds of materials for complementary modified synthesis of new composite materials.%一维纳米结构是最吸引人的功能材料而被广泛关注.一维形态可以很容易地提高纳米结构的独特性能,使它们适合各种各样的应用程序,包括气体传感器、电致变色的设备、发光二极管、场发射器、超级电容器和纳米发电机.因此,目前已合成多种一维纳米结构形式的纳米棒、纳米线、纳米管、纳米带等.本文主要介绍了一维碳纳米管与金属氧化物的性质与研究现状,探讨两种材料的优缺点以期进行互补修饰合成新型复合材料.

  12. One-dimensional CdS nanostructures: a promising candidate for optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiqiao; Wang, Xi; Xu, Junqi; Zhang, Qi; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Ma, Ying; Zhai, Tianyou

    2013-06-11

    As a promising candidate for optoelectronics, one-dimensional CdS nanostructures have drawn great scientific and technical interest due to their interesting fundamental properties and possibilities of utilization in novel promising optoelectronical devices with augmented performance and functionalities. This progress report highlights a selection of important topics pertinent to optoelectronical applications of one-dimensional CdS nanostructures over the last five years. This article begins with the description of rational design and controlled synthesis of CdS nanostructure arrays, alloyed nanostructucures and kinked nanowire superstructures, and then focuses on the optoelectronical properties, and applications including cathodoluminescence, lasers, light-emitting diodes, waveguides, field emitters, logic circuits, memory devices, photodetectors, gas sensors, photovoltaics and photoelectrochemistry. Finally, the general challenges and the potential future directions of this exciting area of research are highlighted.

  13. Direct Current Hopping Conductivity in One-Dimensional Nanometre Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋祎璞; 徐慧; 罗峰

    2003-01-01

    A one-dimensional random nanocrystalline chain model is established. A dc electron-phonon-field conductance model of electron tunnelling transfer is set up, and a new dc conductance formula in one-dimensional nanometre systems is derived. By calculating the dc conductivity, the relationship among the electric field, temperature and conductivity is analysed, and the effect of the crystalline grain size and the distortion of interfacial atoms on the dc conductance is discussed. The result shows that the nanometre system appears the characteristic of negative differential dependence of resistance and temperature at low temperature. The dc conductivity of nanometre systems varies with the change of electric field and trends to rise as the crystalline grain size increases and to decrease as the distorted degree of interfacial atoms increases.

  14. True Bilayer Exciton Condensate of One-Dimensional Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantian, A.; Abergel, D. S. L.

    2017-07-01

    We theoretically predict that a true bilayer exciton condensate, characterized by off-diagonal long-range order and global phase coherence, can be created in one-dimensional solid state electron systems. The mechanism by which this happens is to introduce a single particle hybridization of electron and hole populations, which locks the phase of the relevant mode and hence invalidates the Mermin-Wagner theorem. Electron-hole interactions then amplify this tendency towards off-diagonal long-range order, enhancing the condensate properties by more than an order of magnitude over the noninteracting limit. We show that the temperatures below which a substantial condensate fraction would form could reach hundreds of Kelvin, a benefit of the weak screening in one-dimensional systems.

  15. Fate of classical solitons in one-dimensional quantum systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustilnik, M.; Matveev, K. A.

    2015-11-23

    We study one-dimensional quantum systems near the classical limit described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The excitations near this limit are the well-known solitons and phonons. The classical description breaks down at long wavelengths, where quantum effects become dominant. Focusing on the spectra of the elementary excitations, we describe analytically the entire classical-to-quantum crossover. We show that the ultimate quantum fate of the classical KdV excitations is to become fermionic quasiparticles and quasiholes. We discuss in detail two exactly solvable models exhibiting such crossover, the Lieb-Liniger model of bosons with weak contact repulsion and the quantum Toda model, and argue that the results obtained for these models are universally applicable to all quantum one-dimensional systems with a well-defined classical limit described by the KdV equation.

  16. One-dimensional XY model: Ergodic properties and hydrodynamic limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhov, A. G.; Suhov, Yu. M.

    1986-11-01

    We prove theorems on convergence to a stationary state in the course of time for the one-dimensional XY model and its generalizations. The key point is the well-known Jordan-Wigner transformation, which maps the XY dynamics onto a group of Bogoliubov transformations on the CAR C *-algebra over Z 1. The role of stationary states for Bogoliubov transformations is played by quasifree states and for the XY model by their inverse images with respect to the Jordan-Wigner transformation. The hydrodynamic limit for the one-dimensional XY model is also considered. By using the Jordan-Wigner transformation one reduces the problem to that of constructing the hydrodynamic limit for the group of Bogoliubov transformations. As a result, we obtain an independent motion of "normal modes," which is described by a hyperbolic linear differential equation of second order. For the XX model this equation reduces to a first-order transfer equation.

  17. One-dimensional Si nanolines in hydrogenated Si(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Bianco; Köster, Sigrun A.; Owen, James G. H.; Renner, Christoph; Bowler, David R.

    2012-02-01

    We present a detailed study of the structural and electronic properties of a self-assembled silicon nanoline embedded in the H-terminated silicon (001) surface, known as the Haiku stripe. The nanoline is a perfectly straight and defect free endotaxial structure of huge aspect ratio; it can grow micrometre long at a constant width of exactly four Si dimers (1.54 nm). Another remarkable property is its capacity to be exposed to air without suffering any degradation. The nanoline grows independently of any step edges at tunable densities, from isolated nanolines to a dense array of nanolines. In addition to these unique structural characteristics, scanning tunnelling microscopy and density functional theory reveal a one-dimensional state confined along the Haiku core. This nanoline is a promising candidate for the long sought after electronic solid-state one-dimensional model system to explore the fascinating quantum properties emerging in such reduced dimensionality. Phys. Rev. B, 84, 035328 (2011)

  18. Luttinger parameter of quasi-one-dimensional para -H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, G.; Gordillo, M. C.; Boronat, J.

    2017-02-01

    We have studied the ground-state properties of para-hydrogen in one dimension and in quasi-one-dimensional configurations using the path-integral ground-state Monte Carlo method. This method produces zero-temperature exact results for a given interaction and geometry. The quasi-one-dimensional setup has been implemented in two forms: the inner channel inside a carbon nanotube coated with H2 and a harmonic confinement of variable strength. Our main result is the dependence of the Luttinger parameter on the density within the stable regime. Going from one dimension to quasi-one dimension, keeping the linear density constant, produces a systematic increase of the Luttinger parameter. This increase is, however, not enough to reach the superfluid regime and the system always remain in the quasicrystal regime, according to Luttinger liquid theory.

  19. Kinetic properties of small one-dimensional Ising magnetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udodov, Vladimir; Spirin, Dmitriy; Katanov Khakas State University Team

    2011-03-01

    Within the framework of a generalized Ising model, a one-dimensional magnetic of a finite length with free ends is considered. The correlation length critical exponent ν and kinetic critical exponent z of the magnet is calculated taking into account the next nearest neighbor interactions and the external field. Of special interest are non-equilibrium processes taking place within the critical temperature interval, which are characterized critical exponent y and dynamic critical index z . Due to significant difficulties encountered in the experimental investigations (e.g., measurement of z) , a natural solution to this complex problem would be modeling of those non-eqilibrium processes. This work addresses non-equilibrium processes in one-dimensional magnetics. Using the Monte Carlo method, an equilibrium critical exponent of the correlation length ν and the dynamic critical index z are calculated for a finite-size magnetic.

  20. Dark Matter in a One-dimensional Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Sigismondi, C

    2003-01-01

    A computer code to simulate temporal evolution of overdensities in a one-dimensional Universe is presented for didactic purposes. The formation of large scale structures in this one-dimensional universe can be studied both in matter or radiation dominated eras. Since large scale structures are already observed at z > 7, primordial dark matter overdensities delta_DM which are 90 times larger than the observed barionic delta_B in the cosmic microwave background are required at z~1000. This makes possible non-linear gravitational collapse at redshift z >7 and the formation of the structures. Primordial perturbations delta_B~10^-5 do not leave the linear regime of growth without the aid of dark matter's potential wells. This code is suitable for commercial worksheets like MSExcel, StarOffice, or OpenOffice.

  1. The Quantum Well of One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the transmissivity of one-dimensional photonic crystals quantum well (QW with quantum theory approach. By calculation, we find that there are photon bound states in the QW structure (BA6(BBABBn(AB6, and the numbers of the bound states are equal to n+1. We have found that there are some new features in the QW, which can be used to design optic amplifier, attenuator, and optic filter of multiple channel.

  2. Bose gases in one-dimensional harmonic trap

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JI-XUAN HOU; JING YANG

    2016-10-01

    Thermodynamic quantities, occupation numbers and their fluctuations of a one-dimensional Bose gas confined by a harmonic potential are studied using different ensemble approaches. Combining number theory methods, a new approach is presented to calculate the occupation numbers of different energy levels in microcanonical ensemble. The visible difference of the ground state occupation number in grand-canonical ensemble and microcanonical ensemble is found to decrease by power law as the number of particles increases.

  3. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics in one-dimensional bose gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldovin, F.; Cappellaro, A.; Orlandini, E.; Salasnich, L.

    2016-06-01

    We study cold dilute gases made of bosonic atoms, showing that in the mean-field one-dimensional regime they support stable out-of-equilibrium states. Starting from the 3D Boltzmann-Vlasov equation with contact interaction, we derive an effective 1D Landau-Vlasov equation under the condition of a strong transverse harmonic confinement. We investigate the existence of out-of-equilibrium states, obtaining stability criteria similar to those of classical plasmas.

  4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-01-01

    In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic ...

  5. One-Dimensional Tunable Josephson Metamaterials - Eindimensionale stimmbare Josephson Metamaterialien

    OpenAIRE

    Butz, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel approach to the experimental realization of tunable, superconducting metamaterials. Therefore, conventional resonant meta-atoms are replaced by meta-atoms that contain Josephson junctions, which renders their resonance frequency tunable by an external magnetic field. This tunability is theoretically and experimentally investigated in one-dimensional magnetic and electric metamaterials. For the magnetic metamaterial, the effective, magnetic permeability is determined.

  6. Few interacting fermions in one-dimensional harmonic trap

    CERN Document Server

    Sowiński, Tomasz; Dutta, Omjyoti; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    We study spin-1/2 fermions, interacting via a two-body contact potential, in a one-dimensional harmonic trap. Applying exact diagonalization, we investigate the behavior at finite interaction strength, and discuss the role of a ground state degeneracy which occurs for sufficiently strong repulsive interaction. Even low temperature or a completely depolarizing channel may then dramatically influence the system's behavior. We calculate level occupation numbers as signatures of thermalization, and we discuss the mechanisms to break the degeneracy.

  7. Hidden Symmetry from Supersymmetry in One-Dimensional Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Andrianov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When several inequivalent supercharges form a closed superalgebra in Quantum Mechanics it entails the appearance of hidden symmetries of a Super-Hamiltonian. We examine this problem in one-dimensional QM for the case of periodic potentials and potentials with finite number of bound states. After the survey of the results existing in the subject the algebraic and analytic properties of hidden-symmetry differential operators are rigorously elaborated in the Theorems and illuminated by several examples.

  8. Thermal breakage of a discrete one-dimensional string.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chiu Fan

    2009-09-01

    We study the thermal breakage of a discrete one-dimensional string, with open and fixed ends, in the heavily damped regime. Basing our analysis on the multidimensional Kramers escape theory, we are able to make analytical predictions on the mean breakage rate and on the breakage propensity with respect to the breakage location on the string. We then support our predictions with numerical simulations.

  9. PT-invariant one-dimensional Coulomb problem

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, A K; Sinha, Anjana; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar

    2002-01-01

    The one-dimensional Coulomb-like potential with a real coupling constant beta, and a centrifugal-like core of strength G = alpha^2 - {1/4}, viz. V(x) = {alpha^2 - (1/4)}/{(x-ic)^2} + beta/|x-ic|, is discussed in the framework of PT-symmetry. The PT-invariant exactly solvable model so formed, is found to admit a double set of real and discrete energies, numbered by a quasi-parity q = +/- 1.

  10. Impurity modes in the one-dimensional XXZ Heisenberg model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, J.M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Ministro Petrônio Portella, 57072-970 Teresina, Piauí (Brazil); Leite, R.V. [Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Curso de Física, Universidade Estadual Vale do Acaraú, Av. Dr. Guarany 317, Campus Cidao, 62040-730 Sobral, Ceará (Brazil); Landim, R.R. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Costa Filho, R.N., E-mail: rai@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    A Green's function formalism is used to calculate the energy of impurity modes associated with one and/or two magnetic impurities in the one-dimensional Heisenberg XXZ magnetic chain. The system can be tuned from the Heisenberg to the Ising model varying a parameter λ. A numerical study is performed showing two types of localized modes (s and p). The modes depend on λ and the degeneracy of the acoustic modes is broken.

  11. Universal correlations of one-dimensional electrons at low density

    OpenAIRE

    Göhmann, F.

    2000-01-01

    We summarize results on the asymptotics of the two-particle Green functions of interacting electrons in one dimension. Below a critical value of the chemical potential the Fermi surface vanishes, and the system can no longer be described as a Luttinger liquid. Instead, the non-relativistic Fermi gas with infinite point-like repulsion becomes the universal model for the long-wavelength, low temperature physics of the one-dimensional electrons. This model, which we call the impenetrable electro...

  12. One Dimensional Polymeric Organic Photonic Crystals for DFB Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Scotognella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a very simple method to realize a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PC, consisting of a dye-doped polymeric multilayer. Due to the high photonic density of states at the edges of the photonic band-gap (PBG, a surface emitting distributed feedback (DFB laser is obtained with this structure. Furthermore, the incidence angle dependence of the PBG of the polymeric multilayer is reported.

  13. PERIODIC SOLUTIONS IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL COUPLED MAP LATTICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永爱; 刘曾荣

    2003-01-01

    It is proven that the existence of nonlinear solutions with time period in one-dimensional coupled map lattice with nearest neighbor coupling. This is a class of systemswhose behavior can be regarded as infinite array of coupled oscillators. A method forestimating the critical coupling strength below which these solutions with time period persistis given. For some particular nonlinear solutions with time period, exponential decay inspace is proved.

  14. One-dimensional photonic crystals bound by light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liyong; Li, Xiao; Chen, Jun; Cao, Yongyin; Du, Guiqiang; Ng, Jack

    2017-08-01

    Through rigorous simulations, the light scattering induced optical binding of one-dimensional (1D) dielectric photonic crystals is studied. The optical forces corresponding to the pass band, band gap, and band edge are qualitatively different. It is shown that light can induce self-organization of dielectric slabs into stable photonic crystals, with its lower band edge coinciding with the incident light frequency. Incident light at normal and oblique incidence and photonic crystals with parity-time symmetry are also considered.

  15. One-dimensional contact process: duality and renormalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooyberghs, J; Vanderzande, C

    2001-04-01

    We study the one-dimensional contact process in its quantum version using a recently proposed real-space renormalization technique for stochastic many-particle systems. Exploiting the duality and other properties of the model, we can apply the method for cells with up to 37 sites. After suitable extrapolation, we obtain exponent estimates that are comparable in accuracy with the best known in the literature.

  16. Correlation functions of one-dimensional bosons at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Maillet, J.M. [CNRS, ENS Lyon (France). Lab. de Physique; Slavnov, N.A. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15

    We consider the low-temperature limit of the long-distance asymptotic behavior of the finite temperature density-density correlation function in the one-dimensional Bose gas derived recently in the algebraic Bethe Ansatz framework. Our results confirm the predictions based on the Luttinger liquid and conformal field theory approaches. We also demonstrate that the amplitudes arising in this asymptotic expansion at low-temperature coincide with the amplitudes associated with the so-called critical form factors. (orig.)

  17. Fast Integration of One-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Rafael G.; Ruiz, Rafael García

    2013-11-01

    Two-point nonlinear boundary value problems (BVPs) in both unbounded and bounded domains are solved in this paper using fast numerical antiderivatives and derivatives of functions of L2(-∞, ∞). This differintegral scheme uses a new algorithm to compute the Fourier transform. As examples we solve a fourth-order two-point boundary value problem (BVP) and compute the shape of the soliton solutions of a one-dimensional generalized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation.

  18. The one-dimensional extended Bose-Hubbard model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramesh V Pai; Rahul Pandit

    2003-10-01

    We use the finite-size, density-matrix-renormalization-group (DMRG) method to obtain the zero-temperature phase diagram of the one-dimensional, extended Bose-Hubbard model, for mean boson density ρ = 1, in the - plane ( and are respectively, onsite and nearest-neighbour repulsive interactions between bosons). The phase diagram includes superfluid (SF), bosonic-Mott-insulator (MI), and mass-density-wave (MDW) phases. We determine the natures of the quantum phase transitions between these phases.

  19. Statistics of resonances in one-dimensional continuous systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joshua Feinberg

    2009-09-01

    We study the average density of resonances (DOR) of a disordered one-dimensional continuous open system. The disordered system is semi-infinite, with white-noise random potential, and it is coupled to the external world by a semi-infinite continuous perfect lead. Our main result is an integral representation for the DOR which involves the probability density function of the logarithmic derivative of the wave function at the contact point.

  20. Negative Refraction Angular Characterization in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus Eduardo Lugo; Rafael Doti; Jocelyn Faubert

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Photonic crystals are artificial structures that have periodic dielectric components with different refractive indices. Under certain conditions, they abnormally refract the light, a phenomenon called negative refraction. Here we experimentally characterize negative refraction in a one dimensional photonic crystal structure; near the low frequency edge of the fourth photonic bandgap. We compare the experimental results with current theory and a theory based on the group velocity d...

  1. Exchange effects in a quasi-one-dimensional electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A.; Ghazali, A.

    1990-04-01

    We calculate the electron exchange of a quasi-one-dimensional electron gas in a quantum-well wire of radius R0. A two-subband model is considered and the exchange self-energy for the first and second subband is calculated under the assumption that only the lowest subband is partially filled with electrons. Band-bending effects are also discussed. Results for the total energy per electron including kinetic and exchange energy are presented.

  2. Topological modes in one-dimensional solids and photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Timothy J.; Butler, Celia A. M.; Taylor, Melita C.; Hooper, Ian R.; Hibbins, Alastair P.; Sambles, J. Roy; Mathur, Harsh

    2016-03-01

    It is shown theoretically that a one-dimensional crystal with time-reversal and particle-hole symmetries is characterized by a topological invariant that predicts the existence or otherwise of edge states. This is confirmed experimentally through the construction and simulation of a photonic crystal analog in the microwave regime. It is shown that the edge mode couples to modes external to the photonic crystal via a Fano resonance.

  3. One-dimensional photonic band gaps in optical lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Samoylova, Marina; Holynski, Michael; Courteille, Philippe Wilhelm; Bachelard, Romain

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional optical lattices is reviewed using a microscopic approach. Formally equivalent to the transfer matrix approach in the thermodynamic limit, a microscopic model is required to study finite-size effects, such as deviations from the Bragg condition. Microscopic models describing both scalar and vectorial light are proposed, as well as for two- and three-level atoms. Several analytical results are compared to experimental data, showing a good agreement.

  4. Morphology-Controlled Growth of AIN One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting XIE; Min YE; Xiaosheng FANG; Zhi JIANG; Li CHEN; Mingguang KONG; Yucheng WU; Lide ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AIN) nanowires, serrated nanoribbons, and nanoribbons were selectively obtained through a simple chloride assisted chemical vapor deposition process. The morphologies of the products could be controlled by adjusting the deposition position and the flux of the reactant gas. The morphologies and structures of the AIN products were investigated in detail. The formation mechanism of the as-prepared different morphologies of AIN one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures was discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  5. Gravitational anomalies and one-dimensional behavior of black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan, E-mail: bibhas.majhi@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, 781039, Guwahati, Assam (India)

    2015-12-08

    It has been pointed out by Bekenstein and Mayo that the behavior of the black hole’s entropy or information flow is similar to information flow through one-dimensional channel. Here I analyze the same issue with the use of gravitational anomalies. The rate of the entropy change (S{sup .}) and the power (P) of the Hawking emission are calculated from the relevant components of the anomalous stress tensor under the Unruh vacuum condition. I show that the dependence of S{sup .} on the power is S{sup .} ∝P{sup 1/2}, which is identical to that for the information flow in a one-dimensional system. This is established by using the (1+1)-dimensional gravitational anomalies first. Then the fact is further bolstered by considering the (1+3)-dimensional gravitational anomalies. It is found that, in the former case, the proportionality constant is exactly identical to the one-dimensional situation, known as Pendry’s formula, while in the latter situation its value decreases.

  6. Gravitational anomalies and one-dimensional behavior of black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Department of Physics, Guwahati, Assam (India)

    2015-12-15

    It has been pointed out by Bekenstein and Mayo that the behavior of the black hole's entropy or information flow is similar to information flow through one-dimensional channel. Here I analyze the same issue with the use of gravitational anomalies. The rate of the entropy change (S) and the power (P) of the Hawking emission are calculated from the relevant components of the anomalous stress tensor under the Unruh vacuum condition. I show that the dependence of S on the power is S ∝ P{sup 1/2}, which is identical to that for the information flow in a one-dimensional system. This is established by using the (1+1)-dimensional gravitational anomalies first. Then the fact is further bolstered by considering the (1+3)-dimensional gravitational anomalies. It is found that, in the former case, the proportionality constant is exactly identical to the one-dimensional situation, known as Pendry's formula, while in the latter situation its value decreases. (orig.)

  7. Gravitational anomalies and one dimensional behaviour of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    It has been pointed out by Bekenstein and Mayo that the behavior of the Black hole's entropy or information flow is similar to that through one-dimensional channel. Here I analyse the same issue with the use of gravitational anomalies. The rate of the entropy change ($\\dot{S}$) and the power ($P$) of the Hawking emission are calculated from the relevant components of the anomalous stress-tensor under the Unruh vacuum condition. I show that the dependence of $\\dot{S}$ on power is $\\dot{S}\\propto P^{1/2}$ which is identical to that for the information flow in one dimensional system. This is established by using the ($1+1$) dimensional gravitational anomalies first. Then the fact is further bolstered by considering the ($1+3$) dimensional gravitational anomalies. It is found that in the former case, the proportionality constant is exactly identical to one dimensional situation, known as Pendry's formula, while in later situation its value decreases.

  8. Quasi-one-dimensional scattering in a discrete model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valiente, Manuel; Moelmer, Klaus [Lundbeck Foundation Theoretical Center for Quantum System Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2011-11-15

    We study quasi-one-dimensional scattering of one and two particles with short-range interactions on a discrete lattice model in two dimensions. One of the directions is tightly confined by an arbitrary trapping potential. We obtain the collisional properties of these systems both at finite and zero Bloch quasimomenta, considering as well finite sizes and transversal traps that support a continuum of states. This is made straightforward by using the exact ansatz for the quasi-one-dimensional states from the beginning. In the more interesting case of genuine two-particle scattering, we find that more than one confinement-induced resonances appear due to the nonseparability of the center-of-mass and relative coordinates on the lattice. This is done by solving its corresponding Lippmann-Schwinger-like equation. We characterize the effective one-dimensional interaction and compare it with a model that includes only the effect of the dominant, broadest resonance, which amounts to a single-pole approximation for the interaction coupling constant.

  9. Shock compression synthesis of hard materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, C.G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to adapt the high explosives technology that was developed in conjunction with nuclear weapons programs to subjecting materials to ultra-high pressures and to explore the utility of this technique for the synthesis of hard materials. The research was conducted in collaboration with researchers at the University of Texas, Texas Tech University and Pantex (Mason and Hanger Corp.). The group designed, modeled, built, and tested a new device that allows quantitative recovery of grams of material that have been subjected to unprecedented pressures. The modeling work was done at Texas Tech and Pantex. The metal parts and material samples were made at the University of Texas, and Pantex machined the explosives, assembled the devices and conducted the detonations. Sample characterization was carried out at the University of Texas and Texas Tech.

  10. Projection multiplex recording of computer-synthesised one-dimensional Fourier holograms for holographic memory systems: mathematical and experimental modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betin, A Yu; Bobrinev, V I; Verenikina, N M; Donchenko, S S; Odinokov, S B [Research Institute ' Radiotronics and Laser Engineering' , Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Evtikhiev, N N; Zlokazov, E Yu; Starikov, S N; Starikov, R S [National Reseach Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-31

    A multiplex method of recording computer-synthesised one-dimensional Fourier holograms intended for holographic memory devices is proposed. The method potentially allows increasing the recording density in the previously proposed holographic memory system based on the computer synthesis and projection recording of data page holograms. (holographic memory)

  11. Invariant for one-dimensional heat conduction in dielectrics and metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Seyed Mohammad; Ordonez-Miranda, Jose; Hill, James M.; Ezzahri, Younès; Joulain, Karl; Ghasemi, Hadi

    2017-05-01

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that the one-dimensional heat conduction in dielectrics and metals is ruled by the invariant T^4(z)+T^4(L-z)=\\text{constant} , where T is the temperature and z an arbitrary position within the heated material of length L. This is achieved using the integral expressions predicted by the Boltzmann transport equation, under the gray relaxation time approximation, for the steady-state temperature and heat flux, and measuring the temperature at three equidistant positions in rods of Si, Cu, and Fe-C excited with temperatures much smaller than their corresponding Debye ones. The obtained temperature invariant for symmetrical positions could be applied to describe the heating of materials supporting one-dimensional heat conduction.

  12. One Dimensional Nanostructures for Lithium-ion Batteries, Gas Sensors and Optoelectronics Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.X.Wang; M.S.Park; J.S.Park; X.L.Gou; J.Yang; D.Wexler; J.Z.Wang; J.Yao; H.K.Liu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results One dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as nanowires,nanotubes,nanorods and nanoribbons have been extensively investigated for a wide range of applications[1].Here,we present the synthesis,characterization and technological applications of several 1D nanostructures including SnO2 nanowires,CuO nanoribbons,CdSe nanowires and In2O3 nanowires.SnO2 nanowires were synthesized by thermal evaporation combined with a self-catalyzed growth procedure.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation shows...

  13. Temporal coupled mode analysis of one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals with cavity structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghirzadeh Darki, Behnam; Zeidaabadi Nezhad, Abolghasem; Firouzeh, Zaker Hossein

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose the time-dependent coupled mode analysis of one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals including one, two or multiple defect layers. The performance of the structures, namely the total transmission, Faraday rotation and ellipticity, is obtained using the proposed method. The results of the developed analytic approach are verified by comparing them to the results of the exact numerical transfer matrix method. Unlike the widely used numerical method, our proposed analytic method seems promising for the synthesis as well as the analysis purposes. Moreover, the proposed method has not the restrictions of the previously examined analytic methods.

  14. Analytic Franz-Keldysh effect in one-dimensional polar semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Pedersen, T G

    2003-01-01

    The optical properties of a one-dimensional polar semiconductor in a strong electric field are considered. This class of materials includes non-centrosymmetric III-V inorganic quantum wires but also polar conjugated polymers such as polymethineimine. The polar Franz-Keldysh effect is derived via an analytic expression for the complex dielectric constant including line broadening and linear field terms. Results for the high-field non-perturbative regime as well as the low-field expansion are presented.

  15. One-dimensional Transport Simulation of Pollutants in Natural Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Ramezani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rivers are the main sources of freshwater systems which governments need to manage and plan to maintain them as per an acceptable quality. In this research, a numerical scheme was used and implemented in MATLAB to provide a one-dimensional water quality tool. This code then was tested with two datasets of Chattahoochee and Mackinaw rivers. To evaluate the model performance, results and sampled data were checked in terms of conformity by using three metrics: CE, MARE, and RMSE. Results were almost near to observed data and metrics’ values were found satisfactory, showing that the employed numerical approach is an appropriate method for surface water quality planning and management.

  16. Universality of anomalous one-dimensional heat conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepri, Stefano; Livi, Roberto; Politi, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    In one and two dimensions, transport coefficients may diverge in the thermodynamic limit due to long-time correlation of the corresponding currents. The effective asymptotic behavior is addressed with reference to the problem of heat transport in one-dimensional crystals, modeled by chains of classical nonlinear oscillators. Extensive accurate equilibrium and nonequilibrium numerical simulations confirm that the finite-size thermal conductivity diverges with system size L as κ∝Lα. However, the exponent α deviates systematically from the theoretical prediction α=1/3 proposed in a recent paper [O. Narayan and S. Ramaswamy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 200601 (2002)].

  17. One-dimensional hydrodynamic model generating turbulent cascade

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    As a minimal mathematical model generating cascade analogous to that of the Navier-Stokes turbulence in the inertial range, we propose a one-dimensional partial-differential-equation model that conserves the integral of the squared vorticity analogue (enstrophy) in the inviscid case. With a large-scale forcing and small viscosity, we find numerically that the model exhibits the enstrophy cascade, the broad energy spectrum with a sizable correction to the dimensional-analysis prediction, peculiar intermittency and self-similarity in the dynamical system structure.

  18. On Global One-Dimensionality proposal in Quantum General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Glinka, L A

    2008-01-01

    Quantum General Relativity, better known as Quantum Gravity with additional epithets, currently is faraway from phenomenology. This mental crisis leads at most to empty hypotheses, but not to realistic physics. However, there exists the way, investigated by Dirac, which is constructive for experimental data predictions in astrophysics, high energy physics, and condensed matter physics. It is Field Theory. This article presents certain proposal for new discussion. General Relativity in 3+1 metric field gauge and its canonical quantization is developed. Reduction of the quantum geometrodynamics to Global One-Dimensional bosonic field theory, its quantization, and some conclusions are presented.

  19. Exactly integrable analogue of a one-dimensional gravitating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States)]. E-mail: b.miller@tcu.edu; Yawn, Kenneth R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Maier, Bill [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States)

    2005-10-10

    Exchange symmetry in acceleration partitions the configuration space of an N particle one-dimensional gravitational system (OGS) into N{exclamation_point} equivalent cells. We take advantage of the resulting small angular separation between the forces in neighboring cells to construct a related integrable version of the system that takes the form of a central force problem in N-1 dimensions. The properties of the latter, including the construction of trajectories and possible continuum limits, are developed. Dynamical simulation is employed to compare the two models. For some initial conditions, excellent agreement is observed.

  20. One-dimensional inverse problems of mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrent'ev, M M; Yakhno, V G; Schulenberger, J R

    1986-01-01

    This monograph deals with the inverse problems of determining a variable coefficient and right side for hyperbolic and parabolic equations on the basis of known solutions at fixed points of space for all times. The problems are one-dimensional in nature since the desired coefficient of the equation is a function of only one coordinate, while the desired right side is a function only of time. The authors use methods based on the spectral theory of ordinary differential operators of second order and also methods which make it possible to reduce the investigation of the inverse problems to the in

  1. Solution of One-dimensional Dirac Equation via Poincare Map

    CERN Document Server

    Bahlouli, Hocine; Jellal, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    We solve the general one-dimensional Dirac equation using a "Poincare Map" approach which avoids any approximation to the spacial derivatives and reduces the problem to a simple recursive relation which is very practical from the numerical implementation point of view. To test the efficiency and rapid convergence of this approach we apply it to a vector coupling Woods--Saxon potential, which is exactly solvable. Comparison with available analytical results is impressive and hence validates the accuracy and efficiency of this method.

  2. Fluctuation dissipation ratio in the one dimensional kinetic Ising model

    OpenAIRE

    Lippiello, E.; Zannetti, M.

    2000-01-01

    The exact relation between the response function $R(t,t^{\\prime})$ and the two time correlation function $C(t,t^{\\prime})$ is derived analytically in the one dimensional kinetic Ising model subjected to a temperature quench. The fluctuation dissipation ratio $X(t,t^{\\prime})$ is found to depend on time through $C(t,t^{\\prime})$ in the time region where scaling $C(t,t^{\\prime}) = f(t/t^{\\prime})$ holds. The crossover from the nontrivial form $X(C(t,t^{\\prime}))$ to $X(t,t^{\\prime}) \\equiv 1$ t...

  3. Enhanced dipolar transport in one-dimensional waveguide arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Cantillano, Camilo; Real, Bastián; Rojas-Rojas, Santiago; Delgado, Aldo; Szameit, Alexander; Vicencio, Rodrigo A

    2016-01-01

    We study the transport properties of fundamental and dipolar (first-excited) modes on one-dimensional coupled waveguide arrays. By modulating an optical beam, we are able to generate fundamental and dipolar modes to study discrete diffraction (single-site excitation) and gaussian beam propagation (multi-site excitation \\& phase gradient). We find that dipolar modes experience a coupling constant more than two times larger than the one for fundamental modes. This implies an enhanced transport of energy for dipoles in a tight-binding lattice. Additionally, we study disordered systems and find that while fundamental modes are already trapped in a weakly disorder array, dipoles still diffract across the lattice.

  4. Impedance of rigid bodies in one-dimensional elastic collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Janilo; de Oliveira, Bruna P. W.; Nelson,Osman Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In this work we study the problem of one-dimensional elastic collisions of billiard balls, considered as rigid bodies, in a framework very different from the classical one presented in text books. Implementing the notion of impedance matching as a way to understand efficiency of energy transmission in elastic collisions, we find a solution which frames the problem in terms of this conception. We show that the mass of the ball can be seen as a measure of its impedance and verify that the probl...

  5. One-dimensional hydrodynamic model generating a turbulent cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sakajo, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    As a minimal mathematical model generating cascade analogous to that of the Navier-Stokes turbulence in the inertial range, we propose a one-dimensional partial-differential-equation model that conserves the integral of the squared vorticity analog (enstrophy) in the inviscid case. With a large-scale random forcing and small viscosity, we find numerically that the model exhibits the enstrophy cascade, the broad energy spectrum with a sizable correction to the dimensional-analysis prediction, peculiar intermittency, and self-similarity in the dynamical system structure.

  6. Quantum Simulations of One-Dimensional Nanostructures under Arbitrary Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Pekka

    2016-09-01

    A powerful technique is introduced for simulating mechanical and electromechanical properties of one-dimensional nanostructures under arbitrary combinations of bending, twisting, and stretching. The technique is based on an unconventional control of periodic symmetry which eliminates artifacts due to deformation constraints and quantum finite-size effects and allows transparent electronic-structure analysis. Via density-functional tight-binding implementation, the technique demonstrates its utility by predicting nonlinear electromechanical properties in carbon nanotubes and abrupt behavior in the structural yielding of Au7 and Mo6 S6 nanowires. The technique drives simulations markedly closer to the realistic modeling of these slender nanostructures under experimental conditions.

  7. Beam interactions in one-dimensional saturable waveguide arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Stepic, M; Rueter, C E; Shandarov, V; Kip, D; Stepic, Milutin; Smirnov, Eugene; Rueter, Christian E.; Shandarov, Vladimir; Kip, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between two parallel beams in one-dimensional discrete saturable systems has been investigated using lithium niobate nonlinear waveguide arrays. When the beams are separated by one channel and in-phase it is possible to observe soliton fusion at low power levels. This new result is confirmed numerically. By increasing the power, soliton-like propagation of weakly-coupled beams occurs. When the beams are out-of-phase the most interesting result is the existence of oscillations which resemble the recently discovered Tamm oscillations.

  8. Waves and instability in a one-dimensional microfluidic array

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bin; Feng, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Motion in a one-dimensional (1D) microfluidic array is simulated. Water droplets, dragged by flowing oil, are arranged in a single row, and due to their hydrodynamic interactions spacing between these droplets oscillates with a wave-like motion that is longitudinal or transverse. The simulation yields wave spectra that agree well with experiment. The wave-like motion has an instability which is confirmed to arise from nonlinearities in the interaction potential. The instability's growth is spatially localized. By selecting an appropriate correlation function, the interaction between the longitudinal and transverse waves is described.

  9. Fragmented one dimensional man / El hombre unidimensional fragmentado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Rodríguez del Pino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Paraphrase the title of the famous essay by Herbert Marcuse, since the image has traditionally been generated of man, masculinity, has been one-dimensional. I mean, the man was characterized by traits and behaviors established and entrenched since ancient time, considering all other distinguishing signs as mere deviations from the normative improper. But observe that this undeniable reality, as analyzed various researchers through what has come to be called Men's studies, has proven to be a fallacy difficult to maintain throughout history and today turns into fallacious and ineffective against changes in our current existing corporate models.

  10. Molecular nanostamp based on one-dimensional porphyrin polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaizuka, Katsuhiko; Izumi, Atsushi; Ishizaki, Manabu; Kon, Hiroki; Togashi, Takanari; Miyake, Ryosuke; Ishida, Takao; Tamura, Ryo; Haga, Masa-aki; Moritani, Youji; Sakamoto, Masatomi; Kurihara, Masato

    2013-08-14

    Surface design with unique functional molecules by a convenient one-pot treatment is an attractive project for the creation of smart molecular devices. We have employed a silane coupling reaction of porphyrin derivatives that form one-dimensional polymer wires on substrates. Our simple one-pot treatment of a substrate with porphyrin has successfully achieved the construction of nanoscale bamboo shoot structures. The nanoscale bamboo shoots on the substrates were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis spectra, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The uneven and rigid nanoscale structure has been used as a stamp for constructing bamboo shoot structures of fullerene.

  11. Dynamical Structure Factors of quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemans, Rob; Caux, Jean-Sébastien; Maillet, Jean Michel

    2007-03-01

    For a long time it has been impossible to accurately calculate the dynamical structure factors (spin-spin correlators as a function of momentum and energy) of quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnets. For integrable Heisenberg chains, the recently developed ABACUS method (a first-principles computational approach based on the Bethe Ansatz) now yields highly accurate (over 99% of the sum rule) results for the DSF for finite chains, allowing for a very precise description of neutron-scattering data over the full momentum and energy range. We show remarkable agreement between results obtained with ABACUS and experiment.

  12. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  13. Strongly anisotropic wetting on one-dimensional nanopatterned surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Deying; Brueck, S R J

    2008-09-01

    This communication reports strongly anisotropic wetting behavior on one-dimensional nanopatterned surfaces. Contact angles, degree of anisotropy, and droplet distortion are measured on micro- and nanopatterned surfaces fabricated with interference lithography. Both the degree of anisotropy and the droplet distortion are extremely high as compared with previous reports because of the well-defined nanostructural morphology. The surface is manipulated to tune with the wetting from hydrophobic to hydrophilic while retaining the structural wetting anisotropy with a simple silica nanoparticle overcoat. The wetting mechanisms are discussed. Potential applications in microfluidic devices and evaporation-induced pattern formation are demonstrated.

  14. Spiral Magnetic Order in the One-Dimensional Kondo Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhen-Rong; LI Zheng-Zhong; SHEN Rui

    2001-01-01

    The effects of c-f (conduction-f electrons) hybridization on the spiral spin magnetism in the one dimensional Kondo lattice are studied. By using the mean-field approximation, a close set of equations of the Green's functions with arbitrary wave vector Q for the spiral ordering of spins is deduced. The magnetic phase boundary between the spiral magnetism and ferromagnetism has been calculated approximately. From our qualitative results, one can find that the ferromagnetic region is enlarged due to the c f hybridization. Moreover, some new results reflecting the Kondo effect, such as the modified dispersion relation and the weakening of the localized magnetic moments are also obtained.

  15. Obstacle Effects on One-Dimensional Translocation of ATPase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-Ju; AI Bao-Quan; LIU Liang-Gang

    2002-01-01

    We apply a general random walk model to the study of the ATPase's one-dimensional translocation along obstacle biological environment, and show the effects of random obstacles on the ATPase translocation along single stranded DNA. We find that the obstacle environment can reduce the lifetime of ATPase lattice-bound state which results in the inhibition of ATPase activity. We also carry out the ranges of rate constant of ATPase unidirectonal translocation and bidirectional translocation. Our results are consistent with the experiments and relevant theoretical consideration, and can be used to explain some physiological phenomena.

  16. Longitudinal waves in one dimensional non-uniform waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Wave approach is used to analyze the longitudinal wave motion in one dimensional non-uniform waveguides.With assumptions of constant wave velocity and no wave conversion,there exist four types of non-uniform rods and corresponding traveling wave solutions are investigated.The obtained results indicate that the kinetic energy is preserved as a constant and the wave amplitude is inversely proportional to square root of the cross-sectional area of the rod.Under certain condition,there exists a cut-off frequ...

  17. Bloch oscillations in a one-dimensional spinor gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangardt, D M; Kamenev, A

    2009-02-20

    A force applied to a spin-flipped particle in a one-dimensional spinor gas may lead to Bloch oscillations of the particle's position and velocity. The existence of Bloch oscillations crucially depends on the viscous friction force exerted by the rest of the gas on the spin excitation. We evaluate the friction in terms of the quantum fluid parameters. In particular, we show that the friction is absent for integrable cases, such as an SU(2) symmetric gas of bosons or fermions. For small deviations from the exact integrability the friction is very weak, opening the possibility to observe Bloch oscillations.

  18. Black Phosphorus based One-dimensional Photonic Crystals and Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Kriegel, I

    2016-01-01

    The latest achievements in the fabrication of black phosphorus thin layers, towards the technological breakthrough of a phosphorene atomically thin layer, are paving the way for a their employment in electronics, optics, and optoelectronics. In this work, we have simulated the optical properties of one-dimensional photonic structures, i.e. photonic crystals and microcavities, in which few-layer black phosphorus is one of the components. The insertion of the 5 nm black phosphorous layers leads to a photonic band gap in the photonic crystals and a cavity mode in the microcavity interesting for light manipulation and emission enhancement.

  19. Fourier's law for quasi-one-dimensional chaotic quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Thomas H.; Weidenmüller, Hans A.

    2011-05-01

    We derive Fourier's law for a completely coherent quasi-one-dimensional chaotic quantum system coupled locally to two heat baths at different temperatures. We solve the master equation to first order in the temperature difference. We show that the heat conductance can be expressed as a thermodynamic equilibrium coefficient taken at some intermediate temperature. We use that expression to show that for temperatures large compared to the mean level spacing of the system, the heat conductance is inversely proportional to the level density and, thus, inversely proportional to the length of the system.

  20. Coherent Backscattering of Light Off One-Dimensional Atomic Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, H. L.; Béguin, J.-B.; Kluge, K. W.; Iakoupov, I.; Sørensen, A. S.; Müller, J. H.; Polzik, E. S.; Appel, J.

    2016-09-01

    We present the first experimental realization of coherent Bragg scattering off a one-dimensional system—two strings of atoms strongly coupled to a single photonic mode—realized by trapping atoms in the evanescent field of a tapered optical fiber, which also guides the probe light. We report nearly 12% power reflection from strings containing only about 1000 cesium atoms, an enhancement of 2 orders of magnitude compared to reflection from randomly positioned atoms. This result paves the road towards collective strong coupling in 1D atom-photon systems. Our approach also allows for a straightforward fiber connection between several distant 1D atomic crystals.

  1. Multiple nonequilibrium steady states for one-dimensional heat flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Isbister, D J; Evans, D J

    2001-08-01

    A nonequilibrium molecular dynamics model of heat flow in one-dimensional lattices is shown to have multiple steady states for any fixed heat field strength f(e) ranging from zero to a certain positive value. We demonstrate that, depending on the initial conditions, there are at least two possibilities for the system's evolution: (i) formation of a stable traveling wave (soliton), and (ii) chaotic motion throughout the entire simulation. The percentage of the soliton-generating trajectories is zero for small field strength f(e), but increases sharply to unity over a critical region of the parameter f(e).

  2. Nonlocal separable potential in the one-dimensional Dirac equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkin, M.G.; Kiang, D.; Nogami, Y.

    1988-08-01

    The one-dimensional Dirac equation is solved for a separable potential of the form of Lorentz scalar plus vector, (..beta..g+h)v(x)v(x'). Exact analytic solutions are obtained for bound and scattering states for arbitrary v(x). For a particular combination of the values of g and h, degeneracy of the bound state occurs, and total reflection also takes place for a certain incident energy. The limiting case, in which v(x) becomes a delta function, is discussed in detail.

  3. Band gap characterization and slow light effects in periodic and quasiperiodic one dimensional photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoudi, J.; Kuszelewicz, R.; Kanzari, M.; Rezig, B.

    2008-04-01

    Slow light offers many opportunities for photonic devices by increasing the effective interaction length of imposed refractive index changes. The slow wave effect in photonic crystals is based on their unique dispersive properties and thus entirely dielectric in nature. In this work we demonstrate an interesting opportunity to decrease drastically the group velocity of light in one-dimensional photonic crystals constructed form materials with large dielectric constant without dispersion). We use numerical analysis to study the photonic properties of periodic (Bragg mirror) and quasiperiodic one dimensional photonic crystals realized to engineer slow light effects. Various geometries of the photonic pattern have been characterized and their photonic band-gap structure analyzed. Indeed, one dimensional quasi periodic photonic multilayer structure based on Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and Cantor sequences were studied. Quasiperiodic structures have a rich and highly fragmented reflectivity spectrum with many sharp resonant peaks that could be exploited in a microcavity system. A comparison of group velocity through periodic and quasiperiodic photonic crystals was discussed in the context of slow light propagation. The velocity control of pulses in materials is one of the promising applications of photonic crystals. The material systems used for the numerical analysis are TiO II/SiO II and Te/SiO II which have a refractive index contrast of approximately 1.59 and 3.17 respectively. The proposed structures were modelled using the Transfer Matrix Method.

  4. Analysis of cutoff frequency in a one-dimensional superconductor-metamaterial photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Arafa H.; Aghajamali, Alireza; Elsayed, Hussein A.; Mobarak, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, using the two-fluid model and the characteristic matrix method, we investigate the transmission characteristics of the one-dimensional photonic crystal. Our structure composed of the layers of low-temperature superconductor material (NbN) and double-negative metamaterial. We target studying the effect of many parameters such as the thickness of the superconductor material, the thickness of the metamaterial layer, and the operating temperature. We show that the cut-off frequency can be tuned efficiently by the operating temperature as well as the thicknesses of the constituent materials.

  5. Quasi-Dirac points in one-dimensional graphene superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.H.; Tseng, P.; Hsueh, W.J., E-mail: hsuehwj@ntu.edu.tw

    2016-08-26

    Quasi-Dirac points (QDPs) with energy different from the traditional Dirac points (TDPs) have been found for the first time in one-dimensional graphene superlattices. The angular-averaged conductance reaches a minimum value at the QDPs, at which the Fano factor approaches 1/3. Surprisingly, the minimum conductance at these QDPs may be lower than that at the TDPs under certain conditions. This is remarkable as the minimum conductance attainable in graphene superlattices was believed to appear at TDPs. - Highlights: • Quasi-Dirac points (QDPs) are found for the first time in one-dimensional graphene superlattices. • The QDP is different from the traditional Dirac points (TDPs) in graphene superlattices. • The angular-averaged conductance reaches a minimum value at the QDPs, at which the Fano factor approaches 1/3. • The minimum conductance at these QDPs may be lower than that at the TDPs under certain conditions. • The minimum conductance attainable in graphene superlattices was believed to appear at TDPs.

  6. One-Dimensional Forward–Forward Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-11-01

    While the general theory for the terminal-initial value problem for mean-field games (MFGs) has achieved a substantial progress, the corresponding forward–forward problem is still poorly understood—even in the one-dimensional setting. Here, we consider one-dimensional forward–forward MFGs, study the existence of solutions and their long-time convergence. First, we discuss the relation between these models and systems of conservation laws. In particular, we identify new conserved quantities and study some qualitative properties of these systems. Next, we introduce a class of wave-like equations that are equivalent to forward–forward MFGs, and we derive a novel formulation as a system of conservation laws. For first-order logarithmic forward–forward MFG, we establish the existence of a global solution. Then, we consider a class of explicit solutions and show the existence of shocks. Finally, we examine parabolic forward–forward MFGs and establish the long-time convergence of the solutions.

  7. Neutron scattering studies of three one-dimensional antiferromagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Kenzelmann, M

    2001-01-01

    observed in the disordered phase of spin-1/2 chains. The magnetic order of the one-dimensional spin-1/2 XY antiferromagnet Cs sub 2 CoCl sub 4 was investigated using neutron diffraction. The magnetic structure has an ordering wave-vector (0, 0.5, 0.5) for T < 217 mK and the magnetic structure is a non-linear structure with the magnetic moments at a small angle to the b axis. Above a field of H = 2.1 T the magnetic order collapses in an apparent first order phase transition, suggesting a transition to a spin-liquid phase. Low-dimensional magnets with low-spin quantum numbers are ideal model systems for investigating strongly interacting macroscopic quantum ground states and their non-linear spin excitations. This thesis describes neutron scattering experiments of three one-dimensional low-spin antiferromagnets where strong quantum fluctuations lead to highly-correlated ground states and unconventional cooperative spin excitations. The excitation spectrum of the antiferromagnetic spin-1 Heisenberg chain CsNi...

  8. One-Dimensional Forward–Forward Mean-Field Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Diogo A., E-mail: diogo.gomes@kaust.edu.sa; Nurbekyan, Levon; Sedjro, Marc [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), CEMSE Division (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-12-15

    While the general theory for the terminal-initial value problem for mean-field games (MFGs) has achieved a substantial progress, the corresponding forward–forward problem is still poorly understood—even in the one-dimensional setting. Here, we consider one-dimensional forward–forward MFGs, study the existence of solutions and their long-time convergence. First, we discuss the relation between these models and systems of conservation laws. In particular, we identify new conserved quantities and study some qualitative properties of these systems. Next, we introduce a class of wave-like equations that are equivalent to forward–forward MFGs, and we derive a novel formulation as a system of conservation laws. For first-order logarithmic forward–forward MFG, we establish the existence of a global solution. Then, we consider a class of explicit solutions and show the existence of shocks. Finally, we examine parabolic forward–forward MFGs and establish the long-time convergence of the solutions.

  9. Bjorken flow in one-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics with magnetization

    CERN Document Server

    Pu, Shi; Rezzolla, Luciano; Rischke, Dirk H

    2016-01-01

    We study the one-dimensional, longitudinally boost-invariant motion of an ideal fluid with infinite conductivity in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, i.e., in the ideal transverse magnetohydrodynamical limit. In an extension of our previous work [1], we consider the fluid to have a non-zero magnetization. First, we assume a constant magnetic susceptibility $\\chi_{m}$ and consider an ultrarelativistic ideal gas equation of state. For a paramagnetic fluid (i.e., with $\\chi_{m}>0$), the decay of the energy density slows down since the fluid gains energy from the magnetic field. For a diamagnetic fluid (i.e., with $\\chi_{m}<0$), the energy density decays faster because it feeds energy into the magnetic field. Furthermore, when the magnetic field is taken to be external and to decay in proper time $\\tau$ with a power law $\\sim\\tau^{-a}$, two distinct solutions can be found depending on the values of $a$ and $\\chi_m$. Finally, we also solve the ideal magnetohydrodynamical equations for one-dimensional...

  10. Bjorken flow in one-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics with magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shi; Roy, Victor; Rezzolla, Luciano; Rischke, Dirk H.

    2016-04-01

    We study the one-dimensional, longitudinally boost-invariant motion of an ideal fluid with infinite conductivity in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, i.e., in the ideal transverse magnetohydrodynamical limit. In an extension of our previous work Roy et al., [Phys. Lett. B 750, 45 (2015)], we consider the fluid to have a nonzero magnetization. First, we assume a constant magnetic susceptibility χm and consider an ultrarelativistic ideal gas equation of state. For a paramagnetic fluid (i.e., with χm>0 ), the decay of the energy density slows down since the fluid gains energy from the magnetic field. For a diamagnetic fluid (i.e., with χmlaw ˜τ-a, two distinct solutions can be found depending on the values of a and χm. Finally, we also solve the ideal magnetohydrodynamical equations for one-dimensional Bjorken flow with a temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility and a realistic equation of state given by lattice-QCD data. We find that the temperature and energy density decay more slowly because of the nonvanishing magnetization. For values of the magnetic field typical for heavy-ion collisions, this effect is, however, rather small. It is only for magnetic fields about an order of magnitude larger than expected for heavy-ion collisions that the system is substantially reheated and the lifetime of the quark phase might be extended.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide stabilization in one-dimensional flow columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jeremy T.; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L.; Watts, Richard J.

    2011-09-01

    Rapid hydrogen peroxide decomposition is the primary limitation of catalyzed H 2O 2 propagations in situ chemical oxidation (CHP ISCO) remediation of the subsurface. Two stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide, citrate and phytate, were investigated for their effectiveness in one-dimensional columns of iron oxide-coated and manganese oxide-coated sand. Hydrogen peroxide (5%) with and without 25 mM citrate or phytate was applied to the columns and samples were collected at 8 ports spaced 13 cm apart. Citrate was not an effective stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide in iron-coated sand; however, phytate was highly effective, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals two orders of magnitude over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Both citrate and phytate were effective stabilizers for manganese-coated sand, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals by four-fold over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Phytate and citrate did not degrade and were not retarded in the sand columns; furthermore, the addition of the stabilizers increased column flow rates relative to unstabilized columns. These results demonstrate that citrate and phytate are effective stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide under the dynamic conditions of one-dimensional columns, and suggest that citrate and phytate can be added to hydrogen peroxide before injection to the subsurface as an effective means for increasing the radius of influence of CHP ISCO.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and application of electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Lin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-07-07

    It has been known that significant advances in electrochemistry really depend on improvements in the sensitivity, selectivity, convenience, and/or economy of working electrodes, especially through the development of new working electrode materials. The advancement of solid state chemistry and materials science makes it possible to provide the materials which may be required as satisfactory electrode materials. The combination of solid state techniques with electrochemistry expands the applications of solid state materials and leads to the improvement of electrocatalysis. The study of Ru-Ti4O7 and Pt-Ti4O7 microelectrode arrays as introduced in paper 1 and paper 4, respectively, focuses on their synthesis and characterization. The synthesis is described by high temperature techniques for Ru or Pt microelectrode arrays within a conductive Ti4O7ceramic matrix. The characterization is based on the data obtained by x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, voltammetry and amperometry. These microelectrode arrays show significant enhancement in current densities in comparison to solid Ru and Pt electrodes. Electrocatalysis at pyrochlore oxide Bi2Ru2O7.3 and Bi2Ir2O7 electrodes are described in paper 2 and paper 3, respectively. Details are reported for the synthesis and characterization of composite Bi2Ru2O7.3 electrodes. Voltammetric data are examined for evidence that oxidation can occur with transfer of oxygen to the oxidation products in the potential region corresponding to anodic discharge of H2O with simultaneous evolution of O2. Paper 3 includes electrocatalytic activities of composite Bi2Ir2O7 disk electrodes for the oxidation of I- and the reduction of IO3-.

  13. Growth of one-dimensional Si/SiGe heterostructures by thermal CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouchet, Celine; Latu-Romain, Laurence; Rouviere, Emmanuelle; Celle, Caroline; Simonato, Jean-Pierre [CEA, LITEN, DTNM, LCH, 38054 Grenoble (France); Cayron, Cyril [CEA, LITEN, DTH, Grenoble Electron Microscopy at Minatec, 38054 Grenoble (France)], E-mail: jean-pierre.simonato@cea.fr

    2008-08-20

    The first results on a simple new process for the direct fabrication of one-dimensional superlattices using common CVD chambers are presented. The experiments were carried out in a 200 mm industrial Centura reactor (Applied Materials). Low dimensionality and superlattices allow a significant increase in the figure of merit of thermoelectrics by controlling the transport of phonons and electrons. The monocrystalline nanowires produced according to this process are both one-dimensional and present heterostructures, with very thin layers (40 nm) of Si and SiGe. Concentrations up to 30 at.% Ge were obtained in the SiGe parts. Complementary techniques including transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in bright field and high angle annular dark field (HAADF STEM), and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM) were used to characterize the nanoheterostructures.

  14. Twisting phonons in complex crystals with quasi-one-dimensional substructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Weathers, Annie; Carrete, Jesús; Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Delaire, Olivier; Stewart, Derek A; Mingo, Natalio; Girard, Steven N; Ma, Jie; Abernathy, Douglas L; Yan, Jiaqiang; Sheshka, Raman; Sellan, Daniel P; Meng, Fei; Jin, Song; Zhou, Jianshi; Shi, Li

    2015-04-15

    A variety of crystals contain quasi-one-dimensional substructures, which yield distinctive electronic, spintronic, optical and thermoelectric properties. There is a lack of understanding of the lattice dynamics that influences the properties of such complex crystals. Here we employ inelastic neutron scatting measurements and density functional theory calculations to show that numerous low-energy optical vibrational modes exist in higher manganese silicides, an example of such crystals. These optical modes, including unusually low-frequency twisting motions of the Si ladders inside the Mn chimneys, provide a large phase space for scattering acoustic phonons. A hybrid phonon and diffuson model is proposed to explain the low and anisotropic thermal conductivity of higher manganese silicides and to evaluate nanostructuring as an approach to further suppress the thermal conductivity and enhance the thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency. This discovery offers new insights into the structure-property relationships of a broad class of materials with quasi-one-dimensional substructures for various applications.

  15. Self-organization of cosmic radiation pressure instability. II - One-dimensional simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Craig J.; Woods, Jorden

    1992-01-01

    The clustering of statistically uniform discrete absorbing particles moving solely under the influence of radiation pressure from uniformly distributed emitters is studied in a simple one-dimensional model. Radiation pressure tends to amplify statistical clustering in the absorbers; the absorbing material is swept into empty bubbles, the biggest bubbles grow bigger almost as they would in a uniform medium, and the smaller ones get crushed and disappear. Numerical simulations of a one-dimensional system are used to support the conjecture that the system is self-organizing. Simple statistics indicate that a wide range of initial conditions produce structure approaching the same self-similar statistical distribution, whose scaling properties follow those of the attractor solution for an isolated bubble. The importance of the process for large-scale structuring of the interstellar medium is briefly discussed.

  16. Stable One-Dimensional Periodic Wave in Kerr-Type and Quadratic Nonlinear Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Savastru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the propagation of optical beams and the properties of one-dimensional (1D spatial solitons (“bright” and “dark” in saturated Kerr-type and quadratic nonlinear media. Special attention is paid to the recent advances of the theory of soliton stability. We show that the stabilization of bright periodic waves occurs above a certain threshold power level and the dark periodic waves can be destabilized by the saturation of the nonlinear response, while the dark quadratic waves turn out to be metastable in the broad range of material parameters. The propagation of (1+1 a dimension-optical field on saturated Kerr media using nonlinear Schrödinger equations is described. A model for the envelope one-dimensional evolution equation is built up using the Laplace transform.

  17. Synthesis, Structure and Magnetic Property of a One-Dimensional Chain Manganese Compound with 1,2,4-Triazole%一维链状锰(Ⅱ)三氮唑配合物的合成,结构与磁性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正; 周建豪; 李一志; 宋友; 陈学太

    2005-01-01

    A novel one-dimensional chain manganese(Ⅱ) compound [Mn(trz)2Cl][phthH], (trz=1,2,4-triazole, phthH=hydrogen phthalate), 1, was synthesized and structurally characterized. It crystallizes in monoclinic system, space group P2/c with a=1.381 1(11) nm, b=0.815 5(7) nm, c=0.735 4(6) nm, β=94.667 (15)°, V=0.825 5(12) nm3. It consists of one dimensional cationic manganese(Ⅱ) chain and uncoordinated hydrogen phthalate anions. The manganese(Ⅱ) ions are bridged with two 1,2,4-traizoles and one chloride anion along the cationic chain, in which the weak antiferromagnetic exchange occurs between manganese(Ⅱ) atoms. CCDC: 267461.

  18. Crystallographic shear mechanisms in Rh one-dimensional oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, María; Boulahya, Khalid; Parras, Marina; González-Calbet, José M.

    2005-02-01

    Electron diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy have been used to characterize two new one-dimensional superstructures in the A sbnd Rh sbnd O system (A = Ca, Sr) related to the 2H-ABO 3-type. They are formed by the intergrowth of n A 3A'BO 6 blocks, showing the Sr 4RhO 6-type, with A 12A' 2B 8O 30 blocks, constituted by two A 3O 9 and two A 3A'O 6 layers alternating in the stacking sequence 1:1, leading to the A 27A' 7B 13O 60 ( n=5) and A 30A' 8B 14O 66 ( n=6) compositions. A crystallographic shear mechanism is proposed to describe the structural relationship between Sr 4RhO 6 (A 3A'BO 6-type) and the new superstructures.

  19. One-dimensional modeling of piping flow erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachouette, Damien; Golay, Frédéric; Bonelli, Stéphane

    2008-09-01

    A process called "piping", which often occurs in water-retaining structures (earth-dams, dykes, levees), involving the formation and progression of a continuous tunnel between the upstream and downstream sides, is one of the main cause of structure failure. Starting with the diphasic flow volume equations and the jump equations including the erosion processes, a simplified one-dimensional model for two-phase piping flow erosion was developed. The numerical simulation based on constant input and output pressures showed that the particle concentration can be a significant factor at the very beginning of the process, resulting in the enlargement of the hole at the exit. However, it was concluded that this influence is a secondary factor: the dilute flow assumption, which considerably simplifies the description, is relevant here. To cite this article: D. Lachouette et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  20. Impedance of rigid bodies in one-dimensional elastic collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Janilo; Nelson, Osman Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In this work we study the problem of one-dimensional elastic collisions of billiard balls, considered as rigid bodies, in a framework very different from the classical one presented in text books. Implementing the notion of impedance matching as a way to understand eficiency of energy transmission in elastic collisions, we find a solution which frames the problem in terms of this conception. We show that the mass of the ball can be seen as a measure of its impedance and verify that the problem of maximum energy transfer in elastic collisions can be thought of as a problem of impedance matching between different media. This approach extends the concept of impedance, usually associated with oscillatory systems, to system of rigid bodies.

  1. Strongly interacting photons in one-dimensional continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Dibyendu; Firstenberg, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    The photon-photon scattering in vacuum is extremely weak. However, strong effective interactions between single photons can be realized by employing strong light-matter coupling. These interactions are a fundamental building block for quantum optics, bringing many-body physics to the photonic world and providing important resources for quantum photonic devices and for optical metrology. In this Colloquium, we review the physics of strongly-interacting photons in one-dimensional systems with no optical confinement along the propagation direction. We focus on two recently-demonstrated experimental realizations: (i) superconducting qubits coupled to open transmission lines, and (ii) interacting Rydberg atoms in a cold gas. Advancements in the theoretical understanding of these systems are presented in complementary formalisms and compared to experimental results. The experimental achievements are summarized alongside of a systematic description of the quantum optical effects and quantum devices emerging from the...

  2. One-dimensional long-range percolation: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, G.; Michelangeli, M.; Defenu, N.; Trombettoni, A.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we study bond percolation on a one-dimensional chain with power-law bond probability C /rd +σ , where r is the distance length between distinct sites and d =1 . We introduce and test an order-N Monte Carlo algorithm and we determine as a function of σ the critical value Cc at which percolation occurs. The critical exponents in the range 0 introduction of a suitably defined effective dimension deff relating the long-range model with a short-range one in dimension deff. We finally present a formulation of our algorithm for bond percolation on general graphs, with order N efficiency on a large class of graphs including short-range percolation and translationally invariant long-range models in any spatial dimension d with σ >0 .

  3. Configurational and energy landscape in one-dimensional Coulomb systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Lucas; Téllez, Gabriel; Trizac, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    We study a one-dimensional Coulomb system, where two charged colloids are neutralized by a collection of point counterions, with global neutrality. With temperature being given, two situations are addressed: Either the colloids are kept at fixed positions (canonical ensemble) or the force acting on the colloids is fixed (isobaric-isothermal ensemble). The corresponding partition functions are worked out exactly, in view of determining which arrangement of counterions is optimal. How many counterions should be in the confined segment between the colloids? For the remaining ions outside, is there a left-right symmetry breakdown? We evidence a cascade of transitions as system size is varied in the canonical treatment or as pressure is increased in the isobaric formulation.

  4. The statistical distributions of one-dimensional “turbulence”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrard, Michel

    2004-06-01

    We study a one-dimensional discrete analog of the von Kármán flow widely investigated in turbulence, made of a lattice of anharmonic oscillators excited by both ends in the presence of a dissipative term proportional to the second-order finite difference of the velocities, similar to the viscous term in a fluid. The dynamics of the model shows striking similarities with an actual turbulent flow, both at local and global scales. Calculations of the probability distribution function of velocity increments, extensively studied in turbulence, with a very large number of points in order to determine accurately the statistics of rare events, allow us to provide a meaningful comparison of different theoretical expressions of the PDFs.

  5. Scale dependent partitioning of one-dimensional aperiodic set diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkharrat, A.

    2004-06-01

    We give a multiresolution partition of pure point parts of diffraction patterns of one-dimensional aperiodic sets. When an aperiodic set is related to the Golden Ratio, denoted by tau, it is well known that the pure point part of its diffractive measure is supported by the extension ring of tau, denoted by mathbb{Z}[tau]. The partition we give is based on the formalism of the so called tau-integers, denoted by mathbb{Z}_tau. The set of tau-integers is a selfsimilar set obeying mathbb{Z}_tau/tau^{j-1}subsetmathbb{Z}_tau/tau^j subset mathbb{Z}_tau/tau^{j + 1} subsetmathbb{Z}[tau], jinmathbb{Z}. The pure point spectrum is then partitioned with respect to this “Russian doll” like sequence of subsets mathbb{Z}_tau/tau^j. Thus we deduce the partition of the pure point part of the diffractive measure of aperiodic sets.

  6. Explicit Solutions for One-Dimensional Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Prazeres, Mariana

    2017-04-05

    In this thesis, we consider stationary one-dimensional mean-field games (MFGs) with or without congestion. Our aim is to understand the qualitative features of these games through the analysis of explicit solutions. We are particularly interested in MFGs with a nonmonotonic behavior, which corresponds to situations where agents tend to aggregate. First, we derive the MFG equations from control theory. Then, we compute explicit solutions using the current formulation and examine their behavior. Finally, we represent the solutions and analyze the results. This thesis main contributions are the following: First, we develop the current method to solve MFG explicitly. Second, we analyze in detail non-monotonic MFGs and discover new phenomena: non-uniqueness, discontinuous solutions, empty regions and unhappiness traps. Finally, we address several regularization procedures and examine the stability of MFGs.

  7. Numerical method of characteristics for one-dimensional blood flow

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, Sebastian; Riviere, Beatrice; Penny, Daniel J; Rusin, Craig G

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time-step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the ...

  8. Study on pile drivability with one dimensional wave propagation theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仁朋; 王仕方; 陈云敏

    2003-01-01

    Pile drivability is a key problem during the stage of design and construction installation of pile foundations. The solution to the one dimensional wave equation was used to determine the impact force at the top of a concrete pile for a given ram mass, cushion stiffness, and pile impedance. The kinematic equation of pile toe was established and solved based on wave equation theory. The movements of the pile top and pile toe were presented, which clearly showed the dynamic displacement, including rebound and penetration of pile top and toe. A parametric study was made with a full range of practical values of ram weight, cushion stiffness, dropheight, and pile impedance. Suggestions for optimizing the parameters were also presented. Comparisons between the results obtained by the present solution and in-situ measurements indicated the reliability and validity of the method.

  9. Testing of a one dimensional model for Field II calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Willatzen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    to the calibrated Field II program for 1, 4, and 10 cycle excitations. Two parameter sets were applied for modeling, one real valued Pz27 parameter set, manufacturer supplied, and one complex valued parameter set found in literature, Alguer´o et al. [11]. The latter implicitly accounts for attenuation. Results show......Field II is a program for simulating ultrasound transducer fields. It is capable of calculating the emitted and pulse-echoed fields for both pulsed and continuous wave transducers. To make it fully calibrated a model of the transducer’s electro-mechanical impulse response must be included. We...... examine an adapted one dimensional transducer model originally proposed by Willatzen [9] to calibrate Field II. This model is modified to calculate the required impulse responses needed by Field II for a calibrated field pressure and external circuit current calculation. The testing has been performed...

  10. Automated quantification of one-dimensional nanostructure alignment on surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Jianjin; Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin

    2016-01-01

    A method for automated quantification of the alignment of one-dimensional nanostructures from microscopy imaging is presented. Nanostructure alignment metrics are formulated and shown to able to rigorously quantify the orientational order of nanostructures within a two-dimensional domain (surface). A complementary image processing method is also presented which enables robust processing of microscopy images where overlapping nanostructures might be present. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of nanowire-covered surfaces are analyzed using the presented methods and it is shown that past single parameter alignment metrics are insufficient for highly aligned domains. Through the use of multiple parameter alignment metrics, automated quantitative analysis of SEM images is shown to be possible and the alignment characteristics of different samples are able to be rigorously compared using a similarity metric. The results of this work provide researchers in nanoscience and nanotechnology with a rigorous metho...

  11. Coherent backscattering of light off one-dimensional atomic strings

    CERN Document Server

    Sørensen, H L; Kluge, K W; Iakoupov, I; Sørensen, A S; Müller, J H; Polzik, E S; Appel, J

    2016-01-01

    Bragg scattering, well known in crystallography, has become a powerful tool for artificial atomic structures such as optical lattices. In an independent development photonic waveguides have been used successfully to boost quantum light-matter coupling. We combine these two lines of research and present the first experimental realisation of coherent Bragg scattering off a one-dimensional (1D) system - two strings of atoms strongly coupled to a single photonic mode - realised by trapping atoms in the evanescent field of a tapered optical fibre (TOF), which also guides the probe light. We report nearly 12% power reflection from strings containing only about one thousand caesium atoms, an enhancement of more than two orders of magnitude compared to reflection from randomly positioned atoms. This result paves the road towards collective strong coupling in 1D atom-photon systems. Our approach also allows for a straightforward fibre connection between several distant 1D atomic crystals.

  12. A Reduced Order, One Dimensional Model of Joint Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOHNER,JEFFREY L.

    2000-11-06

    As a joint is loaded, the tangent stiffness of the joint reduces due to slip at interfaces. This stiffness reduction continues until the direction of the applied load is reversed or the total interface slips. Total interface slippage in joints is called macro-slip. For joints not undergoing macro-slip, when load reversal occurs the tangent stiffness immediately rebounds to its maximum value. This occurs due to stiction effects at the interface. Thus, for periodic loads, a softening and rebound hardening cycle is produced which defines a hysteretic, energy absorbing trajectory. For many jointed sub-structures, this hysteretic trajectory can be approximated using simple polynomial representations. This allows for complex joint substructures to be represented using simple non-linear models. In this paper a simple one dimensional model is discussed.

  13. Properties of surface modes in one dimensional plasma photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, S.; Prasad, S., E-mail: prasad.surendra@gmail.com; Singh, V. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Properties of surface modes supported at the interface of air and a semi-infinite one dimensional plasma photonic crystal are analyzed. The surface mode equation is obtained by using transfer matrix method and applying continuity conditions of electric fields and its derivatives at the interface. It is observed that with increase in the width of cap layer, frequencies of surface modes are shifted towards lower frequency side, whereas increase in tangential component of wave-vector increases the mode frequency and total energy carried by the surface modes. With increase in plasma frequency, surface modes are found to shift towards higher frequency side. The group velocity along interface is found to control by cap layer thickness.

  14. Singularity formation for one dimensional full Euler equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ronghua; Zhu, Yi

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the basic open question on the global existence v.s. finite time blow-up phenomena of classical solutions for the one-dimensional compressible Euler equations of adiabatic flow. For isentropic flows, it is well-known that the solutions develop singularity if and only if initial data contain any compression (the Riemann variables have negative spatial derivative). The situation for non-isentropic flow is not quite clear so far, due to the presence of non-constant entropy. In [4], it is shown that initial weak compressions do not necessarily develop singularity in finite time, unless the compression is strong enough for general data. In this paper, we identify a class of solutions of the full (non-isentropic) Euler equations, developing singularity in finite time even though their initial data do not contain any compression. This is in sharp contrast to the isentropic flow.

  15. One-dimensional topological edge states of bismuth bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, Ilya K.; Alexandradinata, A.; Jeon, Sangjun; Nadj-Perge, Stevan; Ji, Huiwen; Cava, R. J.; Andrei Bernevig, B.; Yazdani, Ali

    2014-09-01

    The hallmark of a topologically insulating state of matter in two dimensions protected by time-reversal symmetry is the existence of chiral edge modes propagating along the perimeter of the sample. Among the first systems predicted to be a two-dimensional topological insulator are bilayers of bismuth. Here we report scanning tunnelling microscopy experiments on bulk Bi crystals that show that a subset of the predicted Bi-bilayers' edge states are decoupled from the states of the substrate and provide direct spectroscopic evidence of their one-dimensional nature. Moreover, by visualizing the quantum interference of edge-mode quasi-particles in confined geometries, we demonstrate their remarkable coherent propagation along the edge with scattering properties consistent with strong suppression of backscattering as predicted for the propagating topological edge states.

  16. Spin accumulation on a one-dimensional mesoscopic Rashba ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhiyong [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2006-04-26

    The nonequilibrium spin accumulation on a one-dimensional (1D) mesoscopic Rashba ring is investigated with unpolarized current injected through ideal leads. Due to the Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling and back-scattering at the interfaces between the leads and the ring, a beating pattern is formed in the fast oscillation of spin accumulation. If every beating period is complete, a plateau is formed, where the variation of spin accumulation with the external voltage is slow, but if new incomplete periods emerge in the envelope function, a transitional region appears. This plateau structure and the beating pattern are related to the tunnelling through spin-dependent resonant states. Because of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect, the average spin accumulation oscillates quasi-periodically with the Rashba SO coupling and has a series of zeros. In some situations, the direction of the average spin accumulation can be reversed by the external voltage in this 1D Rashba ring.

  17. Spin accumulation on a one-dimensional mesoscopic Rashba ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yong

    2006-04-26

    The nonequilibrium spin accumulation on a one-dimensional (1D) mesoscopic Rashba ring is investigated with unpolarized current injected through ideal leads. Due to the Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling and back-scattering at the interfaces between the leads and the ring, a beating pattern is formed in the fast oscillation of spin accumulation. If every beating period is complete, a plateau is formed, where the variation of spin accumulation with the external voltage is slow, but if new incomplete periods emerge in the envelope function, a transitional region appears. This plateau structure and the beating pattern are related to the tunnelling through spin-dependent resonant states. Because of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect, the average spin accumulation oscillates quasi-periodically with the Rashba SO coupling and has a series of zeros. In some situations, the direction of the average spin accumulation can be reversed by the external voltage in this 1D Rashba ring.

  18. Characterizing high- n quasi-one-dimensional strontium Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Moritz; Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Ye, Shuzhen; Zhang, Xinyue; Dunning, F. Barry

    2014-05-01

    The production of high- n, n ~ 300 , quasi-one-dimensional strontium Rydberg atoms by two-photon excitation of selected extreme Stark states in the presence of a weak dc field is examined using a crossed laser-atom beam geometry. The polarization of the product states is probed using three independent techniques which are analyzed with the aid of classical-trajectory Monte Carlo simulations that employ initial ensembles based on quantum calculations using a two-active-electron model. Comparisons between theory and experiment demonstrate that the product states have large dipole moments, ~ 1 . 0 - 1 . 2n2 a . u . and that they can be engineered using pulsed electric fields to create a wide variety of target states. Research supported by the NSF, the Robert A Welch Foundation, and the FWF (Austria).

  19. Topologically protected states in one-dimensional systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fefferman, C L; Weinstein, M I

    2017-01-01

    The authors study a class of periodic Schrödinger operators, which in distinguished cases can be proved to have linear band-crossings or "Dirac points". They then show that the introduction of an "edge", via adiabatic modulation of these periodic potentials by a domain wall, results in the bifurcation of spatially localized "edge states". These bound states are associated with the topologically protected zero-energy mode of an asymptotic one-dimensional Dirac operator. The authors' model captures many aspects of the phenomenon of topologically protected edge states for two-dimensional bulk structures such as the honeycomb structure of graphene. The states the authors construct can be realized as highly robust TM-electromagnetic modes for a class of photonic waveguides with a phase-defect.

  20. One-dimensional hybrid nanostructures for heterogeneous photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fang-Xing; Miao, Jianwei; Tao, Hua Bing; Hung, Sung-Fu; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Hong Bin; Chen, Jiazang; Chen, Rong; Liu, Bin

    2015-05-13

    Semiconductor-based photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis have received considerable attention as alternative approaches for solar energy harvesting and storage. The photocatalytic or photoelectrocatalytic performance of a semiconductor is closely related to the design of the semiconductor at the nanoscale. Among various nanostructures, one-dimensional (1D) nanostructured photocatalysts and photoelectrodes have attracted increasing interest owing to their unique optical, structural, and electronic advantages. In this article, a comprehensive review of the current research efforts towards the development of 1D semiconductor nanomaterials for heterogeneous photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis is provided and, in particular, a discussion of how to overcome the challenges for achieving full potential of 1D nanostructures is presented. It is anticipated that this review will afford enriched information on the rational exploration of the structural and electronic properties of 1D semiconductor nanostructures for achieving more efficient 1D nanostructure-based photocatalysts and photoelectrodes for high-efficiency solar energy conversion.

  1. Polaron and bipolaron of uniaxially strained one dimensional zigzag ladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavidov, B.Ya., E-mail: bakhrom.yavidov@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    An influence of the uniaxial strains in one dimensional zigzag ladder (1DZL) on the properties of polarons and bipolarons is considered. It is shown that strain changes all the parameters of the system, in particular, spectrum, existing bands and the masses of charge carriers. Numerical results obtained by taking into an account the Poisson effect clearly indicate that the properties of the (bi)polaronic system can be tuned via strain. Mass of bipolaron can be manipulated by the strain too which in turn leads to the way of tuning Bose–Einstein condensation temperature T{sub BEC} of bipolarons. It is shown that T{sub BEC} of bipolarons in strained 1DZL reasonably correlates with the values of critical temperature of superconductivity of certain perovskites.

  2. Thermal radiation in one-dimensional photonic quasicrystals with graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C. H.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Fulco, U. L.; Albuquerque, E. L.

    2017-10-01

    In this work we investigate the thermal power spectra of the electromagnetic radiation through one-dimensional stacks of dielectric layers, with graphene at their interfaces, arranged according to a quasiperiodic structure obeying the Fibonacci (FB), Thue-Morse (TM) and double-period (DP) sequences. The thermal radiation power spectra are determined by means of a theoretical model based on a transfer matrix formalism for both normal and oblique incidence geometries, considering the Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation. A systematic study of the consequences of the graphene layers in the thermal emittance spectra is presented and discussed. We studied also the radiation spectra considering the case where the chemical potential is changed in order to tune the omnidirectional photonic band gap.

  3. One-dimensional quasi-relativistic particle in the box

    CERN Document Server

    Kaleta, Kamil; Malecki, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Two-term Weyl-type asymptotic law for the eigenvalues of one-dimensional quasi-relativistic Hamiltonian (-h^2 c^2 d^2/dx^2 + m^2 c^4)^(1/2) + V_well(x) (the Klein-Gordon square-root operator with electrostatic potential) with the infinite square well potential V_well(x) is given: the n-th eigenvalue is equal to (n pi/2 - pi/8) h c/a + O(1/n), where 2a is the width of the potential well. Simplicity of eigenvalues is proved. Some L^2 and L^infinity properties of eigenfunctions are also studied. Eigenvalues represent energies of a `massive particle in the box' quasi-relativistic model.

  4. Capillary condensation in one-dimensional irregular confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handford, Thomas P.; Pérez-Reche, Francisco J.; Taraskin, Sergei N.

    2013-07-01

    A lattice-gas model with heterogeneity is developed for the description of fluid condensation in finite sized one-dimensional pores of arbitrary shape. Mapping to the random-field Ising model allows an exact solution of the model to be obtained at zero-temperature, reproducing the experimentally observed dependence of the amount of fluid adsorbed in the pore on external pressure. It is demonstrated that the disorder controls the sorption for long pores and can result in H2-type hysteresis. Finite-temperature Metropolis dynamics simulations support analytical findings in the limit of low temperatures. The proposed framework is viewed as a fundamental building block of the theory of capillary condensation necessary for reliable structural analysis of complex porous media from adsorption-desorption data.

  5. One-dimensional photonic crystal fishbone hybrid nanocavity with nanoposts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Tsan-Wen; Lin, Pin-Tso; Lee, Po-Tsung, E-mail: potsung@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Rm. 413 CPT Building, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-12

    We propose and investigate a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) fishbone (FB) hybrid nanocavity lying on silver substrate with a horizontal air slot. With very few PhC periods, the confined transverse-magnetic, TM{sub 10} hybrid mode concentrated within the air slot shows high quality factor over effective mode volume ratio larger than 10{sup 5}λ{sup −3}. Most importantly, this FB hybrid nanocavity allows formation of low-index nanoposts within the air slot without significantly affecting the mode properties. These nanoposts guarantee the structural stabilities under different environmental perturbations. Furthermore, capabilities of our proposed design in serving as optical sensors and tweezers for bio-sized nanoparticles are also investigated.

  6. Reprint of : Absorbing/Emitting Phonons with one dimensional MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosisio, Riccardo; Gorini, Cosimo; Fleury, Geneviève; Pichard, Jean-Louis

    2016-08-01

    We consider nanowires in the field effect transistor device configuration. Modeling each nanowire as a one dimensional lattice with random site potentials, we study the heat exchanges between the nanowire electrons and the substrate phonons, when electron transport is due to phonon-assisted hops between localized states. Shifting the nanowire conduction band with a metallic gate induces different behaviors. When the Fermi potential is located near the band center, a bias voltage gives rise to small local heat exchanges which fluctuate randomly along the nanowire. When it is located near one of the band edges, the bias voltage yields heat currents which flow mainly from the substrate towards the nanowire near one boundary of the nanowire, and in the opposite direction near the other boundary. This opens interesting perspectives for heat management at submicron scales: arrays of parallel gated nanowires could be used for a field control of phonon emission/absorption.

  7. Charge diffusion in the one-dimensional Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinigeweg, R.; Jin, F.; De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.; Gemmer, J.

    2017-08-01

    We study the real-time and real-space dynamics of charge in the one-dimensional Hubbard model in the limit of high temperatures. To this end, we prepare pure initial states with sharply peaked density profiles and calculate the time evolution of these nonequilibrium states, by using numerical forward-propagation approaches to chains as long as 20 sites. For a class of typical states, we find excellent agreement with linear-response theory and unveil the existence of remarkably clean charge diffusion in the regime of strong particle-particle interactions. We additionally demonstrate that, in the half-filling sector, this diffusive behavior does not depend on certain details of our initial conditions, i.e., it occurs for five different realizations with random and nonrandom internal degrees of freedom, single and double occupation of the central site, and displacement of spin-up and spin-down particles.

  8. A one-dimensional toy model of globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Fanelli, D; Ruffo, S; Fanelli, Duccio; Merafina, Marco; Ruffo, Stefano

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a one-dimensional toy model of globular clusters. The model is a version of the well-known gravitational sheets system, where we take additionally into account mass and energy loss by evaporation of stars at the boundaries. Numerical integration by the "exact" event-driven dynamics is performed, for initial uniform density and Gaussian random velocities. Two distinct quasi-stationary asymptotic regimes are attained, depending on the initial energy of the system. We guess the forms of the density and velocity profiles which fit numerical data extremely well and allow to perform an independent calculation of the self-consistent gravitational potential. Some power-laws for the asymptotic number of stars and for the collision times are suggested.

  9. Well-posedness of one-dimensional Korteweg models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Benzoni-Gavage

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the initial-value problem for one-dimensional compressible fluids endowed with internal capillarity. We focus on the isothermal inviscid case with variable capillarity. The resulting equations for the density and the velocity, consisting of the mass conservation law and the momentum conservation with Korteweg stress, are a system of third order nonlinear dispersive partial differential equations. Additionally, this system is Hamiltonian and admits travelling solutions, representing propagating phase boundaries with internal structure. By change of unknown, it roughly reduces to a quasilinear Schrodinger equation. This new formulation enables us to prove local well-posedness for smooth perturbations of travelling profiles and almost-global existence for small enough perturbations. A blow-up criterion is also derived.

  10. Magnetic properties of manganese based one-dimensional spin chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, K S; Ranjith, K M; Yogi, Arvind; Nath, R; Mandal, Sukhendu

    2015-12-14

    We have correlated the structure-property relationship of three manganese-based inorganic-organic hybrid structures. Compound 1, [Mn2(OH-BDC)2(DMF)3] (where BDC = 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid and DMF = N,N'-dimethylformamide), contains Mn2O11 dimers as secondary building units (SBUs), which are connected by carboxylate anions forming Mn-O-C-O-Mn chains. Compound 2, [Mn2(BDC)2(DMF)2], contains Mn4O20 clusters as SBUs, which also form Mn-O-C-O-Mn chains. In compound 3, [Mn3(BDC)3(DEF)2] (where DEF = N,N'-diethylformamide), the distorted MnO6 octahedra are linked to form a one-dimensional chain with Mn-O-Mn connectivity. The magnetic properties were investigated by means of magnetization and heat capacity measurements. The temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility of all the three compounds could be nicely fitted using a one-dimensional S = 5/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain model and the value of intra-chain exchange coupling (J/k(B)) between Mn(2+) ions was estimated to be ∼1.1 K, ∼0.7 K, and ∼0.46 K for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Compound 1 does not undergo any magnetic long-range-order down to 2 K while compounds 2 and 3 undergo long-range magnetic order at T(N) ≈ 4.2 K and ≈4.3 K, respectively, which are of spin-glass type. From the values of J/k(B) and T(N) the inter-chain coupling (J(⊥)/k(B)) was calculated to be about 0.1J/k(B) for both compounds 2 and 3, respectively.

  11. One-dimensional numerical simulation of non-uniform sediment transport under unsteady flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei FANG; Minghong CHEN; Qianhai CHEN

    2008-01-01

    One-dimensional numerical models are popularly used in sediment transport research because they can be easily programmed and cost less time compared with two-and three-dimensional numerical models.In particular,they possess greater capacity to be applied in large river basins with many tributaries.This paper presents a one-dimensional numerical model capable of calculating total-load sediment transport.The cross-section-averaged sediment transport capacity and recovery coefficient are addressed in the suspended load model.This one-dimensional model,therefore,can be applied to fine suspended loads and to hyperconcentrated flows in the Yellow River.Moreover,a new discretization scheme for the equation of unsteady non-uniform suspended sediment transport is proposed.The model is calibrated using data measured from the Yantan Reservoir on the Hongshui River and the Sanmenxia Reservoir on the Yellow River.A comparison of the calculated water level and river bed deformation with field measurements shows that the improved numerical model is capable of predicting flow,sediment transport,bed changes,and bed-material sorting in various situations,with reasonable accuracy and reliability.

  12. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Low Temperature Materials Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moon, Ji-Won [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Armstrong, Beth L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Datskos, Panos G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gresback, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ivanov, Ilia N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobs, Christopher B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jellison, Gerald Earle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jang, Gyoung Gug [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joshi, Pooran C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jung, Hyunsung [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Meyer, III, Harry M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Phelps, Tommy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) low temperature materials synthesis project was established to demonstrate a scalable and sustainable process to produce nanoparticles (NPs) for advanced manufacturing. Previous methods to chemically synthesize NPs typically required expensive, high-purity inorganic chemical reagents, organic solvents and high temperatures. These processes were typically applied at small laboratory scales at yields sufficient for NP characterization, but insufficient to support roll-to-roll processing efforts or device fabrication. The new NanoFermentation processes described here operated at a low temperature (~60 C) in low-cost, aqueous media using bacteria that produce extracellular NPs with controlled size and elemental stoichiometry. Up-scaling activities successfully demonstrated high NP yields and quality in a 900-L pilot-scale reactor, establishing this NanoFermentation process as a competitive biomanufacturing strategy to produce NPs for advanced manufacturing of power electronics, solid-state lighting and sensors.

  13. Synthesis of functional materials in combustion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravlev, V. D., E-mail: zhvd@ihim.uran.ru; Bamburov, V. G.; Ermakova, L. V.; Lobachevskaya, N. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The conditions for obtaining oxide compounds in combustion reactions of nitrates of metals with organic chelating–reducing agents such as amino acids, urea, and polyvinyl alcohol are reviewed. Changing the nature of internal fuels and the reducing agent-to-oxidizing agent ratio makes possible to modify the thermal regime of the process, fractal dimensionality, morphology, and dispersion of synthesized functional materials. This method can be used to synthesize simple and complex oxides, composites, and metal powders, as well as ceramics and coatings. The possibilities of synthesis in combustion reactions are illustrated by examples of αand γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, YSZ composites, uranium oxides, nickel powder, NiO and NiO: YSZ composite, TiO{sub 2}, and manganites, cobaltites, and aluminates of rare earth elements.

  14. Synthesis of functional materials in combustion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, V. D.; Bamburov, V. G.; Ermakova, L. V.; Lobachevskaya, N. I.

    2015-12-01

    The conditions for obtaining oxide compounds in combustion reactions of nitrates of metals with organic chelating-reducing agents such as amino acids, urea, and polyvinyl alcohol are reviewed. Changing the nature of internal fuels and the reducing agent-to-oxidizing agent ratio makes possible to modify the thermal regime of the process, fractal dimensionality, morphology, and dispersion of synthesized functional materials. This method can be used to synthesize simple and complex oxides, composites, and metal powders, as well as ceramics and coatings. The possibilities of synthesis in combustion reactions are illustrated by examples of αand γ-Al2O3, YSZ composites, uranium oxides, nickel powder, NiO and NiO: YSZ composite, TiO2, and manganites, cobaltites, and aluminates of rare earth elements.

  15. Negative refraction angular characterization in one-dimensional photonic crystals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Eduardo Lugo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photonic crystals are artificial structures that have periodic dielectric components with different refractive indices. Under certain conditions, they abnormally refract the light, a phenomenon called negative refraction. Here we experimentally characterize negative refraction in a one dimensional photonic crystal structure; near the low frequency edge of the fourth photonic bandgap. We compare the experimental results with current theory and a theory based on the group velocity developed here. We also analytically derived the negative refraction correctness condition that gives the angular region where negative refraction occurs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using standard photonic techniques we experimentally determined the relationship between incidence and negative refraction angles and found the negative refraction range by applying the correctness condition. In order to compare both theories with experimental results an output refraction correction was utilized. The correction uses Snell's law and an effective refractive index based on two effective dielectric constants. We found good agreement between experiment and both theories in the negative refraction zone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Since both theories and the experimental observations agreed well in the negative refraction region, we can use both negative refraction theories plus the output correction to predict negative refraction angles. This can be very useful from a practical point of view for space filtering applications such as a photonic demultiplexer or for sensing applications.

  16. Charge transport through one-dimensional Moiré crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Roméo; Lherbier, Aurélien; Barraud, Clément; Rocca, Maria Luisa Della; Lafarge, Philippe; Charlier, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Moiré superlattices were generated in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures and have revealed intriguing electronic structures. The appearance of mini-Dirac cones within the conduction and valence bands of graphene is one of the most striking among the new quantum features. A Moiré superstructure emerges when at least two periodic sub-structures superimpose. 2D Moiré patterns have been particularly investigated in stacked hexagonal 2D atomic lattices like twisted graphene layers and graphene deposited on hexagonal boron-nitride. In this letter, we report both experimentally and theoretically evidence of superlattices physics in transport properties of one-dimensional (1D) Moiré crystals. Rolling-up few layers of graphene to form a multiwall carbon nanotube adds boundaries conditions that can be translated into interference fringes-like Moiré patterns along the circumference of the cylinder. Such a 1D Moiré crystal exhibits a complex 1D multiple bands structure with clear and robust interband quantum transitions due to the presence of mini-Dirac points and pseudo-gaps. Our devices consist in a very large diameter (>80 nm) multiwall carbon nanotubes of high quality, electrically connected by metallic electrodes acting as charge reservoirs. Conductance measurements reveal the presence of van Hove singularities assigned to 1D Moiré superlattice effect and illustrated by electronic structure calculations.

  17. Negative refraction angular characterization in one-dimensional photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Jesus Eduardo; Doti, Rafael; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2011-04-06

    Photonic crystals are artificial structures that have periodic dielectric components with different refractive indices. Under certain conditions, they abnormally refract the light, a phenomenon called negative refraction. Here we experimentally characterize negative refraction in a one dimensional photonic crystal structure; near the low frequency edge of the fourth photonic bandgap. We compare the experimental results with current theory and a theory based on the group velocity developed here. We also analytically derived the negative refraction correctness condition that gives the angular region where negative refraction occurs. By using standard photonic techniques we experimentally determined the relationship between incidence and negative refraction angles and found the negative refraction range by applying the correctness condition. In order to compare both theories with experimental results an output refraction correction was utilized. The correction uses Snell's law and an effective refractive index based on two effective dielectric constants. We found good agreement between experiment and both theories in the negative refraction zone. Since both theories and the experimental observations agreed well in the negative refraction region, we can use both negative refraction theories plus the output correction to predict negative refraction angles. This can be very useful from a practical point of view for space filtering applications such as a photonic demultiplexer or for sensing applications.

  18. One-dimensional consolidation in unsaturated soils under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wei-Cheng; Sposito, Garrison; Lee, Jhe-Wei; Chu, Hsiuhua

    2016-05-01

    The one-dimensional consolidation model of poroelasticity of Lo et al. (2014) for an unsaturated soil under constant loading is generalized to include an arbitrary time-dependent loading. A closed-form solution for the pore water and air pressures along with the total settlement is derived by employing a Fourier series representation in the spatial domain and a Laplace transformation in the time domain. This solution is illustrated for the important example of a fully-permeable soil cylinder with an undrained initial condition acted upon by a periodic stress. Our results indicate that, in terms of a dimensionless time scale, the transient solution decays to zero most slowly in a water-saturated soil, whereas for an unsaturated soil, the time for the transient solution to die out is inversely proportional to the initial water saturation. The generalization presented here shows that the diffusion time scale for pore water in an unsaturated soil is orders of magnitude greater than that in a water-saturated soil, mainly because of the much smaller hydraulic conductivity of the former.

  19. Integral Transport Theory in One-dimensional Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlvik, I.

    1966-06-15

    A method called DIT (Discrete Integral Transport) has been developed for the numerical solution of the transport equation in one-dimensional systems. The characteristic features of the method are Gaussian integration over the coordinate as described by Kobayashi and Nishihara, and a particular scheme for the calculation of matrix elements in annular and spherical geometry that has been used for collision probabilities in earlier Flurig programmes. The paper gives a general theory including such things as anisotropic scattering and multi-pole fluxes, and it gives a brief description of the Flurig scheme. Annular geometry is treated in some detail, and corresponding formulae are given for spherical and plane geometry. There are many similarities between DIT and the method of collision probabilities. DIT is in many cases faster, because for a certain accuracy in the fluxes DIT often needs fewer space points than the method of collision probabilities needs regions. Several computer codes using DIT, both one-group and multigroup, have been written. It is anticipated that experience gained in calculations with these codes will be reported in another paper.

  20. Solitary Wave in One-dimensional Buckyball System at Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zheng, Bowen; Liu, Yilun

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the stress wave propagation in one-dimensional (1-D) nanoscopic buckyball (C60) system by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and quantitative modeling. Simulation results have shown that solitary waves are generated and propagating in the buckyball system through impacting one buckyball at one end of the buckyball chain. We have found the solitary wave behaviors are closely dependent on the initial temperature and impacting speed of the buckyball chain. There are almost no dispersion and dissipation of the solitary waves (stationary solitary wave) for relatively low temperature and high impacting speed. While for relatively high temperature and low impacting speed the profile of the solitary waves is highly distorted and dissipated after propagating several tens of buckyballs. A phase diagram is proposed to describe the effect of the temperature and impacting speed on the solitary wave behaviors in buckyball system. In order to quantitatively describe the wave behavior in buckyball system, a simple nonlinear-spring model is established, which can describe the MD simulation results at low temperature very well. The results presented in this work may lay a solid step towards the further understanding and manipulation of stress wave propagation and impact energy mitigation at nanoscale. PMID:26891624

  1. Correlation effects for a quasi-one-dimensional polaron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Paulo Cesar Miranda [Escola de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao, Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania (Brazil); Borges, Antonio Newton; Osorio, Francisco Aparecido Pinto [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania (Brazil); Nucleo de Pesquisa em Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Goias, Goiania (Brazil)

    2011-04-15

    In this work, we investigate the plasmon-LO phonon interaction effects on the intrasubband structure factor, electron-electron effective potential, and plasmon energy associated with the lowest subband in a GaAs-AlGaAs rectangular quantum-well wire (QWW) as a function of the electronic density. Our calculations are performed using the self-consistent field approximation, which includes the local-field correction (LFC) within the Singwi, Tosi, Land, and Sjolander (STLS) theory, at zero temperature and assuming a three-subband model, where only the first subband is occupied by electrons. We report for the first time dips in the structure factor spectra as a function of the quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) plasmon-LO phonon wavevector that are directly related with the resonant split of the collective excitation energy into two branches due to the polaronic effects. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Approximate Relativistic Solutions for One-Dimensional Cylindrical Coaxial Diode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾正中; 刘国治; 邵浩

    2002-01-01

    Two approximate analytical relativistic solutions for one-dimensional, space-chargelimited cylindrical coaxial diode are derived and utilized to compose best-fitting approximate solutions. Comparison of the best-fitting solutions with the numerical one demonstrates an error of about 11% for cathode-inside arrangement and 12% in the cathode-outside case for ratios of larger to smaller electrode radius from 1.2 to 10 and a voltage above 0.5 MV up to 5 MV. With these solutions the diode lengths for critical self-magnetic bending and for the condition under which the parapotential model validates are calculated to be longer than 1 cm up to more than 100 cm depending on voltage, radial dimensions and electrode arrangement. The influence of ion flow from the anode on the relativistic electron-only solution is numerically computed, indicating an enhancement factor of total diode current of 1.85 to 4.19 related to voltage, radial dimension and electrode arrangement.

  3. Negativity spectrum of one-dimensional conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, Paola; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    The partial transpose $\\rho_A^{T_2}$ of the reduced density matrix $\\rho_A$ is the key object to quantify the entanglement in mixed states, in particular through the presence of negative eigenvalues in its spectrum. Here we derive analytically the distribution of the eigenvalues of $\\rho_A^{T_2}$, that we dub negativity spectrum, in the ground sate of gapless one-dimensional systems described by a Conformal Field Theory (CFT), focusing on the case of two adjacent intervals. We show that the negativity spectrum is universal and depends only on the central charge of the CFT, similarly to the entanglement spectrum. The precise form of the negativity spectrum depends on whether the two intervals are in a pure or mixed state, and in both cases, a dependence on the sign of the eigenvalues is found. This dependence is weak for bulk eigenvalues, whereas it is strong at the spectrum edges. We also investigate the scaling of the smallest (negative) and largest (positive) eigenvalues of $\\rho_A^{T_2}$. We check our resu...

  4. Digital noise generators using one-dimensional chaotic maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Ñonthe, J. A; Palacios-Luengas, L.; Cruz-Irisson, M.; Vazquez Medina, R. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIME-Culhuacan, Santa Ana 1000, 04430, D.F. (Mexico); Díaz Méndez, J. A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2014-05-15

    This work shows how to improve the statistical distribution of signals produced by digital noise generators designed with one-dimensional (1-D) chaotic maps. It also shows that in a digital electronic design the piecewise linear chaotic maps (PWLCM) should be considered because they do not have stability islands in its chaotic behavior region, as it occurs in the case of the logistic map, which is commonly used to build noise generators. The design and implementation problems of the digital noise generators are analyzed and a solution is proposed. This solution relates the output of PWLCM, usually defined in the real numbers' domain, with a codebook of S elements, previously defined. The proposed solution scheme produces digital noise signals with a statistical distribution close to a uniform distribution. Finally, this work shows that it is possible to have control over the statistical distribution of the noise signal by selecting the control parameter of the PWLCM and using, as a design criterion, the bifurcation diagram.

  5. Cooperative eigenmodes and scattering in one-dimensional atomic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettles, Robert J.; Gardiner, Simon A.; Adams, Charles S.

    2016-10-01

    Collective coupling between dipoles can dramatically modify the optical response of a medium. Such effects depend strongly on the geometry of the medium and the polarization of the light. Using a classical coupled dipole model, here we investigate the simplest case of one-dimensional arrays of interacting atomic dipoles driven by a weak laser field. Changing the polarization and direction of the driving field allows us to separately address superradiant, subradiant, redshifted, and blueshifted eigenmodes, as well as observe strong Fano-like interferences between different modes. The cooperative eigenvectors can be characterized by the phase difference between nearest-neighbor dipoles, ranging from all oscillating in phase to all oscillating out of phase with their nearest neighbors. Investigating the eigenvalue behavior as a function of atom number and lattice spacing, we find that certain eigenmodes of an infinite atomic chain have the same decay rate as a single atom between two mirrors. The effects we observe provide a framework for collective control of the optical response of a medium, giving insight into the behavior of more complicated geometries, as well as providing further evidence for the dipolar analog of cavity QED.

  6. Spin interference in silicon one-dimensional rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagraev, N T [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Galkin, N G [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gehlhoff, W [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Berlin, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Klyachkin, L E [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Malyarenko, A M [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, 194021 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shelykh, I A [Physics and Astronomy School, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, S017 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-15

    We present the first findings of the spin transistor effect in a Rashba gate-controlled ring embedded in a p-type self-assembled silicon quantum well that is prepared on an n-type Si(100) surface. The coherence and phase sensitivity of the spin-dependent transport of holes are studied by varying the values of the external magnetic field and the bias voltage that are applied perpendicularly to the plane of the double-slit ring. First, the amplitude and phase sensitivity of the 0.7 x (2e{sup 2}/h) feature of the hole quantum conductance staircase revealed by the quantum point contact inserted in one of the arms of the double-slit ring are found to result from the interplay of the spontaneous spin polarization and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Second, the quantum scatterers connected to two one-dimensional leads and the quantum point contact inserted are shown to define the amplitude and the phase of the Aharonov-Bohm and the Aharonov-Casher conductance oscillations. (letter to the editor)

  7. Multi-symplectic, Lagrangian, one-dimensional gas dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, G. M.

    2015-05-01

    The equations of Lagrangian, ideal, one-dimensional, compressible gas dynamics are written in a multi-symplectic form using the Lagrangian mass coordinate m and time t as independent variables, and in which the Eulerian position of the fluid element x = x(m, t) is one of the dependent variables. This approach differs from the Eulerian, multi-symplectic approach using Clebsch variables. Lagrangian constraints are used to specify equations for xm, xt, and St consistent with the Lagrangian map, where S is the entropy of the gas. We require St = 0 corresponding to advection of the entropy S with the flow. We show that the Lagrangian Hamiltonian equations are related to the de Donder-Weyl multi-momentum formulation. The pullback conservation laws and the symplecticity conservation laws are discussed. The pullback conservation laws correspond to invariance of the action with respect to translations in time (energy conservation) and translations in m in Noether's theorem. The conservation law due to m-translation invariance gives rise to a novel nonlocal conservation law involving the Clebsch variable r used to impose ∂S(m, t)/∂t = 0. Translation invariance with respect to x in Noether's theorem is associated with momentum conservation. We obtain the Cartan-Poincaré form for the system, and use it to obtain a closed ideal of two-forms representing the equation system.

  8. Phonons in a one-dimensional microfluidic crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Beatus, Tsevi; Bar-Ziv, Roy; 10.1038/nphys432

    2010-01-01

    The development of a general theoretical framework for describing the behaviour of a crystal driven far from equilibrium has proved difficult1. Microfluidic crystals, formed by the introduction of droplets of immiscible fluid into a liquid-filled channel, provide a convenient means to explore and develop models to describe non-equilibrium dynamics2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. Owing to the fact that these systems operate at low Reynolds number (Re), in which viscous dissipation of energy dominates inertial effects, vibrations are expected to be over-damped and contribute little to their dynamics12, 13, 14. Against such expectations, we report the emergence of collective normal vibrational modes (equivalent to acoustic 'phonons') in a one-dimensional microfluidic crystal of water-in-oil droplets at Reapprox10-4. These phonons propagate at an ultra-low sound velocity of approx100 mum s-1 and frequencies of a few hertz, exhibit unusual dispersion relations markedly different to those of harmonic crystals, and g...

  9. Trapped Atoms in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, H.

    2013-05-01

    I describe one-dimensional photonic crystals that support a guided mode suitable for atom trapping within a unit cell, as well as a second probe mode with strong atom-photon interactions. A new hybrid trap is analyzed that combines optical and Casimir-Polder forces to form stable traps for neutral atoms in dielectric nanostructures. By suitable design of the band structure, the atomic spontaneous emission rate into the probe mode can exceed the rate into all other modes by more than tenfold. The unprecedented single-atom reflectivity r0 ~= 0 . 9 for the guided probe field could create new scientific opportunities, including quantum many-body physics for 1 D atom chains with photon-mediated interactions and high-precision studies of vacuum forces. Towards these goals, my colleagues and I are pursuing numerical simulation, device fabrication, and cold-atom experiments with nanoscopic structures. Funding is provided by by the IQIM, an NSF PFC with support of the Moore Foundation, by the AFOSR QuMPASS MURI, by the DoD NSSEFF program (HJK), and by NSF Grant PHY0652914 (HJK). DEC acknowledges funding from Fundacio Privada Cellex Barcelona.

  10. Conjugated Molecules Described by a One-Dimensional Dirac Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernzerhof, Matthias; Goyer, Francois

    2010-06-08

    Starting from the Hückel Hamiltonian of conjugated hydrocarbon chains (ethylene, allyl radical, butadiene, pentadienyl radical, hexatriene, etc.), we perform a simple unitary transformation and obtain a Dirac matrix Hamiltonian. Thus already small molecules are described exactly in terms of a discrete Dirac equation, the continuum limit of which yields a one-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonian. Augmenting this Hamiltonian with specially adapted boundary conditions, we find that all the orbitals of the unsaturated hydrocarbon chains are reproduced by the continuous Dirac equation. However, only orbital energies close to the highest occupied molecular orbital/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy are accurately predicted by the Dirac equation. Since it is known that a continuous Dirac equation describes the electronic structure of graphene around the Fermi energy, our findings answer the question to what extent this peculiar electronic structure is already developed in small molecules containing a delocalized π-electron system. We illustrate how the electronic structure of small polyenes carries over to a certain class of rectangular graphene sheets and eventually to graphene itself. Thus the peculiar electronic structure of graphene extends to a large degree to the smallest unsaturated molecule (ethylene).

  11. Validation and Comparison of One-Dimensional Graound Motion Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Darragh; W. Silva; N. Gregor

    2006-06-28

    Both point- and finite-source stochastic one-dimensional ground motion models, coupled to vertically propagating equivalent-linear shear-wave site response models are validated using an extensive set of strong motion data as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. The validation and comparison exercises are presented entirely in terms of 5% damped pseudo absolute response spectra. The study consists of a quantitative analyses involving modeling nineteen well-recorded earthquakes, M 5.6 to 7.4 at over 600 sites. The sites range in distance from about 1 to about 200 km in the western US (460 km for central-eastern US). In general, this validation demonstrates that the stochastic point- and finite-source models produce accurate predictions of strong ground motions over the range of 0 to 100 km and for magnitudes M 5.0 to 7.4. The stochastic finite-source model appears to be broadband, producing near zero bias from about 0.3 Hz (low frequency limit of the analyses) to the high frequency limit of the data (100 and 25 Hz for response and Fourier amplitude spectra, respectively).

  12. Fermion Coherent State Studies of One-Dimensional Hubbard Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Ji; GAO Xian-Long; WANG Ke-Lin

    2007-01-01

    We present a comparative study of the ground state of the one-dimensional Hubbard model. We first use a new fermion coherent state method in the framework of Fermi liquid theory by introducing a hole operator and considering the interactions of two pairs electrons and holes. We construct the ground state of the Hubbard model as |〉 = [f + ∑′ψc+k1σ1 h+k2σ2 c+k3σ3 h+k4σ4 ∏exp(ρc+k1σ1 h+k2σ2)] [〉0, where ψ and ρ are the coupling constants. Our results are then compared to those of variational methods, density functional theory based on the exact solvable Bethe ansatz solutions, variational Monto-Carlo method (VMC) as well as to the exact result of the infinite system. We find satisfactory agreement between the fermion coherent state scheme and the VMC data, and provide a new picture to deal with the strongly correlated system.

  13. Topological water wave states in a one-dimensional structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    Topological concepts have been introduced into electronic, photonic, and phononic systems, but have not been studied in surface-water-wave systems. Here we study a one-dimensional periodic resonant surface-water-wave system and demonstrate its topological transition. By selecting three different water depths, we can construct different types of water waves - shallow, intermediate and deep water waves. The periodic surface-water-wave system consists of an array of cylindrical water tanks connected with narrow water channels. As the width of connecting channel varies, the band diagram undergoes a topological transition which can be further characterized by Zak phase. This topological transition holds true for shallow, intermediate and deep water waves. However, the interface state at the boundary separating two topologically distinct arrays of water tanks can exhibit different bands for shallow, intermediate and deep water waves. Our work studies for the first time topological properties of water wave systems, and paves the way to potential management of water waves. PMID:27373982

  14. Charge transport through one-dimensional Moiré crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Roméo; Lherbier, Aurélien; Barraud, Clément; Della Rocca, Maria Luisa; Lafarge, Philippe; Charlier, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-20

    Moiré superlattices were generated in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures and have revealed intriguing electronic structures. The appearance of mini-Dirac cones within the conduction and valence bands of graphene is one of the most striking among the new quantum features. A Moiré superstructure emerges when at least two periodic sub-structures superimpose. 2D Moiré patterns have been particularly investigated in stacked hexagonal 2D atomic lattices like twisted graphene layers and graphene deposited on hexagonal boron-nitride. In this letter, we report both experimentally and theoretically evidence of superlattices physics in transport properties of one-dimensional (1D) Moiré crystals. Rolling-up few layers of graphene to form a multiwall carbon nanotube adds boundaries conditions that can be translated into interference fringes-like Moiré patterns along the circumference of the cylinder. Such a 1D Moiré crystal exhibits a complex 1D multiple bands structure with clear and robust interband quantum transitions due to the presence of mini-Dirac points and pseudo-gaps. Our devices consist in a very large diameter (>80 nm) multiwall carbon nanotubes of high quality, electrically connected by metallic electrodes acting as charge reservoirs. Conductance measurements reveal the presence of van Hove singularities assigned to 1D Moiré superlattice effect and illustrated by electronic structure calculations.

  15. Redshift distortions in one-dimensional power spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Desjacques, V; Desjacques, Vincent; Nusser, Adi

    2004-01-01

    We present a model for one-dimensional (1D) matter power spectra in redshift space as estimated from data provided along individual lines of sight. We derive analytic expressions for these power spectra in the linear and nonlinear regimes, focusing on redshift distortions arising from peculiar velocities. In the linear regime, redshift distortions enhance the 1D power spectra only on small scales, and do not affect the power on large scales. This is in contrast to the effect of distortions on three-dimensional (3D) power spectra estimated from data in 3D space, where the enhancement is independent of scale. For CDM cosmologies, the 1D power spectra in redshift and real space are similar for wavenumbers $q<0.1h/Mpc$ where both have a spectral index close to unity, independent of the details of the 3D power spectrum. Nonlinear corrections drive the 1D power spectrum in redshift space into a nearly universal shape over scale $q<10h/Mpc$, and suppress the power on small scales as a result of the strong velo...

  16. Electron Rydberg wave packets in one-dimensional atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supriya Chatterjee; Amitava Choudhuri; Aparna Saha; B Talukdar

    2010-09-01

    An expression for the transition probability or form factor in one-dimensional Rydberg atom irradiated by short half-cycle pulse was constructed. In applicative contexts, our expression was found to be more useful than the corresponding result given by Landau and Lifshitz. Using the new expression for the form factor, the motion of a localized quantum wave packet was studied with particular emphasis on its revival and super-revival properties. Closed form analytical expressions were derived for expectation values of the position and momentum operators that characterized the widths of the position and momentum distributions. Transient phase-space localization of the wave packet produced by the application of a single impulsive kick was explicitly demonstrated. The undulation of the uncertainty product as a function of time was studied in order to visualize how the motion of the wave packet in its classical trajectory spreads throughout the orbit and the system becomes nonclassical. The process, however, repeats itself such that the atom undergoes a free evolution from a classical, to a nonclassical, and back to a classical state.

  17. One-dimensional Ising model with multispin interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Turban, L

    2016-01-01

    We study the spin-$1/2$ Ising chain with multispin interactions $K$ involving the product of $m$ successive spins, for general values of $m$. Using a change of spin variables the zero-field partition function of a finite chain is obtained for free and periodic boundary conditions (BC) and we calculate the two-spin correlation function. When placed in an external field $H$ the system is shown to be self-dual. Using another change of spin variables the one-dimensional (1D) Ising model with multispin interactions in a field is mapped onto a zero-field rectangular Ising model with first-neighbour interactions $K$ and $H$. The 2D system, with size $m\\times N/m$, has the topology of a cylinder with helical BC. In the thermodynamic limit $N/m\\to\\infty$, $m\\to\\infty$, a 2D critical singularity develops on the self-duality line, $\\sinh 2K\\sinh 2H=1$.

  18. One dimensional numerical simulation of small scale CFB combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gungor, Afsin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Nigde University, 51100 Nigde (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, a one-dimensional model which includes volatilization, attrition and combustion of char particles for a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor has been developed. In the modeling, the CFB combustor is analyzed in two regions: bottom zone considering as a bubbling fluidized bed in turbulent fluidization regime and upper zone core-annulus solids flow structure is established. In the bottom zone, a single-phase back-flow cell model is used to represent the solid mixing. Solids exchange, between the bubble phase and emulsion phase is a function of the bubble diameter and varies along the axis of the combustor. In the upper zone, particles move upward in the core and downward in the annulus. Thickness of the annulus varies according to the combustor height. Using the developed simulation program, the effects of operational parameters which are the particle diameter, superficial velocity and air-to-fuel ratio on net solids flux, oxygen and carbon dioxide mole ratios along the bed height and carbon content and bed temperature on the top of the riser are investigated. Simulation results are compared with test results obtained from the 50 kW Gazi University Heat Power Laboratory pilot scale unit and good agreement is observed. (author)

  19. Automated quantification of one-dimensional nanostructure alignment on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianjin; Goldthorpe, Irene A.; Mohieddin Abukhdeir, Nasser

    2016-06-01

    A method for automated quantification of the alignment of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures from microscopy imaging is presented. Nanostructure alignment metrics are formulated and shown to be able to rigorously quantify the orientational order of nanostructures within a two-dimensional domain (surface). A complementary image processing method is also presented which enables robust processing of microscopy images where overlapping nanostructures might be present. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of nanowire-covered surfaces are analyzed using the presented methods and it is shown that past single parameter alignment metrics are insufficient for highly aligned domains. Through the use of multiple parameter alignment metrics, automated quantitative analysis of SEM images is shown to be possible and the alignment characteristics of different samples are able to be quantitatively compared using a similarity metric. The results of this work provide researchers in nanoscience and nanotechnology with a rigorous method for the determination of structure/property relationships, where alignment of 1D nanostructures is significant.

  20. A one-dimensional theory for Higgs branch operators

    CERN Document Server

    Dedushenko, Mykola; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-01-01

    We use supersymmetric localization to calculate correlation functions of half-BPS local operators in 3d ${\\cal N} = 4$ superconformal field theories whose Lagrangian descriptions consist of vectormultiplets coupled to hypermultiplets. The operators we primarily study are certain twisted linear combinations of Higgs branch operators that can be inserted anywhere along a given line. These operators are constructed from the hypermultiplet scalars. They form a one-dimensional non-commutative operator algebra with topological correlation functions. The 2- and 3-point functions of Higgs branch operators in the full 3d ${\\cal N}=4$ theory can be simply inferred from the 1d topological algebra. After conformally mapping the 3d superconformal field theory from flat space to a round three-sphere, we preform supersymmetric localization using a supercharge that does not belong to any 3d ${\\cal N} = 2$ subalgebra of the ${\\cal N}=4$ algebra. The result is a simple model that can be used to calculate correlation functions ...

  1. Physical basis for materials synthesis using biomineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Yoreo, J; Orme, C; Dove, P; Teng, H

    2000-05-16

    Since the dawn of life on earth, organisms have directed the crystallization of inorganic ions from solution to form minerals that meet specific biological needs. The resulting materials often exhibit remarkable properties, making the processes involved in biomineralization of interest to a wide array of scientific disciplines. From a geochemical standpoint, perhaps the most important consequence is that CaCO{sub 3} biomineral formation occurs in the Oceans on such a large scale that it influences many aspects of seawater chemistry and results in sequestration of carbon in the form of carbonate sediments. In this manner, the products of biomineralization are preserved in the rock record and serve as an extensive chronicle of the interplay between biota and the earth system environment. From the point of view of materials synthesis, biological control over epitaxy is an elegant example of self-organization in complex molecular systems. Through selective introduction of peptides and proteins, living organisms deterministically modify nucleation, step kinetics, surface morphologies, and facet stabilities to produce nanophase materials, topologically complex single-crystals, and multi-layer composite. The resulting materials have biological functions as diverse as structural supports, porous filtration media, grinding and cutting tools, lenses, gravity sensors and magnetic guidance systems. As Table I shows, calcium carbonate minerals are ubiquitous amongst these biomineral structures. In addition , calcium carbonate is a well studied material that is easily crystallized and has known solution chemistry. Consequently, the calcium carbonate system provides an excellent model for investigating biomineralization processes. Surprisingly, in spite of the identification of carbonate biogenesis as a critical contributor to the carbon reservoir mediating climate change, and the enormous potential of biomimetic synthesis for production of tailored, crystalline nano- and micro

  2. Physical basis for materials synthesis using biomineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Yoreo, J; Orme, C; Dove, P; Teng, H

    2000-05-16

    Since the dawn of life on earth, organisms have directed the crystallization of inorganic ions from solution to form minerals that meet specific biological needs. The resulting materials often exhibit remarkable properties, making the processes involved in biomineralization of interest to a wide array of scientific disciplines. From a geochemical standpoint, perhaps the most important consequence is that CaCO{sub 3} biomineral formation occurs in the Oceans on such a large scale that it influences many aspects of seawater chemistry and results in sequestration of carbon in the form of carbonate sediments. In this manner, the products of biomineralization are preserved in the rock record and serve as an extensive chronicle of the interplay between biota and the earth system environment. From the point of view of materials synthesis, biological control over epitaxy is an elegant example of self-organization in complex molecular systems. Through selective introduction of peptides and proteins, living organisms deterministically modify nucleation, step kinetics, surface morphologies, and facet stabilities to produce nanophase materials, topologically complex single-crystals, and multi-layer composite. The resulting materials have biological functions as diverse as structural supports, porous filtration media, grinding and cutting tools, lenses, gravity sensors and magnetic guidance systems. As Table I shows, calcium carbonate minerals are ubiquitous amongst these biomineral structures. In addition , calcium carbonate is a well studied material that is easily crystallized and has known solution chemistry. Consequently, the calcium carbonate system provides an excellent model for investigating biomineralization processes. Surprisingly, in spite of the identification of carbonate biogenesis as a critical contributor to the carbon reservoir mediating climate change, and the enormous potential of biomimetic synthesis for production of tailored, crystalline nano- and micro

  3. Thermal Growth and Nanomagnetism of the Quasi-one Dimensional Iron Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minglong Zhong; Zhongwu Liu; Xichun Zhong; Hongya Yu; Dechang Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Quasi-one dimensional iron oxide nanowires with flat needle shape were synthesized on the iron powders by a rather simple catalyst-free thermal oxidation process in ambient atmosphere. The characterization by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed that these nanos- tructures are single crystalline α-Fe2O3. The various dimensions with 40-170 nm in width and 1-8 μm in length were obtained by tuning the growth temperature from 280 to 480℃. A surface diffusion mechanism was proposed to account for the growth of quasi-one dimensional nanostructure. The typical α-Fe203 nanowires synthesized at 430℃ had a reduced Morin temperature TM of 131 K in comparison with their bulk counterpart. The coercivitis Hc of these nanowires are 321 and 65 Oe at 5 and 300 K, respectively. The temperature of synthesis also has important effects on the magnetic properties of these nanowires.

  4. Hierarchical one-dimensional ammonium nickel phosphate microrods for high-performance pseudocapacitors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raju, K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available :17629 | DOI: 10.1038/srep17629 www.nature.com/scientificreports Hierarchical One-Dimensional Ammonium Nickel Phosphate Microrods for High-Performance Pseudocapacitors Kumar Raju1 & Kenneth I. Ozoemena1,2 High-performance electrochemical capacitors... OPEN w w w . n a t u r e . c o m / s c i e n t i f i c r e p o r t s / 2S C I E N T I F I C REPORTS | 5:17629 | DOI: 10.1038/srep17629 Hierarchical 1-D and 2-D materials maximize the supercapacitive properties due to their unique ability to permit ion...

  5. One-dimensional wave propagation in rods of variable cross section: A WKBJ solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Simeon C. U.; Williams, James H., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    As an important step in the characterization of a particular dynamic surface displacement transducer (IQI Model 501), a one-dimensional wave propagation in isotropic nonpiezoelectric and piezoelectric rods of variable cross section are presented. With the use of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin-Jeffreys (WKBJ) approximate solution technique, an approximate formula, which relates the ratio of the amplitudes of a propagating wave observed at any two locations along the rod to the ratio of the cross sectional radii at these respective locations, is derived. The domains of frequency for which the approximate solution is valid are discussed for piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric materials.

  6. Broadening of Omnidirectional Photonic Band Gap in Graphene Based one Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetika Arora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple design of one dimensional gradual stacked photonic crystal has been proposed. This structure exhibits a periodic array of alternate layers of Graphene and Silica. These are the materials of low and high refractive indices respectively. Here the structure considered has three stacks .Each stack has five alternate layers of Graphene and silica. The transfer matrix method has been used for numerical computation. In this paper, such a structure has wider reflection bands in comparison to a conventional dielectric PC structure and structure with Sio2 and Si layers for a constant gradual constant ϒ at different incident angle.

  7. Broadband wave plates: Approach from one-dimensional photonic crystals containing metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yihang, E-mail: kallenmail@sina.co [Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-02-14

    Broadband wave plates working in subwavelength scale are realized by one-dimensional photonic crystals containing negative-index materials. It is demonstrated that the phase shift of reflected wave as a function of frequency changes smoothly within the stop band of the photonic crystal, while it changes sharply within the pass band. In the stop band, the difference between the phase of TE and that of TM reflected wave could remain constant in a rather wide frequency range. These properties are useful for designing compact wave plates or phase retarders which can be used in broad spectral bandwidth.

  8. The Optical Bloch oscillation in chirped one-dimensional superconducting photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengren; Long, Yang; Zhang, Liwei; Yin, Pengfei; Xue, Chunhua

    2017-09-01

    We exploit theoretically the propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in nanoscale one-dimensional superconducting photonic crystal. The Wannier Stark ladders can be formed in the photonic crystal by varying the thickness of the dielectric layers linearly across the structure. The dynamics behavior of a Gaussian pulse transmitting through the structure is simulated theoretically. We find that photons undergo Bloch oscillations inside tilted photonic bands and the Bloch oscillations are sensitive to the change of temperature in the range of 3-8 K. It is demonstrated that our structure is possible to realize tunable optical Bloch oscillations by controlling the temperature of superconducting material.

  9. Enhanced nonlinear optical response of one-dimensional metal-dielectric photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepeshkin, Nick N; Schweinsberg, Aaron; Piredda, Giovanni; Bennink, Ryan S; Boyd, Robert W

    2004-09-17

    We describe a new type of artificial nonlinear optical material composed of a one-dimensional metal-dielectric photonic crystal. Because of the resonant nature of multiple Bragg reflections, the transmission within the transmission band can be quite large, even though the transmission through the same total thickness of bulk metal would be very small. This procedure allows light to penetrate into the highly nonlinear metallic layers, leading to a large nonlinear optical response. We present experimental results for a Cu/SiO(2) crystal which displays a strongly enhanced nonlinear optical response (up to 12X) in transmission.

  10. Enhancement of photoluminescence and raman scattering in one-dimensional photonic crystals based on porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonchar, K. A., E-mail: k.a.gonchar@gmail.com [Moscow State University, Physics Faculty (Russian Federation); Musabek, G. K.; Taurbayev, T. I. [Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Physics Department (Kazakhstan); Timoshenko, V. Yu. [Moscow State University, Physics Faculty (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    In porous-silicon-based multilayered structures that exhibit the properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals, an increase in the photoluminescence and Raman scattering intensities is observed upon optical excitation at the wavelength 1.064 {mu}m. When the excitation wavelength falls within the edge of the photonic band gap of the structures, a multiple increase (by a factor larger than 400) in the efficiency of Raman scattering is detected. The effect is attributed to partial localization of excitation light and, correspondingly, to the much longer time of interaction of light with the material in the structures.

  11. One-Dimensional Contact Mode Interdigitated Center of Pressure Sensor (CMIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing; Kang, Jinho; Park, Cheol; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Hubbard, James E.

    2009-01-01

    A one dimensional contact mode interdigitated center of pressure sensor (CMIPS) has been developed. The experimental study demonstrated that the CMIPS has the capability to measure the overall pressure as well as the center of pressure in one dimension, simultaneously. A theoretical model for the CMIPS is established here based on the equivalent circuit of the configuration of the CMIPS as well as the material properties of the sensor. The experimental results match well with theoretical modeling predictions. A system mapped with two or more pieces of the CMIPS can be used to obtain information from the pressure distribution in multi-dimensions.

  12. Peculiar transmission property of acoustic waves in a one-dimensional layered phononic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Degang; Wang, Wengang; Liu, Zhengyou; Shi, Jing; Wen, Weijia

    2007-03-01

    In this article, we report both theoretical calculation and experimental observation of acoustic waves abnormally through a one-dimensional layered transmitted phononic crystal at frequencies within the band gap into a material of large acoustic impedance mismatch, with an efficiency as high as unity. The transmission peaks can be interpreted as a result of the interference of acoustic waves reflected from all periodically aligned interfaces. The condition for the appearance of peaks is analyzed in detail and the optimized layer number is given for different configurations.

  13. Converting Ag nanowire into one-dimensional silver niobate and their enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Li, Guoqiang; Zhang, Weifeng [Henan University, Henan Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials, School of Physics and Electronics, Kaifeng (China); Yu, Qiaonan [Henan University, Henan Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials, School of Physics and Electronics, Kaifeng (China); Nanyang Institute of Technology, College of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Nanyang (China)

    2016-09-15

    We synthesized one-dimensional silver niobate using Ag nanowires as the raw material and template. The final sample is the Ag{sub 2}Nb{sub 4}O{sub 11}/AgNbO{sub 3} composite with a uniform distribution of elements, judging from the element analysis. In comparison with the pristine AgNbO{sub 3}, the composite sample exhibits the enhanced photocatalytic activity for rhodamine B and 2,4-dichlorophene degradation under visible-light irradiation. (orig.)

  14. One-dimensional semirelativistic Hamiltonian with multiple Dirac delta potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erman, Fatih; Gadella, Manuel; Uncu, Haydar

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we consider the one-dimensional semirelativistic Schrödinger equation for a particle interacting with N Dirac delta potentials. Using the heat kernel techniques, we establish a resolvent formula in terms of an N ×N matrix, called the principal matrix. This matrix essentially includes all the information about the spectrum of the problem. We study the bound state spectrum by working out the eigenvalues of the principal matrix. With the help of the Feynman-Hellmann theorem, we analyze how the bound state energies change with respect to the parameters in the model. We also prove that there are at most N bound states and explicitly derive the bound state wave function. The bound state problem for the two-center case is particularly investigated. We show that the ground state energy is bounded below, and there exists a self-adjoint Hamiltonian associated with the resolvent formula. Moreover, we prove that the ground state is nondegenerate. The scattering problem for N centers is analyzed by exactly solving the semirelativistic Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The reflection and the transmission coefficients are numerically and asymptotically computed for the two-center case. We observe the so-called threshold anomaly for two symmetrically located centers. The semirelativistic version of the Kronig-Penney model is shortly discussed, and the band gap structure of the spectrum is illustrated. The bound state and scattering problems in the massless case are also discussed. Furthermore, the reflection and the transmission coefficients for the two delta potentials in this particular case are analytically found. Finally, we solve the renormalization group equations and compute the beta function nonperturbatively.

  15. Filtration-guided assembly for patterning one-dimensional nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaozhong; Wang, Chuan; Yeom, Junghoon

    2017-04-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in synthesizing various types of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures (NSs), such as nanotubes and nanowires, but some technical challenges still remain in the deterministic assembly of the solution-processed 1D NSs for device integration. In this work we investigate a scalable yet inexpensive nanomaterial assembly method, namely filtration-guided assembly (FGA), to place nanomaterials into desired locations as either an individual entity or ensembles, and form functional devices. FGA not only addresses the assembly challenges but also encompasses the notion of green nanomanufacturing, maximally utilizing nanomaterials and eliminating a waste stream of nanomaterials into the environment. FGA utilizes selective filtration of 1D NSs through the open windows on the nanoporous filter membrane whose surface is patterned by a polymer mask for guiding the 1D NS deposition. The modified soft-lithographic technique called blanket transfer (BT) is employed to create the various photoresist patterns of sub-10-micron resolution on the nanoporous filter membrane like mixed cellulose acetate. We use single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a model 1D NS and demonstrate the fabrication of an array pattern of homogeneous 1D NS network films over an area of 20 cm2 within 10 min. The FGA-patterned SWCNT network films are transferred onto the substrate using the adhesive-based transfer technique, and show the highly uniform film thickness and resistance measurements across the entire substrate. Finally, the electrical performance of the back-gated transistors made from the FGA and transfer method of 95% pure SWCNTs is demonstrated.

  16. Spatial modes in one-dimensional models for capillary jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, J.; González, H.; García, F. J.

    2016-03-01

    One-dimensional (1D) models are widely employed to simplify the analysis of axisymmetric capillary jets. These models postulate that, for slender deformations of the free surface, the radial profile of the axial velocity can be approximated as uniform (viscous slice, averaged, and Cosserat models) or parabolic (parabolic model). In classical works on spatial stability analysis with 1D models, considerable misinterpretation was generated about the modes yielded by each model. The already existing physical analysis of three-dimensional (3D) axisymmetric spatial modes enables us to relate these 1D spatial modes to the exact 3D counterparts. To do so, we address the surface stimulation problem, which can be treated as linear, by considering the effect of normal and tangential stresses to perturb the jet. A Green's function for a spatially local stimulation having a harmonic time dependence provides the general formalism to describe any time-periodic stimulation. The Green's function of this signaling problem is known to be a superposition of the spatial modes, but in fact these modes are of fundamental nature, i.e., not restricted to the surface stimulation problem. The smallness of the wave number associated with each mode is the criterion to validate or invalidate the 1D approaches. The proposed axial-velocity profiles (planar or parabolic) also have a remarkable influence on the outcomes of each 1D model. We also compare with the classical 3D results for (i) conditions for absolute instability, and (ii) the amplitude of the unstable mode resulting from both normal and tangential surface stress stimulation. Incidentally, as a previous task, we need to re-deduce 1D models in order to include eventual stresses of various possible origins (electrohydrodynamic, thermocapillary, etc.) applied on the free surface, which were not considered in the previous general formulations.

  17. Rashba electron transport in one-dimensional quantum waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The properties of Rashba wave function in the planar one-dimensional waveguide are studied, and the following results are obtained. Due to the Rashba effect, the plane waves of electron with the energy E divide into two kinds of waves with the wave vectors k 1 =k 0 +k δ and k 2 =k 0 -k δ , where k δ is proportional to the Rashba coefficient, and their spin orientations are +π/2 (spin up) and -π/2 (spin down) with respect to the circuit, respectively. If there is gate or ferromagnetic contact in the circuit, the Rashba wave function becomes standing wave form exp(±ik δ l)sin[k 0 (l-L)], where L is the position coordinate of the gate or contact. Unlike the electron without considering the spin, the phase of the Rashba plane or standing wave function depends on the direction angle θ of the circuit. The travel velocity of the Rashba waves with the wave vector k 1 or k 2 are the same hk0/m * . The boundary conditions of the Rashba wave functions at the intersection of circuits are given from the continuity of wave functions and the conservation of current density. Using the boundary conditions of Rashba wave functions we study the transmission and reflection probabilities of Rashba electron moving in several structures, and find the interference effects of the two Rashba waves with different wave vectors caused by ferromagnetic contact or the gate. Lastly we derive the general theory of multiple branches structure. The theory can be used to design various spin polarized devices.

  18. Fractal spectra in generalized Fibonacci one-dimensional magnonic quasicrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, C.H.O. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M.S., E-mail: manoelvasconcelos@yahoo.com.br [Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Barbosa, P.H.R.; Barbosa Filho, F.F. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Piaui, 64049-550 Teresina-Pi (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    In this work we carry out a theoretical analysis of the spectra of magnons in quasiperiodic magnonic crystals arranged in accordance with generalized Fibonacci sequences in the exchange regime, by using a model based on a transfer-matrix method together random-phase approximation (RPA). The generalized Fibonacci sequences are characterized by an irrational parameter {sigma}(p,q), which rules the physical properties of the system. We discussed the magnonic fractal spectra for first three generalizations, i.e., silver, bronze and nickel mean. By varying the generation number, we have found that the fragmentation process of allowed bands makes possible the emergence of new allowed magnonic bulk bands in spectra regions that were magnonic band gaps before, such as which occurs in doped semiconductor devices. This interesting property arises in one-dimensional magnonic quasicrystals fabricated in accordance to quasiperiodic sequences, without the need to introduce some deferent atomic layer or defect in the system. We also make a qualitative and quantitative investigations on these magnonic spectra by analyzing the distribution and magnitude of allowed bulk bands in function of the generalized Fibonacci number F{sub n} and as well as how they scale as a function of the number of generations of the sequences, respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quasiperiodic magnonic crystals are arranged in accordance with the generalized Fibonacci sequence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heisenberg model in exchange regime is applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use a theoretical model based on a transfer-matrix method together random-phase approximation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fractal spectra are characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze the distribution of allowed bulk bands in function of the generalized Fibonacci number.

  19. One-Dimensional Metal-Oxide Nanostructures for Solar Photocatalytic Water-Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyun; Song, Longfei; Zhang, Hongchao; Luo, Linqu; Wang, Dong; Tang, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Because of their unique physical and chemical properties, one-dimensional (1-D) metal-oxide nanostructures have been extensively applied in the areas of gas sensors, electrochromic devices, nanogenerators, and so on. Solar water-splitting has attracted extensive research interest because hydrogen generated from solar-driven water splitting is a clean, sustainable, and abundant energy source that not only solves the energy crisis, but also protects the environment. In this comprehensive review, the main synthesis methods, properties, and especially prominent applications in solar water splitting of 1-D metal-oxides, including titanium dioxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), tungsten trioxide (WO3), iron oxide (Fe2O3), and copper oxide (CuO) are fully discussed.

  20. Controlled fabrication of fullerene derivative one-dimensional nanostructures via electrophoretic deposition of its clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yuguo; WAN Lijun; WANG Chunru; BAI Chunli; GAN Liangbing; CHEN Dongmin

    2004-01-01

    Well-defined and controllable one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of fullerene derivative have been prepared by an electrophoretic template synthesis method. The clusters of fullerene derivative formed in mixed solvents are introduced into the channels of porous alumina templates through a dc electric field. Four types of 1D nanostructures (solid nanowires, solid-wall nanotubes, porous nanowires and porous-wall nanotubes) have been obtained by changing the deposition parameters. This approach opens a new avenue to assemble fullerene derivatives, endohedral fullerenes, as well as other functional organic compounds, which can form clusters in 1D nanostructure arrays for applications in chemical sensors, light energy conversion devices and nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  1. The Progress of Photoluminescent Properties of Rare-Earth-Ions-Doped Phosphate One-Dimensional Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional (1D nanostructures, such as tubes, wires, rods, and belts, have aroused remarkable attentions over the past decade due to a great deal of potential applications, such as data storage, advanced catalyst, and photoelectronic devices . On the other hand, in comparison with zero-dimensional (0D nanostructures, the space anisotropy of 1D structures provided a better model system to study the dependence of electronic transport, optical and mechanical properties on size confinement and dimensionality. Rare earth (RE compounds, were intensively applied in luminescent and display devices. It is expected that in nanosized RE compounds the luminescent quantum efficiency (QE and display resolution could be improved. In this paper, we systematically reported the research progress of luminescent properties of RE-doped 1D orthophosphate nanocrystal, including the synthesis of 1D nanostructures doped with RE ions, local symmetry of host, electronic transition processes, energy transfer (ET, and so forth.

  2. Hydrogen atom trapping in a self-organized one-dimensional dimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Takami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs have attracted widespread attention owing to their unusual structure and properties produced by their nanospaces. However, many MOFs possess the similar three-dimensional frameworks, limiting their structural variety and operating capacity for hydrogen storage under ambient conditions. Here we report the synthesis and structural characterization of a single-crystal one-dimensional dimer whose structure, operating capacity, and physical mechanism contrast with those of existing MOFs. The hydrogen storage capacity of 2.6 wt.% is comparable to the highest capacity achieved by existing MOFs at room temperature. This exceptional storage capacity is realized by self-organization during crystal growth using a weak base.

  3. Strong correlations and topological order in one-dimensional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gottardi, Wade Wells

    This thesis presents theoretical studies of strongly correlated systems as well as topologically ordered systems in 1D. Non-Fermi liquid behavior characteristic of interacting 1D electron systems is investigated with an emphasis on experimentally relevant setups and observables. The existence of end Majorana fermions in a 1D p-wave superconductor subject to periodic, incommensurate and disordered potentials is studied. The Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL), a model of interacting electrons in one spatial dimension, is considered in the context of two systems of experimental interest. First, a study of the electronic properties of single-walled armchair carbon nanotubes in the presence of transverse electric and magnetic fields is presented. As a result of their effect on the band structure and electron wave functions, fields alter the nature of the (effective) Coulomb interaction in tubes. In particular, it is found that fields couple to nanotube bands (or valleys), a quantum degree of freedom inherited from the underlying graphene lattice. As revealed by a detailed TLL calculation, it is predicted that fields induce electrons to disperse into their spin, band, and charge components. Fields also provide a means of tuning the shell-filling behavior associated with short tubes. The phenomenon of charge fractionalization is investigated in a one-dimensional ring. TLL theory predicts that momentum-resolved electrons injected into the ring will fractionalize into clockwise- and counterclockwise-moving quasiparticles. As a complement to transport measurements in quantum wires connected to leads, non-invasive measures involving the magnetic field profiles around the ring are proposed. Topological aspects of 1D p-wave superconductors are explored. The intimate connection between non-trivial topology (fermions) and spontaneous symmetry breaking (spins) in one-dimension is investigated. Building on this connection, a spin ladder system endowed with vortex degrees of freedom is

  4. Direct hydrothermal synthesis of novel functional mesoporous materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhengying; WEI Yilun; WANG Yimeng; ZHU Jianhua

    2004-01-01

    A direct synthesis method of preparing alkaline earth or transition metal oxides supporting mesoporous materials is reported. Distinguishing from those traditional techniques characterized by "synthesis at first and then modification", this new method adds the precursor salts that have no perturbation in the strong acid synthetic system but easily form oxides after calcinations, into the initial synthetic mixture, performing the "synthesis" and "modification" in one-pot procedure.

  5. Contrasting vortex-gyration dispersions for different lattice bases in one-dimensional magnetic vortex arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-Soo; Jeong, Han-Byeol; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2013-09-01

    We performed micromagnetic numerical and analytical calculations in studying the effects of change in the primitive unit cells of one-dimensional (1D) vortex arrays on collective vortex-gyration dispersion. As the primitive basis, we consider alternating constituent materials (NiMnSb vs. Permalloy) and alternating dimensions including constituent disk diameter and thickness. In the simplest case, that of one vortex-state disk of given dimensions and single material in the primitive cell, only a single branch of collective vortex-gyration dispersion appears. By contrast, two constituent disks' different alternating materials, thicknesses, and diameters yield characteristic two-branch dispersions, the band widths and gaps of which differ in each case. This work offers not only an efficient means of manipulating collective vortex-gyration band structures but also a foundation for the development of a rich variety of 1D or 2D magnonic crystals and their band structures based on dipolar-coupled-vortex arrays.

  6. Analysis and Design of One Dimensional Periodic Foundations for Seismic Base Isolation of Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witarto Witarto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic foundationis a new type of seismic base isolation system. It is inspired by the periodic material crystal lattice in the solid state physics. This kind of material has a unique property, which is termed as frequency band gap that is capable of blocking incoming waves having frequencies falling within the band gap. Consequently, seismic waves having frequencies falling within the frequency band gap are blocked by the periodic foundation. The ability to block the seismic waveshas put this kind of foundation as a prosperous next generation of seismic base isolators. This paper provides analytical study on the one dimensional (1D type periodic foundations to investigate their seismic performance. The general idea of basic theory of one dimensional (1D periodic foundations is first presented.Then, the parametric studies considering infinite and finite boundary conditions are discussed. The effect of superstructure on the frequency band gap is investigated as well. Based on the analytical study, a set of equations is proposed for the design guidelines of 1D periodic foundations for seismic base isolation of structures.

  7. Novel Method of Detecting Movement of the Interference Fringes Using One-Dimensional PSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of using a one-dimensional position-sensitive detector (PSD by replacing charge-coupled device (CCD to measure the movement of the interference fringes is presented first, and its feasibility is demonstrated through an experimental setup based on the principle of centroid detection. Firstly, the centroid position of the interference fringes in a fiber Mach-Zehnder (M-Z interferometer is solved in theory, showing it has a higher resolution and sensitivity. According to the physical characteristics and principles of PSD, a simulation of the interference fringe’s phase difference in fiber M-Z interferometers and PSD output is carried out. Comparing the simulation results with the relationship between phase differences and centroid positions in fiber M-Z interferometers, the conclusion that the output of interference fringes by PSD is still the centroid position is obtained. Based on massive measurements, the best resolution of the system is achieved with 5.15, 625 μm. Finally, the detection system is evaluated through setup error analysis and an ultra-narrow-band filter structure. The filter structure is configured with a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing positive and negative refraction material, which can eliminate background light in the PSD detection experiment. This detection system has a simple structure, good stability, high precision and easily performs remote measurements, which makes it potentially useful in material small deformation tests, refractivity measurements of optical media and optical wave front detection.

  8. FILTERING CHARACTERISTICS AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF ONE-DIMENSIONAL PERIODIC RODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ling; LI Yinong; BAZ Amr

    2008-01-01

    Passive periodic structures exhibit unique dynamic characteristics that make the passive periodic structures act as mechanical filters for wave propagation. As a result, wave can propagate along the periodic structures only within specific frequency bands called the pass bands and wave propagation is completely blocked within other frequency bands called the "stop bands". A theoretical method based on the transfer matrix formulation is developed in order to effectively investigate the influence of periodicity, variable geometry and material properties on the wave propagation characteristics of one-dimensional periodic rod. Several numerical examples are presented in order to illustrate their unique tunable filtering and localization characteristics. The experiments are conducted to verify the numerical predictions and to demonstrate the capability of the wavelet transform as a very powerful tool to uniquely identify and compare the energy distribution both in the time and frequency domain. The flexibility that the spectral width and location of the pass and stop bands can be tuned by introducing intentional variation in geometric and material properties for the individual substructure or cell is identified completely by both numerical predictions and experimental results. The results demonstrate the potential of such one-dimensional periodic structure in controlling the dynamics of wave propagation as a mechanical filter such as engine mount, gearbox support strut and other applications.

  9. Novel method of detecting movement of the interference fringes using one-dimensional PSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Xia, Ji; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Yong

    2015-06-02

    In this paper, a method of using a one-dimensional position-sensitive detector (PSD) by replacing charge-coupled device (CCD) to measure the movement of the interference fringes is presented first, and its feasibility is demonstrated through an experimental setup based on the principle of centroid detection. Firstly, the centroid position of the interference fringes in a fiber Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometer is solved in theory, showing it has a higher resolution and sensitivity. According to the physical characteristics and principles of PSD, a simulation of the interference fringe's phase difference in fiber M-Z interferometers and PSD output is carried out. Comparing the simulation results with the relationship between phase differences and centroid positions in fiber M-Z interferometers, the conclusion that the output of interference fringes by PSD is still the centroid position is obtained. Based on massive measurements, the best resolution of the system is achieved with 5.15, 625 μm. Finally, the detection system is evaluated through setup error analysis and an ultra-narrow-band filter structure. The filter structure is configured with a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing positive and negative refraction material, which can eliminate background light in the PSD detection experiment. This detection system has a simple structure, good stability, high precision and easily performs remote measurements, which makes it potentially useful in material small deformation tests, refractivity measurements of optical media and optical wave front detection.

  10. One-dimensional photonic bandgap structure in abalone shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bo; ZHOU Ji; LI Longtu; LI Qi; HAN Shuo; HAO Zhibiao

    2005-01-01

    @@ Photonic bandgap (PBG) materials are periodic com- posites of dielectric materials in which electromagnetic waves of certain frequency range cannot propagate in any or a special direction. Recently, there has been great inter- est in synthetic PBG materials due to their ability in ma- nipulation of photons. Since 500 million years ago, the natural world has been exploiting photonic structures for specific biological purposes[1]. Different types of biologi- cal PBG materials have been discovered in recent years, such as the one-dimension PBG structure in the sea mouse Aphrodita[2], and the fruits Elaeocarpus[3,4]; two-dimension PBG structure in the male peacock Pavo muticus feathers[5], Indonesian male Papilio palinurus butterfly[6], Thaumantis diores butterfly[7] and the male Ancyluris meliboeus Fabricius butterflies[8]; and three-dimension PBG structure in the weevil Pachyrhynchus argus[9].

  11. Catalytic Methods in Asymmetric Synthesis Advanced Materials, Techniques, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gruttadauria, Michelangelo

    2011-01-01

    This book covers advances in the methods of catalytic asymmetric synthesis and their applications. Coverage moves from new materials and technologies to homogeneous metal-free catalysts and homogeneous metal catalysts. The applications of several methodologies for the synthesis of biologically active molecules are discussed. Part I addresses recent advances in new materials and technologies such as supported catalysts, supports, self-supported catalysts, chiral ionic liquids, supercritical fluids, flow reactors and microwaves related to asymmetric catalysis. Part II covers advances and milesto

  12. Preparation of one-dimensional nanostructured ZnO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuping Jiang; Youzhi Liu; Yanyang Cao; Xuejun Zhang; Lihong Shi

    2010-01-01

    Rod-like ZnO particles were synthesized via a sol-gel method by adding ethylene diamine(EDA)to the were characterized by XRD(X-ray powder diffractometer)and TEM(transmission electron microscope).Rod-like ZnO belongs to the hexagonal Wurtzite system,with diameters and lengths of about 20-200nm and 0.2-1.5μm,respectively.Experimental results showed that the morphology of nano-ZnO can be controlled by modulating the quantities of EDA added into the reaction system and that EDA plays an important role in the formation of rod-like ZnO particles.The growth mechanism of the rod-like nano-ZnO was briefly discussed.The proposed facile,reproducible,effective and low-cost synthesis promises future large-scale preparation of nanostructured ZnO for application in nanotechnology.

  13. Synthesis and catalytic applications of combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarian Vernimmen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, research concerning nanoporous siliceous materials has been focused on mesoporous materials with intrinsic zeolitic features. These materials are thought to be superior, because they are able to combine (i the enhanced diffusion and accessibility for larger molecules and viscous fluids typical of mesoporous materials with (ii the remarkable stability, catalytic activity and selectivity of zeolites. This review gives an overview of the state of the art concerning combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials. Focus is put on the synthesis and the applications of the combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials. The different synthesis approaches and formation mechanisms leading to these materials are comprehensively discussed and compared. Moreover, Ti-containing nanoporous materials as redox catalysts are discussed to illustrate a potential implementation of combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials.

  14. One-dimensional Incremental Constitutive Relation of SMA Wire Reinforced Smart Composites with Damages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zili HU; Wanlin ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    A new Martensitic transformation kinetic model for shape memory alloy (SMA) is proposed based on the phenomenological description of the Martensitic transformation heat flow-temperature curve and on the linear relationship between the partial derivatives of Martensite fraction and of Gbbis free energy with respect to the temperature. A meso-mechanical model is developed to describe the longitudinal stiffness reduction and thermo-dilatation variation of the composites caused by fiber breaking or fiber peeling off the base material.One-dimensional incremental constitutive relation is then established for SMA wire reinforced smart composites with damages by introducing three parameters to respectively describe the extent of fiber breaking, fiber peeling off the base material and interface weakening. The results presented herein may provide a theoretical basis for further studying on SMA smart composites with damages.

  15. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Fluorescence Property and Antibacterial Activity of Two Unprecedented One-dimensional Chain Metal organic Coordination Polymers: Zn(H-SSA)(Phen)(H20)2 and Cu(H-SSA) (Phen) (H20)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振锋; 石少明; 胡瑞祥; 章明; 梁宏; 周忠远

    2003-01-01

    The reaction of 5-sulfosalicylic acid(H3-SSA) with o-phenanthroline(Phen),NaOH,and Mcl2(M=Zn,Cu) affords Zn(H-SSA)(Phen)(H2O)2(1) and Cu(H-SSA)(Phen)(H2O)2 (2),respectively ,compounds 1 and 2 are characterized by elemental analysis,IR,fluorescence spectra and single crystal Xray diffraction analysis.The X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that compounds 1 and 2 are isostructure.The 5-sulfosalicylic acid ligand loses two protons at the sulfo-group and carboxylic group during the reaction.The Zn(II) and Cu(II)ions are sixcoordinated and adopt distorted octahedral geometry,which are surrounded by two N atoms from Phen,two O atoms from two water molecules,one O atom from-SO3 group and one oxygen from carboxylic group of the other H-SSA.Compounds 1 and 2 have unprecedented one-dimensional linear chain formed by a repeating mononuclear structureal unit.which is bridged by H-SSA.The fluorescence intensity of 1 and 2 is stronger than that of Phen and H3-SSA at 400nm.The lowest excited single states of these complexes are assigned as mainly Phen localized 1(π π),The antibacterial activity test shows that compounds 1 and 2 strongly inhibit the growth of Streptococcus haemolyticus,Straphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  16. Lime Kiln Modeling. CFD and One-dimensional simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedin, Kristoffer; Ivarsson, Christofer; Lundborg, Rickard

    2009-03-15

    The incentives for burning alternative fuels in lime kilns are growing. An increasing demand on thorough investigations of alternative fuel impact on lime kiln performance have been recognized, and the purpose of this project has been to develop a lime kiln CFD model with the possibility to fire fuel oil and lignin. The second part of the project consists of three technical studies. Simulated data from a one-dimensional steady state program has been used to support theories on the impact of biofuels and lime mud dryness. The CFD simulations was carried out in the commercial code FLUENT. Due to difficulties with the convergence of the model the calcination reaction is not included. The model shows essential differences between the two fuels. Lignin gives a different flame shape and a longer flame length compared to fuel oil. Mainly this depends on how the fuel is fed into the combustion chamber and how much combustion air that is added as primary and secondary air. In the case of lignin combustion the required amount of air is more than in the fuel oil case. This generates more combustion gas and a different flow pattern is created. Based on the values from turbulent reaction rate for the different fuels an estimated flame length can be obtained. For fuel oil the combustion is very intense with a sharp peak in the beginning and a rapid decrease. For lignin the combustion starts not as intense as for the fuel oil case and has a smoother shape. The flame length appears to be approximately 2-3 meter longer for lignin than for fuel oil based on turbulent reaction rate in the computational simulations. The first technical study showed that there are many benefits of increasing dry solids content in the lime mud going into a kiln such as increased energy efficiency, reduced TRS, and reduced sodium in the kiln. However, data from operating kilns indicates that these benefits can be offset by increasing exit gas temperature that can limit kiln production capacity. Simulated

  17. Lime Kiln Modeling. CFD and One-dimensional simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedin, Kristoffer; Ivarsson, Christofer; Lundborg, Rickard

    2009-03-15

    The incentives for burning alternative fuels in lime kilns are growing. An increasing demand on thorough investigations of alternative fuel impact on lime kiln performance have been recognized, and the purpose of this project has been to develop a lime kiln CFD model with the possibility to fire fuel oil and lignin. The second part of the project consists of three technical studies. Simulated data from a one-dimensional steady state program has been used to support theories on the impact of biofuels and lime mud dryness. The CFD simulations was carried out in the commercial code FLUENT. Due to difficulties with the convergence of the model the calcination reaction is not included. The model shows essential differences between the two fuels. Lignin gives a different flame shape and a longer flame length compared to fuel oil. Mainly this depends on how the fuel is fed into the combustion chamber and how much combustion air that is added as primary and secondary air. In the case of lignin combustion the required amount of air is more than in the fuel oil case. This generates more combustion gas and a different flow pattern is created. Based on the values from turbulent reaction rate for the different fuels an estimated flame length can be obtained. For fuel oil the combustion is very intense with a sharp peak in the beginning and a rapid decrease. For lignin the combustion starts not as intense as for the fuel oil case and has a smoother shape. The flame length appears to be approximately 2-3 meter longer for lignin than for fuel oil based on turbulent reaction rate in the computational simulations. The first technical study showed that there are many benefits of increasing dry solids content in the lime mud going into a kiln such as increased energy efficiency, reduced TRS, and reduced sodium in the kiln. However, data from operating kilns indicates that these benefits can be offset by increasing exit gas temperature that can limit kiln production capacity. Simulated

  18. Band structure of one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals using the Fresnel coefficients method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, A.; Rahmat, A.

    2016-11-01

    The current study has examined the band structures of two types of photonic crystals (PCs). The first is a one-dimensional metamaterial photonic crystal (1DMMPC) composed of double-layered units for which both layers of each unit are dielectric. The second type is a very similar one-dimensional plasma photonic crystal (1DPPC) also composed of double-layered units in which the first layer is a dielectric material but the second is a plasma layer. This study compares the band structures of the 1DMMPC with specific optical characteristics of the 1DPPC using the Fresnel coefficients method and also compares the results of this method with the results of the transfer matrix method. It is concluded that the dependency of the electric permittivity of the plasma layer on the incident field frequency causes differences in the band structures in 1DMMPC and 1DPPC for both TE and TM polarizations and their gaps reside in different frequencies. The band structures of the 1DMMPC and 1DPPC are confirmed by the results of the transfer matrix method.

  19. Predicted Realization of Cubic Dirac Fermion in Quasi-One-Dimensional Transition-Metal Monochalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qihang; Zunger, Alex

    2017-04-01

    We show that the previously predicted "cubic Dirac fermion," composed of six conventional Weyl fermions including three with left-handed and three with right-handed chirality, is realized in a specific, stable solid state system that has been made years ago, but was not appreciated as a "cubically dispersed Dirac semimetal" (CDSM). We identify the crystal symmetry constraints and find the space group P 63/m as one of the two that can support a CDSM, of which the characteristic band crossing has linear dispersion along the principle axis but cubic dispersion in the plane perpendicular to it. We then conduct a material search using density functional theory, identifying a group of quasi-one-dimensional molybdenum monochalcogenide compounds AI(MoXVI)3 (AI=Na , K, Rb, In, Tl; XVI=S , Se, Te) as ideal CDSM candidates. Studying the stability of the A (MoX) 3 family reveals a few candidates such as Rb (MoTe) 3 and Tl (MoTe) 3 that are predicted to be resilient to Peierls distortion, thus retaining the metallic character. Furthermore, the combination of one dimensionality and metallic nature in this family provides a platform for unusual optical signature—polarization-dependent metallic vs insulating response.

  20. Directly measuring of thermal pulse transfer in one-dimensional highly aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan

    2013-01-01

    Using a simple and precise instrument system, we directly measured the thermo-physical properties of one-dimensional highly aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A kind of CNT-based macroscopic materials named super aligned carbon nanotube (SACNT) buckypapers was measured in our experiment. We defined a new one-dimensional parameter, the "thermal transfer speed" to characterize the thermal damping mechanisms in the SACNT buckypapers. Our results indicated that the SACNT buckypapers with different densities have obviously different thermal transfer speeds. Furthermore, we found that the thermal transfer speed of high-density SACNT buckypapers may have an obvious damping factor along the CNTs aligned direction. The anisotropic thermal diffusivities of SACNT buckypapers could be calculated by the thermal transfer speeds. The thermal diffusivities obviously increase as the buckypaper-density increases. For parallel SACNT buckypapers, the thermal diffusivity could be as high as 562.2 ± 55.4 mm(2)/s. The thermal conductivities of these SACNT buckypapers were also calculated by the equation k = Cpαρ.

  1. One-Dimensional Nanostructured TiO2 for Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews the progress in the synthesis of one-dimensional (1D TiO2 nanostructures and their environmental applications in the removal of organic pollutants. According to the shape, 1D TiO2 nanostructures can be divided into nanorods, nanotubes, nanowires/nanofibers, and nanobelts. Each of them can be synthesized via different technologies, such as sol-gel template method, chemical vapor deposition, and hydrothermal method. These methods are discussed in this paper, and the recent development of the synthesis technologies is also presented. Furthermore, the organic pollutants, degradation using the synthesized 1D TiO2 nanostructures is studied as an important application of photocatalytic oxidation (PCO. The 1D nanostructured TiO2 exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity in a PCO process, and the mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants is also discussed. Moreover, the modification of 1D TiO2 nanostructures using metal ions, metal oxide, or inorganic element can further enhance the photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst. This phenomenon can be explained by the suppression of e−-h+ pairs recombination rate, increased specific surface area, and reduction of band gap. In addition, 1D nanostructured TiO2 can be further constructed as a film or membrane, which may extend its practical applications.

  2. One-Dimensional (1D) ZnS Nanomaterials and Nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaosheng FANG; Lide ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials and nanostructures have received much attention due to their potential interest for understanding fundamental physical concepts and for applications in constructing nanoscale electric and optoelectronic devices. Zinc sulfide (ZnS) is an important semiconductor compound of Ⅱ-Ⅵ group,and the synthesis of 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures has been of growing interest owing to their promising application in nanoscale optoelectronic devices. This paper reviews the recent progress on 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures, including nanowires, nanowire arrays, nanorods, nanobelts or nanoribbons,nanocables, and hierarchical nanostructures etc. This article begins with a survey of various methods that have been developed for generating 1D nanomaterials and nanostructures, and then mainly focuses on structures,synthesis, characterization, formation mechanisms and optical property tuning, and luminescence mechanisms of 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures. Finally, this review concludes with personal views towards future research on 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  3. Microgravity Production of Nanoparticles of Novel Materials Using Plasma Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenklach, Michael; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    The research goal is to study the formation in reduced gravity of high quality nanoparticulate of novel materials using plasma synthesis. Particular emphasis will be placed on the production of powders of non-oxide materials like diamond, SiC, SiN, c-BN, etc. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of gravity on plasma synthesis of these materials, and to determine how the microgravity synthesis can improve the quality and yield of the nanoparticles. It is expected that the reduced gravity will aid in the understanding of the controlling mechanisms of plasma synthesis, and will increase the yield, and quality of the synthesized powder. These materials have properties of interest in several industrial applications, such as high temperature load bearings or high speed metal machining. Furthermore, because of the nano-meter size of the particulate produced in this process, they have specific application in the fabrication of MEMS based combustion systems, and in the development and growth of nano-systems and nano-structures of these materials. These are rapidly advancing research areas, and there is a great need for high quality nanoparticles of different materials. One of the primary systems of interest in the project will be gas-phase synthesis of nanopowder of non-oxide materials.

  4. Nonlinear Propagation of Light in One Dimensional Periodic Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Roy H.; Weinstein, Michael I.; Philip J Holmes

    2000-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear propagation of light in an optical fiber waveguide as modeled by the anharmonic Maxwell-Lorentz equations (AMLE). The waveguide is assumed to have an index of refraction which varies periodically along its length. The wavelength of light is selected to be in resonance with the periodic structure (Bragg resonance). The AMLE system considered incorporates the effects non-instantaneous response of the medium to the electromagnetic field (chromatic or material dispersion...

  5. Sol-Gel Synthesis of Non-Silica Monolithic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Gaweł

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic materials have become very popular because of various applications, especially within chromatography and catalysis. Large surface areas and multimodal porosities are great advantages for these applications. New sol-gel preparation methods utilizing phase separation or nanocasting have opened the possibility for preparing materials of other oxides than silica. In this review, we present different synthesis methods for inorganic, non-silica monolithic materials. Some examples of application of the materials are also included.

  6. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of High Explosive Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse J. Sabatini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the recent advances in the syntheses of high explosive energetic materials. Syntheses of some relevant modern primary explosives and secondary high explosives, and the sensitivities and properties of these molecules are provided. In addition to the synthesis of such materials, processing improvement and formulating aspects using these ingredients, where applicable, are discussed in detail.

  7. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of High Explosive Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Jesse J. Sabatini; Karl D. Oyler

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses the recent advances in the syntheses of high explosive energetic materials. Syntheses of some relevant modern primary explosives and secondary high explosives, and the sensitivities and properties of these molecules are provided. In addition to the synthesis of such materials, processing improvement and formulating aspects using these ingredients, where applicable, are discussed in detail.

  8. Physics of zero- and one-dimensional nanoscopic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, Santanu; Chowdhury, Jayeeta

    2007-01-01

    In recent years submicron and nanoscale systems have featured strongly on the research agenda due to the technological progress and new physics that have emerged from studies of ultra-small systems. A fundamental understanding of basic physical phenomena on the mesoscopic and nanoscopic scales is required to exploit the technological potential offered by these exotic materials. The present book contains review-like chapters by some of the leading experts in the field, covering topics such as the Kondo effect, electron transport, disorder and quantum coherence with electron-electron interaction, persistent current, thermoelectric phenomena, etc. in quantum dots, quantum wires, carbon nanotubes and more. This book will be valuable to researchers and students in condensed matter physics.

  9. High Speed Water Sterilization Using One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Schoen, David T.

    2010-09-08

    The removal of bacteria and other organisms from water is an extremely important process, not only for drinking and sanitation but also industrially as biofouling is a commonplace and serious problem. We here present a textile based multiscale device for the high speed electrical sterilization of water using silver nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and cotton. This approach, which combines several materials spanning three very different length scales with simple dying based fabrication, makes a gravity fed device operating at 100000 L/(h m2) which can inactivate >98% of bacteria with only several seconds of total incubation time. This excellent performance is enabled by the use of an electrical mechanism rather than size exclusion, while the very high surface area of the device coupled with large electric field concentrations near the silver nanowire tips allows for effective bacterial inactivation. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Optical properties of one-dimensional disordered multilayer photonic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotognella, Francesco; Chiasera, Alessandro; Criante, Luigino; Varas, Stefano; Kriegel, Ilka; Bellingeri, Michele; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Ramponi, Roberta; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    The investigation of the differences between ordered and disordered materials (in the hundreds of nanometer lengthscale) is a crucial topic for a better understanding of light transport in photonic media. Here we study the light transmission properties of 1D photonic structures in which disorder is introduced in two different ways. In the first study, we have grouped the high refractive index layers in layer clusters, randomly distributed among layers of low refractive index. We have controlled the maximum size of such clusters and the ratio of the high-low refractive index layers (here called dilution). We studied the total transmission of the disordered structure within the photonic band gap of the ordered structure as a function of the maximum cluster size, and we have observed a valley in trend of the total transmission for a specific maximum cluster size. This value increases with increasing dilution. Furthermore, within one dilution we observe oscillations of the total transmission with increasing cluster size. In the second study, we have realized photonic structures with a random variation of the layer thickness. The structures were fabricated by radio-frequency (RF) sputtering technique. The transmission spectrum of the disordered structure was simulated by taking into account the refractive index dispersion of the materials, resulting in a good agreement between the experimental data and the simulations. We found that the transmission of the photonic structure in the range 300- 1200 nm is lower with respect the corresponding periodic photonic crystal. The studied disordered 1D photonic structures are very interesting for the modelization and realization of broad band filters and light harvesting devices.

  11. Stable one-dimensional periodic waves in Kerr-type saturable and quadratic nonlinear media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, and Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Egorov, Alexey A [Physics Department, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119899, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vysloukh, Victor A [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad de las Americas-Puebla, Santa Catarina Martir, 72820, Puebla, Cholula (Mexico); Torner, Lluis [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, and Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-05-01

    We review the latest progress and properties of the families of bright and dark one-dimensional periodic waves propagating in saturable Kerr-type and quadratic nonlinear media. We show how saturation of the nonlinear response results in the appearance of stability (instability) bands in a focusing (defocusing) medium, which is in sharp contrast with the properties of periodic waves in Kerr media. One of the key results discovered is the stabilization of multicolour periodic waves in quadratic media. In particular, dark-type waves are shown to be metastable, while bright-type waves are completely stable in a broad range of energy flows and material parameters. This yields the first known example of completely stable periodic wave patterns propagating in conservative uniform media supporting bright solitons. Such results open the way to the experimental observation of the corresponding self-sustained periodic wave patterns.

  12. Heat Conductivity of One-Dimensional Carbon Chain in an External Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Yong; DONG Jin-Ming

    2007-01-01

    The heat transport in a one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanowire (CNW) lying in an external potential with different amplitudes and periods is studied by the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics method. It is found that the thermal conductivity of CNW is always anomalous, increasing with the CNW length and obeying the power law κ~ N, in which α decreases with the increasing external potential amplitude. The thermal conductivity could be enhanced by the external potential with rather larger amplitudes, which means that an applied external potential could be an efficient tool to improve the heat conductivity of a real 1D material. In addition, the effect of different periods of the external potential is studied, finding the external potential with an incommensurate period leads to the smaller α value.

  13. Field emission from one-dimensional single-crystalline NdB6 nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Qinghua; ZHANG Qinyuan; ZHAO Yanming; DING Qiwei

    2013-01-01

    A facile catalysis-free method was utilized to synthesize functional neodymium hexaboride (NdB6) nanowires of single crystal using Nd powders and BCl3 as starting materials.The XRD pattern confirmed that a single phase NdB6 could be obtained.Raman-spectra elucidated the active vibrational modes of the hexaborides.The TEM images clearly showed that the hexaborides were submicron in size with a cubic morphology.The field emission of these one-dimensional NdB6 nanowires showed a low field emission turn-on (5.55 V/μm at a current density of 10 μA/cm2),and high current density with a field enhancement factor of 1037.The emission current density and the electric field followed the Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) relationship.The good performance for field emission was attributed to the single-crystalline structure and the nanowire geometry.

  14. Fabrication of one-dimensional organic nanomaterials and their optoelectronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hojeong; Kim, Dong Yeong; Lee, Kyung Jin; Oh, Joon Hak

    2014-02-01

    This paper reviews the recent research and development of one-dimensional (1D) organic nanomaterials synthesized from organic semiconductors or conducting polymers and their applications to optoelectronics. We introduce synthetic methodologies for the fabrication of 1D single-crystalline organic nanomaterials and 1D multi-component organic nanostructures, and discuss their optical and electrical properties. In addition, their versatile applications in optoelectronics are highlighted. The fabrication of highly crystalline organic nanomaterials combined with their integration into nanoelectronic devices is recognized as one of the most promising strategies to enhance charge transport properties and achieve device miniaturization. In the last part of this review, we discuss the challenges and the perspectives of organic nanomaterials for applications in the next generation soft electronics, in terms of fabrication, processing, device integration, and investigation on the fundamental mechanisms governing the charge transport behaviors of these advanced materials.

  15. Anisotropic Heisenberg form of RKKY interaction in the one-dimensional spin-polarized electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, M. M.

    2016-09-01

    We study the indirect exchange interaction between two localized magnetic moments, known as Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction, in a one-dimensional (1D) spin-polarized electron gas. We find explicit expressions for each term of this interaction, study their oscillatory behaviors as a function of the distance between two magnetic moments, R, and compare them with the known results for RKKY interaction in the case of 1D standard electron gas. We show this interaction can be written in an anisotropic Heisenberg form, E(R) = λ2χ xx(S1xS2x + S1yS2y) + λ2χ zzS1zS2z, coming from broken time-reversal symmetry of the host material.

  16. Artificial topological models based on a one-dimensional spin-dependent optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhen; Pu, Han; Zou, Xubo; Guo, Guangcan

    2017-01-01

    Topological matter is a popular topic in both condensed matter and cold-atom research. In the past decades, a variety of models have been identified with fascinating topological features. Some, but not all, of the models can be found in materials. As a fully controllable system, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices provide an ideal platform to simulate and realize these topological models. Here we present a proposal for synthesizing topological models in cold atoms based on a one-dimensional spin-dependent optical lattice potential. In our system, features such as staggered tunneling, staggered Zeeman field, nearest-neighbor interaction, beyond-near-neighbor tunneling, etc. can be readily realized. They underlie the emergence of various topological phases. Our proposal can be realized with current technology and hence has potential applications in quantum simulation of topological matter.

  17. Supercritical CO2-driven,periodic patterning on one-dimensionals carbon nanomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    One-dimensional carbon nano-materials,in particular carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs),are of scientific and technological interest due to their satisfactory properties and ability to serve as templates for directed assembly.In this work,linear high density polyethylene (PE) was periodically decorated on CNTs and CNFs using a supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2)antisolvent-induced polymer epitaxy (SAIPE) method,leading to nano-hybrid shish-kebab (NHSK) structures.The formation mechanism of different morphologies of PE lamellae on CNTs and CNFs has been discussed.Palladium nanoparticles were synthesized and immobilized on the PE/CNF NHSK structure with the assistance of scCO2.The obtained hierarchical nano-hybrid architecture may find applications in microfabrication and other related fields.

  18. Fullerene-based one-dimensional crystalline nanopolymer formed through topochemical transformation of the parent nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geng, Junfeng; Solov'yov, Ilia; Reid, David G.;

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale practical applications of fullerene (C_60) in nanodevices could be significantly facilitated if the commercially available micrometer-scale raw C_60 powder were further processed into a one-dimensional nanowire-related polymer displaying covalent bonding as molecular interlinks...... and resembling traditional important conjugated polymers. However, there has been little study thus far in this area despite the abundant literature on fullerene. Here we report the preparation and characterization of such a C_60-based polymer nanowire, (-C_60.TMB-)_n, where TMB=1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, which...... displays a well-defined crystalline nanostructure, exceptionally large length-to-width ratio and excellent thermal stability. The material is prepared by first growing the corresponding nanowire through a solution phase of C_60 followed by a topochemical polymerization reaction in the solid state. Gas...

  19. Exploring arrays of vertical one-dimensional nanostructures for cellular investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Sara; Buch-Månson, Nina; Rostgaard, Katrine Rønne;

    2014-01-01

    The endeavor of exploiting arrays of vertical one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures (NSs) for cellular applications has recently been experiencing a pronounced surge of activity. The interest is rooted in the intrinsic properties of high-aspect-ratio NSs. With a height comparable to a mammalian cell...... of research. Encouragingly, despite the diversity of NS platforms and experimental conditions used thus far, general trends and conclusions from combining cells with NSs are beginning to crystallize. This review covers the broad spectrum of NS materials and dimensions used; the observed cellular responses....... By maintaining the impressive rate and quality of recent progress, it is conceivable that the use of vertical 1D NSs may soon be established as a superior choice over other current techniques, with all the further benefits that may entail. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd....

  20. One-Dimensional Nanostructures and Devices of II–V Group Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Guozhen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The II–V group semiconductors, with narrow band gaps, are important materials with many applications in infrared detectors, lasers, solar cells, ultrasonic multipliers, and Hall generators. Since the first report on trumpet-like Zn3P2nanowires, one-dimensional (1-D nanostructures of II–V group semiconductors have attracted great research attention recently because these special 1-D nanostructures may find applications in fabricating new electronic and optoelectronic nanoscale devices. This article covers the 1-D II–V semiconducting nanostructures that have been synthesized till now, focusing on nanotubes, nanowires, nanobelts, and special nanostructures like heterostructured nanowires. Novel electronic and optoelectronic devices built on 1-D II–V semiconducting nanostructures will also be discussed, which include metal–insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors, metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors, andp–nheterojunction photodiode. We intent to provide the readers a brief account of these exciting research activities.

  1. Wave propagation in one-dimensional solid-fluid quasi-periodic and aperiodic phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Ali, E-mail: alchen@bjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Wang Yuesheng [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang Chuanzeng [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2012-02-01

    The propagation of the elastic waves in one-dimensional (1D) solid-fluid quasi-periodic phononic crystals is studied by employing the concept of the localization factor, which is calculated by the transfer matrix method. The solid-fluid interaction effect at the interfaces between the solid and the fluid components is considered. For comparison, the periodic systems and aperiodic Thue-Morse sequence are also analyzed in this paper. The splitting phenomenon of the pass bands and bandgaps are discussed for these 1D solid-fluid systems. At last the influences of the material impedance ratios on the band structures of the 1D solid-fluid quasi-periodic phononic crystals arranged as Fibonacci sequence are discussed.

  2. Exceptional performance of TiNb₂O₇ anode in all one-dimensional architecture by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Suresh Kumar, Palaniswamy; Chui Ling, Wong; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2014-06-11

    We report the extraordinary performance of an Li-ion battery (full-cell) constructed from one-dimensional nanostructured materials, i.e. nanofibers as cathode, anode, and separator-cum-electrolyte, by scalable electrospinning. Before constructing such a one-dimensional Li-ion battery, electrospun materials are individually characterized to ensure its performance and balancing the mass loading as well. The insertion type anode TiNb2O7 exhibits the reversible capacity of ∼271 mAh g(-1) at current density of 150 mA g(-1) with capacity retention of ∼82% after 100 cycles. Under the same current density, electrospun LiMn2O4 cathode delivered the discharge capacity of ∼118 mAh g(-1). Gelled electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) nanofibers membrane is used as the separator-cum-electrolyte in both half-cell and full-cell assembly which exhibit the liquid like conductivity of ∼2.9 mS cm(-1) at ambient conditions. Full-cell, LiMn2O4|gelled PVdF-HFP|TiNb2O7 is constructed by optimized mass loading of cathode with respect to anode and tested between 1.95 and 2.75 V at room temperature. The full-cell delivered the reversible capacity of ∼116 mAh g(-1) at current density of 150 mA g(-1) with operating potential and energy density of ∼2.4 V and ∼278 Wh kg(-1), respectively. Further, excellent cyclability is noted for such configuration irrespective of the applied current densities.

  3. One-dimensional Topological Edge States of Bismuth Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, Ilya; Alexandradinata, Aris; Jeon, Sangjun; Nadj-Perge, Stevan; Ji, Huiwen; Cava, Robert; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Yazdani, Ali

    2014-03-01

    The hallmark of a time-reversal symmetry protected topologically insulating state of matter in two-dimensions (2D) is the existence of chiral edge modes propagating along the perimeter of the sample. Bilayers of bismuth (Bi), an elemental system theoretically predicted to be a Quantum Spin Hall (QSH) insulator1, has been studied with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and the electronic structure of its bulk and edge modes has been experimentally investigated. Spectroscopic mapping with STM reveals the presence of the state bound to the edges of the Bi-bilayer. By visualizing quantum interference of the edge state quasi-particles in confined geometries we characterize their dispersion and demonstrate that their properties are consistent with the absence of backscattering. Hybridization of the edge modes to the underlying substrate will be discussed. [1] Shuichi Murakami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 236805 (2006). The work at Princeton and the Princeton Nanoscale Microscopy Laboratory was supported by ARO MURI program W911NF-12-1-0461, DARPA-SPWAR Meso program N6601-11-1-4110, NSF-DMR1104612, and NSF-MRSEC programs through the Princeton Center for Complex Materials (DMR-0819860)

  4. One-dimensional Array Grammars and P Systems with Array Insertion and Deletion Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Freund

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the (one-dimensional array counterpart of contextual as well as insertion and deletion string grammars and consider the operations of array insertion and deletion in array grammars. First we show that the emptiness problem for P systems with (one-dimensional insertion rules is undecidable. Then we show computational completeness of P systems using (one-dimensional array insertion and deletion rules even of norm one only. The main result of the paper exhibits computational completeness of one-dimensional array grammars using array insertion and deletion rules of norm at most two.

  5. Fracture analysis of one-dimensional hexagonal quasicrystals: Researches of a finite dimension rectangular plate by boundary collocation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiaxing, Cheng; Dongfa, Sheng [Southwest Forestry University, Yunnan (China)

    2017-05-15

    As an important supplement and development to crystallography, the applications about quasicrystal materials have played a core role in many fields, such as manufacturing and the space industry. Due to the sensitivity of quasicrystals to defects, the research on the fracture problem of quasicrystals has attracted a great deal of attention. We present a boundary collocation method to research fracture problems for a finite dimension rectangular one-dimensional hexagonal quasicrystal plate. Because mode I and mode II problems for one- dimensional hexagonal quasicrystals are like that for the classical elastic materials, only the anti-plane problem is discussed in this paper. The correctness of the present numerical method is verified through a comparison of the present results and the existing results. And then, the size effects on stress field, stress intensity factor and energy release rate are discussed in detail. The obtained results can provide valuable references for the fracture behavior of quasicrystals.

  6. Concurrent zero-dimensional and one-dimensional biomineralization of gold from a solution of Au3+ and bovine serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Hartings

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A technique was developed for preparing a novel material that consists of gold nanoparticles trapped within a fiber of unfolded proteins. These fibers are made in an aqueous solution that contains HAuCl4 and the protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA. By changing the ratio of gold to BSA in solution, two different types of outcomes are observed. At lower gold to BSA ratios (30–120, a purple solution results after heating the mixture at 80 °C for 4 h. At higher gold to BSA ratios (130–170, a clear solution containing purple fibers results after heating the mixture at 80 °C for 4 h. UV–Vis spectroscopy and light scattering techniques show growth in nanocolloid size as gold to BSA ratio rises above 100. Data indicate that, for the higher gold to BSA ratios, the gold is sequestered within the solid material. The material mass, visible by eye, appears to be an aggregation of smaller individual fibers. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy indicate that these fibers are primarily one-dimensional aggregates, which can display some branching, and can be as narrow as 400 nm in size. The likely mechanism for the synthesis of the novel material is discussed.

  7. Growth, crystal structure and transport properties of quasi one-dimensional conductors NbS{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zybtsev, S.G., E-mail: zybt@cplire.ru [Kotel' nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of RAS, Mokhovaya 11-7, Moscow125009 (Russian Federation); Pokrovskii, V.Ya.; Nasretdinova, V.F.; Zaitsev-Zotov, S.V. [Kotel' nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of RAS, Mokhovaya 11-7, Moscow125009 (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-01

    We report synthesis of quasi-one-dimensional conductor NbS{sub 3}, TEM studies and transport properties of the prepared samples. The grown NbS{sub 3} whiskers are Peierls conductors known as phase II with the transitions at T{sub P1}=365 K and T{sub P2}=150 K. CDW1 is stable and not so sensitive to growth conditions. It can slide and be synchronized by the external microwave irradiation up to 16 GHz. CDW2 strongly depends on growth conditions. Nevertheless, it also shows sliding and synchronization.

  8. Optical memory system based on incoherent recorder and coherent reader of multiplexed computer generated one-dimensional Fourier transform holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinokov, Sergey; Zlokazov, Evgenii; Donchenko, Sergey; Verenikina, Nina

    2017-09-01

    The present article highlights the development results of archive memory holographic system based on application of computer generated Fourier holograms. The proposed idea allows realization of holographic principles of digital data record using simple and compact optical devices. Special interest is paid to synthesis and multiplexed record of one-dimensional Fourier transform holograms. The principal schemes of constructed prototypes of incoherent data recorder and coherent data reader are described in the present paper. The results of experimental implementation of the constructed devices are presented.

  9. Nonthermal Plasma Synthesis of Nanocrystals: Fundamental Principles, Materials, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortshagen, Uwe R; Sankaran, R Mohan; Pereira, Rui N; Girshick, Steven L; Wu, Jeslin J; Aydil, Eray S

    2016-09-28

    Nonthermal plasmas have emerged as a viable synthesis technique for nanocrystal materials. Inherently solvent and ligand-free, nonthermal plasmas offer the ability to synthesize high purity nanocrystals of materials that require high synthesis temperatures. The nonequilibrium environment in nonthermal plasmas has a number of attractive attributes: energetic surface reactions selectively heat the nanoparticles to temperatures that can strongly exceed the gas temperature; charging of nanoparticles through plasma electrons reduces or eliminates nanoparticle agglomeration; and the large difference between the chemical potentials of the gaseous growth species and the species bound to the nanoparticle surfaces facilitates nanocrystal doping. This paper reviews the state of the art in nonthermal plasma synthesis of nanocrystals. It discusses the fundamentals of nanocrystal formation in plasmas, reviews practical implementations of plasma reactors, surveys the materials that have been produced with nonthermal plasmas and surface chemistries that have been developed, and provides an overview of applications of plasma-synthesized nanocrystals.

  10. Analysis of cutoff frequency in one dimensional ternary superconducting photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. P., Sreejith; Maria D'souza, Nirmala; Mathew, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    By means of two fluid model and transfer matrix method, we have theoretically investigated the transmittance property of a one dimensional ternary photonic crystal consist of a pair of superconducting materials and a dielectric in the infrared frequency region. We mainly focus on the analysis of cutoff frequency since the calculations can be useful in the fabrication of optical devices such as reflector, high pass filter etc. The study reveals that the cutoff frequency is sensitive to thickness of superconducting materials, dielectric layer thickness, operating temperature and refractive index of intermediate dielectric. Cutoff frequency shifted to higher frequency region on increasing number of periods and superconductor layer thickness where as it reduces on increasing dielectric thickness, operating temperature and refractive index of intermediate dielectric. Furthermore, we compared the cutoff frequency of three different 1D ternary photonic crystals comprising of a dielectric and a pair of high-high, high-low and low-low temperature superconducting materials. Our comparison results shows that the cutoff frequency can be effectively modified with different combination of superconducting materials.

  11. 氧化-4-吡啶甲酸桥联的一维链状三丁基锡配合物的合成与晶体结构%Synthesis and Crystal Structure of the One-Dimensional Chain Tributyltin Compound Bridged by Pyridine-4-carboxylic Acid N-Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高中军; 刘广军; 赵广旺

    2012-01-01

    An organotin compound [Bu3Sn (OCOC5H4NO)]n has been synthesized by the reaction of bistributyltin oxide with pyridine-4-carboxylic acid N-oxide (HOCOC5H4NO) in molar ratio of 1∶2 and characterized by elemental analysis,IR and 1H NMR.The crystal structure has been determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction.The crystal belongs to monoclinic space group C2/c,with a=2.002 8(9) nm,b=1.224 7(6) nm,c=1.913 6(12) nm,β=119.145(6)°,Z=8,V=4.166(4) nm3,Dc=1.365 g·cm-3,μ=1.239 mm-1,F(000)=1 760,R=0.052 9,wR=0.192 1,GOF =1.013.In the compound,tin atoms are five-coordinated distorted trigonal bipyramid configuration with bridging pyridine-4-carboxylic acid N-oxide.A one-dimensional linear polymer is formed through an interaction between the central tin atom and two O atoms.One O atom is from N-O and the other is from carboxyl group of another ligand.The compound exhibits good thermal stability and high antitumor activity.CCDC:821908.%利用双三丁基氧化锡与氧化4吡啶甲酸(HOCOC5H4NO)以物质的量比1∶2反应,合成了有机锡配合物[Bu3Sn(OCOC5H4NO)]n.通过元素分析、红外光谱和核磁共振氢谱对其结构进行了表征,用X射线单晶衍射测定了它的晶体结构.结果表明,该配合物晶体属单斜晶系,空间群为C2/c,晶胞参数a=2.002 8(9) nm,b=1.224 7(6) nm,c=1.913 6(12) nm,β=119.145(6)°,Z=8,V=4.166(4)nm3,Dc=1.365 g·cm-3,μ=1.239 mm-1,F(000)=1 760,R=0.0529,wR=0.192 1,GOF=1.013.在配合物中锡原子由氧化-4-吡啶甲酸桥联为五配位的畸变的三角双锥构型.氧化-4-吡啶甲酸配体中N-O基团中的氧原子和另一配体中的羧基氧原子与中心锡原子配位,形成无限一维链状有机锡配合物.该配合物具有良好的热稳定性和较高的抗肿瘤活性.

  12. Electrical bistability around room temperature in an unprecedented one-dimensional coordination magnetic polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo-Ochoa, Pilar; Delgado, Esther; Gómez-García, Carlos J; Hernández, Diego; Hernández, Elisa; Martin, Avelino; Zamora, Félix

    2013-05-20

    The synthesis, crystal structure, and physical properties of an unprecedented one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymer containing [Fe2(S2C6H2Cl2)4](2-) entities bridged by dicationic [K2(μ-H2O)2(THF)4](2+) units are described. The magnetic properties show that the title compound presents pairwise Fe-Fe antiferromagnetic interactions that can be well reproduced with a S = 1/2 dimer model with an exchange coupling, J = -23 cm(-1). The electrical conductivity measurements show that the title compound is a semiconductor with an activation energy of about 290 meV and two different transitions, both with large hysteresis of about 60 and 30 K at 260-320 K and 350-380 K, respectively. These two transitions are assumed to be due to slight structural changes in the cation-anion interactions. Differential Scanning Calorimetry confirms the presence of both transitions. This compound represents the first sample of a coordination polymer showing electrical bistability.

  13. Optical properties of periodic, quasi-periodic, and disordered one-dimensional photonic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Chiasera, Alessandro; Kriegel, Ilka; Scotognella, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    Photonic structures are building blocks for many optical applications in which light manipulation is required spanning optical filtering, lasing, light emitting diodes, sensing and photovoltaics. The fabrication of one-dimensional photonic structures is achievable with a variety of different techniques, such as spin coating, sputtering, evaporation, pulse laser deposition, or extrusion. Such different techniques enable facile integration of the photonic structure with many types of devices. Photonic crystals are characterized by a spatial modulation of the dielectric constant on the length scale of the wavelength of light giving rise to energy ranges where light cannot propagate through the crystal - the photonic band gap. While mostly photonic crystals are referred to as periodic arrangements, in this review we aim to highlight as well how aperiodicity and disorder affects light modulation. In this review article, we introduce the concepts of periodicity, quasi-periodicity, and disorder in photonic crystals, focussing on the one-dimensional case. We discuss in detail the physical peculiarities, the fabrication techniques, and the applications of periodic, quasi-periodic, and disorder photonic structures, highlighting how the degree of crystallinity matters in the manipulation of light. We report different types of disorder in 1D photonic structures and we discuss their properties in terms of light transmission. We discuss the relationship between the average total transmission, in a range of wavelengths around the photonic band gap of the corresponding photonic crystal, and the homogeneity of the photonic structures, quantified by the Shannon index. Then we discuss the light transmission in structures in which the high refractive index layers are aggregated in clusters following a power law distribution. Finally, in the case of structures in which the high refractive index layers are aggregated in clusters with a truncated uniform distribution, we discuss: i) how

  14. Optical properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals obtained by micromatchining silicon (a review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmachev, V. A.

    2017-04-01

    The theoretical and experimental investigations of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional photonic crystals created by micromatchining silicon, which have been performed by the author as part of his doctoral dissertation, are presented. The most important result of the work is the development of a method of modeling photonic crystals based on photonic band gap maps plotted in structure-property coordinates, which can be used with any optical materials and in any region of electromagnetic radiation, and also for nonperiodic structures. This method made it possible to realize the targeted control of the optical contrast of photonic crystals and to predict the optical properties of optical heterostructures and three-component and composite photonic crystals. The theoretical findings were experimentally implemented using methods of micromatchining silicon, which can be incorporated into modern technological lines for the production of microchips. In the IR spectra of a designed and a fabricated optical heterostructure (a composite photonic crystal), extended bands with high reflectivities were obtained. In a Si-based three-component photonic crystal, broad transmission bands and photonic band gaps in the middle IR region have been predicted and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Si-liquid crystal periodic structures with electric-field tunable photonic band-gap edges have been investigated. The one-dimensional photonic crystals developed based on micromatchining silicon can serve as a basis for creating components of optical processors, as well as highly sensitive chemical and biological sensors in a wide region of the IR spectrum (from 1 to 20 μm) for lab-on-a-chip applications.

  15. Stationary bottom generated velocity fluctuations in one-dimensional open channel flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Bartele

    1993-01-01

    Statistical characteristics are calculated for stationary velocity fluctuations in a one-dimensional open channel flow with a given vertical velocity profile and with one-dimensional irregular bottom waves, characterized by a spectral density function. The calculations are based on an approximate ca

  16. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P.; Park, Y.; Hollis, K.J.; Kung, H.H.

    1998-11-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the U.S. processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive U.S. processing industries.

  17. Pulsed laser deposition of CuInS2 quantum dots on one-dimensional TiO2 nanorod arrays and their photoelectrochemical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Minmin; Chen, Wenyuan; Guo, Hongjian; Yu, Limin; Li, Bo; Jia, Junhong

    2016-06-01

    In the typical solution-based synthesis of colloidal quantum dots (QDs), it always resorts to some surface treatment, ligand exchange processing or post-synthesis processing, which might involve some toxic chemical regents injurious to the performance of QD sensitized solar cells. In this work, the CuInS2 QDs are deposited on the surface of one-dimensional TiO2 nanorod arrays by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The CuInS2 QDs are coated on TiO2 nanorods without any ligand engineering, and the performance of the obtained CuInS2 QD sensitized solar cells is optimized by adjusting the laser energy. An energy conversion efficiency of 3.95% is achieved under one sun illumination (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm-2). The improved performance is attributed to enhanced absorption in the longer wavelength region, quick interfacial charge transfer and few chance of carrier recombination with holes for CuInS2 QD-sensitized solar cells. Moreover, the photovoltaic device exhibits high stability in air without any specific encapsulation. Thus, the PLD technique could be further applied for the fabrication of QDs or other absorption materials.

  18. Analysis of cutoff frequency in a one-dimensional superconductor-metamaterial photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Arafa H, E-mail: arafa16@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Beni-Suef University (Egypt); Aghajamali, Alireza [Department of Physics, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Elsayed, Hussein A.; Mobarak, Mohamed [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Beni-Suef University (Egypt)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Our results show that the appearance of the cutoff frequency, below which the incident electromagnetic waves cannot propagate in the structure. We demonstrate that the cutoff frequency shows an upward trend as the thickness of the superconductor layer as well as the thickness of the metamaterial increase. • The cutoff frequency can be tuned by the operating temperature. Our structures are good candidates for many optical devices such as optical filters, switches, temperature controlled optical shutter, and among photoelectronic applications in gigahertz. - Abstract: In this paper, using the two-fluid model and the characteristic matrix method, we investigate the transmission characteristics of the one-dimensional photonic crystal. Our structure composed of the layers of low-temperature superconductor material (NbN) and double-negative metamaterial. We target studying the effect of many parameters such as the thickness of the superconductor material, the thickness of the metamaterial layer, and the operating temperature. We show that the cut-off frequency can be tuned efficiently by the operating temperature as well as the thicknesses of the constituent materials.

  19. Ion Implantation and Synthesis of Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasi, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ion implantation is one of the key processing steps in silicon integrated circuit technology. Some integrated circuits require up to 17 implantation steps and circuits are seldom processed with less than 10 implantation steps. Controlled doping at controlled depths is an essential feature of implantation. Ion beam processing can also be used to improve corrosion resistance, to harden surfaces, to reduce wear and, in general, to improve materials properties. This book presents the physics and materials science of ion implantation and ion beam modification of materials. It covers ion-solid interactions used to predict ion ranges, ion straggling and lattice disorder. Also treated are shallow-junction formation and slicing silicon with hydrogen ion beams. Topics important for materials modification, such as ion-beam mixing, stresses, and sputtering, are also described.

  20. Applications of one-dimensional structured nanomaterials as biosensors and transparent electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Fumiaki

    This dissertation presents applications of one-dimensional structured nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes and In2O3 nanowires, for biosensors and transparent electronics. Chapter 1 gives the motivation to study applications of one-dimensional structured nanomaterials, and also brief introduction to structure, synthesis, and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes and In2O3 nanowires. In Chapter 2, introduction and motivation of biosensors using nanotubes/nanowires is given, followed by an overview on important background knowledge and concepts in biosensing. In Chapter 3, application of carbon nanotube biosensors toward brown tide algae detection is presented. Our devices successfully detected a brown tide marker selectively with real-time response. In Chapter 4, we demonstrate that In2O3 nanowire biosensors coupled with an antibody mimic protein (Fibronectin, Fn) can be used to detect nucleocapsid (N) protein, a biomarker for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), at concentrations to below the sub-nanomolar range. In Chapter 5, we develop an analytical method to calibrate nanowire biosensor responses that can suppress the device-to-device variation in sensing response significantly. In Chapter 6, we investigate the effect of nanotube density on the biosensor performance, and proved that it plays an important role through systematic studies. In Chapter 7, I propose a future direction of nanobiosensors research, and show preliminary results along the proposed direction. I first present a concept of an ideal bioassay system with a list of requirements for the system, and propose the strategy of multi-integration to establish a system based on nanobiosensors that satisfies all of the requirements. In Chapter 8, we demonstrate high performance fully transparent transistors based on transfer printed aligned carbon nanotubes on both rigid and flexible substrates. We achieved device mobility as high as 1,300 cm 2V-1s-1 on glass substrates, which is the highest among

  1. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the U.S. processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive U.S. processing industries. The program presently has a number of developing industrial connections, including a CRADA with Schuller International Inc. targeted at the area of MoSi{sub 2}-based high temperature materials and components for fiberglass melting and processing applications. The authors are also developing an interaction with the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop silicides for high temperature radiant gas burner applications, for the glass and other industries. Current experimental emphasis is on the development and characterization of MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and MoSi{sub 2}-SiC composites, the plasma spraying of MoSi{sub 2}-based materials, and the joining of MoSi{sub 2} materials to metals.

  2. Synthesis and chemistry of elemental 2D materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannix, Andrew J.; Kiraly, Brian T.; Hersam, Mark C.; Guisinger, Nathan P.

    2017-01-25

    2D materials have attracted considerable attention in the past decade for their superlative physical properties. These materials consist of atomically thin sheets exhibiting covalent in-plane bonding and weak interlayer and layer-substrate bonding. Following the example of graphene, most emerging 2D materials are derived from structures that can be isolated from bulk phases of layered materials, which form a limited library for new materials discovery. Entirely synthetic 2D materials provide access to a greater range of properties through the choice of constituent elements and substrates. Of particular interest are elemental 2D materials, because they provide the most chemically tractable case for synthetic exploration. In this Review, we explore the progress made in the synthesis and chemistry of synthetic elemental 2D materials, and offer perspectives and challenges for the future of this emerging field.

  3. Aspects of Majorana Bound States in One-Dimensional Systems with and without Time-Reversal Symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölms, Konrad Udo Hannes

    In recent years there has been a lot of interest in topological phases of matter. Unlike conventional phases of matter, topological phases are not distinguished by symmetries, but by so-called topological invariants which have more subtle physical implications. It comes therefore as no surprise......-dimensions without any symmetries. Even though the bulk of a quantum Hall system is insulating, it exhibits gapless edge modes. It is therefore dierent from other insulating two-dimensional materials. It was soon realized after the discovery of the quantum Hall eect, that there is a quantized invariant (topological...... of the topological phases that received a lot of attention in recent years, is the one-dimensional topological superconducting phase, without time-reversal symmetry [5]. Similar to the quantum Hall eect, this phase exhibits edge excitations, which are zerodimensional for one-dimensional systems. For this particular...

  4. A static analysis of three-dimensional functionally graded beams through hierarchical one-dimensional finite elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giunta, G.; Belouettar, S. [Centre de Recherche Public Henri Tudor, 29, av. John F. Kennedy, L-1855, Luxembourg-Kirchberg, Luxembourg (Belgium)

    2015-03-10

    In this paper, the static response of three-dimensional beams made of functionally graded materials is investigated through a family of hierarchical one-dimensional finite elements. A wide variety of elements is proposed differing by the kinematic formulation and the number of nodes per elements along the beam axis. Elements’ stiffness matrix and load vector are derived in a unified nuclear form that does not depend upon the a priori expansion order over the cross-section nor the finite element approximation along the beam axis. Results are validated towards three-dimensional finite element models as well as equivalent Navier-type analytical solutions. The numerical investigations show that accurate and efficient solutions (when compared with full three-dimensional FEM solutions) can be obtained by the proposed family of hierarchical one-dimensional elements’ family.

  5. Method to map one-dimensional electronic wave function by using multiple Brillouin zone angle resolved photoemission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Wook Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES is a powerful tool to investigate electronic structures in solids and has been widely used in studying various materials. The electronic structure information by ARPES is obtained in the momentum space. However, in the case of one-dimensional system, we here show that we extract the real space information from ARPES data taken over multiple Brillouin zones (BZs. Intensities in the multiple BZs are proportional to the photoemission matrix element which contains information on the coefficient of the Bloch wave function. It is shown that the Bloch wave function coefficients can be extracted from ARPES data, which allows us to construct the real space wave function. As a test, we use ARPES data from proto-typical one-dimensional system SrCuO2 and construct the real space wave function.

  6. Synthesis of thin films and materials utilizing a gaseous catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Daniel E; Schwenzer, Birgit; Gomm, John R; Roth, Kristian M; Heiken, Brandon; Brutchey, Richard

    2013-10-29

    A method for the fabrication of nanostructured semiconducting, photoconductive, photovoltaic, optoelectronic and electrical battery thin films and materials at low temperature, with no molecular template and no organic contaminants. High-quality metal oxide semiconductor, photovoltaic and optoelectronic materials can be fabricated with nanometer-scale dimensions and high dopant densities through the use of low-temperature biologically inspired synthesis routes, without the use of any biological or biochemical templates.

  7. Synthesis of two-dimensional materials by selective extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Michael; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-01-20

    CONSPECTUS: Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted much attention in the past decade. They offer high specific surface area, as well as electronic structure and properties that differ from their bulk counterparts due to the low dimensionality. Graphene is the best known and the most studied 2D material, but metal oxides and hydroxides (including clays), dichalcogenides, boron nitride (BN), and other materials that are one or several atoms thick are receiving increasing attention. They may deliver a combination of properties that cannot be provided by other materials. The most common synthesis approach in general is by reacting different elements or compounds to form a new compound. However, this approach does not necessarily work well for low-dimensional structures, since it favors formation of energetically preferred 3D (bulk) solids. Many 2D materials are produced by exfoliation of van der Waals solids, such as graphite or MoS2, breaking large particles into 2D layers. However, these approaches are not universal; for example, 2D transition metal carbides cannot be produced by any of them. An alternative but less studied way of material synthesis is the selective extraction process, which is based on the difference in reactivity and stability between the different components (elements or structural units) of the original material. It can be achieved using thermal, chemical, or electrochemical processes. Many 2D materials have been synthesized using selective extraction, such as graphene from SiC, transition metal oxides (TMO) from layered 3D salts, and transition metal carbides or carbonitrides (MXenes) from MAX phases. Selective extraction synthesis is critically important when the bonds between the building blocks of the material are too strong (e.g., in carbides) to be broken mechanically in order to form nanostructures. Unlike extractive metallurgy, where the extracted metal is the goal of the process, selective extraction of one or more elements from

  8. Combustion and Plasma Synthesis of High-Temperature Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Z. A.; Holt, J. B.

    1997-04-01

    KEYNOTE ADDRESS. Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis: Twenty Years of Search and Findings (A. Merzhanov). SOLID-STATE COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS. Recent Progress in Combustion Synthesis of High-Performance Materials in Japan (M. Koizumi & Y. Miyamoto). Modeling and Numerical Computation of a Nonsteady SHS Process (A. Bayliss & B. Matkowsky). New Models of Quasiperiodic Burning in Combustion Synthesis (S. Margolis, et al.). Modeling of SHS Operations (V. Hlavacek, et al.). Combustion Theory for Sandwiches of Alloyable Materials (R. Armstrong & M. Koszykowski). Observations on the Combustion Reaction Between Thin Foils of Ni and Al (U. Anselmi-Tamburini & Z. Munir). Combustion Synthesis of Intermetallic Compounds (Y. Kaieda, et al.). Combustion Synthesis of Nickel Aluminides (B. Rabin, et al.). Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of NiTi Intermetallics (H. Yi & J. Moore). Shock-Induced Chemical Synthesis of Intermetallic Compounds (S. Work, et al.). Advanced Ceramics Via SHS (T. DeAngelis & D. Weiss). In-Situ Formation of SiC and SiC-C Blocked Solids by Self-Combustion Synthesis (S. Ikeda, et al.). Powder Purity and Morphology Effects in Combustion-Synthesis Reactions (L. Kecskes, et al.). Simultaneous Synthesis and Densification of Ceramic Components Under Gas Pressure by SHS (Y. Miyamoto & M. Koizumi). The Use of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of High-Density Titanium Diboride (P. Zavitsanos, et al.). Metal--Ceramic Composite Pipes Produced by a Centrifugal-Thermit Process (O. Odawara). Simultaneous Combustion Synthesis and Densification of AIN (S. Dunmead, et al.). Fabrication of a Functionally Gradient Material by Using a Self-Propagating Reaction Process (N. Sata, et al.). Combustion Synthesis of Oxide-Carbide Composites (L. Wang, et al.). Heterogeneous Reaction Mechanisms in the Si-C System Under Conditions of Solid Combustion (R. Pampuch, et al.). Experimental Modeling of Particle-Particle Interactions During SHS of TiB2 -Al2O3 (K. Logan

  9. Synthesis of functional materials by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Young Chang; Kim, Ki Yup; Kang, Phil Hyun and others

    2000-04-01

    The radiation can induce chemical reaction to modify polymer under even the solid condition or in the low temperature. Therefore, the radiation processing is used as the means to develop the high functional polymer and new material which is impossible by chemical process. The radiation grafting process has the advantage to endow the adsorption function to the existing materials such as polymer membrane, fabric, non-fabric, non-woven fabric and film. Radiation crosslinking is effected with no pressure and is performed at low temperatures. Thus, temperature sensitive additives can be used in radiation crosslinking. The radiation crosslinking and grafting can be easily adjusted and is easily reproducible by controlling the radiation dose. The finished product contains no residuals of substances required to initiate the chemical crosslinking and grafting which can restrict the application possibilities, or can increase the failure rate. In these studies, radiation grafting and crosslinking were used to develop the toxic gas adsorbent, blood compatible polymer, acetabular cup of artificial joint, urokinase adsorbent, hydrogel, hollow fiber membrane adsorbing the heavy metals, and battery separator membrane. Because cable in nuclear power plant is directly related to safe operation, the life assessment of the cable system is an important issue. To assess the degradation and life time of cable is complicated owing to the various types and the different formulation of cable. In order to make an estimate the long term degradation occurring in a material, it is necessary to carry out the accelerated aging studies and to establish the appropriate test method to characterize the degradation. These studies are aimed at the evaluation technique on radiation degradation of polymer material and applying these results to nuclear equipment qualification.

  10. Synthesis of new materials with properties ameliorated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baira, F.; Benfarhi, S.; Zidani, S.

    2012-09-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant polymer in nature. It is used mainly for the production of paper bet also as a reinforcement in the polymer matrixes[1]. The modification of this polysaccharide presents a great interest, for it is the main constituent of agricultural wastes. It is well known that the microcrystalline cellulose gives, after chemical modification, new biodegradable materials[2], which may be used, for instance, for packaging. The esterification of cellulose necessitates an acid pretreatment which makes hydroxyl groups more accessible by breaking hydrogen bonds. X-rays diffraction analysis showed a feeble diminution of the treated samples cristallinity[3]. Cellulose, activated in this way, is esterified in a classic way in DMF, in the presence of triethylamine, LiCl and acid chloride at 60C° for 24 hours[4]. The obtained ester is precipitated in MeOH. The residue, dissolved in CHCl3, gives after evaporation in the open air, a plastic film surface. The water drop test has shown the hydrophobe properties of the plastic film surface. Our work is the study of the preparation of composite materials from the basis of their derivatives. Well as the study of the photopolymerisation kinetic, and the chemical degradation. The obtained films were analyzed by IR-TF, and the volumetrie[5,6]. As a conclusion, we have prepared composite materials with improved properties with reference to the matrix alone.

  11. Synthesis Of Materials With Infrared And Ultraviolet Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, John L.

    1989-05-01

    This paper discusses three divergent examples of synthesis of materials with lasers. The three techniques are: (1) Infrared (CO2) laser synthesis of silane (SiH4) from disilane (Si2H6); (2) Excimer (ArF) laser production of fine silicon powders from methyl-and chlorosubstituted silanes; and, (3) Excimer (KrF) laser production of fine metallic powders by laser ablation. The mechanism for each process is discussed along with some conclusions about the features of the laser radiation that enable each application.

  12. Synthesis of two-dimensional materials for beyond graphene devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kehao; Eichfeld, Sarah; Leach, Jacob; Metzger, Bob; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Evans, Keith; Robinson, Joshua A.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present an overview of the currently employed techniques to synthesize two-dimensional materials, focusing on MoS2 and WSe2, and summarize the progress reported to-date. Here we discuss the importance of controlling reactor geometries to improve film uniformity and quality for MoS2 through a combination of modeling and experimental design. In addition, development of processes scalable to provide wafer scale uniformity is explored using synthesis of WSe2 via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Finally, we discuss the impact of each of these processes for TMD synthesis on epitaxial graphene.

  13. Effect of interchain frustration in quasi-one-dimensional conductors at half-filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiizu, M.; Suzumura, Y.; Bourbonnais, C.

    2007-04-01

    We examine the effect of frustrated interchain hoppings t_{\\perp 1} and t_{\\perp 2} on one-dimensional Mott insulators. By applying an N_\\perp -chain two-loop renormalization-group method to the half-filled quasi-one-dimensional Hubbard model, we show that the system remains insulating even for the large t_{\\perp 1} as far as t_{\\perp 2}=0 and vice versa, whereas a metallic state emerges by increasing both interchain hoppings. We also discuss the metallic behaviour suggested in the quasi-one-dimensional organic compound (TTM-TTP)I3 under high pressure.

  14. Synthesis, processing and properties of materials for SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.L.; Armstrong, T.A.; Kingsley, J.J.; Pederson, L.R.

    1994-03-01

    The synthesis and processing methods of complex oxide materials can significantly influence use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). This paper discusses (1) effects of powder synthesis and conditioning on fabrication, i.e., sintering, where close, reproducible control of composition and structure are required, and (2) influences on electrical, mechanical, structural and electrochemical properties that can influence SOFC performance. Examples are given for chromites, manganites and related oxides used as interconnections and electrodes in SOFCs. Materials, from source to incorporation into the fuel cell and generator, is a major issue in the development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). An integral part of this is the synthesis from chemicals and other virgin materials, generally as an oxide or metal powder, which can become a SOFC component. In some instances, such as with electrochemical vapor deposition, the component is formed directly from the chemicals. The synthesized materials are then conditioned and processes prior to fabrication into the fuel cell component, either separately or in conjunction with other material components.

  15. Perspective: Toward "synthesis by design": Exploring atomic correlations during inorganic materials synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderholm, L.; Mitchell, J. F.

    2016-05-01

    Synthesis of inorganic extended solids is a critical starting point from which real-world functional materials and their consequent technologies originate. However, unlike the rich mechanistic foundation of organic synthesis, with its underlying rules of assembly (e.g., functional groups and their reactivities), the synthesis of inorganic materials lacks an underpinning of such robust organizing principles. In the latter case, any such rules must account for the diversity of chemical species and bonding motifs inherent to inorganic materials and the potential impact of mass transport on kinetics, among other considerations. Without such assembly rules, there is less understanding, less predictive power, and ultimately less control of properties. Despite such hurdles, developing a mechanistic understanding for synthesis of inorganic extended solids would dramatically impact the range of new material discoveries and resulting new functionalities, warranting a broad call to explore what is possible. Here we discuss our recent approaches toward a mechanistic framework for the synthesis of bulk inorganic extended solids, in which either embryonic atomic correlations or fully developed phases in solutions or melts can be identified and tracked during product selection and crystallization. The approach hinges on the application of high-energy x-rays, with their penetrating power and large Q-range, to explore reaction pathways in situ. We illustrate this process using two examples: directed assembly of Zr clusters in aqueous solution and total phase awareness during crystallization from K-Cu-S melts. These examples provide a glimpse of what we see as a larger vision, in which large scale simulations, data-driven science, and in situ studies of atomic correlations combine to accelerate materials discovery and synthesis, based on the assembly of well-defined, prenucleated atomic correlations.

  16. Perspective: Toward “synthesis by design”: Exploring atomic correlations during inorganic materials synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Soderholm

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of inorganic extended solids is a critical starting point from which real-world functional materials and their consequent technologies originate. However, unlike the rich mechanistic foundation of organic synthesis, with its underlying rules of assembly (e.g., functional groups and their reactivities, the synthesis of inorganic materials lacks an underpinning of such robust organizing principles. In the latter case, any such rules must account for the diversity of chemical species and bonding motifs inherent to inorganic materials and the potential impact of mass transport on kinetics, among other considerations. Without such assembly rules, there is less understanding, less predictive power, and ultimately less control of properties. Despite such hurdles, developing a mechanistic understanding for synthesis of inorganic extended solids would dramatically impact the range of new material discoveries and resulting new functionalities, warranting a broad call to explore what is possible. Here we discuss our recent approaches toward a mechanistic framework for the synthesis of bulk inorganic extended solids, in which either embryonic atomic correlations or fully developed phases in solutions or melts can be identified and tracked during product selection and crystallization. The approach hinges on the application of high-energy x-rays, with their penetrating power and large Q-range, to explore reaction pathways in situ. We illustrate this process using two examples: directed assembly of Zr clusters in aqueous solution and total phase awareness during crystallization from K–Cu–S melts. These examples provide a glimpse of what we see as a larger vision, in which large scale simulations, data-driven science, and in situ studies of atomic correlations combine to accelerate materials discovery and synthesis, based on the assembly of well-defined, prenucleated atomic correlations.

  17. Mechanochemical synthesis of Fe-S materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Larsen, R.K.; Lin, R.

    1998-01-01

    Powder mixtures of metallic iron and sulfur have been milled in a high-energy planetary ball mill and the formation of iron sulfides has been studied by x-ray diffraction, Mossbauer spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. For Fe:S ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 the final products are FeS with the ......Powder mixtures of metallic iron and sulfur have been milled in a high-energy planetary ball mill and the formation of iron sulfides has been studied by x-ray diffraction, Mossbauer spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. For Fe:S ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 the final products are Fe......S with the modified NiAs structure and FeS2 (pyrite), respectively. No other iron sulfides were formed for any of the Fe:S ratios studied. The FeS phase has been tested as an electrode material in lithium batteries....

  18. Mechanochemical synthesis of nanocrystalline materials in an industrial mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Gock

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized materials are polycrystalline materials, whose crystal size is a few (typically 1-100 nanometers in at least one dimension. It has been proposed that as particles become smaller in size they may take on different chemical and physical properties. One of the most intriguing observations was that nanocrystals prepared by the altered “nano“ approach exhibited a higher surface chemical reactivity than more conventionally prepared samples. Nanocrystalline materials have many potential applications in the area of advanced materials. Their strongly size-dependent optical properties render them attractive candidates as tunable light absorbers and emitters in optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes and quantum-dot lasers. These materials can be synthesized via solid state reactions where the efficiency of synthesis can be strongly enhanced by an intervention of high-energy milling (mechanochemical synthesis. The mechanochemical synthesis can effectively control and regulate the course of solid state reactions. Nanocrystalline materials MeS (Me=Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu were successfully synthesized by the mechanochemical route from the corresponding metal acetates and natrium sulphide in an industrial mill. Structure properties of the as-prepared products were characterized by the X-ray powder diffraction, revealing the crystalline nature of the MeS nanoparticles. The methods of TEM, particle size analysis and the low temperature nitrogen sorption were used to analyze the particle morphology and the surface composition. The average sizes of MeS particles of 4-18 nm were estimated by Scherrer´s formula. The nanocrystalline materials are obtained in the simple step, making the process attractive for industrial applications. The main advantage of the application of the industrial mill is that it is a “quantity” process, permitting kilograms of material to be produced at an ambient temperature in a very short processing time. Moreover

  19. A Large Class of Exact Solutions to the One-Dimensional Schrodinger Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoglu, Bekir

    2007-01-01

    A remarkable property of a large class of functions is exploited to generate exact solutions to the one-dimensional Schrodinger equation. The method is simple and easy to implement. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  20. Steen-Ermakov-Pinney equation and integrable nonlinear deformation of one-dimensional Dirac equation

    OpenAIRE

    Prykarpatskyy, Yarema

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with nonlinear one-dimensional Dirac equation. We describe its invariants set by means of the deformed linear Dirac equation, using the fact that two ordinary differential equations are equivalent if their sets of invariants coincide.