Full Text Available Mectizan® has been donated for the control of onchocerciasis for over twenty years, and also for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis for the last ten years. But how much is needed? I
Boatin, Boakye A; Richards, Frank O
Onchocerciasis is a filarial infection which causes blindness and debilitating skin lesions. The disease occurs in 37 countries, of which 30 are found in Africa (the most affected in terms of the distribution and the severity of the clinical manifestations of the disease), six in the Americas and one in the Arabian Peninsula. The latest WHO Expert Committee on Onchocerciasis estimated that in 1995 around 17.7 million persons were infected, about 270,000 of whom were blind and another 500,000 severely visually impaired. The disease is responsible for 1 million DALYs. Eye disease from onchocerciasis accounts for 40% of DALYs annually although severe skin disease is also recognized as of public health significance. Great progress has been made in the last thirty years in the control of onchocerciasis, both in Africa and the Americas, and this progress has been due largely to international public-private partnerships, sustained funding regional programmes, and new tools and technology. Landmarks in the global control of river blindness include the significant success of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme of West Africa (1975-2002), and the donation of ivermectin (Mectizan) by Merck & Co. Inc., in 1988, a medicine that is distributed to millions free of charge each year. Future major technical challenges of onchocerciasis control include ivermectin mass administration in areas co-endemic for the parasite Loa loa in the light of possible severe adverse reactions, ivermectin treatment in hypoendemic areas hitherto excluded from African control programmes, sustainability of ivermectin distribution, post-control surveillance for recrudescence detection, surveillance for emergence of resistance, and decisions of when to stop mass ivermectin treatments. There is the need to develop the appropriate information systems and diagnostic tools to help in accomplishing many of these tasks. A search for a second-line treatment or as an additional drug to ivermectin as well as a
A.P. Plaisier (Anton)
textabstractIn 1990 the World Health Organization (WHO) coordinated Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) used this slogan for evaluating fifteen years of control of the parasitic disease onchocerciasis and for expressing its optimism about the future. Based on the obvious success of
in the body of the blackfly and are transmitted to humans when the fly bites ... African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) in collaboration with the Southern Sudan Onchocerciasis. Task Force carried out Rapid Epidemiological Mapping .... body length. (cm). IVm Dose. Route. 15-25. 90-119. 1 tablet (3mg). Oral once.
Full Text Available Achievements obtained by the onchocerciasis control programmes should not lead to a relaxation in the biological research on Onchocerca volvulus. Issues such as the Loa loa-related postivermectin serious adverse events, the uncertainties as to whether onchocerciasis can be eliminated by ivermectin treatments, and the possible emergence of ivermectin-resistant O. volvulus populations should be addressed proactively. Doxycycline, moxidectin and emodepside appear to be promising as alternative drugs against onchocerciasis but support to researches in immunology and genomics should also be increased to develop new control tools, including both vaccines and macrofilaricidal drugs.
Aziz, M A
Onchocerciasis is one of the leading causes of blindness in the developing world. An estimated 40 million people are afflicted with this parasitic disease. World Health Organization vector control programs have had considerable success in interrupting the parasite transmission cycle in selected savanna regions of West Africa, but chemotherapeutic agents suitable for massive treatment campaigns have not been available. Controlled clinical studies have indicated that a single oral dose of ivermectin is safer and more effective therapy for onchocerciasis than the the standard seven- to 10-day course of diethylcarbamazine, the current drug of choice, and that ivermectin causes a more prolonged reduction in dermal microfilarial density. Patients treated with ivermectin are unable to infect the blackfly vector as long as the dermal microfilarial density remains low; therefore, once- or twice-yearly administration of ivermectin in community-wide therapy programs, either alone or in combination with vector control measures, may successfully interrupt transmission of the parasite and eventually eliminate the disease.
Krotneva, Stanimira P; Coffeng, Luc E; Noma, Mounkaila; Zouré, Honorat G M; Bakoné, Lalle; Amazigo, Uche V; de Vlas, Sake J; Stolk, Wilma A
Since its initiation in 1995, the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has had a substantial impact on the prevalence and burden of onchocerciasis through annual ivermectin mass treatment...
L.E. Coffeng (Luc); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); H.G.M. Zouré (Honorat G.); J.L. Veerman (Lennert); K.B. Agblewonu (Koffi); M.E. Murdoch (Michele); M. Noma (Mounkaila); G. Fobi (Grace); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); D.A.P. Bundy (Donald A.); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); U.V. Amazigo (Uche)
textabstractBackground: Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health
Full Text Available Tarig B Higazi,1 Timothy G Geary,2 Charles D Mackenzie3,41Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University Zanesville, Zanesville, OH, USA; 2Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Center for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK; 4Department of Pathobiology & Diagnostic Investigation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USAAbstract: Onchocerciasis treatment is one of the most positive stories in tropical medicine although major challenges remain to reaching the ultimate goal of disease elimination. Such challenges are to be expected when the therapeutic goal is to kill and safely remove a large multistage, efficient, metazoan infectious agent such as Onchocerca volvulus that has an exceptionally complicated relationship with its host. Successful control of onchocerciasis has often been hampered by host reactions following chemotherapy, that can sometimes cause significant tissue pathology. Presence of other filariae, particularly Loa loa, in endemic onchocerciasis-treatment areas also poses severe problems due to adverse reactions caused by drug-induced death of the coincident microfilariae of this usually clinically benign species. Although ivermectin has been very successful, there is a need to enhance the progress toward elimination of onchocerciasis; new drugs and their efficient use are keys to this. The permanent absence of Onchocerca microfilaridermia, defined as the lack of resurgence of skin microfilarial loads after treatment, is the ultimate characteristic of a useful new chemotherapeutic agent. Several drugs are under investigation to achieve this, including the reassessment of currently available and previously tested agents, such as the antibiotic, doxycycline, which targets the adult parasites through its anti-Wolbachia endosymbiont activity. Flubendazole, a benzimidazole derivative approved for treatment of human gastrointestinal nematodes, is
Chippaux, J P; Boussinesq, M; Prod'hon, J
Onchocerciasis is an infection with the nematode Onchocerca volvulus. The main clinical symptoms are caused by the microfilariae. They include ocular lesions leading to blindness. Onchocerciasis is widely distributed in Africa from the Sahara to the southern tip, and is also found in some areas of South and Central America. Ivermectin was shown to be an effective treatment in the early 1980's, and is safe and better tolerated than diethylcarbamazine. We report the results of ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis, and various features of the control obtained by large-scale ivermectin treatment programs. In large-scale programs, ivermectin (150 micrograms/kg) is administered once a year. This dose paralyses the microfilariae, such that they are carried away by the lymph to the lymph nodes where they are destroyed. This dose thereby reduces the load of microfilaria by 90%. The effects of a dose of ivermectin last about two or three years, and the lesions in the anterior segment of the eye can be cured or substantially reduced. Regular treatment prevents severe lesions of the posterior segment of the eye. The effects of repeated treatment on lesions of the retina are currently under investigation. Frequent doses of ivermectin prevent the development of embryo parasites in the females, and reduces the number of adults by attrition. Large-scale treatment programs reduce the transmission of the parasite by its vectors. There are several problems impeding large-scale treatment programs. Choosing patients for priority treatment requires expensive and sometimes aggressive methods of diagnosis. Thus new techniques for the identification of communities in which onchocerciasis is a serious public health problem are required. The choice of strategies for distribution, to optimize the cost, benefit ratio and feasibility, remain controversial. Wide distribution by mobile teams is effective, but expensive. Active distribution by trained community distributors is a cheaper
Yaya, G; Kobangué, L; Kémata, B; Gallé, D; Grésenguet, G
The authors return the results of a transverse prospective survey whose goal was to value the impact of struggle against the onchocerciasis after 20 years of distribution of ivermectin in a village of the Central African Republic. A transverse prospective survey with a descriptive and analytic aim of a sample of 393 topics aged of more than 5 years residing in Gami Village since more of 2 years and having benefitted the ivermectine in the last distribution that took place 10 months before. The epidemiological, clinical and parasitologic data introverted have been compared to the results of the previous investigations in the village. The parameters improved distinctly during the 20 years (1990-2010) notably the microfilarian indication (88% in 1990 against 19% in 2010), the middle microfilarian density (54 against 0,7), the CMFL Indication (39 against 0,67), the Knuttgen indication moved of the trance of age of 5-9 years to the one of more than 45 years since 1998), the cystic indication (36% against 8%), the ocular lesions (31% against 4%) of which onchocercian (28% against 2%), serious ocular lesions (16% against 1,3%), rate of blindness (9% against 0,8%), rate of meadow-blindness (9% against 0,8), important loss of vision (3% against 0,0%), ocular lesions in children of 6-10 years old (6% against 0,3%). These data permit to speak of control but not of elimination of the onchocerciasis in the grouping villager of Gami because of the persistence of the microfilarian indications susceptible to maintain the transmission of where necessity to pursue the struggle.
Stanimira P Krotneva; Luc E Coffeng; Mounkaila Noma; Honorat G M Zouré; Lalle Bakoné; Uche V Amazigo; Sake J de Vlas; Wilma A Stolk
Since its initiation in 1995, the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has had a substantial impact on the prevalence and burden of onchocerciasis through annual ivermectin mass treatment...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In most endemic parts of the world, onchocerciasis (river blindness control relies, or will soon rely, exclusively on mass treatment with the microfilaricide ivermectin. Worldwide eradication of the parasite by means of this drug is unlikely. Macrofilaricidal drugs are currently being developed for human use. Methods We used ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation mathematical model of the dynamics of onchocerciasis transmission, to explore the potentials of a hypothetical macrofilaricidal drug for the elimination of onchocerciasis under different epidemiological conditions, as characterized by previous intervention strategies, vectorial capacity and levels of coverage. Results With a high vector biting rate and poor coverage, a very effective macrofilaricide would appear to have a substantially higher potential for achieving elimination of the parasite than does ivermectin. Conclusions Macrofilaricides have a substantially higher potential for achieving onchocerciasis elimination than ivermectin, but high coverage levels are still key. When these drugs become available, onchocerciasis elimination strategies should be reconsidered. In view of the impact of control efforts preceding the introduction of macrofilaricides on the success of elimination, it is important to sustain current control efforts.
Duerr, Hans P; Raddatz, Günter; Eichner, Martin
Control of onchocerciasis in Africa is currently based on annual community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) which has been assumed to be not efficient enough to bring about elimination. However, elimination has recently been reported to have been achieved by CDTI alone in villages of Senegal and Mali, reviving debate on the eradicability of onchocerciasis in Africa. We investigate the eradicability of onchocerciasis by examining threshold shifts and breakpoints predicted by a stochastic transmission model that has been fitted extensively to data. We show that elimination based on CDTI relies on shifting the threshold biting rate to a level that is higher than the annual biting rate. Breakpoints become relevant in the context of when to stop CDTI. In order for the model to predict a good chance for CDTI to eliminate onchocerciasis, facilitating factors such as the macrofilaricidal effect of ivermectin must be assumed. A chart predicting the minimum efficacy of CDTI required for elimination, dependent on the annual biting rate, is provided. Generalisable recommendations into strategies for the elimination of onchocerciasis are derived, particularly referring to the roles of vectors, the residual infection rate under control, and a low-spreader problem originating from patients with low parasite burdens.
textabstractThe present thesis deals with research which has been undertaken since 1983 with the aim of finding answers to the three main epidemiological questions which have been discussed above, i.e. I.-What are the epidemiological patterns of ocular onchocerciasis in West Africa and what is the g
S.P. Krotneva (Stanimira P.); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); M. Noma (Mounkaila); H.G.M. Zouré (Honorat G.); L. Bakoné (Lalle); U.V. Amazigo (Uche); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); W.A. Stolk (Wilma)
textabstractSince its initiation in 1995, the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has had a substantial impact on the prevalence and burden of onchocerciasis through annual ivermectin mass treatment. Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that also has an impact on other c
Makenga Bof, J-C; Maketa, V; Bakajika, D K; Ntumba, F; Mpunga, D; Murdoch, M E; Hopkins, A; Noma, M M; Zouré, H; Tekle, A H; Katabarwa, M N; Lutumba, P
To evaluate onchocerciasis control activities in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in the first 12 years of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI). Data from the National Programme for Onchocerciasis (NPO) provided by the National Onchocerciasis Task Force (NOTF) through the annual reports of the 21 CDTI projects for the years 2001-2012 were reviewed retrospectively. A hypothetical-inputs-process-outputs-outcomes table was constructed. Community-directed treatment with ivermectin expanded from 1968 communities in 2001 to 39 100 communities by 2012 while the number of community-directed distributors (CDD) and health workers (HW) multiplied. By 2012, there were ratios of 1 CDD per 262 persons and 1 HW per 2318 persons at risk. More than 80% of the funding came from the fiduciary funds of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control. The cost of treatment per person treated fell from US$ 1.1 in 2001 to US$ 0.1 in 2012. The therapeutic coverage increased from 2.7% (2001) to 74.2% (2012); the geographical coverage, from 4.7% (2001) to 93.9% (2012). Geographical coverage fell in 2005 due to deaths in loiasis co-endemic areas, and the therapeutic coverage fell in 2008 due to insecurity. Challenges to CDTI in DRC have been serious adverse reactions to ivermectin in loiasis co-endemic areas and political conflict. Targets for personnel or therapeutic and geographical coverages were not met. Longer term funding and renewed efforts are required to achieve control and elimination of onchocerciasis in DRC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Luc E Coffeng
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015. METHODS AND FINDINGS: With data on pre-control prevalence of infection and population coverage of mass treatment, we simulated trends in infection, blindness, visual impairment, and severe itch using the micro-simulation model ONCHOSIM, and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost due to onchocerciasis. We assessed financial costs for APOC, beneficiary governments, and non-governmental development organizations, excluding cost of donated drugs. We estimated that between 1995 and 2010, mass treatment with ivermectin averted 8.2 million DALYs due to onchocerciasis in APOC areas, at a nominal cost of about US$257 million. We expect that APOC will avert another 9.2 million DALYs between 2011 and 2015, at a nominal cost of US$221 million. CONCLUSIONS: Our simulations suggest that APOC has had a remarkable impact on population health in Africa between 1995 and 2010. This health impact is predicted to double during the subsequent five years of the program, through to 2015. APOC is a highly cost-effective public health program. Given the anticipated elimination of onchocerciasis from some APOC areas, we expect even more health gains and a more favorable cost-effectiveness of mass treatment with ivermectin in the near future.
Luc E Coffeng
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prospect of eliminating onchocerciasis from Africa by mass treatment with ivermectin has been rejuvenated following recent successes in foci in Mali, Nigeria and Senegal. Elimination prospects depend strongly on local transmission conditions and therefore on pre-control infection levels. Pre-control infection levels in Africa have been mapped largely by means of nodule palpation of adult males, a relatively crude method for detecting infection. We investigated how informative pre-control nodule prevalence data are for estimating the pre-control prevalence of microfilariae (mf in the skin and discuss implications for assessing elimination prospects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed published data on pre-control nodule prevalence in males aged ≥ 20 years and mf prevalence in the population aged ≥ 5 years from 148 African villages. A meta-analysis was performed by means of Bayesian hierarchical multivariate logistic regression, accounting for measurement error in mf and nodule prevalence, bioclimatic zones, and other geographical variation. There was a strong positive correlation between nodule prevalence in adult males and mf prevalence in the general population. In the forest-savanna mosaic area, the pattern in nodule and mf prevalence differed significantly from that in the savanna or forest areas. SIGNIFICANCE: We provide a tool to convert pre-control nodule prevalence in adult males to mf prevalence in the general population, allowing historical data to be interpreted in terms of elimination prospects and disease burden of onchocerciasis. Furthermore, we identified significant geographical variation in mf prevalence and nodule prevalence patterns warranting further investigation of geographical differences in transmission patterns of onchocerciasis.
Taylor, H R; Greene, B M; Langham, M E
In a double-blind controlled clinical trial comparing the safety and efficacy of oral diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) with topical DEC for the treatment of onchocerciasis twenty men with moderate skin-snip microfilarial counts received daily therapy for 1 week, then weekly therapy for the rest of 6 months. The number of microfilariae per skin snip dropped quickly to 2% of initial levels and remained at low levels in those receiving oral DEC, and to 20% of initial levels in patients treated with DEC lotion. Side-effects in both groups included lymphadenopathy, fever, pruritus, rash, proteinuria, and chorioretinitis; they were commoner with topical DEC.
A. J. Shelley
Full Text Available Factors that affect the propensity of a simuliid species to act as a host to Onchocerca volvulus and to naturally transmit this filarial worm in nature are discussed. Presence or absence of a cibarial armature is believed to be a major factor that has been previously overlooked and this is considered in relation to the choice of control methods currently advocated for onchocerciasis. The current epidemiological studies, transmission dynamics and relevant control measures are discussed for each onchocerciasis focus in Latin America.Neste trabalho são discutidos os fatores que interferem na suscetibilidade de espécies de simulídeos atuarem como hospedeiros do Onchocerca volvulus e de transmitir a filária em condições naturais. Acredita-se que a presença ou não da armadura do cibário pode ser um fator central, que anteriormente foi subestimado. Este aspecto é discutido em relação às opções em voga de métodos de controle na oncocercose. São também discutidos os estudos epidemiológicos correntes, a dinâmica de transmissão e principais medidas de controle para cada foco de oncocercose na América Latina.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ivermectin is distributed free of charge through the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC, not all eligible individuals within communities receive the annual treatment. This poses a serious threat to efforts aimed to control onchocerciasis. This study attempts to determine factors associated with compliance to Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI and provides a basis for trying to understand how best to sustain long-term compliance in order to achieve success in the control of onchocerciasis. Methods An unmatched case-control study was conducted in Bebeka coffee plantation southwest Ethiopia. Cases were, compliant i.e., those individuals who had been registered on the relevant treatment registers and had taken all the five annual doses of Ivermectin. Controls were non-compliant, i.e. those individuals who had been recorded in the relevant treatment registers during the first treatment round(2003, and did not take at least two doses of which one being in the last treatment round (2007. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Data were edited, cleaned, coded and analyzed using SPSS version 12.0.1 for Microsoft Windows. Multiple logistic regression models was used to identify factors associated with compliance to ivermectin. Results From the total of 456 individuals selected for administration of the survey questionnaire, 450(225 cases and 225 controls were contacted and completed the study 2 refused and 4 were unavailable. Five factors associated with compliance were identified: high risk perception [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR = 1.98, 95% Confidence Interval (CI, 1.32-2.95], one's family support [AOR = 1.86, 95% CI, 1.22-2.84], perceiving that the Community Drug Distributors (CDDs are doing their work well [AOR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.50-5.37] and perceiving measuring height is the best way to determine a person's treatment dose [AOR = 6.37, 95% CI, 2
Stanimira P Krotneva
Full Text Available Since its initiation in 1995, the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC has had a substantial impact on the prevalence and burden of onchocerciasis through annual ivermectin mass treatment. Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that also has an impact on other co-endemic parasitic infections. In this study, we roughly assessed the additional impact of APOC activities on the burden of the most important off-target infections: soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH; ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm, and strongyloidiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF, and scabies. Based on a literature review, we formulated assumptions about the impact of ivermectin treatment on the disease burden of these off-target infections. Using data on the number of ivermectin treatments in APOC regions and the latest estimates of the burden of disease, we then calculated the impact of APOC activities on off-target infections in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted. We conservatively estimated that between 1995 and 2010, annual ivermectin mass treatment has cumulatively averted about 500 thousand DALYs from co-endemic STH infections, LF, and scabies. This impact comprised approximately an additional 5.5% relative to the total burden averted from onchocerciasis (8.9 million DALYs and indicates that the overall cost-effectiveness of APOC is even higher than previously reported.
Noma, Mounkaila; Zouré, Honorat G. M.; Bakoné, Lalle; Amazigo, Uche V.; de Vlas, Sake J.; Stolk, Wilma A.
Since its initiation in 1995, the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has had a substantial impact on the prevalence and burden of onchocerciasis through annual ivermectin mass treatment. Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that also has an impact on other co-endemic parasitic infections. In this study, we roughly assessed the additional impact of APOC activities on the burden of the most important off-target infections: soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH; ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm, and strongyloidiasis), lymphatic filariasis (LF), and scabies. Based on a literature review, we formulated assumptions about the impact of ivermectin treatment on the disease burden of these off-target infections. Using data on the number of ivermectin treatments in APOC regions and the latest estimates of the burden of disease, we then calculated the impact of APOC activities on off-target infections in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. We conservatively estimated that between 1995 and 2010, annual ivermectin mass treatment has cumulatively averted about 500 thousand DALYs from co-endemic STH infections, LF, and scabies. This impact comprised approximately an additional 5.5% relative to the total burden averted from onchocerciasis (8.9 million DALYs) and indicates that the overall cost-effectiveness of APOC is even higher than previously reported. PMID:26401658
motion. Intl. .1. of Computer Vision, 68(l):7-25, 2006.  R. Vidal. S. Soatto, and S. Sastry. An algebraic geometric approach to the identification...D. Durbin , 10S-3D, INC.). Patents None during the period covered by this grant. AFRL Point of Contact Prof. William M. McEneaney, Program
L.E. Coffeng (Luc); S.D.S. Pion (Sébastien); S. O'Hanlon (Simon); S. Cousens (Simon); A.O. Abiose (Adenike); P.U. Fischer (Peter); J.H.F. Remme (Jan); K.Y. Dadzie (Yankum); M.E. Murdoch (Michele); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); M-G. Basáñez (María-Gloria); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); M. Boussinesq (Michel)
markdownabstract*Background*: The prospect of eliminating onchocerciasis from Africa by mass treatment with ivermectin has been rejuvenated following recent successes in foci in Mali, Nigeria and Senegal. Elimination prospects depend strongly on local transmission conditions and therefore on pre-con
Rivas-Alcalá, A R; Greene, B M; Taylor, H R; Domíguez-Vázquez, A; Ruvalcaba-Macías, A M; Lugo-Pfeiffer, C; Mackenzie, C D; Beltrán, F
Four drug regimens for treating onchocerciasis were compared in a double-blind study in persons from an endemic area in southern Mexico. 40 men were randomly assigned to receive either diethylcarbamazine (DEC) (200 mg/day), mebendazole (2 g/day), levamisole (150 mg per week), or mebendazole plus levamisole. DEC produced the most rapid fall in skin microfilaria counts, but by 6 months the two groups receiving mebendazole showed similar or slightly greater reductions. Despite the administration of corticosteroids to persons receiving DEC, more systemic side-effects were seen in this group. Ocular complications were also commoner and more severe in those receiving DEC. The reduction in the number of intraocular microfilariae at 6 months was similar to those receiving DEC and mebendazole, alone or in combination with levamisole. Levamisole alone had no significant effect on microfilaria counts. Examination of adult worms in nodules excised at 2 months showed changes suggestive of an interruption of embryogenesis in those persons receiving the mebendazole-containing regimens only. The findings suggest that mebendazole may be a useful alternative to DEC in the treatment of onchocerciasis.
Gustavsen, Kenneth; Sodahlon, Yao; Bush, Simon
Diseases don't respect borders, so efforts to control and eliminate diseases must also be flexible and adaptable enough to effectively reach the populations that live in the areas around national frontiers. Onchocerciasis, commonly known as river blindness is a tropical disease that has historically affected millions of people in 35 countries in Africa and Latin America. In Africa, programs and partnerships to address river blindness through mass drug administration have been active for more than 25 years. While in many cases the disease is found in isolated foci that fall entirely within national boundaries, the geographic scope of many affected areas crosses country borders. National river blindness programs are the responsibility of each nation's Ministry of Health, so in cross-border situations there is a need for effective country-country collaboration. Cross-border collaboration for onchocerciasis control efforts in the countries of the Mano River Basin illustrates the positive impact of a creative model, and offers lessons for expanded application for onchocerciasis elimination as well as other neglected tropical disease (NTD) control and elimination programs.
White, A T; Newland, H S; Taylor, H R; Erttmann, K D; Keyvan-Larijani, E; Nara, A; Aziz, M A; D'Anna, S A; Williams, P N; Greene, B M
Ivermectin, given as a single oral dose, has shown considerable promise as a new treatment for onchocerciasis. We assessed the safety and efficacy of ivermectin and tried to determine the optimal dose. Two hundred Liberians received 100, 150, or 200 micrograms of ivermectin/kg or placebo and were followed up for 12 months. Therapy was associated with only minimal systemic and ocular side effects. A 200-micrograms/kg dose was associated with greater systemic reaction than was a 100-micrograms/kg dose. Each treatment group had significant reduction in skin microfilaria counts by day 3 and a decrease of approximately 95% at three months. At three months the proportion of persons with no microfilariae in a specimen of skin was significantly less in the 100-micrograms/kg group than in the 150-micrograms/kg or 200-micrograms/kg groups. At 12 months, the level of microfilariae in skin was still reduced approximately 80%. Significant reduction in ocular involvement was seen in all groups. These results confirm that single-dose ivermectin is effective and well-tolerated and suggest that 150 micrograms of ivermectin/kg may be the optimal dose for initial therapy.
Mackenzie, Charles D; Homeida, Mamoun M; Hopkins, Adrian D; Lawrence, Joni C
Human onchocerciasis, a parasitic disease found in 28 African countries, six Latin American countries and Yemen, causes blindness and severe dermatological problems. In 1987, efforts to control this infection shifted from vector approaches to include the mass distribution of ivermectin - a drug donated by Merck & Co. for disease control in Africa and for disease elimination in the Americas. Currently, almost 25 years later, with the Americas being highly successful and now approaching elimination, new evidence points towards the possibility of successful elimination in Africa. We suggest several major changes in the programmatic approach that through focused goal-directed effort could achieve global elimination of onchocerciasis by 2025.
Volume 1 : This book is focused on the recent advances in computer vision methodologies and technical solutions using conventional and intelligent paradigms. The Contributions include: · Morphological Image Analysis for Computer Vision Applications. · Methods for Detecting of Structural Changes in Computer Vision Systems. · Hierarchical Adaptive KL-based Transform: Algorithms and Applications. · Automatic Estimation for Parameters of Image Projective Transforms Based on Object-invariant Cores. · A Way of Energy Analysis for Image and Video Sequence Processing. · Optimal Measurement of Visual Motion Across Spatial and Temporal Scales. · Scene Analysis Using Morphological Mathematics and Fuzzy Logic. · Digital Video Stabilization in Static and Dynamic Scenes. · Implementation of Hadamard Matrices for Image Processing. · A Generalized Criterion ...
Joseph Oghenebukome Onojafe
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the ecological parameters affecting the distribution of Simulium damnosum immature stages in some rivers within the endemic areas of Delta State, Nigeria. Methods: Onchocerca larvae were observed and identified for each river. An average sized colander with fine mesh was used to scoop the area to obtain the larvae along with other benthos. Physiochemical characteristics of the water at breeding sites were analyzed for a 12 months period. Correlation analysis was performed to establish the association between the larval densities and physicochemical parameters of blackfly. Results: The seasonal variation in the physical and chemical characteristics of these environments impaired the population dynamics of blackflies. The physicochemical parameters significantly varied among breeding sites (P < 0.05, in which the temperature of surface water ranged between 23.2 °C and 30.3 °C, water flow velocity ranged between 0.4 and 1.3 m/s, dissolved oxygen ranged between 5.1 and 9.0 mg/L and pH ranged between 5.4 and 7.4. The mean collection of Simulium larvae was the highest in River Otor (44.1 and the least in River Namormai (19.1. There was significant difference (P < 0.05 in the number of larvae collected from the sampled rivers. Also, the number of larvae collected significantly correlated with surface water temperature, water flow velocity, dissolved oxygen and pH. Conclusions: This study identified significant correlations between physicochemical parameters and blackfly larvae densities thus providing a precontrol evidence-based data for the control of onchocerciasis in the endemic areas of North Delta.
Richards, F; Hopkins, D; Cupp, E
Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in 37 countries (in Africa, in the Americas, and in Yemen). It infects at least 17.7 million people and causes visual impairment in 500,000 and blindness in another 270,000. It is transmitted by black flies that breed in rapidly flowing rivers and streams. As response to an endemic disease, programs have focused on the control of onchocerciasis transmission. In Africa, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control is based on an ivermectin-distribution strategy designed to control the skin and eye disorders that result from heavy infections. By contrast, the strategy of the African Onchocerciasis Control Program is a vector control to completely interrupt the transmission cycle of the parasite by applying larvicide to riverine breeding sites. In the Americas, another strategy being implemented is to use ivermectin more than once a year, not only to stop progression of disease, but also to interrupt transmission. Moreover, the global lymphatic-filariasis initiative aims to halt transmission of lymphatic filariasis in endemic African communities by annual mass administration of single-dose combination therapy with albendazole and Mectizan.
Taylor, H R; Greene, B M
Twenty men with moderate infection of Onchocerca volvulus were studied in a double-masked, controlled clinical trial to compare the safety and efficacy of oral diethylcarbamazine (DEC) with topical DEC lotion. Visual acuity and colour vision did not alter during the 6 months of observation, although 2 patients receiving DEC lotion and 3 patients receiving oral DEC developed either visual field constriction or optic atrophy. Fluffy corneal opacities were common in both groups. Intraocular microfilariae also appeared in both groups but to a greater extent in those receiving DEC lotion. New chorioretinal changes developed in 4 men receiving lotion and in only 1 receiving tablets. It is concluded that DEC lotion offers no advantage over tablets in the treatment of ocular onchocerciasis and in fact may be associated with more ocular complications than the conventional oral treatment.
Richardson, Richard W.
Orientation and brightness varied to suit welding conditions. Commands from vision-system computer drive servomotors on iris and Dove prism, providing proper light level and image orientation. Optical-fiber bundle carries view of weld area as viewed along axis of welding electrode. Image processing described in companion article, "Processing Welding Images for Robot Control" (MFS-26036).
Richardson, Richard W.
Orientation and brightness varied to suit welding conditions. Commands from vision-system computer drive servomotors on iris and Dove prism, providing proper light level and image orientation. Optical-fiber bundle carries view of weld area as viewed along axis of welding electrode. Image processing described in companion article, "Processing Welding Images for Robot Control" (MFS-26036).
Mahoney, J L
During a 12-month period (1977 - 1978) of employment in the river forest area of the Ivory Coast, an isolated area hyperendemic for onchocerciasis, a unique opportunity arose to study the disease in depth. Personal observations and experiences with the disease did not necessarily correlate with textbook statements. Although onchocerciasis may involve almost any area of the body it more commonly involves the skin, eyes, lymphatics and groin area. The disease does not appear to cause premature or direct death, but is often acutely and chronically disabling. Diethylcarbamazine and suramin are effective in preventing disabling complications and in diminishing or controlling the progression of complications, but are nephrotoxic. Surgery is utilized to excise microfilaria-producing nodules in order to minimize or control disease progression and for the repair of the frequently occurring complication of inguinal or femoral hernias and hydroceles. A high percentage of patients had microfilarial eye infiltrates but blindness was uncommon. The disease should therefore be known as 'river eye disease' rather than the current 'river blindness'. There is no known method of effective prevention of the disease that is acceptable on a long-term basis.
Wanji, Samuel; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Nji, Theolbald; Esum, Mathias; Che, Julious N; Nkwescheu, Armand; Alassa, Fifen; Kamnang, Geremy; Enyong, Peter A; Taylor, Mark J; Hoerauf, Achim; Taylor, David W
Severe side effects following ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in areas of co-endemicity with loaisis have been an impediment for the work of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC...
Taylor, H R
Ivermectin is a recently developed macrocyclic lactone that has widespread antiparasitic activity. A series of clinical trials has shown that ivermectin is safe and effective in the treatment of human infection with Onchocerca volvulus. Although it is rapidly microfilaricidal, it does not cause a severe reaction as is seen with diethylcarbamazine treatment. The drug also temporarily interrupts production of microfilaria but has no known long-lasting effects on the adult worms. In patients with onchocerciasis, a single oral dose of ivermectin (150 micrograms/kg) repeated once a year leads to a marked reduction in skin microfilaria counts and ocular involvement. At this dose, ivermectin causes minimal side effects and appears to be sufficiently free of severe adverse reactions to be used on a mass scale. Its use promises to revolutionise the treatment of onchocerciasis.
Van Laethem, Y; Lopes, C
Onchocerciasis ('river blindness') has for several centuries been the scourge of people living in certain areas of the world where the disease is endemic. The treatment available up to 10 years ago, diethylcarbamazine, had very severe secondary effects. The availability of ivermectin--a well tolerated and highly effective microfilaricidal drug--has completely changed this scenario. Ivermectin is now considered to be the drug of choice for the treatment of onchocerciasis. The prognosis for people with onchocerciasis has changed greatly. It is now possible to avoid the heavy infection loads seen previously, and patients, especially expatriates, may have their symptoms relieved by treatment. Ivermectin, used in mass treatment, may also improve the epidemiological situation, reducing the level of microfilariae in the skin of infected people and thus reducing the source for vector infestation. However, the treatment has to be repeated because the drug has no macrofilaricidal effect. Research today is focused on the finding of a drug able to destroy the adult worms that go on producing microfilariae for the length of their lives.
Duke, B O
The general characteristics of Onchocerca volvulus infection and its transmission are outlined in this overview of human onchocerciasis. The pathogenic role of the microfilariae, producing lesions of the skin, lymphatic system, eye and deep organs, are described, along with the main clinical manifestations of the disease. The global prevalence and distribution of onchocerciasis are given. Best estimates in 1985 gave 86 million persons at risk, 17.8 million infected, 336,400 blind and a like number suffering from severe visual impairment. The vast majority was in Africa. The impact of onchocerciasis on communities in the Sudano-Guinean savanna zone of Africa is outlined, emphasizing the very high blindness rates and the increased mortality among the blind. Communities so affected cannot remain economically viable. They are forced to desert their villages and the fertile land near rivers. The background to the establishment of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) is given and the successful 10-year results of this campaign, which is based on prolonged, regular Simulium larviciding, are outlined. In the context of the future of the OCP and of the control of onchocerciasis elsewhere in the world, the need for improved chemotherapy is discussed. The prospects for large-scale suppressive therapy have greatly improved following the registration of ivermectin in 1988 for use in human onchocerciasis. The potential and possible uses of this drug, as a single-dose, non-toxic microfilaricide, which excites very little Mazzotti reaction and has a prolonged microfilarial suppressant action, are discussed. It is considered that an effective non-toxic macrofilaricide is still a prime need for onchocerciasis control.
Ronald H. Guderian
Full Text Available Details are given of the prevalence rates of onchocerciasis from the most recent surveys (1989 conducted in northern Ecuador. The disease has intensified and dispersed considerably due to migration of infected individuals and the presence of a highly efficient vector. Comparison of these data with those from two previous surveys carried out in 1982/83 and 1986 and correlated with entomological findings highly the danger of the formation of new foci of onchocerciasis in areas currently free of the disease. Recommendations are made for further entomological studies in areas either recently or likely to be affected by the disease where potential vectors are unknown or different to those registred in the Santiago focus. Invermectin treatment with local vector control in specific areas is advocated to reduce the disease to a low level of public health importance.
Aranda, Miguel; Sagüés, Carlos
This monograph introduces novel methods for the control and navigation of mobile robots using multiple-1-d-view models obtained from omni-directional cameras. This approach overcomes field-of-view and robustness limitations, simultaneously enhancing accuracy and simplifying application on real platforms. The authors also address coordinated motion tasks for multiple robots, exploring different system architectures, particularly the use of multiple aerial cameras in driving robot formations on the ground. Again, this has benefits of simplicity, scalability and flexibility. Coverage includes details of: a method for visual robot homing based on a memory of omni-directional images a novel vision-based pose stabilization methodology for non-holonomic ground robots based on sinusoidal-varying control inputs an algorithm to recover a generic motion between two 1-d views and which does not require a third view a novel multi-robot setup where multiple camera-carrying unmanned aerial vehicles are used to observe and c...
Full Text Available Abstract Onchocerciasis (river blindness is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival have seen advances in diagnosing, mapping and treating the disease. Once endemic to six countries in the Americas (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela, onchocerciasis is on track for interruption of transmission in the Americas by 2012, in line with Pan American Health Organization resolution CD48.R12. The success of this public health program is due to a robust public-private partnership involving national governments, local communities, donor organizations, intergovernmental bodies, academic institutions, non-profit organizations and the pharmaceutical industry. The lessons learned through the efforts in the Americas are in turn informing the program to control and eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa. However, continued support and investment are needed for program implementation and post-treatment surveillance to protect the gains to-date and ensure complete elimination is achieved and treatment can be safely stopped within all 13 regional foci.
Liefhebber, F.; Sijs, J.
The rehabilitation robot Manus is an assistive device for severely motor handicapped users. The executing of all day living tasks with the Manus, can be very complex and a vision-based controller can simplify this. The lack of existing vision-based controlled systems, is the poor reliability of the
Taylor, H R; Murphy, R P; Newland, H S; White, A T; D'Anna, S A; Keyvan-Larijani, E; Aziz, M A; Cupp, E W; Greene, B M
The ocular changes that occur with diethylcarbamazine treatment of onchocerciasis seriously restrict its usefulness. Ivermectin, a newly developed antifilarial drug, was compared with diethylcarbamazine for treatment of onchocerciasis in a double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty men with moderate to severe infection and ocular involvement were randomly assigned to receive ivermectin as a single oral dose (200 micrograms/kg), diethylcarbamazine (administered for eight days), or placebo. Detailed ocular examinations were performed serially over a 12-month period. Diethylcarbamazine treatment caused a marked increase in living and dead microfilariae in the cornea, punctate opacities, and limbitis during the first week of therapy. Ivermectin had no such effect. However, ivermectin therapy resulted in a long-term reduction in intraocular microfilariae comparable to that seen with diethylcarbamazine. Ivermectin appears to have few ocular complications and be a better-tolerated and more effective microfilaricidal agent than diethylcarbamazine for the treatment of onchocerciasis.
Pacheco Ramirez, Jesus Horacio; Anaya Perez, Maria Elena; Benitez Baltazar, Victor Hugo [Universidad de onora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
This work shows how artificial vision feedback can be applied to control systems. The control is applied to a solar panel in order to track the sun position. The algorithms to calculate the position of the sun and the image processing are developed in LabView. The responses obtained from the control show that it is possible to use vision for a control scheme in closed loop. [Spanish] El presente trabajo muestra la manera en la cual un sistema de control puede ser retroalimentado mediante vision artificial. El control es aplicado en un panel solar para realizar el seguimiento del sol a lo largo del dia. Los algoritmos para calcular la posicion del sol y para el tratamiento de la imagen fueron desarrollados en LabView. Las respuestas obtenidas del control muestran que es posible utilizar vision para un esquema de control en lazo cerrado.
Joseph Oghenebukome Onojafe; Andy Ogochukwu Egwunyenga; Jephtha Christopher Nmor
Objective:To determine the ecological parameters affecting the distribution ofSimulium damnosum immature stages in some rivers within the endemic areas of Delta State, Nigeria. Methods:Onchocerca larvae were observed and identified for each river. An average sized colander with fine mesh was used to scoop the area to obtain the larvae along with other benthos. Physiochemical characteristics of the water at breeding sites were analyzed for a 12 months period. Correlation analysis was performed to establish the association between the larval densities and physicochemical parameters of blackfly. Results:The seasonal variation in the physical and chemical characteristics of these environments impaired the population dynamics of blackflies. The physicochemical parameters significantly varied among breeding sites (P < 0.05), in which the temperature of surface water ranged between 23.2°C and 30.3°C, water flow velocity ranged between 0.4 and 1.3 m/s, dissolved oxygen ranged between 5.1 and 9.0 mg/L and pH ranged between 5.4 and 7.4. The mean collection ofSimulium larvae was the highest in River Otor (44.1) and the least in River Namormai (19.1). There was significant difference (P < 0.05) in the number of larvae collected from the sampled rivers. Also, the number of larvae collected significantly correlated with surface water temperature, water flow velocity, dissolved oxygen and pH. Conclusions: This study identified significant correlations between physicochemical parameters and blackfly larvae densities thus providing a precontrol evidence-based data for the control of onchocerciasis in the endemic areas of North Delta.
Computer vision and its application in the precision control system are discussed. In the process of fabricating, the accuracy of the products should be controlled reasonably and completely. The precision should be kept and adjusted according to the information of feedback got from the measurement on-line or out-line in different procedures. Computer vision is one of the useful methods to do this. Computer vision and the image manipulation are presented, and based on this, a n-dimensional vector to appraise on precision of machining is given.
OPERATING SYSTEM (ROS) IN ROBOT VISION AND CONTROL by Joshua S. Lum September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Xiaoping Yun Co-Advisor: Zac Staples...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UTILIZING ROBOT OPERATING SYSTEM (ROS) IN ROBOT VISION AND CONTROL 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Lum, Joshua S...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The Robot Operating System (ROS) is an open-source framework that allows robot developers to create
Annette C. Kuesel
Full Text Available Onchocerciasis is a parasitic, vector borne disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. More than 99% of the population at risk of infection live in Africa. Onchocerciasis control was initiated in West Africa in 1974 with vector control, later complemented by ivermectin mass drug administration and in the other African endemic countries in 1995 with annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI. This has significantly reduced infection prevalence. Together with proof-of-concept for onchocerciasis elimination with annual CDTI from foci in Senegal and Mali, this has resulted in targeting onchocerciasis elimination in selected African countries by 2020 and in 80% of African countries by 2025. The challenges for meeting these targets include the number of endemic countries where conflict has delayed or interrupted control programmes, cross-border foci, potential emergence of parasite strains with low susceptibility to ivermectin and co-endemicity of loiasis, another parasitic vector borne disease, which slows down or prohibits CDTI implementation. Some of these challenges could be addressed with new drugs or drug combinations with a higher effect on Onchocerca volvulus than ivermectin. This paper reviews the path from discovery of new compounds to their qualification for large scale use and the support regulatory authorities provide for development of drugs for neglected tropical diseases. The status of research for new drugs or treatment regimens for onchocerciasis along the path to regulatory approval and qualification for large scale use is reviewed. This research includes new regimens and combinations of ivermectin and albendazole, antibiotics targeting the O. volvulus endosymbiont Wolbachia, flubendazole, moxidectin and emodepside and discovery of new compounds.
Kuesel, Annette C
Onchocerciasis is a parasitic, vector borne disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. More than 99% of the population at risk of infection live in Africa. Onchocerciasis control was initiated in West Africa in 1974 with vector control, later complemented by ivermectin mass drug administration and in the other African endemic countries in 1995 with annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI.) This has significantly reduced infection prevalence. Together with proof-of-concept for onchocerciasis elimination with annual CDTI from foci in Senegal and Mali, this has resulted in targeting onchocerciasis elimination in selected African countries by 2020 and in 80% of African countries by 2025. The challenges for meeting these targets include the number of endemic countries where conflict has delayed or interrupted control programmes, cross-border foci, potential emergence of parasite strains with low susceptibility to ivermectin and co-endemicity of loiasis, another parasitic vector borne disease, which slows down or prohibits CDTI implementation. Some of these challenges could be addressed with new drugs or drug combinations with a higher effect on Onchocerca volvulus than ivermectin. This paper reviews the path from discovery of new compounds to their qualification for large scale use and the support regulatory authorities provide for development of drugs for neglected tropical diseases. The status of research for new drugs or treatment regimens for onchocerciasis along the path to regulatory approval and qualification for large scale use is reviewed. This research includes new regimens and combinations of ivermectin and albendazole, antibiotics targeting the O. volvulus endosymbiont Wolbachia, flubendazole, moxidectin and emodepside and discovery of new compounds.
Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Unnasch, Thomas R; Real-Najarro, Olga
Onchocerciasis has historically been one of the leading causes of infectious blindness worldwide. It is endemic to tropical regions both in Africa and Latin America and in the Yemen. In Latin America, it is found in 13 foci located in 6 different countries. The epidemiologically most important focus of onchocerciasis in the Americas is located in a region spanning the border between Guatemala and Mexico. However, the Amazonian focus straddling the border of Venezuela and Brazil is larger in overall area because the Yanomami populations are scattered over a very large geographical region. Onchocerciasis is caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. The infection is spread through the bites of an insect vector, black flies of the genus Simulium. In Africa, the major vectors are members of the S. damnosum complex, while numerous species serve as vectors of the parasite in Latin America. Latin America has had a long history of attempts to control onchocerciasis, stretching back almost 100 years. The earliest programmes used a strategy of surgical removal of the adult parasites from affected individuals. However, because many of the adult parasites lodge in undetectable and inaccessible areas of the body, the overall effect of this strategy on the prevalence of infection was relatively minor. In 1988, a new drug, ivermectin, was introduced that effectively killed the larval stage (microfilaria) of the parasite in infected humans. As the microfilaria is both the stage that is transmitted by the vector fly and the cause of most of the pathologies associated with the infection, ivermectin opened up a new strategy for the control of onchocerciasis. Concurrent with the use of ivermectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis, a number of sensitive new diagnostic tools were developed (both serological and nucleic acid based) that provided the efficiency, sensitivity and specificity necessary to monitor the decline and eventual elimination of
Falkman, Gerald A.; Murray, Lawrence A.; Cooper, James E.
Vision modules have primarily been developed to relieve those pressures newly brought into existence by Inspection (QUALITY) and Robotic (PRODUCTIVITY) mandates. Industrial Control pressure stems on the other hand from the older first industrial revolution mandate of throughput. Satisfying such pressure calls for speed in both imaging and decision making. Vision companies have, however, put speed on a backburner or ignore it entirely because most modules are computer/software based which limits their speed potential. Increasingly, the keynote being struck at machine vision seminars is that "Visual and Computational Speed Must Be Increased and Dramatically!" There are modular hardwired-logic systems that are fast but, all too often, they are not very bright. Such units: Measure the fill factor of bottles as they spin by, Read labels on cans, Count stacked plastic cups or Monitor the width of parts streaming past the camera. Many are only a bit more complex than a photodetector. Once in place, most of these units are incapable of simple upgrading to a new task and are Vision's analog to the robot industry's pick and place (RIA TYPE E) robot. Vision thus finds itself amidst the same quandries that once beset the Robot Industry of America when it tried to define a robot, excluded dumb ones, and was left with only slow machines whose unit volume potential is shatteringly low. This paper develops an approach to meeting the need of a vision system that cuts a swath into the terra incognita of intelligent, high-speed vision processing. Main attention is directed to vision for industrial control. Some presently untapped vision application areas that will be serviced include: Electronics, Food, Sports, Pharmaceuticals, Machine Tools and Arc Welding.
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present a stereo computer vision algorithm intended to control a robotic arm. Specific points on the robot joints are marked and recognized in the software. Using a dedicated set of mathematic equations, the movement of the robot is continuously computed and monitored with webcams. Positioning error is finally analyzed.
Young Eun Kim
Full Text Available Onchocerciasis (river blindness is a parasitic disease transmitted by blackflies. Symptoms include severe itching, skin lesions, and vision impairment including blindness. More than 99% of all cases are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. Fortunately, vector control and community-directed treatment with ivermectin have significantly decreased morbidity, and the treatment goal is shifting from control to elimination in Africa.We estimated financial resources and societal opportunity costs associated with scaling up community-directed treatment with ivermectin and implementing surveillance and response systems in endemic African regions for alternative treatment goals--control, elimination, and eradication. We used a micro-costing approach that allows adjustment for time-variant resource utilization and for the heterogeneity in the demographic, epidemiological, and political situation.The elimination and eradication scenarios, which include scaling up treatments to hypo-endemic and operationally challenging areas at the latest by 2021 and implementing intensive surveillance, would allow savings of $1.5 billion and $1.6 billion over 2013-2045 as compared to the control scenario. Although the elimination and eradication scenarios would require higher surveillance costs ($215 million and $242 million than the control scenario ($47 million, intensive surveillance would enable treatments to be safely stopped earlier, thereby saving unnecessary costs for prolonged treatments as in the control scenario lacking such surveillance and response systems.The elimination and eradication of onchocerciasis are predicted to allow substantial cost-savings in the long run. To realize cost-savings, policymakers should keep empowering community volunteers, and pharmaceutical companies would need to continue drug donation. To sustain high surveillance costs required for elimination and eradication, endemic countries would need to enhance their domestic funding capacity
Umeh, R E; Mahmoud, A O; Hagan, M; Wilson, M; Okoye, O I; Asana, U; Biritwum, R; Ogbu-Pearce, P; Elhassan, E; Yaméogo, L; Braideo, E I; Seketeli, A
The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) sponsored a baseline study in Nigeria between 1998 and 1999 on the prevalence and distribution of Onchocerciasis. The randomly selected 1,064 subjects in the baseline study underwent detailed eye examination in Cross River (rain forest), Taraba (savanna) and Kogi (forest-savanna) States. This paper compares and contrasts the public health significance of ocular onchocerciasis in these ecological zones. A blindness prevalence of 2.4% was recorded in the study, onchocerciasis being responsible for 30.2% of the bilaterally blind subjects. Onchocerciasis-induced blindness prevalence was relatively high in the rain forest and forest savanna zones of Cross River and Kogi States, Cross River having the highest site-specific prevalence (50.0%), followed by Kogi (41.7%). Taraba recorded only 27.3%. Other conditions identified included glaucoma, optic nerve disease and cataract rates of which were also found to be high among the population (6.9%, 6.5 % and 8.9% respectively). Anterior segment onchocercal lesions, punctate and sclerosing keratitis were the predominant features of the infection in the savanna zone (14.1% and 6.3% respectively), while posterior segment lesions were much more common in the forest zone. The need to sustain the present efforts to control onchocerciasis through mass ivermectin treatment is recommended.
Taylor, H R
Ivermectin, a recently developed macrocyclic lactone with broad antiparasitic activity, has been shown by a series of clinical trials to be safe and effective in the treatment of human infection with Onchocerca volvulus. Although it is rapidly microfilaricidal, it does not cause a severe reaction as is seen with diethylcarbamazine treatment. In patients with onchocerciasis, a single oral dose of ivermectin (150 micrograms/Kg) repeated once a year leads to a marked reduction in skin microfilaria counts and ocular involvement, although ivermectin has no known long-lasting effects on the adult worms. With treatment there is no significant exacerbation of either anterior or posterior segment eye disease even in those with severe ocular disease. Treatment leads to a marked and prolonged improvement in ocular status. Because of its safety and efficacy, ivermectin can be used on a mass scale and promises to revolutionize the treatment of onchocerciasis.
Ande, Raymond; Samu, Tayib; Hall, Ernest L.
Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) have many potential applications in manufacturing, medicine, space and defense. The purpose of this paper is to describe exploratory research on the design of the remote controlled emergency stop and vision systems for an autonomous mobile robot. The remote control provides human supervision and emergency stop capabilities for the autonomous vehicle. The vision guidance provides automatic operation. A mobile robot test-bed has been constructed using a golf cart base. The mobile robot (Bearcat) was built for the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems (AUVS) 1997 competition. The mobile robot has full speed control with guidance provided by a vision system and an obstacle avoidance system using ultrasonic sensors systems. Vision guidance is accomplished using two CCD cameras with zoom lenses. The vision data is processed by a high speed tracking device, communicating with the computer the X, Y coordinates of blobs along the lane markers. The system also has three emergency stop switches and a remote controlled emergency stop switch that can disable the traction motor and set the brake. Testing of these systems has been done in the lab as well as on an outside test track with positive results that show that at five mph the vehicle can follow a line and at the same time avoid obstacles.
Andersen, Gert Lysgaard; Christensen, Anders C.; Ravn, Ole
This paper describes the modelling phases for the design of a path tracking vision controller for a three wheeled mobile robot. It is shown that, by including the dynamic characteristics of vision and encoder sensors and implementing the total system in one multivariable control loop, one can...... obtain good performance even when using standard low cost equipment and a comparatively low sampling rate. The plant model is a compound of kinematic, dynamic and sensor submodels, all integrated into a discrete state space representation. An intelligent strategy is applied for the vision sensor......, including the start up, normal operation, exception handling and shut down phases. Laboratory experiments show the validity of the approach using standard Kalman filter/LQR control design...
Y.E. Kim (Young Eun); J.H.F. Remme (Jan); P. Steinmann (Peter); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); J.-B. Roungou (Jean-Baptiste); F. Tediosi (Fabrizio)
textabstractRiver blindness (onchocerciasis) causes severe itching, skin lesions, and vision impairment including blindness. More than 99% of all current cases are found in sub-Saharan Africa. Fortunately, vector control and community-directed treatment with ivermectin have significantly reduced mor
Robinson P. Paul
Full Text Available This paper mainly emphasizes on the POV (Persistence Of Vision technology. In current era in which energy is the main factor in designing all the applications, maximum and efficient use of the energy is very important. A POV display has many advantages over a traditional CRT, LCD or LED display, like power savings, less complexity, easy configuration, attractiveness etc. To overcome the drawback of old processor we have decided to implement the same display atop a new and advanced microprocessor, the Arduino duemilanove. This platform brings with it newer coding and a different understanding of peripherals. ARDUINO INTERFACE BOARDS provide us with a low-cost, easy-to use technology to create the project. We also aim to build the newer display to work with modern forms of interfaces. To accomplish this, we will be interfacing the display with an Android device. This project can be implemented with help of any Android Smartphone/tablet running Android 4.0+.
Shicai LIU; Dalong TAN; Guangjun LIU
In this paper,a formation control algorithm and an obstacle avoidance control algorithm for mobile robots are developed based on a relative motion sensory system such as a pan/tilt camera vision system,without the need for global sensing and communication between robots.This is achieved by employing the velocity variation,instead of actual velocities,as the control inputs.Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed control methods.
Wehner, Walter S.
The advanced inspection system is an autonomous control and analysis system that improves the inspection and remediation operations for ground and surface systems. It uses optical imaging technology with intelligent computer vision algorithms to analyze physical features of the real-world environment to make decisions and learn from experience. The advanced inspection system plans to control a robotic manipulator arm, an unmanned ground vehicle and cameras remotely, automatically and autonomously. There are many computer vision, image processing and machine learning techniques available as open source for using vision as a sensory feedback in decision-making and autonomous robotic movement. My responsibilities for the advanced inspection system are to create a software architecture that integrates and provides a framework for all the different subsystem components; identify open-source algorithms and techniques; and integrate robot hardware.
intensity. We used bumblebees (Bombus terrestris), honeybees (Apis mellifera ), the common wasp (Vespa vulgaris), hornets (Vespa crabro) flies (Mousca...bees (Apis mellifera L.). J. Exp. Biol. 209, 978-984. Beyeler, A., Zufferey, J.-C. and Floreano, D. (2009). Vision-based control of near- obstacle
Full Text Available A vision-based control system has been developed. It enables a human operator to remotely direct a robot, equipped with a camera, towards targets in 3D space by simply pointing on their images with a pointing device. This paper presents an anticipatory system, which has been designed for improving the safety and the effectiveness of the vision-based commands. It simulates these commands in a virtual environment. It attempts to detect hard contacts that may occur between the robot and its environment, which can be caused by machine errors or operator errors as well.
Laura Moya Alonso
Full Text Available Background: Onchocerciasis or river blindness is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca Volvulus. It occurs in 38 countries in the world, including Africa, Latin America and the Arabian Peninsula. The infection predominantly causes visual impairment and blindness and skin disease. Objectives: The aim of this project is to review the literature on the psycho-social and economic consequences of onchocerciasis in endemic areas. Economic evaluation studies on onchocerciasis and its control programmes were also reviewed. Methods: Electronic searches of PUBMED and Google were made. In addition, the Cochrane Library and WHO website were searched. Different types of economic analysis were reviewed to quantify the relationship between the programme costs and impacts. Results: Eighty papers were identified from different sources, most of which are quantitative studies or literature reviews, and only two were clinical trials. Onchocerciasis has severe socio-economic and psychological consequences. The stigma associated with the disease may reduce marital prospects among affected individuals, disrupt social relationships and cause loss of self-confidence. Also among agricultural workers onchocerciasis has been associated with increased time away from work and reduced productivity, leading to lower income. Discussion: Most of the papers analysed were cross-sectional studies based on data collection through questionnaires. Although there is an increasing number of published papers about the importance of the psycho-social and economic perspective of onchocerciasis, further research is still necessary to quantify and control its consequences. Conclusion: Onchocerciasis is still a serious problem in poor countries. Infected people face physical disability and social stigma that can dramatically reduce the quality of life and land productivity. Control programmes, though costly, have been very successful and cost
Robotic vision, the combination of robotics and computer vision, involves the application of computer algorithms to data acquired from sensors. The research community has developed a large body of such algorithms but for a newcomer to the field this can be quite daunting. For over 20 years the author has maintained two open-source MATLAB® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and compu...
Awadzi, K; Dadzie, K Y; Shulz-Key, H; Haddock, D R; Gilles, H M; Aziz, M A
Nineteen patients from an area of vector control in the savanna region of Northern Ghana, all with moderate to heavy infections with Onchocerca volvulus and some with ocular involvement, were treated with 50, 100, 150 or 200 micrograms kg-1 of ivermectin. Detailed monitoring of clinical and ocular reactions and of alterations in skin microfilarial counts and laboratory indices were carried out during the first 28 days. Microfilarial counts in skin snips and detailed ocular examinations were then repeated at intervals over a period of nine months. Ivermectin slowly eliminated microfilariae from the skin and eye without serious adverse clinical or ocular reactions in all treated groups. There was little difference in efficacy between doses of 100, 150 and 200 micrograms kg-1, and these were more effective than the 50 micrograms kg-1 dose. Very low levels of skin microfilariae were maintained for nine months. Microfilariae were not eliminated from the eye for at least three months. The drug was neither macrofilaricidal nor embryotoxic. However, it produced a dose-dependent stimulation of embryogenesis manifest at one month and succeeded by a suppression of embryogenesis at three months after therapy. In areas where transmission of onchocerciasis has been interrupted, ivermectin may need not be given more often than once a year. The efficacy of the drug on single dosage and the mild adverse reactions produced, if confirmed in subsequent controlled studies, would greatly simplify the treatment of onchocerciasis and would reintroduce new concepts of the role of chemotherapy in the control of onchocerciasis.
Dieye, Yakou; Storey, Helen L; Barrett, Kelsey L; Gerth-Guyette, Emily; Di Giorgio, Laura; Golden, Allison; Faulx, Dunia; Kalnoky, Michael; Ndiaye, Marie Khemesse Ngom; Sy, Ngayo; Mané, Malang; Faye, Babacar; Sarr, Mamadou; Dioukhane, Elhadji Mamadou; Peck, Roger B; Guinot, Philippe; de Los Santos, Tala
As effective onchocerciasis control efforts in Africa transition to elimination efforts, different diagnostic tools are required to support country programs. Senegal, with its long standing, successful control program, is transitioning to using the SD BIOLINE Onchocerciasis IgG4 (Ov16) rapid test over traditional skin snip microscopy. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating the Ov16 rapid test into onchocerciasis surveillance activities in Senegal, based on the following attributes of acceptability, usability, and cost. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 13 villages in southeastern Senegal in May 2016. Individuals 5 years and older were invited to participate in a demographic questionnaire, an Ov16 rapid test, a skin snip biopsy, and an acceptability interview. Rapid test technicians were interviewed and a costing analysis was conducted. Of 1,173 participants, 1,169 (99.7%) agreed to the rapid test while 383 (32.7%) agreed to skin snip microscopy. The sero-positivity rate of the rapid test among those tested was 2.6% with zero positives 10 years and younger. None of the 383 skin snips were positive for Ov microfilaria. Community members appreciated that the rapid test was performed quickly, was not painful, and provided reliable results. The total costs for this surveillance activity was $22,272.83, with a cost per test conducted at $3.14 for rapid test, $7.58 for skin snip microscopy, and $13.43 for shared costs. If no participants had refused skin snip microscopy, the total cost per method with shared costs would have been around $16 per person tested. In this area with low onchocerciasis sero-positivity, there was high acceptability and perceived value of the rapid test by community members and technicians. This study provides evidence of the feasibility of implementing the Ov16 rapid test in Senegal and may be informative to other country programs transitioning to Ov16 serologic tools.
Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Beier, John C
Onchocerciasis is a neglected parasitic disease affecting the poorest underserved people in Yemen. A national control programme with goals to eliminate onchocerciasis has yet to be launched due to the current upheaval and social unrest in the country. The disease, locally termed as sowda, is unique in its clinicopathologic pattern, being of the localized, non-blinding, hyperreactive onchocercal skin disease. Although early reports identified endemic foci along seasonal watercourses, there is a need to redefine its epidemiologic patterns as well as health and socioeconomic impacts. Laboratory diagnosis of sowda among Yemeni patients is difficult due to the low load of microfilariae in skin snips and the presence of asymptomatic itching-free microfilaria carriers. Adoption of ivermectin use at three-month intervals as a control strategy has not been evaluated because the drug is mostly used in clinics and distributed to only a few affected communities. This paper addresses key aspects of onchocerciasis in Yemen and highlights the need for screening at-risk populations using highly sensitive techniques and mapping the distributions of the parasite in human and vector populations of blackflies. The new research should be integrated with the launch of a national onchocerciasis control programme to achieve onchocerciasis elimination.
Reeves, B C; Harper, R. A.; Russell, W B
Aim: To compare the effectiveness of three models of low vision rehabilitation for people with age related macular degeneration (AMD) referred for low vision rehabilitation (LVR): (a) an enhanced low vision rehabilitation model (ELVR) including supplementary home based low vision rehabilitation; (b) conventional low vision rehabilitation (CLVR) based in a hospital clinic; (c) CLVR with home visits that did not include rehabilitation (CELVR), intended to act as a control for the additional con...
Barranco, Francisco; Diaz, Javier; Gibaldi, Agostino; Sabatini, Silvio P; Ros, Eduardo
This paper presents an architecture for computing vector disparity for active vision systems as used on robotics applications. The control of the vergence angle of a binocular system allows us to efficiently explore dynamic environments, but requires a generalization of the disparity computation with respect to a static camera setup, where the disparity is strictly 1-D after the image rectification. The interaction between vision and motor control allows us to develop an active sensor that achieves high accuracy of the disparity computation around the fixation point, and fast reaction time for the vergence control. In this contribution, we address the development of a real-time architecture for vector disparity computation using an FPGA device. We implement the disparity unit and the control module for vergence, version, and tilt to determine the fixation point. In addition, two on-chip different alternatives for the vector disparity engines are discussed based on the luminance (gradient-based) and phase information of the binocular images. The multiscale versions of these engines are able to estimate the vector disparity up to 32 fps on VGA resolution images with very good accuracy as shown using benchmark sequences with known ground-truth. The performances in terms of frame-rate, resource utilization, and accuracy of the presented approaches are discussed. On the basis of these results, our study indicates that the gradient-based approach leads to the best trade-off choice for the integration with the active vision system.
Full Text Available This paper presents an architecture for computing vector disparity for active vision systems as used on robotics applications. The control of the vergence angle of a binocular system allows us to efficiently explore dynamic environments, but requires a generalization of the disparity computation with respect to a static camera setup, where the disparity is strictly 1-D after the image rectification. The interaction between vision and motor control allows us to develop an active sensor that achieves high accuracy of the disparity computation around the fixation point, and fast reaction time for the vergence control. In this contribution, we address the development of a real-time architecture for vector disparity computation using an FPGA device. We implement the disparity unit and the control module for vergence, version, and tilt to determine the fixation point. In addition, two on-chip different alternatives for the vector disparity engines are discussed based on the luminance (gradient-based and phase information of the binocular images. The multiscale versions of these engines are able to estimate the vector disparity up to 32 fps on VGA resolution images with very good accuracy as shown using benchmark sequences with known ground-truth. The performances in terms of frame-rate, resource utilization, and accuracy of the presented approaches are discussed. On the basis of these results, our study indicates that the gradient-based approach leads to the best trade-off choice for the integration with the active vision system.
The Habitat and Behavioural Environment of Onchocerciasis in Patigi Local ... physical and socio-economic factors of vulnerability to onchocerciasis in Patigi ... from its effects on the human body, ..... population and cultural behaviour forms.
Full Text Available Ed W Cupp1, Charles D Mackenzie2, Thomas R Unnasch31Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA; 2Department of Pathobiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; 3Department of Global Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: Ivermectin (registered for human use as Mectizan® was donated by Merck & Co Inc in 1987 for the treatment and control of human onchocerciasis ("river blindness". This philanthropic gesture has had a remarkable effect in reducing the incidence and prevalence of this serious ocular and dermatological disease, while changing health system support for millions of people worldwide. Over 800 million doses have been given to more than 80 million people for onchocerciasis during the past 23 years. As a result, onchocerciasis has been significantly reduced in more than 25 countries, transmission has been interrupted in foci in at least 10 countries, and the disease is no longer seen in children in many formerly endemic foci. Recent communications have suggested that the drug's efficacy as the major therapeutic agent for these control and elimination programs may be threatened, but alternative interpretations for suboptimal response/resistance suggest otherwise. Current research needs and control methods by which the public health community in endemic countries may respond to resistance, should it occur in their area, are discussed, along with the continuing importance of this anthelmintic as the mainstay in onchocerciasis control programs.Keywords: Ivermectin, Onchocerca volvulus, river blindness, resistance, African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control, Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas
谢铮; Ifeanyi Nsofor; Rachel Tolhurst
目的:了解不同利益相关方对非洲盘尾丝虫病项目(African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control,APOC)的评价,调查该项目在社区实施中的进展及所存在的问题,为未来被忽视的热带病(neglected tropical diseases,NTD)控制项目提供政策建议.方法:采用个人深度访谈和焦点组访谈作为研究方法,使用主题框架法作为资料处理方法.结果:药物发放取得了一定的效果,社区居民普遍认可并接受了发放的预防药物.同时,研究还发现社区缺乏对NTD的健康教育,社区没有充分认识到疾病预防的责任,社区志愿者力量尚未得到可持续发展.结论:APOC项目目标部分得到实现,与其他非洲国家相比,尼日利亚在项目实施上遇到一些挑战和困难.该项目对于中国也具有借鉴意义.%Objective: To investigate the progress and challenges of the implementation of the global programme in Taraba State, Nigeria. Methods; The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control ( APOC) as the first neglected tropical diseases ( 1NTD ) control initiative in Africa had been introduced to Nigeria since 1997. Community-directed distributors of community-directed treatment with ivermectin had been adopted as its main strategy. As a qualitative study, in-depth interview and focus group discussion were used as data collection methods. The thematic framework method was used as a data analysis method. Results: The community reported that they had benefited from the programme. The study findings showed that the health education on NTDs remained very poor, and the community had not fully realized its responsibility for the drug distribution and NTDs control, and the community drug distributor (CDDs) had not been developed as a substantial team working for other projects. Conclusion; The goals of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) only have been achieved partly. China should learn from the experience.
The variation of joint groove size during tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding will result in the non-uniform fill of deposited metal. To solve this problem, an adaptive fill control system was developed based on laser vision sensing. The system hardware consists of a modular development kit (MDK) as the real-time image capturing system, a computer as the controller, a D/A conversion card as the interface of controlled variable output, and a DC TIG welding system as the controlled device. The system software is developed and the developed feature extraction algorithm and control strategy are of good accuracy and robustness. Experimental results show that the system can implement adaptive fill of melting metal with high stability, reliability and accuracy. The groove is filled well and the quality of the weld formation satisfies the relevant industry criteria.
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Anderson, J; Fuglsang, H; de C Marshall, T F
A single 10-14 day course of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was given under betamethazone cover to 18 patients (Group A) with ocular onchocerciasis, and the effects were studied in detail over 1-2 years. A comparison was made with the findings in 21 patients (Group B) who received a similar course to be followed by a weekly suppressive 100-200 mg dose of DEC. A further 18 patients (Group C) served as controls. The initial DEC course provoked severe general reactions, but ocular complications could be controlled by betamethazone. The weekly suppressive dose was not acceptable to the majority of patients, and only one young patient with severe iritis who improved during the initial course took the weekly tablet voluntarily over 2 years. The initial DEC course reduced the numbers of microfilariae in the eye and was of temporary benefit to lesions of the anterior segment, but it did not affect lesions of the posterior segment. A possible adverse effect on the optic disc is discussed. Any beneficial long term effect was almost confined to Group B, and to lesions of the anterior segment. The best to hope for in lesions of the posterior segment was arrest of further development. The findings at the end of the trial were as follows: No. of lesions (see article).
Diallo, S; Aziz, M A; Lariviere, M; Diallo, J S; Diop-Mar, I; N'Dir, O; Badiane, S; Py, D; Schulz-Key, H; Gaxotte, P
Ivermectin (MK-933) has been compared with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and placebo in a double-blind study in 30 adult male Senegalese patients with Onchocerca volvulus infection. 10 patients were randomly assigned to each treatment group. Ivermectin was administered as a single oral dose of 12 mg and DEC as 50 mg daily for two days and 100 mg twice daily for the following six days, total 1.3 g in eight days. Skin O. volvulus microfilaria densities remained near pre-study values in the placebo patients, but decreased rapidly with both active drugs to mean values about 2% of pretreatment (Day 8) and then increased slowly, reaching in 12 months about 4% of pre-treatment (ivermectin) and 18% (DEC). This difference is statistically significant. Clinical adverse reactions were recorded in four ivermectin, ten DEC and three placebo patients. One ivermectin and six DEC patients received steroid treatment for relief of these reactions. Serious adverse ocular changes were not seen in any patients, possibly because of the steroid therapy in the DEC patients. Adult O. volvulus from onchocercal nodules one and six months after treatment showed no effect of either drug on viability. Intra-uterine developing forms of the microfilariae appeared normal in all three treatment groups at the one month examination but deformed and degenerated forms were evident at six months in the ivermectin group but not in the DEC and placebo patients. Ivermectin as a single oral dose appears to be a safer and more effective microfilaricidal drug in human onchocerciasis than DEC in the standard multi-dose regimen.
Ken D. Thomas
A Future Vision of a transformed nuclear plant operating model based on an integrated digital environment has been developed as part of the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) research pathway, under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program. This is a research and development program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration with the nuclear utility industry, to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. II&C has been identified as a potential life-limiting issue for the domestic LWR fleet in addressing the reliability and aging concerns of the legacy systems in service today. The Future Vision is based on a digital architecture that encompasses all aspects of plant operations and support, integrating plant systems, plant work processes, and plant workers in a seamless digital environment to enhance nuclear safety, increase productivity, and improve overall plant performance. Pilot projects are being conducted as the means for industry to gain confidence in these new technologies for use in nuclear plant work activities. The pilot projects introduce new digital technologies into the nuclear plant operating environment at host operating plants to demonstrate and validate them for production usage. In turn, the pilot project technologies serve as the stepping stones to the eventual seamless digital environment as described in the Future Vision. Initial project results confirm that the technologies can address provide substantial efficiency and human performance benefits while resolving the reliability and aging concerns.
Kobayashi, Yo; Sekiguchi, Yuta; Tomono, Yu; Watanabe, Hiroki; Toyoda, Kazutaka; Konishi, Kozo; Tomikawa, Morimasa; Ieiri, Satoshi; Tanoue, Kazuo; Hashizume, Makoto; Fujie, Masaktsu G
Recently, a robotic system was developed to assist Single Port Endoscopic Surgery (SPS). However, the existing system required a manual change of vision field, hindering the surgical task and increasing the degrees of freedom (DOFs) of the manipulator. We proposed a surgical robot for SPS with dynamic vision field control, the endoscope view being manipulated by a master controller. The prototype robot consisted of a positioning and sheath manipulator (6 DOF) for vision field control, and dual tool tissue manipulators (gripping: 5DOF, cautery: 3DOF). Feasibility of the robot was demonstrated in vitro. The "cut and vision field control" (using tool manipulators) is suitable for precise cutting tasks in risky areas while a "cut by vision field control" (using a vision field control manipulator) is effective for rapid macro cutting of tissues. A resection task was accomplished using a combination of both methods.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Optic neuritis is a frequent manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Visual deficits range from a minor impairment of visual functions through to complete loss of vision. Although many patients recover almost completely, roughly 35% of patients remain visually impaired for years, and therapeutic options for those patients hardly exist. Vision restoration therapy is a software-based visual training program that has been shown to improve visual deficits after pre- and postchiasmatic injury. The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate whether residual visual deficits after past or recent optic neuritis can be reduced by means of vision restoration therapy. Methods/design A randomized, controlled, patient- and observer-blinded clinical pilot study (VISION study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of vision restoration therapy in optic neuritis patients. Eighty patients with a residual visual deficit after optic neuritis (visual acuity ≤0.7 and/or scotoma will be stratified according to the time of optic neuritis onset (manifestation more than 12 months ago (40 patients, fixed deficit versus manifestation 2 to 6 months ago (40 patients, recent optic neuritis, and randomized into vision restoration therapy arm or saccadic training arm (control intervention. Patients will be instructed to complete a computer-based visual training for approximately 30 minutes each day for a period of 6 months. Patients and evaluators remain blinded to the treatment allocation throughout the study. All endpoints will be analyzed and P-values Discussion If vision restoration therapy is shown to improve visual function after optic neuritis, this method might be a first therapeutic option for patients with incomplete recovery from optic neuritis. Trial registration NCT01274702
Sekiguchi, Yuta; Kobayashi, Yo; Watanabe, Hiroki; Tomono, Yu; Noguchi, Takehiko; Takahashi, Yu; Toyoda, Kazutaka; Uemura, Munenori; Ieiri, Satoshi; Ohdaira, Takeshi; Tomikawa, Morimasa; Hashizume, Makoto; Fujie, Masakatsu G
Recently, robotics systems are focused to assist in Single Port Endoscopic Surgery (SPS). However, the existing system required a manual operation of vision and viewpoint, hindering the surgical task. We proposed a surgical endoscopic robot for SPS with dynamic vision control, the endoscopic view being manipulated by a master controller. The prototype robot consists of a manipulator for vision control, and dual tool tissue manipulators (gripping: 5DOFs, cautery: 3DOFs) can be attached at the tip of sheath manipulator. In particular, this paper focuses on an in vivo experiment. We showed that vision control in the stomach and a cautery task by a cautery tool could be effectively achieved.
Tielsch, James M; Beeche, Arlyne
The Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP), one of the most successful vertical disease control programs in the history of public health, came to an end in 2003 with devolvement of responsibilities for control program activities passed to the countries affected. Fortunately, 15 years ago the Mectizan Distribution Program (MDP) was founded to provide a complementary approach to controlling the disabling consequences of this parasitic infection. With over 250 million doses of ivermectin distributed over the past 15 years, the MDP is well on its way to both solidifying the progress made by the OCP and extending program reach well beyond the boundaries of the OCP. Through the extensive clinical testing protocols implemented in a variety of countries in Aftica, ivermectin has been proven to be a safe and highly effective treatment for onchocerciasis. Regular distribution to populations living in endemic areas has demonstrated significant reductions in blinding ocular complications, transmission, and disability caused by onchocercal skin disease. As yet undocumented, are the likely significant impact regular population dosing with ivermectin has on intestinal helminth infections, lymphatic filariasis, and human scabies infection. While there are significant barriers to continued program success, focussed attention on expanding and improving community-directed ivermectin distribution is likely to lead to further progress against this resilient infection.
Ley, Dietmar; Braune, Ingolf
This paper presents a vision-based on-line level control system which is used in beverage filling machines. Motivation for the development of this sensor system was the need for an intelligent filling valve, which can provide constant filling levels for all container/product combinations (i.e. juice, milk, beer, water, etc. in glass or PET bottles with various transparency and shape) by using a non-tactile and completely sterile measurement method. The sensor concept being presented in this paper is based on several CCD-cameras imaging the moving containers from the outside. The stationary lighting system illuminating the bottles is located within the filler circle. The field of view covers between 5 and 8 bottles depending on the bottle diameter and the filler partitioning. Each filling element's number is identified by the signals of an angular encoder. The electro-pneumatic filling valves can be opened and closed by computer control The cameras continuously monitor the final stages of the filling process, i.e. after the filling height has reached the upper half of the bottle. The sensor system measures the current filling height and derives the filling speed. Based on static a priori- knowledge and dynamic process knowledge the sensor system generates a best estimate of the particular time when the single valve is to be closed. After every new level measurement the system updates the closing time. The measurement process continues until the result of the next level calculation would be available after the estimated closing time would have been passed. The vision-based filling valve control enables the filling machine to adapt the filling time of each valve to the individual bottle shape. Herewith a standard deviation between 2 and 4 mm (depending on the slew rate in the bottle neck) can be accomplished, even at filling speed > 70.000 bottles per hour. 0
Khadraoui, D.; Martinet, P.; Bonton, P.; Gallice, J. [Univ. Blaise Pascal, Aubiere (France). Lab. des Sciences et Materiaux pour l`Electronique et d`Automatique; Debain, C. [Inst. de Recherche pour l`Ingenierie de l`Agriculture et de l`Environment, Montoldre (France). Div. Techniques du Machinisme Agricole; Rouveure, R. [Inst. de Recherche pour l`Ingenierie de l`Agriculture et de l`Environment, Antony (France). Div. Electronique et Intelligence Artificielle
This article presents a real-time control system for an agricultural mobile machine (vehicle) based on an on-board vision system using a single camera. This system has been designed to help humans in repetitive and difficult tasks in the agricultural domain. The aim of the robotics application concerns the control of the vehicle with regard to the reap limit detected in image space. The perception aspect in relation to the application has been described in previous work, and here the authors deal with the control aspect. They integrate image features issues from the modeling of the scene in the control loop to perform an image-based servoing technique. The vehicle behavior described here concerns bicycle and neural models, and three control laws are then synthesized. The first and the second are modeling approaches and use an interaction between the scene and the image space. They are based on the regulation of a task function. The third is a black-box modeling technique, and is based on a neural network. Finally, experimental results obtained with these different control laws in different conditions are presented and discussed.
Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez
Full Text Available Mexico is one of the six countries formerly endemic for onchocerciasis in Latin America. Transmission has been interrupted in the three endemic foci of that country and mass drug distribution has ceased. Three years after mass drug distribution ended, post-treatment surveillance (PTS surveys were undertaken which employed entomological indicators to check for transmission recrudescence.In-depth entomologic assessments were performed in 18 communities in the three endemic foci of Mexico. None of the 108,212 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from the three foci were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA, resulting in a maximum upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.035/2,000 flies examined. This is an order of magnitude below the threshold of a 95%-ULCI of less than one infective fly per 2,000 flies tested, the current entomological criterion for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. The point estimate of seasonal transmission potential (STP was zero, and the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval for the STP ranged from 1.2 to 1.7 L3/person/season in the different foci. This value is below all previous estimates for the minimum transmission potential required to maintain the parasite population.The results from the in-depth entomological post treatment surveillance surveys strongly suggest that transmission has not resumed in the three foci of Mexico during the three years since the last distribution of ivermectin occurred; it was concluded that transmission remains undetectable without intervention, and Onchocerca volvulus has been eliminated from Mexico.
Muhammad Nauman Mubarak
Full Text Available This paper presents design, fabrication and real time vision based control of a two degree of freedom (d.o.f robot capable of playing a carom board game. The system consists of three main components: (a a high resolution digital camera (b a main processing and controlling unit (c a robot with two servo motors and striking mechanism. The camera captures the image of arena and transmits it to central processing unit. CPU processes the image and congregate useful information using adaptive histogram technique. Congregated information about the coordinates of the object is then sent to the RISC architecture based microcontroller by serial interface. Microcontroller implements inverse kinematics algorithms and PID control on motors with feedback from high resolution quadrature encoders to reach at the desired coordinates and angles. The striking unit exerts a controlled force on the striker when it is in-line with the disk and carom hole (or, pocket. The striker strikes with the disk and pots (to hit (a ball into a pocket it in the pocket. The objective is to develop an intelligent, cost effective and user friendly system that fulfil the idea of technology for entertainment.
Brown, K R; Neu, D C
Initial clinical trials with ivermectin were performed in patients with both roundworm infestation and onchocerciasis. Obvious clinical safety allowed for rapid progression through 5-30-50-100-150-200 mcg/kg in infected patients. Initial studies showed some effect at 50 mcg/kg; subsequent double-blind controlled studies, either with placebo or diethylcarbamazine (DEC), confirmed the efficacy of ivermectin as well as further defining its safety profile. Absence of adverse eye findings or serious systemic reactions justified the further open trials. Studies of patients treated at 6, 12, or 18 month intervals showed a long lasting effect of ivermectin in reducing skin microfilaria counts. Phase III studies confirmed safety and efficacy and further refined the dose to 150 mcg/kg every 12 months. Large trials in Liberia and other countries in West Africa, and subsequently under Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP), included approximately 120,000 persons carefully followed during which few patients with serious adverse experiences were reported. These extensive field trials confirmed the relative safety allowing for broad distribution of ivermectin in programs not able to provide physician monitoring.
Becerra, Héctor M
Vision-based control of wheeled mobile robots is an interesting field of research from a scientific and even social point of view due to its potential applicability. This book presents a formal treatment of some aspects of control theory applied to the problem of vision-based pose regulation of wheeled mobile robots. In this problem, the robot has to reach a desired position and orientation, which are specified by a target image. It is faced in such a way that vision and control are unified to achieve stability of the closed loop, a large region of convergence, without local minima, and good robustness against parametric uncertainty. Three different control schemes that rely on monocular vision as unique sensor are presented and evaluated experimentally. A common benefit of these approaches is that they are valid for imaging systems obeying approximately a central projection model, e.g., conventional cameras, catadioptric systems and some fisheye cameras. Thus, the presented control schemes are generic approa...
Rock, Stephen M.
This final report documents the activities performed during the research period from April 1, 1996 to September 30, 1997. It contains three papers: Carrier Phase GPS and Computer Vision for Control of an Autonomous Helicopter; A Contestant in the 1997 International Aerospace Robotics Laboratory Stanford University; and Combined CDGPS and Vision-Based Control of a Small Autonomous Helicopter.
Greene, B M; Taylor, H R; Cupp, E W; Murphy, R P; White, A T; Aziz, M A; Schulz-Key, H; D'Anna, S A; Newland, H S; Goldschmidt, L P
We compared ivermectin with diethylcarbamazine for the treatment of onchocerciasis in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty men with moderate to heavy infection and ocular involvement were randomly assigned to receive ivermectin in a single oral dose (200 micrograms per kilogram of body weight), diethylcarbamazine daily for eight days, or placebo. Diethylcarbamazine caused a significantly more severe systemic reaction than ivermectin (P less than 0.001), whereas the reaction to ivermectin did not differ from the reaction to placebo. Diethylcarbamazine markedly increased the number of punctate opacities in the eye (P less than 0.001), as well as the number of dead and living microfilariae in the cornea over the first week of therapy. Ivermectin had no such effect. Both ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine promptly reduced skin microfilaria counts, but only in the ivermectin group did counts remain significantly lower (P less than 0.005) than in the placebo group at the end of six months of observation. Analysis of adult worms isolated from nodules obtained two months after the start of therapy showed no effect of either drug on viability. Ivermectin appears to be a better tolerated, safer, and more effective microfilaricidal agent than diethylcarbamazine for the treatment of onchocerciasis.
Windsor, Shane P; Bomphrey, Richard J; Taylor, Graham K
Vision is a key sensory modality for flying insects, playing an important role in guidance, navigation and control. Here, we use a virtual-reality flight simulator to measure the optomotor responses of the hawkmoth Hyles lineata, and use a published linear-time invariant model of the flight dynamics to interpret the function of the measured responses in flight stabilization and control. We recorded the forces and moments produced during oscillation of the visual field in roll, pitch and yaw, varying the temporal frequency, amplitude or spatial frequency of the stimulus. The moths' responses were strongly dependent upon contrast frequency, as expected if the optomotor system uses correlation-type motion detectors to sense self-motion. The flight dynamics model predicts that roll angle feedback is needed to stabilize the lateral dynamics, and that a combination of pitch angle and pitch rate feedback is most effective in stabilizing the longitudinal dynamics. The moths' responses to roll and pitch stimuli coincided qualitatively with these functional predictions. The moths produced coupled roll and yaw moments in response to yaw stimuli, which could help to reduce the energetic cost of correcting heading. Our results emphasize the close relationship between physics and physiology in the stabilization of insect flight.
Hugo C Turner
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies in Mali, Nigeria, and Senegal have indicated that annual (or biannual ivermectin distribution may lead to local elimination of human onchocerciasis in certain African foci. Modelling-based projections have been used to estimate the required duration of ivermectin distribution to reach elimination. A crucial assumption has been that microfilarial production by Onchocerca volvulus is reduced irreversibly by 30-35% with each (annual ivermectin round. However, other modelling-based analyses suggest that ivermectin may not have such a cumulative effect. Uncertainty in this (biological and other (programmatic assumptions would affect projected outcomes of long-term ivermectin treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We modify a deterministic age- and sex-structured onchocerciasis transmission model, parameterised for savannah O. volvulus-Simulium damnosum, to explore the impact of assumptions regarding the effect of ivermectin on worm fertility and the patterns of treatment coverage compliance, and frequency on projections of parasitological outcomes due to long-term, mass ivermectin administration in hyperendemic areas. The projected impact of ivermectin distribution on onchocerciasis and the benefits of switching from annual to biannual distribution are strongly dependent on assumptions regarding the drug's effect on worm fertility and on treatment compliance. If ivermectin does not have a cumulative impact on microfilarial production, elimination of onchocerciasis in hyperendemic areas may not be feasible with annual ivermectin distribution. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is substantial (biological and programmatic uncertainty surrounding modelling projections of onchocerciasis elimination. These uncertainties need to be acknowledged for mathematical models to inform control policy reliably. Further research is needed to elucidate the effect of ivermectin on O. volvulus reproductive biology and quantify the patterns of
Larsen, Thomas Dall; Lildballe, Jacob; Andersen, Nils Axel;
To enhance flexibility and extend the area of applications for robotic systems, it is important that the systems are capable ofhandling uncertainties and respond to (random) human behaviour.A vision systemmust very often be able to work in a dynamical ``noisy'' world where theplacement ofobjects...... checkers with a human opponent using a camera to determine wherethe board and pieces are located and when the human has made his move. The paperprimarily focuses on the vision aspect of the implemented system....
Turner, P F; Rockett, K A; Ottesen, E A; Francis, H; Awadzi, K; Clark, I A
Adverse reactions following treatment of onchocerciasis and bancroftian filariasis are common and frequently severe. They are generally caused not by direct drug toxicity but by host inflammatory responses to dying microfilariae. To define the responsible mechanism, serial blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were studied in 15 microfilaria-positive patients (10 with bancroftian filariasis, 5 with onchocerciasis) and 4 microfilaria-negative persons after diethylcarbamazine treatment. Elevations in IL-6 correlated with the occurrence and severity of clinical symptoms after treatment; for the onchocerciasis patients IL-6 levels directly reflected pretreatment intensity of infection. Serum TNF levels also rose but did not correlate directly with infection intensity or reaction severity. Microfilaria-negative controls remained asymptomatic with no significant rise in either cytokine. These findings suggest an etiologic role for systemically elevated cytokines in the inflammatory reactions developing after treatment of filarial infections in humans.
Atasavun Uysal, Songül; Aki, Esra
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between handwriting skills and visual motor control among students with low vision and to compare this with the performance of their normal sighted peers. 42 students with low vision and 26 normal sighted peers participated. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Motor Proficiency Test-Short Form (BOTMP-SF), Jebsen Taylor Hand Function Test's writing subtest, and a legibility assessment were administered. Significant differences were found between groups for students' writing speed, legibility, and visual motor control. Visual motor control was correlated both writing speed and legibility. Students with low vision had poorer handwriting performance, with lower legibility and slower writing speed. Writing performance time was related to visual motor control in students with low vision.
Yu, Junzhi; Wang, Kai; Tan, Min; Zhang, Jianwei
This paper focuses on the development and control issues of a self-propelled robotic fish with multiple artificial control surfaces and an embedded vision system. By virtue of the hybrid propulsion capability in the body plus the caudal fin and the complementary maneuverability in accessory fins, a synthesized propulsion scheme including a caudal fin, a pair of pectoral fins, and a pelvic fin is proposed. To achieve flexible yet stable motions in aquatic environments, a central pattern generator- (CPG-) based control method is employed. Meanwhile, a monocular underwater vision serves as sensory feedback that modifies the control parameters. The integration of the CPG-based motion control and the visual processing in an embedded microcontroller allows the robotic fish to navigate online. Aquatic tests demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed mechatronic design and swimming control methods. Particularly, a pelvic fin actuated sideward swimming gait was first implemented. It is also found that the speeds and maneuverability of the robotic fish with coordinated control surfaces were largely superior to that of the swimming robot propelled by a single control surface.
Lee, S J; Francis, H L; Awadzi, K; Ottesen, E A; Nutman, T B
To define the changes in antibody response to Onchocerca volvulus antigens after treatment of patients with onchocerciasis, IgG and IgE antibodies were examined quantitatively and qualitatively in 21 patients and 3 control individuals before and sequentially for 14 days after treatment with diethylcarbamazine. The quantitative levels of IgE and IgG responses (both polyclonal and O. volvulus-specific) remained essentially unchanged for all patients, but 9 of the 21 patients showed intensified responses to one or more parasite-specific antigens, and 8 of 21 developed antibodies to previously undetected antigens. There was a significant correlation between the intensities of infection and the development of newly recognized anti-O. volvulus antibodies. These studies demonstrate that O. volvulus-specific IgE and IgG antibody responses are, at least transiently, enhanced by treatment with diethylcarbamazine and that after treatment, parasites possibly release antigens previously hidden from the host's immune response.
Harrand, V.; Choudry, A.
The structure of a flexible arm derived from concatenation of the Stewart-Table-based links were studied. Solid modeling provides not only a realistic simulation, but is also essential for studying vision algorithms. These algorithms could be used for the adaptive control of the arm, using the well-known algorithms such as shape from shading, edge detection, orientation, etc. Details of solid modeling and its relation to vision based adaptive control are discussed.
Park, Rae-Young; Kee, Hoi-Sung; Kang, Jung-Ho; Lee, Su-Jin; Yoon, Soe-Ra; Jung, Kwang-Ik
To assess the effect of dominant and non-dominant vision in controlling posture in quiet stance. Twenty-five healthy elderly subjects aged over 60 years old and twenty-five young subjects aged under 30 years old were assessed by computerized dynamic posturography. Postural stability was measured in two conditions; dominant eye open and non-dominant eye open. We used the sensory organization test (SOT) for evaluating sensory impairment. A SOT assessed the subject's ability to use and integrate somatosensory input, vision, and vestibular cues effectively to maintain balance. The SOT was conducted 3 times, and the average value of the 3 trials was used for data analysis. Equilibrium scores reflected the subject's anteroposterior sway. The highest possible score was 100, which indicated that the subject did not sway at all, and a score of 0 indicated a fall from the footplate. Determination of ocular dominance was performed by a hole-in-the card test. For the twenty-five young subjects in this study, equilibrium score in two conditions did not differ. However, for elderly subjects over 60 years, the equilibrium score in dominant vision was higher than in nondominant vision (p<0.05). In young subjects, there were no significant differences in postural control between dominant vision and non-dominant vision. However, in elderly subjects, postural control in non-dominant vision was significantly impaired. Therefore, the evaluation of a dominant eye should be considered in rehabilitation programs for elderly people.
Full Text Available Robot decision making and motion control are commonly based on visual information in various applications. Position-based visual servo is a technique for vision-based robot control, which operates in the 3D workspace, uses real-time image processing to perform tasks of feature extraction, and returns the pose of the object for positioning control. In order to handle the computational burden at the vision sensor feedback, we design a FPGA-based motion-vision integrated system that employs dedicated hardware circuits for processing vision processing and motion control functions. This research conducts a preliminary study to explore the integration of 3D vision and robot motion control system design based on a single field programmable gate array (FPGA chip. The implemented motion-vision embedded system performs the following functions: filtering, image statistics, binary morphology, binary object analysis, object 3D position calculation, robot inverse kinematics, velocity profile generation, feedback counting, and multiple-axes position feedback control.
Lin, Yhu-Tin; Daro, Timothy; Abell, Jeffrey A.; Turner, III, Raymond D.; Casoli, Daniel J.
A method includes the following steps: actuating a robotic arm to perform an action at a start position; moving the robotic arm from the start position toward a first position; determining from a vision process method if a first part from the first position will be ready to be subjected to a first action by the robotic arm once the robotic arm reaches the first position; commencing the execution of the visual processing method for determining the position deviation of the second part from the second position and the readiness of the second part to be subjected to a second action by the robotic arm once the robotic arm reaches the second position; and performing a first action on the first part using the robotic arm with the position deviation of the first part from the first position predetermined by the vision process method.
Kristiansen, Morten; Kristiansen, Ewa; Jensen, Casper Houmann;
For gas metal arc welding a vision system was developed, which was robust to monitor the position of the arc. The monitoring documents the welding quality indirectly and a closed loop fuzzy control was implemented to control an even excess penetration. For welding experiments on a butt......-joint with a V-groove with varying root gapthe system demonstrated increased welding quality compared to the system with no control. The system was implemented with a low cost vision system, which makes the system interesting to apply in industrial welding automation systems....
Bonnet, Cédrick T; Baudry, Stéphane
In upright stance, individuals sway continuously and the sway pattern in dual tasks (e.g., a cognitive task performed in upright stance) differs significantly from that observed during the control quiet stance task. The cognitive approach has generated models (limited attentional resources, U-shaped nonlinear interaction) to explain such patterns based on competitive sharing of attentional resources. The objective of the current manuscript was to review these cognitive models in the specific context of visual tasks involving gaze shifts toward precise targets (here called active vision tasks). The selection excluded the effects of early and late stages of life or disease, external perturbations, active vision tasks requiring head and body motions and the combination of two tasks performed together (e.g., a visual task in addition to a computation in one's head). The selection included studies performed by healthy, young adults with control and active - difficult - vision tasks. Over 174 studies found in Pubmed and Mendeley databases, nine were selected. In these studies, young adults exhibited significantly lower amplitude of body displacement (center of pressure and/or body marker) under active vision tasks than under the control task. Furthermore, the more difficult the active vision tasks were, the better the postural control was. This underscores that postural control during active vision tasks may rely on synergistic relations between the postural and visual systems rather than on competitive or dual relations. In contrast, in the control task, there would not be any synergistic or competitive relations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Katabarwa, Moses N; Katamanywa, James; Lakwo, Thomson; Habomugisha, Peace; Byamukama, Edson; Oguttu, David; Nahabwe, Christine; Ngabirano, Monica; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Khainza, Annet; Tukahebwa, Edridah; Unnasch, Thomas R; Richards, Frank O; Garms, Rolf
It was not until early 1990s that, when the Imaramagambo focus of southwest Uganda was mapped, mass treatment with a single annual dose of ivermectin for onchocerciaisis control commenced. However, comprehensive investigations on its transmission were launched after a nationwide policy for onchocerciasis elimination in 2007. Entomological surveys throughout the focus from 2007 to 2015 have yielded few or no freshwater crabs (Potamonautes aloysiisabaudiae), which serve as the obligate phoretic host of the larvae and pupae of the vector Simulium neavei No S. neavei flies have been observed or collected since 2007. Skin snips (microscopy) from 294 individuals in 2008 were negative for skin microfilariae, and of the 462 persons analyzed by polymerase chain reaction skin snip poolscreen in 2009, only five (1.08%) persons were indicated as infected with onchocerciasis. All five of the positive persons were at least 40 years old. Serosurvey results showed negative exposure among 3,332 children in 2012 and 3,108 children in 2015. Both were within the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval of the prevalence estimate of 0.06%, which confirmed the elimination of onchocerciasis. Treatment coverage in Imaramagambo was generally poor, and transmission interruption of onchocerciasis could not be attributed solely to annual mass treatment with ivermectin. There was sufficient evidence to believe that the possible disappearance of the S. neavei flies, presumed to have been the main vector, may have hastened the demise of onchocerciasis in this focus.
Donnelly, J J; Rockey, J H; Bianco, A E; Soulsby, E J
Ocular immunopathologic responses of inbred guinea pigs infected with Onchocerca microfilariae from domesticated animals were studied as a laboratory model of human ocular onchocerciasis. A single intracorneal infection of normal guinea pigs with microfilariae produced only minimal ocular lesions. In contrast, intracorneal infection of guinea pigs previously immunized by systemic infection with microfilariae produced intense corneal and uveal inflammation. Transfer of splenic lymphocytes from immunized donors to syngeneic normal recipients substituted effectively for the active immunization. Cell recipients produced marked corneal inflammatory reactions when challenged by a single intracorneal infection. Fresh and cryopreserved microfilariae produced identical reactions. The corneal inflammatory infiltrates were composed primarily of eosinophils, neutrophils, and plasma cells and resembled human onchocercal keratitis. Diethylcarbamazine citrate administration after a challenge intracorneal infection increased the severity of the corneal inflammatory response in immunized animals.
Brandling-Bennett, A D; Darsie, R F
Ten Simulium ochraceum were allowed to feed at 10 different sites on 12 Guatemalans with onchocerciasis, and skin snips were taken from six of these sites. Numbers of microfilariae (mff) ingested by the flies and mff emerging from skin snips were highly correlated and showed that concentrations were greatest on the torso and decreased peripherally. S. ochraceum ingested the number of mff present in 1.0 mg or under 1.5 mm2 of skin. Numbers of mff in skin snips from the head, shoulder and upper arm correlated with over-all levels of infection but were frequently negative in subjects with light infections. Two or more skin snips were best able to detect and quantify infections.
Mostofi, N.; Samadzadegan, F.; Roohy, Sh.; Nozari, M.
The need of more accurate measurements in different stages of industrial applications, such as designing, producing, installation, and etc., is the main reason of encouraging the industry deputy in using of industrial Photogrammetry (Vision Metrology System). With respect to the main advantages of Photogrammetric methods, such as greater economy, high level of automation, capability of noncontact measurement, more flexibility and high accuracy, a good competition occurred between this method and other industrial traditional methods. With respect to the industries that make objects using a main reference model without having any mathematical model of it, main problem of producers is the evaluation of the production line. This problem will be so complicated when both reference and product object just as a physical object is available and comparison of them will be possible with direct measurement. In such case, producers make fixtures fitting reference with limited accuracy. In practical reports sometimes available precision is not better than millimetres. We used a non-metric high resolution digital camera for this investigation and the case study that studied in this paper is a chassis of automobile. In this research, a stable photogrammetric network designed for measuring the industrial object (Both Reference and Product) and then by using the Bundle Adjustment and Self-Calibration methods, differences between the Reference and Product object achieved. These differences will be useful for the producer to improve the production work flow and bringing more accurate products. Results of this research, demonstrate the high potential of proposed method in industrial fields. Presented results prove high efficiency and reliability of this method using RMSE criteria. Achieved RMSE for this case study is smaller than 200 microns that shows the fact of high capability of implemented approach.
Fendt, J; Hamm, D M; Banla, M; Schulz-Key, H; Wolf, H; Helling-Giese, G; Heuschkel, C; Soboslay, P T
Ivermectin treatment will effectively diminish microfilariae (Mf) of Onchocerca volvulus in the skin of patients, but therapy is associated with adverse host inflammatory responses. To investigate the association of proinflammatory chemokines with the intensity of infection and clinical adverse reactions, chemokine serum levels were measured in patients following ivermectin treatment (100 microg/kg, 150 microg/kg or 200 microg/kg) or placebo. The density of O. volvulus Mf per mg skin decreased by 85%, 97%, 97% and 90% at day 3, at month 3, month 6 and at 1 year post-ivermectin. The cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK/CCL27) was found highly elevated in onchocerciasis patients compared to infection-free European controls (P = 0.0004) and it did not change following ivermectin or placebo to 1 year post-therapy. The chemokine RANTES/CCL5 (regulated on activated and normally T cell-expressed) was similarly high in onchocerciasis patients and infection-free European controls; the RANTES/CCL5 levels did not change following treatment until 6 months post-therapy but were slightly elevated at 1 year post-therapy (P ivermectin (P ivermectin treatment, but following clearance of microfilariae of O. volvulus their levels increased from 6 months post-therapy onwards (for both at 12 months post-therapy, P dose of ivermectin or with the serum levels of MIP-1alpha/CCL3, MIP-1beta/CCL4, TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22 and CTACK/CCL27. Our observations suggest that following ivermectin, macrophages as well as memory Th2-type lymphocytes and B cells, attracted and activated by MDC/CCL22, TARC/CCL17 and CTACK/CCL27, may contribute to dermal immune responses and O. volvulus Mf killing and clearance. The transient changes of TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 were not associated with clinical adverse responses, and the later rise of MIP-1alpha/CCL3 and MIP-1beta/CCL4 showed a reactivation of Type 1 immune responses associated with persistent low levels of O. volvulus microfilariae and an expiring
Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta
The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being,…
Full Text Available The AR.Drone is a remote controlled quadcopter which is low cost, and readily available for consumers. Therefore it represents a simple test-bed on which control and vision research may be conducted. However, interfacing with the AR.Drone can be a challenge for new researchers as the AR.Drone's application programming interface (API is built on low-level, bit-wise, C instructions. Therefore, this paper will demonstrate the use of an additional layer of abstraction on the AR.Drone’s API via the Robot Operating System (ROS. Using ROS, the construction of a high-level graphical user interface (GUI will be demonstrated, with the explicit aim of assisting new researchers in developing simple control and vision algorithms to interface with the AR.Drone. The GUI, formally known as the Control and Vision Interface (CVI is currently used to research and develop computer vision, simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM, and path planning algorithms by a number of postgraduate and undergraduate students at the school of Aeronautical, Mechanical, and Mechatronics Engineering (AMME in The University of Sydney.
Guo, Jinghua; Li, Linhui; Li, Keqiang; Wang, Rongben
Lateral control is considered to be one of the toughest challenges in the development of automated vehicles due to their features of nonlinearities, parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. In order to overcome these difficulties, an adaptive fuzzy-sliding mode control strategy used for lateral control of vision-based automated vehicles is proposed in this paper. First, a vision algorithm is designed to provide accurate location information of vehicle relative to reference path. Then, an adaptive fuzzy-sliding mode lateral controller is proposed to counteract parametric uncertainties and strong nonlinearities, and the asymptotic stability of the closed-loop lateral control system is proven by the Lyapunov theory. Finally, experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can achieve favourable tracking performance, and it has strong robustness.
G.J.J.M. Borsboom (Gerard); B.A. Boatin (Boakye); N.J.D. Nagelkerke (Nico); H. Agoua (Hyacinthe); K.L.B. Akpoboua (Komlan); E.W. Soumbey Alley (E. William); Y. Bissan (Yeriba); A. Renz (Anna); L. Yameogo (Laurent); J.H.F. Remme (Jan); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)
markdownabstract__Background:__ The Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP) in West Africa has been closed down at the end of 2002. All subsequent control will be transferred to the participating countries and will almost entirely be based on periodic mass treatment with ivermectin. This makes the ques
Sam-Wobo, S O; Adeleke, M A; Jayeola, O A; Adeyi, A O; Oluwole, A S; Ikenga, M; Lawniye, F; Gazama, J; Kagni, A; Kosoko, T O; Agbeyangi, O; Bankole, S; Toé, L; Mafiana, C F; Yameogo, L
Epidemiological studies were carried out to assess the prevalence and community microfilarial load (CMFL) of onchocerciasis after repeated annual treatment with ivermectin along Ogun river System, southwest Nigeria. Skin snips were taken from consented participants in 11 selected communities along the River system. The microfilarial load of the community was estimated. The prevalence and CMFL varied significantly in the communities (p <0.05). The prevalence of onchocerciasis ranged from 19.1 to 45.6%, while the CMFL ranged from 0.11 to 1.03 microfilariae per skin snip. The CMFL recorded was <5 microfilariae per skin snip, i.e. recognized by WHO as threshold value in certifying the communities to be free of onchocerciasis as public health problem, thus, signifying the possibility of onchocerciasis elimination in the study area. Efforts should therefore be intensified to achieve improved ivermectin coverage and compliance in annual ivermectin treatment in order to completely eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem in the studied communities.
García Carrillo, Luis Rodolfo; Lozano, Rogelio; Pégard, Claude
Quad-Rotor Control develops original control methods for the navigation and hovering flight of an autonomous mini-quad-rotor robotic helicopter. These methods use an imaging system and a combination of inertial and altitude sensors to localize and guide the movement of the unmanned aerial vehicle relative to its immediate environment. The history, classification and applications of UAVs are introduced, followed by a description of modelling techniques for quad-rotors and the experimental platform itself. A control strategy for the improvement of attitude stabilization in quad-rotors is then proposed and tested in real-time experiments. The strategy, based on the use of low-cost components and with experimentally-established robustness, avoids drift in the UAV’s angular position by the addition of an internal control loop to each electronic speed controller ensuring that, during hovering flight, all four motors turn at almost the same speed. The quad-rotor’s Euler angles being very close to the origin, oth...
Full Text Available Autonomous landing is a challenging but important task for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV to achieve high level of autonomy. The fundamental requirement for landing is the knowledge of the height above the ground, and a properly designed controller to govern the process. This paper presents our research results in the study of landing an autonomous helicopter. The abovetheground height sensing is based on a 3D vision system. We have designed a simple planefitting method for estimating the height over the ground. The method enables vibration free measurement with the camera rigidly attached on the helicopter without using complicated gimbal or active vision mechanism. The estimated height is used by the landing control loop. Considering the ground effect during landing, we have proposed a twostage landing procedure. Two controllers are designed for the two landing stages respectively. The sensing approach and control strategy has been verified in field flight test and has demonstrated satisfactory performance.
Full Text Available -vehicle system was modelled and tested. All vehicle parameters were estimated based on actual physical characteristics and performance of the University of Johannesburg’s hybrid electric vehicle. A. Modelling the Vehicle The vehicle model used is derived from... input generated by the control system does not directly induce a traction force on the car tires. In an electric vehicle, the throttle position is processed by the engine controller and is mapped proportionally to the motor’s angular velocity. For our...
Visser, L.C.; Carloni, R.; Stramigioli, S.
This paper describes the design of a motion control algorithm for a humanoid robotic head, which consists of a neck with four degrees of freedom and two eyes (a stereo pair system) that tilt on a common axis and rotate sideways freely. The kinematic and dynamic properties of the head are analyzed an
Chandra Sekhar Pati
Full Text Available Applications like robots which are employed for shopping, porter services, assistive robotics, etc., require a robot to continuously follow a human or another robot. This paper presents a mobile robot following another tele-operated mobile robot based on a PID (Proportional–Integral-Differential controller. Here, we use two differential wheel drive robots; one is a master robot and the other is a follower robot. The master robot is manually controlled and the follower robot is programmed to follow the master robot. For the master robot, a Bluetooth module receives the user’s command from an android application which is processed by the master robot’s controller, which is used to move the robot. The follower robot receives the image from the Kinect sensor mounted on it and recognizes the master robot. The follower robot identifies the x, y positions by employing the camera and the depth by using the Kinect depth sensor. By identifying the x, y, and z locations of the master robot, the follower robot finds the angle and distance between the master and follower robot, which is given as the error term of a PID controller. Using this, the follower robot follows the master robot. A PID controller is based on feedback and tries to minimize the error. Experiments are conducted for two indigenously developed robots; one depicting a humanoid and the other a small mobile robot. It was observed that the follower robot was easily able to follow the master robot using well-tuned PID parameters.
Fabio Andrés Espinosa Valcárcel
número de autos presentes en imágenes capturadas por un conjunto de cámaras estratégicamente ubicadas en cada intersección. Usando esta información, el sistema selecciona la secuencia de acciones que optimicen el flujo vehicular dentro de la zona de control, en un escenario simulado. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el sistema disminuye en un 20% los tiempos de retraso para cada vehículo y que además es capaz de adaptarse rápida y eficientemente a los cambios de flujo.
PengKong; YanKong; XuJiang; XiaohuaWang
This article introduced the vision building concept about human influenza pandemic prevention and control. Different visions were built by creating different shapes of building blocks which also represented different organizations and physical facilities, respectively. The around-view reflection is required to be developed in the process of building so as to search for the ideal pattern. The correlation of all sectors and systems are established to combine different kinds of things, from one family to another, from communities, towns, counties, cities, rural areas, provinces to the state to handle trivial problems. These training objectives have been successfully accomplished, which has not only enriched the knowledge about prevention and control of influenza pandemic between different departments but also clarified the roles and responsibility. It lays the firm foundation for next cooperation between different departments, and make a bridge for the objective and choice of channel over human influenza pandemic prevention and control.
Anderson, J; Fuglsang, H; de C Marshall, T F
39 patients (Group A) with ocular onchocerciasis in the Sudan-savanna of north Cameroon were given 4-6 g of suramin and followed in detail over 1-2 years. 39 other patients (Group B) received suramin followed 2 weeks later by a 6-7 day course of diethylcarbamazine (DEC). A further 18 patients (Group C) received placebo injections and were followed in the same way by the same observers. Suramin caused serious general reactions among the 100 patients who started the course - 1 case of stomatitis, 1 exfoliative dermatitis, and several cases of severe prostration, among which 2 ended fatally. These reactions underline the urgency for further studies on the toxicity of suramin, which is without doubt an efficient macro- and micro-filaricidal drug. Changes which occurred in the ocular lesions are described in detail. There was an initial aggravation of punctate and sclerosing keratitis, and sometimes a serious aggravation or development of anterior uveitis, corresponding to the peak microfilaricidal effect of the drug. The possibility of a simultaneous adverse effect on the optic disc is discussed. Despite these reactions, which might have been avoided by prior elimination of microfilariae by DEC, the eyes were in general quieter at 3 months and thereafter than before treatment. However, no posterior segment lesion improved after suramin, and the majority remained unchanged. The findings at the end of the trial were as follows: No. of lesions (see article).
Sarthak, Gosh; Gilles, Bailly; Robin, Despouys; Eric, Lecolinet; Rémi, Sharrock
National audience; In this paper, we propose SuperVision, a novel interaction technique for controlling distant connect objects in smart-home. Users point an object with their remote control to visualize its state, and select its functionalities. To achieve this goal, 1) we present a novel remote control augmented with a video-projector and a slider; 2) we introduce a visualization allowing users to see through the walls in order to control objects in the line of sight as well as objects in a...
D Agostino, Salvatore A.
Traffic imaging covers a range of current and potential applications. These include traffic control and analysis, license plate finding, reading and storage, violation detection and archiving, vehicle sensors, and toll collection/enforcement. Experience from commercial installations and knowledge of the system requirements have been gained over the past 10 years. Recent improvements in system component cost and performance now allow products to be applied that provide cost effective solutions to the requirements for truly intelligent vehicle/highway systems (IVHS). The United States is a country that loves to drive. The infrastructure built in the 1950s and 1960s along with the low price of gasoline created an environment where the automobiles became an accessible and intricate part of American life. The United States has spent $DLR103 billion to build 40,000 highway miles since 1956, the start of the interstate program which is nearly complete. Unfortunately, a situation has arisen where the options for dramatically improving the ability of our roadways to absorb the increasing amount of traffic is limited. This is true in other countries as well as in the United States. The number of vehicles in the world increases by over 10,000,000 each year. In the United States there are about 180 million cars, trucks, and buses and this is estimated to double in the next 30 years. Urban development, and development in general, pushes from the edge of our roadways out. This leaves little room to increase the physical amount of roadway. Americans now spend more than 1.6 billion hours a year waiting in traffic jams. It is estimated that this congestion wasted 3 billion gallons of oil or 4% of the nation's annual gas consumption. The way out of the dilemma is to increase road use efficiency as well as improve mass transportation alternatives.
Wu, Haiyan; Zou, Ke; Zhang, Tianguang; Borst, Alexander; Kühnlenz, Kolja
The mechanism for motion detection in a fly's vision system, known as the Reichardt correlator, suffers from a main shortcoming as a velocity estimator: low accuracy. To enable accurate velocity estimation, responses of the Reichardt correlator to image sequences are analyzed in this paper. An elaborated model with additional preprocessing modules is proposed. The relative error of velocity estimation is significantly reduced by establishing a real-time response-velocity lookup table based on the power spectrum analysis of the input signal. By exploiting the improved velocity estimation accuracy and the simple structure of the Reichardt correlator, a high-speed vision system of 1 kHz is designed and applied for robot yaw-angle control in real-time experiments. The experimental results demonstrate the potential and feasibility of applying insect-inspired motion detection to robot control.
Zhenyu Yu; Kenzo Nonami; Jinok Shin; Demian Celestino
Autonomous landing is a challenging but important task for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to achieve high level of autonomy. The fundamental requirement for landing is the knowledge of the height above the ground, and a properly designed controller to govern the process. This paper presents our research results in the study of landing an autonomous helicopter. The abovetheground height sensing is based on a 3D vision system. We have designed a simple planefitting method for e...
Seyed Moayed Alavian
in combination with ribavirin, during winter 2006 to 2007. Fortunately until now, most of the patients tolerated the drugs and we hope to decrease at least 50% burden of disease in these groups. We hope that, more relations and communications between Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO and research centers and better screening tests for detection of HCV in blood donors will improve the safety of blood products; therefore we will achieve better prevention and control of hepatitis C in our country, only in the time to come.
Ryan M Young
Full Text Available Entomological indicators are considered key metrics to document the interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, the etiological agent of human onchocerciasis. Human landing collection is the standard employed for collection of the vectors for this parasite. Recent studies reported the development of traps that have the potential for replacing humans for surveillance of O. volvulus in the vector population. However, the key chemical components of human odor that are attractive to vector black flies have not been identified.Human sweat compounds were analyzed using GC-MS analysis and compounds common to three individuals identified. These common compounds, with others previously identified as attractive to other hematophagous arthropods were evaluated for their ability to stimulate and attract the major onchocerciasis vectors in Africa (Simulium damnosum sensu lato and Latin America (Simulium ochraceum s. l. using electroantennography and a Y tube binary choice assay. Medium chain length carboxylic acids and aldehydes were neurostimulatory for S. damnosum s.l. while S. ochraceum s.l. was stimulated by short chain aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes. Both species were attracted to ammonium bicarbonate and acetophenone. The compounds were shown to be attractive to the relevant vector species in field studies, when incorporated into a formulation that permitted a continuous release of the compound over time and used in concert with previously developed trap platforms.The identification of compounds attractive to the major vectors of O. volvulus will permit the development of optimized traps. Such traps may replace the use of human vector collectors for monitoring the effectiveness of onchocerciasis elimination programs and could find use as a contributing component in an integrated vector control/drug program aimed at eliminating river blindness in Africa.
Young, Ryan M.; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; McGaha, Tommy W.; Rodriguez-Perez, Mario A.; Toé, Laurent D.; Adeleke, Monsuru A.; Sanfo, Moussa; Soungalo, Traore; Katholi, Charles R.; Noblet, Raymond; Fadamiro, Henry; Torres-Estrada, Jose L.; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.; Baker, Bill; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Cupp, Eddie W.
Background Entomological indicators are considered key metrics to document the interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, the etiological agent of human onchocerciasis. Human landing collection is the standard employed for collection of the vectors for this parasite. Recent studies reported the development of traps that have the potential for replacing humans for surveillance of O. volvulus in the vector population. However, the key chemical components of human odor that are attractive to vector black flies have not been identified. Methodology/Principal Findings Human sweat compounds were analyzed using GC-MS analysis and compounds common to three individuals identified. These common compounds, with others previously identified as attractive to other hematophagous arthropods were evaluated for their ability to stimulate and attract the major onchocerciasis vectors in Africa (Simulium damnosum sensu lato) and Latin America (Simulium ochraceum s. l.) using electroantennography and a Y tube binary choice assay. Medium chain length carboxylic acids and aldehydes were neurostimulatory for S. damnosum s.l. while S. ochraceum s.l. was stimulated by short chain aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes. Both species were attracted to ammonium bicarbonate and acetophenone. The compounds were shown to be attractive to the relevant vector species in field studies, when incorporated into a formulation that permitted a continuous release of the compound over time and used in concert with previously developed trap platforms. Conclusions/Significance The identification of compounds attractive to the major vectors of O. volvulus will permit the development of optimized traps. Such traps may replace the use of human vector collectors for monitoring the effectiveness of onchocerciasis elimination programs and could find use as a contributing component in an integrated vector control/drug program aimed at eliminating river blindness in Africa. PMID:25569240
Chen, Weihai; Yu, Fei; Qu, Jianliang; Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Jianbin
This paper describes a novel optical fiber assembly system featuring a multi-axis alignment function based on micro-vision feedback control. It consists of an active parallel alignment mechanism, a passive compensation mechanism, a micro-gripper and a micro-vision servo control system. The active parallel alignment part is a parallelogram-based design with remote-center-of-motion (RCM) function to achieve precise rotation without fatal lateral motion. The passive mechanism, with five degrees of freedom (5-DOF), is used to implement passive compensation for multi-axis errors. A specially designed 1-DOF micro-gripper mounted onto the active parallel alignment platform is adopted to grasp and rotate the optical fiber. A micro-vision system equipped with two charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras is introduced to observe the small field of view and obtain multi-axis errors for servo feedback control. The two CCD cameras are installed in an orthogonal arrangement—thus the errors can be easily measured via the captured images. Meanwhile, a series of tracking and measurement algorithms based on specific features of the target objects are developed. Details of the force and displacement sensor information acquisition in the assembly experiment are also provided. An experiment demonstrates the validity of the proposed visual algorithm by achieving the task of eliminating errors and inserting an optical fiber to the U-groove accurately.
Gennery, D.; Cunningham, R.; Saund, E.; High, J.; Ruoff, C.
The field of computer vision is surveyed and assessed, key research issues are identified, and possibilities for a future vision system are discussed. The problems of descriptions of two and three dimensional worlds are discussed. The representation of such features as texture, edges, curves, and corners are detailed. Recognition methods are described in which cross correlation coefficients are maximized or numerical values for a set of features are measured. Object tracking is discussed in terms of the robust matching algorithms that must be devised. Stereo vision, camera control and calibration, and the hardware and systems architecture are discussed.
S.O. Sam-Wobo , M.A. Adeleke , O.A. Jayeola , A.O. Adeyi , A.S. Oluwole , M. Ikenga , A. Lawniye , J. Gazama , A. Kagni , T.O. Kosoko , O. Agbeyangi , S. Bankole , L. Toé , C.F. Mafiana & L. Yameogo
Full Text Available Background & objective: Epidemiological studies were carried out to assess the prevalence and communitymicrofilarial load (CMFL of onchocerciasis after repeated annual treatment with ivermectin along Ogun riverSystem, southwest Nigeria.Method: Skin snips were taken from consented participants in 11 selected communities along the River system.The microfilarial load of the community was estimated.Results: The prevalence and CMFL varied significantly in the communities (p <0.05. The prevalence ofonchocerciasis ranged from 19.1 to 45.6%, while the CMFL ranged from 0.11 to 1.03 microfilariae per skinsnip. The CMFL recorded was <5 microfilariae per skin snip, i.e. recognized by WHO as threshold value incertifying the communities to be free of onchocerciasis as public health problem, thus, signifying the possibilityof onchocerciasis elimination in the study area.Conclusion: Efforts should therefore be intensified to achieve improved ivermectin coverage and compliance inannual ivermectin treatment in order to completely eliminate onchocerciasis as a public health problem in thestudied communities.
Fuller, Sawyer Buckminster; Straw, Andrew D; Peek, Martin Y; Murray, Richard M; Dickinson, Michael H
Flies and other insects use vision to regulate their groundspeed in flight, enabling them to fly in varying wind conditions. Compared with mechanosensory modalities, however, vision requires a long processing delay (~100 ms) that might introduce instability if operated at high gain. Flies also sense air motion with their antennae, but how this is used in flight control is unknown. We manipulated the antennal function of fruit flies by ablating their aristae, forcing them to rely on vision alone to regulate groundspeed. Arista-ablated flies in flight exhibited significantly greater groundspeed variability than intact flies. We then subjected them to a series of controlled impulsive wind gusts delivered by an air piston and experimentally manipulated antennae and visual feedback. The results show that an antenna-mediated response alters wing motion to cause flies to accelerate in the same direction as the gust. This response opposes flying into a headwind, but flies regularly fly upwind. To resolve this discrepancy, we obtained a dynamic model of the fly's velocity regulator by fitting parameters of candidate models to our experimental data. The model suggests that the groundspeed variability of arista-ablated flies is the result of unstable feedback oscillations caused by the delay and high gain of visual feedback. The antenna response drives active damping with a shorter delay (~20 ms) to stabilize this regulator, in exchange for increasing the effect of rapid wind disturbances. This provides insight into flies' multimodal sensory feedback architecture and constitutes a previously unknown role for the antennae.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new real-time target tracking method based on the open-loop monocular vision motion control. It uses the particle filter technique to predict the moving target’s position in an image. Due to the properties of the particle filter, the method can effectively master the motion behaviors of the linear and nonlinear. In addition, the method uses the simple mathematical operation to transfer the image information in the mobile target to its real coordinate information. Therefore, it requires few operating resources. Moreover, the method adopts the monocular vision approach, which is a single camera, to achieve its objective by using few hardware resources. Firstly, the method evaluates the next time’s position and size of the target in an image. Later, the real position of the objective corresponding to the obtained information is predicted. At last, the mobile robot should be controlled in the center of the camera’s vision. The paper conducts the tracking test to the L-type and the S-type and compares with the Kalman filtering method. The experimental results show that the method achieves a better tracking effect in the L-shape experiment, and its effect is superior to the Kalman filter technique in the L-type or S-type tracking experiment.
Vouking, Marius Zambou; Tamo, Violette Claire; Tadenfok, Carine Nouboudem
The African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) was launched in 1995 with the main goal being to boost the fight against onchocerciasis in Africa. In 2011, over 80 million people benefited from this intervention thanks to the contribution of 268.718 Community-Directed Distributors (CDD). These significant results obscure the role of women CDD in this fight. Indeed, the insufficient involvement of female CDD has been identified as a concern by the APOC partners early in the program. The present study aims to assess the contribution and performance of women involved in a strategy to control onchocerciasis by community-directed treatment with ivermectin in sub Saharan Africa. We searched the following electronic databases from January 1995 to July 2013: Medline, Embase (Excerpta Medica Database), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), LILAS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences), International Bibliography of Social Sciences, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. Two research team members independently conducted data extraction from the final sample of articles by using a pre-established data extraction sheet. The primary outcome was the contribution of female CDD in the control of onchocerciasis by community-directed treatment with Ivermectin. Of 25 hits, 7 papers met the inclusion criteria. For the management of onchocerciasis, female CDDs are elected by the health committee from the communities they will serve. The significant proportion of those treated (about 61%) were women, although only 24% of CDDs were women. Many community members reported that women were more committed, persuasive and more patient than men in the distribution of ivermectin. Some studies have identified underutilization of female CDD as one reason for the limited effectiveness or, in some cases, pure failure related to the distribution of Ivermectin interventions in the fight against onchocerciasis in sub-Saharan Africa
Kendoul, Farid; Fantoni, Isabelle; Nonami, Kenzo
International audience; The problem considered in this paper involves the design of a vision-based autopilot for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The proposed autopilot is based on an optic flow-based vision system for autonomous localization and scene mapping, and a nonlinear control system for flight control and guidance. This paper focusses on the development of a real-time 3D vision algorithm for estimating optic flow, aircraft self-motion and depth map, using a low-resolu...
Modern Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are equipped with vision sensors because of their light-weight, low-cost characteristics and also their ability to provide a rich variety of information of the environment in which the UAVs are navigating in. The problem of vision based autonomous flight is very difficult and challenging since it requires bringing together concepts from image processing and computer vision, target tracking and state estimation, and flight guidance and control. This thesis focuses on the adaptive state estimation, guidance and control problems involved in vision-based formation flight. Specifically, the thesis presents a composite adaptation approach to the partial state estimation of a class of nonlinear systems with unmodeled dynamics. In this approach, a linear time-varying Kalman filter is the nominal state estimator which is augmented by the output of an adaptive neural network (NN) that is trained with two error signals. The benefit of the proposed approach is in its faster and more accurate adaptation to the modeling errors over a conventional approach. The thesis also presents two approaches to the design of adaptive guidance and control (G&C) laws for line-of-sight formation flight. In the first approach, the guidance and autopilot systems are designed separately and then combined together by assuming time-scale separation. The second approach is based on integrating the guidance and autopilot design process. The developed G&C laws using both approaches are adaptive to unmodeled leader aircraft acceleration and to own aircraft aerodynamic uncertainties. The thesis also presents theoretical justification based on Lyapunov-like stability analysis for integrating the adaptive state estimation and adaptive G&C designs. All the developed designs are validated in nonlinear, 6DOF fixed-wing aircraft simulations. Finally, the thesis presents a decentralized coordination strategy for vision-based multiple-aircraft formation control. In this
Twum-Danso, N A Y
In many areas of Africa where human onchocerciasis is endemic there are now programmes for mass treatment with ivermectin (Mectizan), to eliminate the disease as a public-health problem. To determine whether those with epilepsy and/or growth-retardation syndromes (GRS) should be excluded from such mass drug administrations, literature searches of the standard biomedical databases were performed for all relevant articles published in English or French before January 2003. Cross-referencing and the retrieving of articles recommended by experts completed the search. The literature review revealed that there is insufficient evidence for an association between onchocerciasis and epilepsy or GRS. Since ivermectin does not normally cross the blood-brain barrier, the drug is unlikely to have direct pro- or anti-convulsive activity. Furthermore, an estimated 1-2 million epileptics in Africa have been treated with ivermectin, in onchocerciasis-control programmes, without any reports of serious adverse events (SAE) to the passive surveillance system for such events. As there are few data on the prevalence of GRS in Africa, it is difficult to estimate the number of GRS cases who have been treated with ivermectin or the incidence of ivermectin-related SAE among such cases. Epileptics should not be excluded from mass treatments with ivermectin unless they are actively seizing or postictal. Although those with GRS associated with chronic wasting, with or without epilepsy, should be excluded, they should be eligible for clinic-based treatment if the diagnosis of onchocerciasis is confirmed and the benefits of treatment are deemed to outweigh any potential risks.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dexterous prosthetic hands that were developed recently, such as SmartHand and i-LIMB, are highly sophisticated; they have individually controllable fingers and the thumb that is able to abduct/adduct. This flexibility allows implementation of many different grasping strategies, but also requires new control algorithms that can exploit the many degrees of freedom available. The current study presents and tests the operation of a new control method for dexterous prosthetic hands. Methods The central component of the proposed method is an autonomous controller comprising a vision system with rule-based reasoning mounted on a dexterous hand (CyberHand. The controller, termed cognitive vision system (CVS, mimics biological control and generates commands for prehension. The CVS was integrated into a hierarchical control structure: 1 the user triggers the system and controls the orientation of the hand; 2 a high-level controller automatically selects the grasp type and size; and 3 an embedded hand controller implements the selected grasp using closed-loop position/force control. The operation of the control system was tested in 13 healthy subjects who used Cyberhand, attached to the forearm, to grasp and transport 18 objects placed at two different distances. Results The system correctly estimated grasp type and size (nine commands in total in about 84% of the trials. In an additional 6% of the trials, the grasp type and/or size were different from the optimal ones, but they were still good enough for the grasp to be successful. If the control task was simplified by decreasing the number of possible commands, the classification accuracy increased (e.g., 93% for guessing the grasp type only. Conclusions The original outcome of this research is a novel controller empowered by vision and reasoning and capable of high-level analysis (i.e., determining object properties and autonomous decision making (i.e., selecting the grasp type and
Vázquez Castellanos, J L
Due to the social and ecological changes that have taken place in the region of Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico, the coffee tree growth economy (established in the latter part of the last century) has been an important factor in the transmission of onchocerciasis. The optimum ecological conditions for the growth of the coffee tree coincide with those of the disease's growth rate vector; the mobilization of migrant workers for the cultivation and gathering of coffee beans, plus changes in the natural environment, are elements which explain the disease's distribution in the different regions. The origin of the disease in Chiapas may be due to the migration of coffee plantation workers from Guatemala in search of land in which to settle. Social changes occurring after the Agrarian Distribution (land distributions that occurred in 1918 and 1940) caused an intensification and modernization in the areas of cultivation which in turn caused a decline in the disease's growth rate vector. This, together with standard of living improvements and control measures against the disease, explain why the problem in these regions has decreased considerably. The use of ivermectin as a new therapy paves the way for better disease control in the future. Nevertheless, in the smaller locations occupied by middle and poor class farmers, where coffee bean cultivation is just commencing and still in a rudimentary form, onchocerciasis and other diseases continue to present serious health problems.
Cheema Prasad; Luo Simon; Gibbens Peter
The AR.Drone is a remote controlled quadcopter which is low cost, and readily available for consumers. Therefore it represents a simple test-bed on which control and vision research may be conducted. However, interfacing with the AR.Drone can be a challenge for new researchers as the AR.Drone's application programming interface (API) is built on low-level, bit-wise, C instructions. Therefore, this paper will demonstrate the use of an additional layer of abstraction on the AR.Drone’s API via t...
Blasco, José; Munera, Sandra; Aleixos, Nuria; Cubero, Sergio; Molto, Enrique
Individual items of any agricultural commodity are different from each other in terms of colour, shape or size. Furthermore, as they are living thing, they change their quality attributes over time, thereby making the development of accurate automatic inspection machines a challenging task. Machine vision-based systems and new optical technologies make it feasible to create non-destructive control and monitoring tools for quality assessment to ensure adequate accomplishment of food standards. Such systems are much faster than any manual non-destructive examination of fruit and vegetable quality, thus allowing the whole production to be inspected with objective and repeatable criteria. Moreover, current technology makes it possible to inspect the fruit in spectral ranges beyond the sensibility of the human eye, for instance in the ultraviolet and near-infrared regions. Machine vision-based applications require the use of multiple technologies and knowledge, ranging from those related to image acquisition (illumination, cameras, etc.) to the development of algorithms for spectral image analysis. Machine vision-based systems for inspecting fruit and vegetables are targeted towards different purposes, from in-line sorting into commercial categories to the detection of contaminants or the distribution of specific chemical compounds on the product's surface. This chapter summarises the current state of the art in these techniques, starting with systems based on colour images for the inspection of conventional colour, shape or external defects and then goes on to consider recent developments in spectral image analysis for internal quality assessment or contaminant detection.
XUDe; WANGLin-Kun; TUZhi-Guo; TANMin
A novel hybrid visual servoing control method based on structured light vision is proposed for robotic arc welding with a general six degrees of freedom robot. It consists of a position control inner-loop in Cartesian space and two outer-loops. One is position-based visual control inCartesian space for moving in the direction of weld seam, i.e., weld seam tracking, another is imagebased visual control in image space for adjustment to eliminate the errors in the process of tracking.A new Jacobian matrix from image space of the feature point on structured light stripe to Cartesian space is provided for differential movement of the end-effector. The control system model is simplified and its stability is discussed. An experiment of arc welding protected by gas CO2 for verifying is well conducted.
... HHS USAJobs Home > Statistics and Data > Low Vision Low Vision Low Vision Defined: Low Vision is defined as the ... Ethnicity 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Low Vision by Age, and Race/Ethnicity Table for ...
Full Text Available Autonomous landing is a challenging but important task for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV to achieve high level of autonomy. The fundamental requirement for landing is the knowledge of the height above the ground, and a properly designed controller to govern the process. This paper presents our research results in the study of landing an autonomous helicopter. The above-the-ground height sensing is based on a 3D vision system. We have designed a simple plane-fitting method for estimating the height over the ground. The method enables vibration free measurement with the camera rigidly attached on the helicopter without using complicated gimbal or active vision mechanism. The estimated height is used by the landing control loop. Considering the ground effect during landing, we have proposed a two-stage landing procedure. Two controllers are designed for the two landing stages respectively. The sensing approach and control strategy has been verified in field flight test and has demonstrated satisfactory performance.
Keefe, Bruce D; Watt, Simon J
Binocular vision is often assumed to make a specific, critical contribution to online visual control of grasping by providing precise information about the separation between digits and object. This account overlooks the 'viewing geometry' typically encountered in grasping, however. Separation of hand and object is rarely aligned precisely with the line of sight (the visual depth dimension), and analysis of the raw signals suggests that, for most other viewing angles, binocular feedback is less precise than monocular feedback. Thus, online grasp control relying selectively on binocular feedback would not be robust to natural changes in viewing geometry. Alternatively, sensory integration theory suggests that different signals contribute according to their relative precision, in which case the role of binocular feedback should depend on viewing geometry, rather than being 'hard-wired'. We manipulated viewing geometry, and assessed the role of binocular feedback by measuring the effects on grasping of occluding one eye at movement onset. Loss of binocular feedback resulted in a significantly less extended final slow-movement phase when hand and object were separated primarily in the frontoparallel plane (where binocular information is relatively imprecise), compared to when they were separated primarily along the line of sight (where binocular information is relatively precise). Consistent with sensory integration theory, this suggests the role of binocular (and monocular) vision in online grasp control is not a fixed, 'architectural' property of the visuo-motor system, but arises instead from the interaction of viewer and situation, allowing robust online control across natural variations in viewing geometry.
Aksenov Alexey Y.
Full Text Available The paper considers an approach for application of computer vision systems to solve the problem of unmanned aerial vehicle control. The processing of images obtained through onboard camera is required for absolute positioning of aerial platform (automatic landing and take-off, hovering etc. used image processing on-board camera. The proposed method combines the advantages of existing systems and gives the ability to perform hovering over a given point, the exact take-off and landing. The limitations of implemented methods are determined and the algorithm is proposed to combine them in order to improve the efficiency.
Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger
Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.
Miguel Angel Olivares-Mendez
Full Text Available Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.
Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger
Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. PMID:26978365
D'Hondt, Eva; Segers, Veerle; Deforche, Benedicte; Shultz, Sarah P; Tanghe, Ann; Gentier, Ilse; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; De Clercq, Dirk; Lenoir, Matthieu
Previous research has suggested that perceptual-motor difficulties may account for obese children's lower motor competence; however, specific evidence is currently lacking. Therefore, this study examined the effect of altered visual conditions on spatiotemporal and kinematic gait parameters in obese versus normal-weight children. Thirty-two obese and normal-weight children (11.2±1.5 years) walked barefoot on an instrumented walkway at constant self-selected speed during LIGHT and DARK conditions. Three-dimensional motion analysis was performed to calculate spatiotemporal parameters, as well as sagittal trunk segment and lower extremity joint angles at heel-strike and toe-off. Self-selected speed did not significantly differ between groups. In the DARK condition, all participants walked at a significantly slower speed, decreased stride length, and increased stride width. Without normal vision, obese children had a more pronounced increase in relative double support time compared to the normal-weight group, resulting in a significantly greater percentage of the gait cycle spent in stance. Walking in the DARK, both groups showed greater forward tilt of the trunk and restricted hip movement. All participants had increased knee flexion at heel-strike, as well as decreased knee extension and ankle plantarflexion at toe-off in the DARK condition. The removal of normal vision affected obese children's temporal gait pattern to a larger extent than that of normal-weight peers. Results suggest an increased dependency on vision in obese children to control locomotion. Next to the mechanical problem of moving excess mass, a different coupling between perception and action appears to be governing obese children's motor coordination and control.
A learning-based control approach is presented for force servoing of a robot with vision in an unknown environment. Firstly, mapping relationships between image features of the servoing object and the joint angles of the robot are derived and learned by a neural network. Secondly, a learning controller based on the neural network is designed for the robot to trace the object. Thirdly, a discrete time impedance control law is obtained for the force servoing of the robot,the on-line learning algorithms for three neural networks are developed to adjust the impedance parameters of the robot in the unknown environment. Lastly, wiping experiments are carried out by using a 6 DOF industrial robot with a CCD camera and a force/torque sensor in its end effector, and the experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the approach.
Nishimori, K.; Ishihara, K.; Tokutaka, H.; Kishida, S.; Fujimura, K. (Tottori University, Tottori (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Okada, M. (Mazda Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)); Hirakawa, S. (Fujitsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan))
The present report explains a vision system, in which a CCD camera, used for the model vehicle automatically traveling by fuzzy control, is used as a vision sensor. The vision system is composed of input image processing module, situation recognition/analysis module to three-dimensionally recover the road, route-selecting navigation module to avoid the obstacle and vehicle control module. The CCD camera is used as a vision sensor to make the model vehicle automatically travel by fuzzy control with the above modules. In the present research, the traveling is controlled by treating the position and configuration of objective in image as a fuzzy inferential variable. Based on the above method, the traveling simulation gave the following knowledge: even with the image information only from the vision system, the application of fuzzy control facilitates the traveling. If the objective is clearly known, the control is judged able to be made even from vague image which does not necessitate the exact locative information. 4 refs., 11 figs.
Taylor, H R; Semba, R D; Newland, H S; Keyvan-Larijani, E; White, A; Dukuly, Z; Greene, B M
The treatment of onchocerciasis with diethylcarbamazine and suramin is associated with an exacerbation of ocular disease. This occurs more frequently in patients with severe onchocercal ocular disease. We assessed ocular changes following ivermectin treatment in 39 patients with severe ocular onchocerciasis. Patients were treated with 100, 150, or 200 micrograms/kg of ivermectin at either 1 or 2 year intervals and followed for 3 years. There was no evidence for an acute exacerbation of either anterior or posterior segment eye disease, and there was a marked improvement in ocular status in the group as a whole. There was a significant decrease in onchocercal involvement which was maintained for at least 3 years. Annual treatment with ivermectin can be used safely in patients with severe ocular disease and is beneficial over a prolonged period of time.
Taylor, H R; Greene, B M
Ivermectin is a macrocyclic lactone that has widespread antiparasitic activity. Numerous clinical trials have shown that ivermectin is safe and effective in the treatment of human infection with Onchocerca volvulus. Although it is rapidly microfilaricidal, it does not cause a severe reaction, as is seen with diethylcarbamazine treatment. The drug temporarily interrupts production of microfilaria but has not known long-lasting effects on the adult worms. In patients with onchocerciasis, a single oral dose of ivermectin (150 micrograms/kg) repeated once a year leads to a marked reduction in skin microfilaria counts and ocular involvement. At this dose, ivermectin causes minimal side effects and is sufficiently free of severe reactions to be used on a mass scale. It promises to revolutionize the treatment of onchocerciasis.
Apfelbaum, Henry; Pelah, Adar; Peli, Eli
Virtual reality locomotion simulators are a promising tool for evaluating the effectiveness of vision aids to mobility for people with low vision. This study examined two factors to gain insight into the verisimilitude requirements of the test environment: the effects of treadmill walking and the suitability of using controls as surrogate patients. Ten "tunnel vision" patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) were tasked with identifying which side of a clearly visible obstacle their heading through the virtual environment would lead them, and were scored both on accuracy and on their distance from the obstacle when they responded. They were tested both while walking on a treadmill and while standing, as they viewed a scene representing progress through a shopping mall. Control subjects, each wearing a head-mounted field restriction to simulate the vision of a paired patient, were also tested. At wide angles of approach, controls and patients performed with a comparably high degree of accuracy, and made their choices at comparable distances from the obstacle. At narrow angles of approach, patients' accuracy increased when walking, while controls' accuracy decreased. When walking, both patients and controls delayed their decisions until closer to the obstacle. We conclude that a head-mounted field restriction is not sufficient for simulating tunnel vision, but that the improved performance observed for walking compared to standing suggests that a walking interface (such as a treadmill) may be essential for eliciting natural perceptually-guided behavior in virtual reality locomotion simulators.
Ottesen, E A
It is not clear what role immediate hypersensitivity immune responses have in the pathogenesis of human onchocerciasis, but it is certain that these responses are prominent both in the course of natural infection and during the Mazzotti reactions that follow treatment with diethylcarbamazine. In humans, the levels of total serum IgE associated with onchocerciasis are as high or higher than those associated with almost any helminth infection, although specific IgE antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus appear to be a small and still poorly characterized fraction of the total serum IgE. Evidence about the relationship of these prominent IgE responses in patients with onchocerciasis to the onchocercal skin disease that manifests as pruritus and papular eruptions is conflicting, but in a guinea pig model of ocular pathology induced by onchocerca microfilariae evidence for the pathogenetic importance of IgE and immediate hypersensitivity is much less equivocal. The suggestive findings from this model make it imperative to carry out similar studies of Onchocerca-affected human eyes to determine whether immediate hypersensitivity responses play a similar critical role in the pathogenesis of the ocular lesions in humans.
Nørgård, Per Bromand
FlexControl is a vision, a concept and a product – a vision for the control of future power systems based on renewable energy and distributed control, a generic concept for smart control of many power units and ‘product’ implementations of the concept in different applications. The general...... development trends for power system towards more stochastic power generation from wind and solar, more distributed generation and control, and the introduction of demand responses from a huge number of small, flexible loads, require new architecture, design and means of controlling of the power system...... in order to maintain the power balances and the high security of supply and power quality in all parts of the grid. FlexControl is a flexible, modular, scalable and generic control concept designed for smart control of a huge number of distributed, controllable power units (DERs) in the power system. Flex...
Rodríguez-Pérez, M A; Rivas-Alcalá, A R
The treatment and control of onchocerciasis in Mexico has been supported only on the administration of diethylcarbamazine and the removal of adult worms, which are in the onchocercomata. These actions seems to have diminished the prevalence and incidence of blindness in those individuals who are affected by this parasitosis. However, there has not been an important impact on onchocerciasis transmission. The objective of this paper is to critically analyze and discuss subjects related to diagnosis, treatment and control of onchocerciasis transmission in Mexico. Chemical vector control has been successfully achieved in other world regions; however, in Mexico, it has not been fully accepted as part of the integral onchocerciasis control due to several causes. Moreover, there has been few scientific research activities toward the search of new options for vector control. Recently, results of research on ivermectin (a microfilaricide agent) have indicated that this drug is effective and safe for the treatment of onchocerciasis. Additionally, it has been reported that ivermectin has an effect on the onchocerciasis transmission. However, there are several unanswered questions about the efficacy of ivermectin in stopping onchocerciasis transmission. In this report, the main efforts carried out in Mexico against onchocerciasis are analysed and problems related with diagnosis, treatment and control are also discussed. Some parameters for the correct evaluation of onchocerciasis control, with entomological emphasis, are proposed.
D. Ricauda Aimonino
Full Text Available Computer vision is becoming increasingly important in quality control of many food processes. The appearance properties of food products (colour, texture, shape and size are, in fact, correlated with organoleptic characteristics and/or the presence of defects. Quality control based on image processing eliminates the subjectivity of human visual inspection, allowing rapid and non-destructive analysis. However, most food matrices show a wide variability in appearance features, therefore robust and customized image elaboration algorithms have to be implemented for each specific product. For this reason, quality control by visual inspection is still rather diffused in several food processes. The case study inspiring this paper concerns the production of frozen mixed berries. Once frozen, different kinds of berries are mixed together, in different amounts, according to a recipe. The correct quantity of each kind of fruit, within a certain tolerance, has to be ensured by producers. Quality control relies on bringing few samples for each production lot (samples of the same weight and, manually, counting the amount of each species. This operation is tedious, subject to errors, and time consuming, while a computer vision system (CVS could determine the amount of each kind of berries in a few seconds. This paper discusses the problem of colour calibration of the CVS used for frozen berries mixture evaluation. Images are acquired by a digital camera coupled with a dome lighting system, which gives a homogeneous illumination on the entire visible surface of the berries, and a flat bed scanner. RBG device dependent data are then mapped onto CIELab colorimetric colour space using different transformation operators. The obtained results show that the proposed calibration procedure leads to colour discrepancies comparable or even below the human eyes sensibility.
Marzwell, Neville I.; Jacobus, Charles J.; Peurach, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Brian T.
Current available robotic systems provide limited support for CAD-based model-driven visualization, sensing algorithm development and integration, and automated graphical planning systems. This paper describes ongoing work which provides the functionality necessary to apply advanced robotics to automated manufacturing and assembly operations. An interface has been built which incorporates 6-DOF tactile manipulation, displays for three dimensional graphical models, and automated tracking functions which depend on automated machine vision. A set of tools for single and multiple focal plane sensor image processing and understanding has been demonstrated which utilizes object recognition models. The resulting tool will enable sensing and planning from computationally simple graphical objects. A synergistic interplay between human and operator vision is created from programmable feedback received from the controller. This approach can be used as the basis for implementing enhanced safety in automated robotics manufacturing, assembly, repair and inspection tasks in both ground and space applications. Thus, an interactive capability has been developed to match the modeled environment to the real task environment for safe and predictable task execution.
Jones, B R; Anderson, J; Fuglsang, H
Diethylcarbamazine was given as eye drops in varying concentrations in a half-log dilution series from 1.0 to 0.0001% to patients with ocular onchocerciasis. Migration of microfilariae into the cornea, followed by their straightening and disintegration, was observed with delivery rates as low as 0.1 microgram/hour. Dose-related adverse inflammatory reactions, including the development of globular limbal infiltrates with itching and redness, were seen with delivery rates as low as 0.6 microgram/hour, but substantial inflammatory reactions, including severe vasculitis, were seen only with delivery rates of or above 1.0 microgram/hour. This suggests that it should be possible to achieve beneficial clearing of the microfilarial load, without adverse reactions, by continuous non-pulsed delivery of the drug. Technology exists for such delivery, either directly into the eye or systemically by a transdermal system that could give 3 to 7 days' treatment from each application. The observations reported suggest that after preliminary clearing of the microfilarial load by carefully controlled delivery of DEC it may be possible to maintain therapy by less strictly controlled delivery in DEC-medicated salt, or to use treatment with suramin, without incurring substantial adverse reactions, such as a deterioration in vision in cases in which the optic nerve is already compromised. Continuous non-pulsed DEC delivery systems could have a place in the management of onchocercal sclerosing keratitis. The unique opportunities for using the ocular model to define the requirements for beneficial non-damaging therapy with DEC should be explored in further field trials. Images PMID:678494
Jones, B R; Anderson, J; Fuglsang, H
Diethylcarbamazine was given as eye drops in varying concentrations in a half-log dilution series from 1.0 to 0.0001% to patients with ocular onchocerciasis. Migration of microfilariae into the cornea, followed by their straightening and disintegration, was observed with delivery rates as low as 0.1 microgram/hour. Dose-related adverse inflammatory reactions, including the development of globular limbal infiltrates with itching and redness, were seen with delivery rates as low as 0.6 microgram/hour, but substantial inflammatory reactions, including severe vasculitis, were seen only with delivery rates of or above 1.0 microgram/hour. This suggests that it should be possible to achieve beneficial clearing of the microfilarial load, without adverse reactions, by continuous non-pulsed delivery of the drug. Technology exists for such delivery, either directly into the eye or systemically by a transdermal system that could give 3 to 7 days' treatment from each application. The observations reported suggest that after preliminary clearing of the microfilarial load by carefully controlled delivery of DEC it may be possible to maintain therapy by less strictly controlled delivery in DEC-medicated salt, or to use treatment with suramin, without incurring substantial adverse reactions, such as a deterioration in vision in cases in which the optic nerve is already compromised. Continuous non-pulsed DEC delivery systems could have a place in the management of onchocercal sclerosing keratitis. The unique opportunities for using the ocular model to define the requirements for beneficial non-damaging therapy with DEC should be explored in further field trials.
Long, Qiang; Zhai, Peng; Liu, Miao; He, Kai; Wang, Chunyang
At present, the automation requirement of the welding become higher, so a method of the welding information extraction by vision sensor is proposed in this paper, and the simulation with the MATLAB has been conducted. Besides, in order to improve the quality of robot automatic welding, an information retrieval method for welding torch pose control by visual sensor is attempted. Considering the demands of welding technology and engineering habits, the relative coordinate systems and variables are strictly defined, and established the mathematical model of the welding pose, and verified its feasibility by using the MATLAB simulation in the paper, these works lay a foundation for the development of welding off-line programming system with high precision and quality.
S. V. Shavetov
Full Text Available The paper deals with the development of video broadcasting system in view of controlling mobile robots over the Internet. A brief overview of the issues and their solutions, encountered in the real-time broadcasting video stream, is given. Affordable and versatile solutions of technical vision are considered. An approach for frame-accurate video rebroadcasting to unlimited number of end-users is proposed. The optimal performance parameters of network equipment for the final number of cameras are defined. System approbation on five IP cameras of different manufacturers is done. The average time delay for broadcasting in MJPEG format over the local network was 200 ms and 500 ms over the Internet.
Hamed Jabbari Asl
Full Text Available This paper proposes an image-based visual servo (IBVS controller for the 3D translational motion of the quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV. The main purpose of this paper is to provide asymptotic stability for vision-based tracking control of the quadrotor in the presence of uncertainty in the dynamic model of the system. The aim of the paper also includes the use of flow of image features as the velocity information to compensate for the unreliable linear velocity data measured by accelerometers. For this purpose, the mathematical model of the quadrotor is presented based on the optic flow of image features which provides the possibility of designing a velocity-free IBVS controller with considering the dynamics of the robot. The image features are defined from a suitable combination of perspective image moments without using the model of the object. This property allows the application of the proposed controller in unknown places. The controller is robust with respect to the uncertainties in the translational dynamics of the system associated with the target motion, image depth, and external disturbances. Simulation results and a comparison study are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Bailey, Theodore C; Merritt, Maria W; Tediosi, Fabrizio
It has been suggested that initiatives to eradicate specific communicable diseases need to be informed by eradication investment cases to assess the feasibility, costs, and consequences of eradication compared with elimination or control. A methodological challenge of eradication investment cases is how to account for the ethical importance of the benefits, burdens, and distributions thereof that are salient in people's experiences of the diseases and related interventions but are not assessed in traditional approaches to health and economic evaluation. We have offered a method of ethical analysis grounded in theories of social justice. We have described the method and its philosophical rationale and illustrated its use in application to eradication investment cases for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, 2 neglected tropical diseases that are candidates for eradication.
Kenneth Thomas; Bruce Hallbert
Life extension beyond 60 years for the U.S operating nuclear fleet requires that instrumentation and control (I&C) systems be upgraded to address aging and reliability concerns. It is impractical for the legacy systems based on 1970’s vintage technology operate over this extended time period. Indeed, utilities have successfully engaged in such replacements when dictated by these operational concerns. However, the replacements have been approached in a like-for-like manner, meaning that they do not take advantage of the inherent capabilities of digital technology to improve business functions. And so, the improvement in I&C system performance has not translated to bottom-line performance improvement for the fleet. Therefore, wide-scale modernization of the legacy I&C systems could prove to be cost-prohibitive unless the technology is implemented in a manner to enable significant business innovation as a means of off-setting the cost of upgrades. A Future Vision of a transformed nuclear plant operating model based on an integrated digital environment has been developed as part of the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) research pathway, under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program. This is a research and development program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration with the nuclear utility industry, to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. DOE’s program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy security and environmental security . The Advanced II&C research pathway is being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The Future Vision is based on a digital architecture that encompasses all aspects of plant operations and support, integrating plant systems, plant work processes, and plant workers in a
Life extension beyond 60 years for the U.S operating nuclear fleet requires that instrumentation and control (I&C) systems be upgraded to address aging and reliability concerns. It is impractical for the legacy systems based on 1970's vintage technology operate over this extended time period. Indeed, utilities have successfully engaged in such replacements when dictated by these operational concerns. However, the replacements have been approached in a like-for-like manner, meaning that they do not take advantage of the inherent capabilities of digital technology to improve business functions. And so, the improvement in I&C system performance has not translated to bottom-line performance improvement for the fleet. Therefore, wide-scale modernization of the legacy I&C systems could prove to be cost-prohibitive unless the technology is implemented in a manner to enable significant business innovation as a means of off-setting the cost of upgrades. A Future Vision of a transformed nuclear plant operating model based on an integrated digital environment has been developed as part of the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) research pathway, under the Light Water Reactor (LWR) Sustainability Program. This is a research and development program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration with the nuclear utility industry, to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. DOE's program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy security and environmental security . The Advanced II&C research pathway is being conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The Future Vision is based on a digital architecture that encompasses all aspects of plant operations and support, integrating plant systems, plant work processes, and plant workers in a
Full Text Available Navigation with the specific objective can be defined by specifying desired timed trajectory. The concept of desired direction field is proposed to deal with such navigation problem. To lay down a principled discussion of the accuracy and efficiency of navigation algorithms, strictly quantitative definitions of tracking error, actuator effect, and time efficiency are established. In this paper, one vision navigation control method based on desired direction field is proposed. This proposed method uses discrete image sequences to form discrete state space, which is especially suitable for bipedal walking robots with single camera walking on a free-barrier plane surface to track the specific objective without overshoot. The shortest path method (SPM is proposed to design such direction field with the highest time efficiency. However, one improved control method called canonical piecewise-linear function (PLF is proposed. In order to restrain the noise disturbance from the camera sensor, the band width control method is presented to significantly decrease the error influence. The robustness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm are illustrated through a number of computer simulations considering the error from camera sensor. Simulation results show that the robustness and efficiency can be balanced by choosing the proper controlling value of band width.
Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.
Vision is examined in terms of a computational process, and the competence, structure, and control of computer vision systems are analyzed. Theoretical and experimental data on the formation of a computer vision system are discussed. Consideration is given to early vision, the recovery of intrinsic surface characteristics, higher levels of interpretation, and system integration and control. A computational visual processing model is proposed and its architecture and operation are described. Examples of state-of-the-art vision systems, which include some of the levels of representation and processing mechanisms, are presented.
Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.
Vision is examined in terms of a computational process, and the competence, structure, and control of computer vision systems are analyzed. Theoretical and experimental data on the formation of a computer vision system are discussed. Consideration is given to early vision, the recovery of intrinsic surface characteristics, higher levels of interpretation, and system integration and control. A computational visual processing model is proposed and its architecture and operation are described. Examples of state-of-the-art vision systems, which include some of the levels of representation and processing mechanisms, are presented.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass treatment with ivermectin is a proven strategy for controlling onchocerciasis as a public health problem, but it is not known if it can also interrupt transmission and eliminate the parasite in endemic foci in Africa where vectors are highly efficient. A longitudinal study was undertaken in three hyperendemic foci in Mali and Senegal with 15 to 17 years of annual or six-monthly ivermectin treatment in order to assess residual levels of infection and transmission and test whether ivermectin treatment could be safely stopped in the study areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Skin snip surveys were undertaken in 126 villages, and 17,801 people were examined. The prevalence of microfilaridermia was <1% in all three foci. A total of 157,500 blackflies were collected and analyzed for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus larvae using a specific DNA probe, and vector infectivity rates were all below 0.5 infective flies per 1,000 flies. Except for a subsection of one focus, all infection and transmission indicators were below postulated thresholds for elimination. Treatment was therefore stopped in test areas of 5 to 8 villages in each focus. Evaluations 16 to 22 months after the last treatment in the test areas involved examination of 2,283 people using the skin snip method and a DEC patch test, and analysis of 123,000 black flies. No infected persons and no infected blackflies were detected in the test areas, and vector infectivity rates in other catching points were <0.2 infective flies per 1,000. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study has provided the first empirical evidence that elimination of onchocerciasis with ivermectin treatment is feasible in some endemic foci in Africa. Although further studies are needed to determine to what extent these findings can be extrapolated to other endemic areas in Africa, the principle of elimination has been established. The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control has adopted an additional
Full Text Available In recent years, as there is demand for smart mobile phones with touch panels, the alignment/compensation system of alignment stage with vision servo control has also increased. Due to the fact that the traditional stacked-type XYθ stage has cumulative errors of assembly and it is heavy, it has been gradually replaced by the coplanar stage characterized by three actuators on the same plane with three degrees of freedom. The simplest image alignment mode uses two cameras as the equipments for feedback control, and the work piece is placed on the working stage. The work piece is usually engraved/marked. After the cameras capture images and when the position of the mark in the camera is obtained by image processing, the mark can be moved to the designated position in the camera by moving the stage and using alignment algorithm. This study used a coplanar XXY stage with 1 μm positioning resolution. Due to the fact that the resolution of the camera is about 3.75 μm per pixel, thus a subpixel technology is used, and the linear and angular alignment repeatability of the alignment system can achieve 1 μm and 5 arcsec, respectively. The visual servo motion control for alignment motion is completed within 1 second using the coplanar XXY stage.
Ćirić Ivan T.
Full Text Available In this paper the supervisory control of the Person-Following Robot Platform is presented. The main part of the high level control loop of mobile robot platform is a real-time robust algorithm for human detection and tracking. The main goal was to enable mobile robot platform to recognize the person in indoor environment, and to localize it with accuracy high enough to allow adequate human-robot interaction. The developed computationally intelligent control algorithm enables robust and reliable human tracking by mobile robot platform. The core of the recognition methods proposed is genetic optimization of threshold segmentation and classification of detected regions of interests in every frame acquired by thermal vision camera. The support vector machine classifier determines whether the segmented object is human or not based on features extracted from the processed thermal image independently from current light conditions and in situations where no skin color is visible. Variation in temperature across same objects, air flow with different temperature gradients, person overlap while crossing each other and reflections, put challenges in thermal imaging and will have to be handled intelligently in order to obtain the efficient performance from motion tracking system. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35005
Van der Lelij, A; Rothova, A; Klaassen-Broekema, N; Wilson, W R; Barbe, R F; Stilma, J S
We assessed the side-effects after multiple single-dose treatment with ivermectin (150 micrograms/kg) in onchocerciasis patients form a hyperendemic area in Sierra Leone, in order to investigate whether medical surveillance was always necessary. After initial treatment 87 onchocerciasis patients were examined for adverse reactions. Fourty-four of these 87 patients (51%) received a second dose of ivermectin 5 months later and thirty-five (40%) received a third dose one year later. The side-effects after the second and third doses were significantly diminished, when compared with the initial dose of ivermectin in the treatment of onchocerciasis (chi2 test p less than 0.005, resp. p less than 0.008). Side-effects requiring therapy were observed in 32% of patients after the first dose, in 18% after the second dose and in 11% after the third dose of ivermectin. Severe side-effects (9%) were only seen after the initial ivermectin dose. All the severe adverse reactions appeared within 48 hours. In view of our findings, it seems necessary that the first treatment with ivermectin should take place under strict medical supervision during at least two days. Five months after treatment with a single dose of ivermectin 29 out of 44 patients (66%) still had a positive skin-snip test. Seven months after the second dose 15 of 35 patients (43%) had a positive skin-snip count. Since almost half of the patients had a positive skin-snip test despite two treatments with ivermectin, it could be argued that in hyperendemic areas treatment should consist of at least two doses in the first year.
Haselow, Nancy J; Akame, Julie; Evini, Cyrille; Akongo, Serge
In areas co-endemic for loiasis and onchocerciasis, the classic Community-Directed Treatment using ivermectin (Mectizan(R)) must be adapted as additional program activities, better communication and tighter control of ivermectin stocks are required to minimize risk and manage serious adverse events following ivermectin treatment in patients co-infected with Loa loa. The importance of these serious adverse events on community participation in onchocerciasis control efforts has not been adequately studied. Program implementers do not as of yet fully understand the psychological impact of serious adverse events on communities and therefore have not designed communication strategies that adequately address the real concerns of community members. It is clear, however, that along with an effective case detection and management strategy, a reinforced communication strategy will be required to motivate at least 65% of the total population in onchocerciasis and loiasis co-endemic areas to participate in the treatment program and to take ivermectin over an extended period. This strategy must be based on research undertaken at the community level in order to address the concerns, fears and issues associated with adverse events due to ivermectin - to ensure that communities believe that the benefits of taking ivermectin outweigh the risks. In addition to an overall increase in the time required to sustain onchocerciasis control programs in co-endemic areas, each aspect of the reinforced program and communication strategy - rapid epidemiological assessments, materials development, training, advocacy, community sensitization and mobilization, case management and counselling, supervision, monitoring and evaluation will require additional resources and support from all stakeholders concerned.
Ivanov, Iliya V; Mackeben, Manfred; Vollmer, Annika; Martus, Peter; Nguyen, Nhung X; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne
Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP), lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision), which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST). Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses) that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental) and reading (control) training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group). To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT) during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS), the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field. In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training condition
Ernst D. Dickmanns
Full Text Available Animation of spatio-temporal generic models for 3-D shape and motion of objects and subjects, based on feature sets evaluated in parallel from several image streams, is considered to be the core of dynamic vision. Subjects are a special kind of objects capable of sensing environmental parameters and of initiating own actions in combination with stored knowledge. Object / subject recognition and scene understanding are achieved on different levels and scales. Multiple objects are tracked individually in the image streams for perceiving their actual state ('here and now'. By analyzing motion of all relevant objects / subjects over a larger time scale on the level of state variables in the 'scene tree representation' known from computer graphics, the situation with respect to decision taking is assessed. Behavioral capabilities of subjects are represented explicitly on an abstract level for characterizing their potential behaviors. These are generated by stereotypical feed-forward and feedback control applications on a separate systems dynamics level with corresponding methods close to the actuator hardware. This dual representation on an abstract level (for decision making and on the implementation level allows for flexibility and easy adaptation or extension. Results are shown for road vehicle guidance based on three cameras on a gaze control platform.
Ćirić Ivan T.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the authors in thermal vision based mobile robot control. The most important segment of the high level control loop of mobile robot platform is an intelligent real-time algorithm for human detection and tracking. Temperature variations across same objects, air flow with different temperature gradients, reflections, person overlap while crossing each other, and many other non-linearities, uncertainty and noise, put challenges in thermal image processing and therefore the need of computationally intelligent algorithms for obtaining the efficient performance from human motion tracking system. The main goal was to enable mobile robot platform or any technical system to recognize the person in indoor environment, localize it and track it with accuracy high enough to allow adequate human-machine interaction. The developed computationally intelligent algorithms enables robust and reliable human detection and tracking based on neural network classifier and autoregressive neural network for time series prediction. Intelligent algorithm used for thermal image segmentation gives accurate inputs for classification. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35005
Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the shift of the age structure in today's populations, the necessities for developing the devices or technologies to support them have been increasing. Traditionally, the wheelchair, including powered and manual ones, is the most popular and important rehabilitation/assistive device for the disabled and the elderly. However, it is still highly restricted especially for severely disabled. As a solution to this, the Intelligent Wheelchairs (IWs have received considerable attention as mobility aids. The purpose of this work is to develop the IW interface for providing more convenient and efficient interface to the people the disability in their limbs. Methods This paper proposes an intelligent wheelchair (IW control system for the people with various disabilities. To facilitate a wide variety of user abilities, the proposed system involves the use of face-inclination and mouth-shape information, where the direction of an IW is determined by the inclination of the user's face, while proceeding and stopping are determined by the shapes of the user's mouth. Our system is composed of electric powered wheelchair, data acquisition board, ultrasonic/infra-red sensors, a PC camera, and vision system. Then the vision system to analyze user's gestures is performed by three stages: detector, recognizer, and converter. In the detector, the facial region of the intended user is first obtained using Adaboost, thereafter the mouth region is detected based on edge information. The extracted features are sent to the recognizer, which recognizes the face inclination and mouth shape using statistical analysis and K-means clustering, respectively. These recognition results are then delivered to the converter to control the wheelchair. Result & conclusion The advantages of the proposed system include 1 accurate recognition of user's intention with minimal user motion and 2 robustness to a cluttered background and the time-varying illumination
Nguyen, K.K.; Holtham, P.N.; Brake, I.R. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre
Flotation is one of the important processes used to recover minus 0.5 mm coal, but the automatic control of flotation has always been difficult due to a lack of suitable process instrumentation. While cell levels can be readily measured, and feed and tailings pulps can be assayed for ash level and solids concentration using on-stream analysers, these measurements alone are not generally sufficient for effective process control. Visual inspection of froth conditions by the flotation operator can provide additional data, and experienced operators are able to make process adjustments based on examination of froth characteristics such as average bubble size and froth mobility. At present, instrumentation to evaluate the appearance of the froth is not available, and hence this aspect of flotation plant operation is still manually controlled. This paper presents the results from the development of an industrial video-based pattern recognition system for image analysis of flotation froth. The system has been applied to one of the sixteen 3 m diameter Microcel flotation columns at Peak Downs coal preparation plant in central Queensland. Results from the system to date show that it can successfully identify froth type and estimate average bubble size and froth speed. The machine vision system currently developed provides sufficient processing power to support minute by minute updates of these froth characteristics as well as a live video output to the screen. On-line predictions of percent ash and solids in the froth are well correlated with those obtained by laboratory analysis. The system is currently being linked to the Peak Downs plant PLC to allow a trial of closed loop control of flotation. 5 refs., 7 figs.
Kim, Soo-Han; Park, Du-Jin
This study was conducted to examine the influence of the peripheral vision (PV) induced by moving people on postural control in healthy adults. The subjects consisted of 12 healthy adult volunteers (5 males, 7 females) who had been informed of the study purpose and procedure. The visual interventions were composed of three types. PV1 and PV2 were stimulated using a one-way vertical striped pattern and a two-way vertical striped pattern, respectively. To embody the features of moving people reflected in the mirrors, researchers recorded movements of people or objects provided by mirrors on video image. In this study, this was named PV3. The subjects were exposed to each of the visual stimuli for 3 min in a random order, and their postural control was then evaluated. All the subjects were allowed to practice once prior to performing the one leg stand test, functional reaching test and body sway test. All the evaluations were made before and after the visual intervention, and the subjects rested for 30 min between each intervention. PV3 ranked second in before and after differences of trace length and velocity and had no significant difference from PV2, demonstrating that the PV3, as well as PV2, affected the amount and velocity of body sway. In addition, the standard deviation velocity, trace length and velocity values of PV3 were higher than the PV1 values. Therefore, the treatment of those who have difficulty with postural control and balance maintenance should take place in a controlled therapeutic environment. PMID:27807518
Aho, Jacob; Arnold, George; Buckspan, Andrew
This document highlights the role of control systems in the evolution of the Smart Grid. It includes an overview of research investigations that are needed for renewable integration, reliability, self-healing, energy efficiency, and resilience to physical and cyber attacks. These investigations......, and security. Together, they usher in new horizons for control, such as architecting a system of distributed systems, building interfaces to social sciences such as economics, sociology, and psychology, and providing a blueprint for critical infrastructure systems. While the emerging role of control and its...... implication on grid architectures have been articulated in various papers, a comprehensive discourse on the evolution of Smart Grid and the opportunities and challenges that it presents for control, ranging from generators to consumers, from planning to real-time operation, from current practice to scenarios...
Aho, Jacob; Arnold, George; Buckspan, Andrew
This document highlights the role of control systems in the evolution of the Smart Grid. It includes an overview of research investigations that are needed for renewable integration, reliability, self-healing, energy efficiency, and resilience to physical and cyber attacks. These investigations...... are encapsulated in several loci of control including: new methodologies for transmission, distribution, and renewable energy, and storage; new roles in emerging topics such as electricity markets, demand-response, microgrids, and virtual power plants; and new solutions for efficiency, heating and cooling...... implication on grid architectures have been articulated in various papers, a comprehensive discourse on the evolution of Smart Grid and the opportunities and challenges that it presents for control, ranging from generators to consumers, from planning to real-time operation, from current practice to scenarios...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Vision Lab personnel perform research, development, testing and evaluation of eye protection and vision performance. The lab maintains and continues to develop...
... of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision Screening Vision Screening Recommendations Loading... Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye ...
Meng, Yicong; Shi, Bertram E
To support large numbers of model neurons, neuromorphic vision systems are increasingly adopting a distributed architecture, where different arrays of neurons are located on different chips or processors. Spike-based protocols are used to communicate activity between processors. The spike activity in the arrays depends on the input statistics as well as internal parameters such as time constants and gains. In this paper, we investigate strategies for automatically adapting these parameters to maintain a constant firing rate in response to changes in the input statistics. We find that under the constraint of maintaining a fixed firing rate, a strategy based upon updating the gain alone performs as well as an optimal strategy where both the gain and the time constant are allowed to vary. We discuss how to choose the time constant and propose an adaptive gain control mechanism whose operation is robust to changes in the input statistics. Our experimental results on a mobile robotic platform validate the analysis and efficacy of the proposed strategy.
Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Parrish, Russell V.; Bailey, Randall E.
In commercial aviation, over 30-percent of all fatal accidents worldwide are categorized as Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) accidents, where a fully functioning airplane is inadvertently flown into the ground. The major hypothesis for a simulation experiment conducted at NASA Langley Research Center was that a Primary Flight Display (PFD) with synthetic terrain will improve pilots ability to detect and avoid potential CFITs compared to conventional instrumentation. All display conditions, including the baseline, contained a Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) and Vertical Situation Display (VSD) enhanced Navigation Display (ND). Each pilot flew twenty-two approach departure maneuvers in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to the terrain challenged Eagle County Regional Airport (EGE) in Colorado. For the final run, flight guidance cues were altered such that the departure path went into terrain. All pilots with a synthetic vision system (SVS) PFD (twelve of sixteen pilots) noticed and avoided the potential CFIT situation. The four pilots who flew the anomaly with the conventional baseline PFD configuration (which included a TAWS and VSD enhanced ND) had a CFIT event. Additionally, all the SVS display concepts enhanced the pilot s situational awareness, decreased workload and improved flight technical error (FTE) compared to the baseline configuration.
Kim, Dal Hyung; Steager, Edward B.; Kei Cheang, U.; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Min Jun
There has been significant recent interest in micro-nano robots operating in low Reynold's number fluidic environments. Even though recent works showed the success of controlling micro-nano robots, there are some limitations because of the tracking method. In this paper, we introduce and implement a feature-based tracking method (FTM). Scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is a well-explored technique at much larger length scales for research fields regarding robotics and vision. Here, the technique is extensively investigated and optimized for microbiorobots (MBRs) in low Reynold's number environments. Also, we compare the FTM with the conventional tracking method for cells, which is known as the region-based tracking method (RTM). We clearly show that the FTM can track more accurate positions of the objects in comparison with the RTM in cases where objects are in close contact or overlapped. Also, we demonstrate that the FTM allows tracking microscopic objects even though illumination changes over time or portions of the object are occluded or outside the field of view.
Sachdeva, Kuldeep Singh; Kumar, Ashok; Dewan, Puneet; Kumar, Ajay; Satyanarayana, Srinath
The Phase II (2006-2012) of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) has been successful in achieving its objectives. Tuberculosis (TB) disease burden (prevalence and mortality) in India has reduced significantly when compared to 1990 levels, and India is on track to achieve the TB related millennium development goals. Despite significant progress, TB still continues to be one of the major public health problems in the country, and intensified efforts are required to reduce TB transmission and accelerate reductions in TB incidence, particularly in urban areas and difficult terrains. Achieving 'Universal access' is possible and necessary for the country. RNTCP during the 12 th Five Year Plan (2012-2017) aims to achieve 'Universal access' to quality assured TB diagnosis and treatment and elaborate plans are being made. This requires broad and concerted efforts and support from all stakeholders with substantial enhancement of commitment and financing at all levels. This paper describes the new vision of RNTCP and an overview of how this will be achieved.
Matthew J Baggott
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of drug-induced visions are poorly understood. Very few serotonergic hallucinogens have been studied in humans in decades, despite widespread use of these drugs and potential relevance of their mechanisms to hallucinations occurring in psychiatric and neurological disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the mechanisms of hallucinogen-induced visions by measuring the visual and perceptual effects of the hallucinogenic serotonin 5-HT2AR receptor agonist and monoamine releaser, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA, in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. We found that MDA increased self-report measures of mystical-type experience and other hallucinogen-like effects, including reported visual alterations. MDA produced a significant increase in closed-eye visions (CEVs, with considerable individual variation. Magnitude of CEVs after MDA was associated with lower performance on measures of contour integration and object recognition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Drug-induced visions may have greater intensity in people with poor sensory or perceptual processing, suggesting common mechanisms with other hallucinatory syndromes. MDA is a potential tool to investigate mystical experiences and visual perception. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00823407.
Lahr, Juliana; Pereira, Marcelo Pinto; Pelicioni, Paulo Henrique Silva; De Morais, Luana Carolina; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken
This study assesses the association between disease onset side (dominant or non-dominant) and vision on postural control of Parkinson's disease patients. Patient volunteers composed two groups, according to the onset side affected: Dominant group (n=9; M age=66.1 yr., SD=7.2; 6 women, 3 men) and Non-dominant group (n=9; M age=67.4 yr., SD=6.4; 6 women, 3 men). The groups' postural control was assessed by posturography during quiet upright stance in two conditions, Eyes open and Eyes closed. Two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs; group×condition) with repeated measures for the second factor assessed the differences associated with affected hemibody and vision on postural control. Analyses indicated that patients with the dominant side affected also presented significantly greater variation in center of pressure than those with the non-dominant side affected, mainly in the Eyes closed condition. The results demonstrate a higher reliance on vision in the dominant side, possibly to compensate somatosensory system impairments. These results also highlight the importance of analyzing the hemibody affected by the disease when postural control is assessed in this population.
Iliya V Ivanov
Full Text Available Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP, lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision, which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST.Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental and reading (control training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group. To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS, the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field.In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training
Joy R Guderian
Full Text Available The prevalence of onchocerciasis infection was determined in communities on 7 rivers located in the northern area of the cantón San Lorenzo, province of Esmeraldas. Diagnosis of the infection was obtained by skin biopsies and recombinant-antigen based-serology. No evidence of infection was detected in 9 communities studied along the Río Mataje, which forms the frontier between Ecuador and Colombia, nor in 10 adjacent communities located on 5 interior rivers. Evidence for Onchocerca volvulus infection was found in 4 communities on the Río Tululví with the following prevalence: La Boca (3.5% by biopsy and 3.9% by serology, Guayabal (9.1% by both biopsy and serology, La Ceiva (51.5% by biopsy and 53% by serology, and Salidero (4% by biopsy and 7.7% by serology. A few individuals in these communities were seropositive for O. volvulus in the absence of detectable dermal microfilariae: these might harbor very light or prepatent infections. No clinical disease attributable to onchocerciasis was found. The infected communities will be included in the ivermectin-based National Control Program for the disease, with no evidence of the infection having extended north of the Ecuadorian-colombian border
Albiez, E J; Newland, H S; White, A T; Kaiser, A; Greene, B M; Taylor, H R; Büttner, D W
Fifty adult male subjects with moderate to heavy onchocerciasis from the Liberian rain forest were selected for a double-blind placebo-controlled chemotherapy study. The effects of high doses of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) - 30 mg/kg/d - over one week preceded by a one week initial treatment with normal oral doses of DEC or DEC lotion were compared with a single dose of ivermectin (150 micrograms/kg) and placebo. During the initial treatment DEC tablets or lotion caused distinctly more frequent and severe reactions than did invermectin. The reactions to ivermectin did not differ from those of the placebo patients. High doses of DEC caused, in about half of the patients, headache, dizziness, nausea or vomiting. DEC markedly increased the number of corneal microfilariae and of corneal opacities compared to ivermectin. All changes resolved with a return to pretreatment findings two months after treatment. The three treatment groups showed no differences at the ten months follow-up. In all treated patients skin microfilaria counts fell almost to zero by the end of the two week therapy. In the ivermectin group microfilaria counts remained significantly lower than in the DEC patients at the two and ten months examinations. In summary, ivermectin was much better tolerated than DEC and had a longer lasting effect on the microfilariae in the skin. Since high doses of DEC were less effective and caused more frequent and severe side effects, this approach cannot be recommended for treatment of onchocerciasis.
Full Text Available This paper presents a vision-based navigation system for an autonomous underwater vehicle in semistructured environments with poor visibility. In terrestrial and aerial applications, the use of visual systems mounted in robotic platforms as a control sensor feedback is commonplace. However, robotic vision-based tasks for underwater applications are still not widely considered as the images captured in this type of environments tend to be blurred and/or color depleted. To tackle this problem, we have adapted the lαβ color space to identify features of interest in underwater images even in extreme visibility conditions. To guarantee the stability of the vehicle at all times, a model-free robust control is used. We have validated the performance of our visual navigation system in real environments showing the feasibility of our approach.
chokepoint limiting command and control of the aircraft. Fortunately, vision can be augmented with an available technology called “ haptics ” during...application of haptics or tactile devices for flight purposes began in the mid- 1990s with proof of concept performed in 1995 in a Cessna 172 (Rupert, 1997...According to Rupert, he designed the haptic piloting device and named it the Tactile Situational Awareness System (TSAS). Naval Air Base
Kalt, Wilhelmina; McDonald, Jane E; Fillmore, Sherry A E; Tremblay, Francois
Clinical evidence for anthocyanin benefits in night vision is controversial. This paper presents two human trials investigating blueberry anthocyanin effects on dark adaptation, functional night vision, and vision recovery after retinal photobleaching. One trial, S2 (n = 72), employed a 3 week intervention and a 3 week washout, two anthocyanin doses (271 and 7.11 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents (C3g eq)), and placebo. The other trial, L1 (n = 59), employed a 12 week intervention and an 8 week washout and tested one dose (346 mg C3g eq) and placebo. In both S2 and L1 neither dark adaptation nor night vision was improved by anthocyanin intake. However, in both trials anthocyanin consumption hastened the recovery of visual acuity after photobleaching. In S2 both anthocyanin doses were effective (P = 0.014), and in L1 recovery was improved at 8 weeks (P = 0.027) and 12 weeks (P = 0.030). Although photobleaching recovery was hastened by anthocyanins, it is not known whether this improvement would have an impact on everyday vision.
Yang, Zhan; Wang, Yaqiong; Yang, Bin; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Nakajima, Masahiro; Sun, Lining; Fukuda, Toshio
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ) individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis). Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM) served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system. PMID:27649180
Yang, Zhan; Wang, Yaqiong; Yang, Bin; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Nakajima, Masahiro; Sun, Lining; Fukuda, Toshio
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ) individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis). Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM) served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system.
Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNT have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis. Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system.
Fulford, A J; Macfarlane, S B; Awadzi, K; Bell, D R; Gilles, H M
This paper presents some statistical problems of analysing changes in patterns of microfilarial loads in onchocerciasis patients after chemotherapeutic treatment. Analyses are made of a pooled set of data from ten separate studies of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) conducted at the Onchocerciasis Chemotherapeutic Research Centre, Tamale, between 1978 and 1983. Regression models of microfilarial load at different intervals post-treatment are fitted with initial microfilarial load, total dose of DEC, duration of treatment and age of the patient as the independent variables. Appropriate transformations of the variables are chosen by examination of plots of residuals for violations of the assumptions underlying the regression models. A dose response curve for DEC is produced.
Dogba, P K; Komi, B T
We have evaluated the endemicity of the onchocerciasis in two villages of the district of Amou in Togo, Okpahoué et Onglo. We have studied 294 subjects including 136 males and 158 females representing the quarter of the population of the two villages (clinical investigation and exsanguine cutaneous biopsy): 111 persons are parasited by Onchocerca volvulus that means a prevalence rate of 37.7%. We can therefore say that the villages are in a state of "meso-endemicity". We have been able to find nodules by 20 persons among the 111 that give a percentage of 6.8 of the examined persons. Among children of 3 to 9 years old, the prevalence and the average microfilaremia are respectively 8.86 and 3.54%. Among the persons of 50 or older than 50, we found a prevalence rate of 65.95% and an average microfilaremia of 28.37.
Bryceson, A D; Warrell, D A; Pope, H M
Nine Nigerians with severe onchocerciasis who were treated with diethylcarbamazine developed clinical changes, ranging in severity from mild itching to distress, cough, and syncope. Physiological changes (fever, tachypnoea, tachycardia, or hypotension) were seen in eight. In five patients the systolic blood pressure fell by more than 25 mm Hg, and one patient collapsed on attempting to sit up. Circulating eosinophils decreased profoundly in all cases, reaching their lowest levels just before or during the clinical and physiological changes. A fall in serum complement (c3) accompanied the reaction but there was no fall in antibody titre. Diethylcarbamazine probably acts on the parasite's cuticle, thus exposing it to the body's defence mechansims. The reaction coincides with the death of microfilariae, and the accompanying physiological changes may be so severe, even in generally healthy patients, the treatment should perferably be started in hospital.
Dominguez-Vazquez, A; Taylor, H R; Greene, B M; Ruvalcaba-Macias, A M; Rivas-Alcala, A R; Murphy, R P; Beltran-Hernandez, F
Flubendazole, an injectable benzimidazole drug, was compared with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in a prospective double-blind study of the treatment of onchocerciasis. Nineteen Mexican men were randomly assigned to receive either flubendazole 750 mg intramuscularly once a week for 5 doses, or DEC 100 mg twice daily for 14 days, and they were then followed up for 12 months. Major systemic side-effects during the first 3 weeks were common in the DEC group but not in the flubendazole group in which there was considerable inflammation at the injection site instead. Ocular complications (limbitis, punctate keratitis, and uveitis) were also common in the DEC group, whereas in the flubendazole group they consisted only of one new punctate opacity at day 4 in one subject. One DEC patient also had several new areas of chorioretinal changes on day 2 but these had disappeared by 2 months. Skin microfilaria counts fell rapidly in the DEC group, but returned to the pretreatment levels. In contrast, skin microfilaria counts in the flubendazole group fell slowly, but by 6 and 12 months were lower than in the DEC group (at 12 months 0.2 vs 7.3 mf/mg, p less than 0.001). In addition, by 6 months none of the flubendazole subjects had intracorneal microfilariae, and only one had microfilariae in the anterior chamber, whereas the numbers of intraocular microfilariae in the DEC group had returned to pretreatment levels. The results suggest that flubendazole is safer and more effective than DEC in the treatment of onchocerciasis.
Limaye, A P; Abrams, J S; Silver, J E; Awadzi, K; Francis, H F; Ottesen, E A; Nutman, T B
To understand the role of the eosinophilopoietic cytokine IL-5 in humans, the posttreatment eosinophilic response in a group of microfilaria (mf)-positive patients with onchocerciasis (n = 10) was examined before and after treatment with diethylcarbamazine (6 mg/kg for 7 d). Sequential blood samples were assessed at 24 and 1 h before treatment (baseline values), then at frequent intervals over the next 14 d. Symptom scores, skin microfilariae (mf), and peripheral blood eosinophil counts were recorded as a function of time after treatment, and serum levels of IL-5 were quantitated by a highly sensitive (sensitivity greater than or equal to 20 pg/ml) monoclonal-based ELISA. Pretreatment eosinophil counts ranged from 240 to 1,186 eosinophils/microliter (geometric mean, 675), and the mf counts from 10 to 218 per mg skin (geometric mean, 79). After an initial decline in the peripheral eosinophil count to 28 +/- 8% of pretreatment levels at 8 h after beginning treatment, the eosinophil counts steadily increased over the next 2 wk, reaching a maximum at 14 d (257 +/- 38% of pretreatment levels). Serum levels of IL-5 rose sharply from pretreatment levels to a peak of 70.5 +/- 11 pg/ml by 24 h after treatment. Serum IL-5 remained elevated over the next 2-3 d and declined toward baseline by approximately 6 d after treatment, at which time the eosinophil levels were steadily increasing. IL-3 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, two other cytokines implicated in eosinophilopoeisis, were not detectable in the serum at any time before or after treatment. The rise in serum IL-5 before the posttreatment eosinophilia seen in this group of patients with onchocerciasis demonstrates a temporal relationship between IL-5 and the subsequent development of eosinophilia and implicates IL-5 as an important mediator of eosinophilia in humans.
Awadzi, K; Adjepon-Yamoah, K K; Edwards, G; Orme, M L; Breckenridge, A M; Gilles, H M
Twenty-one patients with moderate to heavy infections with O. volvulus were treated with 25 mg of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) citrate twice daily for 10 days. In 11 patients the urine was made alkaline with sodium bicarbonate, 2 g, administered 6 hourly for three doses daily beginning 1 day before DEC was started and continued throughout the DEC therapy. Ten patients served as controls. The mean pre-dose plasma DEC concentration during treatment and the mean plasma DEC half-life were significantly higher in bicarbonate treated patients as compared to controls. Total urinary excretion of DEC was significantly less in the bicarbonate treated group than in controls. Mean overall total reaction was higher in bicarbonate-treated patients but the difference was not significant. The bicarbonate-treated group achieved a significantly greater reduction in skin microfilarial counts than the control group as assessed 1 week after completion of therapy, but there was little difference at 1 month. Microfilarial killing was associated with microfilarial mobilisation, alteration in peripheral leucocytes and elevation in serum aminotransferases in both groups. There was no effect of DEC on the number of adult worms recovered in nodules removed at the end of the therapy. This study indicates that moderate urinary alkalinisation alters the kinetics of DEC and the therapeutic response. However the severity of clinical reaction coupled with the inadequate level of microfilarial killing achieved make it unlikely that manipulation of urinary pH will be of practical value in onchocerciasis chemotherapy.
Máthé, Koppány; Buşoniu, Lucian
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained significant attention in recent years. Low-cost platforms using inexpensive sensor payloads have been shown to provide satisfactory flight and navigation capabilities. In this report, we survey vision and control methods that can be applied to low-cost UAVs, and we list some popular inexpensive platforms and application fields where they are useful. We also highlight the sensor suites used where this information is available. We overview, among others, feature detection and tracking, optical flow and visual servoing, low-level stabilization and high-level planning methods. We then list popular low-cost UAVs, selecting mainly quadrotors. We discuss applications, restricting our focus to the field of infrastructure inspection. Finally, as an example, we formulate two use-cases for railway inspection, a less explored application field, and illustrate the usage of the vision and control techniques reviewed by selecting appropriate ones to tackle these use-cases. To select vision methods, we run a thorough set of experimental evaluations. PMID:26121608
Michaelsen, Eckart; Middelmann, Wolfgang; Sörgel, Uwe
The laws of gestalt-perception play an important role in human vision. Psychological studies identified similarity, good continuation, proximity and symmetry as important inter-object relations that distinguish perceptive gestalts from arbitrary sets of clutter objects. Particularly, symmetry and continuation possess a high potential in detection, identification, and reconstruction of man-made objects. This contribution focuses on coding this principle in an automatic production system. Such systems capture declarative knowledge. Procedural details are defined as control strategy for an interpreter. Often an exact solution is not feasible while approximately correct interpretations of the data with the production system are sufficient. Given input data and a production system the control acts accumulatively instead of reducing. The approach is assessment driven features any-time capability and fits well into the recently discussed paradigms of cognitive vision. An example from automatic extraction of groupings and symmetry in man-made structure from high resolution SAR-image data is given. The contribution also discusses the relations of such approach to the "mid-level" of what is today proposed as "cognitive vision".
Cao, Zhengcai; Yin, Longjie; Fu, Yili
Vision-based pose stabilization of nonholonomic mobile robots has received extensive attention. At present, most of the solutions of the problem do not take the robot dynamics into account in the controller design, so that these controllers are difficult to realize satisfactory control in practical application. Besides, many of the approaches suffer from the initial speed and torque jump which are not practical in the real world. Considering the kinematics and dynamics, a two-stage visual controller for solving the stabilization problem of a mobile robot is presented, applying the integration of adaptive control, sliding-mode control, and neural dynamics. In the first stage, an adaptive kinematic stabilization controller utilized to generate the command of velocity is developed based on Lyapunov theory. In the second stage, adopting the sliding-mode control approach, a dynamic controller with a variable speed function used to reduce the chattering is designed, which is utilized to generate the command of torque to make the actual velocity of the mobile robot asymptotically reach the desired velocity. Furthermore, to handle the speed and torque jump problems, the neural dynamics model is integrated into the above mentioned controllers. The stability of the proposed control system is analyzed by using Lyapunov theory. Finally, the simulation of the control law is implemented in perturbed case, and the results show that the control scheme can solve the stabilization problem effectively. The proposed control law can solve the speed and torque jump problems, overcome external disturbances, and provide a new solution for the vision-based stabilization of the mobile robot.
Full Text Available Although the depiction of a child leading a blind man is the most enduring image of onchocerciasis in Africa, research activities have hardly involved children. This paper aims at giving voice to children through drawings and their interpretation. The study was conducted in 2009 in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Nigeria and Uganda. Children aged 6–16 years were asked to draw their perceptions of onchocerciasis and community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in their communities. A total of 50 drawings were generated. The drawings depicted four main aspects of onchocerciasis: (1 the disease symptoms, (2 the negative consequences of onchocerciasis among children and in the community generally, (3 the ivermectin distribution process, and (4 the benefits or effects of taking ivermectin. Out of the 50 drawings, 30 were on symptoms, 7 on effects of the disease on children, 8 on distribution process, and 5 represented multiple perceptions on symptoms, drug distribution processes, benefits, and effects of treatment. The lack of clarity when treatment with ivermectin can be stopped in endemic areas requires working with children to ensure continued compliance with treatment into the future. Children's drawings should be incorporated into health education interventions.
Luc E Coffeng
Full Text Available The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC is currently shifting its focus from morbidity control to elimination of infection. To enhance the likelihood of elimination and speed up its achievement, programs may consider to increase the frequency of ivermectin mass treatment from annual to 6-monthly or even higher. In a computer simulation study, we examined the potential impact of increasing the mass treatment frequency for different settings. With the ONCHOSIM model, we simulated 92,610 scenarios pertaining to different assumptions about transmission conditions, history of mass treatment, the future mass treatment strategy, and ivermectin efficacy. Simulation results were used to determine the minimum remaining program duration and number of treatment rounds required to achieve 99% probability of elimination. Doubling the frequency of treatment from yearly to 6-monthly or 3-monthly was predicted to reduce remaining program duration by about 40% or 60%, respectively. These reductions come at a cost of additional treatment rounds, especially in case of 3-monthly mass treatment. Also, aforementioned reductions are highly dependent on maintained coverage, and could be completely nullified if coverage of mass treatment were to fall in the future. In low coverage settings, increasing treatment coverage is almost just as effective as increasing treatment frequency. We conclude that 6-monthly mass treatment may only be worth the effort in situations where annual treatment is expected to take a long time to achieve elimination in spite of good treatment coverage, e.g. because of unfavorable transmission conditions or because mass treatment started recently.
The book is suitable for advanced courses in computer vision and image processing. In addition to providing an overall view of computational vision, it contains extensive material on topics that are not usually covered in computer vision texts (including parallel distributed processing and neural networks) and considers many real applications.
Connor, D H; Gibson, D W; Neafie, R C; Merighi, B; Buck, A A
Sowda is an unusual form of onchocerciasis in Yemenites that differs from African onchocerciasis. Clinical and pathological studies were performed on 18 patients in Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen). Biopsies of skin and lymph nodes were taken, and then processed at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, D.C. The most striking clinical features were swollen, darkened, pruritic, papular skin changes that were usually limited to one leg, more rarely to one arm, and large soft regional lymph nodes. Dermal changes were deeper and more diffuse than in African onchocerciasis, with many large fibroblasts and plasma cells. Microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus were much rarer in skin from Yemenites with sowda. When patients were treated with diethylcarbamazine, the dermatitis became suddenly worse as the microfilariae degenerated and provoked acute inflammation. The dermatitis decreased after several days of treatment. Enlarged lymph nodes from sowda have shown follicular hyperplasia, in contrast to follicular atrophy and perivascular fibrosis that are characteristic of lymph nodes from cases of African onchocerciasis. Cell-mediated and humoral immunity may be more active in sowda than in African onchocerciasis.
Full Text Available This paper presents a control system design and development approach for a vision-based automated guided vehicle (AGV based on the multi-agent system (MAS methodology and embedded system resources. A three-phase agent-oriented design methodology Prometheus is used to analyse system functions, construct operation scenarios, define agent types and design the MAS coordination mechanism. The control system is then developed in an embedded implementation containing a digital signal processor (DSP and an advanced RISC machine (ARM by using the multitasking processing capacity of multiple microprocessors and system services of a real-time operating system (RTOS. As a paradigm, an onboard embedded controller is designed and developed for the AGV with a camera detecting guiding landmarks, and the entire procedure has a high efficiency and a clear hierarchy. A vision guidance experiment for our AGV is carried out in a space-limited laboratory environment to verify the perception capacity and the onboard intelligence of the agent-oriented embedded control system.
Gardon, J; Gardon-Wendel, N; Demanga-Ngangue; Kamgno, J; Chippaux, J P; Boussinesq, M
In 1995, the World Bank launched an African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control to eliminate Onchocerca volvulus disease from 19 African countries by means of community-based ivermectin treatment (CBIT). Several cases of encephalopathy have been reported after ivermectin in people heavily infected with microfilariae of Loa loa (loiasis). We assessed the incidence of serious events in an area where onchocerciasis and loiasis are both endemic. Ivermectin (at 150 micrograms/kg) was given to 17877 people living in the Lékié area of Cameroon. 50 microL samples of capillary blood were taken during the daytime before treatment from all adults (aged > or = 15 years), and the numbers of L loa and Mansonella perstans microfilariae in them were counted. Patients were monitored for 7 days after treatment. Adverse reactions were classified as mild, marked, or serious. Serious reactions were defined as those associated with a functional impairment that required at least a week of full-time assistance to undertake normal activities. We calculated the relative risk of developing marked or serious reactions for increasing L loa microfilarial loads. Risk factors for serious reactions were identified and assessed with a logistic regression model. 20 patients (0-11%) developed serious reactions without neurological signs but associated with a functional impairment lasting more than a week. Two other patients were in coma for 2-3 days, associated with L loa microfilariae in cerebrospinal fluid. Occurrence of serious reactions was related to the intensity of pretreatment L loa microfilaraemia. The relative risk of developing marked or serious reactions was significantly higher when the L loa load exceeded 8000 microfilariae/mL; for serious reactions, the risk is very high (odds ratio > 1000) for loads above 50000 microfilariae/mL. Epidemiological surveys aimed at assessing the intensity of infection with L loa microfilariae should be done before ivermectin is distributed for
Markovic, Marko; Dosen, Strahinja; Popovic, Dejan; Graimann, Bernhard; Farina, Dario
Objective. Myoelectric activity volitionally generated by the user is often used for controlling hand prostheses in order to replicate the synergistic actions of muscles in healthy humans during grasping. Muscle synergies in healthy humans are based on the integration of visual perception, heuristics and proprioception. Here, we demonstrate how sensor fusion that combines artificial vision and proprioceptive information with the high-level processing characteristics of biological systems can be effectively used in transradial prosthesis control. Approach. We developed a novel context- and user-aware prosthesis (CASP) controller integrating computer vision and inertial sensing with myoelectric activity in order to achieve semi-autonomous and reactive control of a prosthetic hand. The presented method semi-automatically provides simultaneous and proportional control of multiple degrees-of-freedom (DOFs), thus decreasing overall physical effort while retaining full user control. The system was compared against the major commercial state-of-the art myoelectric control system in ten able-bodied and one amputee subject. All subjects used transradial prosthesis with an active wrist to grasp objects typically associated with activities of daily living. Main results. The CASP significantly outperformed the myoelectric interface when controlling all of the prosthesis DOF. However, when tested with less complex prosthetic system (smaller number of DOF), the CASP was slower but resulted with reaching motions that contained less compensatory movements. Another important finding is that the CASP system required minimal user adaptation and training. Significance. The CASP constitutes a substantial improvement for the control of multi-DOF prostheses. The application of the CASP will have a significant impact when translated to real-life scenarious, particularly with respect to improving the usability and acceptance of highly complex systems (e.g., full prosthetic arms) by amputees.
Mekonnen, Solomon A; Beissner, Marcus; Saar, Malkin; Ali, Solomon; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Tesfaye, Kassahun; Adbaru, Mulatu G; Battke, Florian; Poppert, Sven; Hoelscher, Michael; Löscher, Thomas; Bretzel, Gisela; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz
Onchocerciasis is a parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. In endemic areas, the diagnosis is commonly confirmed by microscopic examination of skin snip samples, though this technique is considered to have low sensitivity. The available melting-curve based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using degenerated primers targeting the O-150 repeat of O. volvulus was considered insufficient for confirming the individual diagnosis, especially in elimination studies. This study aimed to improve detection of O. volvulus DNA in clinical samples through the development of a highly sensitive qPCR assay. A novel hydrolysis probe based qPCR assay was designed targeting the specific sequence of the O. volvulus O-5S rRNA gene. A total of 200 clinically suspected onchocerciasis cases were included from Goma district in South-west Ethiopia, from October 2012 through May 2013. Skin snip samples were collected and subjected to microscopy, O-150 qPCR, and the novel O-5S qPCR. Among the 200 individuals, 133 patients tested positive (positivity rate of 66.5%) and 67 negative by O-5S qPCR, 74 tested positive by microscopy (37.0%) and 78 tested positive by O-150 qPCR (39.0%). Among the 133 O-5S qPCR positive individuals, microscopy and O-150 qPCR detected 55.6 and 59.4% patients, respectively, implying a higher sensitivity of O-5S qPCR than microscopy and O-150 qPCR. None of the 67 individuals who tested negative by O-5S qPCR tested positive by microscopy or O-150 qPCR, implying 100% specificity of the newly designed O-5S qPCR assay. The novel O-5S qPCR assay is more sensitive than both microscopic examination and the existing O-150 qPCR for the detection of O. volvulus from skin snip samples. The newly designed assay is an important step towards appropriate individual diagnosis and control of onchocerciasis.
Takahashi, Satoru; Nara, Shunsuke
This paper treats the navigation problem of a mobile robot based on vision information and ultrasonic data. In our method, by calculating the optical flow on the images, the mobile robot can detect obstacles which exist ahead of it, further avoiding the area of obstacles, it can make the optimal trajectory to the final goal. Then, in order to generate the optimal trajectory, the distance between a mobile robot and obstacle is needed and then is obtained by evaluating a function with ultrasonic information. Through some experiments, we show how our proposed method is effective.
Pearson, Chris M.; Probert, Penelope J.
We describe a monocular feature tracker (MFT), the first stage of a low cost stereoscopic vision system for use on an autonomous guided vehicle (AGV) in an indoor environment. The system does not require artificial markings or other beacons, but relies upon accurate knowledge of the AGV motion. Linear array cameras (LAC) are used to reduce the data and processing bandwidths. The limited information given by LAC require modelling of the expected features. We model an obstacle as a vertical line segment touching the floor, and can distinguish between these obstacles and most other clutter in an image sequence. Detection of these obstacles is sufficient information for local AGV navigation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-Wolbachia treatment with doxycycline is effective in sterilising and killing adult Onchocerca volvulus nematodes, proving superior to ivermectin and of great potential as an alternative approach for the treatment and control of onchocerciasis, particularly in areas of Loa loa co-endemicity. Nevertheless, the length of the required treatment poses potential logistical problems and risk of poor compliance, raising a barrier to the use of doxycycline in Mass Drug Administration (MDA strategies. In 2007 and 2008 a feasibility trial of community-directed treatment with doxycycline was carried out in two health districts in Cameroon, co-endemic for O. volvulus and L. loa. With 17,519 eligible subjects, the therapeutic coverage was 73.8% with 97.5% compliance, encouraging the feasibility of using doxycycline community-directed delivery in restricted populations of this size. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of this community-directed delivery of doxycycline four years after delivery. Findings Infection with O. volvulus was evaluated by skin biopsy and nodule palpation. Of the 507 subjects recruited, 375 had completed the treatment with doxycycline followed by one or two rounds of annual ivermectin MDA and 132 received one or two rounds of annual ivermectin MDA alone. Statistically significant lower microfilarial prevalence (17.0% [doxycycline plus ivermectin group], 27.0% [ivermectin only group], p = 0.014 and load (p = 0.012 were found in people that had received doxycycline followed by ivermectin compared to those who received ivermectin only. Conclusions This study demonstrates the long-term effectiveness of doxycycline treatment delivered with a community-directed strategy even when evaluated four years after delivery in an area of ongoing transmission. This finding shows that a multi-week course of treatment is not a barrier to community-delivery of MDA in restricted populations of this size and supports its
Hugo C Turner
Full Text Available It has been proposed that switching from annual to biannual (twice yearly mass community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI might improve the chances of onchocerciasis elimination in some African foci. However, historically, relatively few communities have received biannual treatments in Africa, and there are no cost data associated with increasing ivermectin treatment frequency at a large scale. Collecting cost data is essential for conducting economic evaluations of control programmes. Some countries, such as Ghana, have adopted a biannual treatment strategy in selected districts. We undertook a study to estimate the costs associated with annual and biannual CDTI in Ghana.The study was conducted in the Brong-Ahafo and Northern regions of Ghana. Data collection was organized at the national, regional, district, sub-district and community levels, and involved interviewing key personnel and scrutinizing national records. Data were collected in four districts; one in which treatment is delivered annually, two in which it is delivered biannually, and one where treatment takes place biannually in some communities and annually in others. Both financial and economic costs were collected from the health care provider's perspective.The estimated cost of treating annually was US Dollars (USD 0.45 per person including the value of time donated by the community drug distributors (which was estimated at USD 0.05 per person per treatment round. The cost of CDTI was approximately 50-60% higher in those districts where treatment was biannual than in those where it was annual. Large-scale mass biannual treatment was reported as being well received and considered sustainable.This study provides rigorous evidence of the different costs associated with annual and biannual CDTI in Ghana which can be used to inform an economic evaluation of the debate on the optimal treatment frequency required to control (or eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa.
Turner, Hugo C; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Walker, Martin; Tettevi, Edward J; Churcher, Thomas S; Asiedu, Odame; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Basáñez, María-Gloria
It has been proposed that switching from annual to biannual (twice yearly) mass community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) might improve the chances of onchocerciasis elimination in some African foci. However, historically, relatively few communities have received biannual treatments in Africa, and there are no cost data associated with increasing ivermectin treatment frequency at a large scale. Collecting cost data is essential for conducting economic evaluations of control programmes. Some countries, such as Ghana, have adopted a biannual treatment strategy in selected districts. We undertook a study to estimate the costs associated with annual and biannual CDTI in Ghana. The study was conducted in the Brong-Ahafo and Northern regions of Ghana. Data collection was organized at the national, regional, district, sub-district and community levels, and involved interviewing key personnel and scrutinizing national records. Data were collected in four districts; one in which treatment is delivered annually, two in which it is delivered biannually, and one where treatment takes place biannually in some communities and annually in others. Both financial and economic costs were collected from the health care provider's perspective. The estimated cost of treating annually was US Dollars (USD) 0.45 per person including the value of time donated by the community drug distributors (which was estimated at USD 0.05 per person per treatment round). The cost of CDTI was approximately 50-60% higher in those districts where treatment was biannual than in those where it was annual. Large-scale mass biannual treatment was reported as being well received and considered sustainable. This study provides rigorous evidence of the different costs associated with annual and biannual CDTI in Ghana which can be used to inform an economic evaluation of the debate on the optimal treatment frequency required to control (or eliminate) onchocerciasis in Africa.
Turner, Hugo C.; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Walker, Martin; Tettevi, Edward J.; Churcher, Thomas S.; Asiedu, Odame; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Basáñez, María-Gloria
Background It has been proposed that switching from annual to biannual (twice yearly) mass community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) might improve the chances of onchocerciasis elimination in some African foci. However, historically, relatively few communities have received biannual treatments in Africa, and there are no cost data associated with increasing ivermectin treatment frequency at a large scale. Collecting cost data is essential for conducting economic evaluations of control programmes. Some countries, such as Ghana, have adopted a biannual treatment strategy in selected districts. We undertook a study to estimate the costs associated with annual and biannual CDTI in Ghana. Methodology The study was conducted in the Brong-Ahafo and Northern regions of Ghana. Data collection was organized at the national, regional, district, sub-district and community levels, and involved interviewing key personnel and scrutinizing national records. Data were collected in four districts; one in which treatment is delivered annually, two in which it is delivered biannually, and one where treatment takes place biannually in some communities and annually in others. Both financial and economic costs were collected from the health care provider's perspective. Principal Findings The estimated cost of treating annually was US Dollars (USD) 0.45 per person including the value of time donated by the community drug distributors (which was estimated at USD 0.05 per person per treatment round). The cost of CDTI was approximately 50–60% higher in those districts where treatment was biannual than in those where it was annual. Large-scale mass biannual treatment was reported as being well received and considered sustainable. Conclusions/Significance This study provides rigorous evidence of the different costs associated with annual and biannual CDTI in Ghana which can be used to inform an economic evaluation of the debate on the optimal treatment frequency required to control
Amazigo, U; Noma, M; Boatin, B A; Etya'alé, D E; Sékétéli, A; Dadzie, K Y
The efficiency of on-going delivery systems and cost recovery in Mectizan (ivermectin, MSD) treatment for onchocerciasis are reviewed. The search is on for an effective system of Mectizan delivery, involving drug procurement, delivery from port to districts and distribution to eligible persons, which can be sustained by the endemic countries for many years. The mechanisms for procuring and clearing the drug at the ports, and the drug's integration into the existing delivery systems of each national health service, need to be improved. Although large-scale treatments by mobile teams or community-based methods evidently achieve high and satisfactory rates of coverage, they also incur high recurrent costs which have to be covered by external partners and are not sustainable by national health services. Cost-sharing is considered an important factor in a sustainable delivery system and community-directed treatment, in which the community shares the cost and ownership of local distribution and is empowered to design and implement it, is likely to be more cost-effective and sustainable.
Herzog-Neto, Guilherme; Jaegger, Karen; do Nascimento, Erika S.; Marchon-Silva, Verônica; Banic, Dalma M.; Maia-Herzog, Marilza
To determine the influence of onchocercal eye disease on the intraocular pressure of the Yanomami Tribe Aratha-ú of Roraima State, Brazil, considered endemic for onchocerciasis, a total of 86 patients were submitted to an ophthalmologic exam that included external examination, slit lamp examination, intraocular pressure measurement, and a fundus ophthalmoscope examination. A high prevalence of onchocerciasis-related eye lesions was encountered in 68.6% of the patients. Punctate keratitis and microfilariae in the anterior chamber were found in ∼28%. The mean of intraocular eye pressure found was 10.47 mm of Hg. PMID:24297812
Humayun, M S; de Juan, E
Outer retinal degenerations such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) lead to blindness because of photoreceptor degeneration. To test whether controlled electrical stimulation of the remaining retinal neurons could provide form vision, we electrically stimulated the inner retinal surface with micro-electrodes inserted through the sclera/eye wall of 14 of these patients (12 RP and 2 AMD). This procedure was performed in the operating room under local anaesthesia and all responses were recorded via a video camera mounted on the surgical microscope. Electrical stimulation of the inner retinal surface elicited visual perception of a spot of light (phosphene) in all subjects. This perception was retinotopically correct in 13 of 14 patients. In a resolution test in a subject with no light perception, the patient could resolve phosphenes at 1.75 degrees centre-to-centre distance (i.e. visual acuity compatible with mobility; Snellen visual acuity of 4/200).
Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... Low vision is a visual disability. Wearing regular glasses or contacts does not help. People with low vision have ...
Matheron, Eric; Kapoula, Zoï
Vertical heterophoria (VH) is the latent vertical misalignment of the eyes when the retinal images are dissociated, vertical orthophoria (VO) when there is no misalignment. Studies on postural control, during binocular vision in upright stance, reported that healthy subjects with small VH vs. VO are less stable, but the experimental cancellation of VH with an appropriate prism improves postural stability. The same behavior was recorded in nonspecific chronic back pain subjects, all with VH. It was hypothesized that, without refraction problems, VH indicates a perturbation of the somaesthetic cues required in the sensorimotor loops involved in postural control and the capacity of the CNS to optimally integrate these cues, suggesting prevention possibilities. Sensorimotor conflict can induce pain and modify sensory perception in some healthy subjects; some nonspecific pain or chronic pain could result from such prolonged conflict in which VH could be a sign, with new theoretical and clinical implications.
Gosh, Sarthak; Bailly, Gilles; Despouys, Robin; Lecolinet, Eric; Sharrock, Rémi
National audience; Dans ce papier, nous proposons SuperVision, une nouvelle technique d’interaction pour contrôler à distance les "objets connectés" d'une maison intelligente. Les utilisateurs pointent en direction d’un objet à l’aide d’une télécommande pour visualiser son état et sélectionner ses fonctionnalités. Pour ce faire : 1) nous présentons une nouvelle télécommande qui est augmentée d’un pico-projecteur et d’une glissière ; 2) nous introduisons une visualisation permettant ...
Ohba, Kohtaro; OHARA, Kenichi
In the field of the micro vision, there are few researches compared with macro environment. However, applying to the study result for macro computer vision technique, you can measure and observe the micro environment. Moreover, based on the effects of micro environment, it is possible to discovery the new theories and new techniques.
W.A. Stolk (Wilma); M. Walker (Martin); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); M-G. Basáñez (María-Gloria); S.J. de Vlas (Sake)
textabstractBackground: The World Health Organization (WHO) has set ambitious targets for the elimination of onchocerciasis by 2020-2025 through mass ivermectin treatment. Two different mathematical models have assessed the feasibility of reaching this goal for different settings and treatment scena
Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Crainey, James Lee; Shelley, Anthony John; Rubio, Miguel
In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.
Sérgio Luiz Bessa Luz
Full Text Available In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92, Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.
Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel; Kannan, Somasundar; Voos, Holger
This paper focuses on the use of the Virtual Robotics Experimental Platform (V-REP) and the Robotics Operative System (ROS) working in parallel for design, test, and tuning of a vision based control system to command an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Here, is presented how to configure the V-REP, and ROS to work in parallel, and how to use the developed packages in ROS for the pose estimation based on vision and for the design and use of a fuzzy logic control system. It is also shown in this ...
Use of the recombinant Onchocerca volvulus protein Ov20/OvS1 for the immunodiagnostic differentiation between onchocerciasis and mansonelliasis and for the characterization of hyperreactive onchocerciasis (sowda)
Mpagi, J. L; Büttner, D. W; Tischendorf, F. W; Erttmann, K. D; Brattig, N. W
... of Onchocerca volvulus infection (sowda). The specificity of the IgG4 Western blot was 98% for the differentiation between persons with onchocerciasis and Mansonella microfilariae (mf) carriers (125 persons with M...
Pociask, Fredrick D; DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Goldberg, Allon; Adamo, Diane E
Postural control requires the integration of sensorimotor information to maintain balance and to properly position and orient the body in response to external stimuli. Age-related declines in peripheral and central sensory and motor function contribute to postural instability and falls. This study investigated the contribution of head position, standing surface, and vision on postural sway in 26 community-dwelling older adults. Participants were asked to maintain a stable posture under conditions that varied standing surface, head position, and the availability of visual information. Significant main and interaction effects were found for all three factors. Findings from this study suggest that postural sway responses require the integration of available sources of sensory information. These results have important implications for fall risks in older adults and suggest that when standing with the head extended and eyes closed, older adults may place themselves at risk for postural disequilibrium and loss of balance.
Christina A Bulman
Full Text Available Two major human diseases caused by filariid nematodes are onchocerciasis, or river blindness, and lymphatic filariasis, which can lead to elephantiasis. The drugs ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC, and albendazole are used in control programs for these diseases, but are mainly effective against the microfilarial stage and have minimal or no effect on adult worms. Adult Onchocerca volvulus and Brugia malayi worms (macrofilariae can live for up to 15 years, reproducing and allowing the infection to persist in a population. Therefore, to support control or elimination of these two diseases, effective macrofilaricidal drugs are necessary, in addition to current drugs. In an effort to identify macrofilaricidal drugs, we screened an FDA-approved library with adult worms of Brugia spp. and Onchocerca ochengi, third-stage larvae (L3s of Onchocerca volvulus, and the microfilariae of both O. ochengi and Loa loa. We found that auranofin, a gold-containing drug used for rheumatoid arthritis, was effective in vitro in killing both Brugia spp. and O. ochengi adult worms and in inhibiting the molting of L3s of O. volvulus with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar range. Auranofin had an approximately 43-fold higher IC50 against the microfilariae of L. loa compared with the IC50 for adult female O. ochengi, which may be beneficial if used in areas where Onchocerca and Brugia are co-endemic with L. loa, to prevent severe adverse reactions to the drug-induced death of L. loa microfilariae. Further testing indicated that auranofin is also effective in reducing Brugia adult worm burden in infected gerbils and that auranofin may be targeting the thioredoxin reductase in this nematode.
same regardless of application; a DCS ( networked control system ) is significantly more powerful, flexible, and scaleable than a non- networked ... control system (centralized control), and businesses can save and make more money building distributed control over the long term than they can with
Full Text Available This paper presents a control system design and development approach for a vision‐based automated guided vehicle (AGV based on the multi‐agent system (MAS methodology and embedded system resources. A three‐phase agent‐oriented design methodology Prometheus is used to analyse system functions, construct operation scenarios, define agent types and design the MAS coordination mechanism. The control system is then developed in an embedded implementation containing a digital signal processor (DSP and an advanced RISC machine (ARM by using the multitasking processing capacity of multiple microprocessors and system services of a real‐time operating system (RTOS. As a paradigm, an onboard embedded controller is designed and developed for the AGV with a camera detecting guiding landmarks, and the entire procedure has a high efficiency and a clear hierarchy. A vision guidance experiment for our AGV is carried out in a space‐limited laboratory environment to verify the perception capacity and the onboard intelligence of the agent‐oriented embedded control system.
Henri Lucien Fouamno Kamga
Full Text Available <0.001. The greatest rate of infection was found among farmers (2.5% followed by students (0.7% and businessmen (0.25%. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the study area is now hypo-endemic for onchocerciasis, following 6 years of continuous treatment with ivermectin. Careful monitoring of onchocerciasis should however be continued to avoid that the area returns to its initial hyper endemicity.
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Henson, P. M.; Mackenzie, C. D.; Spector, W. G.
This report concerns the host's reactions to the presence of the parasite both in the course of the natural disease and during drug treatment. The various stages of Onchocerca volvulus are discussed in terms of the type of tissue reaction seen. The discussion then turns to basic hypotheses concerning the etiology of these reactions, emphasis being placed on the fact that while pathological changes are considerable in some locations there is a remarkable lack of reaction in others. Some of the mechanisms possibly involved in this apparent absence of host response are discussed, including anti-complement factors, poor antigenicity, acquisition of host antigen, immune tolerance, and blocking antibodies. In any study of the inflammatory response it is recommended that critical evaluations be made of histological material, haematological studies, the definition of the antigenic nature of O. volvulus, characterization of immunological reactivity of patients, and the definition of the migratory pathways of the parasite. The marked host reactions seen following chemotherapy, especially those related to the interaction of the drug diethylcarbamazine with microfilariae, are discussed at some length. The etiology of these reactions is considered and recommendations are made for the experimental elucidation of the mechanisms involved. Emphasis is placed on the necessity for detailed sequential histopathological and immunopathological studies in the definition of the tissue lesions found in onchocerciasis. Characterization of these lesions will assist greatly the approach to control of the adverse reactions seen during treatment. The use of anti-inflammatory agents in clinical trials is discussed and comments are made concerning the most suitable clinical situations for testing drugs and the types of drug that should be tested. PMID:396050
Henson, P M; Mackenzie, C D; Spector, W G
This report concerns the host's reactions to the presence of the parasite both in the course of the natural disease and during drug treatment. The various stages of Onchocerca volvulus are discussed in terms of the type of tissue reaction seen. The discussion then turns to basic hypotheses concerning the etiology of these reactions, emphasis being placed on the fact that while pathological changes are considerable in some locations there is a remarkable lack of reaction in others. Some of the mechanisms possibly involved in this apparent absence of host response are discussed, including anti-complement factors, poor antigenicity, acquisition of host antigen, immune tolerance, and blocking antibodies. In any study of the inflammatory response it is recommended that critical evaluations be made of histological material, haematological studies, the definition of the antigenic nature of O. volvulus, characterization of immunological reactivity of patients, and the definition of the migratory pathways of the parasite.The marked host reactions seen following chemotherapy, especially those related to the interaction of the drug diethylcarbamazine with microfilariae, are discussed at some length. The etiology of these reactions is considered and recommendations are made for the experimental elucidation of the mechanisms involved. Emphasis is placed on the necessity for detailed sequential histopathological and immunopathological studies in the definition of the tissue lesions found in onchocerciasis. Characterization of these lesions will assist greatly the approach to control of the adverse reactions seen during treatment.The use of anti-inflammatory agents in clinical trials is discussed and comments are made concerning the most suitable clinical situations for testing drugs and the types of drug that should be tested.
Valencia, Jose A; Pimienta, Katherine; Cohen, Darwin; Benitez, Daniel; Romero, David; Amaya, Oswaldo; Arango, Enrique
For more than 40 years, direct laryngoscopy (DL) has been used to assure the airway during endotracheal intubation. The King Vision video laryngoscope is one of the latest devices introduced for endotracheal intubation. We hypothesize that, relative to direct laryngoscopy, it improves the intubation success rate with fewer intubation attempts and no difference in intubation time or complications. This randomized controlled clinical trial included. The operating room and postanesthesia care unit of an academic hospital. Eighty-eight patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists status I to II and aged ≥18 years who were scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia and had no predictors of difficult airway. Patients were randomized (44 per group) to undergo intubation using either DL or King Vision video laryngoscopy (KVVL) performed by first year residents in anesthesia and intensive care. During endotracheal intubation by residents, measurements were success rate, number of attempts, time to intubation, visualization of the glottis, and presence of complications. Both groups had a 100% success rate. A greater frequency of grade 1 laryngoscopy was reported with KVVL (86.4%) relative to DL (59.1%) (P intubation or the number of attempts between the groups (P = .75 and P = .91, respectively). Complications after intubation were low and included oral trauma, esophageal intubation, and sore throat. The use of KVVL by residents with less than 1 year of training (considered nonexperts) significantly improves visualization of the glottis in patients without predictors of difficult airway. The incidence of complications was too low to draw conclusions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Soboslay, P T; Dreweck, C M; Hoffmann, W H; Lüder, C G; Heuschkel, C; Görgen, H; Banla, M; Schulz-Key, H
A longitudinal investigation has been conducted into the cell-mediated immune responses of onchocerciasis patients after a single-dose treatment with ivermectin. Untreated patients tested for delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity (DCH) to seven recall antigens showed lower responses than infection-free control individuals (P less than 0.01), but 6 and 14 months after treatment DCH reactions increased to similar levels to those seen in the controls. The in vitro cellular reactivity to Onchocerca volvulus-derived antigen (OvAg) was reduced in untreated patients as compared with controls, and the lymphocyte blastogenic responses to OvAg and streptolysin-O clearly improved up to 14 months after treatment. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from untreated patients produced IL-1 beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-6 in response to mitogenic stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), only low levels of IL-1 beta, IL-2 and TNF-alpha in response to OvAg, but higher amounts of IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in response to OvAg than control individuals. After ivermectin treatment, the OvAg-induced production of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha increased significantly 1 and 14 months after treatment. The PHA-induced production of IL-2 and IL-4 increased 1 month after treatment and remained significantly elevated until 14 months after treatment, whereas the OvAg-specific secretion of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-gamma did not change after ivermectin treatment. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte-subsets in the peripheral blood of untreated patients revealed a relative and absolute (P less than 0.01) diminution of CD4+ cells and a significantly smaller CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio as compared with controls. By 4 weeks after treatment and thereafter, CD4+ T cells increased relatively and absolutely (P less than 0.01); likewise there was an absolute increase in T-helper-inducer cells (CD4+CD45RO+) and a temporarily improved CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio (P = 0.001). The expression of
Wang, H. P.; Vasseur, C.; Christov, N.; Koncar, V.
This paper deals with the visual servoing of X-Y robot systems using low cost CCD camera. The proposed approach is based on the theory of piecewise continuous systems which are a particular class of hybrid systems with autonomous switching and controlled impulses. Visual trajectory tracking systems comprising piecewise continuous controllers and observers, are developed. Real-time results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed visual control system.
Behbahani, Alireza; Culley, Dennis; Garg, Sanjay; Millar, Richard; Smith, Bert; Wood, Jim; Mahoney, Tim; Quinn, Ronald; Carpenter, Sheldon; Mailander, Bill; Battestin, Gary; Roney, Walter; Bluish, Colin; Rhoden, William; Storey, Bill
A Distributed Engine Control Working Group (DECWG) consisting of the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) and industry has been formed to examine the current and future requirements of propulsion engine systems. The scope of this study will include an assessment of the paradigm shift from centralized engine control architecture to an architecture based on distributed control utilizing open system standards. Included will be a description of the work begun in the 1990's, which continues today, followed by the identification of the remaining technical challenges which present barriers to on-engine distributed control.
Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria, Dept. de Lenguajes y Computacion, La Canada Almeria (Spain); Rubio, F.R.; Lara, P.J.; Arahal, M.R.; Camacho, E.F.; Lopez, M. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Sevilla (Spain); Valverde, A. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA-CIEMAT), Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)
This paper presents the development of a simplified and automatic heliostat positioning offset correction control system using artificial vision techniques and common CCD devices. The heliostats of a solar power plant reflect solar radiation onto a receiver (in this case, a volumetric receiver) placed at the top of a tower in order to provide a desired energy flux distribution correlated with the coolant flow (in this case air mass flow) through the receiver, usually in an open loop control configuration. There exist error sources that increase the complexity of the control system, some of which are systematic ones, mainly due to tolerances, wrong mirror facets alignment (optical errors), errors due to the approximations made when calculating the solar position, etc., that produce errors (offsets) in the heliostat orientation (aiming point). The approximation adopted in this paper is based on the use of a B/W CCD camera to correct these deviations in an automatic way imitating the same procedure followed by the operators. The obtained images are used to estimate the distance between the sunbeam centroid projected by the heliostats and a target placed on the tower, this distance thus is used for low accuracy offset correction purposes. Basic threshold-based image processing techniques are used for automatic correction. (Author)
Lakwo, T L; Garms, R; Rubaale, T; Katabarwa, M; Walsh, F; Habomugisha, P; Oguttu, D; Unnasch, T; Namanya, H; Tukesiga, E; Katamanywa, J; Bamuhiiga, J; Byamukama, E; Agunyo, S; Richards, F
The Itwara onchocerciasis focus is located around the Itwara forest reserve in western Uganda. In 1991, annual treatments with ivermectin started in the focus. They were supplemented in 1995 by the control of the vector Simulium neavei, which was subsequently eliminated from the focus. The impact of the two interventions on the disease was assessed in 2010 by nodule palpations, examinations of skin snips by microscopy and PCR, and Ov16 recombinant ELISA. There was no evidence of any microfilaria in 688 skin snips and only 2 (0.06%) of 3316 children examined for IgG4 were slightly above the arbitrary cut off of 40. A follow up of the same children 21 months later in 2012 confirmed that both were negative for diagnostic antigen Ov-16, skin snip microscopy and PCR. Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) elimination criteria of 2001 and the Uganda onchocerciasis certification guidelines, it was concluded that the disease has disappeared from the Itwara focus after 19 years of ivermectin treatments and the elimination of the vector around 2001. Ivermectin treatments were recommended to be halted.
Full Text Available The lateral control of intelligent vehicle is studied in this paper, with the intelligent vehicle DLUIV-1 based on visual navigation as the object of research. Firstly, the lateral control model based on visual preview is established. The kinematics model based on visual preview, including speed and other factors, is used to calculate the lateral error and direction error. Secondly, according to the characteristics of lateral control, an efficient strategy of intelligent vehicle lateral mode is proposed. The integration of the vehicle current lateral error and direction error is chosen as the parameter of the sliding mode switching function to design the sliding surface. The control variables are adjusted according to the fuzzy control rules to ensure that they meet the existence and reaching condition. The sliding mode switching function is regarded as the control objective, to ensure the stability of the steering wheel rotation. Simulation results show that the lateral controller can guarantee high path-tracking accuracy and strong robustness for the change of model parameters.
Biofeedtrac, Inc.'s Accommotrac Vision Trainer, invented by Dr. Joseph Trachtman, is based on vision research performed by Ames Research Center and a special optometer developed for the Ames program by Stanford Research Institute. In the United States, about 150 million people are myopes (nearsighted), who tend to overfocus when they look at distant objects causing blurry distant vision, or hyperopes (farsighted), whose vision blurs when they look at close objects because they tend to underfocus. The Accommotrac system is an optical/electronic system used by a doctor as an aid in teaching a patient how to contract and relax the ciliary body, the focusing muscle. The key is biofeedback, wherein the patient learns to control a bodily process or function he is not normally aware of. Trachtman claims a 90 percent success rate for correcting, improving or stopping focusing problems. The Vision Trainer has also proved effective in treating other eye problems such as eye oscillation, cross eyes, and lazy eye and in professional sports to improve athletes' peripheral vision and reaction time.
Zhang, Fangyi; Leitner, Jürgen; Milford, Michael; Upcroft, Ben; Corke, Peter
This paper introduces a machine learning based system for controlling a robotic manipulator with visual perception only. The capability to autonomously learn robot controllers solely from raw-pixel images and without any prior knowledge of configuration is shown for the first time. We build upon the success of recent deep reinforcement learning and develop a system for learning target reaching with a three-joint robot manipulator using external visual observation. A Deep Q Network (DQN) was d...
Full Text Available The evolution and persistence of ocular pathology was assessed in a cohort of Onchocerca volvulus infected patients treated annually with ivermectin for 23 years. Patients were resident in rural Central and Kara Region of Togo and ocular examinations included testing of visual acuity, slit lamp examination of the anterior eye segment and the eye fundus by ophthalmoscopy. Before ivermectin treatment, vivid O.volvulus microfilariae (MF were observed in the right and left anterior eye chamber in 52% and 42% of patients (n = 82, and dead MF were seen in the right and left cornea in 24% and 15% of cases, respectively. At 23 years post initial treatment (PIT, none of the patients (n = 82 presented with MF in the anterior chamber and cornea. A complete resolution of punctate keratitis (PK lesions without observable corneal scars was present at 23 years PIT (p<0.0001, and sclerosing keratitits (SK lessened by half, but mainly in patients with lesions at early stage of evolution. Early-stage iridocyclitis diminished from 42%(rE and 40%(lE to 13% (rE+lE(p<0.0001, but advanced iridocyclitis augmented (p<0.001 at 23 years PIT compared to before ivermectin. Advanced-stage papillitis and chorioretinitis did not regress, while early-stage papillitis present in 28%(rE and 27%(lE of patients at before ivermectin regressed to 17%(rE and 18%(lE, and early-stage chorioretinitis present in 51%(rE+lE of cases at before ivermectin was observed in 12%(rE and 13%(lE at 23 years PIT (p<0.0001. Thus, regular annual ivermectin treatment eliminated and prevented the migration of O. volvulus microfilariae into the anterior eye chamber and cornea; keratitis punctata lesions resolved completely and early-stage sclerosing keratitits and iridocyclitis regressed, whilst advanced lesions of the anterior and posterior eye segment remained progressive. In conclusion, annual ivermectin treatments may prevent the emergence of ocular pathology in those populations still exposed to O.volvulus infection.www.pactr.org PACTR201303000464219.
Jabbari Asl, Hamed; Yoon, Jungwon
In this paper, an image-based visual servo controller is designed for an unmanned aerial vehicle. The main objective is to use flow of image features as the velocity cue to compensate for the low quality of linear velocity information obtained from accelerometers. Nonlinear observers are designed to estimate this flow. The proposed controller is bounded, which can help to keep the target points in the field of view of the camera. The main advantages over the previous full dynamic observer-based methods are that, the controller is robust with respect to unknown image depth, and also no yaw information is required. The complete stability analysis is presented and asymptotic convergence of the error signals is guaranteed. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
such as malaria, schistosomiasis, filariasis, onchocerciasis and tick-borne relapsing fever. ... explains the role of multi-sectoral and integrated approaches that are cost-effective in the control ..... Programme Action the World Bank; Washington.
Koppich, Julia E.; Humphrey, Daniel C.; Marsh, Julie A.
California ended 40 years of reliance on categorical funding for schools when Governor Jerry Brown signed the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) into law on July 1, 2013. LCFF intends to enhance services for high-needs students through new flexibility, targeted student funding, and local accountability. Two years into LCFF implementation,…
王伟; 吴功平; 白玉成; 肖华; 杨智勇; 严宇; 何缘; 徐显金; 苏帆
In order to ensure that the off-line arm of a two-arm-wheel combined inspection robot can reliably grasp the line in case of autonomous obstacle crossing, a control method is proposed for line grasping based on hand-eye visual servo. On the basis of the transmission line’s geometrical characteristics and the camera’s imaging principle, a line recognition and extraction method based on structure constraint is designed. The line’s intercept and inclination are defined in an imaging space to represent the robot’s change of pose and a law governing the pose decoupling servo control is developed. Under the integrated consideration of the influence of light intensity and background change, noise (from the camera itself and electromagnetic field) as well as the robot’s kinetic inertia on the robot’s imaging quality in the course of motion and the grasping control precision, a servo controller for grasping the line of the robot’s off-line arm is designed with the method of fuzzy control. An experiment is conducted on a 1:1 simulation line using an inspection robot and the robot is put into on-line operation on a real overhead transmission line, where the robot can grasp the line within 18 s in the case of autonomous obstacle-crossing. The robot’s autonomous line-grasping function is realized without manual intervention and the robot can grasp the line in a precise, reliable and efficient manner, thus the need of actual operation can be satisfied.
enhanced version, Joint Capabilities Release ( JCR ) to operational units in January. In response to requirements for faster position location...you command and control, how your plan unfolds and how you execute.” The next iteration of FBCB2, known as Joint Capabilities Release ( JCR ), began...information through Tactical Ground Reporting (TIGR), so users can better plan maneuvers while on-the-move. The JCR upgrades are part of Capability
Fuller, Sawyer B.; Karpelson, Michael; Censi, Andrea; Ma, Kevin Y.; Wood, Robert J.
Scaling a flying robot down to the size of a fly or bee requires advances in manufacturing, sensing and control, and will provide insights into mechanisms used by their biological counterparts. Controlled flight at this scale has previously required external cameras to provide the feedback to regulate the continuous corrective manoeuvres necessary to keep the unstable robot from tumbling. One stabilization mechanism used by flying insects may be to sense the horizon or Sun using the ocelli, a set of three light sensors distinct from the compound eyes. Here, we present an ocelli-inspired visual sensor and use it to stabilize a fly-sized robot. We propose a feedback controller that applies torque in proportion to the angular velocity of the source of light estimated by the ocelli. We demonstrate theoretically and empirically that this is sufficient to stabilize the robot's upright orientation. This constitutes the first known use of onboard sensors at this scale. Dipteran flies use halteres to provide gyroscopic velocity feedback, but it is unknown how other insects such as honeybees stabilize flight without these sensory organs. Our results, using a vehicle of similar size and dynamics to the honeybee, suggest how the ocelli could serve this role. PMID:24942846
Fuller, Sawyer B; Karpelson, Michael; Censi, Andrea; Ma, Kevin Y; Wood, Robert J
Scaling a flying robot down to the size of a fly or bee requires advances in manufacturing, sensing and control, and will provide insights into mechanisms used by their biological counterparts. Controlled flight at this scale has previously required external cameras to provide the feedback to regulate the continuous corrective manoeuvres necessary to keep the unstable robot from tumbling. One stabilization mechanism used by flying insects may be to sense the horizon or Sun using the ocelli, a set of three light sensors distinct from the compound eyes. Here, we present an ocelli-inspired visual sensor and use it to stabilize a fly-sized robot. We propose a feedback controller that applies torque in proportion to the angular velocity of the source of light estimated by the ocelli. We demonstrate theoretically and empirically that this is sufficient to stabilize the robot's upright orientation. This constitutes the first known use of onboard sensors at this scale. Dipteran flies use halteres to provide gyroscopic velocity feedback, but it is unknown how other insects such as honeybees stabilize flight without these sensory organs. Our results, using a vehicle of similar size and dynamics to the honeybee, suggest how the ocelli could serve this role.
Turner, Hugo C.; Churcher, Thomas S.; Martin Walker; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Prichard, Roger K.; María-Gloria Basáñez
BACKGROUND: Recent studies in Mali, Nigeria, and Senegal have indicated that annual (or biannual) ivermectin distribution may lead to local elimination of human onchocerciasis in certain African foci. Modelling-based projections have been used to estimate the required duration of ivermectin distribution to reach elimination. A crucial assumption has been that microfilarial production by Onchocerca volvulus is reduced irreversibly by 30-35% with each (annual) ivermectin round. However, other m...
Burke, Michael G
Full Text Available -to-point controller, which is less prone to losing a faster moving target, is preferred. The platform?s angular velocity input is then generated by the weighted sum ?(k) = ( |?(k)| ?max ) ?1(k) + ( 1? |?(k)| ?max ) ?2(k), (7) with ?max the maximum... be further refined through the use of a Kalman filter. We select the measurement uncertainty as one third of the typical pose variation in straight line motion, weighted by a factor w = 1 ? ni/nt. Here ni indicates the number of inliers returned...
Full Text Available Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2 331 males and 2 469 females were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa loa (RAPLOA to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0 - 52% in different communities. Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%; oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%; rashes (3.4% and body weakness (2.4%. Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC objectives. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 1635-1643. Epub 2008 December 12.La oncocercosis es endémica en el estado Ondo, Nigeria. Se seleccionaron 4 800 personas al azar para evaluar con encuesta retrospectiva la cobertura, efectos y reacciones al tratamiento farmacológico con ivermectina administrado por la misma comunidad. La cobertura global de ivermectina fue 50 % con reacciones adversas en
Wunsche, H. J.
An approach is presented that combines dynamical models of 3D motion with geometric models of the scene and the laws of perspective projection to estimate all motion parameters necessary to control a mobile robot vehicle. The approach is demonstrated by autonomous con-trol of a jet propelled air-cushion vehicle, navigating through a technical environment with three degrees of motion freedom and performing a rendezvous maneuver with a passive partner. Features of the partner and other objects in the scene, the 3D shapes of which are known, are looked for and then tracked by the processors of a multimicroprocessor system. A sequential Kalman filter formulation is used to detect and to cope with variable feature visibility due to occlusion and motion while determining the complete relative motion state without inversion of the projection equations. A scheme is developed for always selecting those features for tracking which yield the best state estimate, the quality of which is demonstrated by physical docking with a static partner. The system operates at 0.13 seconds cycle time, half of which is spent for I/O operations. Experimental results are given.
Full Text Available Nowadays, image processing solution is used in many fields such as traffic information systems and illegal intrusion detection systems. Now, to assist with the control of camera-equipped devices, appropriate image processing techniques are needed for moving rather than fixed observers. For achieving this goal, an algorithm should derive the desired results quickly and accurately; thus, this paper considers two characteristics: functional performance (reliability and temporal performance (efficiency. Reliability means how well the desired results can be achieved, and efficiency means how quickly the result can be calculated. This paper suggests an optimized real-time image algorithm based on the integration of the optical flow and Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF algorithms. This algorithm determines horizontal or vertical movement of the camera and then extracts its displacement. The proposed algorithm can be used to stabilize an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV in situations where it is drifting due to inertia and external forces, like wind, in parallel. The proposed algorithm is efficient in achieving drift stabilization by movement detection; however, it is not appropriate for image processing in small UAVs. To solve this problem, this study proposes an image processing method that uses a high-performance computer.
Full Text Available The study uses Kinect, modern and depth detectable photography equipment to detect objects on the ground and above the ground. The data collected is used to construct a model on ground level, that is, used lead automatic guiding vehicle. The core of the vehicle uses a PIC18F4520 microchip. Bluetooth wireless communication is adopted for remote connection to a computer, which is used to control the vehicles remotely. Operators send movement command to automatic guiding vehicle through computer. Once the destination point is identified, the vehicle lead is forward. The guiding process will map out a path that directs the vehicle to the destination and void any obstacles. The study is based on existing cleaning robots that are available. Aside from fixed point movement, through data analysis, the system is also capable of identifying objects that are not supposed to appear on the ground, such as aluminum cans. By configuring the destination to aluminum cans, the automatic guiding vehicle will lead to a can and pick it up. Such action is the realization of cleaning function.
... of age-related macular degeneration. Spotlight on Aging: Vision Loss in Older People Most commonly, vision loss ... Some Causes and Features of Sudden Loss of Vision Cause Common Features* Tests Sudden loss of vision ...
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Amhaz, Hawraa; Sicard, Gilles
In this paper, a new readout strategy for CMOS image sensors is presented. It aims to overcome the excessive output dataflow bottleneck; this challenge is becoming more and more crucial along with the technology miniaturization. This strategy is based on the spatial redundancies suppression. It leads the sensor to perform edge detection and eventually provide binary image. One of the main advantages of this readout technique compared to other techniques, existing in the literature, is that it does not affect the in-pixel circuitry. This means that all the analogue processing circuitry is implemented outside the pixel, which keeps the pixel area and Fill Factor unchanged. The main analogue block used in this technique is an event detector developed and designed in the CMOS 0.35μm technology from Austria Micro Systems. The simulation results of this block as well as the simulation results of a test bench composed of several pixels and column amplifiers using this readout mode show the capability of this readout mode to reduce dataflow by controlling the ADCs. We must mention that this readout strategy is applicable on sensors that use a linear operating pixel element as well as for those based on logarithmic operating pixels. This readout technique is emulated by a MATLAB model which gives an idea about the expected functionalities and dataflow reduction rates (DRR). Emulation results are shown lately by giving the pre and post processed images as well as the DRR. This last cited does not have a fix value since it depends on the spatial frequency of the filmed scenes and the chosen threshold value.
Dadzie, K Y; Bird, A C; Awadzi, K; Schulz-Key, H; Gilles, H M; Aziz, M A
The effect of ivermectin, a new microfilaricide, was assessed in a double blind trial against diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) and placebo. Fifty-nine adult males with moderate to heavy infection with Onchocerca volvulus and with eye involvement were recruited from an area under Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) vector control in Northern Ghana. They were randomly assigned to an eight-day treatment with ivermectin as a single dose of 12 mg on day 1 followed by placebo for the remaining seven days, or DEC, total dose 1.3 g, or placebo, and ophthalmological review was undertaken over a period of one year. DEC acted quickly to eliminate microfilariae from the eye and was associated with reactive ocular changes and in a few cases functional deficit. Ivermectin eliminated microfilariae slowly from the anterior chamber of the eye over a period of six months. The ocular inflammatory reaction was minimal and no functional deficit occurred. It is postulated that the observed slow action of ivermectin on the eye may be attributed in part to its instability to cross the blood-aqueous humour barrier because of its molecular size as a macrocyclic lactone causing microfilariae to leave the eye gradually along a newly created gradient. Ivermectin is an effective microfilaricide with minimal ocular adverse effect and could therefore be suitable for widespread application without strict supervision. PMID:3548811
Machine vision is an important component of medical systems engineering. Inexpensive miniature solid state cameras are now available. This paper describes how these devices can be used as artificial retinas, to take snapshots and moving pictures in monochrome or color. Used in pairs, they produce a stereoscopic field of vision and enable depth perception. Macular and peripheral vision can be simulated electronically. This paper also presents the author's design of an artificial orbit for this synthetic eye. The orbit supports the eye, protects it, and provides attachment points for the ocular motion control system. Convergence and image fusion can be produced, and saccades simulated, along with the other ocular motions. The use of lenses, filters, irises and focusing mechanisms are also discussed. Typical camera-computer interfaces are described, including the use of "frame grabbers" and analog-to-digital image conversion. Software programs for eye positioning, image manipulation, feature extraction and object recognition are discussed, including the application of artificial neural networks.
... means you cannot see anything and DO NOT see light. (Most people who use the term "blindness" mean ... the vision loss. For long-term vision loss, see a low-vision specialist, who can help you learn to care for yourself and ... of vision; No light perception (NLP); Low vision; Vision loss and blindness ...
Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems
Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Grosu, Dan
The paper discusses the roles of visioning processes and visions in foresight activities and in societal discourses and changes parallel to or following foresight activities. The overall topic can be characterised as the dynamics and mechanisms that make visions and visioning processes work...... or not work. The theoretical part of the paper presents an actor-network theory approach to the analyses of visions and visioning processes, where the shaping of the visions and the visioning and what has made them work or not work is analysed. The empirical part is based on analyses of the roles of visions...... and visioning processes in a number of foresight processes from different societal contexts. The analyses have been carried out as part of the work in the COST A22 network on foresight. A vision is here understood as a description of a desirable or preferable future, compared to a scenario which is understood...
Ackerman, S J; Kephart, G M; Francis, H; Awadzi, K; Gleich, G J; Ottesen, E A
Onchocerciasis patients treated with diethylcarbamazine often undergo a severe inflammatory response, the Mazzotti reaction. To assess the eosinophil's role in the pathogenesis of the Mazzotti reaction, we obtained serial blood, plasma, and skin biopsy specimens from 21 heavily infected patients and 3 endemic controls, both before and during therapy with diethylcarbamazine. Samples were analyzed for blood eosinophils, plasma levels of eosinophil granule major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil infiltration and eosinophil and mast cell degranulation in the skin. After the first dose of diethylcarbamazine, blood eosinophils fell from a pre-treatment level of 888 +/- 111 to 203 +/- 42 cells/mm3 at 8 h. This decrease was followed by a marked eosinophilia developing over the remaining 7 days of treatment and 14 days of follow-up. Plasma eosinophil-derived neurotoxin levels increased from 56 +/- 4 ng/ml pretreatment to a peak of 82 +/- 9 ng/ml at 8 h and returned to pretreatment levels by 48 h. Beginning at 12 h, plasma MBP levels increased from 730 +/- 74 ng/ml pretreatment to a peak of 1140 +/- 74 ng/ml after 5 days. Pretreatment skin biopsies stained for MBP by immunofluorescence showed a bright fibrillar pattern in the dermis consistent with chronic eosinophil degranulation; the MBP was localized on elastic tissue fibers. After treatment, skin biopsy specimens showed both the pretreatment fibrillar MBP staining pattern as well as focal eosinophil degranulation. Deposition of MBP around microfilariae in the papillary dermis was visible as early as 1.5 h. The lowest blood eosinophil levels and peak plasma eosinophil-derived neurotoxin levels coincided with the infiltration and degranulation of eosinophils in the skin. Mast cell degranulation in the skin was maximal by the first posttreatment biopsy (1.5 h) coincident with the beginning of eosinophil degranulation. Although the pathogenesis of the Mazzotti reaction is clearly complex, our
of an implementation in real production environments. The theory for projection of world points into images is concentrated upon the direct linear transformation (DLT), also called the Extended Pinhole model, and the stability of this method. A complete list of formulas for calculating all parameters in the model...... is present ed, and the variability of the parameters is examined and described. The concept of using CAD together with vision information is based on the fact that all items processed at OSS have an associated complete 3D CAD model that is accessible at all production states. This concept gives numerous...... possibilities for using vision in applications which otherwise would be very difficult to automate. The requirement for low tolerances in production is, despite the huge dimensions of the items involved, extreme. This fact makes great demands on the ability to do robust sub pixel estimation. A new method based...
Pleiades Visions (2012) is my new musical composition for organ that takes inspiration from traditional lore and music associated with the Pleiades (Seven Sisters) star cluster from Australian Aboriginal, Native American, and Native Hawaiian cultures. It is based on my doctoral dissertation research incorporating techniques from the fields of ethnomusicology and cultural astronomy; this research likely represents a new area of inquiry for both fields. This large-scale work employs the organ's vast sonic resources to evoke the majesty of the night sky and the expansive landscapes of the homelands of the above-mentioned peoples. Other important themes in Pleiades Visions are those of place, origins, cosmology, and the creation of the world.
Few original portraits exist of René Descartes, yet his theories of vision were central to Enlightenment thought. French philosophers combined his emphasis on sight with the English approach of insisting that ideas are not innate, but must be built up from experience. In particular, Denis Diderot criticised Descartes's views by describing how Nicholas Saunderson--a blind physics professor at Cambridge--relied on touch. Diderot also made Saunderson the mouthpiece for some heretical arguments against the existence of God.
There is an explosion in the quantity and quality of IMINT data being captured in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) today. While automated exploitation techniques involving computer vision are arriving, only a few architectures can manage both the storage and bandwidth of large volumes of IMINT data and also present results to analysts quickly. Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has been actively researching in the area of applying Big Data cloud computing techniques to computer vision applications. This paper presents the results of this work in adopting a Lambda Architecture to process and disseminate IMINT data using computer vision algorithms. The approach embodies an end-to-end solution by processing IMINT data from sensors to serving information products quickly to analysts, independent of the size of the data. The solution lies in dividing up the architecture into a speed layer for low-latent processing and a batch layer for higher quality answers at the expense of time, but in a robust and fault-tolerant way. This approach was evaluated using a large corpus of IMINT data collected by a C-130 Shadow Harvest sensor over Afghanistan from 2010 through 2012. The evaluation data corpus included full motion video from both narrow and wide area field-of-views. The evaluation was done on a scaled-out cloud infrastructure that is similar in composition to those found in the Intelligence Community. The paper shows experimental results to prove the scalability of the architecture and precision of its results using a computer vision algorithm designed to identify man-made objects in sparse data terrain.
This review concerns the efficacy and safety of combinations of various drugs, including albendazole (ALB), diethylcarbamazine (DEC), ivermectin (IVM), mebendazole and praziquantel (PZQ). There were no significant pharmacokinetic interactions when ALB-PZQ, ALB-DEC, ALB-IVM or ALB-IVM-PZQ were co-administered. ALB did not add to the cure rate of PZQ in the treatment of Schistosoma japonicum, S. mansoni and S. haematobium. ALB and DEC in combination and alone were ineffective against S. haematobium infections. No combinations (ALB-PZQ, ALB-IVM and ALB-DEC) were superior to ALB against Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm infections, whilst IVM, but not PZQ or DEC, added to the effect of ALB in the treatment of Trichuris trichiura. Results with ALB added to single-drug therapy with IVM or DEC against lymphatic filariasis were inconclusive, but DEC and IVM in combination appeared to be superior to DEC or IVM alone. None of the drug combinations against lymphatic filariasis showed more adverse reactions than single-drug therapy. In onchocerciasis patients, ALB and IVM were safe in those also infected with lymphatic filariasis, but were not superior to IVM alone. Existing policies are based on limited knowledge. Well conducted, comparative, randomised controlled studies would greatly aid in the future use of these drug combinations.
objects that are surrounded by the medium, except for their point of contact with the ground. This includes vehicles, people, animals , etc. This is...Soatto (PI) Michalis Raptis (Graduate Student) now at Disney Research, Pittsburgh Zhao Yi (Graduate Student) now at Google Kamil Wnuk (Graduate
Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R
A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.
Boerner, Kathrin; Brennan, Mark; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P
This study used the life-span theory of control (Heckhausen, J., & Schulz, R.) to examine adaptation to disability in old age. A narrative approach to data collection was used to assess the strategies employed by 364 older adults with macular degeneration to deal with daily challenges. Findings revealed a rich array of strategies. Compensatory Primary Control was reported by nearly all respondents, Compensatory Secondary Control by a majority, and Selective Primary Control by half of the participants. Selective Secondary Control was the least reported. Differences in strategy use depending on level of vision impairment were the most pronounced within the category of Compensatory Primary Control for strategies that involved using help from others and alternative means. Within the category of Selective Secondary Control, effort to maintain a positive outlook was associated with higher impairment levels, whereas within the category of Compensatory Secondary Control, attempts not to dwell on problems related to vision were associated with lower impairment levels. Implications for conceptual development and future research are discussed.
Krüger, A; Kalinga, A K; Post, R J; Maegga, B T A
During a distribution survey of Simulium damnosum s.l. around the Tukuyu onchocerciasis focus at the northern tip of Lake Malawi/Nyasa (Tanzania), we discovered two new cytoforms of the S. damnosum complex in onchocerciasis-free areas. The Nyika form is related to Simulium thyolense, a vector of onchocerciasis, and can be identified by the new inversion 3L-L on the long arm of chromosome 3. It was found breeding in five rivers in northern Malawi and neighbouring Tanzania and is assumed to be zoophilic. The Njombe form represents a member of the Sanje group of the complex and is characterized by the new diagnostic inversion 2L-35 on chromosome 2. So far, it is only known from around Njombe town in southern Tanzania, where it breeds at remarkably high altitudes. Anthropophily for the Njombe form is well known. The medical importance and systematic position of the new forms within the S. damnosum complex are discussed.
Bird, A C; el-Sheikh, H; Anderson, J; Fuglsang, H
Eighteen patients, moderately to heavily infected with onchocerciasis, were treated with a standard course of diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC-C). In addition to the well recognised systemic reactions to treatment, the following ocular changes occurred during therapy: (1) Transient pigment epithelial lesions were detected in 7 patients by fluorescein angiography. (2) Optic disc leakage, as shown by fluorescein angiography, developed in 9 patients, and increase of pre-existing leakage was demonstrated in 3 further patients. (3) Visual field loss was documented in 5 patients. These observations have grave implications for DEC-C therapy in onchocerciasis. They emphasise the need for great caution in its use in the treatment of onchocerciasis in heavily infected patients and for close supervision of ocular function during therapy.
Kamgno, Joseph; Nguipdop-Djomo, Patrick; Gounoue, Raceline; Téjiokem, Mathurin; Kuesel, Annette C
.... Loiasis can be co-endemic with onchocerciasis and/or lymphatic filariasis. Ivermectin, the drug used in the control of these diseases, can induce serious adverse reactions in patients with high L loa microfilaraemia (LLM...
Turner, Joseph D; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Esum, Mathias; Johnston, Kelly L; Langley, R Stuart; Ford, Louise; Faragher, Brian; Specht, Sabine; Mand, Sabine; Hoerauf, Achim; Enyong, Peter; Wanji, Samuel; Taylor, Mark J
The risk of severe adverse events following treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in areas co-endemic with loiasis currently compromises the development of control programmes and the treatment...
Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Hyatt, Bryan; Chenault, David B.; Kingston, David; Geulen, Vanilynmae; Newell, Scott; Pettijohn, Brad
In this paper, we report on the development of a 3D vision system consisting of a flat panel stereoscopic display and auto-converging stereo camera and an assessment of the system's use for robotic driving, manipulation, and surveillance operations. The 3D vision system was integrated onto a Talon Robot and Operator Control Unit (OCU) such that direct comparisons of the performance of a number of test subjects using 2D and 3D vision systems were possible. A number of representative scenarios were developed to determine which tasks benefited most from the added depth perception and to understand when the 3D vision system hindered understanding of the scene. Two tests were conducted at Fort Leonard Wood, MO with noncommissioned officers ranked Staff Sergeant and Sergeant First Class. The scenarios; the test planning, approach and protocols; the data analysis; and the resulting performance assessment of the 3D vision system are reported.
N-Acetylcarnosine sustained drug delivery eye drops to control the signs of ageless vision: Glare sensitivity, cataract amelioration and quality of vision currently available treatment for the challenging 50,000-patient population
Mark A Babizhayev
months of treatment with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops as those with the worth pretreatment vision.Patients or other participants: The authors made a reference to electronic records of the product sales to patients who have been made the repurchase of the Can-C™ eye drops since December 2001.Intervention: Based on this analysis of recorded adjustments to inventory, various parameters were analyzed during the continued repurchase behavior program, including testimonials from buyers. With these figures, researchers judged on the patients’ compliance rate to self-administer NAC eye-drops.Main outcome measure and results: The ophthalmic drug showed potential for the nonsurgical treatment of age-related cataracts for participants after controlling for age, gender and daily activities and on a combined basis of repurchases behavior reports in more than 50,000 various cohort survivors, has been demonstrated to have a high efficacy and good tolerability for prevention and treatment of visual impairment determined for the older population with relative stable pattern of causes for blindness and visual impairment. The mechanisms of prevention and reversal of cataracts with NAC ophthalmic drug are considered which include prevention by the intraocular released carnosine of free-radical-induced inactivation of proprietary lens antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase; prevention of carbohydrate and metal-catalyzed autooxidation of ascorbic acid-induced cross-linking glycation reactions to the lens proteins; transglycation properties of carnosine, allowing it to compete for the glycating agent, protecting proteins (lens crystallins against modification; universal antioxidant and scavenging activity towards lipid hydroperoxides, aldehydes and oxygen radicals; activation with L-carnosine ingredient of proteasome activity in the lens; chaperone-like disaggregating to lens crystallins activity of NAC and of its bioactivated principal carnosine. Blindness incidence increased
A.O . Oduntan
Full Text Available A recent review of the causes and prevalence of low vision and blindness world wide is lack-ing. Such review is important for highlighting the causes and prevalence of visual impairment in the different parts of the world. Also, it is important in providing information on the types and magnitude of eye care programs needed in different parts of the world. In this article, the causes and prevalence of low vision and blind-ness in different parts of the world are reviewed and the socio-economic and psychological implications are briefly discussed. The review is based on an extensive review of the litera-ture using computer data bases combined with review of available national, regional and inter-national journals. Low vision and blindness are more prevalent in the developing countries than in the developed ones. Generally, the causes and prevalence of the conditions vary widely in different parts of the world and even within the same country. World wide, cataract is the most common cause of blindness and low vision among adults and elderly. Infectious diseases such as trachoma and onchocerciasis result-ing in low vision and blindness are peculiar to Africa, Asia and South America. Hereditary and congenital conditions are the most common causes of low vision and blindness among chil-dren worldwide.
Awadzi, K; Dadzie, K Y; Schulz-Key, H; Gilles, H M; Fulford, A J; Aziz, M A
Fifty-nine onchocerciasis patients with ocular involvement were randomly assigned to receive either 12 mg of ivermectin in a single dose or 1300 mg of diethylcarbamazine over eight days or matching placebo capsules. Detailed standardized follow-up examination was carried out for one year. Both ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine rapidly reduced skin microfilarial counts to a similar extent over six months, after which counts increased significantly more with diethylcarbamazine. Diethylcarbamazine rapidly eliminated microfilariae from the eye, while ivermectin did so over six months. Reactions to treatment were more severe with diethylcarbamazine, which also produced clinical ocular deficiency in two patients. Ivermectin produced intra-uterine sequestration and degeneration of microfilariae in adult worms, which may account for its ability to produce prolonged suppression of skin microfilariae. Ivermectin proved superior to diethylcarbamazine in safety, tolerance and efficacy, but further work is needed to assess fully its effects in patients with heavy intraocular microfilarial loads.
Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were examined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assessment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocerciasis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infection was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respondent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemotherapy
Food quality is of paramount consideration for all consumers, and its importance is perhaps only second to food safety. By some definition, food safety is also incorporated into the broad categorization of food quality. Hence, the need for careful and accurate evaluation of food quality is at the forefront of research and development both in the academia and industry. Among the many available methods for food quality evaluation, computer vision has proven to be the most powerful, especially for nondestructively extracting and quantifying many features that have direct relevance to food quality assessment and control. Furthermore, computer vision systems serve to rapidly evaluate the most readily observable foods quality attributes - the external characteristics such as color, shape, size, surface texture etc. In addition, it is now possible, using advanced computer vision technologies, to “see” inside a food product and/or package to examine important quality attributes ordinarily unavailable to human evaluators. With rapid advances in electronic hardware and other associated imaging technologies, the cost-effectiveness and speed of computer vision systems have greatly improved and many practical systems are already in place in the food industry.
... Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Pediatric Low Vision What is Low Vision? Partial vision loss that cannot be corrected causes ... and play. What are the signs of Low Vision? Some signs of low vision include difficulty recognizing ...
... de los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Low Vision FAQs What is low vision? Low vision is a visual impairment, not ... person’s ability to perform everyday activities. What causes low vision? Low vision can result from a variety ...
Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of ivermectin mass drug administration on strongyloidiasis and other soil transmitted helminthiases.We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected in Esmeraldas (Ecuador during surveys conducted in areas where ivermectin was annually administered to the entire population for the control of onchocerciasis. Data from 5 surveys, conducted between 1990 (before the start of the distribution of ivermectin and 2013 (six years after the interruption of the intervention were analyzed. The surveys also comprised areas where ivermectin was not distributed because onchocerciasis was not endemic. Different laboratory techniques were used in the different surveys (direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration, IFAT and IVD ELISA for Strongyloides stercoralis.In the areas where ivermectin was distributed the strongyloidiasis prevalence fell from 6.8% in 1990 to zero in 1996 and 1999. In 2013 prevalence in children was zero with stool examination and 1.3% with serology, in adult 0.7% and 2.7%. In areas not covered by ivermectin distribution the prevalence was 23.5% and 16.1% in 1996 and 1999, respectively. In 2013 the prevalence was 0.6% with fecal exam and 9.3% with serology in children and 2.3% and 17.9% in adults. Regarding other soil transmitted helminthiases: in areas where ivermectin was distributed the prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly reduced, while A. lumbricoides and hookworms were seemingly unaffected.Periodic mass distribution of ivermectin had a significant impact on the prevalence of strongyloidiasis, less on trichuriasis and apparently no effect on ascariasis and hookworm infections.
Anselmi, Mariella; Buonfrate, Dora; Guevara Espinoza, Angel; Prandi, Rosanna; Marquez, Monica; Gobbo, Maria; Montresor, Antonio; Albonico, Marco; Racines Orbe, Marcia; Bisoffi, Zeno
Objectives To evaluate the effect of ivermectin mass drug administration on strongyloidiasis and other soil transmitted helminthiases. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected in Esmeraldas (Ecuador) during surveys conducted in areas where ivermectin was annually administered to the entire population for the control of onchocerciasis. Data from 5 surveys, conducted between 1990 (before the start of the distribution of ivermectin) and 2013 (six years after the interruption of the intervention) were analyzed. The surveys also comprised areas where ivermectin was not distributed because onchocerciasis was not endemic. Different laboratory techniques were used in the different surveys (direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration, IFAT and IVD ELISA for Strongyloides stercoralis). Results In the areas where ivermectin was distributed the strongyloidiasis prevalence fell from 6.8% in 1990 to zero in 1996 and 1999. In 2013 prevalence in children was zero with stool examination and 1.3% with serology, in adult 0.7% and 2.7%. In areas not covered by ivermectin distribution the prevalence was 23.5% and 16.1% in 1996 and 1999, respectively. In 2013 the prevalence was 0.6% with fecal exam and 9.3% with serology in children and 2.3% and 17.9% in adults. Regarding other soil transmitted helminthiases: in areas where ivermectin was distributed the prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly reduced, while A. lumbricoides and hookworms were seemingly unaffected. Conclusions Periodic mass distribution of ivermectin had a significant impact on the prevalence of strongyloidiasis, less on trichuriasis and apparently no effect on ascariasis and hookworm infections. PMID:26540412
Ezzedine, Khaled; Malvy, Denis; Dhaussy, Ines; Steels, Emmanuelle; Castelein, Carine; De Dobbeler, Gilbert; Heenen, Michel
Travelers to West Central Africa are at risk for infection with Onchocerca volvulus. We describe the case of an adventurous traveler who became infected with O volvulus after a 10-day stay in rural Cameroon. Two years after his return, he was diagnosed with a 3-month history of limb swelling with pruritus and fixed edema of the right arm. He was successfully treated by a single dose of ivermectin, with an additional treatment with doxycycline. The patient was followed-up during 1 year after therapy without relapse. Such travelers experiencing unusual dermatitis syndromes should prompt evaluation for onchocerciasis.
Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Kiper, Daniel C
Color vision starts with the absorption of light in the retinal cone photoreceptors, which transduce electromagnetic energy into electrical voltages. These voltages are transformed into action potentials by a complicated network of cells in the retina. The information is sent to the visual cortex via the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in three separate color-opponent channels that have been characterized psychophysically, physiologically, and computationally. The properties of cells in the retina and LGN account for a surprisingly large body of psychophysical literature. This suggests that several fundamental computations involved in color perception occur at early levels of processing. In the cortex, information from the three retino-geniculate channels is combined to enable perception of a large variety of different hues. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that color analysis and coding cannot be separated from the analysis and coding of other visual attributes such as form and motion. Though there are some brain areas that are more sensitive to color than others, color vision emerges through the combined activity of neurons in many different areas.
The Bird Vision system is a multicamera photogrammerty software application that runs on a Microsoft Windows XP platform and was developed at Kennedy Space Center by ASRC Aerospace. This software system collects data about the locations of birds within a volume centered on the Space Shuttle and transmits it in real time to the laptop computer of a test director in the Launch Control Center (LCC) Firing Room.
... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...
... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...
Mumzhiu, Alex M.
Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.
Full Text Available Onchocerciasis or river blindness constitutes a major burden to households especially in resource-poor settings, causing a significant reduction in household productivity. There has been renewed interest from policy makers to reduce the burden of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs such as onchocerciasis on individuals and households. This paper provides new information on the patient's perceptions of onchocerciasis and its economic burden on households in South-eastern Nigeria. The information will be useful to health providers and policy makers for evidence-informed resource allocation decisions.Information was generated from a cross-sectional household survey conducted in Achi community, Oji River Local Government Area (LGA of Enugu State, Southeast Nigeria. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 747 households were visited randomly and data were collected using pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire from 370 respondents. The respondents' knowledge of the cause of symptoms of the disease, costs incurred for seeking treatment and productivity losses were elicited. Data were analyzed using tabulations and inferential statistics. A socio-economic status (SES index was used to disaggregate some key variables by SES quintiles for equity analysis.Many people had more than one type of manifestation of onchocerciasis. However, more than half of the respondents (57% had no knowledge of the cause of their symptoms. Male respondents had significantly more knowledge of the cause of symptoms than females (P = 0.04 but knowledge did not differ across SES (P = 0.82. The average monthly treatment cost per respondent was US$ 14.0. Drug cost (US$10 made up about 72% of total treatment cost. The per capita productivity loss among patients was US$16 and it was higher in the poorest (Q1 (US$20 and the third SES quintiles (Q3 (US$21. The average monthly productivity loss among caregivers was US$3
RODGER, F C
The records of 2000 blind or partially blind persons in the onchocerciasis areas of West Africa provided the background information for this report.The author has grouped his material in three sections. The first of these deals with diagnostic methods, and contains the results of skin and conjunctival biopsies, as well as a description of onchocercomas and an estimate of the life-span of Onchocerca adults.Next, the pathogenesis of ocular lesions is discussed in the light of evidence obtained from a series of animal experiments designed to test two theories-namely, the existence of an allergic state and damage by toxins.In the last section, which is devoted to clinical observations, the author demonstrates the existence of a relationship between the posterior segmental lesion and vitamin A deficiency, and shows that punctate corneal opacities result more often from certain virus diseases and malaria than from onchocerciasis. A description follows of various degenerations due to a local nutritional disorder combined with vitamin A deficiency in onchocercal limbitis and anterior uveitis.
Goa, K L; McTavish, D; Clissold, S P
Ivermectin, a derivative of avermectin B, is an orally effective microfilaricidal agent. It is the current drug of choice for treating patients infected with the nematode Onchocerca volvulus, which is a major cause of blindness in inhabitants of some tropical areas. Ivermectin is administered orally as a single dose of 150 micrograms/kg given annually. Skin and ocular microfilarial counts are dramatically reduced after the first dose, with some evidence for a resulting decrease in transmission of infection by the blackfly vector. With the exception of rare serious reactions such as severe systemic postural hypotension, ivermectin is generally well tolerated. The drug has the clear advantages of ease of administration and better tolerability compared with diethylcarbamazine and suramin, agents previously used to treat onchocerciasis. Thus, ivermectin is suitable for inclusion in mass treatment programmes and is the best therapeutic option presently available to combat onchocerciasis. As such it provides hope for many thousands of people at risk of becoming blind, and represents a major contribution to tropical medicine.
Lariviere, M; Vingtain, P; Aziz, M; Beauvais, B; Weimann, D; Derouin, F; Ginoux, J; Schulz-Key, H; Gaxotte, P; Basset, D
In a randomised double-blind study, ivermectin was compared with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and placebo in the treatment of onchocerciasis in 30 male patients from Mali with moderate to heavy Onchocerca volvulus infections and ocular involvement. 10 patients received a single oral dose of ivermectin, 12 mg, 10 received DEC daily for eight days (total dose 1.3 g), and 10 received matching placebo. Patients were examined periodically for twelve months. Punctate keratitis disappeared in 6 of 7 ivermectin patients but increased in DEC patients. Numbers of O volvulus microfilariae (mf) in the anterior chamber decreased slowly and eventually disappeared in most ivermectin patients during the six months following treatment; anterior chamber mf disappeared more rapidly in some patients after DEC, but reappeared within six months of stopping treatment. Both ivermectin and DEC caused a prompt decrease in mean skin mf density; density then increased in both groups over the twelve month observation period, reaching 9% of pretreatment values in ivermectin patients and 45% in the DEC group. Analysis of adult O volvulus from nodules excised at three and twelve months post treatment showed no effect of either drug on viability; however, there was evidence of degeneration of intra-uterine developing mf in the ivermectin group. Side-effects were less frequent and less severe in ivermectin patients than in DEC patients. Ivermectin as a single oral dose appears to be a more effective microfilaricidal drug than DEC in onchocerciasis.
Chemotherapy against onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis has been discussed mainly within the framework of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin and albendazole. Although strong reductions in infection prevalence were achieved, the regimes for these drugs do not fully cover needs of individual patients who seek treatment because of symptoms. Chemotherapy against filarial Wolbachia endosymbionts with doxycycline showed higher antiparasitic efficacy in onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis and also improved disease. This review details the recent indications for this new treatment, focussing on regimes for individual drug administration. A regimen of 6-week/100 mg doxycycline per day sterilized adult female Onchocerca volvulus. Two hundred milligrams doxycycline per day for 4 or 6 weeks revealed 50 and 60% macrofilaricidal effects, respectively. Reduction of 80-90% of adult worms was observed in bancroftian filariasis with 200 mg/day doxycycline for 4 or 6 weeks. The latter regimen showed reduction of lymph vessel dilation and of hydrocele. Lymphoedema progression was halted and reversed in early stages. Different options for antiwolbachial individual drug administration are summarized here. With improving health systems in endemic countries, individuals will demand best-possible treatment and accelerate a shift from mass drug administration-only approaches to integrated approaches combining both mass drug administration and individual drug administration. Treatment may be further improved by new antibiotics detected in high-throughput settings.
Oguntosin, Victoria W.; Mori, Yoshiki; Kim, Hyejong; Nasuto, Slawomir J.; Kawamura, Sadao; Hayashi, Yoshikatsu
We demonstrated the design, production, and functional properties of the Exoskeleton Actuated by the Soft Modules (EAsoftM). Integrating the 3D printed exoskeleton with passive joints to compensate gravity and with active joints to rotate the shoulder and elbow joints resulted in ultra-light system that could assist planar reaching motion by using the vision-based control law. The EAsoftM can support the reaching motion with compliance realized by the soft materials and pneumatic actuation. In addition, the vision-based control law has been proposed for the precise control over the target reaching motion within the millimeter scale. Aiming at rehabilitation exercise for individuals, typically soft actuators have been developed for relatively small motions, such as grasping motion, and one of the challenges has been to extend their use for a wider range reaching motion. The proposed EAsoftM presented one possible solution for this challenge by transmitting the torque effectively along the anatomically aligned with a human body exoskeleton. The proposed integrated systems will be an ideal solution for neurorehabilitation where affordable, wearable, and portable systems are required to be customized for individuals with specific motor impairments. PMID:28736514
Oguntosin, Victoria W; Mori, Yoshiki; Kim, Hyejong; Nasuto, Slawomir J; Kawamura, Sadao; Hayashi, Yoshikatsu
We demonstrated the design, production, and functional properties of the Exoskeleton Actuated by the Soft Modules (EAsoftM). Integrating the 3D printed exoskeleton with passive joints to compensate gravity and with active joints to rotate the shoulder and elbow joints resulted in ultra-light system that could assist planar reaching motion by using the vision-based control law. The EAsoftM can support the reaching motion with compliance realized by the soft materials and pneumatic actuation. In addition, the vision-based control law has been proposed for the precise control over the target reaching motion within the millimeter scale. Aiming at rehabilitation exercise for individuals, typically soft actuators have been developed for relatively small motions, such as grasping motion, and one of the challenges has been to extend their use for a wider range reaching motion. The proposed EAsoftM presented one possible solution for this challenge by transmitting the torque effectively along the anatomically aligned with a human body exoskeleton. The proposed integrated systems will be an ideal solution for neurorehabilitation where affordable, wearable, and portable systems are required to be customized for individuals with specific motor impairments.
Jones, B R; Anderson, J; Fuglsang, H
...% to patients with ocular onchocerciasis. Migration of microfilariae into the cornea, followed by their straightening and disintegration, was observed with delivery rates as low as 0.1 microgram/hour...
Philip J. Cooper; Lawrence B. Schwartz; Anne-Marie Irani; Kwablah Awadzi; Ronald H. Guderian; Thomas B. Nutman
To investigate the role of mast cells in treatment-associated adverse reactions in patients with onchocerciasis, changes in plasma tryptase levels and skin mast cell counts were examined in 2 groups...
... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...
Masud, Hannan; Qureshi, Tausif Qadir; Dukley, Meimei
To compare and analyze the effects of ivermectin with combined therapy of doxycycline and ivermectin on clinical symptoms of onchocerciasis. Randomized, comparative trial without blinding, a quasi-experimental study. Tubmenburg City (Bomy County) of Liberia, from March to December 2005. Two hundred and forty black local patients were included in clinical trial after recording their informed consent. Inclusion criteria was history of exposure to black fly in endemic area, symptoms of generalized and ocular itching, visual impairment associated with pannus and perilimbal pigmentation, punctuate/sclerosing keratitis, iridocyclitis, chorioretinitis, optic atrophy, lesions suggestive of onchodermatitis and subcutaneous nodules. Patients suffering from allergic conjunctivitis, history of measles and rubella, pregnant / breast-feeding women and children under 16 years of age were excluded from the study. The patients were randomly placed into two groups. Group I (120 patients) was treated with ivermectin in a single dose of 150 microg/kg orally. Group II (120 patients) was treated with combined therapy of doxycycline 100 mg/day for 6 weeks followed by ivermectin in a single dose of 150 microg/kg orally. Topical steroid-antibiotic combination was given to patients of both groups where indicated. Follow-up was carried out for 6 months. Improvement or progression of clinical features was recorded on each visit. Results were compiled and analysed by SPSS 10.0 using Chi-square test. Eighty four patients (70%) of group I and 117 (98%) patients of group II responded to treatment, with improvement in onchocerciasis clinical symptoms (p ivermectin as compared to those patients who were treated with ivermectin alone.
Emmanuel Uttah & Dominic C. Ibeh
Full Text Available Background & objectives: The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species ofmicrofilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and sporadic populations.Methods: From every consenting person of one year and above, 50 μl of day and night blood samples werecollected and processed respectively with Haemotoxylin and Giemsa as vital stains. Two skin snips (one eachfrom the waist and the shoulder were also taken from these individuals and processed.Results: Results showed single species microfilaraemia (86.4 and 82.3%, double species microfilaraemia (12.2and 16.9% and triple species microfilaraemia (1.4 and 0.7% for endemic and sporadic populations respectively.All the species had single species microfilaraemia mostly, but Mansonella perstans and Loa loa showed greatestt endency towa rds doubl e and t r ipl e spe c i e s mi c rof i l a r a emi a . The pr eva l enc e of Wuche re r ia banc rof t imicrofilaraemia among those positive for Onchocerca volvulus was significantly lower than the overall prevalenceof Wuchereria bancrofti. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia was most common among those who had L. loamicrofilaraemia. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial intensity was higher among those with M. perstansmicrofilaraemia than among those positive for any of the other filarial species. Similarly, the intensity of M.perstans microfilaraemia among those positive for W. bancrofti exceeded the overall intensity of M. perstans.Conclusion: It is concluded that there was no definite pattern in mf densities discernible from co-occurrenceinfections either in the onchocerciasis endemic or sporadic population. There could be varied outcomes ofonchocerciasis infection attributable to positive or negative regulatory effects of other pathogens harbored bythe victims.
Boyer, Kim; Bunke, H
This text features a broad array of research efforts in computer vision including low level processing, perceptual organization, object recognition and active vision. The volume's nine papers specifically report on topics such as sensor confidence, low level feature extraction schemes, non-parametric multi-scale curve smoothing, integration of geometric and non-geometric attributes for object recognition, design criteria for a four degree-of-freedom robot head, a real-time vision system based on control of visual attention and a behavior-based active eye vision system. The scope of the book pr
Tadema, Jochum; Theunissen, Erik; Lambregts, Tony
This paper addresses the design and implementation of a conceptual Enhanced/Synthetic Vision Primary Flight Display format. The goal of this work is to explore the means to provide the operator of a UAV with an integrated view of the constraints for the velocity vector, resulting in an explicit depiction of the margins/boundaries of the multi-dimensional maneuver space. For non-time-critical situations, this is expected to provide support when the operator has the authority to manually set avoidance maneuvers, or approve, veto or modify velocity vector changes proposed by the automation. The integration of the upper bounds of the maneuver space, resulting from energy constraints, and the lower bounds, resulting from terrain will be illustrated. Additionally, the application of a maneuver cost function will be discussed, for identifying and prioritizing conflict avoidance options from an integrated multi-dimensional maneuver space, and communicating those to the operator. Although the integrated avoidance functions have been developed with the UAV application in mind, they have equal merit for manned aircraft. The need for specific GUI elements depends on the level of authority of the system and the role of the operator/pilot, which may differ between manned and unmanned applications.
Jones, B R; Anderson, J; Fuglsang, H
Increasing concentrations of levamisole and of mebendazole were applied to 1 eye in groups of 4 patients with ocular onchocerciasis in northern Cameroon. No effect resulted from up to 3.0% mebendazole suspensions, but 3.0% levamisole solutions rapidly caused entry of microfilariae, straightening out and subsequent opacification of previously curled-up living microfilariae, the rapid formation of typical limbal globular infiltrates, and the subsequent formation of fluffy opacities around the microfilariae. These changes are typical of all other drugs so far studied that have a microfilaricidal action on O. volvulus--diethlycarbamizine citrate (DEC), suramin, and metrifonate. The efficacy of 3.0% levamisole approximated to that of 0.03% DEC. This is in keeping with published observations on the filaricidal activity of these 2 compounds. It is suggested that this system of drug testing should be considered for systematic use in the search for more effective and safer drugs for onchocerciasis.
canyons, indoors or underground. It is also possible for a GPS signal to be jammed. This weakness motivates the development of alternate navigation ...Johnson, E. N., Magree, D., Wu, A., & Shein, A. (2013). "GPS‐Denied Indoor and Outdoor Monocular Vision Aided Navigation and Control of Unmanned...SIMULATION PLATFORM FOR VISION AIDED INERTIAL NAVIGATION THESIS SEPTEMBER 2014 Jason Gek
Pelletier, Allen L; Rojas-Roldan, Ledy; Coffin, Janis
Vision loss affects 37 million Americans older than 50 years and one in four who are older than 80 years. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force concludes that current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in adults older than 65 years. However, family physicians play a critical role in identifying persons who are at risk of vision loss, counseling patients, and referring patients for disease-specific treatment. The conditions that cause most cases of vision loss in older patients are age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, ocular complications of diabetes mellitus, and age-related cataracts. Vitamin supplements can delay the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor can preserve vision in the neovascular form of macular degeneration. Medicated eye drops reduce intraocular pressure and can delay the progression of vision loss in patients with glaucoma, but adherence to treatment is poor. Laser trabeculoplasty also lowers intraocular pressure and preserves vision in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, but long-term studies are needed to identify who is most likely to benefit from surgery. Tight glycemic control in adults with diabetes slows the progression of diabetic retinopathy, but must be balanced against the risks of hypoglycemia and death in older adults. Fenofibrate also slows progression of diabetic retinopathy. Panretinal photocoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for diabetic retinopathy, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors slow vision loss resulting from diabetic macular edema. Preoperative testing before cataract surgery does not improve outcomes and is not recommended.
Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).
... the distance vision test above, but it is held only 14 inches (36 centimeters) away. If you ... Vision Institute, La Jolla, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...
McMullen, David P; Hotson, Guy; Katyal, Kapil D; Wester, Brock A; Fifer, Matthew S; McGee, Timothy G; Harris, Andrew; Johannes, Matthew S; Vogelstein, R Jacob; Ravitz, Alan D; Anderson, William S; Thakor, Nitish V; Crone, Nathan E
To increase the ability of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) to control advanced prostheses such as the modular prosthetic limb (MPL), we are developing a novel system: the Hybrid Augmented Reality Multimodal Operation Neural Integration Environment (HARMONIE). This system utilizes hybrid input, supervisory control, and intelligent robotics to allow users to identify an object (via eye tracking and computer vision) and initiate (via brain-control) a semi-autonomous reach-grasp-and-drop of the object by the MPL. Sequential iterations of HARMONIE were tested in two pilot subjects implanted with electrocorticographic (ECoG) and depth electrodes within motor areas. The subjects performed the complex task in 71.4% (20/28) and 67.7% (21/31) of trials after minimal training. Balanced accuracy for detecting movements was 91.1% and 92.9%, significantly greater than chance accuracies (p system improvements implemented for the second subject. Our hybrid-BMI design prevented all but one baseline false positive from initiating the system. The novel approach demonstrated in this proof-of-principle study, using hybrid input, supervisory control, and intelligent robotics, addresses limitations of current BMIs.
Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.
The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses
Gupta, Madan M.
Using biology as a basis for the development of sensors, devices and computer vision systems is a challenge to systems and vision scientists. It is also a field of promising research for engineering applications. Biological sensory systems, such as vision, touch and hearing, sense different physical phenomena from our environment, yet they possess some common mathematical functions. These mathematical functions are cast into the neural layers which are distributed throughout our sensory regions, sensory information transmission channels and in the cortex, the centre of perception. In this paper, we are concerned with the study of the biological vision system and the emulation of some of its mathematical functions, both retinal and visual cortex, for the development of a robust computer vision system. This field of research is not only intriguing, but offers a great challenge to systems scientists in the development of functional algorithms. These functional algorithms can be generalized for further studies in such fields as signal processing, control systems and image processing. Our studies are heavily dependent on the the use of fuzzy - neural layers and generalized receptive fields. Building blocks of such neural layers and receptive fields may lead to the design of better sensors and better computer vision systems. It is hoped that these studies will lead to the development of better artificial vision systems with various applications to vision prosthesis for the blind, robotic vision, medical imaging, medical sensors, industrial automation, remote sensing, space stations and ocean exploration.
Herbison, Nicola; MacKeith, Daisy; Vivian, Anthony; Purdy, Jon; Fakis, Apostolos; Ash, Isabel M; Cobb, Sue V; Eastgate, Richard M; Haworth, Stephen M; Gregson, Richard M; Foss, Alexander Je
Traditional treatment of amblyopia involves either wearing a patch or atropine penalisation of the better eye. A new treatment is being developed on the basis of virtual reality technology allowing either DVD footage or computer games which present a common background to both eyes and the foreground, containing the imagery of interest, only to the amblyopic eye. A randomised control trial was performed on patients with amblyopia aged 4-8 years with three arms. All three arms had dichoptic stimulation using shutter glass technology. One arm had DVD footage shown to the amblyopic eye and common background to both, the second used a modified shooter game, Nux, with sprite and targets presented to the amblyopic eye (and background to both) while the third arm had both background and foreground presented to both eyes (non-interactive binocular treatment (non-I-BiT) games). Seventy-five patients were randomised; 67 were residual amblyopes and 70 had an associated strabismus. The visual acuity improved in all three arms by approximately 0.07 logMAR in the amblyopic eye at 6 weeks. There was no difference between I-BiT DVD and non-I-BiT games compared with I-BiT games (stated primary outcome) in terms of gain in vision. There was a modest vision improvement in all three arms. Treatment was well tolerated and safe. There was no difference between the three treatments in terms of primary stated outcomes but treatment duration was short and the high proportion of previously treated amblyopia and strabismic amblyopia disadvantaged dichoptic stimulation treatment. NCT01702727, results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Lont, Yvonne L; Coffeng, Luc E; de Vlas, Sake J; Golden, Allison; de Los Santos, Tala; Domingo, Gonzalo J; Stolk, Wilma A
Onchocerciasis is targeted for elimination in Africa through annual or biannual ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA). An immunodiagnostic test, based on the detection of human IgG4 antibodies in the blood to the Onchocerca volvulus-specific antigen Ov16, is one of the recommended tools for determining whether transmission is interrupted and mass treatment can stop. For different transmission settings, the relationship between post-MDA Ov16 antibody prevalence in children (measured 1 year after the last round of MDA) and the duration and coverage of MDA, the mf prevalence in the population, and the probability that onchocerciasis is eventually eliminated is explored through mathematical modelling. The ONCHOSIM model was extended with new output on the Ov16 antibody serostatus of individuals. Seroconversion was assumed to be triggered by the first worm establishing in the host, with seroconversion occurring either before maturation, after maturation or only after the start of mf production. We are mainly interested in seroconversion rates in children, and for now ignore the possibility of seroreversion to simplify the model. Yearly repeated MDA leads to a strong reduction in the parasite acquisition rate in humans. This reduces the seroconversion rate in newborns and young children, while those who seroconverted before the start of control remain antibody positive. Both the microfiladermia prevalence in the population aged 5 years and above and the Ov16 antibody prevalence in children under 10 declined with increasing duration of MDA. The association between either of these indicators and the model-predicted probability of elimination was not influenced much by the assumed treatment coverage levels, but was found to depend on baseline endemicity levels, assumptions regarding the trigger of seroconversion, and diagnostic test characteristics (sensitivity and specificity). Better understanding of the dynamics of Ov16 antibody responses is required for accurate
Batsa, Linda; Ayisi-Boateng, Nana Kwame; Osei-Mensah, Jubin; Mubarik, Yusif; Konadu, Peter; Ricchiuto, Arcangelo; Fimmers, Rolf; Arriens, Sandra; Dubben, Bettina; Ford, Louise; Taylor, Mark; Hoerauf, Achim
The search for new macrofilaricidal drugs against onchocerciasis that can be administered in shorter regimens than required for doxycycline (DOX, 200mg/d given for 4–6 weeks), identified minocycline (MIN) with superior efficacy to DOX. Further reduction in the treatment regimen may be achieved with co-administration with standard anti-filarial drugs. Therefore a randomized, open-label, pilot trial was carried out in an area in Ghana endemic for onchocerciasis, comprising 5 different regimens: the standard regimen DOX 200mg/d for 4 weeks (DOX 4w, N = 33), the experimental regimens MIN 200mg/d for 3 weeks (MIN 3w; N = 30), DOX 200mg/d for 3 weeks plus albendazole (ALB) 800mg/d for 3 days (DOX 3w + ALB 3d, N = 32), DOX 200mg/d for 3 weeks (DOX 3w, N = 31) and ALB 800mg for 3 days (ALB 3d, N = 30). Out of 158 randomized participants, 116 (74.4%) were present for the follow-up at 6 months of whom 99 participants (63.5%) followed the treatment per protocol and underwent surgery. Histological analysis of the adult worms in the extirpated nodules revealed absence of Wolbachia in 98.8% (DOX 4w), 81.4% (DOX 3w + ALB 3d), 72.7% (MIN 3w), 64.1% (DOX 3w) and 35.2% (ALB 3d) of the female worms. All 4 treatment regimens showed superiority to ALB 3d (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.002, p = 0.008, respectively), which was confirmed by real-time PCR. Additionally, DOX 4w showed superiority to all other treatment arms. Furthermore DOX 4w and DOX 3w + ALB 3d showed a higher amount of female worms with degenerated embryogenesis compared to ALB 3d (p = 0.028, p = 0.042, respectively). These results confirm earlier studies that DOX 4w is sufficient for Wolbachia depletion and the desired parasitological effects. The data further suggest that there is an additive effect of ALB (3 days) on top of that of DOX alone, and that MIN shows a trend for stronger potency than DOX. These latter two results are preliminary and need confirmation in a fully randomized controlled phase 2 trial. Trial
Implementing standard vision screening techniques in the primary care practice is the most effective means to detect children with potential vision problems at an age when the vision loss may be treatable. A critical period of vision development occurs in the first few weeks of life; thus, it is imperative that serious problems are detected at this time. Although it is not possible to quantitate an infant's vision, evaluating ocular health appropriately can mean the difference between sight and blindness and, in the case of retinoblastoma, life or death.
Hickman, Simon J; Raoof, Naz; McLean, Rebecca J; Gottlob, Irene
Multiple sclerosis can affect vision in many ways, including optic neuritis, chronic optic neuropathy, retrochiasmal visual field defects, higher order cortical processing, double vision, nystagmus and also by related ocular conditions such as uveitis. There are also side effects from recently introduced multiple sclerosis treatments that can affect vision. This review will discuss all these aspects and how they come together to cause visual symptoms. It will then focus on practical aspects of how to recognise when there is a vision problem in a multiple sclerosis patient and on what treatments are available to improve vision.
Iureva, Radda A.; Raskin, Evgeni O.; Komarov, Igor I.; Maltseva, Nadezhda K.; Fedosovsky, Michael E.
Due to the improved economic situation in the high technology sectors, work on the creation of industrial robots and special mobile robotic systems are resumed. Despite this, the robotic control systems mostly remained unchanged. Hence one can see all advantages and disadvantages of these systems. This is due to lack of funds, which could greatly facilitate the work of the operator, and in some cases, completely replace it. The paper is concerned with the complex machine vision of robotic system for monitoring of underground pipelines, which collects and analyzes up to 90% of the necessary information. Vision Systems are used to identify obstacles to the process of movement on a trajectory to determine their origin, dimensions and character. The object is illuminated in a structured light, TV camera records projected structure. Distortions of the structure uniquely determine the shape of the object in view of the camera. The reference illumination is synchronized with the camera. The main parameters of the system are the basic distance between the generator and the lights and the camera parallax angle (the angle between the optical axes of the projection unit and camera).
Simunovic, Matthew P
Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.
New vision of the control organisms in industrial safety and maintenance, based approach to new pressure equipment; Nueva vision de los organismos de control en la seguridad industrial y mantenimiento en base al nuevo enfoque de equipos a presion
Bernardez Garcia, A.
Control agencies are companies dedicated to the verification of compliance with the safety of products and facilities as administrative regulation in industrial safety through certification activities, testing, inspection or audit.Changes have been made that will stimulate the increase of companies engaged in this sector.
The impact of the instrumentation and control systems in the safety of a nuclear plant: a general vision; El impacto de los sistemas de instrumentacion y control en la seguridad de una planta nuclear: una vision general
Celis del Angel, L.; Rivero, T., E-mail: email@example.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)
One of the fundamental components so much for the sure operation, like in emergency cases or accident are the equipment s and instrumentation and control systems. The nuclear industry has had some accidents where the instrumentation and control have played and important part: a wrong design, instrumentation lack, faulty systems of safety, etc. At the present time the necessity to modernize the instrumentation and control in a nuclear power plant is before the challenge of finding innovative forms to improve the competitiveness and readiness, reducing operation costs without put ing in risk the safety and reliability of the nuclear power plant. Most of the nuclear power plants require actualizing their instrumentation and control systems, here the digital systems represent a great alternative, improving the performance and the safety, increasing the readiness and reducing the maintenance s. However they require of strict tests that allow assuring their application in critical systems. It is also necessary, the development of modernization programs that allow the programmed substitution of the systems without affecting the readiness of the nuclear power plants. During this whole modernization process will be necessary to put special attention in the cyber-safety because the attacks every time they are more elaborated. Therefore will be necessary to go toward the modernization of the instrumentation and control with the challenge of making without detriment some in the safety of the normal operation and with response reliability in emergency conditions or accident that which represents an effort that should not be postponed in the case of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. (Author)
van der Velde J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Orientation and mobility training (O&M-training in using an identification cane, also called symbol cane, is provided to people with low vision to facilitate independent participation in the community. In The Netherlands this training is mainly practice-based because a standardised and validly evaluated O&M-training in using the identification cane is lacking. Recently a standardised O&M-training in using the identification cane was developed. This training consists of two face-to-face sessions and one telephone session during which, in addition to usual care, the client's needs regarding mobility are prioritised, and cognitive restructuring techniques, action planning and contracting are applied to facilitate the use of the cane. This paper presents the design of a randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate this standardised O&M-training in using the identification cane in older adults with low vision. Methods/design A parallel group randomised controlled trial was designed to compare the standardised O&M-training with usual care, i.e. the O&M-training commonly provided by the mobility trainer. Community-dwelling older people who ask for support at a rehabilitation centre for people with visual impairment and who are likely to receive an O&M-training in using the identification cane are included in the trial (N = 190. The primary outcomes of the effect evaluation are ADL self care and visual functioning with respect to distance activities and mobility. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, feelings of anxiety, symptoms of depression, fear of falling, and falls history. Data for the effect evaluation are collected by means of telephone interviews at baseline, and at 5 and 17 weeks after the start of the O&M-training. In addition to an effect evaluation, a process evaluation to study the feasibility of the O&M-training is carried out. Discussion The screening procedure for eligible participants started in November
This monograph is motivated by a significant number of vision based algorithms for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) that were developed during research and development projects. Vision information is utilized in various applications like visual surveillance, aim systems, recognition systems, collision-avoidance systems and navigation. This book presents practical applications, examples and recent challenges in these mentioned application fields. The aim of the book is to create a valuable source of information for researchers and constructors of solutions utilizing vision from UAV. Scientists, researchers and graduate students involved in computer vision, image processing, data fusion, control algorithms, mechanics, data mining, navigation and IC can find many valuable, useful and practical suggestions and solutions. The latest challenges for vision based systems are also presented.
A new approach for the detection of real-time properties of flames is used in this project to develop improved diagnostics and controls for natural gas fired furnaces. The system utilizes video images along with advanced image analysis and artificial intelligence techniques to provide virtual sensors in a stand-alone expert shell environment. One of the sensors is a flame sensor encompassing a flame detector and a flame analyzer to provide combustion status. The flame detector can identify any burner that has not fired in a multi-burner furnace. Another sensor is a 3-D temperature profiler. One important aspect of combustion control is product quality. The 3-D temperature profiler of this on-line system is intended to provide a tool for a better temperature control in a furnace to improve product quality. In summary, this on-line diagnostic and control system offers great potential for improving furnace thermal efficiency, lowering NOx and carbon monoxide emissions, and improving product quality. The system is applicable in natural gas-fired furnaces in the glass industry and reheating furnaces used in steel and forging industries.
Nwoke, B E; Onwuliri, C O; Ufomadu, G O
The physico-biological ecological complex in Plateau State has by definition increased the potential of most rivers to support the breeding and dispersal of vector species as well as human acquisition and dissemination of the disease for several months in a year. Though villagers in endemic areas are of the know of the nuisance of blackfly bites, but the majority of them lacked the aetiological knowledge of onchocercal lesion. Hence disease management is misdirected towards consulting the oracle and appeasing the gods. The vectors of onchocerciasis in Plateau State, S. damnosum, and S. sirbanum are wet season breeders with their peak biting density occurring at the height of rainy season. However, biting flies carry more infective parasites at the beginning and end of rain. These vectors exhibit bimodal biting activity: a small one in the morning hours and a pronounced evening peak. Biting activity is at least influenced by two major climatic factors; illumination and temperature. However, the fastest changing climatic factor relative to an increase in the biting activity of flies was illumination. Microfilarial load in the skin of patients does not significantly change throughout the year or when biopsies are taken under shade throughout the day. Extreme temperatures, however, have significant reducing effect on the skin microfilarial. The epidemiological relevance of these in the ongoing MECTIZAN delivery in the State are discussed.
Vieira, J C; Brackenboro, L; Porter, C H; Basáñez, M-G; Collins, R C
The influence of spatial and temporal factors on onchocerciasis transmission by Simulium exiguum s.l. and S. quadrivittatum in Ecuador was investigated to help develop sampling protocols for entomological surveillance of ivermectin programmes. Flies were collected in alternate months (November 1995-November 1996) at four sites each in the hyperendemic communities of San Miguel and El Tigre. A fixed-effects analysis of variance was used to explore the influence on vector abundance of locality, site, month and hour. Infectivity rates detected by dissection and PCR assays were compared. Simulium exiguum s.l. predominated at El Tigre (75%) whereas S. quadrivittatum prevailed at San Miguel (62%). Vector abundance was highest on river banks and outside houses. Biting and infection rates peaked from March to July. Hourly activity patterns were bimodal in S. exiguum but unimodal in S. quadrivittatum. Annual transmission potentials (ATP) for both species combined were 385 and 733 third stage larvae/person in San Miguel and El Tigre respectively, with S. exiguum accounting for 80% of the combined ATP at both localities. We recommend protocols that may maximize detection of parasite transmission. Infection rates thus obtained must be linked with vector density estimates to assess meaningfully host exposure as treatment progresses.
Full Text Available Histological examination of a nodule removed from the back of the hand of a 58-year-old woman from Oita, Kyushu, Japan showed an Onchocerca female sectioned through the posterior region of the worm (ovaries identifiable and young (thin cuticle. Six Onchocerca species are enzootic in that area: O. gutturosa and O. lienalis in cattle, O. suzukii in serows (Capricornis crispus, O. skrjabini and an Onchocerca sp. in Cervus nippon nippon, and O. dewittei japonica in wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax. Diagnostic charactets of female Onchocerca species, such as the cuticle and its ridges, change along the body length. Tables of the histologic morphology of the mid- and posterior body-regions of the local species are presented. In addition, it was observed that transverse ridges arose and thickened during the adult stage (examination of fourth stage and juvenile females of O. volvulus. The specimen described in this report, with its prominent and widely spaced ridges, was identified as O. d. japonica. Four of the 10 zoonotic cases of onchocerciasis reported worldwide were from Oita, three of them being caused by O. d. japonica, the prevalence of which in local wild boar was 22 of 24 (92 %.
Karam, M; Weiss, N
Immunological study of individuals (aged 4 to 70 years) living in an area of Mali hyperendemic for onchocerciasis revealed an 83% prevalence of skin microfilariae (mf). Microfilariae counts from skin snips were highly age-dependent. Screening for concomitant helminth infections showed a low prevalence of hookworms and Mansonella (Dipetalonema) perstans, but neither schistosomiasis nor bancroftian filariasis. Immunological results revealed strong correlation between radioallergosorbent test (RAST) and skin test (5 and 50 ng adult O. volvulus extract), between RAST and total IgE, and between IFAT and ELISA. A negative correlation exists between mf counts and skin tests and between mf counts and RAST; the lowest median values were obtained in the group with high mf counts. Skin sensitizing antibodies were detected in most locally born children aged 4-5 years. Intradermal tests showed a high rate of sensitization to O. volvulus antigen in mf-negative children, whereas ELISA and IFAT values were significantly lower in these children than in mf-positive children. Increasing concentrations of circulating IgE antibodies were found in children aged 4-11 years by RAST, and, in individuals aged 12-19 years (age group for which mf counts sharply increase), skin testing revealed a state of anergy. In long lasting infections (adults greater than 20 years) skin reactivity was comparable to that of young children or was depressed. ELISA and IFAT achieved similar results in each age group.
Hamburger, Y A
This article is an analysis of a new type of leadership vision, the kind of vision that is becoming increasingly pervasive among leaders in the modern world. This vision appears to offer a new horizon, whereas, in fact it delivers to its target audience a finely tuned version of the already existing ambitions and aspirations of the target audience. The leader, with advisors, has examined the target audience and has used the results of extensive research and statistical methods concerning the group to form a picture of its members' lifestyles and values. On the basis of this information, the leader has built a "vision." The vision is intended to create an impression of a charismatic and transformational leader when, in fact, it is merely a response. The systemic, arithmetic, and statistical methods employed in this operation have led to the coining of the terms mathematical leader and mathematical vision.
Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Pham, Thang D.
JPL has produced a series of FPGA (field programmable gate array) vision algorithms that were written with custom interfaces to get data in and out of each vision module. Each module has unique requirements on the data interface, and further vision modules are continually being developed, each with their own custom interfaces. Each memory module had also been designed for direct access to memory or to another memory module.
Full Text Available This Paper deals with robotic arm embed controller system, with distributed system based on protocol communication between one server supportin g multiple points and mobile applications trough sockets .The proposed system utilizes hand with glove gesture in three-dimensional recognition using fuzzy implementation to set x,y,z coordinates. This approach present all implementation over: two raspberry PI arm based com puter running client program, x64 PC running server program, and one robot arm controlle d by ATmega328p based board.
Full Text Available Measuring vision in children is a special skill requiring time, patience and understanding. Methods should be adapted to the childs age, abilities, knowledge and experience. Young children are not able to describe their vision or explain their visual symptoms. Through observation, and with information from the mother or guardian, functional vision can be evaluated. While testing and observing children, an experienced assessor notices their responses to visual stimuli. These must be compared with the expected functional vision for children of the same age and abilities, so it is important to know the normal visual development.
In its early years, the field of computer vision was largely motivated by researchers seeking computational models of biological vision and solutions to practical problems in manufacturing, defense, and medicine. For the past two decades or so, there has been an increasing interest in computer vision as an input modality in the context of human-computer interaction. Such vision-based interaction can endow interactive systems with visual capabilities similar to those important to human-human interaction, in order to perceive non-verbal cues and incorporate this information in applications such
Can vision be restored to the blind? As early as 1929 it was discovered that stimulating the visual cortex of an individual led to the perception of spots of light, known as phosphenes  . The aim of artificial human vision systems is to attempt to utilize the perception of phosphenes to provide a useful substitute for normal vision. Currently, four locations for electrical stimulation are being investigated; behind the retina (subretinal), in front of the retina (epiretinal), the optic nerve and the visual cortex (using intra- and surface electrodes). This review discusses artificial human vision technology and requirements, and reviews the current development projects.
Gordon, K.W.; Scott, K.P.
Since the 2020 Vision project began in 1996, students from participating schools have completed and submitted a variety of scenarios describing potential world and regional conditions in the year 2020 and their possible effect on US national security. This report summarizes the students' views and describes trends observed over the course of the 2020 Vision project's five years. It also highlights the main organizational features of the project. An analysis of thematic trends among the scenarios showed interesting shifts in students' thinking, particularly in their views of computer technology, US relations with China, and globalization. In 1996, most students perceived computer technology as highly beneficial to society, but as the year 2000 approached, this technology was viewed with fear and suspicion, even personified as a malicious, uncontrollable being. Yet, after New Year's passed with little disruption, students generally again perceived computer technology as beneficial. Also in 1996, students tended to see US relations with China as potentially positive, with economic interaction proving favorable to both countries. By 2000, this view had transformed into a perception of China emerging as the US' main rival and ''enemy'' in the global geopolitical realm. Regarding globalization, students in the first two years of the project tended to perceive world events as dependent on US action. However, by the end of the project, they saw the US as having little control over world events and therefore, we Americans would need to cooperate and compromise with other nations in order to maintain our own well-being.
Davies, E R
In the last 40 years, machine vision has evolved into a mature field embracing a wide range of applications including surveillance, automated inspection, robot assembly, vehicle guidance, traffic monitoring and control, signature verification, biometric measurement, and analysis of remotely sensed images. While researchers and industry specialists continue to document their work in this area, it has become increasingly difficult for professionals and graduate students to understand the essential theory and practicalities well enough to design their own algorithms and systems. This book directl
Jayroe, R.; Richardson, J. R.; Kerr, J.; Hay, S.; Mcbride, R.
Screening test developed for detecting a range of vision defects in eye, including common precursors to amblyopia. Test noninvasive, safe, and administered easily in field by operator with no medical training. Only minimal momentary cooperation of subject required: Thus, test shows promise for use with very young children. Test produces color-slide images of retinas of eyes under specially-controlled lighting conditions. Trained observer screens five children per minute.
TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA I WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square . Cambridge, MA 02139 C\\ II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME ANO0 ADDRESS...INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A.I.Memo No. 1037 April, 1988 Dynamical Systems and Motion Vision Joachim Heel Abstract: In this... Artificial Intelligence L3 Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for the Laboratory’s [1 Artificial Intelligence Research is
Marshall, Suzanne; Newman, Dan
Describes a series of activities to help middle school students develop an artist's vision and then convey that vision through poetry. Describes how lessons progress from looking at concrete objects to observations of settings and characters, gradually adding memory and imagination to direct observation, and finishing with revision. Notes that…
During the affluent noughties it was sometimes said of government that it had "more visions than Mystic Meg and more pilots than British Airways". In 2011, the pilots, the pathfinders, the new initiatives are largely gone--implementation is the name of the game--but the visions remain. The latest one, as it affects adult learners, is in…
A Synthesized Night Vision Goggle that will be described int his paper is a new type of night vision goggle with multiple functions. It consists of three parts: main observing system, picture--superimposed system (or Cathode Ray Tube system) and Charge-Coupled Device system.
Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Connolly, David
The short-term goal for The City of Copenhagen is a CO2 neutral energy supply by the year 2025, and the long-term vision for Denmark is a 100% renewable energy (RE) supply by the year 2050. In this project, it is concluded that Copenhagen plays a key role in this transition. The long-term vision ...
During the affluent noughties it was sometimes said of government that it had "more visions than Mystic Meg and more pilots than British Airways". In 2011, the pilots, the pathfinders, the new initiatives are largely gone--implementation is the name of the game--but the visions remain. The latest one, as it affects adult learners, is in the…
... Eye Health Information > Clinical Trials in Vision Research Clinical Trials in Vision Research Clinical studies depend on people ... vision research in the United States. Basics of Clinical Trials What is a clinical trial? Clinical trials are ...
... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Taking Care of Your Vision KidsHealth > For Teens > Taking Care of Your Vision ... are important parts of keeping your peepers perfect. Vision Basics One of the best things you can ...
Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Zong, Xiaoning; Yi, Tian
Conventional stereo vision systems have a small field of view (FOV) which limits their usefulness for certain applications. While panorama vision is able to "see" in all directions of the observation space, scene depth information is missed because of the mapping from 3D reference coordinates to 2D panoramic image. In this paper, we present an innovative vision system which builds by a special combined fish-eye lenses module, and is capable of producing 3D coordinate information from the whole global observation space and acquiring no blind area 360°×360° panoramic image simultaneously just using single vision equipment with one time static shooting. It is called Panoramic Stereo Sphere Vision (PSSV). We proposed the geometric model, mathematic model and parameters calibration method in this paper. Specifically, video surveillance, robotic autonomous navigation, virtual reality, driving assistance, multiple maneuvering target tracking, automatic mapping of environments and attitude estimation are some of the applications which will benefit from PSSV.
The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...
Wasson, W; Schuman, N
Color vision is a critical component of restorative and esthetic dentistry, but dentists, as a group, do not have their color vision tested at any time during their careers. A study was undertaken to ascertain the color-vision status of practicing dental personnel at the University of Tennessee, College of Dentistry. One hundred fifty individuals, 75 men and 75 women, were screened. The results corroborated the existing medical data for the general population. It was found that 9.3% of the men and none of the women exhibited color-vision defect. Since most dentists are male, this study demonstrates an area of potential weakness for some practitioners. Once a color-vision problem is found, it is simple to remedy by employing a team approach to shade matching or mechanical means of matching shades (by the practitioner). No ethnic or racial distinctions were detected, although these have been reported in other studies.
张磊; 陈红; 范维浩
本文在分析陶瓷套圈表面质量机器视觉检测机的系统组成和自动检测工作流程基础上,设计出检测机的气动驱动系统和PLC集成电气控制系统,给出PLC控制程序流程.通过PLC集成机器视觉、气动驱动和步进电机驱动控制系统,实现陶瓷套圈外圆表面缺陷机器视觉检测自动化,自动检测节拍达到2秒/件.%This paper firstly analyzes the mechanical system principle and technological process of the vision detection machine for ceramic sleeve surface quality inspection, and then designs a pneumatic drive system and PLC control system for the machine finally programs a PLC control program to implement the integrating control of machine vision, pneumatic drive system and stepping motor. The automatic cycle time of vision detection implements is 2 sec / piece.
Batchelor, Bruce G.; Charlier, Jean-Ray
The identity of Machine Vision as an academic and practical subject of study is asserted. In particular, the distinction between Machine Vision on the one hand and Computer Vision, Digital Image Processing, Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence on the other is emphasized. The article demonstrates through four cases studies that the active involvement of a person who is sensitive to the broad aspects of vision system design can avoid disaster and can often achieve a successful machine that would not otherwise have been possible. This article is a transcript of the key- note address presented at the conference. Since the proceedings are prepared and printed before the conference, it is not possible to include a record of the response to this paper made by the delegates during the round-table discussion. It is hoped to collate and disseminate these via the World Wide Web after the event. (A link will be provided at http://bruce.cs.cf.ac.uk/bruce/index.html.).
Goss, David A
The explosion of information in vision care and vision science makes keeping up with the literature and information in the field challenging. This report examines the nature of literature and information in vision care and vision science. A variety of topics are discussed, including the general nature of scientific and clinical journals, journals in vision science and vision care, resources available for searches for literature and information, and issues involved in the evaluation of journals and other information sources. Aspects of the application of citation analysis to vision care and vision science are reviewed, and a new citation analysis of a leading textbook in vision care (Borish's Clinical Refraction) is presented. This report is directed toward anyone who wants to be more informed about the literature of vision care and vision science, whether they are students, clinicians, educators, or librarians.
Gloeckner, Christian; Garner, Amanda L; Mersha, Fana; Oksov, Yelena; Tricoche, Nancy; Eubanks, Lisa M; Lustigman, Sara; Kaufmann, Gunnar F; Janda, Kim D
Onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is a neglected tropical disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus that affects more than 37 million people, mainly in third world countries. Currently, the only approved drug available for mass treatment is ivermectin, however, drug resistance is beginning to emerge, thus, new therapeutic targets and agents are desperately needed to treat and cure this devastating disease. Chitin metabolism plays a central role in invertebrate biology due to the critical structural function of chitin for the organism. Taken together with its absence in mammals, targeting chitin is an appealing therapeutic avenue. Importantly, the chitinase OvCHT1 from O. volvulus was recently discovered, however, its exact role in the worm's metabolism remains unknown. A screening effort against OvCHT1 was conducted using the Johns Hopkins Clinical Compound Library that contains over 1,500 existing drugs. Closantel, a veterinary anthelmintic with known proton ionophore activities, was identified as a potent and specific inhibitor of filarial chitinases, an activity not previously reported for this compound. Notably, closantel was found also to completely inhibit molting of O. volvulus infective L3 stage larvae. Closantel appears to target two important biochemical processes essential to filarial parasites. To begin to unravel closantel's effects, a retro-fragment-based study was used to define structural elements critical for closantel's chitinase inhibitor function. As resources towards the development of new agents that target neglected tropical diseases are scant, the finding of an existing drug with impact against O. volvulus provides promise in the hunt for new therapies against river blindness.
Arzube, M E
The first endemic focus of onchocerciasis in Ecuador has been established in the province of Esmeraldas. It is on the Cayapas River about 85 kilometer upstream from the town of Borbón. The endemic focus as far as it is currently known, appears to be localized between the settlements of Sapallo Grande and San Miguel de Cayapas. 87 persons were examined in both settlements. Onchocerciasis was detected in 72 (83%) persons; 62 (86%) were negroes and 10 were Cayapas indians; 42 (58%) were males and 30 were females. 29 (74%) of the weighed skin snips taken from 39 individuals showed a higher microfilarial density from the iliac crest than from the scapula. The following clinical manifestations were found in the positive cases: 45 (63%) with onchocercoma; 31 (43%) with dermatitis, pigmentary changes, atrophy of the skin; 19 (26%) with lymphoadenopathy and lymphoedema of the external genital organs; 32 (44%) with corneal opacities; 49 (68%) with itching of the skin and dermatitis and 23 (32%) without itching but with dermatitis. 274 Simulium were collected biting man. Three species were identified, although the specific names used must be considered as provisional. 59 S. exiguum, 206 S. quadrivittatum and 9 S. antillarum. The black flies were attracted with human bait inside the houses, outside and around the houses and at 500 meters far from the house near a creek. It seems that the three species are anthropophilic and endophilic.
Hagan, J B; Bartemes, K R; Kita, H; Ottesen, E A; Awadzi, K; Nutman, T B; Gleich, G J
The eosinophil survival assay was used to quantitate cytokines in 17 serial serum samples from 10 patients treated for onchocerciasis with diethylcarbamazine. Eosinophils isolated from normal donors were cultured for 4 days in the presence of patients' sera, and cell viability was determined. Serum specimens from 9 of 10 patients enhanced eosinophil survival from 4.8% +/- 2.2% (mean +/- SE) before treatment to 50.0% +/- 6.4% after treatment. Survival enhancement activity peaked before posttreatment eosinophilia. Antibodies to interleukin (IL)-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-3 were used to block cytokine activity in 22 serum samples. Antibodies to IL-5 blocked survival in 5 samples, antibodies to GM-CSF blocked survival in 6 samples, and a combination of antibodies to IL-5 and GM-CSF blocked survival in 8 additional samples. Overall, posttreatment sera from patients treated for onchocerciasis enhanced eosinophil survival; both GM-CSF and IL-5 may promote the posttreatment eosinophilia in filarial infection.
Souza, Jorge Marcos de [Metso Automation do Brasil, ES (Brazil)
Nowadays the industry search more and more contracts which involve the total responsibility by the maintenance of its equipment. What could not be different for the control valves because of its importance and critic to the process. Because of this, the maintenance concept Life Cycle targets to involve all the phases of the life of each control valve, since the project until the day to day maintenance activities, maximizing the performance and generating benefits to the process. (author)
This paper introduces the term 'anchoring' within systems development: Visions, developed through early systems design within an organization, need to be deeply rooted in the organization. A vision's rationale needs to be understood by those who decide if the vision should be implemented as well...... as by those involved in the actual implementation. A model depicting a recent trend within systems development is presented: Organizations rely on purchasing generic software products and/or software development outsourced to external contractors. A contemporary method for participatory design, where...
hopes and dreams of modern urbanism. It also contests current claims about the 'end of utopia', arguing that reconsidering earlier projects can play a critical role in developing utopian perspectives today. Through the study of utopian visions, it aims to rekindle elements of utopianism itself.......Visions of the City is a dramatic account of utopian urbanism in the twentieth century. It explores radical demands for new spaces and ways of living, and considers their effects on planning, architecture and struggles to shape urban landscapes. Such visions, it shows, have played a crucial role...
Zijlstra, G. A. R.; van Rens, G. H. M. B.; Scherder, E. J. A.; Brouwer, D. M.; van der Velde, J.; Verstraten, P. F. J.; Kempen, G. I. J. M.
Background: Orientation and mobility training (O&M-training) in using an identification cane, also called symbol cane, is provided to people with low vision to facilitate independent participation in the community. In The Netherlands this training is mainly practice-based because a standardised and
In Meiji Japan (1868?1912) and the German "Kaiserreich" (1871-1918), the educational system assisted the state in the definition of the notions of national identity. They developed, it is broadly claimed, within a similar vision of a state, which culminated in similar patterns of nationalism towards the end of the Second World War. In this article…
... least one other developmental disability, such as intellectual disabilities, cerebral palsy, hearing loss, or epilepsy. Vision impairment is more common in older people than in children. Guide dogs are the guiding ...
Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)
Randolph, Susan A
With the increased use of electronic devices with visual displays, computer vision syndrome is becoming a major public health issue. Improving the visual status of workers using computers results in greater productivity in the workplace and improved visual comfort.
Endres, Thomas G.
Examines the symbolic reality of unmarried mothers using Bormann's fantasy theme analysis and Q-methodology. Identifies three rhetorical visions with a dramatistic humanistic analysis produced by and about unmarried mothers: the Down and Out Vision, the Making the Best Vision, and the Yummie Vision. (MS)
卢立晖; 石玗; 黄健康; 樊佳伟; 樊丁
Research work of wire extension control based on vision sensing was done in pulsed MIG welding process of aluminum alloy.A rapid prototyping control platform was established for pulsed MIG welding of aluminum alloy using real-time target environment based on xPC.With vision sensing of welding zone image and corresponding image processing algorithm,a fuzzy PID closed loop control system for wire extension was designed on the basis of the built rapid prototyping control platform.Then experimental results show that the method of vision sensing can meet the control requirements of wire extension stability,the rapid prototyping control system built with fuzzy PID controller based on vision sensing can realize the well control of the wire extension in pulsed MIG welding of aluminum alloy and also has strong robustness and quick response ability.%针对铝合金脉冲MIG焊过程焊丝伸出长度的视觉控制进行了研究.设计了基于视觉传感的焊丝伸出长度模糊PID闭环控制系统,采用基于xPC的实时目标环境,建立了铝合金脉冲MIG焊快速原型的控制平台,并进行了铝合金脉冲MIG焊焊丝伸出长度视觉控制试验.结果表明,在铝合金脉冲MIG焊过程中,视觉传感的方法能够满足焊丝伸出长度稳定性的控制,且利用模糊PID控制器建立的快速原型视觉传感控制系统可以实现铝合金脉冲MIG焊丝伸出长度的良好控制,具有较强的鲁棒性和快速响应能力.
唐新星; 倪涛; 何丽鹏; 张邦成; 高金库
建立了基于立体视觉技术的遥操作工程机器人自主作业控制系统.采用立体视觉技术实现对目标物体的形状自动识别与空间定位,进行了遥操作工程机器人运动学方程求解、运动轨迹规划与控制的研究.针对液压伺服控制系统具有非线性、参数不确定的特点,设计了模糊控制器.最后,在遥操作工程机器人实验台上进行了自主作业控制实验.实验结果表明,所构建的基于立体视觉技术的工程机器人自主作业控制系统,能够完成初步的自主作业任务,且作业过程比较流畅.%In order to enhance the autonomy of construction tele-robot ( CTR) , a complete autonomous task control system of CTR based on stereo vision technology was established. Firstly, automation recognition and space location of the target object were studied by stereo vision and image processing technology. And then, forward and reverse kinematics equations, trajectory planning and control were discussed. To make the autonomous movement smoothly, trajectory function must be continuous and smooth, and expectation joint displacement and velocity would be obtained by forward kinematics equation. A fuzzy controller was designed. Finally, experiments of the autonomous task control were carried out on CTR test-bed. The experiments results indicated that autonomous task control system of CTR based on stereo vision technology was reliable and safe to complete their task, and task process was smooth.
Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Shah, Prerana; Ramani, Krishna Kumar; Ramanujan, Lalitha
To report the frequency of binocular vision (BV) anomalies in children with specific learning disorders (SLD) and to assess the efficacy of vision therapy (VT) in children with a non-strabismic binocular vision anomaly (NSBVA). The study was carried out at a centre for learning disability (LD). Comprehensive eye examination and binocular vision assessment was carried out for 94 children (mean (SD) age: 15 (2.2) years) diagnosed with specific learning disorder. BV assessment was done for children with best corrected visual acuity of ≥6/9 - N6, cooperative for examination and free from any ocular pathology. For children with a diagnosis of NSBVA (n=46), 24 children were randomized to VT and no intervention was provided to the other 22 children who served as experimental controls. At the end of 10 sessions of vision therapy, BV assessment was performed for both the intervention and non-intervention groups. Binocular vision anomalies were found in 59 children (62.8%) among which 22% (n=13) had strabismic binocular vision anomalies (SBVA) and 78% (n=46) had a NSBVA. Accommodative infacility (AIF) was the commonest of the NSBVA and found in 67%, followed by convergence insufficiency (CI) in 25%. Post-vision therapy, the intervention group showed significant improvement in all the BV parameters (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p<0.05) except negative fusional vergence. Children with specific learning disorders have a high frequency of binocular vision disorders and vision therapy plays a significant role in improving the BV parameters. Children with SLD should be screened for BV anomalies as it could potentially be an added hindrance to the reading difficulty in this special population. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Knab, J; Darge, K; Büttner, D W
The role of macrophages in the killing and elimination of microfilariae (mf) was studied immunohistologically in 14 lymph nodes from 10 patients with generalized onchocerciasis 20-68 h after treatment with a single oral dose of 150 microg/kg ivermectin. Mf with signs of damage at light microscopical level were surrounded by a cellular infiltrate comprising macrophages, eosinophils and neutrophils, whereas light microscopically intact mf mostly showed no cellular reaction. Resident mature macrophages expressing the CD 68 epitope usually neither migrated nor attached to damaged mf, especially on the first and second day after ivermectin treatment. However, many young invading macrophages labelled for the L1 protein (antibodies 27 E 10, MAC 387, S 36.48 and 8.5C2) were found within the cellular infiltrate around damaged mf and in adherence to the mf in all lymph nodes after ivermectin treatment. Free L1 protein was observed on the cuticle of the mf. The attacking macrophages contained increased amounts of the enzymes lysozyme, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin and alpha-1-antitrypsin compared to resident macrophages. Free enzymes were found on the cuticle of the mf and around them, indicating a role of these enzymes in the inflammatory reaction to the parasites. The attacking macrophages were strongly labelled for human HLA-DR and they showed further an increased expression of the complement receptors CR1 (CD 35) for C3b and CR3 (CD 11b) for C3 bi in comparison to resident macrophages and thus were considered as activated macrophages. Rarely fragments of mf were seen within multinuclear macrophages. We conclude that young activated macrophages play a major role in the elimination of mf transported to the regional lymph nodes after ivermectin treatment. The immunohistological findings are in accordance with the assumption that these activated macrophages together with granulocytes contribute to the killing of the damaged mf. They also help to limit the damage of the host tissue
Schütz, Christian L.; Natonek, Emerico; Baur, Charles; Hügli, Heinz
Virtual reality robotics (VRR) needs sensing feedback from the real environment. To show how advanced 3D vision provides new perspectives to fulfill these needs, this paper presents an architecture and system that integrates hybrid 3D vision and VRR and reports about experiments and results. The first section discusses the advantages of virtual reality in robotics, the potential of a 3D vision system in VRR and the contribution of a knowledge database, robust control and the combination of in...
however, should be revisited since functional blindness is attained .... term sustainability and effectiveness of ivermectin in preventing visual ... ophthalmic surgeons and their teams, expectations of outcome ..... Cross С Onchocerciasis. Lecture ...
徐德; 王麟琨; 涂志国; 谭民
A novel hybrid visual servoing control method based on structured light vision is proposed for robotic arc welding with a general six degrees of freedom robot. It consists of a position control inner-loop in Cartesian space and two outer-loops. One is position-based visual control in Cartesian space for moving in the direction of weld seam, i.e., weld seam tracking, another is imagebased visual control in image space for adjustment to eliminate the errors in the process of tracking.A new Jacobian matrix from image space of the feature point on structured light stripe to Cartesian space is provided for differential movement of the end-effector. The control system model is simplified and its stability is discussed. An experiment of arc welding protected by gas CO2 for verifying is well conducted.
Theory of Edge Detection . In Proc. R. Soc. Lond., pages...of the Human Early Vision Sysem,’ MIT Press, 1981. [lFldreth 19801 Hildreth, E., ’Implementation of a Theory of Edge Detection ,* MIT Artificial...Journal of Robotics Research, VoL 2,No. 1, 1983.  Hildreth, E.C., ’Implementation of a Theory of Edge Detection ’, MIT AI Memo 579, April 1980.
Postoperative pain control by preventive intercostal nerve block under direct vision followed by catheter-based infusion of local analgesics in rib cartilage harvest for auricular reconstruction in children with microtia: A randomized controlled trial.
Woo, Kyong-Je; Kang, Bo Young; Min, Jeong Jin; Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Ara; Oh, Kap Sung
Children with microtia complain of severe postoperative pain during early postoperative days after rib cartilage harvest for auricular reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of preventive donor site wound analgesia by intercostal nerve block (ICNB) and catheter-based infusion of local analgesics on postoperative pain after rib cartilage graft for auricular reconstruction in children with microtia. In this prospective randomized study, 66 children underwent postoperative pain control using either preventive ICNB followed by catheter-based infusion (33 patients, study group) or intravenous (IV) analgesia alone (33 patients, control group). ICNB was performed under direct vision by the surgeon by injecting 0.5% bupivacaine into each of the three intercostal spaces before perichondrial dissection. Catheters were placed in three subchondral spaces before wound closure, and 0.5% bupivacaine was infused every 12 h for 48 h postoperatively. Pain degrees were recorded every 4 h during the first 48 postoperative hours using a visual analogue scale. The study group showed significantly lower mean pain scores of the chest at rest (3.7 vs. 5.1, p = 0.001), the chest during coughing (4.3 vs. 5.8, p = 0.006), and the ear (3.0 vs. 4.1, p = 0.001) than the control group. The amount of use of rescue IV ketorolac was smaller in the study group (p = 0.026) than in the control group. No side effects related to the intervention were noted. Preventive ICNB followed by catheter-based infusion is effective and safe in postoperative pain relief in rib cartilage graft for auricular reconstruction. (The clinical trial registration number: WHO ICTRP, apps.who.int/trialsearch (KCT0001668)). Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Osorio, D.; Sobey, Peter J.
The neural architecture, neurophysiology and behavioral abilities of insect vision are described, and compared with that of mammals. Insects have a hardwired neural architecture of highly differentiated neurons, quite different from the cerebral cortex, yet their behavioral abilities are in important respects similar to those of mammals. These observations challenge the view that the key to the power of biological neural computation is distributed processing by a plastic, highly interconnected, network of individually undifferentiated and unreliable neurons that has been a dominant picture of biological computation since Pitts and McCulloch's seminal work in the 1940's.
Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Hansen, Kenneth
IDA’s Energy Vision 2050 provides a Smart Energy System strategy for a 100% renewable Denmark in 2050. The vision presented should not be regarded as the only option in 2050 but as one scenario out of several possibilities. With this vision the Danish Society of Engineers, IDA, presents its third......-of-the-art knowledge about how low cost energy systems can be designed while also focusing on long-term resource efficiency. The Energy Vision 2050 has the ambition to focus on all parts of the energy system rather than single technologies, but to have an approach in which all sectors are integrated. While Denmark...... contribution for an energy strategy for Denmark. The IDA’s Energy Plan 2030 was prepared in 2006 and IDA’s Climate Plan was prepared in 2009. IDA’s Energy Vision 2050 is developed for IDA by representatives from The Society of Engineers and by a group of researchers at Aalborg University. It is based on state...
Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Hansen, Kenneth
IDA’s Energy Vision 2050 provides a Smart Energy System strategy for a 100% renewable Denmark in 2050. The vision presented should not be regarded as the only option in 2050 but as one scenario out of several possibilities. With this vision the Danish Society of Engineers, IDA, presents its third...... contribution for an energy strategy for Denmark. The IDA’s Energy Plan 2030 was prepared in 2006 and IDA’s Climate Plan was prepared in 2009. IDA’s Energy Vision 2050 is developed for IDA by representatives from The Society of Engineers and by a group of researchers at Aalborg University. It is based on state......-of-the-art knowledge about how low cost energy systems can be designed while also focusing on long-term resource efficiency. The Energy Vision 2050 has the ambition to focus on all parts of the energy system rather than single technologies, but to have an approach in which all sectors are integrated. While Denmark...
Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira
This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.
Darge, K; Lucius, R; Monson, M H; Behrendsen, J; Büttner, D W
Microfilariae were studied in skin and lymph node biopsies from Liberian patients with generalised onchocerciasis 12-78 hours after administration of a single dose of 150 micrograms/kg body weight using histology, transmission electron microscopy and immunocytological staining with antibodies against an immunodominant antigen of Onchocerca volvulus. Most microfilariae in the skin appeared morphologically intact and beginning signs of degeneration were seen only on the ultrastructural level. The densities of microfilariae in the lymph nodes were about thousandfold higher in ivermectin treated patients. More than 90% of the microfilariae in the lymph nodes showed distinct signs of degeneration. Early changes were seen in the muscle cells. The disintegrating microfilariae in the lymph nodes were always encircled by eosinophils or macrophages or both cells. Immunohistological staining with antifilarial antibodies increased the detection of small and disintegrating pieces of microfilariae considerably.
Philip J Cooper
Full Text Available Trends in prevalence rates of onchocercal ocular lesions were examined over the period 1980 to 1990 using data from two cross-sectional surveys. There was evidence for increasing prevalence of anterior chamber microfilariae, iridocyclitis, optic atrophy, and chorioretinopathy. Large increases in prevalence, in particular, were seen for posterior segment lesions: optic atrophy increased from 2.7% to 6.4% and chorioretinopathy from 8.8% to 35.6%. Greatest increases in these lesions were seen in the Chachi which was attributed to the large increases in prevalence of microfilariae in the anterior chamber particularly in those aged 30 years or greater. The study findings suggest that ocular onchocerciasis is evolving in parallel with the well documented parasitological changes.
Sminchisescu, Cristian; Telea, Alexandru
Experimenting and building integrated, operational systems in computational vision poses both theoretical and practical challenges, involving methodologies from control theory, statistics, optimization, computer graphics, and interaction. Consequently, a control and communication structure is needed
Sminchisescu, Cristian; Telea, Alexandru
Experimenting and building integrated, operational systems in computational vision poses both theoretical and practical challenges, involving methodologies from control theory, statistics, optimization, computer graphics, and interaction. Consequently, a control and communication structure is needed
Shin, Jung W; Park, Jun W; Lee, Chul H; Hong, Soyoung; Jo, Yungho; Choi, Jaesoon
In order to realize intelligent laparoscopic surgical robot, a vision integrated system constitutes one of the fundamental components. The authors have constructed a vision framework in the current version of NCC (National Cancer Center) laparoscopic surgical robot controlled on a real-time OS (RTLinux-Pro, FSMLabs Inc., U.S.A.). Adding vision framework, we have been applying and testing image processing algorithms- edge detection of object for positioning surgical tool, Watersheds for recognizing object. This paper documents the implementation of the framework and preliminary results of the image segmentation using Watersheds algorithm. Finally the real-time processing capability of our vision system is discussed.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A clinically significant endemic focus of onchocerciasis existing in Esmeraldas Province, coastal Ecuador has been under an ivermectin mass drug administration program since 1991. The main transmitting vector in this area is the voracious blackfly, Simulium exiguum. This paper describes the assessments made that support the decision to cease mass treatment. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Thirty-five rounds of ivermectin treatment occurred between 1991-2009 with 29 of these carrying >85% coverage. Following the guidelines set by WHO for ceasing ivermectin distribution the impact on parasite transmission was measured in the two vector species by an O-150 PCR technique standard for assessing for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus. Up to seven collection sites in three major river systems were tested on four occasions between 1995 and 2008. The infectivity rates of 65.0 (CI 39-101 and 72.7 (CI 42-116 in 1995 dropped to zero at all seven collection sites by 2008. Assessment for the presence of antibodies against O. volvulus was made in 2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008 using standard ELISA assays for detecting anti-Ov16 antibodies. None of total of 1810 children aged 1-15 years (between 82 and 98% of children present in the surveyed villages tested in the above years were found to be carrying antibodies to this antigen. These findings were the basis for the cessation of mass drug treatment with ivermectin in 2009. SIGNIFICANCE: This fulfillment of the criteria for cessation of mass distribution of ivermectin in the only known endemic zone of onchocerciasis in Ecuador moves the country into the surveillance phase of official verification for national elimination of transmission of infection. These findings indicate that ivermectin given twice a year with greater than 85% of the community can move a program to the final stages of verification of transmission interruption.
Lovato, Raquel; Guevara, Angel; Guderian, Ronald; Proaño, Roberto; Unnasch, Thomas; Criollo, Hipatia; Hassan, Hassan K; Mackenzie, Charles D
A clinically significant endemic focus of onchocerciasis existing in Esmeraldas Province, coastal Ecuador has been under an ivermectin mass drug administration program since 1991. The main transmitting vector in this area is the voracious blackfly, Simulium exiguum. This paper describes the assessments made that support the decision to cease mass treatment. Thirty-five rounds of ivermectin treatment occurred between 1991-2009 with 29 of these carrying >85% coverage. Following the guidelines set by WHO for ceasing ivermectin distribution the impact on parasite transmission was measured in the two vector species by an O-150 PCR technique standard for assessing for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus. Up to seven collection sites in three major river systems were tested on four occasions between 1995 and 2008. The infectivity rates of 65.0 (CI 39-101) and 72.7 (CI 42-116) in 1995 dropped to zero at all seven collection sites by 2008. Assessment for the presence of antibodies against O. volvulus was made in 2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008 using standard ELISA assays for detecting anti-Ov16 antibodies. None of total of 1810 children aged 1-15 years (between 82 and 98% of children present in the surveyed villages) tested in the above years were found to be carrying antibodies to this antigen. These findings were the basis for the cessation of mass drug treatment with ivermectin in 2009. This fulfillment of the criteria for cessation of mass distribution of ivermectin in the only known endemic zone of onchocerciasis in Ecuador moves the country into the surveillance phase of official verification for national elimination of transmission of infection. These findings indicate that ivermectin given twice a year with greater than 85% of the community can move a program to the final stages of verification of transmission interruption.
Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.
Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).
谢少荣; 罗均; 饶进军; 龚振邦
For small robotic airships, it is required that the airship should be capable of following a predefined track. In this paper,computer vision-based navigation and optimal fuzzy control strategies for the robotic airship are proposed. Firstly, visual navigation based on natural landmarks of the environment is introduced. For example, when the airship is flying over a city, buildings can be used as visual beacons whose geometrical properties are known from the digital map or a geographical information system (GIS).Then a geometrical methodology is adopted to extract information about the orientation and position of the airship. In order to keep the airship on a predefined track, a fuzzy flight control system is designed, which uses those data as its input. And genetic algorithms (GAs), a general-purpose global optimization method, are utilized to optimize the membership functions of the fuzzy controller. Finally, the navigation and control strategies are validated.
OfficeVISION is a wide range of projects with the same goal: development of technology meeting future demands for good working conditions, health, environment- and energy conservation, the increased productivity. This project shows if it in few years will be possible to build with an energy producing building envelope in high-insulated glass. The officeVISION project is however so visionary that the Technological Institute will have to wait wait some years to build the house until the necessary building components has gone into production. Though the construction is deferred a number of interesting results have come out of the project. By designing a wide range of solutions to the energy producing glass building envelope, we have gradually gotten a good grasp of arrangement possibilities and use of glass buildings. There are many possibilities in this type of construction especially as regards to daylight. But there is also limitations as regards to acoustic and the possibility to use IT presentation screens. Thus the conclusion is that glass buildings are suitable as frames around informal meetings and thought fulness, but hardly the answer to all challenges in the future office. The main objects are: Good daylight conditions; Minimal energy consumption and maximal solar-electricity; Optimum conditions for high productivity in the office function; Good healthy indoor climate and good comfort; Export design high productive building technology; Minimal environmental impact; and A landmark for Technological Institute's technological spearheads. (EHS)
Kommentar. CBS’ ry for at være et moderne Business University med forskere fra hele verden og forskningsmæssig dynamik faldt på gulvet. Udfordringen er nu at få samlet CBS forskere om en fælles vision.......Kommentar. CBS’ ry for at være et moderne Business University med forskere fra hele verden og forskningsmæssig dynamik faldt på gulvet. Udfordringen er nu at få samlet CBS forskere om en fælles vision....
Galaburda, Albert M; Duchaine, Bradley C
This review of developmental disorders of vision focuses on only a few of the many disorders that disrupt visual development. Given the enormity of the human visual system in the primate brain and complexity of visual development, however, there are likely hundreds or thousands of types of disorders affecting high-level vision. The rapid progress seen in developmental dyslexia and WMS demonstrates the possibilities and difficulties inherent in researching such disorders, and the authors hope that similar progress will be made for congenital prosopagnosia and other disorders in the near future.
Yost, Jennifer; Turner, Andrew; Bender, Duane; Scott, Ted; Carroll, Sandra; Ritvo, Paul; Peter, Elizabeth; Lamy, Andre; Furze, Gill; Krull, Kirsten; Dunlop, Valerie; Good, Amber; Dvirnik, Nazari; Bedini, Debbie; Naus, Frank; Pettit, Shirley; Henry, Shaunattonie; Probst, Christine; Mills, Joseph; Gossage, Elaine; Travale, Irene; Duquette, Janine; Taberner, Christy; Bhavnani, Sanjeev; Khan, James S; Cowan, David; Romeril, Eric; Lee, John; Colella, Tracey; Choinière, Manon; Busse, Jason; Katz, Joel; Victor, J Charles; Hoch, Jeffrey; Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Ladak, Salima; O'Keefe-McCarthy, Sheila; Parry, Monica; Sessler, Daniel I; Stacey, Michael; Stevens, Bonnie; Stremler, Robyn; Thabane, Lehana; Watt-Watson, Judy; Whitlock, Richard; MacDermid, Joy C; Leegaard, Marit; McKelvie, Robert; Hillmer, Michael; Cooper, Lynn; Arthur, Gavin; Sider, Krista; Oliver, Susan; Boyajian, Karen; Farrow, Mark; Lawton, Chris; Gamble, Darryl; Walsh, Jake; Field, Mark; LeFort, Sandra; Clyne, Wendy; Ricupero, Maria; Poole, Laurie; Russell-Wood, Karsten; Weber, Michael; McNeil, Jolene; Alpert, Robyn; Sharpe, Sarah; Bhella, Sue; Mohajer, David; Ponnambalam, Sem; Lakhani, Naeem; Khan, Rabia; Liu, Peter
Background Tens of thousands of cardiac and vascular surgeries (CaVS) are performed on seniors in Canada and the United Kingdom each year to improve survival, relieve disease symptoms, and improve health-related quality of life (HRQL). However, chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP), undetected or delayed detection of hemodynamic compromise, complications, and related poor functional status are major problems for substantial numbers of patients during the recovery process. To tackle this problem, we aim to refine and test the effectiveness of an eHealth-enabled service delivery intervention, TecHnology-Enabled remote monitoring and Self-MAnagemenT—VIsion for patient EmpoWerment following Cardiac and VasculaR surgery (THE SMArTVIEW, CoVeRed), which combines remote monitoring, education, and self-management training to optimize recovery outcomes and experience of seniors undergoing CaVS in Canada and the United Kingdom. Objective Our objectives are to (1) refine SMArTVIEW via high-fidelity user testing and (2) examine the effectiveness of SMArTVIEW via a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Methods CaVS patients and clinicians will engage in two cycles of focus groups and usability testing at each site; feedback will be elicited about expectations and experience of SMArTVIEW, in context. The data will be used to refine the SMArTVIEW eHealth delivery program. Upon transfer to the surgical ward (ie, post-intensive care unit [ICU]), 256 CaVS patients will be reassessed postoperatively and randomly allocated via an interactive Web randomization system to the intervention group or usual care. The SMArTVIEW intervention will run from surgical ward day 2 until 8 weeks following surgery. Outcome assessments will occur on postoperative day 30; at week 8; and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The primary outcome is worst postop pain intensity upon movement in the previous 24 hours (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form), averaged across the previous 14 days. Secondary outcomes include a
McGillion, Michael; Yost, Jennifer; Turner, Andrew; Bender, Duane; Scott, Ted; Carroll, Sandra; Ritvo, Paul; Peter, Elizabeth; Lamy, Andre; Furze, Gill; Krull, Kirsten; Dunlop, Valerie; Good, Amber; Dvirnik, Nazari; Bedini, Debbie; Naus, Frank; Pettit, Shirley; Henry, Shaunattonie; Probst, Christine; Mills, Joseph; Gossage, Elaine; Travale, Irene; Duquette, Janine; Taberner, Christy; Bhavnani, Sanjeev; Khan, James S; Cowan, David; Romeril, Eric; Lee, John; Colella, Tracey; Choinière, Manon; Busse, Jason; Katz, Joel; Victor, J Charles; Hoch, Jeffrey; Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Ladak, Salima; O'Keefe-McCarthy, Sheila; Parry, Monica; Sessler, Daniel I; Stacey, Michael; Stevens, Bonnie; Stremler, Robyn; Thabane, Lehana; Watt-Watson, Judy; Whitlock, Richard; MacDermid, Joy C; Leegaard, Marit; McKelvie, Robert; Hillmer, Michael; Cooper, Lynn; Arthur, Gavin; Sider, Krista; Oliver, Susan; Boyajian, Karen; Farrow, Mark; Lawton, Chris; Gamble, Darryl; Walsh, Jake; Field, Mark; LeFort, Sandra; Clyne, Wendy; Ricupero, Maria; Poole, Laurie; Russell-Wood, Karsten; Weber, Michael; McNeil, Jolene; Alpert, Robyn; Sharpe, Sarah; Bhella, Sue; Mohajer, David; Ponnambalam, Sem; Lakhani, Naeem; Khan, Rabia; Liu, Peter; Devereaux, P J
Tens of thousands of cardiac and vascular surgeries (CaVS) are performed on seniors in Canada and the United Kingdom each year to improve survival, relieve disease symptoms, and improve health-related quality of life (HRQL). However, chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP), undetected or delayed detection of hemodynamic compromise, complications, and related poor functional status are major problems for substantial numbers of patients during the recovery process. To tackle this problem, we aim to refine and test the effectiveness of an eHealth-enabled service delivery intervention, TecHnology-Enabled remote monitoring and Self-MAnagemenT-VIsion for patient EmpoWerment following Cardiac and VasculaR surgery (THE SMArTVIEW, CoVeRed), which combines remote monitoring, education, and self-management training to optimize recovery outcomes and experience of seniors undergoing CaVS in Canada and the United Kingdom. Our objectives are to (1) refine SMArTVIEW via high-fidelity user testing and (2) examine the effectiveness of SMArTVIEW via a randomized controlled trial (RCT). CaVS patients and clinicians will engage in two cycles of focus groups and usability testing at each site; feedback will be elicited about expectations and experience of SMArTVIEW, in context. The data will be used to refine the SMArTVIEW eHealth delivery program. Upon transfer to the surgical ward (ie, post-intensive care unit [ICU]), 256 CaVS patients will be reassessed postoperatively and randomly allocated via an interactive Web randomization system to the intervention group or usual care. The SMArTVIEW intervention will run from surgical ward day 2 until 8 weeks following surgery. Outcome assessments will occur on postoperative day 30; at week 8; and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The primary outcome is worst postop pain intensity upon movement in the previous 24 hours (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form), averaged across the previous 14 days. Secondary outcomes include a composite of postoperative
Uzdrowska, Marta; Crossland, Michael; Broniarczyk-Loba, Anna
In someone with good vision, binocular vision provides benefits which could not be obtained by monocular viewing only. People with visual impairment often have abnormal binocularity. However, they often use both eyes simultaneously in their everyday activities. Much remains to be known about binocular vision in people with visual impairment. As the binocular status of people with low vision strongly influences their treatment and rehabilitation, it should be evaluated and considered before diagnosis and further recommendations.
The fundamental objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to gain more insight into what is involved in the practical application of a computer vision system, when the conditions of use cannot be controlled completely. The basic assumption is that research on isolated aspects of computer vision often leads
The fundamental objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to gain more insight into what is involved in the practical application of a computer vision system, when the conditions of use cannot be controlled completely. The basic assumption is that research on isolated aspects of computer vision often leads
While recognizing the value of "vision," it could be argued that vision alone--at least in schools--is not enough to rally the financial and emotional support required to translate an idea into reality. A compelling vision needs to reflect substantive, research-based knowledge if it is to spark the kind of strategic thinking and insight…
Mullen, K; Prost, A
It has been shown in the epidemiological evaluation of onchocerciasis that the method of taking two or more snips per person contains information about the probabilities of false negatives which can be extracted and used to improve the prevalence estimates. Using the method of maximum likelihood, one can obtain expressions for estimating the prevalence, adjusted for the false negatives, and for estimating the proportion of false negatives. The variances of all estimates are also available, making confidence interval estimation possible.
By introducing the concept; Tectonic Visions, The Dissertation discusses the interrelationship between the basic idea, the form principles, the choice of building technology and constructive structures within a given building. Includes Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Eames, Jorn Utzon, Louis Kahn...
Murphy, Joseph; Torre, Daniela
Few concepts are more noted in the leadership effects research than vision. It is a cardinal element in the school improvement equation as well. Yet, it remains one of the least well-specified components of that algorithm. Based on a comprehensive review of the research on effective leadership and school improvement from 1995 to 2012, we bring…
Andersson, Jonas E
and drawing analysis. This study suggests that there is a gap between reality and visions. Despite research-based guidelines, the architecture of contemporary residential care homes relies on universal qualities that are associated with the home environment rather than with the particular conditions...
Schaffert, Sebastian; Bry, Francois; Dolog, Peter
This deliverable describes the common vision of the KiWi project, ranging from motivation over use cases and usage scenarios to user interaction, system architecture and technologies, and the research that is performed as part of the project. The deliverable is intended for a wide audience to give...
Brings together experiences from researchers in the field of embedded computer vision, from both academic and industrial research centers, and covers a broad range of challenges and trade-offs brought about by this paradigm shift. This title offers emphasis on tackling important problems for society, safety, security, health, and mobility.
the time-derivative of the image at the point is also represented. The development of the theory of edge detection was motivated by the need to...E. (1979) " Theory of Edge Detection ," MIT Al Lab. Memo 518. Marr, D. & Poggio, T. (1977) "A Theory of Human Stereo Vision," MIT Al Lab. Memo 451
Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.
The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…
EPA’s Vision • To become the leader in the development and implementation of paperless data generation, transfer/exchange, review and management...3/31/2011 9 Current Programs Using SEDD • EPA’s Contract Laboratory Program • EPA’s Great Lakes National Program Office • USACE FUDS/MMRP Program
Marshall, Justin; Arikawa, Kentaro
Butterflies and stomatopods are certainly outliers in their unconventional colour sense and despite some similarities at first glance, in fact sample the world of colour very differently. In one way, butterflies are relatively conventional, possessing either tri-or tetrachromatic colour vision, then just adding one or several task-specific sub-mechanisms onto this. It is the stomatopods so far that have really pushed the boat out into a different colour vision mechanism. Over 400 million years of independent evolution they have arrived at a solution with more in common with the way a satellite sensor examines the colours of the earth than other animals. Remember, however, that unconventional colour vision is not just the realm of the serially polychromatic. Apparently waterfleas with four classes of spectral receptors living in ponds operate a task-specific spectral sense with no need, or indeed neural processing power, to construct a complex discriminatory mechanism. It seems they have the butterfly added-extra set without the more complex comparative chromatic mechanisms, although in truth, conclusive behavioural proof is lacking. Behavioural observation of colour vision in the ecological context of each animal is vital before making the distinction between conventional and unconventional. Just counting spectral sensitivities is never enough.
Artiklen knytter den amerikanske digter Walt Whitmans demokratiske og litterære visioner i det 19. århundrede til den svenske stemmeretsforkæmper Elin Wägners overvejelser over køn, krig og demokrati i det 20. århundrede. Den slutter med referencer til "Democracy Incorporated" fra 2008 af den...
Jakobsen, H; Willumsen, H; Søndergaard Jensen, L
During a five-year period, direct vision internal urethrotomy was used for the treatment of urethral strictures in 34 men. After the primary operation the patients were followed for an average period of 29 months (range 3-73 months). During this period 53% of the patients were found to have one...
Fullan, Michael G.
Overattachment to particular innovations or overreliance on a charismatic leader can restrict consideration of alternatives and produce short-term gains or superficial solutions. To encourage lasting school improvement, principals should build collaborative cultures instead of imposing their own visions or change agendas. A sidebar illustrates a…
Schaffert, Sebastian; Bry, Francois; Dolog, Peter
This deliverable describes the common vision of the KiWi project, ranging from motivation over use cases and usage scenarios to user interaction, system architecture and technologies, and the research that is performed as part of the project. The deliverable is intended for a wide audience to give...
Atchison, David A; Valentine, Emma L; Gibson, Georgina; Thomas, Hannah R; Oh, Sera; Pyo, Young Ah; Lacherez, Philippe; Mathur, Ankit
The purpose of this study is to determine visual performance in water, including the influence of pupil size. The water environment was simulated by placing goggles filled with saline in front of the eyes with apertures placed at the front of the goggles. Correction factors were determined for the different magnification under this condition in order to estimate vision in water. Experiments were conducted on letter visual acuity (seven participants), grating resolution (eight participants), and grating contrast sensitivity (one participant). For letter acuity, mean loss of vision in water, compared to corrected vision in air, varied between 1.1 log min of arc resolution (logMAR) for a 1 mm aperture to 2.2 logMAR for a 7 mm aperture. The vision in min of arc was described well by a linear relationship with pupil size. For grating acuity, mean loss varied between 1.1 logMAR for a 2 mm aperture to 1.2 logMAR for a 6 mm aperture. Contrast sensitivity for a 2 mm aperture deteriorated as spatial frequency increased with a 2 log unit loss by 3 c/°. Superimposed on this deterioration were depressions (notches) in sensitivity with the first three notches occurring at 0.45, 0.8, and 1.3 c/° with estimates for water of 0.39, 0.70, and 1.13 c/°. In conclusion, vision in water is poor. It becomes worse as pupil size increases, but the effects are much more marked for letter targets than for grating targets.
Steere, R W
Vision care is a benefit that provides advantages for both employers and employees, and it has become an essential element of most competitive benefit packages. Well-designed vision care programs offer participants choice, options, self-help and value. An option that employers may want to consider is reduced prices on laser vision correction procedures.
... a low vision specialist to help maximize the use of his or her remaining useful vision. Laser surgery might help in some cases of macular ... If the older person needs sunglasses for outdoor use, he or she should have 100% UV (ultraviolet) protection to reduce glare. Use low vision ...
Sevda Aydin Kurna
Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vision related quality of life in patients with keratoconus by using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25. Methods. Thirty patients presented with keratoconus (keratoconus group and 30 healthy patients (control group were included in this study. Twenty patients were using rigid gas permeable and 10 patients were not using contact lenses in keratoconus group. High and low contrast visual acuity and mean K values of the patients were recorded. Each subject completed the 25-item NEI-VFQ-25. Results. All subscales of NEI-VFQ-25 were lower in the keratoconus patients. The difference was more evident in the subscales of general vision, ocular pain, near vision, vision-specific mental health, vision-specific role difficulties, and peripheral vision P 0.4 in the better eye had lower distance vision, social functioning, mental health, and role difficulties. Meanwhile, patients with low visual acuity (logMAR > 0.4 in the worse eye had lower general health scores P<0.05. Conclusions. Vision related quality of life was worse in keratoconus patients. Success in the contact lens usage and maintaining higher visual acuity may improve vision related quality of life.
Aydin Kurna, Sevda; Altun, Ahmet; Gencaga, Tugba; Akkaya, Sezen; Sengor, Tomris
Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vision related quality of life in patients with keratoconus by using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25). Methods. Thirty patients presented with keratoconus (keratoconus group) and 30 healthy patients (control group) were included in this study. Twenty patients were using rigid gas permeable and 10 patients were not using contact lenses in keratoconus group. High and low contrast visual acuity and mean K values of the patients were recorded. Each subject completed the 25-item NEI-VFQ-25. Results. All subscales of NEI-VFQ-25 were lower in the keratoconus patients. The difference was more evident in the subscales of general vision, ocular pain, near vision, vision-specific mental health, vision-specific role difficulties, and peripheral vision (P 0.4) in the better eye had lower distance vision, social functioning, mental health, and role difficulties. Meanwhile, patients with low visual acuity (logMAR > 0.4) in the worse eye had lower general health scores (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Vision related quality of life was worse in keratoconus patients. Success in the contact lens usage and maintaining higher visual acuity may improve vision related quality of life. PMID:24868455
邱联奎; 张艳霞; 雷文龙
研究机械手对未知平面内直线和圆形轨迹的跟踪方法,在跟踪过程中,保持末端执行器与未知平面之间接触力恒定.该控制系统采用视觉和力的双闭环控制结构,利用双目立体视觉系统实现对未知平面法线方向的估计,实现对水平面内运动分量的视觉伺服控制;应用力传感器感知末端执行器与未知平面之间的接触力,实现对末端执行器在垂直方向运动分量的控制.应用MATLAB机器人工具箱进行仿真实验,验证控制策略的有效性.%The tracking method of manipulator for a straight and circular locus on unknown plane was investigated. During the tracking process, the contact force between the end-effector and unknown plane should be kept constant A double closed-loop control structure with both vision and force closed-loops, was employed in this control system and a double-eye stereo vision system was employed to estimate the normal direction of the unknown plane. The visual servo control of motion component in horizontal plane was realized. A force transducer was used to sense the contact force information between the end-effector and the environment, so that the control of vertical motion component of the end-effector was realized. The simulations experiment was conducted by using the robotic toolbox in MATLAB and the effectness of the control strategy was verified.
Hryniewicz, P.; Banaś, W.; Gwiazda, A.; Foit, K.; Sękala, A.; Kost, G.
One of the most important tasks in the production process is to supervise its proper functioning. Lack of required supervision over the production process can lead to incorrect manufacturing of the final element, through the production line downtime and hence to financial losses. The worst result is the damage of the equipment involved in the manufacturing process. Engineers supervise the production flow correctness use the great range of sensors supporting the supervising of a manufacturing element. Vision systems are one of sensors families. In recent years, thanks to the accelerated development of electronics as well as the easier access to electronic products and attractive prices, they become the cheap and universal type of sensors. These sensors detect practically all objects, regardless of their shape or even the state of matter. The only problem is considered with transparent or mirror objects, detected from the wrong angle. Integrating the vision system with the LabVIEW Vision and the LabVIEW Vision Builder it is possible to determine not only at what position is the given element but also to set its reorientation relative to any point in an analyzed space. The paper presents an example of automated inspection. The paper presents an example of automated inspection of the manufacturing process in a production workcell using the vision supervising system. The aim of the work is to elaborate the vision system that could integrate different applications and devices used in different production systems to control the manufacturing process.
G.S. Samuelsen; A. Rao; F. Robson; B. Washom
Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into power plant systems that meet performance and emission goals of the Vision 21 program. The study efforts have narrowed down the myriad of fuel processing, power generation, and emission control technologies to selected scenarios that identify those combinations having the potential to achieve the Vision 21 program goals of high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. The technology levels considered are based on projected technical and manufacturing advances being made in industry and on advances identified in current and future government supported research. Included in these advanced systems are solid oxide fuel cells and advanced cycle gas turbines. The results of this investigation will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.
Kerr, J. R.; Luk, Chiu H.; Hammerstrom, Dan; Pavel, Misha
In anticipation of its ultimate role in transport, business and rotary wing aircraft, we clarify the role of Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS): how the output data will be utilized, appropriate architecture for total avionics integration, pilot and control interfaces, and operational utilization. Ground-map (database) correlation is critical, and we suggest that "synthetic vision" is simply a subset of the monitor/guidance interface issue. The core of integrated EVS is its sensor processor. In order to approximate optimal, Bayesian multi-sensor fusion and ground correlation functionality in real time, we are developing a neural net approach utilizing human visual pathway and self-organizing, associative-engine processing. In addition to EVS/SVS imagery, outputs will include sensor-based navigation and attitude signals as well as hazard detection. A system architecture is described, encompassing an all-weather sensor suite; advanced processing technology; intertial, GPS and other avionics inputs; and pilot and machine interfaces. Issues of total-system accuracy and integrity are addressed, as well as flight operational aspects relating to both civil certification and military applications in IMC.
Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place
Repræsentanter for byggesektoren har på 11 dialogmøder drøftet Erhvervs- og Byggestyrelsens "Vision 2020 - Byggeri med mening". Drøftelserne førte til formulering af en lang række initiativforslag til realisering af visionen. Den mest centrale udfordring bliver at reducere fejl og mangler i...... byggeriet. Branchen lægger også vægt på, at styringen af Vision 2020s reaisering sker i byggesektoren. Initiativforslagene er i rapporten samlet under 3 hovedområder. Det første hovedområde lægger vægt på bygningerne, brugerbehov og det globale samfund. Det andet omhandler processen og leverancesystemet...
Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Connolly, David
The short-term goal for The City of Copenhagen is a CO2 neutral energy supply by the year 2025, and the long-term vision for Denmark is a 100% renewable energy (RE) supply by the year 2050. In this project, it is concluded that Copenhagen plays a key role in this transition. The long-term vision...... of 100% RE can be achieved in a socio-economic and resource efficient way in Denmark, but local involvement is required to ensure the implementation of a Smart Energy System approach. A Smart Energy System perspective, which considers electricity, heating and transport, is applied in this study using...... the EnergyPLAN model. The model simulates the electricity, heating, cooling, industrial, and transport sectors on an hourly basis and enables the identification of new synergies between the sectors to 1) improve the efficiency of the energy system and 2) accommodate the short-term fluctuations in renewable...
The Advanced Night Vision Goggle (ANVG) program is developing integrated wide field of view (WFOV) helmet-mounted image intensifier night vision goggle systems. ANVG will provide a FOV of approximately 40° (vertical) × 100° (horizontal) and an integrated heads-up display for overlay of flight symbology and/or FLIR imagery. The added FLIR complements the I2 imagery in out of the window or ground applications. ANVG will significantly improve safety, situational awareness, and mission capabilities in differing environments. ANVG achieves the ultra wide FOV using four image intensifier tubes in a head-mounted configuration. Additional features include a miniature flat panel display and a lightweight uncooled FLIR. The integrated design will demonstrate the capability of helmet-mounted I2 and FLIR image fusion. Fusion will be accomplished optically and will offer significant opportunities for ground applications. This paper summarizes the basic technologies, lessons learned, and program status.
In the last years the debate on complexity has been developing and developing in transdisciplinary way to meet the need of explanation for highly organized collective behaviors and sophisticated hierarchical arrangements in physical, biological, cognitive and social systems. Unfortunately, no clear definition has been reached, so complexity appears like an anti-reductionist paradigm in search of a theory. In our short survey we aim to suggest a clarification in relation to the notions of computational and intrinsic emergence, and to show how the latter is deeply connected to the new Logical Openness Theory, an original extension of Godel theorems to the model theory. The epistemological scenario we are going to make use of is that of the theory of vision, a particularly instructive one. Vision is an element of our primordial relationship with the world;consequently it comes as no surprise that carefully taking into consideration the processes of visual perception can lead us straight to some significant quest...
This document aligns with the Department of Energy Strategic Plan for 2014-2018 and provides a framework for integrating our missions and direction for pursuing DOE’s strategic goals. The vision is a guide to advancing world-class science and engineering, supporting our people, modernizing our infrastructure, and developing a management culture that operates a safe and secure enterprise in an efficient manner.
Full Text Available We need good quality information to be able to carry out our eye care programmes in support of VISION 2020, to measure (and improve our performance, and to advocate for the resources and support we need to succeed. Much of this information can be collected, analysed, and used as part of our daily work, as many of the articles in this issue show.
Two scales were and are importantfor our work. The concept scale:1:10,000, or 1:1,000, or 1:500,depending on the size of the project,and the scale 1:1. The concept scale describes the vision: what is it about,where we want to go. The otherscales that architects use are purelyinstructive in nature and thereforeunimportant as far as the effect of abuilding is concerned.
张洪涛; 李隆球; 张广玉; 王武义
针对微型空中机器人在室内环境下无法借助外部定位系统实现自主悬停的问题，提出一种基于单目视觉的自主悬停控制方法。采用一种四成分特征点描述符和一个多级筛选器进行特征点跟踪。根据单目视觉运动学估计机器人水平位置；根据低雷诺数下的空气阻力估计机器人飞行速度；结合位置和速度信息对机器人进行悬停控制。实验结果验证了该方法的有效性。%A hovering control method based on onboard monocular vision is proposed to hover a micro aerial robot autonomously, in which there is no external positioning system in indoor environments. A descriptor with four components and a multi-stage filter are used for feature tracking. Horizontal position is estimated according to monocular vision kinematics. Flight speed is estimated according to aerodynamic drag at low Reynolds number. Position and velocity informations are fused to hover the robot. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Full Text Available In this paper we shall present some observations on the role played by ecstasy in the activity of the seer, as he emerges in ancient Jewish and Iranian texts. In the Jewish religious literature of the Hellenistic-Roman period, visions are described on almost every page, and visions were the most important means of divine revelation. Specific techniques for inducing the ecstatic state are not recorded in the Jewish sources. Some elements in the pattern leading up to the vision may be interpreted as parts of a method for inducing the final ecstasy; i.e. fasting and prayer. The Iranian material shows clearly the importance of ecstasy in the activity of the seer. The ecstatic seeing also means that the visionary shares with Ahura Mazda a divine quality, the "wisdom of omniscience". The granting of the "wisdom of omniscience" appears as a temporary and it conveys to the visionary a supernatural seeing. There is evidence to suggest that chanting was an important method of inducing ecstasy within the early Zoroastrian community. We do not find in the Jewish material a clear correspondence to the Iranian notion of "omniscient wisdom".
Li, Hailing; Wu, Haiyan; Lou, Lei
, a multithreshold legmentation algorithm is applied in a stereo-vision running at 150Hz. Based on the estimated 3D ball positions, a novel two-phase trajectory prediction is exploited to determine the hitting position. Benefiting from the high-speed visual feedback, the hitting position and thus the motion planning......The performance of vision-based control is usually limited by the low sampling rate of the visual feedback. We address Ping-Pong robotics as a widely studied example which requires high-speed vision for highly dynamic motion control. In order to detect a flying ball accurately and robustly...
Li, Hailing; Wu, Haiyan; Lou, Lei; Kühnlenz, Kolja; Ravn, Ole
The performance of vision-based control is usually limited by the low sampling rate of the visual feedback. We address Ping-Pong robotics as a widely studied example which requires high-speed vision for highly dynamic motion control. Inorder to detect a flying ball accurately and robustly, a multithreshold legmentation algorithm is applied in a stereo-vision running at 150Hz. Based on the estimated 3D ball positions, a novel two-phase trajectory prediction is exploited to determine the hittin...
Full Text Available For robot perception, video cameras are very valuable sensors, but the computer vision methods applied to extract information from camera images are usually computationally expensive. Integrating computer vision methods into a robot control architecture requires to balance exploitation of camera images with the need to preserve reactivity and robustness. We claim that better software support is needed in order to facilitate and simplify the application of computer vision and image processing methods on autonomous mobile robots. In particular, such support must address a simplified specification of image processing architectures, control and synchronization issues of image processing steps, and the integration of the image processing machinery into the overall robot control architecture. This paper introduces the video image processing (VIP framework, a software framework for multithreaded control flow modeling in robot vision.
孙飞虎; 喻俊志; 徐德
具有嵌入式视觉的仿生机器鱼的摄像头往往安装在头部，为了获取稳定的图像数据，研究了游动过程中头部的平稳性控制问题。首先，基于牛顿－欧拉方法对仿生机器鱼的水动力学进行建模。然后，基于动力学模型，比较了两种鱼体波模型下的机器鱼头部摆动情况。进一步地采用遗传算法对输入到运动关节的参数进行优化，实现机器鱼头部的最小摆动。最后，在自主设计的具有嵌入式视觉的仿生机器鱼上进行了实验。结果表明，在平稳性控制后，头部的摆动幅度明显减小，采集到的图像的稳定性与连续性有较大改进，但游动速度有所降低。该方法为基于嵌入式视觉的运动控制与任务执行提供了有效保障。%The camera is generally installed in the head of a biomimetic robotic fish with embedded vision. The issue of stability control of the head is explored to guarantee the steady acquisition of image data. Specifically, hydrodynamics of the biomimetic robotic fish is modeled based on the Newton-Euler method, which is applied to comparing the head swing status in the cases of different body models. In addition, a genetic algorithm is developed to optimize parameters for multiple moving joints, intended to minimize the swing of the robotic fish’s head. Finally, experiments are conducted on a self-designed biomimetic robotic fish equipped with an embedded vision system. The results indicate that the swing of the head is decreased and the imaging stability and continuity are greatly improved by the stability control. However, it is inevitable that the swimming velocity decreases. This method lays the foundation for locomotion control and task execution based on embedded vision.
Yao, Yen-Ting; Leung, Cherng-Yee
Due to the vision-impaired users commonly having difficulty with mobile-phone function operations and adaption any manufacturer's user interface design, the goals for this research are established for evaluating how to improve for them the function operation convenience and user interfaces of either mobile phones or electronic appliances in the market currently. After applying collecting back 30 effective questionnaires from 30 vision-impairment, the comments have been concluded from this research include: (1) All mobile phone manufactures commonly ignorant of the vision-impairment difficulty with operating mobile phone user interfaces; (2) The vision-impairment preferential with audio alert signals; (3) The vision-impairment incapable of mobile-phone procurement independently unless with assistance from others; (4) Preferential with adding touch-usage interface design by the vision-impairment; in contrast with the least requirement for such functions as braille, enlarging keystroke size and diversifying-function control panel. With exploring the vision-impairment's necessary improvements and obstacles for mobile phone interface operation, this research is established with goals for offering reference possibly applied in electronic appliance design and . Hopefully, the analysis results of this research could be used as data references for designing electronic and high-tech products and promoting more usage convenience for those vision-impaired.
肖德琴; 黄顺彬; 殷建军; 冯健昭
Embedded intelligent vision sensor technology has become a research hotspot of wireless vision sensor network (WVSN) due to its low cost and high efficiency image capturing. In earlier research, a low cost and high resolution agricultural vision sensor (HRAVS) was developed based on the platform S3C6410 and OV3640 in South China Agricultural University. In this paper, a vision sensor remote transmission control schema (VSRTC) was developed to enable HRAVS to communicate with each other in various communication technologies (cable, 3G, 4G and Wi-Fi). The combination of HRAVS and VSRTC can be applied in many areas of the Internet of Things (IOT) in Agriculture.This paper introduced design of application architecture, transmission control protocol, and the node’s application software of the VSRTC-HRAVS. A WVSN test was conducted for 25 days with 10 camera nodes in experimental fields of South China Agricultural University. Node control stability, the image capturing and encoding performance, the overall average image capturing time and the average frame rate of video capturing under different resolutions were evaluated in a series tests. The results showed that the new camera nodes were able to effectively carry out 3 capture modes (command response/cycle response/video), and under the re-transmission mode, the instruction loss rate was below 1% of all nodes. Given image pixel of 1.3, 2.0 and 3.2 Mpixel, when running without networking, the shortest average overall image processing time of the node were 6.2, 8.2 and 11.1 s respectively, and the largest video frame rates were 58.7, 34.6 and 16.4 frames per second, respectively; When running networking, the shortest average overall image processing time of the node were 17.6, 26.9 and 49.6 s respectively, and the highest video frame rates were 20.2, 16.1 and 9.3 frames per second, respectively. This scheme supported high resolution image and video transmission which can be applied in the field of agriculture where
Full Text Available Japan is a country of high specific diversity of Onchocerca with eight species, the adults of two not yet known. Onchocerca dewittei japonica, a common filarial parasite of wild boar, had been proved to be the agent of five zoonotic onchocerciasis in Kyushu island with morphological and molecular studies. The sixth case, at Hiroshima in the main island, was identified to the same Onchocerca species, based on adult characters observed on histological sections. To consolidate the identification, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 gene analysis was attempted with the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded parasite specimen. The sequence (196 bp of a CO1 gene fragment of the parasite successfully PCR-amplified agreed well with those of O. dewittei japonica registered in GenBank, confirming the morphological identification. Moreover a comparison with the CO1 gene sequences of six other Onchocerca species in GenBank excluded the possibility that Onchocerca sp. from wild boar and Onchocerca sp. type A from cattle in Japan, were the causative agents in this case. Mitochondrial DNA analysis proved to be a valuable tool to support the morphological method for the discrimination of zoonotic Onchocerca species in a histological specimen.
Wildenburg, G; Darge, K; Knab, J; Tischendorf, F W; Bonow, I; Büttner, D W
Lymph node and skin biopsies from Liberian patients with generalized and localized (sowda) onchocerciasis were studied 12-68 hours after oral administration of ivermectin at a single dose of 150 micrograms/kg body weight. Electron microscopic examination and immunohistochemical staining with antibodies against two different forms of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP EG1, ECP EG2), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and cationic leukocyte antigen (CLA) were performed. Following their disappearance from the skin, a large number of microfilariae was found in the regional lymph nodes. The lymph nodes from treated patients had over ten times more eosinophils compared to those from untreated persons with a peak of eosinophil density at 40-48 hours after treatment. Degenerating microfilariae in the lymph nodes were encircled by eosinophils, which showed positive immunostaining for ECP, EPO or CLA. Intra- and extracellular eosinophil granules revealed a great variation in their condition. In some specific granules a variety of structural alterations in the crystalloid cores occurred while in others different stages of deficiency in the matrix electron density were observed. The frequent necrosis of eosinophils in the immediate vicinity and at some distance from the microfilariae, with subsequent release of granules and the deposition of toxic cationic granule proteins onto the microfilarial cuticle during the eosinophil-parasite adherence reaction, demonstrated the function of these proteins in the ivermectin-reinforced killing of microfilariae in lymph nodes.
Moses N. Katabarwa
Full Text Available We followed up the 1996 baseline parasitological and entomological studies on onchocerciasis transmission in eleven health districts in West Region, Cameroon. Annual mass ivermectin treatment had been provided for 15 years. Follow-up assessments which took place in 2005, 2006, and 2011 consisted of skin snips for microfilariae (mf and palpation examinations for nodules. Follow-up Simulium vector dissections for larval infection rates were done from 2011 to 2012. mf prevalence in adults dropped from 68.7% to 11.4%, and nodule prevalence dropped from 65.9% to 12.1%. The decrease of mf prevalence in children from 29.2% to 8.9% was evidence that transmission was still continuing. mf rates in the follow-up assessments among adults and in children levelled out after a sharp reduction from baseline levels. Only three health districts out of 11 were close to interruption of transmission. Evidence of continuing transmission was also observed in two out of three fly collection sites that had infective rates of 0.19% and 0.18% and ATP of 70 (Foumbot and 300 (Massangam, respectively. Therefore, halting of annual mass treatment with ivermectin cannot be done after 15 years as it might escalate the risk of transmission recrudescence.
Full Text Available Four cytotypes of Simulium exiguum occur in Ecuador, where this morphospecies is the primary vector of onchocerciasis. In this paper, we give the first full description of the banding pattern of the larval polytene chromosomes of the Quevedo cytotypes differ from the chromosomal standard sequence (of the Cayapa cytotype by the fixed inversions IIL-5 and IIL-6. The Quevedo cytotype additionally differs from the standard and Bucay cytotypes by processing a differentiated X chromosome, wich is indicated by the inversion IIS-A. As the degree of reproductive isolation between the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes has not yet been estabilished, they must be regarded as intraspecific variants of the same species. In fact, isoenzyme characterizations showed that the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes are differentiated only to the extent expected of incipient species or geographical populations. Moreover, the sibiling species status previously given to the Bucay cytotype needs be reassessed, there being inadequate analysis from areas in Ecuador where Bucay occurs in sympatry with the standard Cayapa cytotype. No isoenzyme electromorphs were discovered that identified all or mostadult females of any one (cytotype-pure collection.
A100-million-pound Chinese theme park could be built in Britain to attract tourists from across Britain,Europe and even China,said a report published on August 9 by Sheffield Telegraph.Visions of China,the planned theme park,would cover an area of 120 acres in Rotherham,South Yorkshire,and feature distinct Chinese architecture including Chinese gardens,theaters,restaurants,a temple,a children's fantasy land,a Shanghai-style shopping street,a Shaolin pagoda,a hotel and a wellness center.
Hoshin is a system which was developed in Japan in the 1960's, and is a derivative of Management By Objectives (MBO). It is a Management System for determining the appropriate course of action for an organization, and effectively accomplishing the relevant actions and results. Having recognized the power of this system, Beyond Strategic Vision tailors the Hoshin system to fit the culture of North American and European organizations. It is a "how-to" guide to the Hoshin method for executives, managers, and any other professionals who must plan as part of their normal job. The management of an o
Egelhaaf, Martin; Kern, Roland
Vision guides flight behaviour in numerous insects. Despite their small brain, insects easily outperform current man-made autonomous vehicles in many respects. Examples are the virtuosic chasing manoeuvres male flies perform as part of their mating behaviour and the ability of bees to assess, on the basis of visual motion cues, the distance travelled in a novel environment. Analyses at both the behavioural and neuronal levels are beginning to unveil reasons for such extraordinary capabilities of insects. One recipe for their success is the adaptation of visual information processing to the specific requirements of the behavioural tasks and to the specific spatiotemporal properties of the natural input.
Wiseman, Robert S.
The success of the U.S. Army's Night Vision Program at Fort Belvoir, VA was significantly influenced by the evolution and timely culmination of Visionics technology which was initiated by Mr. John Johnson. In the late 1950's, Visionics technology started with concern for Near Infrared (NIR) and Image Intensifier (II) Night Vision developments. It resulted in the Johnson Criteria which coupled system physical characteristics to visual performance by using resolution of line pairs across the minimum dimension of a target. This led to development of image evaluation procedures and standardized laboratory testing. Later the Visionics team addressed the Far Infrared (FIR) system performance and developed a series of FLIR Performance Models. The Visionic's Static Performance Model computer code was accepted and proliferated widely by the mid-70's. Visionics moved from static viewing to address the problems of search effectiveness. Then came more work on target signatures and the consideration of the effects of fog, rain, snow, artillery barrages, and realistic battlefield conditions on system performance in order to assure the utility of fielded equipments for all theaters of interest. The general use of the various Visionics models and methodology throughout Government and Industry is recognition of the contributions made by Mr. John Johnson and his Visionics staff.
The invention of photography in the early 19th century changed the way that we see the world, and has played an important role in the development of western science. Notably, photographic vision is implicated in the definition of a new temporal relation to the natural world at the same time as modern biological science emerges as a disciplinary formation. It is this coincidence in birth that is central to this study. I suggest that by examining the relationship of early photography to nature, we can gain some insight into the technological and epistemological underpinnings of biological vision. To this end, this article is primarily concerned with the role of photographic technology in the genealogy of biological vision. I argue that photography has always been ambiguously located between art and science, between nature and culture, and between life and death. Hence, while it may be a technological expression of the scientific desire to know and to control nature, photographic vision has continually disrupted and frustrated the ambitions of biological technoscience. The technovision of early biological science illustrates that the elusive temporality of nature has always been central to the production of knowledge of life.
Night /day Imaging Technologies, ANIT, Head Mounted Display, Night Vision Goggle , Aided Vision , Binocular...advantage of binocularity in aided vision . Key Words: Head Mounted Display, Night Vision Goggle , Stereopsis, Modulation Transfer Function...veridical perception allows the operator to navigate and manipulate the environment in a natural and efficient manner. Night vision goggles (NVGs),
Tan, Cheston; Lallee, Stephane; Orchard, Garrick
Neuromorphic Vision sensors have improved greatly since the first silicon retina was presented almost three decades ago. They have recently matured to the point where they are commercially available and can be operated by laymen. However, despite improved availability of sensors, there remains a lack of good datasets, while algorithms for processing spike-based visual data are still in their infancy. On the other hand, frame-based computer vision algorithms are far more mature, thanks in part to widely accepted datasets which allow direct comparison between algorithms and encourage competition. We are presented with a unique opportunity to shape the development of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges by leveraging what has been learnt from the use of datasets in frame-based computer vision. Taking advantage of this opportunity, in this paper we review the role that benchmarks and challenges have played in the advancement of frame-based computer vision, and suggest guidelines for the creation of Neuromorphic Vision benchmarks and challenges. We also discuss the unique challenges faced when benchmarking Neuromorphic Vision algorithms, particularly when attempting to provide direct comparison with frame-based computer vision.
Effects of visual skills training, vision coaching and sports vision dynamics on the ... Abstract. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of ... skills and their performance on visual skills tests, in order to form four groups of ...
Sebastion, R.L. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States)
The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.
Energy Visions 2050 considers measures for addressing the enormous future challenges facing the energy sector, focusing on technological and techno-economic perspectives. The analysis of the development of technologies covers the whole energy chain, highlighting the necessity of efficient energy use in all activities of societies. The contents include a discussion on potential future low-emission and renewable energy conversion technologies, as well as new technology solutions in the industrial, building and transport sectors and in energy supply systems. The move towards zero-emission energy systems has consequenses for energy supply, and makes the analysis of energy resources presented in the book all the more valuable. Scenarios of alternative development paths to 2050 at the global, European and Finnish levels are presented, assuming different technological development options, economic growth rates, degrees of globalisation and information flows. The results show interesting differences between the scenarios with regard to energy production and use, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, and global warming. Energy Visions 2050 in mainly intended for those who have a fairly good knowledge of the energy sector and energy technologies, e.g. energy policymakers, experts responsible for energy-related issues in industry, and investors in energy technologies. The topics are approached from a global perspective. In some technological details, however, Finnish technology and Finland's technological achievements are highlighted. The topics and viewpoints of the book will certainly be of interest to international readers as well
Gina Day, OD
Full Text Available Background: Some post-LASIK patients complain of blurry distance vision months after refractive surgery, despite good corneal healing and negligible refractive error. We postulated that perceiving blur in the absence of refractive error or significant monocular aberrations might result from poor binocular control. Binocular vision testing in a series of such patients revealed convergence problems in 83% of cases. Case Reports: We report on 8 patients (average age 37.4 yrs who completed up to 40 sessions of vision therapy (VT, either completely via computer or in a combination of computer orthoptics and office vision therapy. Seven patients had received LASIK; one had PRK. Optometric measurements and symptoms were recorded before and after VT treatment, starting at least 3 months after refractive surgery. Near point of convergence improved in 7 cases following VT, and convergence break and/or recovery improved in 6 cases. Six cases reported symptom reduction, and pre-presbyopic cases tended to improve accommodative facility. The number of binocular functions showing improvement per case correlated with the number of VT sessions completed. Convergence changes were statistically significant when pre-/post-VT data were compared for these cases as a group. Conclusion: Patients complaining of distance blur following refractive surgery may have undiagnosed binocular vision problems. VT incorporating an internet orthoptics component improved convergence ability in the cases reported here, and most patients reported symptomatic relief.
Kim, Young Eun; Remme, Jan H F; Steinmann, Peter; Stolk, Wilma A; Roungou, Jean-Baptiste; Tediosi, Fabrizio
River blindness (onchocerciasis) causes severe itching, skin lesions, and vision impairment including blindness. More than 99% of all current cases are found in sub-Saharan Africa. Fortunately, vector control and community-directed treatment with ivermectin have significantly reduced morbidity. Studies in Mali and Senegal proved the feasibility of elimination with ivermectin administration. The treatment goal is shifting from control to elimination in endemic African regions. Given limited resources, national and global policymakers need a rigorous analysis comparing investment options. For this, we developed scenarios for alternative treatment goals and compared treatment timelines and drug needs between the scenarios. Control, elimination, and eradication scenarios were developed with reference to current standard practices, large-scale studies, and historical data. For each scenario, the timeline when treatment is expected to stop at country level was predicted using a dynamical transmission model, and ivermectin treatment needs were predicted based on population in endemic areas, treatment coverage data, and the frequency of community-directed treatment. The control scenario requires community-directed treatment with ivermectin beyond 2045 with around 2.63 billion treatments over 2013-2045; the elimination scenario, until 2028 in areas where feasible, but beyond 2045 in countries with operational challenges, around 1.48 [corrected] billion treatments; and the eradication scenario, lasting until 2040, around 1.30 billion treatments. The eradication scenario is the most favorable in terms of the timeline of the intervention phase and treatment needs. For its realization, strong health systems and political will are required to overcome epidemiological and political challenges.
Young Eun Kim
Full Text Available River blindness (onchocerciasis causes severe itching, skin lesions, and vision impairment including blindness. More than 99% of all current cases are found in sub-Saharan Africa. Fortunately, vector control and community-directed treatment with ivermectin have significantly reduced morbidity. Studies in Mali and Senegal proved the feasibility of elimination with ivermectin administration. The treatment goal is shifting from control to elimination in endemic African regions. Given limited resources, national and global policymakers need a rigorous analysis comparing investment options. For this, we developed scenarios for alternative treatment goals and compared treatment timelines and drug needs between the scenarios. Control, elimination, and eradication scenarios were developed with reference to current standard practices, large-scale studies, and historical data. For each scenario, the timeline when treatment is expected to stop at country level was predicted using a dynamical transmission model, and ivermectin treatment needs were predicted based on population in endemic areas, treatment coverage data, and the frequency of community-directed treatment. The control scenario requires community-directed treatment with ivermectin beyond 2045 with around 2.63 billion treatments over 2013-2045; the elimination scenario, until 2028 in areas where feasible, but beyond 2045 in countries with operational challenges, around 1.48 [corrected] billion treatments; and the eradication scenario, lasting until 2040, around 1.30 billion treatments. The eradication scenario is the most favorable in terms of the timeline of the intervention phase and treatment needs. For its realization, strong health systems and political will are required to overcome epidemiological and political challenges.
Anna T Do
Full Text Available Context: In India, where the heavy burden of visual impairment exists, low vision services are scarce and under-utilized. Aims: Our study was designed to survey the effectiveness of low vision exams and visual aids in improving patient quality of life in southern rural India. Subjects and Methods: The low vision quality of life (LVQOL questionnaire measures vision-related quality of life through 25 questions on a Likert scale of 0-5 that pertain to (1 mobility, distance vision, and lighting; (2 psychological adjustment; (3 reading and fine work; and (4 activities of daily living. This tool was translated into Tamil and verbally administered to 55 new low vision referral patients before their first visit at the low vision clinic at Aravind Eye Hospital. Low vision aids (LVAs were prescribed at the discretion of the low vision specialist. 1-month later, the same questionnaire was administered over the phone. Results: About 44 of 55 low vision patients completed baseline and follow-up LVQOL surveys, and 30 normal vision controls matched for age, gender, and education were also surveyed (average 117.34 points. After the low vision clinic visit, the low vision group demonstrated a 4.55-point improvement in quality of life (from 77.77 to 82.33 points, P = 0.001. Adjusting for age, gender, and education, the low vision patients who also received LVAs (n = 24 experienced an even larger increase than those who did not (n = 20 (8.89 points, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Low vision services and visual aids can improve the quality of life in South Indian rural population regardless of age, gender, and education level. Thus, all low vision patients who meet the criteria should be referred for evaluation.
A comprehensive LANDSAT related resource inventory was performed in parts of Ghana, Benin, and Upper Volta to determine resource development potential in areas freed of the disease onchocerciasis. The ultimate success of the project lies in the effective use of the data by host country personnel in resource development projects. This requires project follow-through, adequate training of regional counterparts, and integration of the data into an easily used framework. Present levels of support systems and technical expertise in West Africa indicate that an automated system for natural resource data is not currently appropriate. Suggestions for the greater implementation of such inventories are explored.
晁衍凯; 徐昱琳; 周勇飞; 吕晓梦; 王明
In order to interact with complex and changeable environments,finish the recognition and grab for object,a humanoid robot arm control method based on binocular vision is presented that employed in service robot.Manipulator is modeled by D-H method in this paper,the model is improved,a sample inverse arithmetic of humanoid manipulator is presented.The target object is recognized by color segmentation and the 3D position is computed by the stereo vision system.After positioning the target,a blind grasp is performed by the manipulator.Experimental results are conducted for illustration of effectiveness of the proposed methods,and the service robot can recognize and grab the object.%为了更好地与复杂多变的非结构化环境进行交互,完成对目标物体的识别和抓取,提出了一种应用于服务机器人平台的基于双目视觉的仿人机械臂控制方法.文中首先用D-H方法对机械臂进行建模,并对这个模型做了改进,给出了一种更加简便的3+1自由度仿人机械臂的逆解算法,采用基于双目视觉与颜色分割的目标识别方法;然后根据识别出的目标三维坐标信息控制机械臂完成抓取任务;最后,本方法在家庭服务机器人上得到了验证,机器人能够完成对目标物体的识别和抓取动作.
Nabeel A. Riza
Full Text Available Proposed is a novel eye vision testing system based on micromachines that uses micro-optic, micromechanic, and microelectronic technologies. The micromachines include a programmable micro-optic lens and aperture control devices, pico-projectors, Radio Frequency (RF, optical wireless communication and control links, and energy harvesting and storage devices with remote wireless energy transfer capabilities. The portable lightweight system can measure eye refractive powers, optimize light conditions for the eye under testing, conduct color-blindness tests, and implement eye strain relief and eye muscle exercises via time sequenced imaging. A basic eye vision test system is built in the laboratory for near-sighted (myopic vision spherical lens refractive error correction. Refractive error corrections from zero up to −5.0 Diopters and −2.0 Diopters are experimentally demonstrated using the Electronic-Lens (E-Lens and aperture control methods, respectively. The proposed portable eye vision test system is suited for children’s eye tests and developing world eye centers where technical expertise may be limited. Design of a novel low-cost human vision corrective eyewear is also presented based on the proposed aperture control concept. Given its simplistic and economical design, significant impact can be created for humans with vision problems in the under-developed world.
Full Text Available Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test to test subject's ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test to measure subject's colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to
Brasil, Alódia; Castro, Antônio José O.; Martins, Isabelle Christine V. S.; Lacerda, Eliza Maria C. B.; Souza, Givago S.; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Rosa, Alexandre Antônio M.; Rodrigues, Anderson R.; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L.
Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test) to test subject’s ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test) to measure subject’s colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to neurotoxicants. PMID
Brasil, Alódia; Castro, Antônio José O; Martins, Isabelle Christine V S; Lacerda, Eliza Maria C B; Souza, Givago S; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Rosa, Alexandre Antônio M; Rodrigues, Anderson R; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L
Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test) to test subject's ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test) to measure subject's colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to neurotoxicants.
Horne, Lachlan; Barnes, Nick; McCarthy, Chris; He, Xuming
Current and near-term implantable prosthetic vision systems offer the potential to restore some visual function, but suffer from poor resolution and dynamic range of induced phosphenes. This can make it difficult for users of prosthetic vision systems to identify symbolic information (such as signs) except in controlled conditions. Using image segmentation techniques from computer vision, we show it is possible to improve the clarity of such symbolic information for users of prosthetic vision implants in uncontrolled conditions. We use image segmentation to automatically divide a natural image into regions, and using a fixation point controlled by the user, select a region to phosphenize. This technique improves the apparent contrast and clarity of symbolic information over traditional phosphenization approaches.
A discussion of applications of machine vision technology in the semiconductor, electronic, automotive, wood, food, pharmaceutical, printing, and container industries. It describes systems that enable projects to move forward swiftly and efficiently, and focuses on the nuances of the engineering and system integration of machine vision technology.
Gevarter, W. B.
An overview of computer vision is provided. Image understanding and scene analysis are emphasized, and pertinent aspects of pattern recognition are treated. The basic approach to computer vision systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the current existing systems and state-of-the-art issues and research requirements, who is doing it and who is funding it, and future trends and expectations are reviewed.
Batchelor, B. G.; Waltz, F. M.; Snyder, M. A.
The cost of design, rather than that of target system hardware, represents the principal factor inhibiting the adoption of machine vision systems by manufacturing industry. To reduce design costs to a minimum, a number of software and hardware aids have been developed or are currently being built by the authors. These design aids are as follows: a. An expert system for giving advice about which image acquisition techniques (i.e. lighting/viewing techniques) might be appropriate in a given situation. b. A program to assist in the selection and setup of camera lenses. c. A rich repertoire of image processing procedures, integrated with the Al language Prolog. This combination (called ProVision) provides a facility for experimenting with intelligent image processing techniques and is intended to allow rapid prototyping of algorithms and/or heuristics. d. Fast image processing hardware, capable of implementing commands in the ProVision language. The speed of operation of this equipment is sufficiently high for it to be used, without modification, in many industrial applications. Where this is not possible, even higher execution speed may be achieved by adding extra modules to the processing hardware. In this way, it is possible to trade speed against the cost of the target system hardware. New and faster implementations of a given algorithm/heuristic can usually be achieved with the expenditure of only a small effort. Throughout this article, the emphasis is on designing an industrial vision system in a smooth and effortless manner. In order to illustrate our main thesis that the design of industrial vision systems can be made very much easier through the use of suitable utilities, the article concludes with a discussion of a case study: the dissection of tiny plants using a visually controlled robot.
Demer, J L; Crane, B T
This article summarizes six recent degree-of-freedom studies of visual-vestibular interaction during natural activities and relates the findings to canal-otolith interactions evaluated during eccentric axis rotations. Magnetic search coils were used to measure angular eye and head movements of young and elderly subjects. A flux gate magnetometer was used to measure three-dimensional head translation. Three activities were studied: standing quietly, walking in place, and running in place. Each activity was evaluated with three viewing conditions: a visible target viewed normally, a remembered target in darkness, and a visible target viewed with x2 binocular telescopic spectacles. Canal-otolith interaction was assessed with passive, whole-body, transient, and steady-state rotations in pitch and yaw at multiple frequencies about axes that were either oculocentric or eccentric to the eyes. For each rotational axis, subjects regarded visible and remembered targets located at various distances. Horizontal and vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes were demonstrable in all subjects during standing, walking, and running. When only angular gains were considered, gains in both darkness and during normal vision were less than 1.0 and were generally lower in elderly than in young subjects. Magnified vision with x2 telescopic spectacles produced only small gain increases as compared with normal vision. During walking and running all subjects exhibited significant mediolateral and dorsoventral head translations that were antiphase locked to yaw and pitch head movements, respectively. These head translations and rotations have mutually compensating effects on gaze in a target plane for typical viewing distances and allow angular vestibulo-ocular reflex gains of less than 1.0 to be optimal for gaze stabilization during natural activities. During passive, whole-body eccentric pitch and yaw head rotations, vestibulo-ocular reflex gain was modulated as appropriate to stabilize
Full Text Available In order to derive the three-dimensional camera position from the monocular camera vision, a geo-reference database is needed. Floor plan is a ubiquitous geo-reference database that every building refers to it during construction and facility maintenance. Comparing with other popular geo-reference database such as geo-tagged photos, the generation, update and maintenance of floor plan database does not require costly and time consuming survey tasks. In vision based methods, the camera needs special attention. In contrast to other sensors, vision sensors typically yield vast information that needs complex strategies to permit use in real-time and on computationally con-strained platforms. This research work show that map-based visual odometer strategy derived from a state-of-the-art structure-from-motion framework is particularly suitable for locally stable, pose controlled flight. Issues concerning drifts and robustness are analyzed and discussed with respect to the original framework. Additionally, various usage of localization algorithm in view of vision has been proposed here. Though, a noteworthy downside with vision-based algorithms is the absence of robustness. The greater parts of the methodologies are delicate to scene varieties (like season or environment changes because of the way that they utilize the Sum of Squared Differences (SSD. To stop that, we utilize the Mutual Information which is exceptionally vigorous toward global and local scene varieties. On the other hand, dense methodologies are frequently identified with drift drawbacks. Here, attempt to take care of this issue by utilizing geo-referenced pictures. The algorithm of localization has been executed and experimental results are available. Vision sensors possess the potential to extract information about the surrounding environment and determine the locations of features or points of interest. Having mapped out landmarks in an unknown environment, subsequent observations
刘杰; 武丽; 赵永利
Vision path identification technology is a trend of car's development in the future. In design of the srnart car control system,the MC9S12XS128MAA is used as the MCU. The software and hardware of autonomous navigation design is realized by using CMOS camera as the path navigation data acquisition module. Variety of algorithm extracting navigation path information including edge tracking, by reasonable control algorithm steering gear and the drive motor, enabling smart car drive steadily and rapidly. It shows that the design program has good control effect.%视觉路径识别技术是汽车智能化发展的必然趋势.在基于MC9S12XS128MAA单片机为主控制器的智能车控制系统设计中,探索采用CMOS摄像头作为路径导航数据采集单元,实现自主导航的软硬件设计方案.通过边缘追踪等多种算法提取导航路径信息,对舵机和驱动控制电机分别采用合理的控制算法,使得智能车平稳快速地行驶.研究表明:此方案可以使智能车获得较好的控制效果.
Blanes Noguera, Francisco; Muñoz Benavent, Pau; Muñoz Alcobendas, Manuel; Simó Ten, José Enrique; CORONEL PARADA, JAVIER OSVALDO; Albero Gil, Miguel
[EN] Computer vision is one of the most challenging applications in sensor systems since the signal is complex from spatial and logical point of view. Due to these characteristics vision applications require high computing resources, which makes them especially difficult to use in embedded systems, like mobile robots with reduced amount memory and computing power. In this work a distributed architecture for humanoid visual control is presented using specific nodes ...
Defigueiredo, R. J. P.; Maccato, A.; Wlczek, P.; Denney, B.; Scheerer, J.
A robotic system that accepts autonomously generated motion and control commands is described. The system provides images from the monocular vision of a camera mounted on a robot's end effector, eliminating the need for traditional guidance targets that must be predetermined and specifically identified. The telerobotic vision system presents different views of the targeted object relative to the camera, based on a single camera image and knowledge of the target's solid geometry.
Zhou, Zhenqing; Vinberg, Frans; Schottler, Frank; Doggett, Teresa A; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Ferguson, Thomas A
Cones comprise only a small portion of the photoreceptors in mammalian retinas. However, cones are vital for color vision and visual perception, and their loss severely diminishes the quality of life for patients with retinal degenerative diseases. Cones function in bright light and have higher demand for energy than rods; yet, the mechanisms that support the energy requirements of cones are poorly understood. One such pathway that potentially could sustain cones under basal and stress conditions is macroautophagy. We addressed the role of macroautophagy in cones by examining how the genetic block of this pathway affects the structural integrity, survival, and function of these neurons. We found that macroautophagy was not detectable in cones under normal conditions but was readily observed following 24 h of fasting. Consistent with this, starvation induced phosphorylation of AMPK specifically in cones indicating cellular starvation. Inhibiting macroautophagy in cones by deleting the essential macroautophagy gene Atg5 led to reduced cone function following starvation suggesting that cones are sensitive to systemic changes in nutrients and activate macroautophagy to maintain their function. ATG5-deficiency rendered cones susceptible to light-induced damage and caused accumulation of damaged mitochondria in the inner segments, shortening of the outer segments, and degeneration of all cone types, revealing the importance of mitophagy in supporting cone metabolic needs. Our results demonstrate that macroautophagy supports the function and long-term survival of cones providing for their unique metabolic requirements and resistance to stress. Targeting macroautophagy has the potential to preserve cone-mediated vision during retinal degenerative diseases.
Silicon charge-coupled-device (CCD) imagers have been and are a specialty market ruled by a few companies for decades. Based on CMOS technologies, active-pixel sensors (APS) began to appear in 1990 at the 1 μm technology node. These pixels allow random access, global shutters, and they are compatible with focal-plane imaging systems combining sensing and first-level image processing. The progress towards smaller features and towards ultra-low leakage currents has provided reduced dark currents and μm-size pixels. All chips offer Mega-pixel resolution, and many have very high sensitivities equivalent to ASA 12.800. As a result, HDTV video cameras will become a commodity. Because charge-integration sensors suffer from a limited dynamic range, significant processing effort is spent on multiple exposure and piece-wise analog-digital conversion to reach ranges >10,000:1. The fundamental alternative is log-converting pixels with an eye-like response. This offers a range of almost a million to 1, constant contrast sensitivity and constant colors, important features in professional, technical and medical applications. 3D retino-morphic stacking of sensing and processing on top of each other is being revisited with sub-100 nm CMOS circuits and with TSV technology. With sensor outputs directly on top of neurons, neural focal-plane processing will regain momentum, and new levels of intelligent vision will be achieved. The industry push towards thinned wafers and TSV enables backside-illuminated and other pixels with a 100% fill-factor. 3D vision, which relies on stereo or on time-of-flight, high-speed circuitry, will also benefit from scaled-down CMOS technologies both because of their size as well as their higher speed.
采摘机器人拥有自主收集信息并进行有效判断的能力，可以独立完成对果实的采摘作业，对满足水果种植需求、减小水果种植的劳动力投入及降低生产成本有着很重要的实际应用价值。为此，以嵌入式 ARM 智控系统为基础平台，设计了采摘机器人视觉测量与避障控制系统。该系统集机器视觉、视觉传感感知、伺服电机驱动和ARM智控模块于一体，建立了采摘机器人采摘运动学的数学模型，并通过 BP 网络神经型迭代学习算法测量果实的距离和球心坐标，对成熟果实进行精准识别和定位采摘。试验结果表明：采摘机器人能准确地进行自主采摘，成功率比较高，躲避障碍物的能力很强，更适合在复杂未知的果园中进行收获作业。%Harvesting robot has the ability to collect information and carry out effective judgment .It can be used to com-plete the picking of fruit .It is very important to have a very important practical application value for fruit growing de-mand, reducing the labor input and reducing production cost .This paper takes the embedded intelligence control system as the basic platform to design and research the picking robot vision measurement and obstacle avoidance control system , the system in machine vision , sensory perception , servo motor drive and arm intellectual control module in one , estab-lished picking picking robot kinematics mathematical model , and through BP neural network type iterative learning algo-rithm for measuring fruit distance and center coordinates , to mature fruits were accurate identification and localization of picking .The experimental results show that the picking robot can carry out self picking accurately , the success rate is relatively high , and the ability of avoiding obstacles is also very strong , and it is more suitable for harvesting operations in complex unknown orchard .
Mcanulty, M. A.
The orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) is intended to close with orbiting targets for relocation or servicing. It will be controlled via video signals and thruster activation based upon Earth or space station directives. A human operator is squarely in the middle of the control loop for close work. Without directly addressing future, more autonomous versions of a remote servicer, several techniques that will doubtless be important in a future increase of autonomy also have some direct application to the current situation, particularly in the area of image enhancement and predictive analysis. Several techniques are presentet, and some few have been implemented, which support a machine vision capability proposed to be adequate for detection, recognition, and tracking. Once feasibly implemented, they must then be further modified to operate together in real time. This may be achieved by two courses, the use of an array processor and some initial steps toward data reduction. The methodology or adapting to a vector architecture is discussed in preliminary form, and a highly tentative rationale for data reduction at the front end is also discussed. As a by-product, a working implementation of the most advanced graphic display technique, ray-casting, is described.
Kelly L. Johnston
Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are debilitating diseases caused by parasitic filarial nematodes infecting around 150 million people throughout the tropics with more than 1.5 billion at risk. As with other neglected tropical diseases, classical drug-discovery and development is lacking and a 50 year programme of macrofilaricidal discovery failed to deliver a drug which can be used as a public health tool. Recently, antibiotic targeting of filarial Wolbachia, an essential bacterial symbiont, has provided a novel drug treatment for filariasis with macrofilaricidal activity, although the current gold-standard, doxycycline, is unsuitable for use in mass drug administration (MDA. The anti-Wolbachia (A·WOL Consortium aims to identify novel anti-Wolbachia drugs, compounds or combinations that are suitable for use in MDA. Development of a Wolbachia cell-based assay has enabled the screening of the approved human drug-pharmacopoeia (∼2600 drugs for a potential repurposing. This screening strategy has revealed that approved drugs from various classes show significant bacterial load reduction equal to or superior to the gold-standard doxycycline, with 69 orally available hits from different drug categories being identified. Based on our defined hit criteria, 15 compounds were then selectively screened in a Litomosoides sigmodontis mouse model, 4 of which were active. These came from the tetracycline, fluoroquinolone and rifamycin classes. This strategy of repurposing approved drugs is a promising development in the goal of finding a novel treatment against filariasis and could also be a strategy applicable for other neglected tropical diseases.
Full Text Available Background: The dramatic increase in the incidence and prevalence of neurological disorder like stroke has always demanded the need of new interventions in limiting the disability outcome. Disturbed balance is one of the common difficulties in stroke subjects. Several researches have conducted with the process of limiting the disability but still not controlled fully. The objective of the study is to find out the effect of balance exercise with deprivation of visual feedback in stroke subjects. Method: Total number of thirty subjects participated in the study. The duration of study was four weeks with five sittings in a week and with duration of sixty minutes in each training session. Data was collected using Berg balance scale and the get up and go test, statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon’s signed rank test and paired T-test. Result: The mean value of timed get up and go test in group A was 16.93 with a standard deviation of ±3.86. The t-value of the study was 2.63 with P-value of 0.007.The study found significant difference in effect as the calculated P < 0.05. The results showed that the conventional therapy along with masked vision could bring about significant changes in balance, mobility and function of patients suffering from balance impairment among post stroke. The data analysis found the significant difference between the visions deprived balance training to that of free vision balance training. Conclusion: Subjects with masked vision showed better outcomes on balance and get up and go test. Balance performance and movement was found better in subjects with deprived vision than those with free vision.
Bittner, Ava K; Wykstra, Stephanie L; Yoshinaga, Patrick D; Li, Tianjing
Background Low vision affects over 300 million people worldwide and can compromise both activities of daily living and quality of life. Rehabilitative training and vision assistive equipment (VAE) may help, but some visually impaired people have limited resources to attend in-person visits at rehabilitation clinics. These people may be able to overcome barriers to care through remote, Internet-based consultation (i.e., telerehabilitation). Objectives To compare the effects of telerehabilitation with face-to-face (e.g., in-office or inpatient) vision rehabilitation services for improving vision-related quality of life and reading speed in people with visual function loss due to any ocular condition. Secondary objectives are to evaluate compliance with scheduled rehabilitation sessions, abandonment rates for visual assistive equipment devices, and patient satisfaction ratings. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015 Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1980 to June 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2015), PubMed (1980 to June 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any language restriction or study design filter in the electronic searches; however, we restricted the searches from 1980 onwards because the Internet was not introduced to the public until 1982. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 June 2015. Selection criteria We planned to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs) in which participants were diagnosed with low vision and were undergoing low vision rehabilitation using an Internet, web-based technology compared with an approach based on in-person consultations. Data collection and analysis Two
Kennedy, Andrew; Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Hansen, Steve; Reid, Connor; Tremblay, Luc
The efficiency of online visuomotor processes was investigated by manipulating vision based on real-time upper limb velocity. Participants completed rapid reaches under two control (full vision, no vision) and three experimental visual window conditions. The experimental visual windows were early: 0.8-1.4 m/s, middle: above 1.4 m/s, and late: 1.4 to 0.8 m/s. The results indicated that endpoint consistency comparable to that of full-vision trials was observed when using vision from the early (43 ms) and middle (89 ms) windows, but vision from the middle window entailed a longer deceleration phase (i.e., a temporal cost). The late window was not useful to implement online trajectory amendments. This study provides further support for the idea of early visuomotor control, which may involve multiple online control processes during voluntary movement.
Full Text Available The future dispersal of onchocerciasis in Ecuador is dependent on the distribution of cytotypes of the vector species complex Simulium exiguum. Over the last 14 years, collections of larvae have been made from over 25 rivers, between 80-1600 m altitude, from various sites on both sides of the Andes. Analysis of larval polytene chromosomes was used to determine the distributions of each cytotype. On the western side of the Andes, the Cayapa cytotype (the only cytotype directly incriminated as a vector has a distribution from Santo Domingo de los Colorados northwards. The Quevedo and Bucay cytotypes occur from Santo Domingo de los Colorados southwards. On the eastern side of the Andes, the Aguarico cytotype occurs in the Rio Aguarico and a new cytotype is present in the tributaries of the Rio Napo. Whether the disease will spread south of Santo Domingo and on the eastern side of the Andes depends on vector capacity of the cytotypes and the dispersal patterns of individuals infected with onchocerciasis. At present the Aguarico, Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes are known to be efficient hosts, but their biting preferences and biting densities have not yet been evaluated
Grillet, M E; Basáñez, M G; Vivas-Martínez, S; Villamizar, N; Frontado, H; Cortez, J; Coronel, P; Botto, C
We investigated some entomological factors underlying altitudinal prevalence variation in the Venezuelan Amazonia human onchocerciasis focus. Spatial and temporal variation in relative abundance, daily biting rate, proportion of parous flies, and monthly parous biting rate were studied for the three main simuliid vectors (based on their vectorial competence: Simulium oyapockense s.l. Floch & Abonnenc approximately = S. incrustatum Lutz variables included monthly rainfall and maximum river height. Simuliid species composition itself varied along the altitudinal and prevalence gradient. S. oyapockense s.l. prevailed below 150 m. Above this altitude and up to 240 m, S. incrustatum and S. guianense s.l. became more frequently and evenly collected along A but not along B, where S. incrustatum remained absent. The daily biting rate of S. oyapockense s.l. was higher during the dry season along A, whereas the converse took place along B. Daily biting rate of S. incrustatum was lowest during early rains. By contrast, the daily biting rate of S. guianense s.l. was highest during this period. There was a significant negative cross-correlation between proportion of parous of S. oyapockense s.l. and river height (2 and 3 mo lagged), whereas this variable (1 and 2 mo lagged) was positively correlated with the proportion of parous flies for S. incrustatum. Monthly parous biting rate values suggest that the months contributing most to onchocerciasis transmission in the area are likely to be the dry season and the transition periods between seasons.
This document provides presentations and summaries of the notes from the National Hydrogen Vision Meeting''s facilitated breakout sessions. The Vision Meeting, which took place November 15-16, 2001, kicked off the public-private partnership that will pave the way to a more secure and cleaner energy future for America. These proceedings were compiled into a formal report, A National Vision of America''s Transition to a Hydrogen Economy - To 2030 and Beyond, which is also available online.
Chen, Kan; Stafford, Frank P.
A case study of machine vision was conducted to identify and analyze the employment effects of high technology in general. (Machine vision is the automatic acquisition and analysis of an image to obtain desired information for use in controlling an industrial activity, such as the visual sensor system that gives eyes to a robot.) Machine vision as…