WorldWideScience

Sample records for on-line self-calibrating single

  1. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the first six months of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on analyzing and testing factors that impact performance degradation of the initially designed sensor prototype, including sensing element movement within the sensing probe and optical signal quality degradation. Based these results, a new version of the sensing system was designed by combining the sapphire disk sensing element and the single crystal zirconia right angle light reflector into one novel single crystal sapphire right angle prism. The new sensor prototype was tested up to 1650 C.

  2. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the second six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on evaluating corrosion effects in single crystal sapphire at temperatures up to 1400 C, and designing the sensor mechanical packaging with input from Wabash River Power Plant. Upcoming meetings will establish details for the gasifier field test.

  3. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang; Yizheng Zhu

    2005-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2004-March 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report.

  4. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang

    2007-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.

  5. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang

    2004-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the third six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on sensor probe design and machining, sensor electronics design, software algorithm design, sensor field installation procedures, and sensor remote data access and control. Field testing will begin in the next several weeks.

  6. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang

    2007-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.

  7. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang; Yizheng Zhu

    2005-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2004-March 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report.

  8. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  9. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  10. A Self-Calibrating Multi-Band Region Growing Approach to Segmentation of Single and Multi-Band Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paglieroni, D W

    2002-12-20

    Image segmentation transforms pixel-level information from raw images to a higher level of abstraction in which related pixels are grouped into disjoint spatial regions. Such regions typically correspond to natural or man-made objects or structures, natural variations in land cover, etc. For many image interpretation tasks (such as land use assessment, automatic target cueing, defining relationships between objects, etc.), segmentation can be an important early step. Remotely sensed images (e.g., multi-spectral and hyperspectral images) often contain many spectral bands (i.e., multiple layers of 2D images). Multi-band images are important because they contain more information than single-band images. Objects or natural variations that are readily apparent in certain spectral bands may be invisible in 2D broadband images. In this paper, the classical region growing approach to image segmentation is generalized from single to multi-band images. While it is widely recognized that the quality of image segmentation is affected by which segmentation algorithm is used, this paper shows that algorithm parameter values can have an even more profound effect. A novel self-calibration framework is developed for automatically selecting parameter values that produce segmentations that most closely resemble a calibration edge map (derived separately using a simple edge detector). Although the framework is generic in the sense that it can imbed any core segmentation algorithm, this paper only demonstrates self-calibration with multi-band region growing. The framework is applied to a variety of AVIRIS image blocks at different spectral resolutions, in an effort to assess the impact of spectral resolution on segmentation quality. The image segmentations are assessed quantitatively, and it is shown that segmentation quality does not generally appear to be highly correlated with spectral resolution.

  11. Self-Calibrating Pressure Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueck, Dale E. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A self-calibrating pressure transducer is disclosed. The device uses an embedded zirconia membrane which pumps a determined quantity of oxygen into the device. The associated pressure can be determined, and thus, the transducer pressure readings can be calibrated. The zirconia membrane obtains oxygen .from the surrounding environment when possible. Otherwise, an oxygen reservoir or other source is utilized. In another embodiment, a reversible fuel cell assembly is used to pump oxygen and hydrogen into the system. Since a known amount of gas is pumped across the cell, the pressure produced can be determined, and thus, the device can be calibrated. An isolation valve system is used to allow the device to be calibrated in situ. Calibration is optionally automated so that calibration can be continuously monitored. The device is preferably a fully integrated MEMS device. Since the device can be calibrated without removing it from the process, reductions in costs and down time are realized.

  12. A robust method for online stereo camera self-calibration in unmanned vehicle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Chihara, Nobuhiro; Guo, Tao; Kimura, Nobutaka

    2014-06-01

    Self-calibration is a fundamental technology used to estimate the relative posture of the cameras for environment recognition in unmanned system. We focused on the issue of recognition accuracy decrease caused by the vibration of platform and conducted this research to achieve on-line self-calibration using feature point's registration and robust estimation of fundamental matrix. Three key factors in this respect are needed to be improved. Firstly, the feature mismatching exists resulting in the decrease of estimation accuracy of relative posture. The second, the conventional estimation method cannot satisfy both the estimation speed and calibration accuracy at the same tame. The third, some system intrinsic noises also lead greatly to the deviation of estimation results. In order to improve the calibration accuracy, estimation speed and system robustness for the practical implementation, we discuss and analyze the algorithms to make improvements on the stereo camera system to achieve on-line self-calibration. Based on the epipolar geometry and 3D images parallax, two geometry constraints are proposed to make the corresponding feature points search performed in a small search-range resulting in the improvement of matching accuracy and searching speed. Then, two conventional estimation algorithms are analyzed and evaluated for estimation accuracy and robustness. The third, Rigorous posture calculation method is proposed with consideration of the relative posture deviation of each separated parts in the stereo camera system. Validation experiments were performed with the stereo camera mounted on the Pen-Tilt Unit for accurate rotation control and the evaluation shows that our proposed method is fast and of high accuracy with high robustness for on-line self-calibration algorithm. Thus, as the main contribution, we proposed methods to solve the on-line self-calibration fast and accurately, envision the possibility for practical implementation on unmanned system as

  13. Self-calibrating Quantum State Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Branczyk, Agata M; Rozema, Lee A; Darabi, Ardavan; Steinberg, Aephraim M; James, Daniel F V

    2011-01-01

    We introduce and experimentally demonstrate a technique for performing quantum state tomography on multiple-qubit states using unknown unitary operations to perform measurements in different bases. Using our method, it is possible to reconstruct the density matrix of the state up to local sigma-z rotations as well as recover the magnitude of the unknown rotation angle. We demonstrate high-fidelity self-calibrating tomography on polarization-encoded one- and two-photon states. The unknown unitary operations are realized in two ways: using a birefringent polymer sheet--an inexpensive smartphone screen protector--or alternatively a liquid crystal wave plate with a tuneable retardance.

  14. Study of self-calibrating MEMS accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiping; Li, Xiangyu; Liu, Xiaowei; Yin, Liang

    2015-04-01

    Micro-electromechanical System(MEMS) accelerometers are widely used in a number of inertial navigation systems and vibration detection system thanks to their small size, low cost and low power consumption. In order to improve their performance, the accelerometers have been designed to compensate the zero-bias caused by process variations. A new method of self-calibration sensitivity applies a self-test structure to simulate standard acceleration; depending on the standard and real-time values of the accelerometer's output and by adjustment of the time division feedback, the scale factor of capacitive accelerometers can be flexibly adjusted to achieve sensitivity in self-calibrating MEMS accelerometers. Moreover, this research also uses the following: a PID feedback structure to improve the stability of the closed-loop system; a correlated double sampling (CDS) circuit to attenuate noise, which can eliminate zero drift caused by offset voltage of the pre-amplifier; a time division multiplexing electrostatic force feedback circuit to achieve the operation of a closed-loop micro-accelerometer. The structure can completely avoid electrostatic feedback coupling with a capacitance change detection circuit, which can also improve the bandwidth and stability of the accelerometer. By means of capacitance compensation array the zero-bias performance of accelerometers can be improved. The bias stability of the accelerometer can be reduced from 173mg to 31mg by testing.

  15. Self-Calibrating Surface Measuring Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Allen H.

    1983-04-01

    A new kind of surface-measuring machine has been developed under government contract at Itek Optical Systems, a Division of Itek Corporation, to assist in the fabrication of large, highly aspheric optical elements. The machine uses four steerable distance-measuring interferometers at the corners of a tetrahedron to measure the positions of a retroreflective target placed at various locations against the surface being measured. Using four interferometers gives redundant information so that, from a set of measurement data, the dimensions of the machine as well as the coordinates of the measurement points can be determined. The machine is, therefore, self-calibrating and does not require a structure made to high accuracy. A wood-structured prototype of this machine was made whose key components are a simple form of air bearing steering mirror, a wide-angle cat's eye retroreflector used as the movable target, and tracking sensors and servos to provide automatic tracking of the cat's eye by the four laser beams. The data are taken and analyzed by computer. The output is given in terms of error relative to an equation of the desired surface. In tests of this machine, measurements of a 0.7 m diameter mirror blank have been made with an accuracy on the order of 0.2µm rms.

  16. A new on-line luminometer and beam conditions monitor using single crystal diamond sensors

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Instrumentation near the beam-pipe requires extremely radiation hard sensors. Inside CMS two rings instrumented with 12 single crystal diamond sensors each are installed on both sides of the interaction point. The sensors are subdivided in two pads, and each pad is read out by a dedicated fast radiation hard ASIC in 130 nm CMOS technology. Due to the excellent time resolution collision products will be separated from machine induced background. In the backend a dead-time less histogramming unit is used, and a fast microTCA system with GHz sampling rate is under development. The detector will measure both the on-line luminosity and the background bunch-by-bunch. The performance of a prototype detector in a test-beam will be reported, and results from the operation during data taking will be presented.

  17. A new on-line luminometer and beam conditions monitor using single crystal diamond sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Karacheban, Olena

    2015-01-01

    Instrumentation near the beam-pipe requires extremely radiation hardsensors. Inside CMS two rings instrumented with 12 single crystal diamondsensors each are installed on both sides of the interaction point. Thesensors are subdivided in two pads, and each pad is read out by adedicated fast radiation hard ASIC in 130 nm CMOS technology.Due to the excellent time resolution collision products will be separatedfrom machine induced background. In the backend a dead-time lesshistogramming unit is udsed, and a fast microTCA system with GHz samplingrate is under development.The detector will measure both the on-line luminosity and the backgroundbunch-by-bunch.The performance of a prototype detector in a test-beam will be reported,and results from the operation during data taking will be presented.

  18. Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase 2 SBIR proposal describes the design, fabrication and calibration of a brass-board Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM). The SVHM instrument...

  19. Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposal describes proposed development of a conceptual design for a Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM) for design and fabrication...

  20. Self-calibrating view-invariant gait biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, Michela; Bouchrika, Imed; Carter, John N; Nixon, Mark S

    2010-08-01

    We present a new method for viewpoint independent gait biometrics. The system relies on a single camera, does not require camera calibration, and works with a wide range of camera views. This is achieved by a formulation where the gait is self-calibrating. These properties make the proposed method particularly suitable for identification by gait, where the advantages of completely unobtrusiveness, remoteness, and covertness of the biometric system preclude the availability of camera information and specific walking directions. The approach has been assessed for feature extraction and recognition capabilities on the SOTON gait database and then evaluated on a multiview database to establish recognition capability with respect to view invariance. Moreover, tests on the multiview CASIA-B database, composed of more than 2270 video sequences with 65 different subjects walking freely along different walking directions, have been performed. The obtained results show that human identification by gait can be achieved without any knowledge of internal or external camera parameters with a mean correct classification rate of 73.6% across all views using purely dynamic gait features. The performance of the proposed method is particularly encouraging for application in surveillance scenarios.

  1. Self-calibration algorithm in an asynchronous P300-based brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettini, F.; Aloise, F.; Aricò, P.; Salinari, S.; Mattia, D.; Cincotti, F.

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Reliability is a desirable characteristic of brain-computer interface (BCI) systems when they are intended to be used under non-experimental operating conditions. In addition, their overall usability is influenced by the complex and frequent procedures that are required for configuration and calibration. Earlier studies examined the issue of asynchronous control in P300-based BCIs, introducing dynamic stopping and automatic control suspension features. This report proposes and evaluates an algorithm for the automatic recalibration of the classifier's parameters using unsupervised data. Approach. Ten healthy subjects participated in five P300-based BCI sessions throughout a single day. First, we examined whether continuous adaptation of control parameters improved the accuracy of the asynchronous system over time. Then, we assessed the performance of the self-calibration algorithm with respect to the no-recalibration and supervised calibration conditions with regard to system accuracy and communication efficiency. Main results. Offline tests demonstrated that continuous adaptation of the control parameters significantly increased the communication efficiency of asynchronous P300-based BCIs. The self-calibration algorithm correctly assigned labels to unsupervised data with 95% accuracy, effecting communication efficiency that was comparable with that of supervised repeated calibration. Significance. Although additional online tests that involve end-users under non-experimental conditions are needed, these preliminary results are encouraging, from which we conclude that the self-calibration algorithm is a promising solution to improve P300-based BCI usability and reliability.

  2. An Approach for Self-Calibration by a Quartered Circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The camera calibration is a key step for converting a projective reconstruction into a metric one, which is equivalent to recovering the unknown intrinsic parameters with each image. A circle is a common geometric primitive for the camera self-calibration. To avoid the limit of circle center to the camera self-calibration in a planar template, a method how to solve out the vanishing line is proposed. Then using the property of vanishing line, the camera intrinsic parameters are figured out and the camera self-calibration is achieved. The template contains a quartered circle in the study. Firstly, the camera is used to take photographs of the template from three or more direction. Secondly, using the ellipse and two mutually perpendicular diameters which are extracted from the image, according to the polarity principle and making use of the invariant property of cross-ratio of four lines which are intersected in one same point, the vanishing line can be solved out. In the end, the circular points can be figured out by the intersection between vanishing line and the circle. And using the property of the circular points, the self-calibration is realized.

  3. On-line Free-viewpoint Video: From Single to Multiple View Rendering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincent Nozick; Hideo Saito

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, many image-based rendering techniques have advanced from static to dynamic scenes and thus become video-based rendering (VBR) methods. But actually, only a few of them can render new views on-line. We present a new VBR system that creates new views of a live dynamic scene. This system provides high quality images and does not require any background subtraction. Our method follows a plane-sweep approach and reaches real-time rendering using consumer graphic hardware, graphics processing unit (GPU). Only one computer is used for both acquisition and rendering. The video stream acquisition is performed by at least 3 webcams. We propose an additional video stream management that extends the number of webcams to 10 or more. These considerations make our system low-cost and hence accessible for everyone. We also present an adaptation of our plane-sweep method to create simultaneously multiple views of the scene in real-time. Our system is especially designed for stereovision using autostereoscopic displays. The new views are computed from 4 webcams connected to a computer and are compressed in order to be transfered to a mobile phone. Using CPU programming, our method provides up to 16 images of the scene in real-time. The use of both GPU and CPU makes this method work on only one consumer grade computer.

  4. Another look at volume self-calibration: calibration and self-calibration within a pinhole model of Scheimpflug cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornic, Philippe; Illoul, Cédric; Cheminet, Adam; Le Besnerais, Guy; Champagnat, Frédéric; Le Sant, Yves; Leclaire, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    We address calibration and self-calibration of tomographic PIV experiments within a pinhole model of cameras. A complete and explicit pinhole model of a camera equipped with a 2-tilt angles Scheimpflug adapter is presented. It is then used in a calibration procedure based on a freely moving calibration plate. While the resulting calibrations are accurate enough for Tomo-PIV, we confirm, through a simple experiment, that they are not stable in time, and illustrate how the pinhole framework can be used to provide a quantitative evaluation of geometrical drifts in the setup. We propose an original self-calibration method based on global optimization of the extrinsic parameters of the pinhole model. These methods are successfully applied to the tomographic PIV of an air jet experiment. An unexpected by-product of our work is to show that volume self-calibration induces a change in the world frame coordinates. Provided the calibration drift is small, as generally observed in PIV, the bias on the estimated velocity field is negligible but the absolute location cannot be accurately recovered using standard calibration data.

  5. The on-line analysis of aerosol-delivered pharmaceuticals via single particle aerosol mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrical, Bradley D; Balaxi, Maria; Fergenson, David

    2015-07-15

    The use of single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was evaluated for the analysis of inhaled pharmaceuticals to determine the mass distribution of the individual active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in both single ingredient and combination drug products. SPAMS is an analytical technique where the individual aerodynamic diameters and chemical compositions of many aerosol particles are determined in real-time. The analysis was performed using a Livermore Instruments SPAMS 3.0, which allowed the efficient analysis of aerosol particles with broad size distributions and can acquire data even under a very large particle load. Data similar to what would normally require roughly three days of experimentation and analysis was collected in a five minute period and analyzed automatically. The results were computed to be comparable to those returned by a typical Next Generation Impactor (NGI) particle size distribution experiment.

  6. On-line study of growth kinetics of single hyphae of Aspergillus oryzae in a flow-through cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Torben; Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1999-01-01

    the outgrowth of a hyphal element from a single spore using a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The simulations shows that the observed kinetics for the individual hyphae result in an experimentally verified growth pattern with exponential growth in both total hyphal length and number of tips. (C) 1999 John......Using image analysis the growth kinetics of the single hyphae of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae has been determined on-line in a flow-through cell at different glucose concentrations in the range from 26 mg L-1 to 20 g L-1. The tip extension rate of the individual hyphae can be described...... branching occurs, it is observed that the tip extension rate decreases temporarily. The number of branches formed on a hypha is proportional to the length of the hypha that exceeds a certain minimum length required to support the growth of a new branch. The observed kinetics has been used to simulate...

  7. A WEIGHTED ITERATIVE METHOD FOR ROBUST SELF-CALIBRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shigang; Wu Chengke; Tang Li; Jia Jing

    2006-01-01

    A robust self-calibration method is presented, which can efficiently discard the outliers based on a Weighted Iteration Method (WIM). The method is an iterative process in which the projective reconstruction is obtained based on the weights of all the points, whereas the weights are defined in inverse proportion to the reciprocal of the re-projective errors. The weights of outliers trend to zero after several iterations, and the accurate projective reconstruction is determined. The location of the absolute conic and the camera intrinsic parameters are obtained after the projective reconstruction. The theory and experiments with both simulate and real data demonstrate that the proposed method is very efficient and robust.

  8. On-Line, Real-Time Diagnostics of a Single Fluid Atomization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelshadKhatibi, P.; Ilbagi, A.; Henein, H.

    2012-01-01

    A drop tube-Impulse Atomization technique was used to produce copper droplets. In this method, energy is transferred to a liquid by plunger movement resulting in spherical droplets emanating from orifices. A mathematical model of the evolution of droplet velocity and temperature at various heights for different sized droplets was developed. A two-color pyrometer, DPV-2000, and a shadowgraph were used to measure droplets radiant energy, diameter and velocity. The temperature values from the model were used to assess the two color pyrometer assumption over the temperature range of measurement. The DVP 2000 measurements were found to be dependent of droplet size wavelength and position of droplets below the atomizing nozzle. By calibrating the instrument for effective emissivity over the range of measurements, the thermal history of droplets may be recorded using a single color pyrometer approach.

  9. LOFAR Self-Calibration Using a Blackboard Software Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loose, G. M.

    2008-08-01

    One of the major challenges for the self-calibration of the new generation of radio telescopes is to handle the sheer amount of observational data. For LOFAR, an average observation consists of several tens of terabytes of data. Fortunately, many operations can be done in parallel on only part of the data. So, one way to take up this challenge is to employ a large cluster of computers and to distribute both data and computing power. This paper focuses on the architectural design of the LOFAR self-calibration system, which is loosely based on the Blackboard architectural pattern. Key design consideration was to provide maximum scalability by complete separation of the global controller---issuing sequences of commands---on the one side; and the local controllers---controlling the so-called `kernels' that execute the commands---on the other side. In between, resides a database system that acts as a shared memory for the global and local controllers by storing the commands and the results.

  10. Self Calibrating Flow Estimation in Waste Water Pumping Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Knudsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about where waste water is flowing in waste water networks is essential to optimize the operation of the network pumping stations. However, installation of flow sensors is expensive and requires regular maintenance. This paper proposes an alternative approach where the pumps and the waste...... water pit are used for estimating both the inflow and the pump flow of the pumping station. Due to the nature of waste water, the waste water pumps are heavily affected by wear and tear. To compensate for the wear of the pumps, the pump parameters, used for the flow estimation, are automatically...... calibrated. This calibration is done based on data batches stored at each pump cycle, hence makes the approach a self calibrating system. The approach is tested on a pumping station operating in a real waste water network....

  11. Self-calibrating lateral scanning white-light interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munteanu, Florin

    2010-04-20

    Lateral scanning white-light interferometry represents an attractive alternative to the standard white-light interferometry. Its main advantage over the latter procedure consists in the ability to scan large samples continuously, without the need of a cumbersome stitching procedure. Presently, the main drawback in the path of large-scale industrial acceptance of this method is the need for careful calibration of the tilt angle prior to each measurement. A novel self-calibration approach is presented. Using the data acquired during the normal scanning process, the need of an initial tilt angle calibration is eliminated and on-the-fly system adjustments for the best signal-to-noise ratio can be performed without an increase in the measurement time dictated by recalibration.

  12. Light field camera self-calibration and registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhe; Zhang, Chunping; Wang, Qing

    2016-10-01

    The multi-view light fields (MVLF) provide new solutions to the existing problems in monocular light field, such as the limited field of view. However as key steps in MVLF, the calibration and registration have been limited studied. In this paper, we propose a method to calibrate the camera and register different LFs without the checkboard at the same time, which we call the self-calibrating method. We model the LF structure as a 5-parameter two-parallel-plane (2PP) model, then represent the associations between rays and reconstructed points as a 3D projective transformation. With the constraints of ray-ray correspondences in different LFs, the parameters can be solved with a linear initialization and a nonlinear refinement. The result in real scene and 3D point clouds registration error of MVLF in simulated data verify the high performance of the proposed model.

  13. POINT-BASED VERSUS PLANE-BASED SELF-CALIBRATION OF STATIC TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. K. Chow

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Systematic trends are apparent when studying the self-calibration residuals of many modern static terrestrial laser scanners. Since the operation of terrestrial laser scanners is comparable to an efficient robotic total station, the sensor modelling parameters are developed in the spherical coordinate system where the raw observables of the scanner are range, horizontal angle, and vertical angle. Sensor calibration parameters are already well established for both hybrid and panoramic type laser scanners through the signalized target-based self-calibration method. In this paper, a less labour-intensive and more efficient planar-feature based terrestrial laser scanner self-calibration method, which is more suitable for in-situ self-calibration, is presented. Through simulation it will be demonstrated that the point-based self-calibration and plane-based self-calibration shares many common characteristics. Plane-based self-calibration results from real data captured with the panoramic type Leica HDS6100 and hybrid type Trimble GS200 scanner are also presented to show the practicality of the proposed method and as a comparison to the point-based self-calibration.

  14. Two Methods for Self Calibration of Digital Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, A.; Moe, D.; Christopherson, J.

    2012-07-01

    Photogrammetric mapping using Commercial of the Shelf (COTS) cameras is becoming more popular. Their popularity is augmented by the increasing use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) as a platform for mapping. The mapping precision of these methods can be increased by using a calibrated camera. The USGS/EROS has developed an inexpensive, easy to use method, particularly for calibrating short focal length cameras. The method builds on a self-calibration procedure developed for the USGS EROS Data Center by Pictometry (and augmented by Dr. C.S Fraser), that uses a series of coded targets. These coded targets form different patterns that are imaged from nine different locations with differing camera orientations. A free network solution using collinearity equations is used to determine the calibration parameters. For the smaller focal length COTS cameras, the USGS has developed a procedure that uses a small prototype box that contains these coded targets. The design of the box is discussed, along with best practices for calibration procedure. Results of calibration parameters obtained using the box are compared with the parameters obtained using more established standard procedures.

  15. A Self-Calibrating Remote Control Chemical Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessica Croft

    2007-06-01

    The Susie Mine, part of the Upper Tenmile Mining Area, is located in Rimini, MT about 15 miles southwest of Helena, MT. The Upper Tenmile Creek Mining Area is an EPA Superfund site with 70 abandoned hard rock mines and several residential yards prioritized for clean up. Water from the Susie mine flows into Tenmile Creek from which the city of Helena draws part of its water supply. MSE Technology Applications in Butte, Montana was contracted by the EPA to build a treatment system for the Susie mine effluent and demonstrate a system capable of treating mine waste water in remote locations. The Idaho National Lab was contracted to design, build and demonstrate a low maintenance self-calibrating monitoring system that would monitor multiple sample points, allow remote two-way communications with the control software and allow access to the collected data through a web site. The Automated Chemical Analysis Monitoring (ACAM) system was installed in December 2006. This thesis documents the overall design of the hardware, control software and website, the data collected while MSE-TA’s system was operational, the data collected after MSE-TA’s system was shut down and suggested improvements to the existing system.

  16. KALIBRASI KAMERA NON-METRIK DIGITAL DENGAN METODE SELF CALIBRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Angkusprana Saktia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan kamera dijital non metrik untuk aplikasi fotogrametri makin berkembang, dengan didukung oleh perkembangan perangkat lunak  yang tersedia dan harga kamera dijital non metrik yang relatif murah dengan spesifikasi yang bagus. Hal ini membuat penggunaan teknologi fotogramteri rentang dekat untuk pekerjaan pemetaan semakin diminati karena memiliki keuntungan dapat menjangkau daerah yang sulit dijangkau atau memiliki dimensi yang kecil. Namun kekurangannya kamera jenis ini memiliki kualitas geometrik yang kurang baik sehingga mengakibatkan posisi pada foto yang dihasilkan kurang akurat. (Afriyanti, 2005Dalam penelitian ini akan dilakukan proses kalibrasi pada kamera yang akan digunakan yaitu Canon IXUS 115HS dengan resolusi 12megapixel dan panjang fokus yang digunakan 11mm. Metode kalibrasi yang digunakan yaitu Self Calibration. Perbandingan akurasi yang dihasilkan diketahui berdasar pergeseran titik hasil proyeksi terhadap Ground Control Point (GCP yang terukur di lapangan.Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa dalam proses kalibrasi menghasilkan parameter eksternal yang stabil, karena dalam proses iterasi yang keempat hingga seterusnya nilai yang dihasilkan tidak berubah. Distorsi hasil proyeksi arah pergeserannya mendekati posisi ideal serta nilai reprojection error tidak melebihi 0.5mm dari bacaan maksimal mistar 1mm. Parameter internal tidak menghasilkan nilai yang stabil karena dalam setiap proses iterasinya nilainya selalu berubah, panjang fokus terkalibrasi mengalami perubahan signifikan sebesar -99mm dari nilai acuan 11mm, dan nilai parameter external terkalibrasi berbeda jauh dari nilai awal yang diberikan.Meskipun demikian, dapat digambarkan pola distorsi dan arah pergeseran titik-titik hasil proyeksi pada proses penentuan Exterior Orientation Parameter (EOP serta dapat dilihat bahwa titik yang mengalami pergeseran terbesar yaitu titik 7 dengan nilai kesalahan 0.019mm ke arah X dan -0.0672mm ke arah Y. Titik yang mengalami pergeseran

  17. SYS 2: Acoustic ENSBox A System of Self Calibrating Distributed Acoustic Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis Girod; Martin Lukac; Vlad Trifa; Deborah Estrin

    2006-01-01

    The Acoustic Embedded Networked Sensing Box, is a platform for prototyping rapid-deployable distributed acoustic sensing systems, particularly distributed source localization. Each ENSBox integrates an ARM processor running Linux and supports key facilities required for source localization: a sensor array, wireless network services, time synchronization, and precise self-calibration of array position and orientation. The ENSBoxs integrated high precision self-calibration facility sets it ap...

  18. A Two-Step A/D Conversion and Column Self-Calibration Technique for Low Noise CMOS Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Bae

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a 120 frames per second (fps low noise CMOS Image Sensor (CIS based on a Two-Step Single Slope ADC (TS SS ADC and column self-calibration technique is proposed. The TS SS ADC is suitable for high speed video systems because its conversion speed is much faster (by more than 10 times than that of the Single Slope ADC (SS ADC. However, there exist some mismatching errors between the coarse block and the fine block due to the 2-step operation of the TS SS ADC. In general, this makes it difficult to implement the TS SS ADC beyond a 10-bit resolution. In order to improve such errors, a new 4-input comparator is discussed and a high resolution TS SS ADC is proposed. Further, a feedback circuit that enables column self-calibration to reduce the Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN is also described. The proposed chip has been fabricated with 0.13 μm Samsung CIS technology and the chip satisfies the VGA resolution. The pixel is based on the 4-TR Active Pixel Sensor (APS. The high frame rate of 120 fps is achieved at the VGA resolution. The measured FPN is 0.38 LSB, and measured dynamic range is about 64.6 dB.

  19. Camera Self-Calibration with Varying Intrinsic Parameters by an Unknown Three-Dimensional Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. SATOURI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we will propose a new and robust method of camera self-calibration having varying intrinsic parameters from a sequence of images of an unknown 3D object. The projection of two points of the 3D scene in the image planes is used to determine the projection matrices. The present method is based on the formulation of a non linear cost function from the determination of a relationship between two points of the scene with their opposite relative to the axis of abscise and their projections in the image planes. The resolution of this function with genetic algorithm enables us to estimate the intrinsic parameters of different cameras. The important of our approach reside in the use of a single pair of images which provides fewer equations, simplifies the mathematical complexities and minimizes the execution time of the application, the use of the data of the first image only without the use of the data of the second image, the use of any camera which makes the intrinsic parameters variable not constant and the use of a 3D scene reduces the planarity constraints. The experimental results on synthetic and real data prove the performance and robustness of our approach.

  20. Determination of lycopene in food by on-line SFE coupled to HPLC using a single monolithic column for trapping and separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pól, Jaroslav; Hyötylänen, Tuulia; Ranta-Aho, Outi; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2004-10-15

    A method that would eliminate the degradation of lycopene during analysis was developed. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide as the extraction medium was connected on-line to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) where a single monolithic column was used for trapping and the subsequent separation of analytes. The method was linear over the studied range (0.1-2.5 microg), and it was repeatable (R.S.D. 3.9%), sensitive (LOD = 0.5 ng) and fast (35 min). Lycopene was determined in tomatoes, fruit and several food products. Because of the on-line construction, lycopene was not in contact with air or light during the whole procedure and the amount analysed should therefore correspond to the real amount in the sample.

  1. Possible use of self-calibration to reduce systematic uncertainties in determining distance-redshift relation via gravitational radiation from merging binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Saini, Tarun Deep; Sahni, Varun

    2010-01-01

    By observing mergers of compact objects, future gravity wave experiments would measure the luminosity distance to a large number of sources to a high precision but not their redshifts. Given the directional sensitivity of an experiment, a fraction of such sources (gold plated -- GP) can be identified optically as single objects in the direction of the source. We show that if an approximate distance-redshift relation is known then it is possible to statistically resolve those sources that have multiple galaxies in the beam. We study the feasibility of using gold plated sources to iteratively resolve the unresolved sources, obtain the self-calibrated best possible distance-redshift relation and provide an analytical expression for the accuracy achievable. We derive lower limit on the total number of sources that is needed to achieve this accuracy through self-calibration. We show that this limit depends exponentially on the beam width and give estimates for various experimental parameters representative of futu...

  2. Self-Calibration and Laser Energy Monitor Validations for a Double-Pulsed 2-Micron CO2 Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong

    2015-01-01

    Double-pulsed 2-micron integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is well suited for atmospheric CO2 remote sensing. The IPDA lidar technique relies on wavelength differentiation between strong and weak absorbing features of the gas normalized to the transmitted energy. In the double-pulse case, each shot of the transmitter produces two successive laser pulses separated by a short interval. Calibration of the transmitted pulse energies is required for accurate CO2 measurement. Design and calibration of a 2-micron double-pulse laser energy monitor is presented. The design is based on an InGaAs pin quantum detector. A high-speed photo-electromagnetic quantum detector was used for laser-pulse profile verification. Both quantum detectors were calibrated using a reference pyroelectric thermal detector. Calibration included comparing the three detection technologies in the single-pulsed mode, then comparing the quantum detectors in the double-pulsed mode. In addition, a self-calibration feature of the 2-micron IPDA lidar is presented. This feature allows one to monitor the transmitted laser energy, through residual scattering, with a single detection channel. This reduces the CO2 measurement uncertainty. IPDA lidar ground validation for CO2 measurement is presented for both calibrated energy monitor and self-calibration options. The calibrated energy monitor resulted in a lower CO2 measurement bias, while self-calibration resulted in a better CO2 temporal profiling when compared to the in situ sensor.

  3. Self-Calibrated Energy-Efficient and Reliable Channels for On-Chip Interconnection Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Tsang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy-efficient and reliable channels are provided for on-chip interconnection networks (OCINs using a self-calibrated voltage scaling technique with self-corrected green (SCG coding scheme. This self-calibrated low-power coding and voltage scaling technique increases reliability and reduces energy consumption simultaneously. The SCG coding is a joint bus and error correction coding scheme that provides a reliable mechanism for channels. In addition, it achieves a significant reduction in energy consumption via a joint triplication bus power model for crosstalk avoidance. Based on SCG coding scheme, the proposed self-calibrated voltage scaling technique adjusts voltage swing for energy reduction. Furthermore, this technique tolerates timing variations. Based on UMC 65 nm CMOS technology, the proposed channels reduces energy consumption by nearly 28.3% compared with that for uncoded channels at the lowest voltage. This approach makes the channels of OCINs tolerant of transient malfunctions and realizes energy efficiency.

  4. An in-source stretched membrane inlet for on-line analysis of VOCs in water with single photon ionization TOFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Keyong; Li, Fanglong; Chen, Wendong; Chen, Ping; Xie, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Wuduo; Hua, Lei; Pei, Kemei; Li, Haiyang

    2013-10-07

    An in-source, stretched, hollow fiber membrane (HFM) inlet has been developed to improve the sensitivity of on-line time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) with a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamp based single photon ionization (SPI) source for the direct analysis of liquid samples. A 2-cm HFM was stretched to 8 cm in length, and placed in the ion source and directly under the VUV lamp window with a distance of 15 mm. Compared with the conventional flow-through configuration under the same experimental conditions, the signal intensities of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), benzene, toluene and p-xylene were increased over 5-fold in magnitude, and the response time was shortened to one-third. The limits of detection (LOD) of MTBE, ETBE, benzene, toluene and p-xylene ranged from 0.25 to 1.3 μg L(-1) with a measurement time of 60 s, and three orders of linear range were obtained with correlation coefficients of 0.9972-0.9992. The present results suggest that the in-source stretched HFM is a simple and effective way to increase the sensitivity and shorten response time of the membrane inlet, and we believe that it will also be beneficial to other types of on-line mass spectrometer for the on-line analysis of VOCs in water with a VUV lamp based SPI ion source.

  5. Fast determination of the relative elemental and organic carbon content of aerosol samples by on-line single-particle aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferge, T; Karg, E; Schröppel, A; Coffee, K R; Tobias, H J; Frank, M; Gard, E E; Zimmermann, R

    2006-05-15

    Different particulate matter (PM) samples were investigated by on-line single-particle aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS). The samples consist of soot particulates made by a diffusion flame soot generator (combustion aerosol standard, CAST), industrially produced soot material (printex), soot from a diesel passenger car as well as ambient particulates (urban dust (NIST) and road tunnel dust). Five different CAST soot particle samples were generated with different elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) content. The samples were reaerosolized and on-line analyzed by ATOFMS, as well as precipitated on quartz filters for conventional EC/OC analysis. For each sample ca. 1000 ATOFMS single-particle mass spectra were recorded and averaged. A typical averaged soot ATOFMS mass spectrum shows characteristic carbon cluster peak progressions (Cn+) as well as hydrogen-poor carbon cluster peaks (CnH(1-3)+). These peaks are originated predominately from the elemental carbon (EC) content of the particles. Often additional peaks, which are not due to carbon clusters, are observed, which either are originated from organic compounds (OC-organic carbon), or from the non-carbonaceous inorganic content of the particles. By classification of the mass spectral peaks as elemental carbon (i.e., the carbon cluster progression peaks) or as peaks originated from organic compounds (i.e., molecular and fragment ions), the relative abundance of elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) can be determined. The dimensionless TC/EC values, i.e., the ratio of total carbon content (TC, TC = OC + EC) to elemental carbon (EC), were derived from the ATOFMS single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry data. The EC/TC values measured by ATOFMS were compared with the TC/EC values determined by the thermal standard techniques (thermooptical and thermocoulometric method). A good agreement between the EC/TC values obtained by on-line ATOFMS and the offline standard method was found.

  6. Inertial sensor self-calibration in a visually-aided navigation approach for a micro-AUV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin-Font, Francisco; Massot-Campos, Miquel; Negre-Carrasco, Pep Lluis; Oliver-Codina, Gabriel; Beltran, Joan P

    2015-01-16

    This paper presents a new solution for underwater observation, image recording, mapping and 3D reconstruction in shallow waters. The platform, designed as a research and testing tool, is based on a small underwater robot equipped with a MEMS-based IMU, two stereo cameras and a pressure sensor. The data given by the sensors are fused, adjusted and corrected in a multiplicative error state Kalman filter (MESKF), which returns a single vector with the pose and twist of the vehicle and the biases of the inertial sensors (the accelerometer and the gyroscope). The inclusion of these biases in the state vector permits their self-calibration and stabilization, improving the estimates of the robot orientation. Experiments in controlled underwater scenarios and in the sea have demonstrated a satisfactory performance and the capacity of the vehicle to operate in real environments and in real time.

  7. Inertial Sensor Self-Calibration in a Visually-Aided Navigation Approach for a Micro-AUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin-Font, Francisco; Massot-Campos, Miquel; Negre-Carrasco, Pep Lluis; Oliver-Codina, Gabriel; Beltran, Joan P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new solution for underwater observation, image recording, mapping and 3D reconstruction in shallow waters. The platform, designed as a research and testing tool, is based on a small underwater robot equipped with a MEMS-based IMU, two stereo cameras and a pressure sensor. The data given by the sensors are fused, adjusted and corrected in a multiplicative error state Kalman filter (MESKF), which returns a single vector with the pose and twist of the vehicle and the biases of the inertial sensors (the accelerometer and the gyroscope). The inclusion of these biases in the state vector permits their self-calibration and stabilization, improving the estimates of the robot orientation. Experiments in controlled underwater scenarios and in the sea have demonstrated a satisfactory performance and the capacity of the vehicle to operate in real environments and in real time. PMID:25602263

  8. Inertial Sensor Self-Calibration in a Visually-Aided Navigation Approach for a Micro-AUV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bonin-Font

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new solution for underwater observation, image recording, mapping and 3D reconstruction in shallow waters. The platform, designed as a research and testing tool, is based on a small underwater robot equipped with a MEMS-based IMU, two stereo cameras and a pressure sensor. The data given by the sensors are fused, adjusted and corrected in a multiplicative error state Kalman filter (MESKF, which returns a single vector with the pose and twist of the vehicle and the biases of the inertial sensors (the accelerometer and the gyroscope. The inclusion of these biases in the state vector permits their self-calibration and stabilization, improving the estimates of the robot orientation. Experiments in controlled underwater scenarios and in the sea have demonstrated a satisfactory performance and the capacity of the vehicle to operate in real environments and in real time.

  9. Temperature compensated and self-calibrated current sensor using reference current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2008-01-22

    A method is described to provide temperature compensation and self-calibration of a current sensor based on a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. A reference electrical current carried by a conductor positioned within the sensing window of the current sensor is used to correct variations in the output signal due to temperature variations and aging.

  10. Self-calibration of cone-beam CT geometry using 3D-2D image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadah, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Gang, G. J.; Ehtiati, T.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    Robotic C-arms are capable of complex orbits that can increase field of view, reduce artifacts, improve image quality, and/or reduce dose; however, it can be challenging to obtain accurate, reproducible geometric calibration required for image reconstruction for such complex orbits. This work presents a method for geometric calibration for an arbitrary source-detector orbit by registering 2D projection data to a previously acquired 3D image. It also yields a method by which calibration of simple circular orbits can be improved. The registration uses a normalized gradient information similarity metric and the covariance matrix adaptation-evolution strategy optimizer for robustness against local minima and changes in image content. The resulting transformation provides a ‘self-calibration’ of system geometry. The algorithm was tested in phantom studies using both a cone-beam CT (CBCT) test-bench and a robotic C-arm (Artis Zeego, Siemens Healthcare) for circular and non-circular orbits. Self-calibration performance was evaluated in terms of the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function in CBCT reconstructions, the reprojection error (RPE) of steel ball bearings placed on each phantom, and the overall quality and presence of artifacts in CBCT images. In all cases, self-calibration improved the FWHM—e.g. on the CBCT bench, FWHM  =  0.86 mm for conventional calibration compared to 0.65 mm for self-calibration (p  <  0.001). Similar improvements were measured in RPE—e.g. on the robotic C-arm, RPE  =  0.73 mm for conventional calibration compared to 0.55 mm for self-calibration (p  <  0.001). Visible improvement was evident in CBCT reconstructions using self-calibration, particularly about high-contrast, high-frequency objects (e.g. temporal bone air cells and a surgical needle). The results indicate that self-calibration can improve even upon systems with presumably accurate geometric calibration and is

  11. Self-calibration of cone-beam CT geometry using 3D–2D image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadah, S; Stayman, J W; Gang, G J; Ehtiati, T; Siewerdsen, J H

    2016-01-01

    Robotic C-arms are capable of complex orbits that can increase field of view, reduce artifacts, improve image quality, and/or reduce dose; however, it can be challenging to obtain accurate, reproducible geometric calibration required for image reconstruction for such complex orbits. This work presents a method for geometric calibration for an arbitrary source-detector orbit by registering 2D projection data to a previously acquired 3D image. It also yields a method by which calibration of simple circular orbits can be improved. The registration uses a normalized gradient information similarity metric and the covariance matrix adaptation-evolution strategy optimizer for robustness against local minima and changes in image content. The resulting transformation provides a ‘self-calibration’ of system geometry. The algorithm was tested in phantom studies using both a cone-beam CT (CBCT) test-bench and a robotic C-arm (Artis Zeego, Siemens Healthcare) for circular and non-circular orbits. Self-calibration performance was evaluated in terms of the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function in CBCT reconstructions, the reprojection error (RPE) of steel ball bearings placed on each phantom, and the overall quality and presence of artifacts in CBCT images. In all cases, self-calibration improved the FWHM—e.g. on the CBCT bench, FWHM = 0.86 mm for conventional calibration compared to 0.65 mm for self-calibration (p < 0.001). Similar improvements were measured in RPE—e.g. on the robotic C-arm, RPE = 0.73 mm for conventional calibration compared to 0.55 mm for self-calibration (p < 0.001). Visible improvement was evident in CBCT reconstructions using self-calibration, particularly about high-contrast, high-frequency objects (e.g. temporal bone air cells and a surgical needle). The results indicate that self-calibration can improve even upon systems with presumably accurate geometric calibration and is applicable to situations where conventional

  12. Image mosaic based on the camera self-calibration of combining two vanishing points and pure rotational motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Shaoli; Zang, Huaping; Zhang, Xiaofang; Gong, Qiaoxia; Tian, Yongzhi; Wang, Junqiao; Liang, Erjun; Liu, Xiaomin; Zhao, Shujun

    2016-10-01

    Camera calibration is one of the indispensable processes to obtain 3D depth information from 2D images in the field of computer vision. Camera self-calibration is more convenient and flexible, especially in the application of large depth of fields, wide fields of view, and scene conversion, as well as other occasions like zooms. In this paper, two selfcalibration methods respectively based on two vanishing points and homography are studied, and finally realizing the image mosaic based on self-calibration of the camera purely rotating around optical center. The geometric characteristic of disappear points formed by two groups of orthogonal parallel lines is applied to self-calibration based on two vanishing points. By using the vectors' orthogonal properties of connection optical centers and the vanishing points, the constraint equations on the camera intrinsic parameters are established. By this method, four internal parameters of the camera can be solved though only four images taked from different viewpoints in a scene. Compared with the other selfcalibration based on homography, the method based on two vanishing points has more convenient calibration process and simple algorithm. To check the quality of the self-calibration, we create a spherical mosaic of the images that were used for the self-calibration based on homography. Compared with the experimental results of two methods respectively based on calibration plate and self-calibration method using machine vision software Halcon, the practicability and effectiveness of self-calibration respectively based on two vanishing points and homography is verified.

  13. The Effect of Halo Assembly Bias on Self Calibration in Galaxy Cluster Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hao-Yi; Wechsler, Risa H

    2008-01-01

    Self-calibration techniques for analyzing cluster counts rely on using the abundance and the clustering amplitude of clusters to simultaneously constrain cosmological parameters and the relation between halo mass and its observable mass tracer. It was recently discovered that the clustering amplitude of halos depends not only on halo mass, but also on various secondary variables such as halo formation time and concentration; these dependences are collectively termed ``assembly bias.'' Using a modified Fisher matrix formalism, we explore whether these secondary variables have a significant impact on studying the properties of dark energy with self calibration in current (SDSS) and near future (DES, SPT, and LSST) cluster surveys. We find that for an SDSS-like survey, secondary dependences of halo bias are insignificant given the expected large statistical uncertainties in dark energy parameters. For SPT- or DES-like survey volumes, we find that the dependence of halo bias on secondary variables is not a signif...

  14. Adaptive-randomised self-calibration of electro-mechanical shutters for space imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, Mariolino; Debei, Stefano; Zaccariotto, Mirco; Pertile, Marco

    2006-11-01

    This work describes the self-calibration of a high-precision open-loop mechanism. The self-calibration method is applied to a mechanical shutter for space applications, which was launched onboard the ESA-ROSETTA mission (launch: 2 March 2004). It is based on an adaptive 'model reference' and a 'randomised' search method which may be generalised to applications in which high performance and functionality are strongly interconnected. The method makes use of an adaptive 'model-reference' control approach [K.J. Astrom, B. Wittenmark, On self-tuning regulators Automatica 9 (1973) 185-199 [16]; K.J. Astrom, Theory and application of adaptive control, in: Proceedings of the Eighth IFAC World Conference, Kyoto, Japan, 1981 [17]; D.E. Seborg, S.L. Shah, T.F. Edgar, Adaptive control strategies for process control, AIChE Journal 6(32) (1986) 881-895 [18

  15. Study on the metrological performance of self-calibration angle encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao; Xue, Zi; Qiao, Dan; Wang, Yan; Yue, Chunran; Liu, Guixin; Wang, Zhichao

    2016-09-01

    The self-calibration method for angle measurement is introduced, and the optimal arrangement of several equal distance distribution groups of reading heads was proposed to realize highly effective restraint of the specified Fourier components of angular measuring deviation in loosely restricted environment. Base on this method, a self-calibration angle encoder system was developed using micro reading heads, glass scale disc, air bearing, and multi-channel counter. According the method of examination of the angular measuring standard, the metrological performance of the system was evaluated using national angle standard of China. The evaluation result revealed that the measuring deviation is within ±1.5″, the measuring repeatability is less than 1.1″. Referring to the verification scheme of measuring instrument for plane angle, the system can be used to calibrate the angular measuring instrument with max permissible error worse than ±4.5″in situ.

  16. Self-calibration strategy for a LOFAR solar radio burst observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocks, C.; Mann, G.; Breitling, F.

    2016-11-01

    The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is a novel radio interferometer consisting of a central core near Exloo in the Netherlands, remote stations in the Netherlands, and international stations. It observes in two frequency bands, the low band of 10-90 MHz and the high band of 110-250 MHz. The key science project ``Solar Physics and Space Weather with LOFAR'' aims at studying the solar activity and its influence on interplanetary space. Solar radio radiation in the low and high band emanates from the upper and middle corona, respectively. We present early commissioning observations of the Sun, that serendipitously include a weak radio burst. Since no external calibrator was observed, a self-calibration approach has to be used. This works well for the quiet Sun, but not for the burst data. We develop a self-calibration strategy for radio bursts, and discuss the general properties of such a self-calibration method. Our results lead to the conclusion that external calibrators with known source structure should generally be preferred.

  17. Self-calibration rank filter for unknown dynamic inputs mitigation during the Mars powered descent phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiang; Fu, Huimin; Deng, Zhibao; Bai, Huanxu; Wang, Sheng; Sun, Mingyi

    2017-07-01

    Advanced navigation systems for pinpoint landing are required in the entry, descent and landing phase of future missions to Mars. To overcome the horizontal position estimation problem in the Mars powered descent phase, the inertial measurement unit, Doppler radar and surface beacon integrated navigation scheme is proposed, and a conventional filter such as an extended or unscented Kalman filter is adopted. However, in engineering practice, these conventional filters for nonlinear systems with unknown dynamic inputs may degrade or even diverge. The lack of navigation accuracy may result in a large growth of spurious navigations. To solve this problem, based on the rank filter, a self-calibration rank filter is proposed for state estimation of a nonlinear system to mitigate the effects of unknown dynamic inputs. Monte Carlo simulation results are presented to demonstrate the good performance of the self-calibration rank filter for the Mars powered descent navigation. The self-calibration rank filter not only prevents the divergence of the filtering but also significantly improves the state estimation accuracy.

  18. Obstacle-based self-calibration techniques for the determination of the permittivity of liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rolfes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, different obstacle-based self-calibration techniques for the measurement of the dielectric properties of liquids are investigated at microwave frequencies. The liquid under test is contained inside a waveguide, which is connected to the ports of a vector network analyzer. The permittivity of the liquid is characterized on the basis of the measured scattering parameters.

    In order to extract the material parameters precisely and to eliminate systematic errors of the setup, calibration measurements have to be performed. For this purpose, different self-calibration methods based on the displacement of an obstacle are considered. The presented methods differ in that way, that either transmission and reflection measurements or purely reflection measurements are performed. All these methods have in common that the material parameters are already calculable within a so-called self-calibration procedure. Thus, a full two-port calibration of the whole setup is not necessary. Furthermore, the methods can be realized effectively in a practical setup having the advantage that a rearrangement of the setup is not needed for the material parameter measurements and that the liquid under investigation can pass continuously through the measurement cell. This might be of interest for the application in an industrial process, enabling the continuous flow of the material while the parameter characterization can take place at the same time.

  19. Camera self-calibration from translation by referring to a known camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Hu, Zhaozheng

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a novel linear method for camera self-calibration by referring to a known (or calibrated) camera. The method requires at least three images, with two images generated by the uncalibrated camera from pure translation and one image generated by the known reference camera. We first propose a method to compute the infinite homography from scene depths. Based on this, we use two images generated by translating the uncalibrated camera to recover scene depths, which are further utilized to linearly compute the infinite homography between an arbitrary uncalibrated image, and the image from the known camera. With the known camera as reference, the computed infinite homography is readily decomposed for camera calibration. The proposed self-calibration method has been tested with simulation and real image data. Experimental results demonstrate that the method is practical and accurate. This paper proposes using a "known reference camera" for camera calibration. The pure translation, as required in the method, is much more maneuverable, compared with some strict motions in the literature, such as pure rotation. The proposed self-calibration method has good potential for solving online camera calibration problems, which has important applications, especially for multicamera and zooming camera systems.

  20. Single particle mass spectral signatures from vehicle exhaust particles and the source apportionment of on-line PM2.5 by single particle aerosol mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Ma, Shexia; Gao, Bo; Li, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yanjun; Cai, Jing; Li, Mei; Yao, Ling'ai; Huang, Bo; Zheng, Mei

    2017-09-01

    In order to accurately apportion the many distinct types of individual particles observed, it is necessary to characterize fingerprints of individual particles emitted directly from known sources. In this study, single particle mass spectral signatures from vehicle exhaust particles in a tunnel were performed. These data were used to evaluate particle signatures in a real-world PM2.5 apportionment study. The dominant chemical type originating from average positive and negative mass spectra for vehicle exhaust particles are EC species. Four distinct particle types describe the majority of particles emitted by vehicle exhaust particles in this tunnel. Each particle class is labeled according to the most significant chemical features in both average positive and negative mass spectral signatures, including ECOC, NaK, Metal and PAHs species. A single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was also employed during the winter of 2013 in Guangzhou to determine both the size and chemical composition of individual atmospheric particles, with vacuum aerodynamic diameter (dva) in the size range of 0.2-2μm. A total of 487,570 particles were chemically analyzed with positive and negative ion mass spectra and a large set of single particle mass spectra was collected and analyzed in order to identify the speciation. According to the typical tracer ions from different source types and classification by the ART-2a algorithm which uses source fingerprints for apportioning ambient particles, the major sources of single particles were simulated. Coal combustion, vehicle exhaust, and secondary ion were the most abundant particle sources, contributing 28.5%, 17.8%, and 18.2%, respectively. The fraction with vehicle exhaust species particles decreased slightly with particle size in the condensation mode particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-Calibration Approach for Mixed Signal Circuits in Systems-on-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, In-Seok

    MOSFET scaling has served industry very well for a few decades by proving improvements in transistor performance, power, and cost. However, they require high test complexity and cost due to several issues such as limited pin count and integration of analog and digital mixed circuits. Therefore, self-calibration is an excellent and promising method to improve yield and to reduce manufacturing cost by simplifying the test complexity, because it is possible to address the process variation effects by means of self-calibration technique. Since the prior published calibration techniques were developed for a specific targeted application, it is not easy to be utilized for other applications. In order to solve the aforementioned issues, in this dissertation, several novel self-calibration design techniques in mixed-signal mode circuits are proposed for an analog to digital converter (ADC) to reduce mismatch error and improve performance. These are essential components in SOCs and the proposed self-calibration approach also compensates the process variations. The proposed novel self-calibration approach targets the successive approximation (SA) ADC. First of all, the offset error of the comparator in the SA-ADC is reduced using the proposed approach by enabling the capacitor array in the input nodes for better matching. In addition, the auxiliary capacitors for each capacitor of DAC in the SA-ADC are controlled by using synthesized digital controller to minimize the mismatch error of the DAC. Since the proposed technique is applied during foreground operation, the power overhead in SA-ADC case is minimal because the calibration circuit is deactivated during normal operation time. Another benefit of the proposed technique is that the offset voltage of the comparator is continuously adjusted for every step to decide one-bit code, because not only the inherit offset voltage of the comparator but also the mismatch of DAC are compensated simultaneously. Synthesized digital

  2. Biomonitoring of essential and toxic metals in single hair using on-line solution-based calibration in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Valderi L; Pozebon, Dirce; Mesko, Marcia Foster; Matusch, Andreas; Kumtabtim, Usarat; Wu, B; Sabine Becker, J

    2010-10-15

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been established as a powerful and sensitive surface analytical technique for the determination of concentration and distribution of trace metals within biological systems at micrometer spatial resolution. LA-ICP-MS allows easy quantification procedures if suitable standard references materials (SRM) are available. In this work a new SRM-free approach of solution-based calibration method in LA-ICP-MS for element quantification in hair is described. A dual argon flow of the carrier gas and nebulizer gas is used. A dry aerosol produced by laser ablation (LA) of biological sample and a desolvated aerosol generated by pneumatic nebulization (PN) of standard solutions are carried by two different flows of argon as carrier or nebulizer gas, respectively and introduced separately in the injector tube of a special ICP torch, through two separated apertures. Both argon flows are mixed directly in the ICP torch. External calibration via defined standard solutions before analysis of single hair was employed as calibration strategy. A correction factor, calculated using hair with known analyte concentration (measured by ICP-MS), is applied to correct the different elemental sensitivities of ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS. Calibration curves are obtained by plotting the ratio of analyte ion M(+)/(34)S(+) ion intensities measured using LA-ICP-MS in dependence of analyte concentration in calibration solutions. Matrix-matched on-line calibration in LA-ICP-MS is carried out by ablating of human hair strands (mounted on a sticky tape in the LA chamber) using a focused laser beam in parallel with conventional nebulization of calibration solutions. Calibrations curves of Li, Na, Mg, Al, K, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, I, Hg, Pb, Tl, Bi and U are presented. The linear correlation coefficients (R) of calibration curves for analytes were typically between 0.97 and 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) of

  3. Accelerated dynamic cardiac MRI exploiting sparse-Kalman-smoother self-calibration and reconstruction (k  -  t SPARKS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Suhyung; Park, Jaeseok

    2015-05-07

    Accelerated dynamic MRI, which exploits spatiotemporal redundancies in k  -  t space and coil dimension, has been widely used to reduce the number of signal encoding and thus increase imaging efficiency with minimal loss of image quality. Nonetheless, particularly in cardiac MRI it still suffers from artifacts and amplified noise in the presence of time-drifting coil sensitivity due to relative motion between coil and subject (e.g. free breathing). Furthermore, a substantial number of additional calibrating signals is to be acquired to warrant accurate calibration of coil sensitivity. In this work, we propose a novel, accelerated dynamic cardiac MRI with sparse-Kalman-smoother self-calibration and reconstruction (k  -  t SPARKS), which is robust to time-varying coil sensitivity even with a small number of calibrating signals. The proposed k  -  t SPARKS incorporates Kalman-smoother self-calibration in k  -  t space and sparse signal recovery in x  -   f space into a single optimization problem, leading to iterative, joint estimation of time-varying convolution kernels and missing signals in k  -  t space. In the Kalman-smoother calibration, motion-induced uncertainties over the entire time frames were included in modeling state transition while a coil-dependent noise statistic in describing measurement process. The sparse signal recovery iteratively alternates with the self-calibration to tackle the ill-conditioning problem potentially resulting from insufficient calibrating signals. Simulations and experiments were performed using both the proposed and conventional methods for comparison, revealing that the proposed k  -  t SPARKS yields higher signal-to-error ratio and superior temporal fidelity in both breath-hold and free-breathing cardiac applications over all reduction factors.

  4. Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentration in Type 1 Diabetics Using Single Order Sliding Mode Control Combined with Fuzzy On-line Tunable Gain, a Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinani, Soudabeh Taghian; Zekri, Maryam; Kamali, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is considered as a global affecting disease with an increasing contribution to both mortality rate and cost damage in the society. Therefore, tight control of blood glucose levels has gained significant attention over the decades. This paper proposes a method for blood glucose level regulation in type 1 diabetics. The control strategy is based on combining the fuzzy logic theory and single order sliding mode control (SOSMC) to improve the properties of sliding mode control method and to alleviate its drawbacks. The aim of the proposed controller that is called SOSMC combined with fuzzy on-line tunable gain is to tune the gain of the controller adaptively. This merit causes a less amount of control effort, which is the rate of insulin delivered to the patient body. As a result, this method can decline the risk of hypoglycemia, a lethal phenomenon in regulating blood glucose level in diabetics caused by a low blood glucose level. Moreover, it attenuates the chattering observed in SOSMC significantly. It is worth noting that in this approach, a mathematical model called minimal model is applied instead of the intravenously infused insulin-blood glucose dynamics. The simulation results demonstrate a good performance of the proposed controller in meal disturbance rejection and robustness against parameter changes. In addition, this method is compared to fuzzy high-order sliding mode control (FHOSMC) and the superiority of the new method compared to FHOSMC is shown in the results.

  5. Real-time self-calibration of a tracked augmented reality display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Zachary; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2016-03-01

    PURPOSE: Augmented reality systems have been proposed for image-guided needle interventions but they have not become widely used in clinical practice due to restrictions such as limited portability, low display refresh rates, and tedious calibration procedures. We propose a handheld tablet-based self-calibrating image overlay system. METHODS: A modular handheld augmented reality viewbox was constructed from a tablet computer and a semi-transparent mirror. A consistent and precise self-calibration method, without the use of any temporary markers, was designed to achieve an accurate calibration of the system. Markers attached to the viewbox and patient are simultaneously tracked using an optical pose tracker to report the position of the patient with respect to a displayed image plane that is visualized in real-time. The software was built using the open-source 3D Slicer application platform's SlicerIGT extension and the PLUS toolkit. RESULTS: The accuracy of the image overlay with image-guided needle interventions yielded a mean absolute position error of 0.99 mm (95th percentile 1.93 mm) in-plane of the overlay and a mean absolute position error of 0.61 mm (95th percentile 1.19 mm) out-of-plane. This accuracy is clinically acceptable for tool guidance during various procedures, such as musculoskeletal injections. CONCLUSION: A self-calibration method was developed and evaluated for a tracked augmented reality display. The results show potential for the use of handheld image overlays in clinical studies with image-guided needle interventions.

  6. A four channel, self-calibrating, high resolution, time to digital converter

    CERN Document Server

    Mota, M

    1998-01-01

    A four channel, self-calibrating, High Resolution Time to Digital Converter (HRTDC) with an RMS error of 35 ps over a dynamic range of 3.2 \\mu s has been developed. Its architecture is based on an arr ay of delay locked loops and an 8-bit coarse time counter driven by an 80 MHz reference clock. Time measurements are buffered in two time registers per channel followed by a common 32 words deep read- out FIFO. The HRTDC has been built in a 0.7 \\mu m CMOS process using 23 mm^2 of silicon area.

  7. Built-in-Self-Test and Digital Self-Calibration for RF SoCs

    CERN Document Server

    Bou-Sleiman, Sleiman

    2012-01-01

    This book will introduce design methodologies, known as Built-in-Self-Test (BiST) and Built-in-Self-Calibration (BiSC), which enhance the robustness of radio frequency (RF) and millimeter wave (mmWave) integrated circuits (ICs). These circuits are used in current and emerging communication, computing, multimedia and biomedical products and microchips. The design methodologies presented will result in enhancing the yield (percentage of working chips in a high volume run) of RF and mmWave ICs which will enable successful manufacturing of such microchips in high volume. 

  8. An innovative method for coordinate measuring machine one-dimensional self-calibration with simplified experimental process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cheng; Butler, David Lee

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, an innovative method for CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine) self-calibration is proposed. In contrast to conventional CMM calibration that relies heavily on a high precision reference standard such as a laser interferometer, the proposed calibration method is based on a low-cost artefact which is fabricated with commercially available precision ball bearings. By optimizing the mathematical model and rearranging the data sampling positions, the experimental process and data analysis can be simplified. In mathematical expression, the samples can be minimized by eliminating the redundant equations among those configured by the experimental data array. The section lengths of the artefact are measured at arranged positions, with which an equation set can be configured to determine the measurement errors at the corresponding positions. With the proposed method, the equation set is short of one equation, which can be supplemented by either measuring the total length of the artefact with a higher-precision CMM or calibrating the single point error at the extreme position with a laser interferometer. In this paper, the latter is selected. With spline interpolation, the error compensation curve can be determined. To verify the proposed method, a simple calibration system was set up on a commercial CMM. Experimental results showed that with the error compensation curve uncertainty of the measurement can be reduced to 50%.

  9. A self-calibration method for tri-axis rotational inertial navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pengyu; Li, Kui; Wang, Lei; Liu, Zengjun

    2016-11-01

    The navigation accuracy of the rotational inertial navigation system (RINS) could be greatly improved by periodically rotating the inertial measurement unit (IMU) with gimbals. However, error parameters in RINS should be effectively calibrated and compensated. In this paper, a self-calibration method is proposed for tri-axis RINS using attitude errors and velocity errors as measurements. The proposed calibration scheme is designed as three separate steps, and a certain gimbal rotates continuously in each step. All the error parameters in the RINS are calibrated when the whole scheme finishes. The separate calibration steps reduce the correlations between error parameters, and the observability of errors in this method is clear to demonstrate according to the relations between navigation errors and error parameters when gimbals rotate. Each calibration step only lasts 12 min, thus gyro drifts and accelerometers biases could be regarded as constant. The proposed calibration scheme is tested in both simulation and actual tri-axis RINS, and simulation and experimental results show that all 23 error parameters could be well estimated in tri-axis RINS. A long-term vehicle navigation experiment results show that after calibration and compensation, the navigation performance has doubled approximately, and the velocity accuracy is less than 2 m s-1 while the position accuracy is less than 1500 m, fully illustrating the significance of the proposed self-calibration method in improving the navigation performance of RINS.

  10. Optimal arrangements of scanning heads for self-calibration of angle encoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Dong, Zeguang; Ding, Ye; Liu, Pinkuan

    2017-10-01

    The calibration of the angle encoder is necessary to improve the accuracy of angle measurement in precision rotating devices. Due to the characteristics of in situ calibration of encoders, self-calibration methods depending on special arrangements of multiple scanning heads have been widely used. Conventional works usually arrange the scanning heads in a regularly distributed way, generally involving too many scanning heads, especially when more high order Fourier components of the encoder error are calibrated. This paper presents an optimization-based arrangement method for self-calibration of angle encoders. Fourier approaches are used to determine the error of encoder from the angle differences measured between scanning heads. The relations between detectable Fourier components of the error and angular intervals of the heads are obtained from the properties of transfer functions. The optimal arrangements for two and three scanning heads, including the adjustment tolerances of the heads with the range of tested Fourier orders, are presented. The results of simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed optimal schemes can realize the same performance of calibration but with fewer scanning heads, compared to the conventional methods.

  11. Self-Calibration Method Based on Surface Micromaching of Light Transceiver Focal Plane for Optical Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In remote sensing photogrammetric applications, inner orientation parameter (IOP calibration of remote sensing camera is a prerequisite for determining image position. However, achieving such a calibration without temporal and spatial limitations remains a crucial but unresolved issue to date. The accuracy of IOP calibration methods of a remote sensing camera determines the performance of image positioning. In this paper, we propose a high-accuracy self-calibration method without temporal and spatial limitations for remote sensing cameras. Our method is based on an auto-collimating dichroic filter combined with a surface micromachining (SM point-source focal plane. The proposed method can autonomously complete IOP calibration without the need of outside reference targets. The SM procedure is used to manufacture a light transceiver focal plane, which integrates with point sources, a splitter, and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensor. A dichroic filter is used to fabricate an auto-collimation light reflection element. The dichroic filter, splitter, and SM point-source focal plane are integrated into a camera to perform an integrated self-calibration. Experimental measurements confirm the effectiveness and convenience of the proposed method. Moreover, the method can achieve micrometer-level precision and can satisfactorily complete real-time calibration without temporal or spatial limitations.

  12. Multi-Source Self-Calibration: Unveiling the microJy Population of Compact Radio Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Radcliffe, Jack F; Beswick, Rob J; Muxlow, Tom W B; Barthel, Peter; Deller, Adam T; Middelberg, Enno

    2016-01-01

    Context. Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data are extremely sensitive to the phase stability of the VLBI array. This is especially important when we reach {\\mu}Jy r.m.s. sensitivities. Calibration using standard phase referencing techniques is often used to improve the phase stability of VLBI data but the results are often not optimal. This is evident in blank fields that do not have in-beam calibrators. Aims. We present a calibration algorithm termed Multi-Source Self-Calibration (MSSC) which can be used after standard phase referencing on wide-field VLBI observations. This is tested on a 1.6 GHz wide-field VLBI data set of the Hubble Deep Field-North and the Hubble Flanking Fields. Methods. MSSC uses multiple target sources detected in the field via standard phase referencing techniques and modifies the visibili- ties so that each data set approximates to a point source. These are combined to increase the signal to noise and permit self-calibration. In principle, this should allow residual phase ch...

  13. Capabilities and limitations of the self-calibration of angle encoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geckeler, Ralf D.; Link, Alfred; Krause, Michael; Elster, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), a self-calibration method for the fast and precise in situ calibration of angle encoders without recourse to external reference standards has been developed. It relies on a suitable geometric arrangement of multiple reading heads which read out the radial grating of the angle encoder at different angular positions. Fourier-based algorithms are used to analyse the measurement differences of pairs of heads to recover the graduation error of the grating. A comprehensive overview, both theoretical and experimental, of the capabilities and limitations of the self-calibration method is presented, including experimental data obtained with the high-precision primary angle standard of PTB. The evaluation and, where it is possible, correction of error influences due to lateral shifts of the centre of the encoder's grating during its rotation, including its eccentricity, the reading heads’ angular positions, and their non-uniform response, are discussed in detail, as well as the resulting uncertainty budget.

  14. Self-calibrating ultra-low noise, wide-bandwidth optomechanical accelerometer

    CERN Document Server

    Cervantes, Felipe Guzman; Pratt, Jon; Taylor, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The reflection spectrum of an optical cavity is exquisitely sensitive to length variations, enabling precise and accurate displacement measurements. When combined with mechanical oscillators, such cavities can yield accelerometers of unprecedented resolution. Previously, accelerometer sensitivity enhancements were achieved by lowering the sensor's natural frequency and bandwidth. Detection near the thermal limit was achieved, but at high acceleration levels due to low oscillator mass. We present a novel self-calibrating accelerometer, capable of reaching nano-gn/rtHz sensitivities (micro-Gal/rtHz -- 1gn=9.81 m/s^2 -- equivalent displacement of attometer/rtHz) over a bandwidth of several kHz, and compare its accuracy to a calibrated commercial system. It consists of a compact (10.6 x 15 mm), high-mQ (5kg) fused-silica oscillator that utilizes fiber-optic micro-mirror cavities, for self-calibrated detection of the motions of its test-mass. This device provides a substantial improvement over conventional systems...

  15. Self-calibration wavelength modulation spectroscopy for acetylene detection based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qin-Bin; Xu, Xue-Mei; Li, Chen-Jing; Ding, Yi-Peng; Cao, Can; Yin, Lin-Zi; Ding, Jia-Feng

    2016-11-01

    The expressions of the second harmonic (2f) signal are derived on the basis of absorption spectral and lock-in theories. A parametric study indicates that the phase shift between the intensity and wavelength modulation makes a great contribution to the 2f signal. A self-calibration wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) method based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is applied, combining the advantages of ambient pressure, temperature suppression, and phase-shift influences elimination. Species concentration is retrieved simultaneously from selected 2f signal pairs of measured and reference WMS-2f spectra. The absorption line of acetylene (C2H2) at 1530.36 nm near-infrared is selected to detect C2H2 concentrations in the range of 0-400 ppmv. System sensitivity, detection precision and limit are markedly improved, demonstrating that the self-calibration method has better detecting performance than the conventional WMS. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61172047, 61502538, and 61501525).

  16. A Correlation of Raman and Single and Multiple Layer Graphene Conductivity As Detected With A Cryogenic Multiprobe AFM With On-line Raman, NSOM and Other SPM Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Aaron; Zinoviev, Oleg; Komissar, Anatoly; Maayan, Eran; Lewis, David

    2015-03-01

    It is a challenge to study 2D materials, such as Graphene, MoS2, WeSe2, etc. at temperatures down to 10°K when considering the wide variety of physical phenomena that must be applied for a full picture of the functionality of these materials. This involves questions of structure, nanometric photoconductivity, electrical properties, thermal properties, near-field optical in the apertured & scattering modes, Kelvin probe, and Raman. These phenomena are common not only to 2D materials but also to carbon nanotubes and related nanomaterials. This presentation will describe the instrumental development of such a multiprobe cryogenic system that allows for state of the art on-line optical measurements and will also include a review of the probe developments that permit such multifunctional multiprobe operation with on-line full optical access. This system has a completely free optical axis from above and below not obscured by electrical or other probes that have been developed for multiprobe operation. This permits on-line Raman and Tip Enhanced NanoRaman Scattering. With such a system we have investigated graphene and HfO2 using multiprobe electrical, Kelvin probe, NSOM and on-line Raman. The results have yielded new insights into chemical changes correlated to electrical conductivity.

  17. A low jitter supply regulated charge pump PLL with self-calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Chen; Yuntao, Liu; Zhichao, Li; Jingbo, Xiao; Jie, Chen

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a ring oscillator based low jitter charge pump PLL with supply regulation and digital calibration. In order to combat power supply noise, a low drop output voltage regulator is implemented. The VCO gain is tunable by using the 4 bit control self-calibration technique. So that the optimal VCO gain is automatically selected and the process/temperature variation is compensated. Fabricated in the 0.13 μm CMOS process, the PLL achieves a frequency range of 100-400 MHz and occupies a 190 × 200 μm2 area. The measured RMS jitter is 5.36 ps at a 400 MHz operating frequency. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research and Development Program of China (No. 2015CB352100).

  18. Design of self-calibrating controllers for heliostats in a solar power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheti, R. S.; Scott, P. F.

    1980-12-01

    A self-calibrating controller is developed for reducing installation and drive errors in a heliostat (steerable mirror used in solar/electric energy conversion). In this scheme, the heliostat periodically tracks the sun, which serves as a precision position reference. The difference between commanded and actual drive angles is used to estimate the coefficients of a model representing installation and drive errors. The calibrated model is then used to correct the drive actuator commands for these error sources when the heliostat is in a tracking mode (its principle mode of operation). Simulation results are given for a typical heliostat configuration with realistic errors. The algorithm is very effective in reducing beam steering errors. The concept is demonstrated using a prototype test apparatus and is shown to achieve an error reduction of more than 5:1.

  19. SimpleSTORM: a fast, self-calibrating reconstruction algorithm for localization microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köthe, Ullrich; Herrmannsdörfer, Frank; Kats, Ilia; Hamprecht, Fred A

    2014-06-01

    Although there are many reconstruction algorithms for localization microscopy, their use is hampered by the difficulty to adjust a possibly large number of parameters correctly. We propose SimpleSTORM, an algorithm that determines appropriate parameter settings directly from the data in an initial self-calibration phase. The algorithm is based on a carefully designed yet simple model of the image acquisition process which allows us to standardize each image such that the background has zero mean and unit variance. This standardization makes it possible to detect spots by a true statistical test (instead of hand-tuned thresholds) and to de-noise the images with an efficient matched filter. By reducing the strength of the matched filter, SimpleSTORM also performs reasonably on data with high-spot density, trading off localization accuracy for improved detection performance. Extensive validation experiments on the ISBI Localization Challenge Dataset, as well as real image reconstructions, demonstrate the good performance of our algorithm.

  20. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS A current-steering self-calibration 14-bit 100-MSPs DAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiu; Sheng, Fang; Ran, Li; Renzhong, Xie; Ting, Yi; Zhiliang, Hong

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a 14-bit, 100 MS/s CMOS digital-to-analog converter (DAC). Analog background self-calibration based on the concept of analog current trimming is introduced. A constant clock load switch driver, a calibration period randomization circuit and a return-to-zero output stage have been adopted to improve the dynamic performance. The chip has been manufactured in a SMIC 0.13-μm process and occupies 1.33 × 0.97 mm2 of the core area. The current consumption is 50 mA under 1.2/3.3 V dual power supplies for digital and analog, respectively. The measured differential and integral nonlinearity is 3.1 LSB and 4.3 LSB, respectively. The SFDR is 72.8 dB at a 1 MHz signal and a 100 MHz sampling frequency.

  1. Large-scale retrospective relative spectrophotometric self-calibration in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovič, Katarina; Percival, Will J.; Scodeggio, Marco; Ealet, Anne; Wachter, Stefanie; Garilli, Bianca; Guzzo, Luigi; Scaramella, Roberto; Maiorano, Elisabetta; Amiaux, Jérôme

    2017-05-01

    We consider the application of relative self-calibration using overlap regions to spectroscopic galaxy surveys that use slitless spectroscopy. This method is based on that developed for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by Padmanabhan et al. in that we consider jointly fitting and marginalizing over calibrator brightness, rather than treating these as free parameters. However, we separate the calibration of the detector to detector from the full-focal-plane exposure-to-exposure calibration. To demonstrate how the calibration procedure will work, we simulate the procedure for a potential implementation of the spectroscopic component of the wide Euclid survey. We study the change of coverage and the determination of relative multiplicative errors in flux measurements for different dithering configurations. We use the new method to study the case where the flat-field across each exposure or detector is measured precisely and only exposure-to-exposure or detector-to-detector variation in the flux error remains. We consider several base dither patterns and find that they strongly influence the ability to calibrate, using this methodology. To enable self-calibration, it is important that the survey strategy connects different observations with at least a minimum amount of overlap, and we propose an 'S'-pattern for dithering that fulfils this requirement. The final survey strategy adopted by Euclid will have to optimize for a number of different science goals and requirements. The large-scale calibration of the spectroscopic galaxy survey is clearly cosmologically crucial, but is not the only one. We make our simulation code public on github.com/didamarkovic/ubercal.

  2. Development of a Self-Calibrated MEMS Gyrocompass for North-Finding and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikhodko, Igor P.

    This Ph.D. dissertation presents development of a microelectromechanical (MEMS) gyrocompass for north-finding and north-tracking applications. The central part of this work enabling these applications is control and self-calibration architectures for drift mitigation over thermal environments, validated using a MEMS quadruple mass gyroscope. The thesis contributions are the following: • Adapted and implemented bias and scale-factor drifts compensation algorithm relying on temperature self-sensing for MEMS gyroscopes with high quality factors. The real-time self-compensation reduced a total bias error to 2 °/hr and a scale-factor error to 500 ppm over temperature range of 25 °C to 55 °C (on par with the state-of-the-art). • Adapted and implemented a scale-factor self-calibration algorithm previously employed for macroscale hemispherical resonator gyroscope to MEMS Coriolis vibratory gyroscopes. An accuracy of 100 ppm was demonstrated by simultaneously measuring the true and estimated scale-factors over temperature variations (on par with the state-of-the art). • Demonstrated north-finding accuracy satisfying a typical mission requirement of 4 meter target location error at 1 kilometer stand-off distance (on par with a GPS accuracy). Analyzed north-finding mechanizations trade-offs for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes and demonstrated measurements of the Earth's rotation (15 °/hr). • Demonstrated, for the first time, an angle measuring MEMS gyroscope operation for north-tracking applications in a +/-500 °/s rate range and 100 Hz bandwidth, eliminating both bandwidth and range constraints of conventional open-loop Coriolis vibratory gyroscopes. • Investigated hypothesis that surface-tension driven glass-blowing microfabrication can create highly spherical shells for 3-D MEMS. Without any trimming or tuning of the natural frequencies, a 1 MHz glass-blown 3-D microshell resonator demonstrated a 0.63 % frequency mismatch between two degenerate 4-node wineglass

  3. A preliminary result of self-calibration bundle adjustment of Chang'E-2 stereo imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiliang; Liu, Bin; Peng, Man; Di, Kaichang

    2014-05-01

    The high resolution lunar global images acquired by Chang'E-2 (CE-2) CCD camera orbiter are of great importance for lunar science research as well as preparation of the landing and surface operation of Chang'E-3 (CE-3) lunar rover. In this paper, a rigorous geometric model of CE-2 CCD camera is developed based on the push-broom imaging principle. A self-calibration bundle adjustment (SCBA) method is proposed to eliminate the inconsistencies between forward- and backward-looking images, which are caused by the inaccuracy of exterior orientation (EO) parameters and the uncertain relationship between the two CCD line arrays of the camera. The interior orientation (IO) model is refined by adding several additional parameters and the EO parameters are fitted by a third-order polynomial model. Strategies for ensuring the robustness and reliability of the solution are also adopted, including EO pseudo observations selection, reasonable weight determination, and truncated singular value decomposition method. After adjustment, the inconsistencies between the forward- and backward-looking images are eliminated effectively by reducing the image-space residuals from around 20 pixels to sub-pixel. Based on the adjustment, high precision DEM (Digital Elevation Model) and DOM (Digital Ortho Map) of a local area at Sinus Iridum (pre-selected CE-3 landing site) are generated automatically.

  4. A vision-based self-calibration method for robotic visual inspection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shibin; Ren, Yongjie; Zhu, Jigui; Yang, Shourui; Ye, Shenghua

    2013-12-03

    A vision-based robot self-calibration method is proposed in this paper to evaluate the kinematic parameter errors of a robot using a visual sensor mounted on its end-effector. This approach could be performed in the industrial field without external, expensive apparatus or an elaborate setup. A robot Tool Center Point (TCP) is defined in the structural model of a line-structured laser sensor, and aligned to a reference point fixed in the robot workspace. A mathematical model is established to formulate the misalignment errors with kinematic parameter errors and TCP position errors. Based on the fixed point constraints, the kinematic parameter errors and TCP position errors are identified with an iterative algorithm. Compared to the conventional methods, this proposed method eliminates the need for a robot-based-frame and hand-to-eye calibrations, shortens the error propagation chain, and makes the calibration process more accurate and convenient. A validation experiment is performed on an ABB IRB2400 robot. An optimal configuration on the number and distribution of fixed points in the robot workspace is obtained based on the experimental results. Comparative experiments reveal that there is a significant improvement of the measuring accuracy of the robotic visual inspection system.

  5. Adaptive optics self-calibration using differential OTF (dOTF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodack, Alexander T.; Knight, Justin M.; Codona, Johanan L.; Miller, Kelsey L.; Guyon, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate self-calibration of an adaptive optical system using differential OTF [Codona, JL; Opt. Eng. 0001; 52(9):097105-097105. doi:10.1117/1.OE.52.9.097105]. We use a deformable mirror (DM) along with science camera focal plane images to implement a closed-loop servo that both flattens the DM and corrects for non-common-path aberrations within the telescope. The pupil field modification required for dOTF measurement is introduced by displacing actuators near the edge of the illuminated pupil. Simulations were used to develop methods to retrieve the phase from the complex amplitude dOTF measurements for both segmented and continuous sheet MEMS DMs and tests were performed using a Boston Micromachines continuous sheet DM for verification. We compute the actuator correction updates directly from the phase of the dOTF measurements, reading out displacements and/or slopes at segment and actuator positions. Through simulation, we also explore the effectiveness of these techniques for a variety of photons collected in each dOTF exposure pair.

  6. Pose Self-Calibration of Stereo Vision Systems for Autonomous Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basam Musleh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, intelligent systems applied to vehicles have grown very rapidly; their goal is not only the improvement of safety, but also making autonomous driving possible. Many of these intelligent systems are based on making use of computer vision in order to know the environment and act accordingly. It is of great importance to be able to estimate the pose of the vision system because the measurement matching between the perception system (pixels and the vehicle environment (meters depends on the relative position between the perception system and the environment. A new method of camera pose estimation for stereo systems is presented in this paper, whose main contribution regarding the state of the art on the subject is the estimation of the pitch angle without being affected by the roll angle. The validation of the self-calibration method is accomplished by comparing it with relevant methods of camera pose estimation, where a synthetic sequence is used in order to measure the continuous error with a ground truth. This validation is enriched by the experimental results of the method in real traffic environments.

  7. Large-scale retrospective relative spectro-photometric self-calibration in space

    CERN Document Server

    Markovic, Dida; Scodeggio, Marco; Ealet, Anne; Wachter, Stefanie; Garilli, Bianca; Guzzo, Luigi; Scaramella, Roberto; Maiorano, Elisabetta; Amiaux, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    We consider the application of relative self-calibration using overlap regions to spectroscopic galaxy surveys based on slit-less spectroscopy. This method is based on that developed for the SDSS by Padmanabhan at al. (2008). We separate the calibration of the pixel-to-pixel (intra-detector, small-scale) flat field from the detector-to-detector (inter-detector, larger-scale) and exposure-to-exposure (full focal plane exposure) calibration and consider jointly fitting and marginalising over calibrator brightness, rather than treating these as free parameters, thereby simplifying and speeding up the calculation. To demonstrate how the calibration procedure will work, we simulate the procedure for a potential implementation of the spectroscopic component of the wide Euclid survey. We study the change of coverage and the determination of relative multiplicative errors in flux measurements for different dithering configurations. We use the new method to study the case where the flat-field across each exposure or d...

  8. Self-calibrated correlation imaging with k-space variant correlation functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Edalati, Masoud; Du, Xingfu; Wang, Hui; Cao, Jie J

    2017-07-07

    Correlation imaging is a previously developed high-speed MRI framework that converts parallel imaging reconstruction into the estimate of correlation functions. The presented work aims to demonstrate this framework can provide a speed gain over parallel imaging by estimating k-space variant correlation functions. Because of Fourier encoding with gradients, outer k-space data contain higher spatial-frequency image components arising primarily from tissue boundaries. As a result of tissue-boundary sparsity in the human anatomy, neighboring k-space data correlation varies from the central to the outer k-space. By estimating k-space variant correlation functions with an iterative self-calibration method, correlation imaging can benefit from neighboring k-space data correlation associated with both coil sensitivity encoding and tissue-boundary sparsity, thereby providing a speed gain over parallel imaging that relies only on coil sensitivity encoding. This new approach is investigated in brain imaging and free-breathing neonatal cardiac imaging. Correlation imaging performs better than existing parallel imaging techniques in simulated brain imaging acceleration experiments. The higher speed enables real-time data acquisition for neonatal cardiac imaging in which physiological motion is fast and non-periodic. With k-space variant correlation functions, correlation imaging gives a higher speed than parallel imaging and offers the potential to image physiological motion in real-time. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Self-calibration method of the bias of a space electrostatic accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Shao-Bo; Xia, Xiao-Mei; Bai, Yan-Zheng; Wu, Shu-Chao; Zhou, Ze-Bing

    2016-11-01

    The high precision space electrostatic accelerometer is an instrument to measure the non-gravitational forces acting on a spacecraft. It is one of the key payloads for satellite gravity measurements and space fundamental physics experiments. The measurement error of the accelerometer directly affects the precision of gravity field recovery for the earth. This paper analyzes the sources of the bias according to the operating principle and structural constitution of the space electrostatic accelerometer. Models of bias due to the asymmetry of the displacement sensing system, including the mechanical sensor head and the capacitance sensing circuit, and the asymmetry of the feedback control actuator circuit are described separately. According to the two models, a method of bias self-calibration by using only the accelerometer data is proposed, based on the feedback voltage data of the accelerometer before and after modulating the DC biasing voltage (Vb) applied on its test mass. Two types of accelerometer biases are evaluated separately using in-orbit measurement data of a space electrostatic accelerometer. Based on the preliminary analysis, the bias of the accelerometer onboard of an experiment satellite is evaluated to be around 10-4 m/s2, about 4 orders of magnitude greater than the noise limit. Finally, considering the two asymmetries, a comprehensive bias model is analyzed. A modified method to directly calibrate the accelerometer comprehensive bias is proposed.

  10. Pose Self-Calibration of Stereo Vision Systems for Autonomous Vehicle Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musleh, Basam; Martín, David; Armingol, José María; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2016-09-14

    Nowadays, intelligent systems applied to vehicles have grown very rapidly; their goal is not only the improvement of safety, but also making autonomous driving possible. Many of these intelligent systems are based on making use of computer vision in order to know the environment and act accordingly. It is of great importance to be able to estimate the pose of the vision system because the measurement matching between the perception system (pixels) and the vehicle environment (meters) depends on the relative position between the perception system and the environment. A new method of camera pose estimation for stereo systems is presented in this paper, whose main contribution regarding the state of the art on the subject is the estimation of the pitch angle without being affected by the roll angle. The validation of the self-calibration method is accomplished by comparing it with relevant methods of camera pose estimation, where a synthetic sequence is used in order to measure the continuous error with a ground truth. This validation is enriched by the experimental results of the method in real traffic environments.

  11. A fully intraocular high-density self-calibrating epiretinal prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Manuel; Raj, Mayank; Nazari, Meisam Honarvar; Chang, Han-Chieh; Zhao, Yu; Weiland, James D; Humayun, Mark S; Tai, Yu-Chong; Emami, Azita

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a fully intraocular self-calibrating epiretinal prosthesis with 512 independent channels in 65 nm CMOS. A novel digital calibration technique matches the biphasic currents of each channel independently while the calibration circuitry is shared among every 4 channels. Dual-band telemetry for power and data with on-chip rectifier and clock recovery reduces the number of off-chip components. The rectifier utilizes unidirectional switches to prevent reverse conduction loss in the power transistors and achieves an efficiency > 80%. The data telemetry implements a phase-shift keying (PSK) modulation scheme and supports data rates up to 20 Mb/s. The system occupies an area of 4.5 ×3.1 mm². It features a pixel size of 0.0169 mm² and arbitrary waveform generation per channel. In vitro measurements performed on a Pt/Ir concentric bipolar electrode in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) are presented. A statistical measurement over 40 channels from 5 different chips shows a current mismatch with μ = 1.12 μA and σ = 0.53 μA. The chip is integrated with flexible MEMS origami coils and parylene substrate to provide a fully intraocular implant.

  12. An improved self-calibration approach based on adaptive genetic algorithm for position-based visual servo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding LIU; Xiongjun WU; Yanxi YANG

    2008-01-01

    An improved self-calibrating algorithm for visual servo based on adaptive genetic algorithm is proposed in this paper.Our approach introduces an extension of Mendonca-Cipolla and G.Chesi's self-calibration for the positionbased visual servo technique which exploits the singular value property of the essential matrix.Specifically,a suitable dynamic online cost function is generated according to the property of the three singular values.The visual servo process is carried out simultaneous to the dynamic self-calibration,and then the cost function is minirmzed using the adaptive genetic algorithm instead of the gradient descent method in G.Chesi's approach.Moreover,this method overcomes the limitation that the initial parameters must be selected close to the true value,which is not constant in many cases.It is not necessary to know exactly the camera intrinsic parameters when using our approach,instead,coarse coding bounds ot the five parameters are enough for the algorithm,which can be done once and for all off-line.Besides,this algorithm does not require knowledge of the 3D model of the object.Simulation experiments are carried out and the results demonstrate that the proposed approach provides a fast convergence speed and robustness against unpredictable perturbalaons of camera parameters,and it is an effective and efficient visual scrvo algorithm.

  13. Simultaneous speciation of inorganic arsenic and antimony in water samples by hydride generation-double channel atomic fluorescence spectrometry with on-line solid-phase extraction using single-walled carbon nanotubes micro-column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Hong, E-mail: wuhong1968@hotmail.com; Wang Xuecui; Liu Bing; Liu Yueling; Li Shanshan; Lu Jusheng; Tian Jiuying; Zhao Wenfeng; Yang Zonghui

    2011-01-15

    A new method was developed for the simultaneous speciation of inorganic arsenic and antimony in water by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled with hydride generation-double channel atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-DC-AFS). The speciation scheme involved the on-line formation and retention of the ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complexes of As(III) and Sb(III) on a single-walled carbon nanotubes packed micro-column, followed by on-line elution and simultaneous detection of As(III) and Sb(III) by HG-DC-AFS; the total As and total Sb were determined by the same protocol after As(V) and Sb(V) were reduced by thiourea, with As(V) and Sb(V) concentrations obtained by subtraction. Various experimental parameters affecting the on-line solid-phase extraction and determination of the analytes species have been investigated in detail. With 180 s preconcentration time, the enrichment factors were found to be 25.4 for As(III) and 24.6 for Sb(III), with the limits of detection (LODs) of 3.8 ng L{sup -1} for As(III) and 2.1 ng L{sup -1} for Sb(III). The precisions (RSD) for five replicate measurements of 0.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} of As(III) and 0.2 {mu}g L{sup -1} of Sb(III) were 4.2 and 4.8%, respectively. The developed method was validated by the analysis of standard reference materials (NIST SRM 1640a), and was applied to the speciation of inorganic As and Sb in natural water samples.

  14. On-line spectrophotometric method for monitoring weak residual absorption of CaMoO{sub 4} single crystals near the intrinsic luminescence peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzanov, O. A., E-mail: fedorov-metrology@yandex.ru [OAO Fomos-Materials (Russian Federation); Kanevskii, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Kornoukhov, V. N. [OAO Fomos-Materials (Russian Federation); Nabatov, B. V.; Nabatov, V. V.; Fedorov, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    The optical and spectral characteristics of isotopically enriched Czochralski-grown {sup 40}Ca{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} single crystals have been investigated. This material is promising for detecting double neutrinoless {beta} decay. The possibility and the technique of spectrophotometric monitoring of weak residual absorption near the intrinsic luminescence peak of this scintillation material, which is designed for developing new-generation detectors of elementary particles, are considered.

  15. On-line spectrophotometric method for monitoring weak residual absorption of CaMoO4 single crystals near the intrinsic luminescence peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzanov, O. A.; Kanevskii, V. M.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Nabatov, B. V.; Nabatov, V. V.; Fedorov, V. A.

    2013-11-01

    The optical and spectral characteristics of isotopically enriched Czochralski-grown 40Ca100MoO4 single crystals have been investigated. This material is promising for detecting double neutrinoless β decay. The possibility and the technique of spectrophotometric monitoring of weak residual absorption near the intrinsic luminescence peak of this scintillation material, which is designed for developing new-generation detectors of elementary particles, are considered.

  16. Metrological Characterization of an Improved DSP-Based On-line Integrator for Magnetic Measurements at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, P; Spiezia, G

    2007-01-01

    An improved on-line version of the self-calibrating digital instrument for flux measurements on superconductive magnets for particle accelerators, prototyped at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in cooperation with the University of Sannio, is proposed. The instrument acquires voltage arising from rotating coils transducers. Then, the samples are online integrated and suitably processed in order to achieve flux analysis time down to 2.0 ìs, with resolution of 50 ns. Details about hardware and firmware conception, on-line measurement principle, and preliminary results of metrological characterization of the prototype are provided.

  17. Self-calibration of a cone-beam micro-CT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, V.; Chityala, R. N.; Hoffmann, K. R.; Ionita, C. N.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S. [Toshiba Stroke Research Center, Department of Physics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); The Supercomputing Institute for Advanced Computational Research, University of Minnesota at Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Toshiba Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Department of Physics, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, and Department of Computer Science and Engineering, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Toshiba Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Toshiba Stroke Research Center, Department of Radiology, Department of Neurosurgery, Department of Physics, and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Toshiba Stroke Research Center, Department of Radiology, Department of Neurosurgery, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, and Department of Electrical Engineering, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is becoming more frequent. For proper reconstruction, the geometry of the CBCT systems must be known. While the system can be designed to reduce errors in the geometry, calibration measurements must still be performed and corrections applied. Investigators have proposed techniques using calibration objects for system calibration. In this study, the authors present methods to calibrate a rotary-stage CB micro-CT (CB{mu}CT) system using only the images acquired of the object to be reconstructed, i.e., without the use of calibration objects. Projection images are acquired using a CB{mu}CT system constructed in the authors' laboratories. Dark- and flat-field corrections are performed. Exposure variations are detected and quantified using analysis of image regions with an unobstructed view of the x-ray source. Translations that occur during the acquisition in the horizontal direction are detected, quantified, and corrected based on sinogram analysis. The axis of rotation is determined using registration of antiposed projection images. These techniques were evaluated using data obtained with calibration objects and phantoms. The physical geometric axis of rotation is determined and aligned with the rotational axis (assumed to be the center of the detector plane) used in the reconstruction process. The parameters describing this axis agree to within 0.1 mm and 0.3 deg with those determined using other techniques. Blurring due to residual calibration errors has a point-spread function in the reconstructed planes with a full-width-at-half-maximum of less than 125 {mu}m in a tangential direction and essentially zero in the radial direction for the rotating object. The authors have used this approach on over 100 acquisitions over the past 2 years and have regularly obtained high-quality reconstructions, i.e., without artifacts and no detectable blurring of the reconstructed objects. This self-calibrating approach not only

  18. On-line simultaneous and rapid separation of anions and cations from a single sample using dual-capillary sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Adam J; Guijt, Rosanne M; Macka, Mirek; Hutchinson, Joseph P; Johns, Cameron; Hilder, Emily F; Dicinoski, Greg W; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Haddad, Paul R; Breadmore, Michael C

    2013-06-05

    A novel capillary electrophoresis (CE) approach has been developed for the simultaneous rapid separation and identification of common environmental inorganic anions and cations from a single sample injection. The method utilised a sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis instrument (SI-CE) with capacitively-coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) constructed in-house from commercial-off-the-shelf components. Oppositely charged analytes from a single sample plug were simultaneously injected electrokinetically onto two separate capillaries for independent separation and detection. Injection was automated and may occur from a syringe or be directly coupled to an external source in a continuous manner. Software control enabled high sample throughput (17 runs per hour for the target analyte set) and the inclusion of an isolation valve allowed the separation capillaries to be flushed, increasing throughput by removing slow migrating species as well as improving repeatability. Various environmental and industrial samples (subjected only to filtering) were analysed in the laboratory with a 3 min analysis time which allowed the separation of 23 inorganic and small organic anions and cations. Finally, the system was applied to an extended automated analysis of Hobart Southern Water tap water for a period of 48 h. The overall repeatability of the migration times of a 14 analyte standard sample was less than 0.74% under laboratory conditions. LODs ranged from 5 to 61 μg L(-1). The combination of automation, high confidence of peak identification, and low limits of detection make this a useful system for the simultaneous identification of a range of common inorganic anions and cations for discrete or continuous monitoring applications.

  19. Single photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with a pulsed electron beam pumped excimer VUV lamp for on-line gas analysis: setup and first results on cigarette smoke and human breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlberger, F; Streibel, T; Wieser, J; Ulrich, A; Zimmermann, R

    2005-11-15

    Single-photon ionization (SPI) using vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light produced by an electron beam pumped rare gas excimer source has been coupled to a compact and mobile time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS). The novel device enables real-time on-line monitoring of organic trace substances in complex gaseous matrixes down to the ppb range. The pulsed VUV radiation of the light source is employed for SPI in the ion source of the TOFMS. Ion extraction is also carried out in a pulsed mode with a short time delay with respect to ionization. The experimental setup of the interface VUV light source/time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described, and the novel SPI-TOFMS system is characterized by means of standard calibration gases. Limits of detection down to 50 ppb for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were achieved. First on-line applications comprised real-time measurements of aromatic and aliphatic trace compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke, which represents a highly dynamic fluctuating gaseous matrix. Time resolution was sufficient to monitor the smoking process on a puff-by-puff resolved basis. Furthermore, human breath analysis has been carried out to detect differences in the breath of a smoker and a nonsmoker, respectively. Several well-known biomarkers for smoke could be identified in the smoker's breath. The possibility for even shorter measurement times while maintaining the achieved sensitivity makes this new device a promising tool for on-line analysis of organic trace compounds in process gases or biological systems.

  20. First field application of a thermal desorption resonance-enhanced multiphoton-ionisation single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer for the on-line detection of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Markus; Elsasser, Michael; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2011-12-01

    The on-line analysis of single aerosol particles with mass spectrometrical methods is an important tool for the investigation of aerosols. Often, a single laser pulse is used for one-step laser desorption/ionisation of aerosol particles. Resulting ions are detected with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. With this method, the detection of inorganic compounds is possible. The detection of more fragile organic compounds and carbon clusters can be accomplished by separating the desorption and the ionisation in two steps, e.g. by using two laser pulses. A further method is, using a heated metal surface for thermal desorption of aerosol particles. If an ultraviolet laser is used for ionisation, a selective ionisation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkylated PAH is possible via a resonance-enhanced multiphoton-ionisation process. Laser velocimetry allows individual laser triggering for single particles and additionally delivers information on aerodynamic particle diameters. It was shown that particles deriving from different combustion sources can be differentiated according to their PAH patterns. For example, retene, a C(4)-alkylated phenanthrene derivative, is a marker for the combustion of coniferous wood. In this paper, the first field application of a thermal desorption resonance-enhanced multiphoton-ionisation single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer during a measurement campaign in Augsburg, Germany in winter 2010 is presented. Larger PAH-containing particles (i.e. with aerodynamic diameters larger than 1 μm), which are suspected to be originated by re-suspension processes of agglomerated material, were in the focus of the investigation. Due to the low concentration of these particles, an on-line virtual impactor enrichment system was used. The detection of particle-bound PAH in ambient particles in this larger size region was possible and in addition, retene could be detected on several particles, which allows to identify wood combustion as

  1. Real-time digital signal processor implementation of self-calibrating pulse-shape discriminator for high purity germanium

    CERN Document Server

    Suarez, R; Aalseth, C E; Hossbach, T W; Miley, H S

    2007-01-01

    Pulse-shape analysis of the ionization signals from germanium gamma-ray spectrometers is a method for obtaining information that can characterize an event beyond just the total energy deposited in the crystal. However, as typically employed, this method is data-intensive requiring the digitization, transfer, and recording of electronic signals from the spectrometer. A hardware realization of a real-time digital signal processor for implementing a parametric pulse shape is presented. Specifically, a previously developed method for distinguishing between single-site and multi-site gamma-ray interactions is demonstrated in an on-line digital signal processor, compared with the original off-line pulse-shape analysis routine, and shown to have no significant difference. Reduction of the amount of the recorded information per event is shown to translate into higher duty-cycle data acquisition rates while retaining the benefits of additional event characterization from pulse-shape analysis.

  2. Characterization of a self-calibrating, high-precision, stacked-stage, vertical dual-axis goniometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Marcus H; Henins, Albert; Windover, Donald; Cline, James P

    2016-06-01

    We present details on the alignment and calibration of a goniometer assembly consisting two stacked, optically encoded, vertical axis rotation stages. A technique for its calibration is presented that utilizes a stable, uncalibrated, third stage to position a mirror in conjunction with a nulling autocollimator. Such a system provides a self-calibrating set of angular stages with absolute accuracy of ±0.1 second of plane angle (k=2 expanded uncertainty) around the full circle, suitable for laboratory application. This calibration technique permits in situ, absolute angular calibration of an operational goniometer assembly that is requisite for fully traceable angle measurement, as the installation of the encoder is known to change its performance from the angular calibration data provided by the manufacturer.

  3. Development and Demonstration of a Self-Calibrating Pseudolite Array for Task Level Control of a Planetary Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Stephen M.; LeMaster, Edward A.

    2001-01-01

    Pseudolites can extend the availability of GPS-type positioning systems to a wide range of applications not possible with satellite-only GPS. One such application is Mars exploration, where the centimeter-level accuracy and high repeatability of CDGPS would make it attractive for rover positioning during autonomous exploration, sample collection, and habitat construction if it were available. Pseudolites distributed on the surface would allow multiple rovers and/or astronauts to share a common navigational reference. This would help enable cooperation for complicated science tasks, reducing the need for instructions from Earth and increasing the likelihood of mission success. Conventional GPS Pseudolite arrays require that the devices be pre-calibrated through a Survey of their locations, typically to sub-centimeter accuracy. This is a problematic task for robots on the surface of another planet. By using the GPS signals that the Pseudolites broadcast, however, it is possible to have the array self-survey its own relative locations, creating a SelfCalibrating Pseudolite Array (SCPA). This requires the use of GPS transceivers instead of standard pseudolites. Surveying can be done either at carrier- or code-phase levels. An overview of SCPA capabilities, system requirements, and self-calibration algorithms is presented in another work. The Aerospace Robotics Laboratory at Statif0id has developed a fully operational prototype SCPA. The array is able to determine the range between any two transceivers with either code- or carrier-phase accuracy, and uses this inter-transceiver ranging to determine the at-ray geometry. This paper presents results from field tests conducted at Stanford University demonstrating the accuracy of inter-transceiver ranging and its viability and utility for array localization, and shows how transceiver motion may be utilized to refine the array estimate by accurately determining carrier-phase integers and line biases. It also summarizes the

  4. Formación on line On line learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Grau-Perejoan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La formación on line es una modalidad de enseñanza a distancia basada en las nuevas tecnologías. En este artículo se pretende hacer una introducción a base de describir a grandes rasgos sus características principales: asincronía, no presencialidad, comunicación escrita, función del profesor on line, así como los retos, los riesgos, las ventajas y los inconvenientes que plantea. Se exponen las diferencias entre la formación on line y la formación presencial, de manera que los docentes puedan adaptar de la mejor manera posible sus propuestas formativas a la modalidad on line. Se introduce el importantísimo papel de la planificación y de la fase de diseño y, finalmente, se repasan conceptos útiles para comprender mejor el mundo de la formación on line como son los conceptos entorno virtual de aprendizaje (EVA o Blended Learning (B-Learning.On line learning is a type of distance education based on new technologies. This article's aim is to introduce its main characteristics -asynchrony, non-presentiality, written communication, e-teacher role- as well as its challenges, risks, advantages and limitations. Differences between on line learning and face-to-face learning are presented in order to enable educational professionals to adapt their courses to the on line methodology. Planning and designing are introduced as key phases and, finally, useful concepts such as Virtual Learning Environment (VLE or Blended Learning (B-Learning are reviewed in order to achieve a better understanding of the on line learning field.

  5. Exterior Parameter Self-calibration of Camera for Robot Vision%机器人视觉的摄像机外参数自标定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周书

    2012-01-01

    Camera calibration is an important element in the application of vision robot. A method of the exterior parameter self-calibration was presented for the robot vision system with a fixed camera. The basic principle of the proposed calibration method is to control the robot end undergo three sets tiny motions along three axes of the base frame respectively, then use the image information grabbed by the calibrated camera to calculate the exterior param- eters based on the relationship between the camera matrix and the matrix of the robot end to the robot base frame. Moreover, taking into account the effect of measurement and calculation noises, an orthonormalizing adjustment was also given to correctct the calibrated rotation matrix's orthonormality and error. The method is proved to have a good performance of accuracy and robustness, and is feasible of on-line camera calibration with some experiments on syn- thetic and real image.%摄像机标定是机器人视觉应用中的重要问题。针对摄像机固定的机器人视觉系统,提出一种摄像机外参数的自标定方法。该方法的基本思想是控制机器人末端沿基坐标系的3个坐标轴做3次平移运动,利用摄像机获取的图像信息,依据摄像机和机器人末端相对于基坐标系之间的位姿关系来计算摄像机的外参数。进一步,考虑测量噪声和计算噪声的影响,采用一种坐标轴正交归一化的方法对标定坐标系的方位进行修正。实验结果表明:该算法具有较好的精度和鲁棒性,可用于在线标定。

  6. Single photon ionization (SPI) via incoherent VUV-excimer light: robust and compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer for on-line, real-time process gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlberger, F; Wieser, J; Ulrich, A; Zimmermann, R

    2002-08-01

    Fast on-line detection of organic compounds from complex mixtures, such as industrial process gas streams, require selective and sensitive analytical methods. One feasible approach for this purpose is the use of mass spectrometry (MS) with a selective and soft (fragment-free) ionization technique, such as chemical ionization (CI) or photo ionization (PI). Single photon ionization (SPI) with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light is a particularly sof tionization technique, well-suited for detection of both aromatic and aliphatic species. Problematic, however, is the generation of the VUV light. In general, the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light sources for SPI-MS are based either on lasers (e.g., 118-nm radiation generated by frequency-tripling of the third harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser) or on conventional VUV lamps, such as deuterium lamps. Althoughthe laser-based techniques are very sophisticated and expensive, the conventional lamps have serious drawbacks regarding their optical parameters, such as low-output power, low spectral power density, and broad emission bands. In this work, a novel excimer VUV light source, in which an electron beam is used to form rare gas excimer species, is used. The excimer VUV light sourceproduces brilliant and intense VUV light. The novel VUV light source was coupled to a compact and mobile time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS). A special interface design, including optical (VUV optics) as well as electronic measures (e.g., pulsed ion extraction) was realized. The use of the excimer VUV lamp for SPI will allow the realization of very compact, rugged, and sensitive SPI-TOFMS devices, which preferably will be adapted for process analytical application or monitoring issues (e.g., chemical warfare detection). The excimer VUV-lamp technology delivers VUV light with a good beam quality and high-output power at low costs. Furthermore, it allows changing the emitted wavelength as well as the bandwidth of the excimer VUV lamp in t he 100-200-nm region

  7. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A 2-GS/s 6-bit self-calibrated flash ADC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youtao, Zhang; Xiaopeng, Li; Min, Zhang; Ao, Liu; Chen, Chen

    2010-09-01

    A single channel 2-GS/s 6-bit ADC with cascade resistive averaging and self foreground calibration is demonstrated in 0.18-μm CMOS. The calibration method based on DAC trimming improves the linearity and dynamic performance further. The peak DNL and INL are measured as 0.34 and 0.22 LSB, respectively. The SNDR and SFDR have achieved 36.5 and 45.9 dB, respectively, with 1.22 MHz input signal and 2 GS/s. The proposed ADC, including on-chip track-and-hold amplifiers and clock buffers, consumes 570 mW from a single 1.8 V supply while operating at 2 GS/s.

  8. Self-calibrating phase measurement based on diffraction theory and numerical simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liao; Qi, Qiu; Hao, Xian

    2015-02-01

    To achieve a full-aperture, diffraction-limited image, a telescope's segmented primary mirror must be properly phased. Furthermore, it is crucial to detect the piston errors between individual segments with high accuracy. Based on the diffraction imaging theory, the symmetrically shaped aperture with an arbitrarily positioned entrance pupil would focus at the optical axis with a symmetrical diffraction pattern. By selecting a single mirror as a reference mirror and regarding the diffraction image's center as the calibration point, a function can be derived that expresses the relationship between the piston error and the distance from the center of the inference image to the calibration point is linearity within one-half wavelength. These theoretical results are shown to be consistent with the results of a numerical simulation. Using this method, not only the piston error, but also the tip-tilt error can be detected. This method is simple and effective; it yields high-accuracy measurements and requires less computation time.

  9. Camera distortion self-calibration using the plumb-line constraint and minimal Hough entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Rosten, Edward

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a simple and robust method for self-correction of camera distortion using single images of scenes which contain straight lines. Since the most common distortion can be modelled as radial distortion, we illustrate the method using the Harris radial distortion model, but the method is applicable to any distortion model. The method is based on transforming the edgels of the distorted image to a 1-D angular Hough space, and optimizing the distortion correction parameters which minimize the entropy of the corresponding normalized histogram. Properly corrected imagery will have fewer curved lines, and therefore less spread in Hough space. Since the method does not rely on any image structure beyond the existence of edgels sharing some common orientations and does not use edge fitting, it is applicable to a wide variety of image types. For instance, it can be applied equally well to images of texture with weak but dominant orientations, or images with strong vanishing points. Finally, the me...

  10. Integration of Tracer Test Data to Refine Geostatistical Hydraulic Conductivity Fields Using Sequential Self-Calibration Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bill X Hu; Jiang Xiaowei; Wan Li

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of local measurements of hydraulic conductivity, geostatistical methods have been found to be useful in heterogeneity characterization of a hydraulic conductivity field on a regional scale. However, the methods are not suited to directly integrate dynamic production data, such as,hydraulic head and solute concentration, into the study of conductivity distribution. These data, which record the flow and transport processes in the medium, are closely related to the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity. In this study, a three-dimensional gradient-based inverse method-the sequential self-calibration (SSC) method-is developed to calibrate a hydraulic conductivity field,initially generated by a geostatistical simulation method, conditioned on tracer test results. The SSC method can honor both local hydraulic conductivity measurements and tracer test data. The mismatch between the simulated hydraulic conductivity field and the reference true one, measured by its mean square error (MSE), is reduced through the SSC conditional study. In comparison with the unconditional results, the SSC conditional study creates the mean breakthrough curve much closer to the reference true curve, and significantly reduces the prediction uncertainty of the solute transport in the observed locations. Further, the reduction of uncertainty is spatially dependent, which indicates that good locations, geological structure, and boundary conditions will affect the efficiency of the SSC study results.

  11. A 65 nm CMOS broadband self-calibrated power detector for the square kilometre array radio telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a 65 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS broadband self-calibrated high-sensitivity power detector for use in the Square Kilometre Array (SKA, the next-generation high-sensitivity radio telescope, is presented. The power detector calibration is performed by adjusting voltages at the bulk terminals of the input transistors to compensate for mismatches in the output voltages because of process, voltage and temperature variations. Measurements show that the power detector, preceded by an input power-match circuit with 6 dB gain, has an input signal range from −48 to −11 dBm over which a 0.95 dB maximum error in the detected power is observed when the calibration rate is 20 kHz. The proposed broadband power detector has a 3 dB upper band edge of 1.8 GHz, which adequately covers the midband SKA frequency range from 0.7 to 1.4 GHz. The settling time and the calibration time are both <5 μs. The circuit consumes 1.2 mW from a 1.2 V power supply and the input-match circuit consumes another 5.8 mW. The presented power detector achieves the best combination of the detection range and sensitivity of previously published circuits.

  12. Development and calibration of an air-floating six-axis force measurement platform using self-calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Wang, Xiaomeng; Li, Chengwei; Yi, Jiajing; Lu, Rongsheng; Tao, Jiayue

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the design, working principle, as well as calibration of an air-floating six-axis force measurement platform, where the floating plate and nozzles were connected without contact, preventing inter-dimensional coupling and increasing precision significantly. The measurement repeatability error of the force size in the platform is less than 0.2% full scale (FS), which is significantly better than the precision of 1% FS in the six-axis force sensors on the current market. We overcame the difficulties of weight loading device in high-precision calibration by proposing a self-calibration method based on the floating plate gravity and met the calibration precision requirement of 0.02% FS. This study has general implications for the development and calibration of high-precision multi-axis force sensors. In particular, the air-floating six-axis force measurement platform could be applied to the calibration of some special sensors such as flexible tactile sensors and may be used as a micro-nano mechanical assembly platform for real-time assembly force testing.

  13. A commercial elemental on-line coal analyzer using pulsed neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbot, Michael; Vouvopoulos, George; Paschal, Jonathan

    2001-07-01

    Because of its heterogeneity and the delay involved, traditional laboratory analysis of coal samples does not allow real time control of coal bulk parameters. Large excursions in important parameters (such as sulfur or calorific content) can be expensive and can be avoided with an on-line coal analyzer. The system that we developed utilizes nuclear reactions produced from fast and thermal neutrons and from neutron activation producing isotopes with half-lives longer than a few seconds. Characteristic gamma rays detected with BGO (bismuth germanate) detectors are used for the identification of the various chemical elements. The main features of the analyzer are elemental self-calibration independent of the coal seam; better accuracy in the determination of elements such as carbon, oxygen, and sodium; and diminished radiation risk. A prototype coal analyzer has been built and the first commercial model is currently being developed.

  14. CERN Video News on line

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The latest CERN video news is on line. In this issue : an interview with the Director General and reports on the new home for the DELPHI barrel and the CERN firemen's spectacular training programme. There's also a vintage video news clip from 1954. See: www.cern.ch/video or Bulletin web page

  15. A dual-emitting 4d-4f nanocrystalline metal-organic framework as a self-calibrating luminescent sensor for indoor formaldehyde pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ji-Na; Yan, Bing

    2016-06-09

    A dual-emissive 4d-4f Ag(i)-Eu(iii) functionalized MOF nanocomposite was fabricated and utilized as a self-calibrating luminescent nanoprobe for detecting indoor formaldehyde (FA). The implantation of Ag(+) ions can tune the dual-emissive characters of the material. FA can interact with the Ag(+) ions and induce opposite luminescence behaviors of the two emitters in the singular molecular material, thus realizing its recognition. This nanoprobe for FA exhibits many merits, such as excellent selectivity, high sensitivity with a detection limit of 51 ppb, fast response, room-temperature testing ability, easy preparation and low cost. This is the first example of a MOF-implicated self-calibrated sensor for indoor FA detection.

  16. A dual-emitting 4d-4f nanocrystalline metal-organic framework as a self-calibrating luminescent sensor for indoor formaldehyde pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ji-Na; Yan, Bing

    2016-06-01

    A dual-emissive 4d-4f Ag(i)-Eu(iii) functionalized MOF nanocomposite was fabricated and utilized as a self-calibrating luminescent nanoprobe for detecting indoor formaldehyde (FA). The implantation of Ag+ ions can tune the dual-emissive characters of the material. FA can interact with the Ag+ ions and induce opposite luminescence behaviors of the two emitters in the singular molecular material, thus realizing its recognition. This nanoprobe for FA exhibits many merits, such as excellent selectivity, high sensitivity with a detection limit of 51 ppb, fast response, room-temperature testing ability, easy preparation and low cost. This is the first example of a MOF-implicated self-calibrated sensor for indoor FA detection.A dual-emissive 4d-4f Ag(i)-Eu(iii) functionalized MOF nanocomposite was fabricated and utilized as a self-calibrating luminescent nanoprobe for detecting indoor formaldehyde (FA). The implantation of Ag+ ions can tune the dual-emissive characters of the material. FA can interact with the Ag+ ions and induce opposite luminescence behaviors of the two emitters in the singular molecular material, thus realizing its recognition. This nanoprobe for FA exhibits many merits, such as excellent selectivity, high sensitivity with a detection limit of 51 ppb, fast response, room-temperature testing ability, easy preparation and low cost. This is the first example of a MOF-implicated self-calibrated sensor for indoor FA detection. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedure, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, IR spectra, EDX mappings, ICP data, luminescence data, PXRD patterns, UV-Vis spectra, and XPS spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02446g

  17. The Self-Calibration Test of flowmeter installed in STELLA(Sodium Integral Effect Test Loop for Safety Simulation and Assessment) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Minhwan; Jeong, Ji-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study is to describe the procedure of the self-calibration test for the flowmeters and to analyze the result of the test. In this work, the test procedure of the self-calibration of two flowmeters (FT-101, FT-102) installed in STELLA facility was described and the test result was analyzed. In regard to the long-term SFR development plan, a large-scale sodium thermal-hydraulic test project is being progressed by KAERI. This project is called STELLA (Sodium Integral Effect Test Loop for Safety Simulation and Assessment), and it is proceeding by adopting the QA (Quality Assurance) program. Due to the specificity of an experiment using sodium(Na) categorized as Class 3(pyrophoric material and water-prohibiting substance) by the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act, it is necessary to apply QA in consideration of the sodium experiment environment in certain parts. The one of them is about calibration of measuring instrument such as a flowmeter, thermocouple and pressure gauge. It is described in the QAP (Quality Assurance Procedures) of KAERI that calibration work should be conducted in accordance with self-calibration procedures in a special case where conventional calibration is not practicable. The calibration of two flowmeters (FT-101, FT-102) installed in STELLA facility is the typical example. As a result of test, it was confirmed that the flowmeters meet the pass criterion. Therefore, it was concluded that the flowmeters maintain instrument capacity a year ago.

  18. [Study on online self-calibration technique for trace gas analyzer based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Jun-Qing; Liang, Bo

    2010-04-01

    After decades of development, the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) became one of the most promising techniques for online trace gas analyzing in process industry. Limited by its principle, the measurement result of TDLAS system is seriously affected by temperature and gas pressure variation. For this reason, most TDLAS systems employed temperature and pressure sensors, which can provide information for partly correcting the error. Theoretically, the gas absorption theory itself is not perfect enough to give an analytical relation between the measurement error and the temperature & pressure variation. Practically, temperature and pressure sensors are not available in some harsh working condition. To address these problems, an online self-calibration technique with a reference gas cell is proposed to compensate temperature and pressure variation induced measurement error in a TDLAS system. More specifically, a reference gas cell filled with known proportion target gas is placed on site, surrounded by working gas to be measured. The main body of the gas cell is made from a stainless tube, one end is a silica glass window and the other end is a reflector. A pressure bellows is connected to the middle of the stainless tube by a branch conduit. The pressure bellows can adaptively deform to keep the pressure balance between the inside and outside gas. Thereby, the temperature and pressure inside the reference cell are equal to that of the gas outside. To ensure the similarity between the reference gas cell and working gas cell, they share the same laser diode source and signal processing circuit. In one working cycle, the TDLAS system obtains the absorption spectrum of both gas cells synchronously. Then the concentration of the trace gas can be easily obtained by calculating the absorption intensity proportion of both absorption spectra without considering the affection of temperature and pressure. The principle, design, and experiments of this

  19. Connecting to On-line Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.; Astrophysics Datacenter Executive Committee (ADEC)

    2004-05-01

    The Astrophysics Datacenter Executive Committee (ADEC) is coordinating the development of a system to facilitate the linking to on-line data. This system has three components: 1. Unique dataset identifiers. 2. A verification system for identifiers. 3. Permanent links to on-line data sets. 1. The ADEC has agreed on a naming scheme for data sets that allows for the unique identification of any data set. The ADEC data centers will clearly mark their data with these identifiers to allow the generation of links to these data. 2. Each data center has a utility that can check whether a data set identifier is a valid identifier at that center. A central verifier allows third parties access to these individual verifiers through a single portal. 3. The central verifier also provides permanent links to data sets through a central link forwarding system. This makes it possible to move data sets between data centers while maintaining the permanent links. The ADEC plans to first use this system to implement the linking from the literature to on-line data in a collaboration with the AAS and the University of Chicago Press for the AAS journals.

  20. Self Calibrating Interferometric Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Schiøtt

    This thesis deals with the development of an optical sensor based on micro interferometric backscatter detection (MIBD). A price effective, highly sensitive and ready for mass production platform is the goal of this project. The thesis covers three areas. The first part of the thesis deals...... mask. The fabricated micro structures have been electroplated for later injection molding, showing the potential of the MIBD sensor to be mass produced with high reproducibility and sensitivity. In part three MIBD experiments on vital biological systems are described. Label–free binding studies of bio...

  1. Clean Air OnLine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, D. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Air Pollution Prevention Directorate

    2004-04-07

    This presentation describes Clean Air OnLine, a multi-tiered website dedicated to providing Canadians with information on air quality. The website is under development to support action to reduce air emissions, demonstrate the links between air emissions and environmental impacts, and enhance the understanding of sustainable community development issues such as health, energy, and urban sprawl. Partners in the Clean Air OnLine (CAOL) initiative include Environment Canada and the Clean Air Partnership which includes the Greater Toronto Area pilot project. The audience for CAOL includes municipal decision makers, local decision makers, community leaders, and the general public. The project provides Canadians with air pollution contextual information on pollution sources, pollutants, and related issues. It also provides information on health, environmental and economic impacts and the interrelationships with climate change issues and energy use. tabs., figs.

  2. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  3. Spatiotemporal analysis of droughts using self-calibrating Palmer's Drought Severity Index in the central region of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edossa, Desalegn C.; Woyessa, Yali E.; Welderufael, Worku A.

    2016-11-01

    The loss of life and property from drought events has forced society to focus on the development of reliable early warning systems which may enable farmers and other stakeholders to correctly and timely adapt to the expected impacts of climatic hazard. However, a scientific approach to a reliable early warning system for a region requires, among others, characterisation of drought events in the region in terms of duration, magnitude, intensity and frequency using standard drought indices. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify and characterise drought events in the Modder River basin, central region of South Africa, using a self-calibrated Palmer's Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI). Attempts were also made to establish a relationship between meteorological and hydrological drought events in the region. During the period of analysis, the total number of drought episodes identified in the study area ranged between eight and sixteen. It was found that the most severe drought episodes occurred during the period 1992-1995 followed by the period 1982-1987. Results of analysis of seasonal drought events in one of the quaternary catchments (C52A) revealed that peak drought events during the three summer months (November, December and January) occurred in the area in 1993. However, in terms of event magnitude and intensity, the worst drought events were recorded during the period December 1982-July 1987, followed by the event that ensued during December 1989-September 1995. Results of analysis of decadal variation of drought events showed that the number of extreme and moderate drought events recorded in the catchment showed statistically significant increasing trends during the five decades at 5 % significance level. Moreover, spectral analysis of sc-PDSI time series in the region identified periodicities in the time series ranging from 6 years (C52E) to 16 years (C52K). In terms of the spatial extent of extreme drought events, the maximum areal coverage (91

  4. PHENIX on-line systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, S.S.; Allen, M.; Alley, G.; Amirikas, R.; Arai, Y.; Awes, T.C.; Barish, K.N.; Barta, F.; Batsouli, S.; Belikov, S.; Bennett, M.J.; Bobrek, M.; Boissevain, J.G.; Boose, S.; Britton, C.; Britton, L.; Bryan, W.L.; Cafferty, M.M.; Carey, T.A.; Chang, W.C.; Chi, C.Y.; Chiu, M.; Cianciolo, V.; Cole, B.A.; Constantin, P.; Cook, K.C.; Cunitz, H.; Desmond, E.J.; Ebisu, K.; Efremenko, Y.V.; El Chenawi, K.; Emery, M.S.; Engo, D.; Ericson, N.; Fields, D.E.; Frank, S.; Frantz, J.E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A.D.; Fried, J.; Gannon, J.; Gee, T.F.; Gentry, R.; Giannotti, P.; Gustafsson, H.-A.; Haggerty, J.S.; Hahn, S.; Halliwell, J.; Hamagaki, H.; Hansen, A.G.; Hara, H.; Harder, J.; He, X.; Heistermann, F.; Hemmick, T.K.; Hibino, M.; Hill, J.C. E-mail: jhill@iastate.edu; Homma, K.; Jacak, B.V.; Jagadish, U.; Jia, J.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kandasamy, A.; Kang, J.H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Katou, K.; Kelley, M.A.; Kelly, S.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, S.Y.; Kim, Y.G.; Kistenev, E.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kurita, K.; Lajoie, J.G.; Lenz, M.; Lenz, W.; Li, X.H.; Lin, S.; Liu, M.X.; Markacs, S.; Matathias, F.; Matsumoto, T.; Mead, J.; Mischke, R.E.; Mishra, G.C.; Moore, A.; Muniruzzamann, M.; Musrock, M.; Nagle, J.L.; Nandi, B.K.; Newby, J.; Nystrand, J.; O' Brien, E.; O' Connor, P.; Ohnishi, H.; Oskarsson, A.; Osterman, L.; Oyama, K.; Paffrath, L.; Pancake, C.E.; Pantuev, V.S.; Petridis, A.N.; Pisani, R.P.; Plagge, T.; Plasil, F.; Purschke, M.L.; Rankowitz, S.; Rao, R.; Rau, M.; Read, K.F.; Ryu, S.S.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sato, H.D.; Seto, R.; Shiina, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Simon-Gillo, J.; Simpson, M.; Sippach, W.; Skank, H.D.; Skutnik, S.; Sleege, G.A.; Smith, G.D.; Smith, M.; Stankus, P.W.; Steinberg, P.; Sugitate, T.; Sullivan, J.P.; Taketani, A.; Tamai, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Thomas, W.D.; Todd, R.; Toldo, F.; Turner, G.; Ushiroda, T.; Velkovska, J.; Hecke, H.W. van; Lith, M. van; Villatte, L.; Achen, W. von; Walker, J.W.; Wang, H.Q.; White, S.N.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Witzig, C.; Wood, L.[and others

    2003-03-01

    The PHENIX On-Line system takes signals from the Front End Modules (FEM) on each detector subsystem for the purpose of generating events for physics analysis. Processing of event data begins when the Data Collection Modules (DCM) receive data via fiber-optic links from the FEMs. The DCMs format and zero suppress the data and generate data packets. These packets go to the Event Builders (EvB) that assemble the events in final form. The Level-1 trigger (LVL1) generates a decision for each beam crossing and eliminates uninteresting events. The FEMs carry out all detector processing of the data so that it is delivered to the DCMs using a standard format. The FEMs also provide buffering for LVL1 trigger processing and DCM data collection. This is carried out using an architecture that is pipelined and deadtimeless. All of this is controlled by the Master Timing System (MTS) that distributes the RHIC clocks. A Level-2 trigger (LVL2) gives additional discrimination. A description of the components and operation of the PHENIX On-Line system is given and the solution to a number of electronic infrastructure problems are discussed.

  5. CCD自准直仪示值漂移的自校准系统%Self-calibration System for the Value Drifts of CCD Autocollimator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊杰; 王震; 李政阳; 张俊秀

    2011-01-01

    When the digital autocollimator is put into use directly, its indications will drift and beat under the influence of environmental conditions such as air streams and the increasing heat of equipment itself, which leads to the measuring errors greatly increased and the measurement results could not return to zero. A fixed mirror which is added as a reference mirror makes the differential measurement with a working mirror and forms a self - calibration system, which could effectively reduce errors. The value of drift is 0. 03" in two hours when working mirror is only used and it reduces to 0. 01" after the adoption of a self- calibration system; the standard deviation of samples is 0. 0911" and it reduces to 0. 0574" after the self - calibration The self - calibration system of differential mirror could effectively reduce the indication errors of CCD autocollimator and plays an efficient role in reducing the indication beat. It is an effective way for the system to reduce the drift and beat of the equipment caused by beth the environmental conditions and the equipment themselves.%数显式自准直仪使用时,气流等环境条件的影响以及仪器本身发热等原因都会引起示值的漂移和跳动,使测量误差增大、测量结果不能回零.采用增加一块固定反光镜作为参考镜,它与工作反光镜以自准直仪进行差动,组成自校准系统,可以有效地进行消减.仅用工作反光镜时2 h内的漂移量为0.03",经自校准系统后为0.0l";样本标准偏差为0.091 1",经自校准后为0.057 4".差动式反光镜自校准系统可以显著减小CCD自准直仪的示值漂移,对减小示值跳动也具有一定作用.且无论是对环境条件还是仪器本身原因引起的漂移和跳动都是有效的.

  6. Energy Self-calibration and low-energy efficiency calibration for an underwater in-situ LaBr3:Ce spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Zhi; Ma, Hao; He, Jianhua; Cang, Jirong; Zeng, Ming; Cheng, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    An underwater in situ gamma ray spectrometer based on LaBr was developed and optimized to monitor marine radioactivity. The intrinsic background mainly from 138La and 227Ac of LaBr was well determined by low background measurement and pulse shape discrimination method. A method of self calibration using three internal contaminant peaks was proposed to eliminate the peak shift during long term monitoring. With experiments under different temperatures, the method was proved to be helpful for maintaining long term stability. To monitor the marine radioactivity, the spectrometer's efficiency was calculated via water tank experiment as well as Monte Carlo simulation.

  7. Temperature characteristics at altitudes of 5-80 km with a self-calibrated Rayleigh-rotational Raman lidar: A summer case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajuan; Lin, Xin; Yang, Yong; Xia, Yuan; Xiong, Jun; Song, Shalei; Liu, Linmei; Chen, Zhenwei; Cheng, Xuewu; Li, Faquan

    2017-02-01

    Temperature profiles at altitudes of 5-80 km are obtained with a self-calibrated Rayleigh-rotational Raman lidar over Wuhan, China (30.5°N, 114.5°E). By using the synchronous Rayleigh lidar temperature, rotational Raman temperature in the lower atmosphere could be calibrated and retrieved, which is free of other instruments (like local radiosondes). The results are comparable to the radiosonde calibration method. Based on the self-calibration approach, one-night (August 4-5, 2014) lidar temperature profiles are presented with radiosondes, NRLMSISE-00 model and TIMED/SABER data. Some interesting temperature characteristics have been present for studies of waves propagating from near ground level into the mesosphere. Temperature perturbations are found to increase exponentially with a scale height of 10 km. The wavy structure shows minimal perturbations ('nodes') at some altitudes of 39, 52, 64 and 73 km. Dominant wavelengths and temperature variations are also analyzed at different time and altitudes. By comparison of the temperature and associate perturbations from the tropopause up to the stratopause, different amplitudes, phase fronts and vertical wavelengths are discovered as well. These discoveries indicate that some waves may originate in the lower atmosphere and propagate upward with decreasing static stability.

  8. Are on-line currencies virtual banknotes?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen F. Quinn; William Roberds

    2003-01-01

    The history of money is marked by innovations that have expanded the role of "inside money"-money created by the private sector. For instance, the past few years have seen the development of several types of on-line payment arrangements, some of which have been dubbed "on-line currencies." ; This article examines the likely success or failure of on-line currencies by means of a historical analogy. The discussion compares the introduction of on-line currencies to the debut of the bearer bankno...

  9. 酶标仪自检方法的建立和应用评价%Establishment and Application of a Self-calibrating Approach for Microplate Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余久如; 黎增文; 潘桂红; 鞠萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a self-calibration method that monitors and corrects multiple performance indexes for microplate readers in a clinical setting. Methods According to the People's Republic of China national metrological verification regulations for ELISA analyzer,the performance status of a microplate reader Multiskan MK3 was checked by a spectrophotometer. Results Fore Multiskan MK3 microplate reader , readout stability (0.001A) ,wavelength error ( - 1. 0 nm ), wavelength repeatability ( 0nm ), absorbance error ( 0. 006A), Absorbance repeatability ( 0. 17%), sensitivity (0. 018L/mg) ,channel difference (0. 005A) and linear (1. 88%). These results were in line with those required by the regulation. Conclusion Clinical laboratories that bad advanced spectrophotometers may be able to perform self-calibration of microplate readers by following the method described above.%目的 建立酶标仪的自检方法,检定酶标仪的各项性能指标.方法 参照并利用分光光度计,对Multiskan MK3酶标仪各项性能指标进行检定.结果 Multiskan MK3酶标仪示值稳定性(0.001A)、波长示值误差(-1.0 nm)、波长重复性(0 nm)、吸光度示值误差(0.006 A)、吸光度重复性(0.17%)、灵敏度(0.018 L/mg)、通道差异(0.005A)及线性(1.88%)均检定合格.结论 具有性能优良分光光度计的临床实验室可进行酶标仪的自检.

  10. On line routing per mobile phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieding, Thomas; Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    On-line routing is concerned with building vehicle routes in an ongoing fashion in such a way that customer requests arriving dynamically in time are efficiently and effectively served. An indispensable prerequisite for applying on-line routing methods is mobile communication technology. Addition...

  11. Compact ultrafast orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer for on-line gas analysis by electron impact ionization and soft single photon ionization using an electron beam pumped rare gas excimer lamp as VUV-light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlberger, F; Saraji-Bozorgzad, M; Gonin, M; Fuhrer, K; Zimmermann, R

    2007-11-01

    Orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometers (oaTOFMS), which are exhibiting a pulsed orthogonal extraction of ion bunches into the TOF mass analyzer from a continuous primary ion beam, are well-suited for continuous ionization methods such as electron impact ionization (EI). Recently an electron beam pumped rare gas excimer lamp (EBEL) was introduced, which emits intensive vacuum UV (VUV) radiation at, e.g., 126 nm (argon excimer) and is well suited as the light source for soft single photon ionization (SPI) of organic molecules. In this paper, a new compact oaTOFMS system which allows switching between SPI, using VUV-light from an EBEL-light source, and conventional EI is described. With the oaTOFMS system, EBEL-SPI and EI mass spectral transients can be recorded at very high repetition rates (up to 100 kHz), enabling high duty cycles and therefore good detection efficiencies. By using a transient recorder card with the capability to perform on-board accumulation of the oaTOF transients, final mass spectra with a dynamic range of 106 can be saved to the hard disk at a rate of 10 Hz. As it is possible to change the ionization modes (EI and SPI) rapidly, a comprehensive monitoring of complex gases with highly dynamic compositions, such as cigarette smoke, is possible. In this context, the EI based mass spectra address the bulk composition (compounds such as water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, etc. in the up to percentage concentration range) as well as some inorganic trace gases such as argon, sulfur dioxide, etc. down to the low ppm level. The EBEL-SPI mass spectra on the other hand are revealing the organic composition down to the lower ppb concentration range.

  12. On-line generalized Steiner problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awerbuch, B.; Azar, Y.; Bartal, Y. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)

    1996-12-31

    The Generalized Steiner Problem (GSP) is defined as follows. We are given a graph with non-negative weights and a set of pairs of vertices. The algorithm has to construct minimum weight subgraph such that the two nodes of each pair are connected by a path. We consider the on-line generalized Steiner problem, in which pairs of vertices arrive on-line and are needed to be connected immediately. We give a simple O(log{sup 2} n) competitive deterministic on-line algorithm. The previous best online algorithm (by Westbrook and Yan) was O({radical}n log n) competitive. We also consider the network connectivity leasing problem which is a generalization of the GSP. Here edges of the graph can be either bought or leased for different costs. We provide simple randomized O(log{sup 2} n) competitive algorithm based on the on-line generalized Steiner problem result.

  13. The war against on-line piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Julian

    2011-01-01

    A summary by Julian Harris, Deputy General Editor Amicus Curiae, of US attempts to control what it identifies as rogue Internet sites engaged in on-line piracy and opposition to such legislative moves.

  14. On-Line Acquisitions by LOLITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances G. Spigai

    1970-12-01

    Full Text Available The on-line acquisition program (LOLITA in use at the Oregon State University Library is described in terms of development costs, equipment requirements, and overall design philosophy. In particular, the record format and content of records in the on-order file, and the on-line processing of these records (input, search, correction, output using a cathode ray tube display terminal are detailed.

  15. ACSEPP On-Line Electronic Payment Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-bin; ZHU Xian; HONG Fan

    2004-01-01

    With analyzing the existing on-line electronic payment protocols, this paper presents a new on-line electronic payment protocol named ACSEPP: Anonymous, Convenient and Secure Electronic Payment Protocol.Its aim is to design a practical electronic payment protocol which is both secure and convenient.Without using PKI_CA frame, it realized the anonymity of consumer and merchant, the convenient of handling, the low cost of maintenance and the security.

  16. A Self-Calibrating Runoff and Streamflow Remote Sensing Model for Ungauged Basins Using Open-Access Earth Observation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ate Poortinga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing pressures on water resources, there is a need to monitor regional water resource availability in a spatially and temporally explicit manner. However, for many parts of the world, there is insufficient data to quantify stream flow or ground water infiltration rates. We present the results of a pixel-based water balance formulation to partition rainfall into evapotranspiration, surface water runoff and potential ground water infiltration. The method leverages remote sensing derived estimates of precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, Leaf Area Index, and a single F coefficient to distinguish between runoff and storage changes. The study produced significant correlations between the remote sensing method and field based measurements of river flow in two Vietnamese river basins. For the Ca basin, we found R2 values ranging from 0.88–0.97 and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE values varying between 0.44–0.88. The R2 for the Red River varied between 0.87–0.93 and NSE values between 0.61 and 0.79. Based on these findings, we conclude that the method allows for a fast and cost-effective way to map water resource availability in basins with no gauges or monitoring infrastructure, without the need for application of sophisticated hydrological models or resource-intensive data.

  17. On-line matrix addition for detecting aerosol particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Liuzhu; ZHU; Yuan; GUO; Xiaoyong; ZHAO; Wenwu; ZHENG; Haiyang; Gu; Xuejun; FANG; Li; ZHANG; Weijun

    2006-01-01

    Single aerosol particles were measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) with an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS). The inlet to the ATOFMS was coupled with an evaporation/condensation flow cell that allowed matrix addition by condensation onto the particles. The coated particles entered the ion source through three-stage differentially pumped capillary inlet and were then ionized by a focused 266 nm Nd:YAG laser. The mass spectra and aerodynamic size of the single particles can be obtained simultaneously. The on-line matrix addition technique makes it possible to identify biological aerosols in real-time.

  18. The Design of Dual-Emissive Composite Material [Zn2(HL)3](+)@MOF-5 as Self-Calibrating Luminescent Sensors of Al(3+) Ions and Monoethanolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Meng; Wang, Jiao-Yang; Sun, Rui; Zhao, Cui; Zhao, Jiong-Peng; Che, Guang-Bo; Liu, Fu-Chen

    2017-08-21

    Introducing another chromophore into a luminescent MOF is a potential way to assembling novel dual-emissive luminescent materials. Putting the chromophore, for which luminescence can be enhanced by Zn(2+) ion, into MOF-5 by the "bottle around ship" strategy is a simple but efficient synthesis method to realize such dual-emissive materials. According to this strategy, a novel dual-emissive luminescent composite material [Zn2(HL)3](+)@MOF-5 was constructed by loading the [La3(HL)2L2(NO3)3H2O] (1) (H2L = 7,7'-(ethane-1,1'-diyl)8-hydro-quinoline) into MOF-5, in which the [Zn2(HL)3](+) anions were transformed from 1 with the existence of Zn(2+). The dual-emissive composite materials show excellent luminescence with two emissions of MOF-5 at 410 nm and [Zn2(HL)3](+) at 524 nm. Furthermore, by combining characteristics of MOF-5 and the guest chromophore, the composite material is highly selectively sensitive toward Al(3+) and monoethanolamine, which makes [Zn2(HL)3](+)@MOF-5 a potential self-calibrated fluorescence sensor.

  19. Combined use of a priori data for fast system self-calibration of a non-rigid multi-camera fringe projection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavroulakis, Petros I.; Chen, Shuxiao; Sims-Waterhouse, Danny; Piano, Samanta; Southon, Nicholas; Bointon, Patrick; Leach, Richard

    2017-06-01

    In non-rigid fringe projection 3D measurement systems, where either the camera or projector setup can change significantly between measurements or the object needs to be tracked, self-calibration has to be carried out frequently to keep the measurements accurate1. In fringe projection systems, it is common to use methods developed initially for photogrammetry for the calibration of the camera(s) in the system in terms of extrinsic and intrinsic parameters. To calibrate the projector(s) an extra correspondence between a pre-calibrated camera and an image created by the projector is performed. These recalibration steps are usually time consuming and involve the measurement of calibrated patterns on planes, before the actual object can continue to be measured after a motion of a camera or projector has been introduced in the setup and hence do not facilitate fast 3D measurement of objects when frequent experimental setup changes are necessary. By employing and combining a priori information via inverse rendering, on-board sensors, deep learning and leveraging a graphics processor unit (GPU), we assess a fine camera pose estimation method which is based on optimising the rendering of a model of a scene and the object to match the view from the camera. We find that the success of this calibration pipeline can be greatly improved by using adequate a priori information from the aforementioned sources.

  20. 新型自检脉搏传感器的研制%New type pulse transducer of self-calibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东青; 王元昔

    2001-01-01

    The new type self-calibration pulse transducer will transform the pulse of human body to the electric signal for the measurement and analyse.It will make an objective distinguish standard for the traditional Chinese medical science to reveal the modern scientific substance of diagnose pulse. This essay will introduce the design, technique and working principle of the pulse transducer and analyse for the result of measurement.%新型自检脉搏传感器是将人体脉搏波转化为电信号进行测量和分析,它对中医的脉象有了一个客观的分辨标准,便于揭开脉诊现代科学本质。介绍新型自检脉搏传感器的设计及工艺,阐述了该传感器的工作原理,最后对测试的结果进行分析。

  1. Formación on line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Grau-Perejoan

    Full Text Available La formación on line es una modalidad de enseñanza a distancia basada en las nuevas tecnologías. En este artículo se pretende hacer una introducción a base de describir a grandes rasgos sus características principales: asincronía, no presencialidad, comunicación escrita, función del profesor on line, así como los retos, los riesgos, las ventajas y los inconvenientes que plantea. Se exponen las diferencias entre la formación on line y la formación presencial, de manera que los docentes puedan adaptar de la mejor manera posible sus propuestas formativas a la modalidad on line. Se introduce el importantísimo papel de la planificación y de la fase de diseño y, finalmente, se repasan conceptos útiles para comprender mejor el mundo de la formación on line como son los conceptos entorno virtual de aprendizaje (EVA o Blended Learning (B-Learning.

  2. First on-line $\\beta$-NMR on oriented nuclei magnetic dipole moments of the $\

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, T; Stone, N J; Van Esbroeck, K; White, G; Wöhr, A; Veskovic, M; Towner, I S; Mantica, P F; Prisciandaro, J I; Morrissey, D J; Fedosseev, V; Mishin, V I; Köster, U; Walters, W B

    2000-01-01

    The first fully on-line use of the angular distribution of $\\beta$ - emission in detection of NMR of nuclei oriented at low temperatures is reported. The magnetic moments of the single valence particle, intermediate mass, isotopes $^{67}$Ni($\

  3. On line routing per mobile phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieding, Thomas; Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    . Additionally it is of utmost importance that the employed communication system is suitable integrated with the firm’s enterprise application system and business processes. On basis of a case study, we describe in this paper a system that is cheap and easy to implement due to the use of simple mobile phones......On-line routing is concerned with building vehicle routes in an ongoing fashion in such a way that customer requests arriving dynamically in time are efficiently and effectively served. An indispensable prerequisite for applying on-line routing methods is mobile communication technology...

  4. Educational On-Line Gaming Propensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Educational on-line games are promising for new generations of students who are grown up digital. Th e new generations of students are technology savvy and spend lots of time on the web and on social networks. Based on an exploratory study, this article investigates the factors that infl uence...... students’ willingness to participate in serious games for teaching/learning. Th is study investigates the relationship between students’ behavior on Facebook, Facebook games, and their attitude toward educational on-line games. Th e results of the study reveal that the early adopters of educational games...

  5. ON-LINE DOCUMENTS CONTENT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILESCU RAMONA VIOLETA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the steps and technologies used in developing an on-line application server with many desktop clients, and with high power processing for a wide range of input documents to obtain searchable documents on the highest portability standards, PDF and PDF /A.

  6. Educational On-Line Gaming Propensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Educational on-line games are promising for new generations of students who are grown up digital. Th e new generations of students are technology savvy and spend lots of time on the web and on social networks. Based on an exploratory study, this article investigates the factors that infl uence...... students’ willingness to participate in serious games for teaching/learning. Th is study investigates the relationship between students’ behavior on Facebook, Facebook games, and their attitude toward educational on-line games. Th e results of the study reveal that the early adopters of educational games...... are likely to be students, who are young, have only a few Facebook connections, who currently play Facebook game(s). Furthermore, the study emphasizes that there may be differences between students coming from various countries....

  7. New Trends in on-line Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Palkovič, Lukáš

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with new trend of internet marketing, it focuses especially on viral marketing. The theoretical part charasterizes the process of viral campaigns, furthermore deals with the components and aspects of on-line environment. Another separated chapter presents social networks, their place in viral marketing and at last but not least the viral video making process. The practical part contains different analyses of specific viral campaigns. The next and equally the last pa...

  8. CAMERA SELF-CALIBRATION BASED ON PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMISATION%基于粒子群算法的摄像机自标定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟光; 董安国

    2015-01-01

    To realise three-dimensional reconstruction of object based on image information has important applied value in the fields of transportation, geology and other sectors.To achieve the purpose, we first establish a corresponding relation between the image coordinates and the geodetic coordinates.Since this relationship is related to internal and external parameters of the camera, we have to do camera cali-bration to determine its parameters.The relational model between the coordinate systems is given by geometrical relationship.Taking the ab-solute value of relative error between the actual distance and the theoretical distance of the key points on calibration board as the target, we convert the parameters determination problem into a nonlinear optimisation problem, and then solve the optimisation model with PSO algorithm and achieve the camera self-calibration.Through the acquisition of actual image followed by numerical calculation, results show that the mod-el is correct, and the accuracy has been significantly improved compared with other algorithms.%基于图像信息,实现对物体的三维重构在交通、地质等领域具有重要的应用价值,对此首先要建立图像坐标和大地坐标的对应关系,而这种关系涉及到摄像机的内部及外部参数,这就需要对摄像机进行标定,确定其参数. 利用几何关系给出坐标系间的关系模型,以标定板上关键点间的实际距离和理论距离的相对误差绝对值为目标,将参数确定问题转化为非线性优化问题,进而利用PSO算法对优化模型进行求解,实现对摄像机的自标定. 通过实际图像的采集并进行数值计算,结果表明模型正确,与其他算法相比,计算精度得到显著提高.

  9. Total on-line purchasing system (TOPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, N.

    1995-11-01

    The Information Management Division (IMD) at LLNL is developing a new purchasing system for the Procurement Department. The first major development of this new system is called, {open_quotes}Total On-Line Purchasing System{close_quotes} (TOPS). TOPS will help speed up the requisitioning process by having requisitions electronically entered by requesters and electronically sent to buyers to be put on Purchase Orders. The new purchasing system will use Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), to help increase transaction flows for shipping notices, RFQs, Quotes, Purchase Orders, and Invoices. ANSI X.12 is the EDI standard that this new EC will use.

  10. On-line and Mobil Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Whittaker, T. M.; Jasmin, T.; Mooney, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Introductory college-level science courses for non-majors are critical gateways to imparting not only discipline-specific information, but also the basics of the scientific method and how science influences society. They are also indispensable for student success to degree. On-line, web-based homework (whether on computers or mobile devices) is a rapidly growing use of the Internet and is becoming a major component of instruction in science, replacing delayed feedback from a few major exams. Web delivery and grading of traditional textbook-type questions is equally effective as having students write them out for hand grading, as measured by student performance on conceptual and problem solving exams. During this presentation we will demonstrate some of the interactive on-line activities used to teach concepts and how scientists approach problem solving, and how these activities have impacted student learning. Evaluation of the activities, including formative and summative, will be discussed and provide evidence that these interactive activities significantly enhance understanding of introductory meteorological concepts in a college-level science course. More advanced interactive activities are also used in our courses for department majors, some of these will be discussed and demonstrated. Bring your mobile devices to play along! Here is an example on teaching contouring: http://profhorn.aos.wisc.edu/wxwise/contour/index.html

  11. Self-calibration of cone-beam CT geometry using 3D-2D image registration: development and application to tasked-based imaging with a robotic C-arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadah, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Gang, G.; Uneri, A.; Ehtiati, T.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Robotic C-arm systems are capable of general noncircular orbits whose trajectories can be driven by the particular imaging task. However obtaining accurate calibrations for reconstruction in such geometries can be a challenging problem. This work proposes a method to perform a unique geometric calibration of an arbitrary C-arm orbit by registering 2D projections to a previously acquired 3D image to determine the transformation parameters representing the system geometry. Methods: Experiments involved a cone-beam CT (CBCT) bench system, a robotic C-arm, and three phantoms. A robust 3D-2D registration process was used to compute the 9 degree of freedom (DOF) transformation between each projection and an existing 3D image by maximizing normalized gradient information with a digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) of the 3D volume. The quality of the resulting "self-calibration" was evaluated in terms of the agreement with an established calibration method using a BB phantom as well as image quality in the resulting CBCT reconstruction. Results: The self-calibration yielded CBCT images without significant difference in spatial resolution from the standard ("true") calibration methods (p-value >0.05 for all three phantoms), and the differences between CBCT images reconstructed using the "self" and "true" calibration methods were on the order of 10-3 mm-1. Maximum error in magnification was 3.2%, and back-projection ray placement was within 0.5 mm. Conclusion: The proposed geometric "self" calibration provides a means for 3D imaging on general noncircular orbits in CBCT systems for which a geometric calibration is either not available or not reproducible. The method forms the basis of advanced "task-based" 3D imaging methods now in development for robotic C-arms.

  12. 压阻式压力传感器样本集自校正及其计算方法%Self-calibration and algorithm of sample set of piezoresistive pressure sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓因; 晋芳伟; 周平

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at piezoresistive pressure sensors, this paper studies simulation of standard pressure by using benchmark current source and self-calibration of the sampling data characteristics. A data fusion algorithm for sample set is presented which transforms a surface problem into a curve fitting and interpolation problem. The simulation result shows that benchmark current source simulating pressure is successful and data fusion algorithm is effective. The maximum measurement error is only 0.098 kPa and maximum relative error is 0.92% at 0-45 kPa and -10-45℃.

  13. Aprender a innovar: una experiencia on line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín MORENO MARCHAL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La creatividad y la innovación se han convertido en recursos clave en la denominada sociedad del conocimiento, que bien podría ser también llamada sociedad de la innovación. Pero innovar es una actividad compleja, que integra la aplicación de múltiples capacidades, el pensamiento divergente y convergente, la gestión de equipos humanos, la comunicación. Ahora bien, a innovar se puede, y se debe, aprender. Aprender a innovar es un reto y también una obligación para el conjunto del sistema educativo en todos sus niveles. Partiendo de estas consideraciones este trabajo expone una experiencia de aprendizaje de la creatividad y de la innovación a través de un curso totalmente on line basado en la plataforma MOODLE, en el marco del Programa de Formación Permanente de la Universidad de Cádiz. Se presenta un modelo del proceso de innovación, denominado CREALAB, de elaboración propia. Este modelo se ha utilizado como base del proceso de aprendizaje de la creatividad y de la innovación y en el diseño del curso, está organizado en torno a actividades y tiene un carácter iterativo y realimentado. Se presentan además el conjunto del diseño metodológico y los resultados obtenidos en las dos ediciones celebradas hasta el momento. El diseño del curso totalmente on line y los resultados alcanzados permiten estimar un alto potencial de aplicación, tanto a nivel personal como a nivel organizacional.

  14. On-line chemical composition analyzer development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Garrison, A.A.; Muly, E.C.; Moore, C.F.

    1992-02-01

    The energy consumed in distillation processes in the United States represents nearly three percent of the total national energy consumption. If effective control of distillation columns can be accomplished, it has been estimated that it would result in a reduction in the national energy consumption of 0.3%. Real-time control based on mixture composition could achieve these savings. However, the major distillation processes represent diverse applications and at present there does not exist a proven on-line chemical composition sensor technology which can be used to control these diverse processes in real-time. This report presents a summary of the findings of the second phase of a three phase effort undertaken to develop an on-line real-time measurement and control system utilizing Raman spectroscopy. A prototype instrument system has been constructed utilizing a Perkin Elmer 1700 Spectrometer, a diode pumped YAG laser, two three axis positioning systems, a process sample cell land a personal computer. This system has been successfully tested using industrially supplied process samples to establish its performance. Also, continued application development was undertaken during this Phase of the program using both the spontaneous Raman and Surface-enhanced Raman modes of operation. The study was performed for the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, whose mission is to conduct cost-shared R D for new high-risk, high-payoff industrial energy conservation technologies. Although this document contains references to individual manufacturers and their products, the opinions expressed on the products reported do not necessarily reflect the position of the Department of Energy.

  15. FEDIX on-line information service: Design, develop, test, and implement an on-line research and education information service. Annual status report, September 1992--August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodman, J.A.

    1993-08-01

    Federal Information Exchange, Inc. (FIE) is a diversified information services company that is recognized as the major electronic link between the higher education community and the Federal government in the field of research administration. FIE provides a range of information related services to the government, academic and private sectors, including database management, software development and technical support. FEDIX is the on-line information service designed, developed and implemented by FIE to accomplish the following objectives: (1). Broaden the participation of the education community in Federal research and education programs by providing free and unrestricted on-line access to information from all participating Federal agencies; and (2). Provide the education community with on-line access to a single keyword-searchable system for research and educational funding opportunities at the participating Federal agencies.

  16. Influence of visualization on consumption during on-line shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Hictaler, Urška

    2013-01-01

    This diploma work studies the influence of visualization on consumption during on-line shopping. The first part of the thesis starts with key areas of visualization, consumption and on-line shopping. Visualization, areas of use, human perception and ways of product presentation in on-line shops are defined discussed first. Next, consumption, consumers and factors that influence their decisions and satisfaction are defined. The last topic in the first part of the thesis discusses on-line shopp...

  17. On-Line Learning: One Way to Bring People Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff-Kfouri, Carol Ann

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the benefits of on-line learning for adult learners and to further demystify three common misconceptions concerning on-line learning: students certainly do receive support from their on-line professors, the professor is pro-active rather than passive, and students may be more motivated to learn than in…

  18. A Distributed System for Learning Programming On-Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Elena; Regueras, Luisa M.; Verdu, Maria J.; Leal, Jose P.; de Castro, Juan P.; Queiros, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Several Web-based on-line judges or on-line programming trainers have been developed in order to allow students to train their programming skills. However, their pedagogical functionalities in the learning of programming have not been clearly defined. EduJudge is a project which aims to integrate the "UVA On-line Judge", an existing…

  19. On-Line Impact Load Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Sekuła

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The so-called Adaptive Impact Absorption (AIA is a research area of safety engineering devoted to problems of shock absorption in various unpredictable scenarios of collisions. It makes use of smart technologies (systems equipped with sensors, controllable dissipaters and specialised tools for signal processing. Examples of engineering applications for AIA systems are protective road barriers, automotive bumpers or adaptive landing gears. One of the most challenging problems for AIA systems is on-line identification of impact loads, which is crucial for introducing the optimum real-time strategy of adaptive impact absorption. This paper presents the concept of an impactometer and develops the methodology able to perform real-time impact load identification. Considered dynamic excitation is generated by a mass M1 impacting with initial velocity V0. An analytical formulation of the problem, supported with numerical simulations and experimental verifications is presented. Two identification algorithms based on measured response of the impacted structure are proposed and discussed. Finally, a concept of the AIA device utilizing the idea of impactometer is briefly presented.

  20. SOL: INNOVACIÓN ON-LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Faúndez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Las aplicaciones de simulación tienden a ser cada vez más cercanas a usuarios e industrias. Sin embargo, muchas de ellas no poseen ni la capacidad ni el conocimiento como para desarrollar internamente sus modelos de simulación. Por este motivo, y como una forma de apoyar la toma de decisiones basándose en modelos de simulación, se presenta la plataforma SOL (Simulación On Line. La metodología completa de trabajo, así como la interacción entre SOL, Empresa y Asesor, son presentadas. Su base de datos, los niveles de usuarios, sus funcionalidades, y la creación automatizada de información grafica y visual, también son explicadas. En el caso de aplicación, el uso de SOL para apoyar la toma de decisiones en una operación de movimiento de material, permite a los tomadores de decisión acceder a análisis robustos basados en información extraída de los modelos de simulación. SOL, al almacenar información, funcionar vía web, generar análisis automatizados y crear visualizaciones, permite cumplir con las expectativas de los usuarios respecto a una solución integral en simulación.

  1. A Robust Semi-Definite Programming Based Camera Self-Calibration Method%一种鲁棒的基于半正定规划的相机自标定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓军; 范东凯

    2014-01-01

    Camera self-calibration methods use the image data only ,and determine the camera model up to a similarity trans-formation .The absolute dual quadric based linear camera self-calibration method is often used to find an initial solution of the cam-era parameters due to its simplicity and effectiveness .According to the non-positive definiteness of dual image of absolute conic (DIAC ) ,we introduce a semi-definite programming based self-calibration method .It constrains the semi positive definiteness and the validness of intrinsic parameters .The experimental results on both synthetic data and real images verify the effectiveness and ro-bustness of the algorithm .%基于绝对对偶二次曲面的线性自标定方法因为算法简单,并能解决可变参数的自标定问题,常用于为其他非线性自标定算法或捆集调整提供标定初值。针对传统线性自标定方法中反复出现的绝对对偶二次曲线的对偶图像不正定与最小二乘解的局限问题,提出了一种新的基于半正定规划的自标定方法。算法通过在求解过程中约束绝对对偶二次曲面的半正定性与其可行域范围,从而确保能够对DIAC (Dual of the Image of the Absolute Conic )分解得到内参数矩阵,并使内参数在更合理的范围内取值。通过合成数据和真实图像数据实验,证明了算法的有效性和鲁棒性。

  2. Self-calibration technique for structured light vision guided welding robot system%结构光视觉引导的焊接机器人系统自标定技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭新年; 白瑞林; 王秀平; 刘子腾

    2014-01-01

    To achieve the structured light vision guided welding robot system calibration, and solve the problem of complex, and difficult to make target in the existing calibration methods, a new self-calibration technique based on active vision is proposed. This self-calibration technique calibrates the camera inner parameter, rotating section of hand-eye matrix by controlling the robot 5 pure translational motions. And it calibrates the translation section of hand-eye matrix and the equa-tion of the light plane by controlling the robot 2 motions with revolving with three feature points in the scene without a specific target. The actual test results in the structured light vision guided welding robot system based on Denso robot show that the calibration approach is stable, and can reach the precision of ±0.93 mm. This self-calibration method to the structured light vision guided welding robot system with easy feature selection is simple, and has significance to the actual use in the field of industry.%为实现结构光视觉引导的焊接机器人系统的标定,解决现有标定方法复杂,标定靶标制作要求高等缺点,提出一种基于主动视觉的自标定方法。该标定方法对场景中3个特征点取像,通过精确控制焊接机器人进行5次平移运动,标定摄像机内参数和手眼矩阵旋转部分;通过进行2次带旋转运动,结合激光条在特征点平面的参数方程,标定手眼矩阵平移部分和结构光平面在摄像机坐标系下的平面方程;并针对不同焊枪长度进行修正。在以Denso机器人为主体构建的结构光视觉引导的焊接机器人系统上的测试结果稳定,定位精度可达到±0.93 mm。该标定方法简单,特征选取容易,对焊接机器人系统在实际工业现场的使用有重要意义。

  3. Robust on-line monitoring of biogas processes; Robusta maettekniker on-line foer optimerad biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Aake; Hansson, Mikael; Kanerot, Mija; Krozer, Anatol; Loefving, Bjoern; Sahlin, Eskil

    2010-03-15

    Although demand for biomethane in Sweden is higher than ever, many Swedish codigestion plants are presently operated below their designed capacity. Efforts must be taken to increase the loading rate and guarantee stable operation and high availability of the plants. There are currently no commercial systems for on-line monitoring, and due to the characteristics of the material, including corrosion and tearing, robust applications have to be developed. The objective of this project was to identify and study different monitoring technologies with potential for on-line monitoring of both substrate mixtures and anaerobic digester content. Based on the prerequisites and demands at Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB's (BEMAB, the municipal energy and waste utility in the city of Boraas, Sweden) biogas plant, the extent of the problems, measurement variables and possible ways of managing these issues have been identified and prioritized. The substrate mixtures in question have a high viscosity and are inhomogeneous with variation in composition, which calls for further homogenization, dilution and filtration to achieve high precision in the necessary analyses. Studies of using different mixers and mills showed that the particle size (800 mum) needed for on-line COD measurement could not be achieved. The problem of homogenization can be avoided if indirect measurement methods are used. Laboratory tests with NIR (near-infra red spectroscopy) showed that VS can be predicted (R2=0,78) in the interval of 2-9% VS. Furthermore, impedance can give a measurement of soluble components. However, impedance is not sensitive enough to give a good measurement of total TS. Microwave technology was installed at the production plant and showed a faster response to changes in TS than the existing TS-sensor. However, due to technical problems, the evaluation only could be done during a limited period of ten days. BEMAB will continue the measurements and evaluation of the instrument. The

  4. DOE-EPRI On-Line Monitoring Implementation Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Davis, R. Bickford

    2003-01-02

    Industry and EPRI experience at several plants has shown on-line monitoring to be very effective in identifying out-of-calibration instrument channels or indications of equipment-degradation problems. The EPRI implementation project for on-line monitoring has demonstrated the feasability of on-line monitoring at several participating nuclear plants. The results have been very enouraging, and substantial progress is anticipated in the coming years.

  5. Poss On-line (Personalisation of Self-Service Solutions across On-line platforms)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni; Nielsen, Lene; Jespersen, Mikkel

    2005-01-01

    The project on Personalisation of Self-service Solutions across On-line Platforms (POSS ON-LINE) focuses on users, clients, and self-service solutions. It is based on the understanding that clients and users are different and have different goals, and that self-service takes place in different co...... at the process of development. However, we lack methods to predict user behaviour without having to deal with huge amounts of data and data from both quantitative data as well as life world observations are required....... the client and the user. The system gathers data about the user, which enables the client to push information to the user. Personalisation enables graphic user interface design that is personalised and relevant to the individual user and invites the user to get access to information with less strain....... Personalisation of self-service solutions is promising and IT companies are experiencing an increase in the clients' demands. At the same time the development of solutions moves within a shorter and shorter time span. Hence the process of innovations is paced and there is an increasing need of new ways of looking...

  6. MultiProbe Electrical Measurements of Carbon Nanotubes With On-line Raman Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablon, Dalia; Yeshua, Talia; Lehmann, Christian; Reich, Stephanie; Strain, Kristin; Campbell, Eleano

    2014-03-01

    A multiprobe scanning probe microscope (SPM) system has been used to perform multiprobe electrical measurement of carbon nanotubes. In this system two probes can be used across an isolated carbon nanotube. A variety of probes have been developed that are compatible with multiprobe operation. These include probes for writing single single walled carbon nanotubes which have a high degree of alignment and this is demonstrated with on-line Raman. The interconnection of the multiprobe system with the Raman System will be described in detail. The combination has the potential to cross the fabrication/measurement gap that will allow for both production and nanocharacterization of such single molecule carbon nanotube molecular devices both with chemically sensitive Raman measurements (with and without plasmonic enhancement) and with on-line electrical transport on isolated carbon nanotubes.

  7. Properties of on-line social systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, A.; Kruszewska, N.; Kosiński, R. A.

    2008-11-01

    We study properties of five different social systems: (i) internet society of friends consisting of over 106 people, (ii) social network consisting of 3 × 104 individuals, who interact in a large virtual world of Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs), (iii) over 106 users of music community website, (iv) over 5 × 106 users of gamers community server and (v) over 0.25 × 106 users of books admirer website. Individuals included in large social network form an Internet community and organize themselves in groups of different sizes. The destiny of those systems, as well as the method of creating of new connections, are different, however we found that the properties of these networks are very similar. We have found that the network components size distribution follow the power-law scaling form. In all five systems we have found interesting scaling laws concerning human dynamics. Our research has shown how long people are interested in a single task, how much time they devote to it and how fast they are making friends. It is surprising that the time evolution of an individual connectivity is very similar in each system.

  8. ON-LINE PREEMPTIVE SCHEDULING ON UNIFORM MACHINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuzhong; WANG Shouyang; Bo Chen; ZHANG Shuxia

    2001-01-01

    We address the problem of preemptively schedule on-line jobs on arbitrary muniformly related machines with the objective of minimizing the schedule length. We provide the first on-line algorithm for this general problem, and show that the algorithm being the speeds of the m machines.

  9. From Off-line to On-line Handwriting Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lallican, P.; Viard-Gaudin, C.; Knerr, S.

    2004-01-01

    On-line handwriting includes more information on time order of the writing signal and on the dynamics of the writing process than off-line handwriting. Therefore, on-line recognition systems achieve higher recognition rates. This can be concluded from results reported in the literature, and has been

  10. On-Line and Off-Line Assessment of Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraç, Seda; Karakelle, Sema

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the interrelationships between different on-line and off-line measures for assessing metacognition. The participants were 47 fifth grade elementary students. Metacognition was assessed through two off-line and two on-line measures. The off-line measures consisted of a teacher rating scale and a self-report questionnaire. The…

  11. On-line characterization of a hybridoma cell culture process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W; Hu, W S

    1994-06-20

    The on-line determination of the physiological state of a cell culture process requires reliable on-line measurements of various parameters and calculations of specific rates from these measurements. The cell concentration of a hybridoma culture was estimated on-line by measuring optical density (OD) with a laser turbidity probe. The oxygen uptake rate (OUR) was determined by monitoring dynamically dissolved oxygen concentration profiles and closing oxygen balances in the culture. The base addition for neutralizing lactate produced by cells was also monitored on-line via a balance. Using OD and OUR measurements, the specific growth and specific oxygen consumption rates were determined on-line. By combining predetermined stoichiometric relationships among oxygen and glucose consumption and lactate production, the specific glucose consumption and lactate production rates were also calculated on-line. Using these on-line measurements and calculations, the hybridoma culture process was characterized on-line by identifying the physiological states. They will also facilitate the implementation of nutrient feeding strategies for fed-batch and perfusion cultures. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. On-line optimal control of greenhouse crop cultivation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, van G.

    1996-01-01

    Thus far, optimal control has primarily been investigated for seasonal crop growth optimization. On-line aspects have received much less attention. The decomposition between long term strategies and on-line control, however, is not trivial. Appreciable losses occur when set-points generated by seaso

  13. On-line optimal control of greenhouse crop cultivation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, van G.

    1996-01-01

    Thus far, optimal control has primarily been investigated for seasonal crop growth optimization. On-line aspects have received much less attention. The decomposition between long term strategies and on-line control, however, is not trivial. Appreciable losses occur when set-points generated by seaso

  14. Algorithms for semi on-line multiprocessor scheduling problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the classical multiprocessor scheduling problems, it is assumed that the problems are considered in off-line or on-line environment. But in practice, problems are often not really off-line or on-line but somehow in between. This means that, with respect to the on-line problem, some further information about the tasks is available, which allows the improvement of the performance of the best possible algorithms. Problems of this class are called semi on-line ones. The authors studied two semi on-line multiprocessor scheduling problems, in which, the total processing time of all tasks is known in advance, or all processing times lie in a given interval. They proposed approximation algorithms for minimizing the makespan and analyzed their performance guarantee. The algorithms improve the known results for 3 or more processor cases in the literature.

  15. On-line interrogation of pebble bed reactor fuel using passive gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei

    The Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) is a helium-cooled, graphite-moderated high temperature nuclear power reactor. In addition to its inherently safe design, a unique feature of this reactor is its multipass fuel cycle in which graphite fuel pebbles (of varying enrichment) are randomly loaded and continuously circulated through the core until they reach their prescribed end-of-life burnup limit (˜80,000--100,000 MWD/MTU). Unlike the situation with conventional light water reactors (LWRs), depending solely on computational methods to perform in-core fuel management will be highly inaccurate. As a result, an on-line measurement approach becomes the only accurate method to assess whether a particular pebble has reached its end-of-life burnup limit. In this work, an investigation was performed to assess the feasibility of passive gamma-ray spectrometry assay as an approach for on-line interrogation of PBR fuel for the simultaneous determination of burnup and enrichment on a pebble-by-pebble basis. Due to the unavailability of irradiated or fresh pebbles, Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the gamma-ray spectra of the PBR fuel at various levels of burnup. A pebble depletion calculation was performed using the ORIGEN code, which yielded the gamma-ray source term that was introduced into the input of an MCNP simulation. The MCNP simulation assumed the use of a high-purity coaxial germanium detector. Due to the lack of one-group high temperature reactor cross sections for ORIGEN, a heterogeneous MCNP model was developed to describe a typical PBR core. Subsequently, the code MONTEBURNS was used to couple the MCNP model and ORIGEN. This approach allowed the development of the burnup-dependent, one-group spectral-averaged PBR cross sections to be used in the ORIGEN pebble depletion calculation. Based on the above studies, a relative approach for performing the measurements was established. The approach is based on using the relative activities of Np-239/I-132 in combination

  16. A single-step pesticide extraction and clean-up multi-residue analytical method by selective pressurized liquid extraction followed by on-line solid phase extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for complex matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Elsa Teresa; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Salgueiro-González, Noelia; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Alpendurada, Maria Fátima

    2016-06-24

    Pesticides, a group of compounds linked to human activity, may, when in toxic levels, have a profound effect on water quality, and hence result in adverse consequences to aquatic life and ultimately to human health. Analytical challenges arise when successfully trying to determine these levels in environmental complex matrices. Therefore, fast, simple, sensitive and selective analytical methodologies for multi-residue determination of pesticides (atrazine, azoxystrobin, bentazon, λ-cyhalothrin, penoxsulam and terbuthylazine) in sediment, macrophytes (algae and aquatic plants) and aquatic animals were developed and validated. The established methods were matrix-dependent and were based on Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction (SPLE) followed by on-line Solid Phase Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (on-line SPE-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). This cutting-edge research methodology uses a small amount of sample, is time saving and reduces the use of organic solvents in compliance with Green Chemistry principles. The analytical features were adequate for all compounds in all studied matrices. The established methodology was applied on real marine samples and no pesticide concentrations above their respective method quantification limits were measured in sediments or aquatic plants. However, terbuthylazine was found in the macroalgae Ulva spp. (108ngg(-1)dw) and all the prospected pesticides were measured above their respective method quantification limits in the bivalve Scrobicularia plana (atrazine: 48ngg(-1)dw, azoxystrobin: 64ngg(-1)dw, bentazon: 33ngg(-1)dw, λ-cyhalothrin: 2531ngg(-1)dw, penoxsulam: 50ngg(-1)dw, and terbuthylazine: 44ngg(-1)dw).

  17. On-line Autonomous Learning Based on Leamerg Expectation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利娜

    2008-01-01

    On-line autonomous learning of College English is one of the important reforms in colleges recently.This paper aims to explore the changes of teachers'role in the new on-line setting.The article first reviews the theoretical study of learner autonomy,then makes a practical investigation into the attitude and expectation learners have on teachers through a self-designed questionnaire,and explores that teachers should make an adjustment to their role orientation and changes their roles into motivators,evaluators and resources supphers in the new on-line setting.

  18. On-line Classical Guitar Course: Blogs for Music Education

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Navarro; Gilles Lavigne; G. Guadalupe Martínez Salgado

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces an on-line course constructed by means of a blog. The tool was the main goal of a research project titled “Develop, Implementation and evaluation of a Hybrid Course Face to face-On Line for Teaching the Beginning to Play the Classical Guitar”. This work was a three steep project in which it was implemented, applied and evaluated. The on-line course was intended to prepare the students to learn the basic principles to start in classical music with the guitar. The result...

  19. Understanding on-line community: the affordances of virtual space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ruhleder

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of on-line venues for learning are emerging as virtual communities become more accessible and commonplace. This paper looks at one particular virtual community, an on-line degree programme at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, which offers an M.S. in Library and Information Science (called LEEP. It draws on a framework presented by Mynatt, et al. (1998, which provides a lens for talking about on-line community as a set of affordances. This framework is applied to illustrate the interactions, artefacts, and expectations that shape this community.

  20. 时间交叉存取逐次逼近型ADC中的电容自校准技术%Capacitor self-calibration technique used in time-interleaved successive approximation ADC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷勤; 戚韬; 吴光林; 吴建辉

    2006-01-01

    A capacitor self-calibration circuit used in a successive approximation analog-to-digital converter(SA-ADC) is presented. This capacitor self-calibration circuit can calibrate erroneous data and work with the ADC by adding an additional clock period. This circuit is used in a 10 bit 32 Msample/s time-interleaved SAADC. The chip is implemented with Chart 0. 25 μm 2. 5 V process and totally occupies an area of 1.4 mm × 1.3mm. After calibration, the simulated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 59. 586 1 dB and the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) is 70. 246 dB at 32 MHz. The measured signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SINAD) is 44. 82 dB and the SFDR is 63. 760 4 dB when the ADC samples a 5.8 MHz sinusoid wave.%设计了一种用于逐次逼近型ADC中的电容自校准电路.通过增加一个校准周期,该电容自校准结构即可与原电路并行工作,并可校准电路工作时产生的误差.采用该电路设计了一个用于多通道逐次逼近型结构的10 bit 32 Msample/s模数转换器单元,该芯片在Chart 0.25 μm 2.5 V工艺上实现,总的芯片面积为1.4 mm×1.3 mm.在32 MHz工作时,通过校准后的信噪比仿真结果为59.586 1 dB,无杂散动态范围为70.246 dB.芯片实测,输入频率5.8 MHz时,信噪失真比为44.82dB,无杂散动态范围为63.760 4 dB.

  1. On-Line Trajectory Retargeting for Alternate Landing Sites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Barron Associates, Inc. proposes to develop a novel on-line trajectory optimization approach for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) under failure scenarios, targeting...

  2. Worldwide On-line Distance Learning University Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyres, S. P. S.; Hassall, B. J. M.; Butchart, I.; Bromage, G. E.

    2006-08-01

    The University of Central Lancashire operates a suite of distance learning courses in Astronomy, available both on-line and via CD-ROM. The courses are available worldwide, and emphasise flexibility of study. To this end students can study anything from a single module (1/6^th of a full year at degree level) all the way up to an entire degree entirely by distance learning. Study rates vary from one to four modules each year, and students can move on to Level 2 modules (equivalent to second year level in a UK degree) before completing the full set of Level 1 modules. Over 1000 awards have been made to date. The core syllabus is Astronomy and Cosmology at Level 1, alongside skills in literature research, using computers, and basic observing. We also offer a basic history of European astronomy. At Level 2 we look at the astrophysics of the Sun, the stars, and galaxies including the Milky Way. By Level 3 students are expected to engage in a large individual project, and a collaborative investigation with other students, alongside high-level courses in cosmology, relativity, extreme states of matter and the origins of the elements, life and astronomical objects. While many students are retired people looking to exercise their brains, keen amateur amateurs or professionals with disposable incomes, and significant fraction are teachers seeking to improve their subject knowledge or high school students gaining an edge in the UK University entrance competition. Via our involvement with SALT we offer our courses to members of previously disadvantaged communities. This leads to an incredibly diverse and lively student body.

  3. ON-LINE SCHEDULING WITH REJECTION ON IDENTICAL PARALLEL MACHINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuixia MIAO; Yuzhong ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the on-line scheduling of unit time jobs with rejection on m identical parallel machines. The objective is to minimize the total completion time of the accepted jobs plus the total penalty of the rejected jobs. We give an on-line algorithm for the problem with competitive ratio 1/2(2 + √3) ≈ 1.86602.

  4. From User Comments to On-line Conversations

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chunyan; Ye, Mao; Huberman, Bernardo A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of user conversations in on-line social media and their evolution over time. We propose a dynamic model that accurately predicts the growth dynamics and structural properties of conversation threads. The model successfully reconciles the differing observations that have been reported in existing studies. By separating artificial factors from user behaviors, we show that there are actually underlying rules in common for on-line conversations in different social media web...

  5. Directions for Future Research in On-line Distance Education

    OpenAIRE

    Alaa SADIK

    2015-01-01

    Although institutions have invested much in developing on-line environments or using already established commercial platforms, only few studies have been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of on-line courses based on empirical data (Jung and Rha, 2000). A review of the literature conducted in this study showed that most of online learning studies investigated the effectiveness of Web-based interaction or Internet conferencing on learning, not the entire learning environment. Even in t...

  6. An On-line Ferrograph for Monitoring Machine Wear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Xiao-jun; JING Min-qing; XIE You-bai

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve an on-line ferrograph, this paper simulates a three dimensional magnetic field distribution of an electromagnet, builds a sinking motion model of a wear particle, and investigates the motion law of wear particles under two different conditions. Both numeric results and experimental results show that the on-line ferrograph is capable of monitoring machine wear conditions by measuring the concentration and size distribution of wear particles in lubricating oil.

  7. SINGLE-CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Wang; G. Pickrell; R. May

    2002-09-10

    material were thoroughly investigated to determine an optimal approach for on-line, real-time, reliable, long-term monitoring of temperatures inside the coal gasification environment. Among these were a sapphire fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) sensor; an intensity-measurement based polarimetric sapphire sensor and a broadband polarimetric differential interferometric (BPDI) sapphire sensor. Based on the current evaluation and analysis of the experimental results, the broadband polarimetric differential interferometric (BPDI) sensor system was chosen for further prototype instrumentation development because of it's superior performance compared to the other systems. This approach is based on the self-calibrating measurement of the optical path length differences in a single-crystal sapphire disk, which is a function of both the temperature dependent birefringence and the temperature dependent dimensional changes.

  8. Multifunctional ultrasonic sensor for on-line tool condition monitoring in turning operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, T.H.; Abu-Zahra, N.H. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States). Industrial Engineering Dept.

    1998-03-01

    Machining operations in automated manufacturing centers are, in general, under-performing by 20--80 percent. Optimizing these machining operations requires on-line knowledge of the cutting tool`s condition and the process state. Currently, this information is either not reliable or not available in a timely manner. This in part is due to the lack of suitable sensors which are able to measure on-line directly and accurately one or more of the relevant tool and process variables. A direct, active, ultrasonic method for on-line sensing of the tool condition and the process state in turning operations was developed in this work. Sensing is achieved by using an ultrasonic transducer operating at 10 MHz in a pulse-echo mode to send pulses through the cutting tool. The amplitude and propagation time of the reflected pulses are modulated by the tool nose, flank, temperature, and by the material in contact with the tools. This method has the potential to measure on-line several relevant process and cutting tool parameters directly and accurately through the use of a single sensor. These parameters are tool-workpiece contact, tool gradual wear, tool chipping and tool chatter.

  9. Sport Management Taught On-Line: A Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Stier Jr

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An introduction to the world of on-line courses (distance education/learning is presented. In addition, the world of on-line learning, as it pertains to sport management, is examined within the framework of (a pedagogy, (b finances,(c assessment, and (d choosing to transition from the traditional classroom to on-line learning. Pertinent points relative to each of the four categories are presented from the literature. In an effort to stimulate thought and discussion to the subject of on-line learning for sport management programs/courses the authors provide their reactions to the literature points by presenting their comments/reactions from a sport management perspective. Sport management professors and administrators are encouraged to critically examine the feasibility of such on-line courses (distance education/learning within their own curricula while maintaining an appropriate framework revolving around sound theoretical instructional strategies, methods as well as appropriate use of instructional tools, including but not limited to, computersand the WWW.

  10. On-line Payment System Survey – eCash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Popa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main aspects regarding an on-line payment system. Some characteristics of such system are presented and an existing system is analyzed. On its fundamental sense, the electronic commerce is a concept that represents the purchase and sale process or exchange of products, services, information, using o computer network, inclusively the Internet. In the most part of the cases, the electronic commerce imply on-line payments that lead to creation of some kinds of electronic money and some specific payment systems. There are described the some electronic payment mechanisms and the architecture and the functions of the on-line payment system E-Cash are depicted.

  11. A Hybrid On-line Verification Method of Relay Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wangyuan; Chen, Qing; Si, Ji; Huang, Xin

    2017-05-01

    Along with the rapid development of the power industry, grid structure gets more sophisticated. The validity and rationality of protective relaying are vital to the security of power systems. To increase the security of power systems, it is essential to verify the setting values of relays online. Traditional verification methods mainly include the comparison of protection range and the comparison of calculated setting value. To realize on-line verification, the verifying speed is the key. The verifying result of comparing protection range is accurate, but the computation burden is heavy, and the verifying speed is slow. Comparing calculated setting value is much faster, but the verifying result is conservative and inaccurate. Taking the overcurrent protection as example, this paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the two traditional methods above, and proposes a hybrid method of on-line verification which synthesizes the advantages of the two traditional methods. This hybrid method can meet the requirements of accurate on-line verification.

  12. On-line laser spectroscopy with thermal atomic beams

    CERN Document Server

    Thibault, C; De Saint-Simon, M; Duong, H T; Guimbal, P; Huber, G; Jacquinot, P; Juncar, P; Klapisch, Robert; Liberman, S; Pesnelle, A; Pillet, P; Pinard, J; Serre, J M; Touchard, F; Vialle, J L

    1981-01-01

    On-line high resolution laser spectroscopy experiments have been performed in which the light from a CW tunable dye laser interacts at right angles with a thermal atomic beam. /sup 76-98/Rb, /sup 118-145 /Cs and /sup 208-213/Fr have been studied using the ionic beam delivered by the ISOLDE on-line mass separator at CERN while /sup 30-31/Na and /sup 38-47/K have been studied by setting the apparatus directly on-line with the PS 20 GeV proton beam. The principle of the method is briefly explained and some results concerning nuclear structure are given. The hyperfine structure, spins and isotope shifts of the alkali isotopes and isomers are measured. (8 refs).

  13. Strengthening weak ties through on-line gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana Virginia; Kirchner, Kathrin

    On-line gaming became widespread in the last couple of years. The aim of the research presented in the paper is to figure out to what extent does game playing helps to strengthen weak ties and what additional factors influence this process. The approach is rather exploratory – some factors...... are grounded in theory, some are new. These factors are age, gender, place of origin, number of their Facebook connections (friends in Facebook terminology), the amount of time they are on Facebook, the amount of time they keep the Facebook site open, the amount of time they play on-line games, and the reasons...... for starting to play on-line games. Regarding the latter, we chose to focus only on escapist reasons....

  14. On-Line Voltage Stability Assessment based on PMU Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; P. Da Silva, Luiz C.; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2009-01-01

    through statistic analysis. During the off-line analysis, a memory of high-risk situations following a pre-defined voltage stability criterion is obtained. Thereafter, basic statistics analyses are applied resulting in the definition of voltage regions. During on-line operation, voltage magnitudes......This paper presents a method for on-line monitoring of risk voltage collapse based on synchronised phasor measurement. As there is no room for intensive computation and analysis in real-time, the method is based on the combination of off-line computation and on-line monitoring, which are correlated...... of critical buses obtained by phasor measurements are monitored in relation to the risk regions. Comprehensive studies demonstrate that the proposed method could assist operators to avoid voltage collapse events, by taking preventive or emergency actions....

  15. On-line tribochemical strengthening of gear surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It has been found that under favorable friction conditions some antiwear elements inlubricating additives can permeate into subsurface of metal which can strengthens the friction sur-faces and improves anti-wear capacity of frication pairs. It is in many ways similar to chemical heattreatment. A new concept, technology of on-line strengthening, was logically put forward. Based oncurrent gear surface treatment technology, the on-line strengthen of gear surface is proposed. Itsdesign method is established. Based on it, the on-line strengthen of gear is achieved on CL-100gear test machine. A new method is put forward for strengthen treatment of gear surface. Andthree kinds of surface film were suggested.

  16. [Techniques of on-line monitoring volatile organic compounds in ambient air with optical spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhen-Hui; Zhai, Ya-Qiong; Li, Jin-Yi; Hu, Bo

    2009-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are harmful gaseous pollutants in the ambient air. The techniques of on-line monitoring VOCs are very significant for environment protection. Until now, there is no single technology that can meet all the needs of monitoring various VOCs. The characteristics and present situation of several optical methods, which can be applied to on-line monitoring VOCs, including non dispersive infrared (NDIR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), and laser spectroscopy were reviewed. Comparison was completed between the national standard methods and spectroscopic method for measuring VOCs. The main analysis was focused on the status and trends of tuning diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology.

  17. Multi-Stratum Networks: toward a unified model of on-line identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Luca; Magnani, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    interacting to several communities active on various technological infrastructures like Twitter, Facebook, YouTube or FourSquare and with distinct social objectives. This constitutes a complex network of interconnected networks where users' identities are spread and where information propagates navigating......One of the reasons behind the success of Social Network Analysis is its simple and general graph model made of nodes (representing individuals) and ties. However, when we focus on our daily on-line experience we must confront a more complex scenario: people inhabitate several on-line spaces...... through different communities and social platforms. In this article we introduce a model for this layered scenario that we call multi-stratum network. Through a theoretical discussion and the analysis of real-world data we show how not only focusing on a single network may provide a very partial...

  18. Why do People Stop Playing On-Line Games?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana

    2012-01-01

    The recent initial public offering of shares of Zynga, probably the most important on-line game provider, drew interest of potential investors but also of general public to their business model. What the most interested people learned so far is that if Zynga had not changed their accounting...... practice, they would be in red numbers for several months already. This is most likely caused by people stopping to play their games. This paper provides an estimate of what proportion of people, who played on-line games, already stopped playing them. Additionally, it analyzed the reasons why people...

  19. On-Line Generation of 3D-Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the technique of filtering white noise for on-line generation of 3D-waves on a small computer in the laboratory. The wave generation package is implemented and tested in the 3D-wave basin at the University of Aalborg.......The paper describes the technique of filtering white noise for on-line generation of 3D-waves on a small computer in the laboratory. The wave generation package is implemented and tested in the 3D-wave basin at the University of Aalborg....

  20. The User-friendly On-Line Diffusion Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Aviles Acosta, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The On-Line Diffusion Chamber is a stand-alone apparatus built to carry out short-live radiotracer diffusion studies. The availability of the on-demand production of isotopes in the ISOLDE facility, and the design of the apparatus to streamline the implantation process, annealing treatment, ion gun ablation with a tape transport system, and radiation intensity measurement with a Ge gamma detector all in the same apparatus, gives the On-Line Diffusion Chamber a unique ability to studies with short-lived radioisotopes or isomer states that are not possible in any other facility in the world.

  1. On-line measurement of heat of combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, S. K.; Chegini, H.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental method for an on-line measurement of heat of combustion of a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixture of unknown composition is developed. It involves combustion of a test gas with a known quantity of air to achieve a predetermined oxygen concentration level in the combustion products. This is accomplished by a feedback controller which maintains the gas volumetric flow rate at a level consistent with the desired oxygen concentration in the products. The heat of combustion is determined from a known correlation with the gas volumetric flow rate. An on-line microcomputer accesses the gas volumetric flow data, and displays the heat of combustion values at desired time intervals.

  2. 5th Computer Science On-line Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Senkerik, Roman; Oplatkova, Zuzana; Silhavy, Petr; Prokopova, Zdenka

    2016-01-01

    This volume is based on the research papers presented in the 5th Computer Science On-line Conference. The volume Artificial Intelligence Perspectives in Intelligent Systems presents modern trends and methods to real-world problems, and in particular, exploratory research that describes novel approaches in the field of artificial intelligence. New algorithms in a variety of fields are also presented. The Computer Science On-line Conference (CSOC 2016) is intended to provide an international forum for discussions on the latest research results in all areas related to Computer Science. The addressed topics are the theoretical aspects and applications of Computer Science, Artificial Intelligences, Cybernetics, Automation Control Theory and Software Engineering.

  3. Assessment of metabolic properties and kinetic parameters of methanogenic sludge by on-line methane production rate measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Gil, G.; Kleerebezem, R.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new approach to studying the metabolic and kinetic properties of anaerobic sludge from single batch experiments. The two main features of the method are that the methane production is measured on-line with a relatively cheap system, and that the methane production data can be

  4. On-Line Learning and the Implications for School Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Greg

    2011-01-01

    "Disrupting Class," published in 2008, is the story of how disruptive innovation, innovation that changes the business model organizations, will fundamentally change the American school system. The book's most startling prediction is that half of all high school classes will be on-line by 2019. In considering these predictions, the author began to…

  5. On-line multidimensional separation systems for peptide analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroink, T.

    2005-01-01

    Today, there is an increasing interest in selective and sensitive analysis of proteins and peptides with a relatively high speed. The first chapter of this thesis describes several strategies for the on-line multidimensional analysis of peptides and proteins in biological samples. This overview of t

  6. On-line probabilistic classification with particle filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højen-Sørensen, Pedro; de Freitas, N.; Fog, Torben L.

    2000-01-01

    We apply particle filters to the problem of on-line classification with possibly overlapping classes. This allows us to compute the probabilities of class membership as the classes evolve. Although we adopt neural network classifiers, the work can be extended to any other parametric classification...

  7. Personal Assistant for onLine Services: Addressing human factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, J.; Nagata, S.F.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Personal Assistant for onLine Services (PALS) project aims at substantially improving the user experience of mobile internet services. It focuses on a generic solution: a personal assistant, which attunes the interaction to the momentary user needs and use context (e.g. adjusting the

  8. Efficiently Building On-line Tools for Distributed Heterogeneous Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Rackl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Software development is getting more and more complex, especially within distributed middleware-based environments. A major drawback during the overall software development process is the lack of on-line tools, i.e. tools applied as soon as there is a running prototype of an application. The MIMO MIddleware MOnitor provides a solution to this problem by implementing a framework for an efficient development of on-line tools. This paper presents a methodology for developing on-line tools with MIMO. As an example scenario, we choose a distributed medical image reconstruction application, which represents a test case with high performance requirements. Our distributed, CORBA-based application is instrumented for being observed with MIMO and related tools. Additionally, load balancing mechanisms are integrated for further performance improvements. As a result, we obtain an integrated tool environment for observing and steering the image reconstruction application. By using our rapid tool development process, the integration of on-line tools shows to be very convenient and enables an efficient tool deployment.

  9. Developing an On-Line Interactive Health Psychology Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Dominic; Cooper, Carol

    2006-01-01

    On-line teaching material in health psychology was developed which ensured a range of students could access appropriate material for their course and level of study. This material has been developed around the concept of smaller "content chunks" which can be combined into whole units of learning (topics), and ultimately, a module. On the basis of…

  10. Why do People Stop playing On-Line Games?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana

    2012-01-01

    The recent initial public offering of shares of Zynga, probably the most important on-line game provider, drew interest of potential investors but also of general public to their business model. What the most interested people learned so far is that if Zynga had not changed their accounting...

  11. On-line fuzzy logic control of tube bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieh, Junghsen; Li, Wei Jie

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes the simulation and on-line fuzzy logic control of tube bending. By combining elasticity and plasticity theories, a conventional model was developed. The results from simulation were compared with those obtained from testing. The experimental data reveal that there exists certain level of uncertainty and nonlinearity in tube bending, and its variation could be significant. To overcome this, a on-line fuzzy logic controller with self-tuning capabilities was designed. The advantages of this on-line system are (1) its computational requirement is simple in comparison with more algorithmic-based controllers, and (2) the system does not need prior knowledge of material characteristics. The device includes an AC motor, a servo controller, a forming mechanism, a 3D optical sensor, and a microprocessor. This automated bending machine adopts primary and secondary errors between the actual response and desired output to conduct on-line rule reasoning. Results from testing show that the spring back angle can be effectively compensated by the self- tuning fuzzy system in a real-time fashion.

  12. The dynamics of on-line principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biehl, M.; Schlösser, E.

    1998-01-01

    The learning dynamics of an on-line algorithm for principal component analysis is described exactly in the thermodynamic limit by means of coupled ordinary differential equations for a set of order parameters. It is demonstrated that learning is delayed significantly because existing symmetries amon

  13. On-Line Learning and the Implications for School Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Greg

    2011-01-01

    "Disrupting Class," published in 2008, is the story of how disruptive innovation, innovation that changes the business model organizations, will fundamentally change the American school system. The book's most startling prediction is that half of all high school classes will be on-line by 2019. In considering these predictions, the author began to…

  14. Specialization processes in on-line unsupervised learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biehl, M.; Freking, A.; Reents, G.; Schlösser, E.

    1998-01-01

    From the recent analysis of supervised learning by on-line gradient descent in multilayered neural networks it is known that the necessary process of student specialization can be delayed significantly. We demonstrate that this phenomenon also occurs in various models of unsupervised learning. A sol

  15. On-line sample treatment - Capillary gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosens, EC; de Jong, D; de Jong, GJ; Brinkman, UAT

    1998-01-01

    Sample pretreatment is often the bottleneck of a trace level analytical procedure. In order to increase performance, increasing attention is therefore being devoted to combining sample pretreatment on-line with the separation technique that has to be used. In the present review, a variety of procedu

  16. A New On-Line Resource for Psycholinguistic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Anna; Jacobsen, Thomas; D'Amico, Simona; Devescovi, Antonella; Andonoa, Elena; Herron, Daniel; Lu, Ching Ching; Pechmann, Thomas; Pleh, Csaba; Wicha, Nicole; Federmeier, Kara; Gerdjikova, Irina; Gutierrez, Gabriel; Hung, Daisy, Hsu, Jeanne; Iyer, Gowri; Kohnert, Kathryn; Mehotcheva, Teodora; Orozco-Figueroa, Araceli; Tzeng, Angela; Tzeng, Ovid; Arevalo, Analia; Vargha, Andras; Butler, Andrew C.; Buffington, Robert; Bates, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Picture naming is a widely used technique in psycholinguistic studies. Here, we describe new on-line resources that our project has compiled and made available to researchers on the world wide web at http://crl.ucsd.edu/~aszekely/ipnp/. The website provides access to a wide range of picture stimuli and related norms in seven languages. Picture…

  17. ADAPTIVE CONTEXT PROCESSING IN ON-LINE HANDWRITTEN CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwayama, N.; Ishigaki, K.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new approach to context processing in on-line handwritten character recognition (OLCR). Based on the observation that writers often repeat the strings that they input, we take the approach of adaptive context processing. (ACP). In ACP, the strings input by a writer are automatically

  18. The Lesson Observation On-Line (Evidence Portfolio) Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David G.

    2015-01-01

    At a time when teacher training is being moved to school-based programmes it is important to engage in a research-informed dialogue about creating more distinctive, and cost-effective 21st century models of teacher training. Three years ago I began feasibility field testing the Lesson Observation On-line (Evidence Portfolio) Platform [LOOP]…

  19. On-line EM algorithm for the normalized gaussian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M; Ishii, S

    2000-02-01

    A normalized gaussian network (NGnet) (Moody & Darken, 1989) is a network of local linear regression units. The model softly partitions the input space by normalized gaussian functions, and each local unit linearly approximates the output within the partition. In this article, we propose a new on-line EMalgorithm for the NGnet, which is derived from the batch EMalgorithm (Xu, Jordan, &Hinton 1995), by introducing a discount factor. We show that the on-line EM algorithm is equivalent to the batch EM algorithm if a specific scheduling of the discount factor is employed. In addition, we show that the on-line EM algorithm can be considered as a stochastic approximation method to find the maximum likelihood estimator. A new regularization method is proposed in order to deal with a singular input distribution. In order to manage dynamic environments, where the input-output distribution of data changes over time, unit manipulation mechanisms such as unit production, unit deletion, and unit division are also introduced based on probabilistic interpretation. Experimental results show that our approach is suitable for function approximation problems in dynamic environments. We also apply our on-line EM algorithm to robot dynamics problems and compare our algorithm with the mixtures-of-experts family.

  20. On-Line Synthesis and Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Ryan M.; Pulliam, Christopher J.; Raab, Shannon A.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students learn how to use ESI to accelerate chemical synthesis and to couple it with on-line mass spectrometry for structural analysis. The Hantzsch synthesis of symmetric 1,4-dihydropyridines is a classic example of a one-pot reaction in which multiple intermediates can serve to indicate the progress of the reaction…

  1. Investigating on-line pornography at the University of Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Laughton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The on-line user of today has access to a vast collection of information resources. In addition, the developments in Internet and Web technologies have made it even easier for surfers to anonymously get access to on-line pornography. The purpose of this research was to investigate the extent to which access to on-line pornography at the University of Johannesburg can be managed. For the empirical part of this research 1037 questionnaires were proportionally distributed to and completed by students on all five campuses of the university. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: biographical information; university computer facility usage; university acceptable use policy; and personal experience with university computer facilities. The gender distribution for the sample was almost even, with a total of 49,4% male participants and 50,6% female, with the largest grouping of respondents (61,6% aged between 19 years and 21 years. Of the respondents, 36,7% indicated that exposure to unsolicited pornography did not bother them. When asked to what extent students should have access to pornography, 60,5% stated 'None' while 32,6% believed that 'Restricted' access should be granted for research purposes and 6,9% believed that students should be granted 'Total' access to pornography. Results from the research will be used to manage access to on-line resources at the University of Johannesburg better.

  2. Investigating on-line pornography at the University of Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Laughton

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The on-line user of today has access to a vast collection of information resources. In addition, the developments in Internet and Web technologies have made it even easier for surfers to anonymously get access to on-line pornography. The purpose of this research was to investigate the extent to which access to on-line pornography at the University of Johannesburg can be managed. For the empirical part of this research 1037 questionnaires were proportionally distributed to and completed by students on all five campuses of the university. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: biographical information; university computer facility usage; university acceptable use policy; and personal experience with university computer facilities. The gender distribution for the sample was almost even, with total of 49,4% male participants and 50,6% female, with the largest grouping of respondents(61,6% aged between 19 years and 21 years. Of the respondents, 36,7% indicated that exposure to unsolicited pornography did not bother them. When asked to what extent students should have access to pornography, 60,5% stated 'None' while 32,6% believed that 'Restricted' access should be granted for research purposes and 6,9% believed that students should be granted 'Total' access to pornography. Results from the research will be used to manage access to on-line resources at the University of Johannesburg better.

  3. On-Line NDE for Advanced Reactor Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, N.; Inanc, F.; Thompson, R. B.; Junker, W. R.; Ruddy, F. H.; Beatty, J. M.; Arlia, N. G.

    2003-03-01

    This expository paper introduces the concept of on-line sensor methodologies for monitoring the integrity of components in next generation power systems, and explains general benefits of the approach, while describing early conceptual developments of suitable NDE methodologies. The paper first explains the philosophy behind this approach (i.e. the design-for-inspectability concept). Specifically, we describe where and how decades of accumulated knowledge and experience in nuclear power system maintenance are utilized in Generation IV power system designs, as the designs are being actively developed, in order to advance their safety and economy. Second, we explain that Generation IV reactor design features call for the replacement of the current outage-based maintenance by on-line inspection and monitoring. Third, the model-based approach toward design and performance optimization of on-line sensor systems, using electromagnetic, ultrasonic, and radiation detectors, will be explained. Fourth, general types of NDE inspections that are considered amenable to on-line health monitoring will be listed. Fifth, we will describe specific modeling developments to be used for radiography, EMAT UT, and EC detector design studies.

  4. On-Line Synthesis and Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Ryan M.; Pulliam, Christopher J.; Raab, Shannon A.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students learn how to use ESI to accelerate chemical synthesis and to couple it with on-line mass spectrometry for structural analysis. The Hantzsch synthesis of symmetric 1,4-dihydropyridines is a classic example of a one-pot reaction in which multiple intermediates can serve to indicate the progress of the reaction…

  5. Why do People Stop Playing On-Line Games?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana

    2012-01-01

    The recent initial public offering of shares of Zynga, probably the most important on-line game provider, drew interest of potential investors but also of general public to their business model. What the most interested people learned so far is that if Zynga had not changed their accounting...

  6. On-line survivable routing in WDM networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beshir, A.A.; Kuipers, F.A.; Van Mieghem, P.F.A.; Orda, A.

    2009-01-01

    In WDM networks, survivable routing and wavelength assignment (SRWA) involves assigning link-disjoint primary and backup lightpaths. In the on-line SRWA problem, a sequence of requests arrive and each request is either accepted or rejected based only on the input sequence seen so far. For special

  7. On-line Survivable Routing in WDM Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beshir, A.A.; Kuipers, F.A.; Van Mieghem, P.; Orda, A.

    In WDM networks, survivable routing and wavelength assignment (SRWA) involves assigning link-disjoint primary and backup lightpaths. In the on-line SRWA problem, a sequence of requests arrive and each request is either accepted or rejected based only on the input sequence seen so far. For special

  8. Study of self-calibrating MEMS accelerometers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Weiping; Li, Xiangyu; Liu, Xiaowei; Yin, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Micro-electromechanical System(MEMS) accelerometers are widely used in a number of inertial navigation systems and vibration detection system thanks to their small size, low cost and low power consumption...

  9. Self-calibrating common-path interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras-Aguilar, Rosario; Falaggis, Konstantinos; Ramirez-San-Juan, Julio C; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben

    2015-02-09

    A quantitative phase measuring technique is presented that estimates the object phase from a series of phase shifted interferograms that are obtained in a common-path configuration with unknown phase shifts. The derived random phase shifting algorithm for common-path interferometers is based on the Generalized Phase Contrast theory [pl. Opt.40(2), 268 (2001)10.1063/1.1404846], which accounts for the particular image formation and includes effects that are not present in two-beam interferometry. It is shown experimentally that this technique can be used within common-path configurations employing nonlinear liquid crystal materials as self-induced phase filters for quantitative phase imaging without the need of phase shift calibrations. The advantages of such liquid crystal elements compared to spatial light modulator based solutions are given by the cost-effectiveness, self-alignment, and the generation of diminutive dimensions of the phase filter size, giving unique performance advantages.

  10. Low Power, Self Calibrated Vector Magnetometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR project investigates a novel approach to vector magnetometry based on high precision measurements of the total magnetic field. The calibration is...

  11. IOOS Data Portals and Uniform On-line Browse Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M.; Currier, R. D.; Kobara, S.; Gayanilo, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System Regional Association (GCOOS-RA) is one of eleven Regional Associations organized under the NOAA-led U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) Program Office. Each of the RAs operate standards-based regional data portals designed to aggregate near real-time and historical observed data and modeled outputs from distributed providers and to offer these and derived products in standardized ways to a diverse set of users. The RA's portals are based on the IOOS Data and Communications Plan which describes the functional elements needed for an interoperable system. One of these elements is called "Uniform On-line Browse" which is an informational service designed primarily to visualize the inventory of a portal. An on-line browse service supports the end user's need to discover what parameters are available, to learn the spatial and temporal extend of the holdings, and to examine the character of the data (e.g, variability, gappiness, etc). These pieces of information help the end user decide if the data are fit for his/her purpose and to construct valid data requests. Note that on-line browse is a distinctly different activity than data analysis because it seeks to yield knowledge about the inventory and not about what the data mean. "Uniform" on-line browse is a service that takes advantage of the standardization of the data portal's data access points. Most portals represent station locations on a map. This is a view of the data inventory but these plots are rarely generated by pulling data through the standards-based services offered to the end users but through methods only available to the portal programmers. This work will present results of Uniform On-line browse tools developed within GCOOS-RA and their applicability to other RA portals.

  12. Mentoring Narratives ON-LINE:Teaching the Principalship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison I. Griffith

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop new models for preparation of school administrators has been a prominent concern in educational discourse in the last decade. Having been criticized for the inadequate preparation of the school leadership cadre, academic departments responsible for training future school administrators have had to revisit their approaches and to reframe their teaching philosophies to ensure the readiness of their graduates for the challenges and complexities of school leadership. This article reports on the new model of principals' training that has been used in York University's Principals' Qualification Program (PQP from the late 1990s onward. One component of the program brings traditional case methodology into a computer-mediated/on-line environment. The on-line cases are narratives from the everyday lives of the Ontario school administrators who serve as mentors in the on-line environment. Situating our discussion within the context of the rapidly changing educational landscape of Ontario, we focus on the PQP model to explore experientially generated case narratives as one method for teaching and learning the work of the local school administrator. We focus particularly on the teaching and learning embedded in computer-mediated or on-line case narratives used in training teachers for school leadership. We argue that the complexities of school leadership—the social, cultural, relational, ethical and moral context of school leadership—can be taught effectively through the reflective processes of on-line case narratives. We seek to contribute to the ongoing dialogue on the potential of new pedagogies and new technologies to help prepare the competent and responsible leaders for tomorrow's schools.

  13. Astronomy On-Line Programme Enters "hot Week"

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    World's Biggest Astronomy WWW-Event Attracts Thousands of Students The Astronomy On-line Programme (See ESO Press Release 09/96 of 18 June 1996) began officially on 1 October and is now about to enter its most intense phase, known as the Hot Week . On 18 - 22 November, an estimated 4000 astronomy-interested, mostly young people in Europe and on four other continents will get together during five days in what - not unexpected - has become the world's biggest astronomy event ever organised on the World Wide Web. This carefully structured Programme is carried out in collaboration between the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE), the European Southern Observatory and the European Commission, under the auspices of the Fourth European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture. The Programme has already had a most visible impact on the school education of natural sciences in various countries; for instance, the Internet-connection of schools has been advanced in some, in order to allow groups to participate. There have been numerous contacts among the groups across the borders and there are clear signs that many Astronomy On-line participants have progressed to use the impressive possibilities of the Web in an efficient and structured way. There has been a lively media interest in Astronomy On-line all over Europe and it is expected to increase during the next week. The current status of Astronomy On-line It is obvious that the pilot function of the Astronomy On-line Programme in the use of the Web has been very effective and that the associated dissemination of astronomical knowledge has been successful. At this time, more than 650 groups have registered with Astronomy On-line. Most come from 31 different European countries and a few dozen groups are located in North and South America as well as in Asia and Australia. Together they have experienced the steady build-up of Astronomy On-line over the past weeks, by means of numerous contributions from a

  14. Measuring on-line compliance in ventilated infants using hot wire anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baboolal, R; Kirpalani, H

    1990-10-01

    We investigated the validity of using tidal volume (VT) as measured by the neonatal volume monitor (NVM) to derive respiratory compliance. The NVM is a noninvasive device that measures VT by hot wire anemometry. The quotient of VT and the inflation pressure amplitude from the mechanical ventilator provided a measure of respiratory compliance. This was validated against the single breath occlusion technique in 15 infants (birth weight 0.9 to 4.4 kg). To ensure fully passive expiration, only paralyzed or sedated patients were studied. Only 12 of the 15 infants were analyzed because of limitations in the single breath technique. In three infants the flow-volume curves obtained were alinear, indicating inhomogeneity. In the 12 infants with acceptable single breath data, agreement between the two methods was excellent. Using the expired volume, r2 was .99. We conclude that the NVM can be used to obtain valid estimates of respiratory compliance on-line in intubated infants.

  15. Experimentally obtaining on-line FRA in transformers by injecting controlled pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gómez-Luna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Transformer monitoring based on the operating condition (on-line test has boomed in recent years because it allows early detection of risk situations or limitations regarding use to make appropriate decisions before a failure occurs. Frequency response analysis (FRA is one of the most heavily researched techniques for on-line development; it is based on obtaining a transformer’s frequency response (admittance, impedance or transfer function in a given bandwidth. This paper presents an experimental method for obtaining the frequency response with the transformer in service by injecting controlled pulses of the voltage signal using an external electronic circuit. Once the voltage and current signals had been recorded, the wavelet transform was used via multi-resolution analysis (MRA for filtering. This led to results being obtained without noise interference from the electrical system. The transfer function was obtained in terms of impedance, using the fast Fourier transform (FFT. The proposed method represented an alternative in solving some problems arising from the on-line FRA technique such as filtering and results’ repeatability. The tests involved a 5-kVA 1150/345 V three-phase transformer and a 3-kVA, 7620/240 V single-phase transformer in the Universidad del Valle’s High Voltage Laboratory.

  16. Applications of on-line multidimensional chromatography to solvent refined coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.M.; Apffel, J.A.; McNair, H.M.

    1981-03-29

    Solvent refined coal (SRC) is a complex mixture predominantly aromatic in nuture, and attempts to elucidate structure or compositional details by a single analytical technique have had limited success. Several on-line multidimensional chromatographic techniques were chosen to examine the hexane soluble fraction of SRC. These techniques include LC (silica gel)/LC (reverse phase); LC/GC; and LC/LC/Fluorescence. The latter technique proved to be the most useful and are discussed in detail in this paper. The conclusions of this study are: on-line coupled chromatographic techniques allow separations not easily done off-line. The on-line techniques are easily automated (increasing reproducibility) and allow small transfer volumes between systems. The main limitation with LC/LC is the incompatibility of mobile phases when the columns are normal phase and reverse phase. With LC/GC the main problem is quantitation (since only a portion of the peak is injected) and degradation of GC columns with some LC mobile phases. The use of selective detectors in series is a good technique to examine complex fractions like SRC and enhances the separating power.

  17. Comparing the happiness effects of real and on-line friends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Helliwell

    Full Text Available A recent large Canadian survey permits us to compare face-to-face ('real-life' and on-line social networks as sources of subjective well-being. The sample of 5,000 is drawn randomly from an on-line pool of respondents, a group well placed to have and value on-line friendships. We find three key results. First, the number of real-life friends is positively correlated with subjective well-being (SWB even after controlling for income, demographic variables and personality differences. Doubling the number of friends in real life has an equivalent effect on well-being as a 50% increase in income. Second, the size of online networks is largely uncorrelated with subjective well-being. Third, we find that real-life friends are much more important for people who are single, divorced, separated or widowed than they are for people who are married or living with a partner. Findings from large international surveys (the European Social Surveys 2002-2008 are used to confirm the importance of real-life social networks to SWB; they also indicate a significantly smaller value of social networks to married or partnered couples.

  18. Visualization and on line monitoring of geometric parameters of beams at KSRS

    CERN Document Server

    Ioudin, L; Potlovsky, K; Rezvov, V

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of developed hardware and software we investigate the opportunity of on line registration of geometric parameters of low intensity SR beam and electron beams in single shot mode. Ionization and luminescence detectors form real optic image of a beam cross section. The image is registered by a TV camera, digitized and processed by a computer. Gray scale image and profiles of a beam are represented. Accumulation and statistic processing of the data give the possibility to increase the sensitivity of the hardware and to calculate the average position of the beam gravity center, dispersion and statistic uncertainty.

  19. On-line Measuring Method for Shell Chamber Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-zhong; WANG De-min; JIANG Tao; CAO Guo-hua; WANG Qi

    2005-01-01

    Using the ideal gas state equation, an on-line measuring method for the shell chamber volume is studied in this paper. After analyzing how various measurement parameters affect the measurement accuracy, the system parameters are optimized in this method. Because the shape and volume of the tested items are similar, the method of using "tamping" to raise the accuracy and speed of the measurement is put forward. Based on the work above, a prototype of the testing instrument for shell chamber volume was developed, automatically testing and controlling. Compared with the method of "water weight", this method is more accurate, quicker and more automotive, so it is adaptable for the use of on-line detection.

  20. On-line Dynamic Security Assessment in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel

    tools may no longer be feasible, since they are generally based on extensive off-line studies. A core component of an efficient on-line dynamic security assessment is a fast and reliable contingency screening. As part of this thesis a contingency screening method is developed and its performance......The thesis concerns the development of tools and methods for on-line dynamic security assessment (DSA). In a future power system with low-dependence or even independence of fossil fuels, generation will be based to a large extent on noncontrollable renewable energy sources (RES), such as wind...... and solar radiation. Moreover, ongoing research suggests that demand response will be introduced to maintain power balance between generation and consumption at all times. Due to these changes the operating point of the power system will be less predictable and today’s stability and security assessment...

  1. On-line Ramsey Numbers for Paths and Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Grytczuk

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We study on-line version of size-Ramsey numbers of graphs defined via a game played between Builder and Painter: in one round Builder joins two vertices by an edge and Painter paints it red or blue. The goal of Builder is to force Painter to create a monochromatic copy of a fixed graph H in as few rounds as possible. The minimum number of rounds (assuming both players play perfectly is the on-line Ramsey number r(H of the graph H. We determine exact values of r(H for a few short paths and obtain a general upper bound r(Pn ≤ 4n-7. We also study asymmetric version of this parameter when one of the target graphs is a star Sn with n edges. We prove that r(Sn,H≤n ·e(H when H is any tree, cycle or clique.

  2. On-line corrosion monitoring in district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Sonja; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2004-01-01

    complicates the chemistry of the environment. Hydrogen sulphide is present in geothermal systems and can be formed as a by-product of sulphate-reducing-bacteria (SRB). The application of electrochemical methods makes on-line monitoring possible. These methods include: Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR......), Electrochemical Noise (EN) and Zero Resistance Ammetry (ZRA). Electrochemical Resistance (ER) has also been used to measure corrosion. The method traditionally only measures corrosion off-line but with newly developed high-sensitive ER technique developed by MetriCorr in Denmark, on-line monitoring is possible......Traditionally corrosion monitoring in district heating systems has been performed offline via weight loss coupons. These measurements give information about the past and not the present situation and require long exposure time (weeks or months). The good quality of district heating medium makes...

  3. Fractal groups: Emergent dynamics in on-line learning communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junia de Carvalho Fidelis Braga

    Full Text Available Drawing on complexity theory, this work discusses the complex dynamics and emergent patterns of on-line learning communities based on a doctoral study in the area of Applied Linguistics. The analysis will center on the interlocutions of fifty students who interacted in small groups without the teacher's direct intervention, in an undergraduate course offered by the School of Languages and Literature at the Federal University of Minas Gerais. By analyzing the data, I demonstrate that out of the interactions among the peers of autonomous on-line learning communities arise opportunities for the construction of shared meaning, distributed leadership, as well as other dynamics. I also demonstrate the fractal nature of these communities. Moreover, I discuss how these findings shed light on the creation and development of course designs for large groups.

  4. On-Line Metrology with Conoscopic Holography: Beyond Triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Ignacio; Enguita, Jose M.; Frade, María; Marina, Jorge; Ojea, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    On-line non-contact surface inspection with high precision is still an open problem. Laser triangulation techniques are the most common solution for this kind of systems, but there exist fundamental limitations to their applicability when high precisions, long standoffs or large apertures are needed, and when there are difficult operating conditions. Other methods are, in general, not applicable in hostile environments or inadequate for on-line measurement. In this paper we review the latest research in Conoscopic Holography, an interferometric technique that has been applied successfully in this kind of applications, ranging from submicrometric roughness measurements, to long standoff sensors for surface defect detection in steel at high temperatures. PMID:22399984

  5. Escapist Motives for Playing On-Line Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana

    , Harteveld and Mayer’s framework (2009) of escapist motives, which identifies four main motives for playing on-line games: mundane breaking, stress relieving, pleasure seeking, and imagination conjuring. In the paper, we report preliminary findings from an exploratory questionnaire survey. Besides importance...... of escapist motives for playing Facebook and other on-line games, we investigate how they are linked to demographic data such as: age, gender, place of origin, along with other social interactions patterns and social network usage behavior, current gaming status and an estimate of gaming time. According......Social games have become popular along with the tremendous growth of social networking sites, esp. Facebook. There is a gap in literature on what motivates people to play Facebook games. This paper studies social games usage behavior of students. We focus on escapist reasons, based on Warmelink...

  6. On-line Corrosion Monitoring in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Sonja; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion control in district heating systems is today performed primarily with control of the water quality. The corrosion rate is kept low by assuring low dissolved oxygen concentration, high pH and low conductivity. Corrosion failures can occur, e.g. as a result of unknown oxygen ingress......, precipitation of deposits or crevices. The authors describe methods used for on-line monitoring of corrosion, cover the complications and the main results of a Nordic project....

  7. On-Line and Back at S.F.U.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanderson

    1973-06-01

    Full Text Available Simon Fraser University library began operation with an automated circulation system. After deliberation, it mounted the first phase of a two-phase online circulation system. A radically revised loan pol·icy caused the system design and assumptions to be called into question. A cheaper, simpler, and more effective off-line system eventually replaced the on-line system. The systems, fiscal, and administrative implications of this decision are reviewed.

  8. Two Types of Designs for On-Line Circulation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob McGee

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available On-line circulation systems divide into two types. One type contains records only for charged or otherwise absent items. The other contains a file of records for all titles or volumes in the library collection, regardless of their circulation status. This paper traces differences between the two types, examining different kinds of files and terminals, transaction evidence, the quality of bibliographic data, querying, and the possibility of functions outside circulation. Aspects of both operational and potential systems are considered.

  9. Differential Electronic Nose in On-Line Dynamic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osowski S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents application of differential electronic nose in the dynamic (on-line volatile measurement. First we compare the classical nose employing only one sensor array and its extension in the differential form containing two sensor arrays working in differential mode. We show that differential nose performs better at changing environmental conditions, especially the temperature, and well performs in the dynamic mode of operation. We show its application in recognition of different brands of tobacco

  10. On-line phase space measurement with kicker excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, J.; Maier, R.; Mohos, I.

    1998-12-01

    A new method for on-line phase space measurements with kicker excitation at COSY was developed. The position data were measured using the analog output of two beam position monitors (BPMs) and directly monitored on a digital storage oscilloscope with an external clock (bunch-synchronous sampling). Nonlinear behavior of the proton beam was visible as well as were resonance islands. Typical measurements are presented.

  11. The new on-line Czech Food Composition Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machackova, Marie; Holasova, Marie; Maskova, Eva

    2013-10-01

    The new on-line Czech Food Composition Database (FCDB) was launched on http://www.czfcdb.cz in December 2010 as a main freely available channel for dissemination of Czech food composition data. The application is based on a complied FCDB documented according to the EuroFIR standardised procedure for full value documentation and indexing of foods by the LanguaL™ Thesaurus. A content management system was implemented for administration of the website and performing data export (comma-separated values or EuroFIR XML transport package formats) by a compiler. Reference/s are provided for each published value with linking to available freely accessible on-line sources of data (e.g. full texts, EuroFIR Document Repository, on-line national FCDBs). LanguaL™ codes are displayed within each food record as searchable keywords of the database. A photo (or a photo gallery) is used as a visual descriptor of a food item. The application is searchable on foods, components, food groups, alphabet and a multi-field advanced search. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Review of trigger and on-line processors at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lankford, A.J.

    1984-07-01

    The role of trigger and on-line processors in reducing data rates to manageable proportions in e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics experiments is defined not by high physics or background rates, but by the large event sizes of the general-purpose detectors employed. The rate of e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation is low, and backgrounds are not high; yet the number of physics processes which can be studied is vast and varied. This paper begins by briefly describing the role of trigger processors in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ context. The usual flow of the trigger decision process is illustrated with selected examples of SLAC trigger processing. The features are mentioned of triggering at the SLC and the trigger processing plans of the two SLC detectors: The Mark II and the SLD. The most common on-line processors at SLAC, the BADC, the SLAC Scanner Processor, the SLAC FASTBUS Controller, and the VAX CAMAC Channel, are discussed. Uses of the 168/E, 3081/E, and FASTBUS VAX processors are mentioned. The manner in which these processors are interfaced and the function they serve on line is described. Finally, the accelerator control system for the SLC is outlined. This paper is a survey in nature, and hence, relies heavily upon references to previous publications for detailed description of work mentioned here. 27 references, 9 figures, 1 table.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE COAL WASHABILITY ANALYZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Miller; C.L. Lin; G.H. Luttrell; G.T. Adel; Barbara Marin

    2001-06-26

    Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on- line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of such a device is critical to the establishment of process control and automated coal blending systems. In this regard, Virginia Tech, Terra Tek Inc., and U.S. coal producers have joined with the University of Utah and to undertake the development of an X-ray CT-based on- line coal washability analyzer with financial assistance from DOE. Each project participant brought special expertise to the project in order to create a new dimension in coal cleaning technology. The project involves development of appropriate software and extensive testing/evaluation of well-characterized coal samples from operating coal preparation plants. Data collected to date suggest that this new technology is capable of serving as a universal analyzer that can not only provide washability analysis, but also particle size distribution analysis, ash analysis, and perhaps pyritic sulfur analysis.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE COAL WASHABILITY ANALYZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Miller

    1999-09-30

    Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on-line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of such a device is critical to the establishment of process control and automated coal blending systems. In this regard, Virginia Tech, Terra Tek Inc., and several eastern coal companies have joined with the University of Utah and agreed to undertake the development of a x-ray CT-based on-line coal washability analyzer with financial assistance from DOE. The three-year project will cost $594,571, of which 33% ($194,575) will be cost-shared by the participants. The project involves development of appropriate software and extensive testing/evaluation of well-characterized coal samples from operating coal preparation plants. Each project participant brings special expertise to the project which is expected to create a new dimension in coal cleaning technology. Finally, it should be noted that the analyzer may prove to be a universal analyzer capable of providing not only washability analysis, but also particle size distribution analysis, ash analysis and perhaps pyritic sulfur analysis.

  15. Designing effective on-line continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimitat, Craig

    2001-03-01

    The Internet, and new information and communication technologies available through the Internet, provides medical educators with an opportunity to develop unique on-line learning environments with real potential to improve physicians' knowledge and effect change in their clinical practice. There are approximately 100 websites offering on-line CME courses in the USA alone. However, few of these CME courses appear to be based on sound educational principles or CME research and may have little chance of achieving the broader goals of CME. The majority of these courses closely resemble their traditional counterparts (e.g. paper-based books are now electronic books) and appear to be mere substitutions for old-technology CME resources. Whilst some CME providers add unique features of the Internet to enrich their websites, they do not employ strategies to optimize the learning opportunities afforded by this new technology. The adoption of adult learning principles, reflective practice and problem-based approaches can be used as a foundation for sound CME course design. In addition, knowledge of Internet technology and the learning opportunities it affords, together with strategies to maintain participation and new assessment paradigms, are all needed for developing online CME. We argue for an evidence-based and strategic approach to the development of on-line CME courses designed to enhance physician learning and facilitate change in clinical behaviour.

  16. A note on on-line Ramsey numbers for quadrilaterals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Cyman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider on-line Ramsey numbers defined by a game played between two players, Builder and Painter. In each round Builder draws an the edge and Painter colors it either red or blue, as it appears. Builder's goal is to force Painter to create a monochromatic copy of a fixed graph \\(H\\ in as few rounds as possible. The minimum number of rounds (assuming both players play perfectly is the on-line Ramsey number \\(\\widetilde{r}(H\\ of the graph \\(H\\. An asymmetric version of the on-line Ramsey numbers \\(\\widetilde{r}(G,H\\ is defined accordingly. In 2005, Kurek and Ruciński computed \\(\\widetilde{r}(C_3\\. In this paper, we compute \\(\\widetilde{r}(C_4,C_k\\ for \\(3 \\le k \\le 7\\. Most of the results are based on computer algorithms but we obtain the exact value \\(\\widetilde{r}(C_4\\ and do so without the help of computer algorithms.

  17. Internet Teaching By Style: Profiling the On-line Professor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Strand

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to offer the results of a pilot study which examined the personality type and teaching style preferences of faculty who elected to teach an on-line course. The article will present a description of personality assessments, including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI and Anthony Gregorc's Transaction Ability Inventory used to determine teaching tendencies and styles. In addition, a structured written questionnaire developed by the researchers was used to assess teacher satisfaction with worldwide web-based instruction. Utilizing the results of these psychological assessments, a preliminary analysis of the personal characteristics of college professors who chose to teach on line will be presented. This pilot study found that some preferred teaching styles may be more compatible with the dynamics of distance learning formats. By determining successful teaching styles for on-line courses, we can develop more effective faculty development programs to assist others in successfully transitioning into the cyber-teaching and learning environment.

  18. Observability analysis for misalignments of inertial sensors in inertial platform self-calibration%惯性平台自标定中惯性仪表安装误差可观测性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁智坚; 蔡洪; 张文杰

    2016-01-01

    For the observability of inertial sensor misalignments in inertial platform self-calibration problem,the effects of the system model and platform coordinate frame on observability were analyzed.Based on different system dynamic models and measurement vectors,four system models were built.The observability of inertial sensors misalignments in different models with different definitions of platform coordinate frame was investigated.The theory conclusions and simulation results show that the system is observable only in two conditions:the system measurement models are built up with platform angles and accelerometer triad outputs,the system dynamic model is built up with platform angles and the platform coordinate frame should be defined with the benchmark hexahedron of platform;the system measurement models are built up only with accelerometers triad outputs,the system dynamic models are built up with platform attitude or misalignment models and the platform coordinate frame should be defined with the accelerometer sensor axes.%针对惯性平台自标定中惯性仪表安装误差可观测性问题,深入研究了系统模型与平台坐标系对惯性仪表安装误差可观测性的影响。根据不同系统动力学模型和观测量构建四种系统模型。从可观测性定义出发,分析与判断惯性仪表安装误差在不同系统模型和不同平台坐标系下的可观测性。理论分析和仿真结果均表明惯性仪表安装误差在以下两种情况完全可观:观测量为平台框架角和加速度计输出,系统动力学模型为框架角模型,平台坐标系以平台六面体为基准定义;观测量为加速度输出,系统动力学模型为姿态角或失准角模型,平台坐标系以加速度计敏感轴为基准定义。

  19. Self-calibration Approach for Structured Light Eye-in-hand System Based on Active Vision%基于主动视觉的结构光手眼系统自标定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉峰; 郭新年; 曹沁婕; 白瑞林; 于圣龙

    2015-01-01

    In order to calibrate the structured light eye-in-hand system, the self-calibration approach based on active vision is proposed. In this calibration method, by precisely controlling the robot, 2 groups of translational motion and 1 group of motion with rotating are conducted. The intrinsic parameters of camera, and the normal vectors of eye-in-hand rotation matrix and the light plane are calibrated by 2 groups of translational motion, and the translational section of eye-in-hand matrix and the depth information of the light plane are calibrated by 1 group motion with rotating. The test results show that this calibration approach is simple, specific target is not requested, feature selection is easy, testing result is stable, the accuracy is ±1. 02 mm. This provides important significance to structured light eye-in-hand system in industrial fields.%为实现结构光手眼系统的标定,提出一种基于主动视觉的结构光手眼系统自标定方法。该标定方法精确控制机器人进行2组平移运动和1组带旋转运动:2组平移运动标定出摄像机内参数、手眼矩阵的旋转部分和光平面的法向量;1组带旋转运动标定出手眼矩阵的平移部分和光平面的深度信息。试验结果表明,该标定方法简单,无需使用特定靶标,特征选取容易,测试结果稳定,定位精度可达到±1.02 mm,对结构光手眼系统在实际工业现场的使用有重要意义。

  20. On-line grid impedance estimation based on harmonic injection for grid-connected PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents an on-line software method for impedance estimation of the energized impedances such as power system grid. The proposed method is based on producing a perturbation on the output of the power converter that is in the form of periodical injection of one or two voltage harmonic...... two different signal processing algorithms. The DFT technique is used for the single harmonic injection and the statistic technique is used for the double harmonic injection. The grid impedance estimation is used for compliance with the anti-islanding requirements of the German standard (VDE0126...... signals. The single harmonic injection uses a 600 Hz signal and the double harmonic injection uses a 400 Hz and 600 Hz signals, respectively. During the perturbation, the current response(s) at the same frequency as the injected signal(s) is/are measured. The value of the grid impedance is estimated using...

  1. Forensic terrestrial photogrammetry from a single image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aguilera, Diego; Gomez-Lahoz, Javier

    2009-11-01

    Forensic terrestrial photogrammetry is one of the most valuable and low-cost resources of spatial data available today. Due to the ephemeral crime scene characteristics, these photographs can often capture information that is never to be seen again. This paper presents a novelty approach for the documentation, analysis, and visualization of crime scenes for which only a single perspective image is available. The photogrammetric process consists of a few well-known steps in close-range photogrammetry: features extraction, vanishing points computation, camera self-calibration, 3D metric reconstruction, dimensional analysis, and interactive visualization. Likewise, the method incorporates a quality control of the different steps accomplished sequentially. As a result, several cases of study are presented in the experimental results section in order to test their viability. The full approach can be applied easily through the free software, sv3DVision, which has been evaluated by a number of police officers, forensic scientists, and forensic educators satisfactorily.

  2. A Refreshable, On-line Cache for HST Data Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraquelli, Dorothy A.; Ellis, Tracy A.; Ridgaway, Michael; DPAS Team

    2016-01-01

    We discuss upgrades to the HST Data Processing System, with an emphasis on the changes Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Archive users will experience. In particular, data are now held on-line (in a cache) removing the need to reprocess the data every time they are requested from the Archive. OTFR (on the fly reprocessing) has been replaced by a reprocessing system, which runs in the background. Data in the cache are automatically placed in the reprocessing queue when updated calibration reference files are received or when an improved calibration algorithm is installed. Data in the on-line cache are expected to be the most up to date version. These changes were phased in throughout 2015 for all active instruments.The on-line cache was populated instrument by instrument over the course of 2015. As data were placed in the cache, the flag that triggers OTFR was reset so that OTFR no longer runs on these data. "Hybrid" requests to the Archive are handled transparently, with data not yet in the cache provided via OTFR and the remaining data provided from the cache. Users do not need to make separate requests.Users of the MAST Portal will be able to download data from the cache immediately. For data not in the cache, the Portal will send the user to the standard "Retrieval Options Page," allowing the user to direct the Archive to process and deliver the data.The classic MAST Search and Retrieval interface has the same look and feel as previously. Minor changes, unrelated to the cache, have been made to the format of the Retrieval Options Page.

  3. On-line learning algorithms for locally recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolucci, P; Uncini, A; Piazza, F; Rao, B D

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on on-line learning procedures for locally recurrent neural networks with emphasis on multilayer perceptron (MLP) with infinite impulse response (IIR) synapses and its variations which include generalized output and activation feedback multilayer networks (MLN's). We propose a new gradient-based procedure called recursive backpropagation (RBP) whose on-line version, causal recursive backpropagation (CRBP), presents some advantages with respect to the other on-line training methods. The new CRBP algorithm includes as particular cases backpropagation (BP), temporal backpropagation (TBP), backpropagation for sequences (BPS), Back-Tsoi algorithm among others, thereby providing a unifying view on gradient calculation techniques for recurrent networks with local feedback. The only learning method that has been proposed for locally recurrent networks with no architectural restriction is the one by Back and Tsoi. The proposed algorithm has better stability and higher speed of convergence with respect to the Back-Tsoi algorithm, which is supported by the theoretical development and confirmed by simulations. The computational complexity of the CRBP is comparable with that of the Back-Tsoi algorithm, e.g., less that a factor of 1.5 for usual architectures and parameter settings. The superior performance of the new algorithm, however, easily justifies this small increase in computational burden. In addition, the general paradigms of truncated BPTT and RTRL are applied to networks with local feedback and compared with the new CRBP method. The simulations show that CRBP exhibits similar performances and the detailed analysis of complexity reveals that CRBP is much simpler and easier to implement, e.g., CRBP is local in space and in time while RTRL is not local in space.

  4. On-line yields obtained with the ISOLDE RILIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, U. E-mail: ulli.koster@cern.ch; Fedoseyev, V.N.; Andreyev, A.N.; Bergmann, U.C.; Catherall, R.; Cederkaell, J.; Dietrich, M.; De Witte, H.; Fedorov, D.V.; Fraile, L.; Franchoo, S.; Fynbo, H.; Georg, U.; Giles, T.; Gorska, M.; Hannawald, M.; Huyse, M.; Joinet, A.; Jonsson, O.C.; Kratz, K.L.; Kruglov, K.; Lau, Ch.; Lettry, J.; Mishin, V.I.; Oinonen, M.; Partes, K.; Peraejaervi, K.; Pfeiffer, B.; Ravn, H.L.; Seliverstov, M.D.; Thirolf, P.; Van de Vel, K.; Van Duppen, P.; Van Roosbroeck, J.; Weissman, L

    2003-05-01

    The ISOLDE resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) allows to ionize efficiently and selectively many metallic elements. In recent yield surveys and on-line experiments with the ISOLDE RILIS we observed {sup 23-34}Mg, {sup 26-34}Al, {sup 98-132}Cd, {sup 149}Tb, {sup 155-177}Yb, {sup 179-200}Tl, {sup 183-215}Pb and {sup 188-218}Bi. The obtained yields are presented together with measured release parameters which allow to extrapolate the release efficiency towards more exotic (short-lived) nuclides of the same elements.

  5. Integrated sensor array for on-line monitoring micro bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krommenhoek, Erik Eduard

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis the development of a microbioreactor array with integrated sensoss suitable for on-line screening of micro organisms is described. Therefore, an array of 2 micro bioreactors compatible with the 96-well microtiterplate format has been made and tested. The developed system was shown to 

  6. TELCAL: The On-line Calibration Software for ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broguière, D.; Lucas, R.; Pardo, J.; Roche, J.-C.

    2011-07-01

    The ALMA on-line calibration regroups all the operations needed to maintain the ALMA interferometer optimally tuned to successfully execute the planned observations. The results of the calibrations are used in quasi-real time by the ALMA Control System. Since the first ALMA antennas were put into operation in 2009, TELCAL has been used for all the basic calibration operations and is still being improved following the project advancement. We describe here the calibrations done by TELCAL, its relationships with the other ALMA software subsystems and, briefly, the architecture of the software based on CORBA.

  7. Molecularly imprinted polymers for on-line extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad M; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing interest in the use of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as a sorbent for different extraction methods and this is due to its high selectivity. The MIP is designed to show specificity for the analyte of interest. Moreover, MIPs show physical robustness, resistance to high temperatures and pressures, and stability in the presence of acids, bases and a wide range of organic solvents. In the present article, various novel sample preparation techniques which MIPs applied as sorbent and on-line connected with analytical instruments were highlighted and discussed. The future aspects of MIPs as well were described.

  8. Enhancing Learner Autonomy in an On-line Editing Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe Wong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Little (1999 argues that in formal educational contexts, “the basis of learner autonomy is acceptance of responsibility for one’s own learning” (p.11. An autonomous learner takes responsibility for various aspects of learning (Benson & Voller, 1997; Holec, 1981. This study examines how learner autonomy opportunities were provided at various stages of writing in an on-line editing programme for a group of electronic engineering students and how the students took charge of their language learning when receiving feedback on their technical writing. The impact on their own learning effectiveness of the decisions students made is also discussed.

  9. On-line Adaptive Radiation Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    volume (GTV), mandible, rainstem, parotids , and lymph nodes. Another physician repeated he contouring on all planning and on-line images...computed entation. Note the consistency of delineation of gross olume; light blue, nodes; purple, parotid glands; green,k com ostregicomp urs on e...0.9 1.0 Mandible D S C in de x Patient # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Left Parotid D S C in de x Patient # Fig. 6. Dice similarity

  10. Adaptive calibration method with on-line growing complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šika Z.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a modified variant of a kinematical calibration algorithm. In the beginning, a brief review of the calibration algorithm and its simple modification are described. As the described calibration modification uses some ideas used by the Lolimot algorithm, the algorithm is described and explained. Main topic of this paper is a description of a synthesis of the Lolimot-based calibration that leads to an adaptive algorithm with an on-line growing complexity. The paper contains a comparison of simple examples results and a discussion. A note about future research topics is also included.

  11. On-line Measurements of Settling Charateristics in Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Larsen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    An on-line settling column for measuring the dynamic variations of settling velocity of activated sludge has been developed. The settling column is automatic and self-cleansing insuring continuous and reliable measurements. The settling column was tested on sludge from a batch reactor where sucrose...... was added as an impulse to activated sludge. The continuous measurement of settling velocity revealed a highly dynamic response after the sucrose was added. The result were verified with simultaneous measurement of the initial settling rate. A 200 hour experiment showed variations in settling velocity...

  12. Lower Bounds and Semi On-line Multiprocessor Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C. Edwin Cheng

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We are given a set of identical machines and a sequence of jobs from which we know the sum of the job weights in advance. The jobs have to be assigned on-line to one of the machines and the objective is to minimize the makespan. An algorithm with performance ratio 1.6 and a lower bound of 1.5 is presented. This improves recent results by Azar and Regev who published an algorithm with performance ratio 1.625 for the less general problem that the optimal makespan is known in advance.

  13. On-line Monitoring and Active Control for Transformer Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiabi; Zhao, Tong; Tian, Chun; Wang, Xia; He, Zhenhua; Duan, Lunfeng

    This paper introduces the system for on-line monitoring and active noise control towards the transformer noise based on LabVIEW and the hardware equipment including the hardware and software. For the hardware part, it is mainly focused on the composition and the role of hardware devices, as well as the mounting location in the active noise control experiment. And the software part introduces the software flow chats, the measurement and analysis module for the sound pressure level including A, B, C weighting methods, the 1/n octave spectrum and the power spectrum, active noise control module and noise data access module.

  14. Efficient and Secure Comparison for On-Line Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Krøigaard, Mikkel; Geisler, Martin Joakim

    2007-01-01

    We propose a protocol for secure comparison of integers based on homomorphic encryption. We also propose a homomorphic encryption scheme that can be used in our protocol and makes it more efficient than previous solutions. Our protocol is well-suited for application in on-line auctions, both...... with respect to functionality and performance. It minimizes the amount of information bidders need to send, and for comparison of 16 bit numbers with security based on 1024 bit RSA (executed by two parties), our implementation takes 0.28 seconds including all computation and communication. Using precomputation...

  15. Robust Control Methods for On-Line Statistical Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capobianco Enrico

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of controlling that data processing in an experiment results not affected by the presence of outliers is relevant for statistical control and learning studies. Learning schemes should thus be tested for their capacity of handling outliers in the observed training set so to achieve reliable estimates with respect to the crucial bias and variance aspects. We describe possible ways of endowing neural networks with statistically robust properties by defining feasible error criteria. It is convenient to cast neural nets in state space representations and apply both Kalman filter and stochastic approximation procedures in order to suggest statistically robustified solutions for on-line learning.

  16. Research of on-line detection system for power capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junda; Qian, Zheng; Yu, Hao; Xia, Jiuyun

    2016-01-01

    The hidden danger exists in the power capacitor of power system due to long-time operation under the environment of high voltage. Thus, it is possible to induce serious fault, and the on-line detection system is urgently required. In this paper, two methods of the on-line detection system are compared in order to realize the better real-time condition detection. The first method is based on the STM microprocessor with an internal 12 bit A/D converter, which converts analog signals which is arrived from the sample circuit into digital signals, and then the FFT algorithm is used to accomplish the measurement of the voltage and current values of the capacitor. The second method is based on the special electric energy metering IC, which can obtain RMS (Root Mean Square) of voltage and current by processing the sampled data of the voltage and current, and store RMS of voltage and current in its certain registers. The operating condition of the capacitor can be obtained after getting the values of voltage and current. By comparing the measuring results of two methods, the second method could achieve a higher measurement accuracy and more simple construction.

  17. Polar On-Line Acquisition Relay and Transmission System (POLARATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuracko, K.

    2004-07-15

    POLARATS (Polar On-Line Acquisition Relay And Transmission System) is being developed by YAHSGS LLC (YAHSGS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide remote, unattended monitoring of environmental parameters under harsh environmental conditions. In particular, instrumental design and engineering is oriented towards protection of human health in the Arctic, and with the additional goal of advancing Arctic education and research. POLARATS will obtain and transmit environmental data from hardened monitoring devices deployed in locations important to understanding atmospheric and aquatic pollutant migration as it is biomagnified in Arctic food chains. An Internet- and personal computer (PC)-based educational module will provide real time sensor data, on-line educational content, and will be integrated with workbooks and textbooks for use in middle and high school science programs. The educational elements of POLARATS include an Internet-based educational module that will instruct students in the use of the data and how those data fit into changing Arctic environments and food chains. POLARATS will: (1) Enable students, members of the community, and scientific researchers to monitor local environmental conditions in real time over the Internet; and (2) Provide additional educational benefits through integration with middle- and high-school science curricula. Information will be relayed from POLARATS devices to classrooms and libraries along with custom-designed POLARATS teaching materials that will be integrated into existing curricula to enhance the educational benefits realized from the information obtained.

  18. Increased Cortical Thickness in Professional On-Line Gamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Gi Jung; Shin, Yong Wook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Jin, Seong Nam

    2013-01-01

    Objective The bulk of recent studies have tested whether video games change the brain in terms of activity and cortical volume. However, such studies are limited by several factors including cross-sectional comparisons, co-morbidity, and short-term follow-up periods. In the present study, we hypothesized that cognitive flexibility and the volume of brain cortex would be correlated with the career length of on-line pro-gamers. Methods High-resolution magnetic resonance scans were acquired in twenty-three pro-gamers recruited from StarCraft pro-game teams. We measured cortical thickness in each individual using FreeSurfer and the cortical thickness was correlated with the career length and the performance of the pro-gamers. Results Career length was positively correlated with cortical thickness in three brain regions: right superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus. Additionally, increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal cortex was correlated with winning rates of the pro-game league. Increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal and parietal cortices was also associated with higher performance of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Conclusion Our results suggest that in individuals without pathologic conditions, regular, long-term playing of on-line games is associated with volume changes in the prefrontal and parietal cortices, which are associated with cognitive flexibility. PMID:24474988

  19. On-line estimation of concentration parameters in fermentation processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zhi-hua; HUANG Guo-hong; SHAO Hui-he

    2005-01-01

    It has long been thought that bioprocess, with their inherent measurement difficulties and complex dynamics, posed almost insurmountable problems to engineers. A novel software sensor is proposed to make more effective use of those measurements that are already available, which enable improvement in fermentation process control. The proposed method is based on mixtures of Gaussian processes (GP) with expectation maximization (EM) algorithm employed for parameter estimation of mixture of models. The mixture model can alleviate computational complexity of GP and also accord with changes of operating condition in fermentation processes, i.e., it would certainly be able to examine what types of process-knowledge would be most relevant for local models' specific operating points of the process and then combine them into a global one. Demonstrated by on-line estimate of yeast concentration in fermentation industry as an example, it is shown that soft sensor based state estimation is a powerful technique for both enhancing automatic control performance of biological systems and implementing on-line monitoring and optimization.

  20. On-line structure-lossless digital mammogram image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Huang, H. K.

    1996-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel on-line structure lossless compression method for digital mammograms during the film digitization process. The structure-lossless compression segments the breast and the background, compresses the former with a predictive lossless coding method and discards the latter. This compression scheme is carried out during the film digitization process and no additional time is required for the compression. Digital mammograms are compressed on-the-fly while they are created. During digitization, lines of scanned data are first acquired into a small temporary buffer in the scanner, then they are transferred to a large image buffer in an acquisition computer which is connected to the scanner. The compression process, running concurrently with the digitization process in the acquisition computer, constantly checks the image buffer and compresses any newly arrived data. Since compression is faster than digitization, data compression is completed as soon as digitization is finished. On-line compression during digitization does not increase overall digitizing time. Additionally, it reduces the mammogram image size by a factor of 3 to 9 with no loss of information. This algorithm has been implemented in a film digitizer. Statistics were obtained based on digitizing 46 mammograms at four sampling distances from 50 to 200 microns.

  1. On-Line Core Thermal-Hydraulic Model Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, Wang Kee; Chun, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok; Shin, Chang Hwan; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Seo, Kyung Won

    2007-02-15

    The objective of this project is to implement a fast-running 4-channel based code CETOP-D in an advanced reactor core protection calculator system(RCOPS). The part required for the on-line calculation of DNBR were extracted from the source of the CETOP-D code based on analysis of the CETOP-D code. The CETOP-D code was revised to maintain the input and output variables which are the same as in CPC DNBR module. Since the DNBR module performs a complex calculation, it is divided into sub-modules per major calculation step. The functional design requirements for the DNBR module is documented and the values of the database(DB) constants were decided. This project also developed a Fortran module(BEST) of the RCOPS Fortran Simulator and a computer code RCOPS-SDNBR to independently calculate DNBR. A test was also conducted to verify the functional design and DB of thermal-hydraulic model which is necessary to calculate the DNBR on-line in RCOPS. The DNBR margin is expected to increase by 2%-3% once the CETOP-D code is used to calculate the RCOPS DNBR. It should be noted that the final DNBR margin improvement could be determined in the future based on overall uncertainty analysis of the RCOPS.

  2. The Leuven isotope separator on-line laser ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryavtsev, Y; Franchoo, S; Huyse, M; Gentens, J; Kruglov, K; Müller, W F; Prasad, N V S; Raabe, R; Reusen, I; Van den Bergh, P; Van Duppen, P; Van Roosbroeck, J; Vermeeren, L; Weissman, L

    2002-01-01

    An element-selective laser ion source has been used to produce beams of exotic radioactive nuclei and to study their decay properties. The operational principle of the ion source is based on selective resonant laser ionization of nuclear reaction products thermalized and neutralized in a noble gas at high pressure. The ion source has been installed at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL), which is coupled on-line to the cyclotron accelerator at Louvain-la-Neuve. sup 5 sup 4 sup , sup 5 sup 5 Ni and sup 5 sup 4 sup , sup 5 sup 5 Co isotopes were produced in light-ion-induced fusion reactions. Exotic nickel, cobalt and copper nuclei were produced in proton-induced fission of sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U. The b decay of the sup 6 sup 8 sup - sup 7 sup 4 Ni, sup 6 sup 7 sup - sup 7 sup 0 Co, sup 7 sup 0 sup - sup 7 sup 5 Cu and sup 1 sup 1 sup 0 sup - sup 1 sup 1 sup 4 Rh isotopes has been studied by means of beta-gamma and gamma-gamma spectroscopy. Recently, the laser ion source has been used to produce neutron-d...

  3. Increased cortical thickness in professional on-line gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Gi Jung; Shin, Yong Wook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Jin, Seong Nam; Han, Doug Hyun

    2013-12-01

    The bulk of recent studies have tested whether video games change the brain in terms of activity and cortical volume. However, such studies are limited by several factors including cross-sectional comparisons, co-morbidity, and short-term follow-up periods. In the present study, we hypothesized that cognitive flexibility and the volume of brain cortex would be correlated with the career length of on-line pro-gamers. High-resolution magnetic resonance scans were acquired in twenty-three pro-gamers recruited from StarCraft pro-game teams. We measured cortical thickness in each individual using FreeSurfer and the cortical thickness was correlated with the career length and the performance of the pro-gamers. CAREER LENGTH WAS POSITIVELY CORRELATED WITH CORTICAL THICKNESS IN THREE BRAIN REGIONS: right superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus. Additionally, increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal cortex was correlated with winning rates of the pro-game league. Increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal and parietal cortices was also associated with higher performance of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Our results suggest that in individuals without pathologic conditions, regular, long-term playing of on-line games is associated with volume changes in the prefrontal and parietal cortices, which are associated with cognitive flexibility.

  4. Precise On-line Position Measurement for Particle Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Actis, O; König, S

    2014-01-01

    An on-line beam position monitoring and regular beam stability tests are of utmost importance for the Quality Assurance (QA) of the patient treatment at any particle therapy facility. The Gantry${0.5 mm}2$ at the Paul Scherrer Institute uses a strip ionization chamber for the on-line beam position verification. The design of the strip chamber placed in the beam in front of the patient allows for a small beam penumbra in order to achieve a high-quality lateral beam delivery. The detector granularity and the low noise allow the reconstruction of the signals offered by Gantry${0.5 mm}2$ with a precision of about 0.1 mm. The frond-end electronics and the whole data processing sequence have been optimized for minimizing the dead time between the beam applications to about 2 ms: the charge collection is performed in about 1 ms, read-out takes place in 100 $\\mu$s while data verification and logging are completed in less than 1 ms. The sub-millimeter precision of the lateral reconstruction allows the dose inhomogenei...

  5. Fully On-line Introductory Physics with a Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Michael

    We describe the development and implementation of a college-level introductory physics (mechanics) course and laboratory that is suited for both on-campus and on-line environments. The course emphasizes a ``Your World is Your Lab'' approach whereby students first examine and capture on video (using cellphones) motion in their immediate surroundings, and then use free, open-source software both to extract data from the video and to apply physics principles to build models that describe, predict, and visualize the observations. Each student reports findings by creating a video lab report and posting it online; these video lab reports are then distributed to the rest of the class for peer review. In this talk, we will discuss the student and instructor experiences in courses offered to three distinct audiences in different venues: (1) a Massively Open On-line Course (MOOC) for off-campus participants, (2) a flipped/blended course for on-campus students, and, most recently, (3) a fully-online course for off-campus students.

  6. FEDIX on-line information service: Design, develop, test, and implement, an on-line research and education information service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodman, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The FEDIX Annual Status Report provides details regarding an on-line information project designed, developed and implemented by Federal Information Exchange, Inc., a diversified information services company. This document details the project design activities, summarizes the developmental phases of the project and describes the implementation activities generated to fulfill the project's objectives. The information contained in this document illustrates FIE's continuing commitment to serve as the link that facilitates the dissemination of federal information to the education community. This report reviews the project accomplishments and describes intended service enhancements.

  7. Configuration Database for BaBar On-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salnikov, Andrei

    2003-05-27

    The configuration database is one of the vital systems in the BaBar on-line system. It provides services for the different parts of the data acquisition system and control system, which require run-time parameters. The original design and implementation of the configuration database played a significant role in the successful BaBar operations since the beginning of experiment. Recent additions to the design of the configuration database provide better means for the management of data and add new tools to simplify main configuration tasks. We describe the design of the configuration database, its implementation with the Objectivity/DB object-oriented database, and our experience collected during the years of operation.

  8. On-line corrosion monitoring in district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Sonja; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally corrosion monitoring in district heating systems has been performed offline via weight loss coupons. These measurements give information about the past and not the present situation and require long exposure time (weeks or months). The good quality of district heating medium makes...... corrosion monitoring a challenge. Under normal conditions the pH is high (app. 9), conductivity is low (app. 10-200 µS/cm) and the concentration of dissolved oxygen is negligible. The low corrosion rates (in the order of µm/y) are difficult to measure and furthermore, factors such as hydrogen sulphide......), Electrochemical Noise (EN) and Zero Resistance Ammetry (ZRA). Electrochemical Resistance (ER) has also been used to measure corrosion. The method traditionally only measures corrosion off-line but with newly developed high-sensitive ER technique developed by MetriCorr in Denmark, on-line monitoring is possible...

  9. The Task Manager for the LHCb On-Line Farm

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifazi, F; Carbone, A; Galli, D; Gregori, D; Marconi, U; Peco, G; Vagnoni, V

    2004-01-01

    The Task Manager is a utility to start, stop and list processes on the on-line farm. Each process started by the Task Manager has a string environment variable set, named UTGID (User defined unique Thread Group Identifier) which allows to identify the process. The Task Manager uses the UTGID to list the running processes and to identify the processes to be stopped. It has also the ability to start a process using a particular user name and to set the scheduler type and the priority for the process itself. The Task Manager package includes a Linux DIM server (tmSrv), four Linux command line DIM clients (tmStart, tmLs, tmKill and tmStop) and a JCOP (Joint Control Project) PVSS client.

  10. On-line Test for Train Communication Based System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Xiaoqing; Masayuki Matsumoto; Kinji Mori; XU Fucang

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives out a new train automatic control system, which is based on train communication, and proposes a high assurance method to construct the system from current system. In current automatic train control (ATC) system, the central logic device detects position of each train and calculates permissible speed of each blocking section. Therefore, the central logic device controls speed of all trains. On the contrary, in the new system proposed in this paper, there is no central logical device and, train can communicate each other. The train detects the position and calculates the permissible speed itself according to the received position information of the preceding train. In the traditional method of changing an old system to a new one, test must be done off-line.While the integration technique proposed in this paper achieves on-line properties, and high assurance can be satisfied.

  11. On-line methods for rotorcraft aeroelastic mode identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molusis, J. A.; Kleinman, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    The requirements for the on-line identification of rotorcraft aeroelastic blade modes from random response test data are presented. A recursive maximum likelihood (RML) technique is used in conjunction with a bandpass filter to identify isolated blade mode damping and frequency. The RML technique is demonstrated to have excellent convergence characteristics in random measurement noise and random process noise excitation. The RML identification technique uses an ARMA representation for the aeroelastic stochastic system and requires virtually no user interaction while providing accurate confidence bands on the parameter estimates. Comparisons are made with an off-line Newton type maximum likelihood algorithm which uses a state variable model representation. Results are presented from simulation random response data which quantify the identifed parameter convergence behavior for various levels of random excitation which is typical of wind tunnel turbulence levels. The RML technique is applied to hingless rotor test data from the NASA Langley Research Center Helicopter Hover Facility.

  12. An on-line method in studying music parsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, I; Perfetti, C A

    1993-03-01

    Listening to music entails the construction of a mental representation based on partial and ambiguous information. This study examines an experimental method that reflects such parsing decisions on-line by detecting the cognitive load resulting from temporary parsing failures. The method investigated was a divided attention paradigm in which listening to music was the primary task and click detection was a concurrent secondary task. It was hypothesized that increasing the complexity of the primary task by introducing an unprepared chromatic modulation results in an increase in response latencies to a click presented immediately after the modulatory shift. The support of this prediction by musicians' data provides evidence for the sensitivity of the paradigm. The failure of non-musicians to reflect the expected load is attributed to their attention-allocation strategy. These results are discussed in terms of their implications on the view of the musical parser as deterministic.

  13. 3rd Computer Science On-line Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Senkerik, Roman; Oplatkova, Zuzana; Silhavy, Petr; Prokopova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    This book is based on the research papers presented in the 3rd Computer Science On-line Conference 2014 (CSOC 2014).   The conference is intended to provide an international forum for discussions on the latest high-quality research results in all areas related to Computer Science. The topics addressed are the theoretical aspects and applications of Artificial Intelligences, Computer Science, Informatics and Software Engineering.   The authors provide new approaches and methods to real-world problems, and in particular, exploratory research that describes novel approaches in their field. Particular emphasis is laid on modern trends in selected fields of interest. New algorithms or methods in a variety of fields are also presented.   This book is divided into three sections and covers topics including Artificial Intelligence, Computer Science and Software Engineering. Each section consists of new theoretical contributions and applications which can be used for the further development of knowledge of everybod...

  14. On-Line Adaptive Radiation Therapy: Feasibility and Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoran Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the feasibility and clinical dosimetric benefit of an on-line, that is, with the patient in the treatment position, Adaptive Radiation Therapy (ART system for prostate cancer treatment based on daily cone-beam CT imaging and fast volumetric reoptimization of treatment plans. A fast intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT plan reoptimization algorithm is implemented and evaluated with clinical cases. The quality of these adapted plans is compared to the corresponding new plans generated by an experienced planner using a commercial treatment planning system and also evaluated by an in-house developed tool estimating achievable dose-volume histograms (DVHs based on a database of existing treatment plans. In addition, a clinical implementation scheme for ART is designed and evaluated using clinical cases for its dosimetric qualities and efficiency.

  15. The Monitor System for the LHCb on-line farm

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifazi, F; Carbone, A; Galli, D; Gregori, D; Marconi, U; Peco, G; Vagnoni, V

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb on-line farm Monitor System is to keep under control all the working indicators which are relevant for the farm operation, and to set the appropriate alarms whenever an error or a critical condition comes up. Since the most stressing tasks of the farm are the data transfer and processing, relevant indicators includes the CPU and the memory load of the system, the network interface and the TCP/IP stack parameters, the rates of the interrupts raised by the network interface card and the detailed status of the running processes. The monitoring of computers’ physical conditions (temperatures, fan speeds and motherboard voltages) are the subject of a separate technical note, since they are accessed in a different way, by using the IPMI protocol.

  16. The Message Logger for the LHCb on-line farm

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifazi, F; Carbone, A; Galli, D; Gregori, D; Marconi, U; Peco, G; Vagnoni, V

    2005-01-01

    The Message Logger is a utility which provide a logger facility for the processes running on the nodes of the on-line farm. It can also be used to collect the processes stdout/stderr. The Message Logger can be exploited using two different policies: either as a no-drop logger facility (messages cannot be lost, but a write to the logger facility blocks in case of full-buffer condition, due e.g. to a network congestion) or as a congestion-proof logger facility (a write to the logger facility never locks even in case of network congestion, but, in this case, messages are dropped). The Message Logger package includes a Linux DIM server (logSrv), a Linux terminal/command-line DIM client (logViewer) and a PVSS DIM client.

  17. On-line blind separation of non-stationary signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović-Zarkula Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of blind separation of non-stationary signals. We introduce an on-line separating algorithm for estimation of independent source signals using the assumption of non-stationary of sources. As a separating model, we apply a self-organizing neural network with lateral connections, and define a contrast function based on correlation of the network outputs. A separating algorithm for adaptation of the network weights is derived using the state-space model of the network dynamics, and the extended Kalman filter. Simulation results obtained in blind separation of artificial and real-world signals from their artificial mixtures have shown that separating algorithm based on the extended Kalman filter outperforms stochastic gradient based algorithm both in convergence speed and estimation accuracy.

  18. A Fingerprint Minutiae Matching Method Based on Line Segment Vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Minutiae-based fingerprint matching is the most commonly used in an automatic fingerprint identification system. In this paper, we propose a minutia matching method based on line segment vector. This method uses all the detected minutiae (the ridge ending and the ridge bifurcation) in a fingerprint image to create a set of new vectors (line segment vector). Using these vectors, we can determine a truer reference point more efficiently. In addition, this new minutiae vector can also increase the accuracy of the minutiae matching. By experiment on the public domain collections of fingerprint images fvc2004 DB3 set A and DB4 set A, the result shows that our algorithm can obtain an improved verification performance.

  19. A versatile apparatus for on-line emission channeling experiments

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Manuel Ribeiro; Correia, João Guilherme; Amorim, Lígia Marina; Pereira, Lino Miguel da Costa

    2013-01-01

    The concept and functionality of an apparatus dedicated to emission channeling experiments using short-lived isotopes on-line at ISOLDE/CERN is described. The setup is assembled in two functional blocks - (a) base stand including beam collimation, implantation and measurement chamber, cryogenic extension, and vacuum control system and - (b) Panmure goniometer extension including maneuvering cradle and sample heating furnace. This setup allows for in situ implantation and sample analysis in the as-implanted state and upon cooling down to 50 K and during annealing up to 1200 K. The functionality of the setup will be illustrated with the example of establishing the lattice location of $^{56}$Mn probes implanted into GaAs.

  20. On-line control of the nonlinear dynamics for synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, J.; Martin, I. P. S.; Rowland, J. H.; Bartolini, R.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a simple approach to the on-line control of the nonlinear dynamics in storage rings, based on compensation of the nonlinear resonance driving terms using beam losses as the main indicator of the strength of a resonance. The correction scheme is built on the analysis of the resonance driving terms in first perturbative order and on the possibility of using independent power supplies in the sextupole magnets, which is nowadays present in many synchrotron light sources. Such freedom allows the definition of "smart sextupole knobs" attacking each resonance separately. The compensation scheme has been tested at the Diamond light source and proved to be effective in opening up the betatron tune space, resonance free, available to the electron beam and to improve the beam lifetime.

  1. BCal: an on-line Bayesian radiocarbon calibration tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E. Buck

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe newly launched software for on-line Bayesian calibration of archaeological radiocarbon determinations. The software is known as BCal and we invite members of the world-wide archaeological research community to use it should they so wish. All that is required to gain access to the software is a computer connected to the Internet with a modern World-wide Web browser (of the sort you are probably using to read this. BCal does not require access to any additional 'Plug-ins' on your machine. Since the computations needed to obtain the calibrations are undertaken on the BCal server, if you have enough computer power to run your World-wide Web browser you have enough power to use BCal.

  2. Parity Codes Used for On-Line Testing in FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kubalík

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with on-line error detection in digital circuits implemented in FPGAs. Error detection codes have been used to ensure the self-checking property. The adopted fault model is discussed. A fault in a given combinational circuit must be detected and signalized at the time of its appearance and before further distribution of errors. Hence safe operation of the designed system is guaranteed. The check bits generator and the checker were added to the original combinational circuit to detect an error during normal circuit operation. This concurrent error detection ensures the Totally Self-Checking property. Combinational circuit benchmarks have been used in this work in order to compute the quality of the proposed codes. The description of the benchmarks is based on equations and tables. All of our experimental results are obtained by XILINX FPGA implementation EDA tools. A possible TSC structure consisting of several TSC blocks is presented. 

  3. On-line alkali detector based on surface ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, J.G.; Loenn, B.; Jaeglid, B.; Engvall, K.; Pettersson, J.B.C. [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Chemistry GU

    1998-12-31

    This project adapts a new on-line alkali measurement technique to coal and biomass combustion and gasification. Alkali metal atoms are known to easily ionize in contact with hot metal surfaces, and the instrument is based on this principle called surface ionization (SI). The primary parts of the detector are a platinum filament and an ion collector. The platinum filament is supported between two electrodes and heated to the temperature for alkali vaporization in ionic form. The ion collector is situated close to the filament. The measured current is proportional to the arrival rate of alkali atoms onto the filament. Laboratory tests were performed on detector sensitivity, detection limit, and time response. Similar sensitivity to both sodium and potassium regardless of molecular form was found. The time response of the detector is determined to be approximately 1 ms enabling it to monitor fast concentration changes in flue gas. Particles with a size below 5 nm melt completely on the hot platinum surface and give similar signals. For larger particles, the ionization efficiency is not 100% and depends on the type of salt. This problem can be overcome with an alternative filament configuration. The detector function was tested in a laboratory high pressure furnace using different fuel samples, atmospheres, and pressures. Alkali release from coal in general is lower than for biomass samples, rate constants and activation energies for alkali release were determined. Measurements were carried out in a biomass pyrolysis apparatus and a gasification pilot plant. The detector function was not influenced by a high concentration of hydrocarbons in the gas phase, and the measurements confirmed detector function in a hostile environment. The detector performed well in laboratory tests, and is a strong candidate for further development into a standard on-line monitor of alkali species in hot flue gas. 10 refs., 16 figs.

  4. Review of Worcestershire On-line Fabric Type Series website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Nenk

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of archaeological ceramics is advanced through the creation and development of regional and national pottery type-series, which contain samples of each type of pottery identified from a particular area or region. Pottery researchers working in any period, from prehistoric to post-medieval, require access to such type-series, and to their associated data, in order to be able to advance the identification of all types of pottery, not only those types produced in the local area, but those produced in surrounding regions, as well as those imported from abroad. The publication of such type-series, as well as their accessibility to researchers, is essential if the information they contain is to be disseminated. The development of the Worcestershire On-Line Fabric Type Series is the first stage in a remarkable project designed to make the complete fabric and form type series for Worcestershire ceramics accessible on the internet. As part of the Historic Environment Record for Worcestershire, formerly the Sites and Monuments Record, it is designed to improve access to finds and environmental data, with the aim of encouraging and facilitating research. Funded by Worcestershire County Council as part of its commitment to e-government, it is being developed by Worcestershire County Council Archaeology Service with OxfordArchDigital. It is one of a proposed series of on-line specialist resources (to include, for example, clay pipes, environmental archaeology, flint tools, historic buildings, which are also designed to stand alone as research tools. The ceramics website is the first part of Pottery in Perspective, a web-based project to provide information on the pottery used and made in Worcestershire from prehistory to c. 1900AD.

  5. A Comparison of Multiscale Permutation Entropy Measures in On-Line Depth of Anesthesia Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Li, Duan; Li, Yongwang; Ursino, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Objective Multiscale permutation entropy (MSPE) is becoming an interesting tool to explore neurophysiological mechanisms in recent years. In this study, six MSPE measures were proposed for on-line depth of anesthesia (DoA) monitoring to quantify the anesthetic effect on the real-time EEG recordings. The performance of these measures in describing the transient characters of simulated neural populations and clinical anesthesia EEG were evaluated and compared. Methods Six MSPE algorithms—derived from Shannon permutation entropy (SPE), Renyi permutation entropy (RPE) and Tsallis permutation entropy (TPE) combined with the decomposition procedures of coarse-graining (CG) method and moving average (MA) analysis—were studied. A thalamo-cortical neural mass model (TCNMM) was used to generate noise-free EEG under anesthesia to quantitatively assess the robustness of each MSPE measure against noise. Then, the clinical anesthesia EEG recordings from 20 patients were analyzed with these measures. To validate their effectiveness, the ability of six measures were compared in terms of tracking the dynamical changes in EEG data and the performance in state discrimination. The Pearson correlation coefficient (R) was used to assess the relationship among MSPE measures. Results CG-based MSPEs failed in on-line DoA monitoring at multiscale analysis. In on-line EEG analysis, the MA-based MSPE measures at 5 decomposed scales could track the transient changes of EEG recordings and statistically distinguish the awake state, unconsciousness and recovery of consciousness (RoC) state significantly. Compared to single-scale SPE and RPE, MSPEs had better anti-noise ability and MA-RPE at scale 5 performed best in this aspect. MA-TPE outperformed other measures with faster tracking speed of the loss of unconsciousness. Conclusions MA-based multiscale permutation entropies have the potential for on-line anesthesia EEG analysis with its simple computation and sensitivity to drug effect

  6. On-line measurement of mechanical, optical properties and roughness parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartman, H.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available On-line measurements become a central importance for the control of production line output. The target is to replace traditional single local destructive quality checks by a continuous survey of the product properties. Other traditional like pyrometric temperature measurements suffer of well-known but non-soluble weakness points. New methods need the unambiguous correlation with the results of traditional testing to be representative for valid proof standards.EKO Stahl GmbH introduces several methods of on-line measurements focused actually on temperature measurement means of FTIR-Spectrometer, prediction of the mechanical properties of steel strips using the information of residual magnetization after a magnetization pulse and optical roughness measurements. The correlation between the results of the new methods and the classical proof processes has been established in a satisfactory manner.

    Las medidas on line van tomando una importancia central para el control de la calidad de la producción . El objetivo es reemplazar las pruebas destructivas puntuales tradicionales por un control continuo de las características del producto. Otros métodos tradicionales, como la medida de la temperatura con pirómetros, adolecen de conocidos pero insolubles puntos débiles. Los nuevos métodos necesitan la correlación inequívoca con los resultados de los métodos corrientes clásicos para obtener la autoridad de un estándar de prueba. La EKO Stahl GmbH ha introducido varios métodos de medidas on line y actualmente concentrados en la medida de la temperatura con espectrómetro FTIR, predicción de las características mecánicas usando la información del magnetismo residual, a partir de un impulso magnético inicial así como la medida óptica de la rugosidad. La correlación entre los resultados de los nuevos métodos y los métodos clásicos ha quedado establecida de manera satisfactoria.

  7. Determination of anions with an on-line capillary electrophoresis method; Anionien on-line maeaeritys kapillaarielektroforeesilla - MPKT 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siren, H.; Saerme, T.; Kotiaho, T.; Hiissa, T.; Savolahti, P.; Komppa, V. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of the study was to set-up an on-line capillary electrophoresis method for determination of anions in process waters of pulp and paper industry with exporting the results to the process control system of the mill. The quantification is important, since it will give information about the possible causes of precipitation. In recent years, the capillary electrophoresis (CE) due to its high separation efficiency has been shown as a method to take into consideration when analyzing chemical species ranging from small inorganic anions to different macromolecules. Many compounds are not easily detected in their native state, why analysis methods must be developed to improve their detection. Especially, small inorganic and organic anions which do not have chromophores are not sensitive enough for direct-UV detection. In such analyses the anions are mostly detected with indirect-UV technique. Capillary electrophoresis instruments are used to analyze samples in off-line, which seldom represent the situation in process. Therefore, on-line instrument technology with autoanalyzing settings will be needed in quality control. The development of a fully automatic capillary electrophoresis system is underway in co-operation with KCL (The Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute). In our research, we have first concentrated on the determination of sulphate in waters of paper industry. The method used for detection of sulphate is based on indirect-UV detection with CE, where the background electrolyte (BGE) is an absorbing mixture of secondary amines. The whole procedure for quantification of sulphate is performed within 15 minutes, after which a new sample is analyzed automatically. The only sample pretreatment is filtration, which is necessary before analysis. The concentrations of sulphate in process waters tested were between 300 and 800 ppm. Our tests show that a simultaneous determination of chloride, sulphate, nitrate, nitrite, sulphite, carbonate and oxalate is also

  8. On-line Excited-State Laser Spectroscopy of Trapped Short-Lived Ra$^+$ Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Versolato, O O; Wansbeek, L W; Berg, J E van den; van der Hoek, D J; Jungmann, K; Kruithof, W L; Onderwater, C J G; Sahoo, B K; Santra, B; Shidling, P D; Timmermans, R G E; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W

    2010-01-01

    As an important step towards an atomic parity violation experiment in one single trapped Ra$^+$ ion, laser spectroscopy experiments were performed with on-line produced short-lived $^{212,213,214}$Ra$^+$ ions. The isotope shift of the $6\\,^2$D$_{3/2}$\\,-\\,$7\\,^2$P$_{1/2}$ and $6\\,^2$D$_{3/2}$\\,-\\,$7\\,^2$P$_{3/2}$ transitions and the hyperfine structure constant of the $7\\,^2$S$_{1/2}$ and $6\\,^2$D$_{3/2}$ states in $^{213}$Ra$^+$ were measured. These values provide a benchmark for the required atomic theory. A lower limit of $232(4)$ ms for the lifetime of the metastable $6\\,^2$D$_{5/2}$ state was measured by optical shelving.

  9. A fast-initializing digital equalizer with on-line tracking for data communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, R. C.; Barksdale, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    A theory is developed for a digital equalizer for use in reducing intersymbol interference (ISI) on high speed data communications channels. The equalizer is initialized with a single isolated transmitter pulse, provided the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is not unusually low, then switches to a decision directed, on-line mode of operation that allows tracking of channel variations. Conditions for optimal tap-gain settings are obtained first for a transversal equalizer structure by using a mean squared error (MSE) criterion, a first order gradient algorithm to determine the adjustable equalizer tap-gains, and a sequence of isolated initializing pulses. Since the rate of tap-gain convergence depends on the eigenvalues of a channel output correlation matrix, convergence can be improved by making a linear transformation on to obtain a new correlation matrix.

  10. Short-chain fluorescent tryptophan tags for on-line detection of functional recombinant proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siepert Eva-Maria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional fluorescent proteins, such as GFP, its derivatives and flavin mononucleotide based fluorescent proteins (FbFPs are often used as fusion tags for detecting recombinant proteins during cultivation. These reporter tags are state-of-the-art; however, they have some drawbacks, which can make on-line monitoring challenging. It is discussed in the literature that the large molecular size of proteins of the GFP family may stress the host cell metabolism during production. In addition, fluorophore formation of GFP derivatives is oxygen-dependent resulting in a lag-time between expression and fluorescence detection and the maturation of the protein is suppressed under oxygen-limited conditions. On the contrary, FbFPs are also applicable in an oxygen-limited or even anaerobic environment but are still quite large (58% of the size of GFP. Results As an alternative to common fluorescent tags we developed five novel tags based on clustered tryptophan residues, called W-tags. They are only 5-11% of the size of GFP. Based on the property of tryptophan to fluoresce in absence of oxygen it is reasonable to assume that the functionality of our W-tags is also given under anaerobic conditions. We fused these W-tags to a recombinant protein model, the anti-CD30 receptor single-chain fragment variable antibody (scFv Ki-4(scFv and the anti-MucI single-chain fragment variable M12(scFv. During cultivation in Microtiter plates, the overall tryptophan fluorescence intensity of all cultures was measured on-line for monitoring product formation via the different W-tags. After correlation of the scattered light signal representing biomass concentration and tryptophan fluorescence for the uninduced cultures, the fluorescence originating from the biomass was subtracted from the overall tryptophan signal. The resulting signal, thus, represents the product fluorescence of the tagged and untagged antibody fragments. The product fluorescence signal

  11. 77 FR 55811 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board On-line Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board On-line... Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board will hold an open, on-line meeting via webcast on... their remote location. Questions regarding the on-line meeting should be sent to the...

  12. Women Physicians Are Early Adopters of On-Line Continuing Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John M., Jr.; Novalis-Marine, Cheryl; Harris, Robin B.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: On-line continuing medical education (CME) provides advantages to physicians and to medical educators. Although practicing physicians increasingly use on-line CME to meet their educational needs, the overall use of on-line CME remains limited. There are few data to describe the physicians who use this new educational medium; yet,…

  13. Development of on-line laser power monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chien-Fang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Li, Kuan-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Since the laser was invented, laser has been applied in many fields such as material processing, communication, measurement, biomedical engineering, defense industries and etc. Laser power is an important parameter in laser material processing, i.e. laser cutting, and laser drilling. However, the laser power is easily affected by the environment temperature, we tend to monitor the laser power status, ensuring there is an effective material processing. Besides, the response time of current laser power meters is too long, they cannot measure laser power accurately in a short time. To be more precisely, we can know the status of laser power and help us to achieve an effective material processing at the same time. To monitor the laser power, this study utilize a CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) camera to develop an on-line laser power monitoring system. The CMOS camera captures images of incident laser beam after it is split and attenuated by beam splitter and neutral density filter. By comparing the average brightness of the beam spots and measurement results from laser power meter, laser power can be estimated. Under continuous measuring mode, the average measuring error is about 3%, and the response time is at least 3.6 second shorter than thermopile power meters; under trigger measuring mode which enables the CMOS camera to synchronize with intermittent laser output, the average measuring error is less than 3%, and the shortest response time is 20 millisecond.

  14. AMADEUS on-line trigger and filtering methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, M. [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (ECAP), Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erwin-Rommel-Strasse 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: max.neff@physik.uni-erlangen.de; Anton, G.; Graf, K.; Hoessl, J.; Katz, U.; Lahmann, R.; Richardt, C. [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (ECAP), Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erwin-Rommel-Strasse 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-06-01

    AMADEUS is a system designed to investigate the method of acoustic particle detection for high energy neutrinos and the acoustic environment in the deep sea as part of the ANTARES neutrino telescope. In this context, six local clusters of six acoustic sensors each were integrated into the ANTARES infrastructure. The first three clusters have been taking data since December 2007 and the second three since the completion of ANTARES in May 2008. In the paper, the methods used for the on-line triggering and filtering of the data acquired with the AMADEUS set-up are described. On-shore, a dedicated computer-cluster is used to control the off-shore DAQ hardware, to process and store the acoustic data arriving from the sensors. On this cluster different data filtering schemes and triggers are implemented. Transient signals are selected by a variable threshold, which is self-adjusting to the changing conditions of the deep sea. For bipolar pulses-the characteristic acoustic signature of a neutrino-a pattern recognition is used based on cross-correlating the output of the sensors with a pre-defined bipolar pulse. To study the characteristics of the ambient noise in the deep sea an amount of unfiltered data is stored in regular intervals.

  15. On-Line Condition Monitoring using Computational Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Vilakazi, C B; Mautla, P; Moloto, E

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents bushing condition monitoring frameworks that use multi-layer perceptrons (MLP), radial basis functions (RBF) and support vector machines (SVM) classifiers. The first level of the framework determines if the bushing is faulty or not while the second level determines the type of fault. The diagnostic gases in the bushings are analyzed using the dissolve gas analysis. MLP gives superior performance in terms of accuracy and training time than SVM and RBF. In addition, an on-line bushing condition monitoring approach, which is able to adapt to newly acquired data are introduced. This approach is able to accommodate new classes that are introduced by incoming data and is implemented using an incremental learning algorithm that uses MLP. The testing results improved from 67.5% to 95.8% as new data were introduced and the testing results improved from 60% to 95.3% as new conditions were introduced. On average the confidence value of the framework on its decision was 0.92.

  16. EXPANDING ACADEMIC VOCABULARY WITH AN INTERACTIVE ON-LINE DATABASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Horst

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available University students used a set of existing and purpose-built on-line tools for vocabulary learning in an experimental ESL course. The resources included concordance, dictionary, cloze-builder, hypertext, and a database with interactive self-quizzing feature (all freely available at www.lextutor.ca. The vocabulary targeted for learning consisted of (a Coxhead's (2000 Academic Word List, a list of items that occur frequently in university textbooks, and (b unfamiliar words students had met in academic texts and selected for entry into the class database. The suite of tools were designed to foster retention by engaging learners in deep processing, an aspect that is often described as missing in computer exercises for vocabulary learning. Database entries were examined to determine whether context sentences supported word meanings adequately and whether entered words reflected the unavailability of cognates in the various first languages of the participants. Pre- and post-treatment performance on tests of knowledge of words targeted for learning in the course were compared to establish learning gains. Regression analyses investigated connections between use of specific computer tools and gains.

  17. On-line range images registration with GPGPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Będkowski, J.; Naruniec, J.

    2013-03-01

    This paper concerns implementation of algorithms in the two important aspects of modern 3D data processing: data registration and segmentation. Solution proposed for the first topic is based on the 3D space decomposition, while the latter on image processing and local neighbourhood search. Data processing is implemented by using NVIDIA compute unified device architecture (NIVIDIA CUDA) parallel computation. The result of the segmentation is a coloured map where different colours correspond to different objects, such as walls, floor and stairs. The research is related to the problem of collecting 3D data with a RGB-D camera mounted on a rotated head, to be used in mobile robot applications. Performance of the data registration algorithm is aimed for on-line processing. The iterative closest point (ICP) approach is chosen as a registration method. Computations are based on the parallel fast nearest neighbour search. This procedure decomposes 3D space into cubic buckets and, therefore, the time of the matching is deterministic. First technique of the data segmentation uses accele-rometers integrated with a RGB-D sensor to obtain rotation compensation and image processing method for defining pre-requisites of the known categories. The second technique uses the adapted nearest neighbour search procedure for obtaining normal vectors for each range point.

  18. The on-line low temperature nuclear orientation facility NICOLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsubo, T.; Roccia, S.; Stone, N. J.; Stone, J. R.; Gaulard, C.; Köster, U.; Nikolov, J.; Simpson, G. S.; Veskovic, M.

    2017-04-01

    We review major experiments and results obtained by the on-line low temperature nuclear orientation method at the NICOLE facility at ISOLDE, CERN since the year 2000 and highlight their general physical impact. This versatile facility, providing a large degree of controlled nuclear polarization, was used for a long-standing study of magnetic moments at shell closures in the region Z = 28, N = 28–50 but also for dedicated studies in the deformed region around A ∼ 180. Another physics program was conducted to test symmetry in the weak sector and constrain weak coupling beyond V–A. Those two programs were supported by careful measurements of the involved solid state physics parameters to attain the full sensitivity of the technique and provide interesting interdisciplinary results. Future plans for this facility include the challenging idea of measuring the beta–gamma–neutron angular distributions from polarized beta delayed neutron emitters, further test of fundamental symmetries and obtaining nuclear structure data used in medical applications. The facility will also continue to contribute to both the nuclear structure and fundamental symmetry test programs.

  19. The Efficiency of the On-line Samplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Gabriela NICULESCU-ARON

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the technology from the last decades led to the collateral development of many other sciences. One of the most important inventions was the Internet and the web technologies with a tremendous impact on the society. Statistics, as a social science, at its turn in ongoing development has only to gain from that. Lately, the on line sampling technique greatly developed. Each web site of a certain importance includes in various forms of the questionnaires. These vary from a mere question to lengthy ones and are a part of daily life of those who access the World Wide Web. The main question is how feasible are the results derived from these samplings as the main issue is the representativiness. A nonrepresentative sampling is a futile one. It is a more convenient solution to post a question on the web page and to wait for an answer from the page’s visitors? But how representative is this answer for the target audience? The present paper aims to list the on-lone methodology as well as analyze their efficiency through presenting their advantages and drawbacks.

  20. Using on-line altered auditory feedback treating Parkinsonian speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Emily; Verhagen, Leo; de Vries, Meinou H.

    2005-09-01

    Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease tend to have dysarthric speech that is hesitant, accelerated, and repetitive, and that is often resistant to behavior speech therapy. In this pilot study, the speech disturbances were treated using on-line altered feedbacks (AF) provided by SpeechEasy (SE), an in-the-ear device registered with the FDA for use in humans to treat chronic stuttering. Eight PD patients participated in the study. All had moderate to severe speech disturbances. In addition, two patients had moderate recurring stuttering at the onset of PD after long remission since adolescence, two had bilateral STN DBS, and two bilateral pallidal DBS. An effective combination of delayed auditory feedback and frequency-altered feedback was selected for each subject and provided via SE worn in one ear. All subjects produced speech samples (structured-monologue and reading) under three conditions: baseline, with SE without, and with feedbacks. The speech samples were randomly presented and rated for speech intelligibility goodness using UPDRS-III item 18 and the speaking rate. The results indicted that SpeechEasy is well tolerated and AF can improve speech intelligibility in spontaneous speech. Further investigational use of this device for treating speech disorders in PD is warranted [Work partially supported by Janus Dev. Group, Inc.].

  1. Chromatographic on-line detection of bioactives in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remmelt Van der Werf

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTFindings were focused on the anti-oxidative activity of numerous fruits and vegetables by means of an on-line HPLC radical scavenging detection method. The reactant used was the ABTS•+ green radical cation. The system has been optimized in terms of reactor design, and chemical reactions kinetics. It has been qualified to classify molecules in order of their increasing activity to scavenge exogenous radicals. It may be used as a powerful high resolution screening tool to investigate the radical scavenging activities of natural plants. Bioassays consisting in cellular in vitro antioxidant assay using pancreatic β-cells have been used to confirm the bioactivity of the selected micronutrients. This study demonstrated that it is possible to screen at the molecular level, the bioactivity of numerous natural samples and to point out the richness of the local biodiversity in terms of natural resource of functional food ingredients usable for their potential benefits for consumer’s health, wellbeing and wellaging.Key words: HPLC radical scavenging detection method, bioactivity of natural samples

  2. On-line catalytic upgrading of biomass fast pyrolysis products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qiang; ZHU XiFeng; LI WenZhi; ZHANG Ying; CHEN DengYu

    2009-01-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was employed to achieve fast pyrolysis of biomass and on-line analysis of the pyrolysis vapors. Four biomass materials (poplar wood, fir wood, cotton straw and rice husk) were pyrolyzed to reveal the difference among their products. Moreover, catalytic cracking of the pyrolysis vapors from cotton straw was performed by using five catalysts, including two microporous zeolites (HZSM-5 and HY) and three mesoporous catalysts (ZrO2&TiO2, SBA-15 and AI/SBA-15). The results showed that the distribution of the pyrolytic products from the four materials differed a little from each other, while catalytic cracking could significantly alter the pyrolytic products. Those important primary pyrolytic products such as levoglucosen, hydroxyacetaldehyde and 1-hydroxy-2-propanone were decreased greatly after catalysis. The two microporous zeolites were ef-fective to generate high yields of hydrocarbons, while the three mesoporous materials favored the formation of furan, furfural and other furan compounds, as well as acetic acid.

  3. Virtual laboratories: Collaborative environments and facilities-on-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). I and C Div.; Cavallini, J.S.; Seweryniak, G.R.; Kitchens, T.A.; Hitchcock, D.A.; Scott, M.A.; Welch, L.C. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Mathematical Information, and Computational Sciences Div.; Aiken, R.J. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Mathematical Information, and Computational Sciences Div.]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Stevens, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Sciences Div.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has major research laboratories in a number of locations in the US, typically co-located with large research instruments or research facilities valued at tens of millions to even billions of dollars. Present budget exigencies facing the entire nation are felt very deeply at DOE, just as elsewhere. Advances over the last few years in networking and computing technologies make virtual collaborative environments and conduct of experiments over the internetwork structure a possibility. The authors believe that development of these collaborative environments and facilities-on-line could lead to a ``virtual laboratory`` with tremendous potential for decreasing the costs of research and increasing the productivity of their capital investment in research facilities. The majority of these cost savings would be due to increased productivity of their research efforts, better utilization of resources and facilities, and avoiding duplication of expensive facilities. A vision of how this might all fit together and a discussion of the infrastructure necessary to enable these developments is presented.

  4. On-line Detection of Gas Pipeline Based on the Real-Time Algorithm and Network Technology with Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Bo; YAN Guo-zheng; DING Guo-qing; ZHOU Bing; FU Xi-guang; ZUO Jian-yong

    2004-01-01

    The detection system integrates control technology, network technology, video encoding and decoding, video transmiss-ion, multi-single chip microcomputer communication, dat-abase technology, computer software and robot technology. The robot can adaptively adjust its status according to diameter (from 400 mm to 650 mm) of pipeline. The maximum detection distance is up to 1 000 m. The method of video coding in the system is based on fractal transformation. The experiments show that the coding scheme is fast and good PSNR. The precision of on-line detection is up to 3% thickness of pipeline wall. The robot can also have a high precision of location up to 0.03 m. The control method is based on network and characterized by on-line and real-time. The experiment in real gas pipeline shows that the performance of the detection system is good.

  5. Radiation Effects on the On-line Monitoring System of a Hadrontherapy Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkazem Ansarinejad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Today, there is a growing interest in the use of hadrontherapy as an advanced radiotherapy technique. Hadrontherapy is considered a promising tool for cancer treatment, given its high radiobiological effectiveness and high accuracy of dose deposition due to the physical properties of hadrons. However, new radiation modalities of dose delivery and on-line beam monitoring play crucial roles in a successful treatment. In hadrontherapy, through interactions between the primary beam and patient’s tissue, secondary neutrons are produced. Materials and Methods This study, by using FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, assessed the level of secondary neutron radiation, produced during patient treatment. In addition,  the evaluation included secondary neutron radiation, which was produced while hitting the on-line detectors of beam delivery system by the Italian National Center for Hadrontherapy (CNAO. This study assessed the effects of secondary neutron radiation on an electronics rack (including a data acquisition system, a power supply, and a gas system and a nozzle, where two monitoring boxes (each one consisting of two or three parallel plate ionization chambers were installed. Results The resulting neutron energy spectra and radiation doses were used to determine the life performance and the probability of damage to these devices. Findings showed that by using carbon ions of 400 MeV/u, the fluence rate of secondary neutrons will be approximately 3.4×1010 n/cm2 in a year. Conclusion This value is lower than the experimental threshold, which is responsible for less than 1% of changes in electrical characteristics, and would cause no single event upsets.

  6. On-line Geoscience Data Resources for Today's Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.; Ryan, W.; Carbotte, S.; Melkonian, A.; Coplan, J.; Arko, R.; O'Hara, S.; Ferrini, V.; Leung, A.; Bonckzowski, J.

    2008-12-01

    Broadening the experience of undergraduates can be achieved by enabling free, unrestricted and convenient access to real scientific data. With funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS) (http://www.marine-geo.org/) serves as the integrated data portal for various NSF-funded projects and provides free public access and preservation to a wide variety of marine and terrestrial data including rock, fluid, biology and sediment samples information, underway geophysical data and multibeam bathymetry, water column and multi-channel seismics data. Users can easily view the locations of cruise tracks, sample and station locations against a backdrop of a multi-resolution global digital elevation model. A Search For Data web page rapidly extracts data holdings from the database and can be filtered on data and device type, field program ID, investigator name, geographical and date bounds. The data access experience is boosted by the MGDS use of standardised OGC-compliant Web Services to support uniform programmatic interfaces. GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org/), a free MGDS data visualization tool, supports map-based dynamic exploration of a broad suite of geosciences data. Built-in land and marine data sets include tectonic plate boundary compilations, DSDP/ODP core logs, earthquake events, seafloor photos, and submersible dive tracks. Seamless links take users to data held by external partner repositories including PetDB, UNAVCO, IRIS and NGDC. Users can generate custom maps and grids and import their own data sets and grids. A set of short, video-style on-line tutorials familiarises users step- by-step with GeoMapApp functionality (http://www.geomapapp.org/tutorials/). Virtual Ocean (http://www.virtualocean.org/) combines the functionality of GeoMapApp with a 3-D earth browser built using the NASA WorldWind API for a powerful new data resource. MGDS education involvement (http://www.marine-geo.org/, go to Education tab

  7. Scheduling to minimize average completion time: Off-line and on-line algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, L.A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Shmoys, D.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Wein, J. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Time-indexed linear programming formulations have recently received a great deal of attention for their practical effectiveness in solving a number of single-machine scheduling problems. We show that these formulations are also an important tool in the design of approximation algorithms with good worst-case performance guarantees. We give simple new rounding techniques to convert an optimal fractional solution into a feasible schedule for which we can prove a constant-factor performance guarantee, thereby giving the first theoretical evidence of the strength of these relaxations. Specifically, we consider the problem of minimizing the total weighted job completion time on a single machine subject to precedence constraints, and give a polynomial-time (4 + {epsilon})-approximation algorithm, for any {epsilon} > 0; the best previously known guarantee for this problem was superlogarithmic. With somewhat larger constants, we also show how to extend this result to the case with release date constraints, and still more generally, to the case with m identical parallel machines. We give two other techniques for problems in which there are release dates, but no precedence constraints: the first is based on other new LP rounding algorithms, whereas the second is a general framework for designing on-line algorithms to minimize the total weighted completion time.

  8. On-line meters monitor gas concentrations in transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirhonen, R.; Lustre, L. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    Power transformers are by far the most expensive single components of 400 kV transmission grid substations. The acquisition price of a transformer is about FIM 15 to 20 million. A good way to extend the service life of a transformer considerably is to conduct a general overhaul. The cornerstone of cost-efficient maintenance is the correct timing of the general overhaul, which usually costs a couple million Finnish marks

  9. Design of the processing chain for a high-altitude, airborne, single-photon lidar mapping instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, Joshua

    2016-05-01

    Processing data from high-altitude, airborne lidar instruments that employ single-photon sensitive, arrayed detectors poses several challenges. Arrayed detectors produce large volumes of data; single-photon sensitive detectors produce high levels of noise; and high-altitude operation makes accurate geolocation difficult to achieve. To address these challenges, a unique and highly automated processing chain for high-altitude, single-photon, airborne lidar mapping instruments has been developed. The processing chain includes algorithms for coincidence processing, noise reduction, self-calibration, data registration, and geolocation accuracy enhancement. Common to all single-photon sensitive systems is a high level of background photon noise. A key step in the processing chain is a fast and accurate algorithm for density estimation, which is used to separate the lidar signal from the background photon noise, permitting the use of a wide-range gate and daytime operation. Additional filtering algorithms are used to remove or reduce other sources of system and detector noise. An optimization algorithm that leverages the conical scan pattern of the instrument is used to improve geolocation and to self-calibrate the system.

  10. Semi-on-line analysis for fast and precise monitoring of bioreaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.H.; Marcher, J.; Schulze, Ulrik

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring of substrates and products during fermentation processes can be achieved either by on-line, in situ sensors or by semi-on-line analysis consisting of an automatic sampling step followed by an ex situ analysis of the retrieved sample. The potential risk of introducing time delays...... and signal bias during sampling makes it necessary to distinguish between real-time, on-line, in situ methods and semi-on-line analysis. In addition, semi-on-line analyzers are often mechanically complex-a circumstance which has to be given special attention during their industrial use on a routine basis....... This review on semi-on-line analysis will focus both on the dynamics and precision of aseptic sampling devices and on the performance of flow injection analysis (FIA) and sequential injection analysis (SIA), especially with regard to their robustness when used in industry. (C) 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc....

  11. On-line determination of anions in pulp mills by capillary electrophoresis (CE); Tehdasoloissa tapahtuva anionien kapillaarielektroforeettinen on-line maeaeritys ja sen hyoedyntaeminen prosessivalvonnassa - MPKY 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokkonen, R.; Holmberg, M.; Vainikka, V. [Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of the study was to set-up a process control system for on-line measurement of certain anions. Typical anions which forms precipitates in pulp and paper mills are oxalate, carbonate and sulphate. Thus it is important to develop a continuous process analyzing system to control concentration levels of this anions. For the preliminary tests of continuous determinations of chloride and sulphate anions in tap water a simple on-line system was build in KCL (The Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute) and connected to a capillary electroforesis apparatus. In the preliminary tests a chromate buffer (ph = 7.6) was used. Separation of chloride and sulphate was excellent but the stability of buffer was not good enough and it was usable only for few hours. After experimental studies VTT developed a stable capillary electrophoresis method based on mixed amine buffer and this was selected for an on-line method for determination of anions in process waters of the pulp and paper industry. In the preliminary on-line test (r = 20) repeatabilities of migration times of sulphate and chloride with the chromate buffer were < 5 % (RSD) and peak heights < 15 % (RSD). With the mixed amine buffer repeatabilities were better. The preliminary tests showed that it is possible to connect a capillary electrophoresis system to on-line measurements. For the moment no commercial on-line CE apparatus is available. (orig.)

  12. On-line Scheduling Algorithm for Penicillin Fed-batch Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Yao-feng; YUAN Jing-qi

    2005-01-01

    An on-line scheduling algorithm to maximize gross profit of penicillin fed-batch fermentation is proposed. According to the on-line classification method, fed-batch fermentation batches are classified into three categories. Using the scheduling strategy, the optimal termination sequence of batches is obtained. Pseudo on-line simulations for testing the proposed algorithm with the data from industrial scale penicillin fermentation are carried out.

  13. An On-line Assessment System for English-Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yan; LU Ru-zhan; DUAN Jian-yong

    2007-01-01

    On-line assessment of English-Chinese translation is a challenging task as it involves natural language processing. YanFa, an on-line assessment system for English-Chinese translation, is a pilot research project into scoring student's translation on-line. Based on the theory of translation equivalence, an algorithm called "conceptual similarity matching" was developed. YanFa can assess students' translation on-line timely, generate test papers automatically, offer standard versions of translation, and the scores of each sentence to students. The evaluation proves that YanFa is practical compared with the scores given by experts.

  14. On-Line Booking Policies and Competitive Analysis of Medical Examination in Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From the on-line point, we consider the hospital’s medical examination appointment problem with hierarchical machines. This approach eliminates the need for both demand forecasts and a risk-neutrality assumption. Due to different unit revenue, uncertain demand, and arrival of patients, we design on-line booking policies for two kinds of different situations from the perspective of on-line policy and competitive analysis. After that, we prove the optimal competitive ratios. Through numerical examples, we compare advantages and disadvantages between on-line policies and traditional policies, finding that there is different superiority for these two policies under different arrival sequences.

  15. BOOK REVIEW: ON-LINE EDUCATION: AN EMANCIPATING VISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Dr. Abdullah KUZU

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ON-LINE EDUCATION: AN EMANCIPATING VISION Written by Margarita Victoria Gomez Publisher: Cortez Editora ISBN 85-249-1062-3 São Paulo, Brazil, July 2004. Reviewed by Ricardo Romo TORRES Manuel Moreno Castaneda Maria del Sol Orozco Aguirre Universidad de Guadalajara Virtual MEXICO http://www.udgvirtual.udg.mx "On-line Education " is a book that meets the challenge to present itself as an unfinished text. In addition to demanding an active participation of the reader, it requires a predisposition to complete it through an also inconclusive dialogue. Among its goals we can find the search for education networks that remain under constant reconstruction, maintaining the emancipative vision as an imperative for the reconfiguration, as a constituted tissue for the scaffolding of subjects who impress,imagine, think and have a will. The unfinished part is presented in the following paragraph: "Similar to Babel according to Borges, knowledge is the product of a hazard in which fiction is the universe and where, out of fear of its multiple combinations, individual texts constitute an unfinished tale. In this labyrinth-shaped universe, the mirror and the recurrence do not allow finding the way out" page 134. The sense of being of man within a planetary community is framed by the ontological condition of conclusiveness; the requirement of being more, however, as well. This more is guided by the need for dialogue with others in terms of the opening and maintaining an unconcluded dialogue. The idea of a web or network leads to an articulating demand within the context of the category of wholeness. Based on this category, we will be able to present a reticulum of concepts where we can find included the web, subjectivity, identity, experience, mediation and, of course, digital literacy. This reticulum results in a concept of identified education with a condensed arrival point to something that the author defines as 'the pedagogy of virtuality'. The author is

  16. On-line remote monitoring of radioactive waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calì Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost array of modular sensors for online monitoring of radioactive waste was developed at INFN-LNS. We implemented a new kind of gamma counter, based on Silicon PhotoMultipliers and scintillating fibers, that behaves like a cheap scintillating Geiger-Muller counter. It can be placed in shape of a fine grid around each single waste drum in a repository. Front-end electronics and an FPGA-based counting system were developed to handle the field data, also implementing data transmission, a graphical user interface and a data storage system. A test of four sensors in a real radwaste storage site was performed with promising results. Following the tests an agreement was signed between INFN and Sogin for the joint development and installation of a prototype DMNR (Detector Mesh for Nuclear Repository system inside the Garigliano radwaste repository in Sessa Aurunca (CE, Italy. Such a development is currently under way, with the installation foreseen within 2014.

  17. Phrase Length and Prosody in On-Line Ambiguity Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webman-Shafran, Ronit; Fodor, Janet Dean

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the processing of ambiguous double-PP constructions in Hebrew. Selection restrictions forced the first prepositional phrase (PP1) to attach low, but PP2 could attach maximally high to VP or maximally low to the NP inside PP1. A length contrast in PP2 was also examined. This construction affords more potential locations for prosodic boundaries, and has a sharper structural contrast between the two attachment sites, than the single-PP construction which has yielded mixed results in previous work. A combined production-comprehension task showed more productions of pre-PP2 prosodic boundaries for long-PP2 than short-PP2. In comprehension, high PP2-attachment was favored by a prosodic boundary before PP2, regardless of PP2 length. This study provides performance data supporting the interplay of phrase lengths with structure-sensitivity as posited in the linguistics literature on the syntax-prosody interface, and supports the claim that readers are sensitive to the structural implications of the prosody they project onto sentences.

  18. Aircraft engine sensor fault diagnostics using an on-line OBEM update method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Xue, Naiyu; Yuan, Ye

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposed a method to update the on-line health reference baseline of the On-Board Engine Model (OBEM) to maintain the effectiveness of an in-flight aircraft sensor Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system, in which a Hybrid Kalman Filter (HKF) was incorporated. Generated from a rapid in-flight engine degradation, a large health condition mismatch between the engine and the OBEM can corrupt the performance of the FDI. Therefore, it is necessary to update the OBEM online when a rapid degradation occurs, but the FDI system will lose estimation accuracy if the estimation and update are running simultaneously. To solve this problem, the health reference baseline for a nonlinear OBEM was updated using the proposed channel controller method. Simulations based on the turbojet engine Linear-Parameter Varying (LPV) model demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed FDI system in the presence of substantial degradation, and the channel controller can ensure that the update process finishes without interference from a single sensor fault.

  19. On-line monitoring of chemical reactions by using bench-top nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, E; Perlo, J; Duchateau, A L L; Verzijl, G K M; Litvinov, V M; Blümich, B; Casanova, F

    2014-10-06

    Real-time nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy measurements carried out with a bench-top system installed next to the reactor inside the fume hood of the chemistry laboratory are presented. To test the system for on-line monitoring, a transfer hydrogenation reaction was studied by continuously pumping the reaction mixture from the reactor to the magnet and back in a closed loop. In addition to improving the time resolution provided by standard sampling methods, the use of such a flow setup eliminates the need for sample preparation. Owing to the progress in terms of field homogeneity and sensitivity now available with compact NMR spectrometers, small molecules dissolved at concentrations on the order of 1 mmol L(-1) can be characterized in single-scan measurements with 1 Hz resolution. Owing to the reduced field strength of compact low-field systems compared to that of conventional high-field magnets, the overlap in the spectrum of different NMR signals is a typical situation. The data processing required to obtain concentrations in the presence of signal overlap are discussed in detail, methods such as plain integration and line-fitting approaches are compared, and the accuracy of each method is determined. The kinetic rates measured for different catalytic concentrations show good agreement with those obtained with gas chromatography as a reference analytical method. Finally, as the measurements are performed under continuous flow conditions, the experimental setup and the flow parameters are optimized to maximize time resolution and signal-to-noise ratio.

  20. On-line surface inspection using cylindrical lens-based spectral domain low-coherence interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dawei; Gao, Feng; Jiang, X

    2014-08-20

    We present a spectral domain low-coherence interferometry (SD-LCI) method that is effective for applications in on-line surface inspection because it can obtain a surface profile in a single shot. It has an advantage over existing spectral interferometry techniques by using cylindrical lenses as the objective lenses in a Michelson interferometric configuration to enable the measurement of long profiles. Combined with a modern high-speed CCD camera, general-purpose graphics processing unit, and multicore processors computing technology, fast measurement can be achieved. By translating the tested sample during the measurement procedure, real-time surface inspection was implemented, which is proved by the large-scale 3D surface measurement in this paper. ZEMAX software is used to simulate the SD-LCI system and analyze the alignment errors. Two step height surfaces were measured, and the captured interferograms were analyzed using a fast Fourier transform algorithm. Both 2D profile results and 3D surface maps closely align with the calibrated specifications given by the manufacturer.

  1. Aircraft engine sensor fault diagnostics using an on-line OBEM update method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Xue, Naiyu; Yuan, Ye

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposed a method to update the on-line health reference baseline of the On-Board Engine Model (OBEM) to maintain the effectiveness of an in-flight aircraft sensor Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system, in which a Hybrid Kalman Filter (HKF) was incorporated. Generated from a rapid in-flight engine degradation, a large health condition mismatch between the engine and the OBEM can corrupt the performance of the FDI. Therefore, it is necessary to update the OBEM online when a rapid degradation occurs, but the FDI system will lose estimation accuracy if the estimation and update are running simultaneously. To solve this problem, the health reference baseline for a nonlinear OBEM was updated using the proposed channel controller method. Simulations based on the turbojet engine Linear-Parameter Varying (LPV) model demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed FDI system in the presence of substantial degradation, and the channel controller can ensure that the update process finishes without interference from a single sensor fault. PMID:28182692

  2. Automation and integration of multiplexed on-line sample preparation with capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, H.

    1999-03-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multiplexed sample processing system in conjunction with multiplexed capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The concept from DNA template to called bases was first demonstrated with a manually operated single capillary system. Later, an automated microfluidic system with 8 channels based on the same principle was successfully constructed. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were implemented to manage flow direction and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into a corresponding size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at {approximately} 60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at {approximately} 70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. DNA sequencing data from this system allow base calling up to 460 bases with accuracy of 98%.

  3. On-Line Smoothing for an Integrated Navigation System with Low-Cost MEMS Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ching Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The integration of the Inertial Navigation System (INS and the Global Positioning System (GPS is widely applied to seamlessly determine the time-variable position and orientation parameters of a system for navigation and mobile mapping applications. For optimal data fusion, the Kalman filter (KF is often used for real-time applications. Backward smoothing is considered an optimal post-processing procedure. However, in current INS/GPS integration schemes, the KF and smoothing techniques still have some limitations. This article reviews the principles and analyzes the limitations of these estimators. In addition, an on-line smoothing method that overcomes the limitations of previous algorithms is proposed. For verification, an INS/GPS integrated architecture is implemented using a low-cost micro-electro-mechanical systems inertial measurement unit and a single-frequency GPS receiver. GPS signal outages are included in the testing trajectories to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method in comparison to conventional schemes.

  4. Enhancing On-Line Teaching with Verbal Immediacy through Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlich, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of instructor verbal immediacy behaviors for on-line classes. Specifically, it demonstrates how instructor verbal immediacy behaviors found in face-to-face classes can also be displayed for on-line classes. It is argued that self-determination theory describes identification of the student as an important role in the…

  5. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor for monitoring drinking water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højris, Bo; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen;

    2016-01-01

    Today, microbial drinking water quality is monitored through either time-consuming laboratory methods or indirect on-line measurements. Results are thus either delayed or insufficient to support proactive action. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor with a 10-minute time resolution has been...... conditions such as pollution events in drinking water....

  6. Analyze On-line Star Economy Basing on Models of Entrepreneurship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志豪

    2016-01-01

    The outstanding performance of the On-line Star Economy is bound up with social media and promotion by fans, stimulating a new round of consumption upgrading and capital tendency. There is no denying that the On-line Star Economy may be the fortuitous outcome of the times. But the fact remains it can be analyzed rationally using Models of Entrepreneurship.

  7. On-line monitoring and control of animal-cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der J.J.

    1996-01-01


    On-line analysis and control of biotechnological processes is still the stepchild in industry. In general, only parameters as dissolved-oxygen concentration, pH and temperature are controlled on-line. Important parameters as substrate and inhibitor concentrations are only measured

  8. On-Line Multichannel Raman Spectroscopic Detection System For Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An on-line multichannel Raman spectroscopic detection system for capillary electrophoresis was established by using an Ar+ laser and a cryogenically cooled ICCD. Resonant excitation Raman spectra of methyl red and methyl orange were employed to test the system. The result shows that it could yield on-line electrophoretogram and time series of Raman spectra.

  9. High School Open On-Line Courses (HOOC): A Case Study from Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Enrique; Pisani, Armando

    2013-01-01

    The first implementation of complete high school, open on-line courses (HOOC) aiming to support the training and basic scientific knowledge of young students from the Liceo Ginnasio Dante Alighieri in Gorizia, Italy, is discussed. Using the open source and automated recording system openEyA, HOOC give a student the opportunity to watch on-line, at…

  10. Challenges and opportunities in ‘last mile’ logistics for on-line food retail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, Jacques; Hvolby, Hans Henrik; Turner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Conventional approaches to logistics for food retail continue to be challenged by the rapid growth of on-line food retail. At the same time, ‘last mile’ logistics optimization for on-line retail also face challenges as changing consumer expectations, habits and purchasing patterns intersect with

  11. A New Method of On-line Grid Impedance Estimation for PV Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Asiminoaei, Lucian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    for on-line measuring the grid impedance is presented. The presented method requires no extra hardware being accommodated by typical PV inverters, sensors and CPU, to provide a fast and low cost approach of on-line impedance measurement. By injecting a non-characteristic harmonic current and measuring...

  12. The Anatomy of Program Design for an On-Line Business Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Bonita

    2008-01-01

    How does one design an on-line course to bridge theory and practice? How can the feedback of on-going stakeholder (student and administration) be incorporated into the design process to enhance quality? This paper presents the theoretical underpinning of designing an on-line management course recognized as best practice for a "well organized…

  13. Improvement plans for the RHIC/AGS on-line model environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown,K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Tepikian, S.

    2009-08-31

    The on-line models for Relativistic Ion Collider (RHIC) and the RHIC pre-injectors (the AGS and the AGS Booster) can be thought of as containing our best collective knowledge of these accelerators. As we improve these on-line models we are building the framework to have a sophisticated model-based controls system. Currently the RHIC on-line model is an integral part of the controls system, providing the interface for tune control, chromaticity control, and non-linear chromaticity control. What we discuss in this paper is our vision of the future of the on-line model environment for RHIC and the RHIC preinjectors. Although these on-line models are primarily used as Courant-Snyder parameter calculators using live machine settings, we envision expanding these environments to encompass many other problem domains.

  14. El aprendizaje on-line: oportunidades y retos en instituciones politécnicas Apprenticeship Students Learning On-line: Opportunities and Challenges for Polytechnic Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Burkle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los retos y las oportunidades actuales respecto a la distribución de contenidos virtuales y online en el marco de la institución de educación superior politécnica. Debido a la recesión económica actual, se está produciendo un retorno de estudiantes aprendices al mundo académico con el fin de actualizar habilidades y conocimientos. Sin embargo, a menudo los estudiantes con este perfil no están dispuestos a dejar de lado el trabajo o su vida personal para volver al estudio. En este contexto, el aprendizaje on-line representa una magnífica oportunidad para acceder a contenidos académicos sin tener que dejar de lado el trabajo. No obstante, para garantizar el éxito en la provisión de materiales on-line para estudiantes aprendices, las instituciones politécnicas de todo el mundo deben enfrentar dos retos: la transformación de contenidos de aprendizaje práctico en objetos educativos en línea, y la creación de ambientes educativos en los que los estudiantes se sientan involucrados y participativos. Más aún, en un ambiente de aprendizaje en el que el uso de tecnologías Web 2.0 es primordial, es importante considerar también el nuevo rol del profesor, que se ha convertido en facilitador del aprendizaje. Con el fin de analizar la experiencia educativa on-line de estos estudiantes, se distribuyeron 57 encuestas entre los estudiantes registrados en programas de formación on-line. El artículo presenta las conclusiones de la investigación y las compara con las aportaciones que se han hecho en lo relativo a la nueva generación de estudiantes y su uso de las tecnologías, así como el comportamiento registrado por la muestra de la investigación (preferencias y estilos de aprendizaje, su uso de las nuevas tecnologías. Se plantean igualmente oportunidades innovadoras para conectar aprendizaje y contexto laboral y recomendaciones para futuras investigaciones.This paper presents the ongoing research on the

  15. 基于双音外差的电光相位调制器半波电压自校准测量方法∗%Two-tone optical hetero dyning metho d for the self-calibrated measurement of half-wave voltage of electro optic phase mo dulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒; 张尚剑; 邹新海; 刘俊伟; 张雅丽; 李和平; 刘永

    2015-01-01

    High speed electrooptic phase modulators play very important roles in the high-speed optical fiber communication system, microwave photonic system, and coherent optical communication system, due to their advantages of bias voltage free and linear modulation. As an intrinsic parameter, the half-wave voltage of an electrooptic phase modulator has been characterized by using an electrical spectrum method and an optical spectrum method in the last two decades. The op-tical spectrum method is generally limited by the line-width of the laser source and the resolution of the available optical spectrum analyzer, while the electrical spectrum method requires the conversion from phase modulation to intensity modulation before photodetection, since a phase modulator generates a phase modulated optical signal with constant envelope. The major difficulty in the electrical spectrum method lies in the extra calibration for the responsivity fluctu-ation in the photodetection. In this paper, a novel self-calibrated measurement of half-wave voltage of electrooptic phase modulators is carried out based on the optical heterodyning between the two-tone phase modulated sidebands and the frequency-shifted carrier. The method achieves a self-calibration measurement, and avoids the effect of the responsivity fluctuation in the photodetection by setting a specific frequency relationship between the two-tone microwave signals. Moreover, it extends the measuring frequency range to the double bandwidth of photodetection and spectrum analysis. Compared with the optical spectrum method, the proposed method achieves very high frequency resolution measure-ment, and simultaneously avoids the line-width influence of laser source by use of two-tone heterodyning. Compared with the traditional electrical spectrum method, our method works under no small-signal assumption nor photodetection calibration, and eliminates the limits of electrical driving amplitude and operating wavelength. Moreover, it

  16. Dimensional Description of On-line Wear Debris Images for Wear Characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tonghai; PENG Yeping; DU Ying; WANG Junqun

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most wear monitoring indicator, dimensional feature of individual particles has been studied mostly focusing on off-line analytical ferrograph. Recent development in on-line wear monitoring with wear debris images shows that merely wear debris concentration has been extracted from on-line ferrograph images. It remains a bottleneck of obtaining the dimension of on-line particles due to the low resolution, high contamination and particle’s chain pattern of an on-line image sample. In this work, statistical dimension of wear debris in on-line ferrograph images is investigated. A two-step procedure is proposed as follows. First, an on-line ferrograph image is decomposed into four component images with different frequencies. By doing this, the size of each component image is reduced by one fourth, which will increase the efficiency of subsequent processing. The low-frequency image is used for extracting the area of wear debris, and the high-frequency image is adopted for extracting contour. Second, a statistical equivalent circle dimension is constructed by equaling the overall wear debris in the image into equivalent circles referring to the extracted total area and premeter of overall wear debris. The equivalent circle dimension, reflecting the statistical dimension of larger wear debris in an on-line image, is verified by manual measurement. Consequently, two preliminary applications are carried out in gasoline engine bench tests of durability and running-in. Evidently, the equivalent circle dimension, together with the previously developed concentration index, index of particle coverage area (IPCA), show good performances in characterizing engine wear conditions. The proposed dimensional indicator provides a new statistical feature of on-line wear particles for on-line wear monitoring. The new dimensional feature conveys profound information about wear severity.

  17. Escapist Motives for On-line Gaming and Strengthening of Weak Ties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana

    Due to advances of technology including faster and ubiquitously ac-cessible Internet connection, on-line gaming have grown tremendously in the last couple of years. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether escapist mo-tives for playing games are linked to strengthening of weak ties through...... on-line gaming. The research investigates Facebook and other on-line games separate-ly. A surprising result is that while most of the investigated escapist motives are positively correlated with strengthening of weak ties, the mundane breaking motive is negatively correlated with strengthening...

  18. Escapist Motives for On-line Gaming and Strengthening of Weak Ties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana

    Due to advances of technology including faster and ubiquitously accessible Internet connection, on-line gaming have grown tremendously in the last couple of years. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether escapist motives for playing games are linked to strengthening of weak ties through on......-line gaming. The research investigates Facebook and other on-line games separately. A surprising result is that while most of the investigated escapist motives are positively correlated with strengthening of weak ties, the mundane breaking motive is negatively correlated with strengthening of weak ties....

  19. On-line and Model-based Approaches to the Visual Control of Action

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Huaiyong; Warren, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Two general approaches to the visual control of action have emerged in last few decades, known as the on-line and model-based approaches. The key difference between them is whether action is controlled by current visual information or on the basis of an internal world model. In this paper, we evaluate three hypotheses: strong on-line control, strong model-based control, and a hybrid solution that combines on-line control with weak off-line strategies. We review experimental research on the co...

  20. Key Technique of Austenitic Stainless Steel on-line Solution Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sheng-li; LI Wei-juan; LIU Shuang; LI Ying; ZHAO Fei

    2004-01-01

    Generally the methods of solution treatment of austenitic stainless steel are bifurcated on-line solution and off-line solution . For a founded enterprise, it is necessary to find out how to get across alterations and search a measure of on -line solution disposal with less investment and higher efficiency. By studying and analysingin laboratory, several key points and the methods settle them are presented, which offers a new route to realize austenitic stainless steel on-line solution. By reducing the cost greatly, it makes the enterprise larger benefits.

  1. Design and construction of a prototype advanced on-line fuel burn-up monitoring system for the modular pebble bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Bingjing; Hawari, Ayman, I.

    2004-03-30

    case, a self-calibration method was developed to obtain the spectrometer's relative efficiency curve based upon gamma lines emitted from {sup 140}La. It was found that the ratio of {sup 239}Np/{sup 132}I can be used in burnup measurement with an uncertainty of {approx} {+-}3% throughout the pebble's lifetime. In addition, by doping the fuel with {sup 60}Co, the use of the {sup 60}Co/{sup 134}Cs and {sup 239}Np/{sup 132}I ratios can simultaneously yield the enrichment and burnup of each pebble. A functional gamma-ray spectrometry measurement system was constructed and tested with light water reactor fuels. Experimental results were observed to be consistent with the predictions. On using the passive neutron counting method for the on-line burnup measurement, it was found that neutron emission rate of an irradiated pebble is sensitive to its burnup history and the spectral-averaged cross sections used in the depletion calculations; thus a large uncertainty exists in the correlation between neutron emission and burnup. At low burnup levels, the uncertainty in the neutron emission/burnup correlation is too high and neutron emission rate is too low so that it is impossible to determine a pebble's burnup by on-line neutron counting. At high burnup levels, due to the decreasing of the uncertainty in neutron emission rate and the super-linear feature of the correlation, the uncertainty in burnup determination was found to be {approx}7% at the discharge burnup, which is acceptable for determining whether a pebble should be discharged or not. In terms of neutron detection, because an irradiated pebble is a weak neutron source and a much stronger gamma source, neutron detector system should have high neutron detection efficiency and strong gamma discrimination capability. Of all the commonly used neutron detectors, the He-3 and BF3 detector systems were found to be able to satisfy the requirement on detection efficiency; but their gamma discrimination capability is

  2. On-line near infrared bioreactor monitoring of cell density and concentrations of glucose and lactate during insect cell cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiang; Arnold, Mark A; Murhammer, David W

    2014-03-10

    Near infrared spectroscopy is demonstrated as a suitable method for monitoring real time cell density and concentrations of glucose and lactate during insect cell cultivation. The utility of this approach is illustrated during the cultivation of Trichoplusia ni BTI-Tn-5B1-4 insect cells in a stirred-tank bioreactor. On-line near infrared measurements are made by passing unaltered culture medium through an autoclavable near infrared flow-through sample cell during the cultivation process. Single-beam near infrared spectra were collected over the combination spectral range (5000-4000cm(-1)) through a 1.5mm path length sample. Cell density calibration model was established by uni-variable linear regressions with measured mean absorbance values of on-line spectra collected during a cultivation run. Calibration models are generated for glucose and lactate by regression analysis of both off line and on line spectra collected during a series of pre-measurement cultivation runs. Analyte-specific calibration models are generated by using a combination of spectra from both natural, unaltered samples and samples spiked with known levels of glucose and lactate. Spiked samples are used to destroy concentration correlations between solutes, thereby enhancing the selectivity of the calibration models. Absorbance spectra are used to build partial least squares calibration models for glucose and lactate. The calibration model for cell density corresponds to a univariate linear regression calibration model based on the mean absorbance between 4750 and 4250cm(-1). The standard errors of prediction are 1.54mM, 0.83mM, and 0.38×10(6)cells/mL for the glucose, lactate, and cell density models, respectively.

  3. On-line sample processing involving microextraction techniques as a front-end to atomic spectrometric detection for trace metal assays: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miró, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.miro@uib.es [FI-TRACE Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of the Balearic Islands, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears (Spain); Hansen, Elo Harald [Granåsen 93, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2013-06-11

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Role of flow injection in automation of microextraction techniques for metal assays. •On-line coupling of liquid phase microextraction (LPME) to atomic spectrometry. •Critical evaluation of on-line single drop and dispersive LPME. •On-line coupling of micro-solid phase extraction (μSPE) to atomic spectrometry. •Critical appraisal of magnetic/carbon nanoparticles and biomass for on-line μSPE. -- Abstract: Within the last decade, liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) and micro-solid phase extraction (μSPE) approaches have emerged as substitutes for conventional sample processing procedures for trace metal assays within the framework of green chemistry. This review surveys the progress of the state of the art in simplification and automation of microextraction approaches by harnessing to the various generations of flow injection (FI) as a front end to atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry (ICP-AES/MS). It highlights the evolution of flow injection analysis and related techniques as vehicles for appropriate sample presentation to the detector and expedient on-line matrix separation and pre-concentration of trace levels of metals in troublesome matrices. Rather than being comprehensive this review is aimed at outlining the pros and cons via representative examples of recent attempts in automating green sample preparation procedures in an FI or sequential injection (SI) mode capitalizing on single-drop microextraction, dispersive liquid-phase microextraction and advanced sorptive materials including carbon and metal oxide nanoparticles, ion imprinted polymers, superparamagnetic nanomaterials and biological/biomass sorbents. Current challenges in the field are identified and the synergetic combination of flow analysis, nanotechnology and metal-tagged biomolecule detection is envisaged.

  4. Analisis de la adaptacion a la red en las editoriales on line de cinco paises europeos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia Orosa, B; Lopez Garcia, X; Gallur Santorum, S

    2013-01-01

    [ES] Introduccion. El articulo analiza los editoriales de periodicos on line de cinco paises europeos con el objetivo principal de realizar una radiografia de sus caracteristicas y su grado de adaptacion a la red. Metodologia...

  5. Modelling of pulverized coal boilers: review and validation of on-line simulation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, L.I.; Cortes, C.; Campo, A. [University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain). Centro de Investigacion de Recursos y Consumos Energeticos (CIRCE)

    2005-07-01

    Thermal modelling of large pulverized fuel utility boilers has reached a very remarkable development, through the application of CFD techniques and other advanced mathematical methods. However, due to the computational requirements, on-line monitoring and simulation tools still rely on lumped models and semiempirical approaches, which are often strongly simplified and not well connected with sound theoretical basis. This paper reviews on-line modelling techniques, aiming at the improvement of their capabilities, by means of the revision and modification of conventional lumped models and the integration of off-line CFD predictions. The paper illustrates the coherence of monitoring calculations as well as the validation of the on-line thermal simulator, starting from real operation data from a case-study unit. The outcome is that it is possible to significantly improve the accuracy of on-line calculations provided by conventional models, taking into account the singularities of large combustion systems and coupling offline CFD predictions for selected scenarios.

  6. CODE STEM - Moon, Mars, and Beyond; DLESE-Powered On-Line Classroom Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "CODE (COrps DEvelopment) STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) ? Moon Mars and Beyond; DLESE-Powered On-Line Classroom" shares the excitement of...

  7. Learning Survival Models with On-Line Simulation Activities in the Actuarial Science Degree

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonio Fernandez-Morales

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe an on-line survival laboratory designed to enhance teaching and learning in the Statistics courses of the Actuarial Science Degree of the Uni-versity of Málaga...

  8. Development of an on-line state estimator for fed-batch filamentous fungal fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Albæk, Mads O.

    Bioprocesses can be challenging to model due to complex and non-linear process dynamics [1]. In addition there is a lack of robust, on-line sensors for key parameters of interest in the field, such as substrate, product and biomass concentration [2]. These factors lead to limitations in the ability...... to monitor and control bioprocess systems. There is therefore an interest in state estimation, in order to model these key process states based on available on-line measurements [1]. This work discusses the application of a first principle model to pilot scale filamentous fungal fermentation systems operated...... pressure [4], [5]. This stoichiometric-based coupled process model is successfully applied on-line as a state estimator in order to predict the biomass and product concentration, from robust, available on-line measurements. Such state estimators will be valuable as part of control strategy development...

  9. On-Line Monitoring of Fermentation Processes by Near Infrared and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Carina

    Monitoring and control of fermentation processes is important to ensure high product yield, product quality and product consistency. More knowledge on on-line analytical techniques such as near infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy is desired in the fermentation industry to increase the efficiency...... of on-line monitoring systems. The primary aim of this thesis is to elucidate and explore the dynamics in fermentation processes by spectroscopy. Though a number of successful on-line lab-scale monitoring systems have been reported, it seems that several challenges are still met, which limits the number...... for on-line monitoring if corrections or preventive measures during the quantification are carried out. The findings presented in this thesis have enabled the possibility of obtaining a better process understanding and to ease monitoring and controlling of fermentation processes....

  10. On Line Spectrophotometric Measurement of Uranium and Nitrate in H Canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascola, R.J.

    2002-10-15

    This report describes the on-line instrumentation developed by the Analytical Development Section of Savannah River Technology Center in support of Highly Enriched Uranium Blend Down processing in H Canyon.

  11. Using a strengths model to build an on-line nursing education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieck, K Lynn; Alfred, Danita; Haas, Barbara K; Yarbrough, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The on-line environment is the new frontier for academia struggling to define its place in the evolving economy. A concern is how to engage students who maximize their on-line experience and graduate in a timely manner. A strengths model was used as the basis for development of an on-line doctoral nursing program. Upon entering the program, students were given a strengths assessment that focused both students and faculty on the positive attributes students were bringing to their doctoral studies. A positive feedback methodology using on-line discussions in each course was used to support the identified strengths. The optimal picture of a successful entering doctoral student appears to be a person whose top five strengths are learner, achiever, input, connectedness and responsibility. A strengths model promotes a positive learning environment and supports a teacher-learner dynamic where faculty members are encouraged to focus on the students' strengths rather than their challenges.

  12. Integrated electrochemical sensor array for on-line monitoring of yeast fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krommenhoek, E.E.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Bomer, Johan G.; Li, X.; Ottens, M.; van Dedem, G.W.K.; van Leeuwen, M.; van Gulik, W.M.; van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Heijnen, J.J.; van den Berg, Albert

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the design, modeling, and experimental characterization of an electrochemical sensor array for on-line monitoring of fermentor conditions in both miniaturized cell assays and in industrial scale fertnentations. The viable biomass concentration is determined from impedance

  13. ON-LINE SCHEDULING OF UNIT TIME JOBS WITH REJECTION ON UNIFORM MACHINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shoupeng LIU; Yuzhong ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of on-line scheduling of unit execution time jobs on uniform machines with rejection penalty. The jobs arrive one by one and can be either accepted and scheduled, or be rejected. The objective is to minimize the total completion time of the accepted jobs and the total penalty of the rejection jobs. The authors propose an on-line algorithm and prove that the competitive ratio is 1/2 (2 + ) ≈ 1.86602.

  14. The Study on On-line Scheduling Algorithm of Imprecise Computation under Transient Overload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEIZhenhua; HONGBingrong; QIAOYongqiang; CAIZesu; PENGJunjie

    2003-01-01

    Transient overload always occurs in realtime computer system. An on-line scheduling algorithm of imprecise computation is proposed in this paper to deal with it. This algorithm can be sure of getting acceptable computation result under the condition of overload, and at the same time it can improve the computation precision as much as possible. The system model of imprecise computation and the on-line imprecise computation algorithm are elaborated. And the algorithm is proved correct by simulation.

  15. On line high dose static position monitoring by ionization chamber detector for industrial gamma irradiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ary A; Vieira, Jose M; Hamada, Margarida M

    2010-01-01

    A 1 cm(3) cylindrical ionization chamber was developed to measure high doses on line during the sample irradiation in static position, in a (60)Co industrial plant. The developed ionization chamber showed to be suitable for use as a dosimeter on line. A good linearity of the detector was found between the dose and the accumulated charge, independently of the different dose rates caused by absorbing materials.

  16. On-line marketing - princip aukce mění svět reklamy.

    OpenAIRE

    Jankovič, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Diploma thesis 'On-line marketing - Principle of an auction changes the world of advertising' is about internet as a medium, on-line commercial communications, search engines and performance marketing. This thesis is divided into three parts. First part is about internet as a medium and actual situation on the Czech internet market. Second part describes a marketing communication mix on the internet, forms of online advertisement and pros and cons of online advertising. Third part deals with ...

  17. Preferred Methods of Learning for Nursing Students in an On-Line Degree Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Debra; Pearce, Patricia F; Moser, Debra K

    Investigators have demonstrated that on-line courses result in effective learning outcomes, but limited information has been published related to preferred teaching strategies. Delivery of on-line courses requires various teaching methods to facilitate interaction between students, content, and technology. The purposes of this study were to understand student teaching/learning preferences in on-line courses to include (a) differences in preferred teaching/learning methods for on-line nursing students across generations and (b) which teaching strategies students found to be most engaging and effective. Participants were recruited from 2 accredited, private school nursing programs (N=944) that admit students from across the United States and deliver courses on-line. Participants provided implied consent, and 217 (23%) students completed the on-line survey. Thirty-two percent of the students were from the Baby Boomer generation (1946-1964), 48% from Generation X (1965-1980), and 20% from the Millennial Generation (born after 1980). The preferred teaching/learning methods for students were videos or narrated PowerPoint presentations, followed by synchronous Adobe Connect educations sessions, assigned journal article reading, and e-mail dialog with the instructor. The top 2 methods identified by participants as the most energizing/engaging and most effective for learning were videos or narrated PowerPoint presentations and case studies. The teaching/learning method least preferred by participants and that was the least energizing/engaging was group collaborative projects with other students; the method that was the least effective for learning was wikis. Baby Boomers and Generation X participants had a significantly greater preference for discussion board (Plearning (Pteaching/learning methods for on-line students. Faculty need to incorporate various teaching methodologies within on-line courses to include both synchronous and asynchronous activities and interactive and

  18. On line high dose static position monitoring by ionization chamber detector for industrial gamma irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Ary A. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina-Depto de Fisica, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, km 38, 086051-990 Londrina (Brazil); Vieira, Jose M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN/CNEN-SP, Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hamada, Margarida M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN/CNEN-SP, Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: mmhamada@ipen.br

    2010-04-15

    A 1 cm{sup 3} cylindrical ionization chamber was developed to measure high doses on line during the sample irradiation in static position, in a {sup 60}Co industrial plant. The developed ionization chamber showed to be suitable for use as a dosimeter on line. A good linearity of the detector was found between the dose and the accumulated charge, independently of the different dose rates caused by absorbing materials.

  19. On-line Identification of the DC motor Parameters by using Least Mean Square Recursive Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Gaiceanu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The on-line least square parameters (electrical and mechanical identification method of the separately DC motor is presented in this paper. The parameters of the DC machine are time dependent; therefore, for the DC drive control the on-line parameters identification procedure is mandatory. By knowing accurately the DC motor parameters, the parameters of the DC speed and current cascade controllers can be obtained.

  20. Autonomous absolute calibration of an ICCD camera in single-photon detection regime

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Luo; Leuchs, Gerd; Chekhova, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    Intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) cameras are widely used in various applications such as microscopy, astronomy, spectroscopy. Often they are used as single-photon detectors, with thresholding being an essential part of the readout. In this paper, we measure the quantum efficiency of an ICCD camera in the single-photon detection mode using the Klyshko absolute calibration technique. The quantum efficiency is obtained as a function of the threshold value and of the wavelength of the detected light. In addition, we study the homogeneity of the photon sensitivity over the camera chip area. The experiment is performed in the autonomous regime, without using any additional detectors. We therefore demonstrate the self-calibration of an ICCD camera.

  1. 一种连续/离散混合结构的电容数字自校准Sigma Delta模数转换器设计%A Mixed CT/DT ∑△ ADC with Capacitor Digital Self-Calibration for RC Spread Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岩; 华斯亮; 王东辉; 侯朝焕

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a mixed continuous-time/discrete-time sigma delta ADC. This ADC combines the benefits of Cr and DT circuits,and the self-calibration control circuits compensate for the variation of the RC product in the continuous-time integrator. Chopper stabilization can remove the flicker noise especially problematic in deep submicron MOS devices. Measurement results show that the peak SNR of this ADC reaches 102dB and the total power consumption is less than 30mW.%本文根据连续时间调制器和离散时间调制器的各自优缺点,提出了一种新型混合调制器结构的音频Siena Delta模数转换器,电容数字自校准电路用来补偿连续时间积分器的RC常数,斩波稳定技术用来降低深亚微米CMOS工艺下的闪烁噪声.测试结果表明连续/离散混合结构Sigma Delta模数转换器的峰值信噪比达到102dB,芯片总体功耗为30mW.

  2. On-Line Wavelength Calibration of Pulsed Laser for CO2 Differential Absorption LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Chengzhi; Ma, Xin; Han, Ge; Liang, Ailin; Gong, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) remote sensing is a promising technology for atmospheric CO2 detection. However, stringent wavelength accuracy and stability are required in DIAL system. Accurate on-line wavelength calibration is a crucial procedure for retrieving atmospheric CO2 concentration using the DIAL, particularly when pulsed lasers are adopted in the system. Large fluctuations in the intensities of a pulsed laser pose a great challenge for accurate on-line wavelength calibration. In this paper, a wavelength calibration strategy based on multi-wavelength scanning (MWS) was proposed for accurate on-line wavelength calibration of a pulsed laser for CO2 detection. The MWS conducted segmented sampling across the CO2 absorption line with appropriate number of points and range of widths by using a tunable laser. Complete absorption line of CO2 can be obtained through a curve fitting. Then, the on-line wavelength can be easily found at the peak of the absorption line. Furthermore, another algorithm called the energy matching was introduced in the MWS to eliminate the backlash error of tunable lasers during the process of on-line wavelength calibration. Finally, a series of tests was conducted to elevate the calibration precision of MWS. Analysis of tests demonstrated that the MWS proposed in this paper could calibrate the on-line wavelength of pulsed laser accurately and steadily.

  3. SkyMouse: A smart interface for astronomical on-line resources and services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI ChenZhou; SUN HuaPing; ZHAO YongHeng; LUO Yu; QI DaZhi

    2008-01-01

    With the development of network and the World Wide Web (WWW), the Internet has been growing and changing dramatically. More and more on-line database systems and different kinds of services are available for astronomy research. How to help users find their way through the jungle of information services becomes an important challenge. Although astronomers have been aware of the importance of interoperability and introduced the concept of Virtual Observatory as a uniform environment for future astronomical on-line resources and services, transparent access to heterogeneous on-line information is still difficult. SkyMouse is a lightweight interface for distributed astronomical on-line resources and services, which is designed and developed by us, i.e., Chinese Virtual Observatory project. Taking ad-vantage of screen word-capturing technology, different kinds of information systems can be queried through simple mouse actions, and results are returned in a uniform web page. SkyMouse is an easy to use application, aiming to show basic information or to create a comprehensive overview of a specific astronomical object. In this paper current status of on-line resources and services access is reviewed; system architecture, features and functions of SkyMouse are described; challenges for intelligent in-terface for on-line astronomical resources and services are discussed.

  4. PROFILES AND PREFERENCES OF ON-LINE MILLENIAL SHOPPERS IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia R. Loubeau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to develop a better understanding of the factors affecting on-line purchasing behavior among Generation Y (Gen Y consumers in Bulgaria. Also called millenials and born between the mid-1970s and late 1990s, this generation is especially active on-line and will be a dominant influence shaping e-commerce. An empirical study was conducted based on a written survey of a sample consisting of 367 high school and university students in Bulgaria. The most important reason why Bulgarian young people shop on-line is the pursuit of unique products not locally available, followed by convenience and better pricing, and their favorite category of internet purchases is “Apparel and Accessories.” Bulgarian millennials are using the internet to shop for trendy fashion and to obtain a variety of brands that are unavailable locally. Like other regions of the world, concern about financial transactions security is a major barrier limiting the willingness to shop on-line in Bulgaria. Unlike other markets where on-line music purchases are growing, high levels of digital piracy in Bulgaria strongly discourage Bulgarian students from purchasing music on-line. One limitation of this study arises because of its reliance on a convenience sample of students from medium sized cities in Southern Bulgaria. Further research employing stratified random sampling across Bulgaria is needed to assess whether the findings are broadly generalizable for the Gen Y population.

  5. Process Analytical Technology and On-Line Spectroscopic Measurements of Chemical Meat Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Klavs Martin

    This thesis deals with process analytical technology and how it can be implemented in the meat industry through on-line grading of chemical meat quality. The focus will be on two applications, namely the rapid quality control of fat quality and the development of a method for on-line detection of...... quality, but also with environmental issues such as energy and water use and animal welfare. Future research into the technologies will ultimately allow broad on-line screening of biomarkers, leading to on-line metabolomics......This thesis deals with process analytical technology and how it can be implemented in the meat industry through on-line grading of chemical meat quality. The focus will be on two applications, namely the rapid quality control of fat quality and the development of a method for on-line detection...... of boar taint. The chemical makeup of fat has a large effect on meat cut quality. Fat quality has traditionally been determined by methylation of a tissue sample followed by chromatography on a GC-MS system, elucidating the composition of the individual fatty acids. As this procedure typically takes far...

  6. Simultaneous on-line monitoring of propofol and sevoflurane in balanced anesthesia by direct resistive heating gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Zhang, Feng Jiang; Wang, Fu Yuan; Wang, Ying Ying; Guo, Jing; Kanhar, G M; Chen, Jing; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Chen; Yan, Min; Chen, Xing

    2017-07-14

    In balanced anesthesia, sevoflurane and propofol are often used in combination to achieve a better anesthetic effect. However, methods for on-line monitoring of concentrations of the two anesthetics in patients are still rare in clinical. This study proposed a non-invasive method utilizing a fast gas chromatograph combined with a surface acoustic wave sensor (Fast GC-SAW) to simultaneously on-line monitor sevoflurane and propofol in patients' exhaled gas. By using the direct resistive heating capillary column, the single detection time of Fast GC-SAW system was significantly shortened to 90s, as well as the size reduced to (40cm×30cm×20cm). Besides, in the calibration of sevoflurane, Fast GC-SAW system showed a good linear correlation (R(2)=0.9925, P<0.01) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), which ensured the reliability and accuracy of the Fast GC-SAW system. Finally, clinical experiments on patients under balanced anesthesia were conducted. The varied concentrations measured by Fast GC-SAW extraordinarily matched the clinical usages of these two anesthetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of simultaneous on-line optical and acoustic laser damage detection methods in the nanosecond pulse duration domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoskoi, T.; Vass, Cs; Mero, M.; Mingesz, R.; Bozoki, Z.; Osvay, K.

    2015-05-01

    We carried out single-shot laser-induced damage threshold measurements on dielectric high reflectors guided by the corresponding ISO standard. Four simultaneous on-line detection techniques were tested and compared using 532 nm, 9 ns and 266 nm, 6 ns laser pulses. Two methods, microscope aided visual inspection and detection of scattered light off the damaged surface, were based on optical signals. The other two techniques exploited the acoustic waves accompanying a damage event in ambient air and in the substrate by a microphone and a piezoelectric sensor, respectively. A unified criterion based on the statistical analysis of the detector signals was applied to assign an objective and unambiguous damage threshold value for all of our diverse detection methods. Microscope aided visual inspection showed the lowest damage thresholds for both wavelengths. However, the sensitivity of the other three techniques proved to be only slightly lower.

  8. Enhancing communication skills for pediatric visits through on-line training using video demonstrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissow Larry

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Training in communication skills for health professionals is important, but there are substantial barriers to individual in-person training for practicing clinicians. We evaluated the feasibility and desirability of on-line training and sought suggestions for future courses. Methods Based on successful in-person curricula for communication skills and our previous on-line curricula, we created an on-line course consisting of 28 modules (4.75 hours CME credit about communication skills during pediatric visits that included a mental health concern; each module included a brief case, a multiple choice question, an explanation, and a 1–2 minute video demonstrating key skills. Specific communication skills included: greeting, setting an agenda, discussing diagnosis and treatment, and managing negative interactions. The course was announced by emails in spring, 2007; the course was available on-line for 60 days; we aimed to enroll 50 clinicians. Outcomes were analyzed for those who evaluated the course within 75 days of its initial availability. Results Overall, 61 clinicians registered, of whom most were nurses (N = 24, physicians (N = 22, or psychologists or social workers (N = 12. Of the 36 (59% clinicians who evaluated the course, over 85% agreed that all course objectives had been met; over 90% reported greater confidence in greetings and agenda-setting; and over 80% reported greater confidence in discussing diagnosis and treatment and managing negative interactions. Nearly all, 97% would recommend the course to other clinicians and trainees. Suggestions for improvement included a library of additional video vignettes and written materials to accompany the on-line training. Conclusion On-line training in communication skills for pediatric mental health visits is feasible, desirable and associated with increased confidence in key skills. Positive feedback from clinicians suggests that a comparison of on-line versus in

  9. On-Line Retrieval System Design; Part V of Scientific Report No. ISR-18, Information Storage and Retrieval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Computer Science.

    On-line retrieval system design is discussed in the two papers which make up Part Five of this report on Salton's Magical Automatic Retriever of Texts (SMART) project report. The first paper: "A Prototype On-Line Document Retrieval System" by D. Williamson and R. Williamson outlines a design for a SMART on-line document retrieval system…

  10. Research of on-line monitoring method for insulation condition of power transformer bushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiuyun; Qian, Zheng; Yu, Hao; Yao, Junda

    2016-01-01

    The power transformer is the key equipment of the power system; its insulation condition will directly influence the security and reliability of the power system. Thus, the on-line monitoring of power transformer is urgently required in order to guarantee the normal operation of the power system. Moreover, the dielectric loss factor is a significant parameter reflecting the condition of transformer bushing, so the on-line measurement of dielectric loss factor is really important. In this paper, the phase-to-phase comparison method is selected as the on-line monitoring method based on the overall analysis and discussion of the existing on-line monitoring methods. At first, the harmonic analysis method is utilized to calculate the dielectric loss of each phase of the three-phase transformer bushing, and then the differences of dielectric loss between every two phases are calculated and analyzed. So the insulation condition of each bushing could be achieved based on the careful analysis of different phase-to-phase dielectric loss. The simulation results of phase-to-phase comparison method are carried out in this paper, and the validity is verified. At last, this method is utilized in an actual equipment of on-line monitoring.

  11. Comportamento do Consumidor On-line: a perspectiva da teoria do fluxoOn-line Consumer Behavior: the flow theory perspectiveComportamiento del consumidor On-line: la perspectiva de la teoría del flujo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARIAS, Salomão Alencar de

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo investiga o comportamento do consumidor on-line com base no fluxo, definido como a sensação holística que as pessoas sentem quando agem com total envolvimento em uma atividade (CSIKSZENTMIHALYI, 1975. Emprega-se essa teoria para melhor compreender o comportamento de compra pela Internet, embora seja um conceito ainda confuso na literatura do comportamento do consumidor, pois que não existe um consenso a respeito de quais os fatores antecedem, caracterizam ou são conseqüências do estado de fluxo. Desse modo, esta pesquisa buscou identificar os construtos, relacionados ao estado de fluxo, que devem fazer parte de um esquema de comportamento de compra on-line, além de indicar qual a sua aplicabilidade para o alcance da satisfação do consumidor na compra pela rede. Para tanto, foi utilizada uma metodologia de caráter descritivo com aplicação de um survey junto a uma amostra de 237 consumidores do varejo eletrônico. Os dados coletados foram analisados por meio de técnicas estatísticas multivariadas. Os resultados indicaram que o ambiente on-line e a telepresença antecedem o fluxo que, por sua vez, está associado ao comportamento exploratório, efeito positivo do processo de navegação, compra e satisfação com o processo de compra.ABSTRACTThis article investigates the on-line consumer behavior based on the flow theory, defined as the holistic sensation that people feel when acting with total involvement in an activity (CSIKSZENTMIHALYI, 1975. This theory has been used for better understanding the purchase behavior through the Internet, although this concept is still not sufficiently clear in consumer behavior literature, since it does not exist a consensus regarding which factors that precede, characterize or are consequences of the flow state. Thus, the present research was aimed at identifying the constructs related to the flow state that must be part of an on-line purchase behavior framework, indicating which

  12. On-Line Life Monitoring Technique for Tube Bundles of Boiler High-Temperature Heating Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Dong; Wang Zhongyuan

    2005-01-01

    High-temperature heating surface such as superheater and reheater of large-sized utility boiler all experiences a relatively severe working conditions. The failure of boiler tubes will directly impact the safe and economic operation of boiler. An on-line life monitoring model of high-temperature heating surface was set up according to the well-known L-M formula of the creep damages. The tube wall metal temperature and working stress was measured by on-line monitoring, and with this model, the real-time calculation of the life expenditure of the heating surface tube bundles were realized. Based on the technique the on-line life monitoring and management system of high-temperature heating surface was developed for a 300 MW utility boiler. An effective device was thus suggested for the implementation of the safe operation and the condition-based maintenance of utility boilers.

  13. On-line Shopping on B2C Markets in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilík Michal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the e-commerce theory and is aimed primarily at its usage in business-toconsumer markets. On-line purchasing management is increasing not only in the Czech Republic but also in Europe and all over the world. The customers who think rationally use on-line shopping because of money saving, speed delivery and the possibility of product comparison. This paper presents the results of a project financed by the Czech Science Foundation P403/11/ P175: The factors influencing customers’ on-line behaviour in e-commerce environment on B2C and B2B markets in the Czech Republic. 89 % of respondents use e-shops for buying products in the Czech Republic. 32 % of them use the Internet for regular purchases and 57 % of them irregularly. 11 % of respondents have not used e-shops yet.

  14. On-line detecting of transformer winding deformation based on parameter identification of leakage inductance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Zhiguo; Zhang Baohui; Li Peng

    2007-01-01

    Transformers are required to demonstrate the ability to withstand short circuit currents. Over currents caused by short circuit can give rise to windings deformation. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to monitor the state of transformer windings, which is achieved through on-line detecting the leakage inductance of the windings. Specifically, the mathematical model is established for on-line identifying the leakage inductance of the windings by applying least square algorithm (LSA) to the equivalent circuit equations. The effect of measurement and model inaccuracy on the identification error is analyzed, and the corrected model is also given to decrease these adverse effect on the results. Finally, dynamic test is carried out to verify our method. The test results clearly show that our method is very accurate even under the fluctuation of load or power factor. Therefore, our method can be effectively used to on-line detect the windings deformation.

  15. Administering Spatial and Cognitive Instruments In-class and On-line: Are These Equivalent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kenneth C.; Williamson, Vickie M.; Hinze, Scott R.

    2017-02-01

    Standardized, well-established paper-and-pencil tests, which measure spatial abilities or which measure reasoning abilities, have long been found to be predictive of success in the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields. Instructors can use these tests for prediction of success and to inform instruction. A comparative administration of spatial visualization and cognitive reasoning tests, between in-class (proctored paper and pencil) and on-line (unproctored Internet) ( N = 457), was used to investigate and to determine whether the differing instrument formats yielded equal measures of spatial ability and reasoning ability in large first-semester general chemistry sections. Although some gender differences were found, findings suggest that some differences across administration formats, but that on-line administration had similar properties of predicting chemistry performance as the in-class version. Therefore, on-line administration is a viable option for instructors to consider especially when dealing with large classes.

  16. Research on the Influence of Perceived Risk in Consumer On-line Purchasing Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhao; Yi, Li

    Perceived risk is an important factor that affects consumer's on-line shopping purchasing decision, through the perceived theories the consumer can know clearly which step owns higher risk in the whole shopping process, then learn how to prevent it, this process also strengthen the consumer confidence, thus lowering to know that the risk adjudicate to the feeling, so the essay has important and realistic meaning for further expand the electronic commerce. At first, investigate, collect, tidy up, analyze the questionnaire information, and thus get the primary data. Finally try to find out the influence of perceived risk to each stage of purchasing decision during consumer on-line shopping process with data and personal analytical. The paper is a complement to the local and existing perceived theories. The result of the study manifests that, the order of main perceived risks which felt by consumer during on-line shopping process are as follow: financial risk, the performance risk and service risk.

  17. Process Analytical Technology and On-Line Spectroscopic Measurements of Chemical Meat Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Klavs Martin

    This thesis deals with process analytical technology and how it can be implemented in the meat industry through on-line grading of chemical meat quality. The focus will be on two applications, namely the rapid quality control of fat quality and the development of a method for on-line detection...... of boar taint. The chemical makeup of fat has a large effect on meat cut quality. Fat quality has traditionally been determined by methylation of a tissue sample followed by chromatography on a GC-MS system, elucidating the composition of the individual fatty acids. As this procedure typically takes far...... on surgical castration will be in effect starting 2018. With the ban, the risk of meat products with the malodorous taint reaching the consumer is highly increased, and thus, detection of boar taint is a necessity. No current on-line detection system is available; the only alternative is chemical extraction...

  18. Force-reflecting teleoperation of robots based on on-line correction of a virtual model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; SONG Aiguo; LI Huijun

    2007-01-01

    Virtual reality is an effective method to eliminate the influence of time delay.However,it depends on the precision of the virtual model.In this paper,we introduce a method that corrects the virtual model on-line to establish a more precise model.The geometric errors of the virtual model were corrected on-line by overlapping the graphics over the images and also by syncretizing the position and force information from the remote.Then the sliding average least squares (SALS)method was adopted to determine the mass,damp,and stiffness of the remote environment and use this information to amend the dynamic model of the environment.Experimental results demonstrate that the on-line correction method we proposed can effectively reduce the impact caused by time delay,and improve the operational performance of the teleoperation system.

  19. Administering Spatial and Cognitive Instruments In-class and On-line: Are These Equivalent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kenneth C.; Williamson, Vickie M.; Hinze, Scott R.

    2016-08-01

    Standardized, well-established paper-and-pencil tests, which measure spatial abilities or which measure reasoning abilities, have long been found to be predictive of success in the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields. Instructors can use these tests for prediction of success and to inform instruction. A comparative administration of spatial visualization and cognitive reasoning tests, between in-class (proctored paper and pencil) and on-line (unproctored Internet) (N = 457), was used to investigate and to determine whether the differing instrument formats yielded equal measures of spatial ability and reasoning ability in large first-semester general chemistry sections. Although some gender differences were found, findings suggest that some differences across administration formats, but that on-line administration had similar properties of predicting chemistry performance as the in-class version. Therefore, on-line administration is a viable option for instructors to consider especially when dealing with large classes.

  20. On-Line Fast Motor Fault Diagnostics Based on Fuzzy Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Mingchui; CHEANG Takson; CHAN Sileong

    2009-01-01

    An on-line method was developed to improve diagnostic accuracy and speed for analyzing run-ning motors on site. On-line pre-measured data was used as the basis for constructing the membership functions used in a fuzzy neural network (FNN) as well as for network training to reduce the effects of vari-ous static factors, such as unbalanced input power and asymmetrical motor alignment, to increase accuracy.The preprocessed data and fuzzy logic were used to find the nonlinear mapping relationships between the data and the conclusions. The FNN was then constructed to carry motor fault diagnostics, which gives fast accurate diagnostics. The on-line fast motor fault diagnostics clearly indicate the fault type, location, and severity in running motors. This approach can also be extended to other applications.

  1. PF-OLA: A High-Performance Framework for Parallel On-Line Aggregation

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Chengjie

    2012-01-01

    On-line aggregation provides estimates to the final result of a computation during the actual processing. The user can stop the computation as soon as the estimate is accurate enough, typically early in the execution. This allows for the interactive data exploration of the largest datasets. In this paper we introduce the first framework for parallel on-line aggregation in which the estimation does not incur any overhead on top of the actual execution. We define a generic interface to express any estimation model that abstracts completely the execution details. We design a novel estimator specifically targeted at parallel on- line aggregation. When executed by the framework over an 8TB TPC-H instance, the estimator provides accurate confidence bounds early in the execution even when the cardinality of the final result is seven orders of magnitude smaller than the dataset size and without incurring any overhead.

  2. On-line interprofessional learning: introducing constructivism through enquiry-based learning and peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Matthew; Ventura, Susie; Dando, Mark

    2004-08-01

    Interest in on-line methods of learning has accelerated in recent years. There has also been an interest in developing student-centred approaches to learning and interprofessional education. This paper illustrates the issues in designing a large (more than 700 students), on-line, inter-professional module for third year, undergraduate students drawn from nine professional healthcare courses and from four campus sites. It uses an enquiry-based learning approach. The learning theories of Piaget, Vygotsky and Schön are integrated with the on-line frameworks of Salmon and Collis et al., together with conclusions drawn from the literature and our own experiences, to produce a design that encourages students to learn through participation, re-iteration, peer-review and reflection. Consideration is given to improving student motivation and attitudes towards change, both in the design and the delivery of the module.

  3. Treatment of hepatic encephalopathy by on-line hemodiafiltration: a case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyama Mitsugi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is thought that a good survival rate of patients with acute liver failure can be achieved by establishing an artificial liver support system that reliably compensates liver function until the liver regenerates or a patient undergoes transplantation. We introduced a new artificial liver support system, on-line hemodiafiltration, in patients with acute liver failure. Methods This case series study was conducted from May 2001 to October 2008 at the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary care academic medical center. Seventeen consecutive patients who admitted to our hospital presenting with acute liver failure were treated with artificial liver support including daily on-line hemodiafiltration and plasma exchange. Results After 4.9 ± 0.7 (mean ± SD on-line hemodiafiltration sessions, 16 of 17 (94.1% patients completely recovered from hepatic encephalopathy and maintained consciousness for 16.4 ± 3.4 (7-55 days until discontinuation of artificial liver support (a total of 14.4 ± 2.6 [6-47] on-line hemodiafiltration sessions. Significant correlation was observed between the degree of encephalopathy and number of sessions of on-line HDF required for recovery of consciousness. Of the 16 patients who recovered consciousness, 7 fully recovered and returned to society with no cognitive sequelae, 3 died of complications of acute liver failure except brain edema, and the remaining 6 were candidates for liver transplantation; 2 of them received living-related liver transplantation but 4 died without transplantation after discontinuation of therapy. Conclusions On-line hemodiafiltration was effective in patients with acute liver failure, and consciousness was maintained for the duration of artificial liver support, even in those in whom it was considered that hepatic function was completely abolished.

  4. Development of on-line high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-biochemical detection methods as tools in the identification of bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malherbe, Christiaan J; de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Biochemical detection (BCD) methods are commonly used to screen plant extracts for specific biological activities in batch assays. Traditionally, bioactives in the most active extracts were identified through time-consuming bio-assay guided fractionation until single active compounds could be isolated. Not only are isolation procedures often tedious, but they could also lead to artifact formation. On-line coupling of BCD assays to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is gaining ground as a high resolution screening technique to overcome problems associated with pre-isolation by measuring the effects of compounds post-column directly after separation. To date, several on-line HPLC-BCD assays, applied to whole plant extracts and mixtures, have been published. In this review the focus will fall on enzyme-based, receptor-based and antioxidant assays.

  5. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography for preparative isolation of toad venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Fu; Fang, Hua; Yan, Xia; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Zhen; Wu, Yun-Long; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2016-07-22

    An on-line comprehensive preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography (2D NPLC×RPLC) system was constructed with a newly developed vacuum evaporation assisted adsorption (VEAA) interface, allowing fast removal of NPLC solvent in the vacuum condition and successfully solving the solvent incompatibility problem between NPLC and RPLC. The system achieved on-line solvent exchange within the two dimensions and its performance was illustrated by gram-scale isolation of crude extract from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans. Within separation time of ∼20h, 19 compounds were obtained with high purity in a single run. With the VEAA interface, the 2D system exhibited apparent advantages in separation efficiency and automation compared with conventional methods, indicating its promising application in the routine separation process for complicated natural products.

  6. Development of On-Line High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)-Biochemical Detection Methods as Tools in the Identification of Bioactives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malherbe, Christiaan J.; de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Biochemical detection (BCD) methods are commonly used to screen plant extracts for specific biological activities in batch assays. Traditionally, bioactives in the most active extracts were identified through time-consuming bio-assay guided fractionation until single active compounds could be isolated. Not only are isolation procedures often tedious, but they could also lead to artifact formation. On-line coupling of BCD assays to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is gaining ground as a high resolution screening technique to overcome problems associated with pre-isolation by measuring the effects of compounds post-column directly after separation. To date, several on-line HPLC-BCD assays, applied to whole plant extracts and mixtures, have been published. In this review the focus will fall on enzyme-based, receptor-based and antioxidant assays. PMID:22489144

  7. PROFILES AND PREFERENCES OF ON-LINE MILLENIAL SHOPPERS IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Loubeau, Patricia R.; Robert Jantzen; Elitsa Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This research seeks to develop a better understanding of the factors affecting on-line purchasing behavior among Generation Y (Gen Y) consumers in Bulgaria. Also called millenials and born between the mid-1970s and late 1990s, this generation is especially active on-line and will be a dominant influence shaping e-commerce. An empirical study was conducted based on a written survey of a sample consisting of 367 high school and university students in Bulgaria. The most important reason why Bulg...

  8. On-line monitoring of fermentation processes using multi-wavelength fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odman, Peter; Petersen, Nanna; Johansen, Claus Lindvald

    2007-01-01

    Fermentation processes often suffer from a lack of real-time methods for on-line determination of variables like the concentrations of nutrients and products. This work aims at investigating the possibilities of implementing an on-line fermentation monitoring system based on multi....... The model system considered in this work is the antibiotic production by Streptomyces coelicolor, a filamentous bacterium. In addition to predicting concentrations of biomass in the fermentation broth, the data allowed detection of different physiological states, i.e. growth phase and phosphate limitation...

  9. On-line Supervised Adaptive Training Using Radial Basis Function Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wan; Billings, Steve A.; Fung, Chi F.

    1996-12-01

    A new recursive supervised training algorithm is derived for the radial basis neural network architecture. The new algorithm combines the procedures of on-line candidate regressor selection with the conventional Givens QR based recursive parameter estimator to provide efficient adaptive supervised network training. A new concise on-line correlation based performance monitoring scheme is also introduced as an auxiliary device to detect structural changes in temporal data processing applications. Practical and simulated examples are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new procedures. Copyright 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  10. The design and implementation of on-line monitoring system for UHV compact shunt capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Weiliang; Ni, Xuefeng; Lin, Hao; Jiang, Shengbao

    2017-08-01

    Because of the large capacity and compact structure of the UHV compact shunt capacitor, it is difficult to take effective measures to detect and prevent the faults. If the fault capacitor fails to take timely maintenance, it will pose a threat to the safe operation of the system and the life safety of the maintenance personnel. The development of UHV compact shunt capacitor on-line monitoring system can detect and record the on-line operation information of UHV compact shunt capacitors, analyze and evaluate the early fault warning signs, find out the fault capacitor or the capacitor with fault symptom, to ensure safe and reliable operation of the system.

  11. On-line Monitoring of Epoxy Resin Exposed to Acid Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuyan LIU; M.Kubouchi; H.Sembokuya; K.Tsuda; T.Tomiyama

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a new on-line health monitoring technology for the determination of the penetration of environment solution into epoxy resin was pursued. A corrosion sensor including plastic optical fiber and pH indicator was fabricated. The color-change layer of this sensor appeared after immersion in sulfuric acid solution, which could be examined by using optical fiber and spectrophotometer. The results showed that the penetration of sulfuric acid was detected by adding bromophenol blue (BPB) in the corrosion sensor. This system could be applied to on-line health monitoring of chemical equipment structures.

  12. The financial crisis impact on the Romanian on-line advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duguleană, L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The last trimester of 2008 brought a 4.4% GDP decrease for the Romanian economy. Due to the new financial constraints, Romanian companies started to look for ways to manage and promote their product efficiently. The World Wide Web became the place where products were relocated and on-line advertising proved to be a cheaper and faster way to access customers. This paper aims to analyze the dynamics of the Romanian web, the new challenges for site owners and the opportunities of today’s on-line marketing.

  13. Active load sharing technique for on-line efficiency optimization in DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanseverino, E. Riva; Zizzo, G.; Boscaino, V.

    2017-01-01

    , is created to store the real efficiencies of the converters taking into account components tolerances. A MATLAB/Simulink model of the DC distribution network has been set up and a Genetic Algorithm has been employed for the global efficiency optimization. Simulation results are shown to validate the proposed......-DC converters, is modeled. An active load sharing technique is proposed for the on-line optimization of the global efficiency of the DC distribution network. The algorithm aims at the instantaneous efficiency optimization of the whole DC network, based on the on-line load current sampling. A Look Up Table...

  14. Process Identification in On-line Optimizing Control, an Application to a Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten C. Svensson

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to focus on on-line state and parameter estimation in connection with on-line model-based optimizing control of continuous processes. A nonlinear programming approach is used to estimate unmeasured state variables and parameters in systems modelled by nonlinear differential-algebraic equations. The nonlinear dynamic model is discretized by orthogonal collocation on finite elements, and the moving-horizon approach is used to reduce the dimension of the final optimization problem.

  15. On-line identification of hybrid systems using an adaptive growing and pruning RBF neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alizadeh, Tohid

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces an adaptive growing and pruning radial basis function (GAP-RBF) neural network for on-line identification of hybrid systems. The main idea is to identify a global nonlinear model that can predict the continuous outputs of hybrid systems. In the proposed approach, GAP......-RBF neural network uses a modified unscented kalman filter (UKF) with forgetting factor scheme as the required on-line learning algorithm. The effectiveness of the resulting identification approach is tested and evaluated on a simulated benchmark hybrid system....

  16. Note: On-line weak signal detection via adaptive stochastic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Siliang; He, Qingbo; Kong, Fanrang

    2014-06-01

    We design an instrument with a novel embedded adaptive stochastic resonance (SR) algorithm that consists of a SR module and a digital zero crossing detection module for on-line weak signal detection in digital signal processing applications. The two modules are responsible for noise filtering and adaptive parameter configuration, respectively. The on-line weak signal detection can be stably achieved in seconds. The prototype instrument exhibits an advance of 20 dB averaged signal-to-noise ratio and 5 times averaged adjust R-square as compared to the input noisy signal, in considering different driving frequencies and noise levels.

  17. On-line Professional Learning Communities: Increasing Teacher Learning and Productivity in Isolated Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Salazar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available On-line and distance professional learning communities provides teachers with increased access and flexibility as well as the combination of work and education. It also provides a more learner-centered approach, enrichment and new ways of interacting with teachers in isolated rural areas. For educational administrators, on-line learning offers high quality and usually cost-effective professional development for teachers. It allows upgrading of skills, increased productivity and development of a new learning culture. At the same time, it means sharing of costs, of training time, increased portability of training, and the exchange of creativity, information, and dialogue.

  18. ON-LINE STATE PREDICTION OF ENGINES BASED ON FLAT NEURAL NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A flat neural network is designed for the on-line state prediction of engine. To reduce the computational cost of weight matrix, a fast recursive algorithm is derived according to the pseudoinverse formula of a partition matrix. Furthermore, the forgetting factor approach is introduced to improve predictive accuracy and robustness of the model. The experiment results indicate that the improved neural network is of good accuracy and strong robustness in prediction, and can apply for the on-line prediction of nonlinear multi input multi output systems like vehicle engines.

  19. On-line Peer Review in Teaching Design-oriented Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Ning

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Peer review has been one of the very important designfacilitating processes practiced in education field, particularly in design-oriented courses such as MIT's 2.007 Robot Design. Typically students exchange ideas sketched on a piece of paper and critique on each other's design within a small team. We designed PREP web application backed up by a range of web services that handle the peer-review process on-line, and we argue that this is a significant step towards supporting designoriented course on-line. We believe that the lessons learned could be applied to other interested institutes that offer designoriented courses.

  20. 基于辅助阵元的方位依赖幅相误差最大似然自校正:针对确定信号模型%Maximum likelihood self-calibration for direction-dependent gain-phase errors with carry-on instrumental sensors:case of deterministic signal model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鼎; 潘苗; 吴瑛

    2011-01-01

    Aim at the self-calibration of direction-dependent gm-phase errors in case of deterministic signal model, the maximum likelihood method(MLM) for calibrating the direction-dependent gain-phase errors with carry-on instrumental sensors was presented. In order to maximize the high-dimensional nonlinear cost function appearing in the MLM, an improved alternative projection iteration algorithm, which could optimize the azimuths and direc6on-dependent gain-phase errors was proposed. The closed-form expressions of the Cramér-Rao bound(CRB) for azimuths and gain-phase errors were derived. Simulation experiments show the effectiveness and advantage of the novel method.%针对确定信号模型条件下方位依赖幅相误差的自校正问题,给出了一种基于辅助阵元的方位依赖幅相误差最大似然自校正方法;针对最大似然估计器中出现的高维非线性优化问题,推导了一种改进型交替投影迭代算法,从而实现了信号方位和方位依赖幅相误差的优化计算.此外,还推导了信号方位和方位依赖幅相误差的无偏克拉美罗界(CRB).仿真实验结果验证了新方法的有效性和优越性.

  1. 排序问题Pm,ai|on-line|Cmax的LPT算法%LPT Algorithm for Scheduling Problem Pm,ai|on-line|Cmax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵传立; 唐恒永

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the on-line parallel processors scheduling problem where tasks arrive over time. Chen and Vestjens proved that the bound of LPT is 3/2. We generalize the result to the case where the processors have ready time.%讨论了任务实时到达的平行机在线排序问题。Chen和Vestjens证明了LPT算法的界为3/2。将这一结论推广到了处理机具有准备时间的情况。

  2. Self-Calibrating Greenhouse Gas Balloon-Borne Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Understanding the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases has been recognized as critical to predicting climate change and global warming. A...

  3. Self Calibrating Flow Estimation in Waste Water Pumping Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Knudsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about where waste water is flowing in waste water networks is essential to optimize the operation of the network pumping stations. However, installation of flow sensors is expensive and requires regular maintenance. This paper proposes an alternative approach where the pumps and the waste...... water pit are used for estimating both the inflow and the pump flow of the pumping station. Due to the nature of waste water, the waste water pumps are heavily affected by wear and tear. To compensate for the wear of the pumps, the pump parameters, used for the flow estimation, are automatically...

  4. Acoustic Self-Calibrating System for Indoor Smart Phone Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acoustic indoor localization system for commercial smart phones that emit high pitched acoustic signals beyond the audible range. The acoustic signals with an identifier code modulated on the signal are detected by self-built receivers which are placed at the ceiling or on walls in a room. The receivers are connected in a Wi-Fi network, such that they synchronize their clocks and exchange the time differences of arrival (TDoA of the received chirps. The location of the smart phone is calculated by TDoA multilateration. The precise time measuring of sound enables high precision localization in indoor areas. Our approach enables applications that require high accuracy, such as finding products in a supermarket or guiding blind people through complicated buildings. We have evaluated our system in real-world experiments using different algorithms for calibration-free localization and different types of sound signals. The adaptive GOGO-CFAR threshold enables a detection of 48% of the chirp pulses even at a distance of 30 m. In addition, we have compared the trajectory of a pedestrian carrying a smart phone to reference positions of an optic system. Consequently, the localization error is observed to be less than 30 cm.

  5. SEE Tolerant Self-Calibrating Simple Fractional-N PLL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Robert L.; Chen, Li

    2010-01-01

    We show a reliable on-chip clock multiplier for SEE testing or RHBD applications. Fine control of clock frequency is provided without complex delta-sigma schemes. Conflicts that can occur with voted PLLs are discussed, and how to avoid them.

  6. Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

  7. Rapid Analysis, Self-Calibrating Array for Air Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Margie L.; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Lara, Liana; Huerta, Ramon; Vergara, Alexander; Muezzinoglua, Mehmet K.

    2012-01-01

    Human space missions have critical needs for monitoring and control for life support systems. These systems have monitoring needs that include feedback for closed loop processes and quality control for environmental factors. Sensors and monitoring technologies assure that the air environment and water supply for the astronaut crew habitat fall within acceptable limits, and that the life support system is functioning properly and efficiently. The longer the flight duration and the more distant the destination, the more critical it becomes to have carefully monitored and automated control systems for life support. Past experiments with the JPL ENose have demonstrated a lifetime of the sensor array, with the software, of around 18 months. The lifetime of the calibration, for some analytes, was as long as 24 months. We are working on a sensor array and new algorithms that will include sensor response time in the analysis. The preliminary array analysis for two analytes shows that the analysis time, of an event, can be dropped from 45 minutes to less than10 minutes and array training time can be cut substantially. We will describe the lifetime testing of an array and show lifetime data on individual sensors. This progress will lead to more rapid identification of analytes, and faster training time of the array.

  8. Self-calibrating quadrature mixing front-end for SDR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Witt, JJ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A quadrature mixing front-end is well-suited toward software define radio (SDR) applications, due to its low complexity and the inherent flexibility that it affords the radio front-end. Its performance is, however, severely affected by gain...

  9. A self-calibrating led-based solar test platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O.; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    , it is possible to perform all the commonly employed measurements on the solar cell at very high speed without moving the sample. In particular, the LED-based illumination system provides an alternative to light-biased incident photon-to-current efficiency measurement to be performed which we demonstrate. Both......A compact platform for testing solar cells is presented. The light source comprises a multi-wavelength high-power LED (light emitting diode) array allowing the homogenous illumination of small laboratory solar cell devices (substrate size 50 × 25 mm) within the 390–940 nm wavelength range...... wavelengths intensities up to 10 suns is possible, and for a few wavelengths up to 30 suns can be reached. The setup is equipped with reference diodes and an optical fibre coupling enabling calibration, monitoring and control of the light impinging on the sample. Through a computer controlled interface...

  10. A Self-Calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wells, Nathan; Goddard, Steve; Hayes, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    ... Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, as well as at all 344 climate divisions shows that it is more spatially comparable than the PDSI, and reports extreme wet and dry conditions with frequencies that would be expected for rare conditions. (ProQuest Information and Learning: ... denotes formulae omitt...

  11. Self-Calibrating Greenhouse Gas Balloon-Borne Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past decade, the importance of understanding the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases has been recognized. In particular, airborne...

  12. On-line measurement of N{sub 2}O in flue gas; Die On-line-Messung von N{sub 2}O in Verbrennungsgasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberger, H.J. [TUEV-Ecoplan Umwelt-GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Fabinski, W.; Hielscher, B.; Zoechbauer, M. [Hartmann und Braun GmbH und Co. KG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Conventional on-line measurement of Nitrous Oxide (N{sub 2}O) in flue gases mainly is limited by the cross sensitivities of the used measurement technique and unwanted reactions in the sample conditioning system. Based on this state of engeneering, a simple method with a usual NDIR-analyzer and sample conditioning with the new coolertechnique is discribed. The measurement set-up has been installed in a waste incineration plant. The results of the investigations are being presented in this paper. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Grenzen der herkoemmlichen On-line-Messtechnik von Distickstoffmonoxid (N{sub 2}O) in Rauchgasen sind massgeblich durch Querempfindlichkeiten der Messverfahren und unerwuenschte Nachreaktionen in der Probenaufbereitung bestimmt. Ausgehend von diesem Stand der Technik wird eine einfache Methode der N{sub 2}O-Messung mit einem handelsueblichen NDIR-Analysator und einer Probenaufbereitung mit einer neuen Kuehlertechnik beschrieben. Zwei Messaufbauten mit dieser neuen Technik wurden an einer Muellverbrennungsanlage installiert. Ueber die Untersuchungen dazu wird hier berichtet. (orig.)

  13. Natural gas large volumes measurement: going for on-line custody transfer; Medicao de grandes volumes de gas natural: rumo a transferencia de custodia on-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercon, Eduardo G.; Frisoli, Caetano [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the structure of the natural gas flow measurement process in TRANSPETRO, and comments features and performance of existing or under-implantation equipment and systems, reviewing best practices and technology in use. This process runs through three interrelated segments: data flow measurement, strictly speaking; data transfer and acquisition; and data flow measurement certification (data consolidation to invoice). Initially, the work makes an approach to the data flow measurement segment, evaluating technical features of flow meters, and describing configurations and functions of the operating gas flow computers in TRANSPETRO's custody transfer stations. In this part it will also be presented the implantation of TRANSPETRO's system for gas chromatography data input on-line to flow computers. Further, in data transfer and acquisition, SCADA system technical aspects will be evaluated, considering communications protocols and programmable logic controllers functions in remote terminal units, and discussing their places in the measurement process. Additionally, TRANSPETRO's experience in data measurement certification tools is in discussion, as well as new upcoming tools and their potential features, from what new practices will be suggested. Finally, all the work has been conceived and carried out always aiming to the state-of-the-art technology in gas flow measurement: on-line custody transfer. (author)

  14. Flunitrazepam excretion patterns using the Abuscreen OnTrak and OnLine immunoassays: comparison with GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, S J; Honasoge, S; Brenner, C; McNally, A J; Passarelli, J; Goc-Szkutnicka, K; Brenneisen, R; elSohly, M A; Feng, S

    1997-09-01

    A study was conducted to compare the performance of the OnLine and OnTrak immunoassays for benzodiazepines with gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis in detecting flunitrazepam (FNP) and its metabolites in human urine. Urine was collected over a 72-h period from six individuals (four male and two female) who had taken a single oral dose of either 1 or 4 mg of FNP. The OnTrak assay was run at a 100-ng/mL cutoff of nordiazepam (NDP), and the OnLine assay was run with a standard curve from zero to 200 ng/mL of NDP with and without beta-glucuronidase treatment. Each sample was analyzed by GC-MS using FNP, 7-amino-FNP, 3-hydroxy-FNP, desmethyl-FNP, 7-amino-3-hydroxy-FNP, and desmethyl-3-hydroxy-FNP as standards with beta-glucuronidase treatment. The specimens from the 1-mg dose did not yield a positive result by immunoassay over the 72-h collection period. Specimens from the 4-mg dose did yield positive results in both immunoassays. The time of the first positive result ranged from 4 to 12 h, and the time to the last positive result ranged from 18 to 60 h. Treatment of the samples with beta-glucuronidase increased the OnLine values between 20 and 60%, but it did not appreciably increase the detection time. GC-MS analysis showed no detectable levels of FNP, 3-hydroxy-FNP, desmethyl-FNP, 7-amino-3-hydroxy-FNP, and desmethyl-3-hydroxy-FNP. However, all samples collected past time zero showed detectable levels of 7-amino-FNP (> 2 ng/mL) with peak concentrations at 12-36 h. The peak levels of 7-amino-FNP by GC-MS paralleled the peak levels of the immunoassay response. The amount of 7-amino-FNP metabolite quantitated by GC-MS, however, accounted for only 15-20% of the total immunoassay crossreactive FNP metabolites.

  15. On-Line Sentence Processing in Swedish: Cross-Linguistic Developmental Comparisons with French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Michele; Kihlstedt, Maria; Bonnet, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This study examined on-line processing of Swedish sentences in a grammaticality-judgement experiment within the framework of the Competition Model. Three age groups from 6 to 11 and an adult group were asked to detect grammatical violations as quickly as possible. Three factors concerning cue cost were studied: violation position (early vs. late),…

  16. On-Line Processing of Tense and Temporality in Agrammatic Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Dickey, Michael Walsh

    2009-01-01

    Agrammatic aphasic individuals exhibit marked production deficits for tense morphology. This paper presents three experiments examining whether a group of English-speaking agrammatic individuals (n = 10) exhibit parallel deficits in their comprehension of tense. Results from two comprehension experiments (on-line grammaticality judgment studies)…

  17. On-Line Hyperspectral Transmittance Imaging for Internal Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral imaging technique under transmittance mode was investigated for detection of internal defect in pickling cucumbers such as carpel suture separation or hollow cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A prototype of on-line hyperspectral transmittance imaging system was developed for real...

  18. An on-line automated sleep-wake classification system for laboratory animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witting, W; vanderWerf, D; Mirmiran, M

    1996-01-01

    A computerized sleep-wake classification program is presented that is capable of classifying sleep-wake states on-line in four animals simultaneously. Every 10 s the classification algorithm assigns sleep-wake states on the basis of the power spectrum of an EEG signal and the standard deviation of a

  19. Lower bounds for 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional on-line bin packing algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Galambos; A. van Vliet (André)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we discuss lower bounds for the asymptotic worst case ratio of on-line algorithms for different kind of bin packing problems. Recently, Galambos and Frenk gave a simple proof of the 1.536 ... lower bound for the 1-dimensional bin packing problem. Following their ideas, we p

  20. A new on-line leakage current monitoring system of ZnO surge arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bok-Hee [Research Center for Next-Generation High Voltage and Power Technology, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-ku, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: bhlee@inha.ac.kr; Kang, Sung-Man [Research Center for Next-Generation High Voltage and Power Technology, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-ku, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-05-15

    This paper presents a new on-line leakage current monitoring system of zinc oxide (ZnO) surge arresters. To effectively diagnose the deterioration of ZnO surge arresters, a new algorithm and on-line leakage current detection device, which uses the time-delay addition method, for discriminating the resistive and capacitive currents was developed to use in the aging test and durability evaluation for ZnO arrester blocks. A computer-based measurement system of the resistive leakage current, the on-line monitoring device can detect accurately the leakage currents flowing through ZnO surge arresters for power frequency ac applied voltages. The proposed on-line leakage current monitoring device of ZnO surge arresters is more highly sensitive and gives more linear response than the existing devices using the detection method of the third harmonic leakage currents. Therefore, the proposed leakage current monitoring device can be useful for predicting the defects and performance deterioration of ZnO surge arresters in power system applications.

  1. On-line determination of the calorific value of solid fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, L.B.M. van; Arendsen, A.R.J.; Brem, G.

    2004-01-01

    In thermal processes with highly inhomogeneous fuels it is desirable to know real time fuel characteristics. In the case of municipal solid waste combustion (MSWC) it was up till now not possible to determine the calorific value of the waste on-line with a high accuracy. In this paper, a new method

  2. Competence based learning for an on-line course on flood modelling for management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popescu, Ioanna; Jonoski, Andreja; Keuls, Carel

    2009-01-01

    Popescu, I., Jonoski, A., & Keuls, C. (2009). Competence based learning for an on-line course on flood modelling for management. Proceedings of the 33rd International Association of Hydraulic Engineering & Research (IAHR Congress). August, 9-14, 2009, Vancouver, Canada: TENCompetence.

  3. On-line competence based learning in hydroinformatics, at UNESCO-IHE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popescu, Ioanna; Jonoski, Andreja; Bhattacharya, Biswa; Keuls, Carel

    2009-01-01

    Popescu, I., Jonoski, A., Bhattacharya, B., & Keuls, C. (2009). On-line competence based learning in hydroinformatics, at UNESCO-IHE. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Hydroinformatics-HIC 2009. January, 12-16, 2009, Conceptión, Chile: TENCompetence.

  4. A Quantized State Approach to On-line Simulation for Spacecraft Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alminde, Lars; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2006-01-01

    Future space applications will require an increased level of operational autonomy. This calls for declarative methods for spacecraft state estimation and control, so that the spacecraft engineer can focus on modeling the spacecraft rather than implementing all details of the on-line system...

  5. Multilevel participation within on-line collections of local memories as a practice of cultural citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreek, de Mike

    2011-01-01

    Collecting local memories on-line is a growing practice with participatory elements on different levels. Three levels of participation – micro, meso and macro – are introduced by describing an exemplary case: the Memory of East in Amsterdam. These levels of this particular case can be grounded in th

  6. A Phenomenological Study of Gifted Adolescents and Their Engagement with One On-Line Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swicord, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Little research exists on the nature of the interactions between gifted students and the use of technology. Furthermore, no research has investigated the phenomenon of gifted adolescents using one internet-based program, the Renzulli Learning System (RLS). Renzulli Learning is an on-line educational profile with a matching database that provides…

  7. Práctica de fundamentos de probabilidad apoyada en recursos on line

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaldos García, Fuensanta; Faura Martínez, Úrsula

    2011-01-01

    Propuesta de práctica de los fundamentos de la probabilidad apoyada en recursos on line basada en el trabajo presentado en las III Jornadas de Docencia en Economía (Cartagena, junio 2011). Ejercicios prácticos

  8. Proceedings of the 6th Computer Science On-line Conference 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Senkerik, Roman; Oplatkova, Zuzana; Prokopova, Zdenka; Silhavy, Petr

    2017-01-01

    This book presents new methods and approaches to real-world problems as well as exploratory research that describes novel artificial intelligence applications, including deep learning, neural networks and hybrid algorithms. This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Artificial Intelligence Trends in Intelligent Systems Section of the 6th Computer Science On-line Conference 2017 (CSOC 2017), held in April 2017. .

  9. CERN HR receives award for on-line recruitment and communication

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    In a survey of 21,000 European students, CERN ranked 15th, ahead of giants like Microsoft and Nestlé, for the quality of its on-line "talent communication", that is how it uses the Internet to attract job applicants. HR now boasts a new virtual award, certifying its on-line savvy.   The "virtual" award given to HR. How did you get your job at CERN? Via the CERN HR website, or Facebook, or Twitter? Or were you headhunted on LinkedIn? Particularly if you’re from the younger generation, chances are that you used some form of on-line recruitment. In this case you will have used one of the best recruitment tools in Europe, according to the 2012 OTaC (Online Talent Communication) study, carried out by a research institute named Potentialpark. It surveyed over 21,000 students, asking them to rate employers’ use of seven different channels of communication about jobs and careers, from HR websites and on-line application systems to the...

  10. Marketing the Library in an On-Line University to Help Achieve Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    An entrepreneurial librarian takes the embedded librarian concept one step further at a completely on-line university and markets the virtual library to students, faculty and administration rather than wait for customers to come to the library. York and Vance (2009) make the observation that "one obstacle to marketing an embedded librarian…

  11. ON LINE COMPUTATION OF EMPIRICAL FORMULA BY MEANS OF ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS AND ITS PROGRAM DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱朴; 胡培荣; 金正成

    1995-01-01

    On line determination of empirical formula for organic compounds with an automatic elemental analyzer and its program design method were investigated. The computational results shews that the reliability of computational results depends on the accuracy of the analytical data and the organic compound itself.

  12. Extending Practical Pre-Aggregation in On-Line Analytical Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Bach; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Dyreson, Curtis E.

    On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) based on a dimensional view of data is being used increasingly in traditional business applications as well as in applications such as health care for the purpose of analyzing very large amounts of data. Pre-aggregation, the prior materialization of aggregate...

  13. On-line parameter, state-of-charge and aging estimation of Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bergveld, H.J.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an on-line model identification method for Li-ion battery parameters that combines high accuracy and low computational complexity. Experimental results show that modeling errors are smaller than 1% throughout the feasible operating range. The identified model is used in a state

  14. Evidence for priming across intervening sentences during on-line sentence comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooley, K.M.; Swaab, T.Y.; Boudewyn, M.A.; Zirnstein, M.; Traxler, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments investigated factors contributing to syntactic priming during on-line comprehension. In all of the experiments, a prime sentence containing a reduced relative clause was presented prior to a target sentence that contained the same structure. Previous studies have shown that people

  15. On-Line Real Time Realization and Application of Adaptive Fuzzy Inference Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper,a modeling algorithm developed by transferring the adaptive fuzzy inference neural network into an on-line real time algorithm,combining the algorithm with conventional system identification method and applying them to separate identification of nonlinear mu Iti-variable systems is introduced and discussed.

  16. INTEGRATION OF STORAGE CHARACTERISTIC WITH ON-LINE SERVICE CHARACTERISTIC OF AS/RS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Directed at how to integrated storage characteristic with on-line service characteristic of AS/RS, a solution based on database design and programming method is proposed. The results show that this model is reasonable and applicable while using in some small or middle enterprises material handling system.

  17. Using an On-Line Tool To Investigate Chemical Engineering Seniors' Concept of the Design Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streveler, Ruth A.; Miller, Ronald L.; Boyd, Thomas M.

    In this study, multidimensional scaling (MDS) was used to measure how 23 chemical engineering seniors categorized key design terms at the beginning and end of a capstone design course. An on-line method was developed to collect the MDS data. The results suggest that some important design concepts were not well understood, even at the end of the…

  18. Assessment of corrosion in the flue gas cleaning system using on-line monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vendelbo Nielsen, Lars; Berggreen Petersen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    products/deposits were detected. An on-line corrosion measurement system was established to determine corrosion mechanisms. It was revealed that many shutdowns/start-ups of the plant influence corrosion and result in decreased lifetime of components and increased maintenance. The change of fuel from...

  19. First Responder Weapons of Mass Destruction Training Using Massively Multiplayer On-Line Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Washington, DC. 1997. p. 16. 150 Kimery, Anthony. p. 24. 151 _____, “$7.7 Million Expansion for TEEX Training Complex.” Texas Engineering... TEEX Training Complex.” Texas Engineering Extension Service. 26 October 1999. Texas. Database available on line at http://teexweb.tamu.edu

  20. Engaging Students On-Line:Does Gender Matter in Adoption of Learning Material Design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norziani Dahalan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Education is reforming with the birth of the internet. Learning is not solely based on classroom basis but also through on-line. The revolution of Internet has transformed teaching via face-to-face into virtual teaching. The expansion of teaching deliveries suggests that we need interactive mechanism to accommodate course material for on-line students. However, creating on-line materials requires the conception of on-line instructional design. A suitable online material design will allow learners to engage with learning. Learners will have opportunities to develop their own understanding. In addition, suitable learning material will strengthen learner’s knowledge construction from their short-term memory to long-term memory. The purpose of this paper is to discover the learning material design approach based on gender by evaluating lecturer’s adoption of online material design using Keller’s ARCS model. The sample consisting of 30 lecturers from distance education learning reveals that gender differs in their adoption of learning material design specifically on getting attention of the student. The result also shows that relevance and satisfaction contribute to gender differences in learning material adoption. Limitations of the study and practical implications of these findings discussed.

  1. Comparing the Hierarchy of Keywords in On-Line News Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Sousa-Rodrigues, David; Pollner, Péter; Palla, Gergely

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical organization is prevalent in networks representing a wide range of systems in nature and society. An important example is given by the tag hierarchies extracted from large on-line data repositories such as scientific publication archives, file sharing portals, blogs, on-line news portals, etc. The tagging of the stored objects with informative keywords in such repositories has become very common, and in most cases the tags on a given item are free words chosen by the authors independently. Therefore, the relations among keywords appearing in an on-line data repository are unknown in general. However, in most cases the topics and concepts described by these keywords are forming a latent hierarchy, with the more general topics and categories at the top, and more specialized ones at the bottom. There are several algorithms available for deducing this hierarchy from the statistical features of the keywords. In the present work we apply a recent, co-occurrence-based tag hierarchy extraction method to sets of keywords obtained from four different on-line news portals. The resulting hierarchies show substantial differences not just in the topics rendered as important (being at the top of the hierarchy) or of less interest (categorized low in the hierarchy), but also in the underlying network structure. This reveals discrepancies between the plausible keyword association frameworks in the studied news portals. PMID:27802319

  2. Application for the On-line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE Facility: the Target Heater

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Conejo, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Heater Application is to heat and cool the target and line used on the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE facility up to a desired temperature selected by the user. The application has been developed in Java, making use of the Java Development Kit 1.4 and the PS Java environment.

  3. Application for the On-line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE Facility: the Mass Scan

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Conejo, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Mass Scan Application is to scan the mass of the ion beam that passes through the GPS (General Purpose Separator) on the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE facility. The application has been developed in Java, making use of the Java Development Kit 1.4 and the PS Java environment.

  4. An on-line high performance liquid chromatography-crocin bleaching assay for detection of antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bountagkidou, O.; Klift, van der E.J.C.; Tsimidou, M.Z.; Ordoudi, S.A.; Beek, van T.A.

    2012-01-01

    An on-line HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) method for the rapid screening of individual antioxidants in mixtures was developed using crocin as a substrate (i.e. oxidation probe) and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH)) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) as a radical generator

  5. 76 FR 52731 - On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Office of the Secretary On-Line Complaint Form for Service-Related Issues in Air Transportation AGENCY... is complaining, flight date, flight number, and origin and destination cities of complainant's trip...- travel related information from the ACPD. The Department has limited its informational request to...

  6. SkyMouse: A smart interface for astronomical on-line resources and services

    CERN Document Server

    CUI, Chen-Zhou; ZHAO, Yong-Heng; LUO, Yu; QI, Da-Zhi

    2007-01-01

    With the development of network and the World Wide Web (WWW), the Internet has been growing and changing dramatically. More and more on-line database systems and different kinds of services are available for astronomy research. How to help users find their way through the jungle of information services becomes an important challenge. Although astronomers have been aware of the importance of interoperability and introduced the concept of Virtual Observatory as a uniform environment for future astronomical on-line resources and services, transparent access to heterogeneous on-line information is still difficult. SkyMouse is a lightweight interface for distributed astronomical on-line resources and services, which is designed and developed by us, i.e., Chinese Virtual Observatory Project. Taking advantage of screen word-capturing technology, different kinds of information systems can be queried through simple mouse actions, and results are returned in a uniform web page. SkyMouse is an easy to use application, a...

  7. Determination of Peroxide-Based Explosives Using Liquid Chromatography with On-Line Infrared Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Rasmus; Edelmann, Andrea; Quintas, Guillermo; Lendl, Bernhard; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    A nondestructive analytical method for peroxide-based explosives determination in solid samples is described. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with on-line Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) detection is used for the analysis of triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and

  8. Learning Consciousness and Teaching Conception in On-line English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiYanglong

    2004-01-01

    With the Teaching Requirement of College English Courses issued by the Ministry of Education, another round of college English teaching reform has been set in motion, which starts all the English teachers, language teaching researchers,education administrators and the on-line teaching-learning material desimaers to consider thoroughly a series of new topics

  9. The derivation of on-line algorithms, with an application to finding palindromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    A theory for the derivation of on-line algorithms is presented. The algorithms are derived in the Bird-Meertens calculus for program transformations. This calculus provides a concise functional notation for algorithms, and a few powerful theorems for proving equalities of functions. The

  10. On-Line Dependability Enhancement of Multiprocessor SoCs by Resource Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter T.D.; Burgess, S.T.; Hurskainen, H.; Kerkhoff, H.G.; Vermeulen, B.; Zhang, Xiao

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach towards dependable design of homogeneous multi-processor SoCs in an example satellite-navigation application. First, the NoC dependability is functionally verified via embedded software. Then the Xentium processor tiles are periodically verified via on-line self-t

  11. Model for on-line moisture-content control during solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, F.J.J.I.; Tramper, J.; Bakker, M.S.N.; Rinzema, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we describe a model that estimates the extracellular (nonfungal) and overall water contents of wheat grains during solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Aspergillus oryzae, using on-line measurements of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor in the gas phase. The model uses elemental ba

  12. The Decoration Operator: A Foundation for On-Line Dimensional Data Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dennis; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Riis, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    The changing data requirements of today's dynamic business environments are not handled well by current On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) systems. Physically integrating unexpected, external data into OLAP cubes, i.e., the data warehousing approach, is a long and time-consuming process, making...

  13. The S-Star Trial Bioinformatics Course: An On-line Learning Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yun Ping; Hoog, Jan-Olov; Gardner, Phyllis; Ranganathan, Shoba; Andersson, Siv; Subbiah, Subramanian; Tan, Tin Wee; Hide, Winston; Weiss, Anthony S.

    2003-01-01

    The S-Star Trial Bioinformatics on-line course (www.s-star.org) is a global experiment in bioinformatics distance education. Six universities from five continents have participated in this project. One hundred and fifty students participated in the first trial course of which 96 followed through the entire course and 70 fulfilled the overall…

  14. Optimization of antibody immobilization for on-line or off-line immunoaffinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Natascha Helena; Schou, Christian; Højrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    . A systematic study was conducted to determine the most versatile antibody immobilization method for use in on-line and off-line IA chromatography applications using commonly accessible immobilization methods. Four chemistries were examined using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments. We...

  15. Development of the Defense Documentation Center Remote On-Line Retrieval System - Past, Present and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennertz, Richard K.

    The document highlights in nontechnical language the development of the Defense Documentation Center (DDC) Remote On-Line Retrieval System from its inception in 1967 to what is planned. It describes in detail the current operating system, equipment configuration and associated costs, user training and system evaluation and may be of value to other…

  16. On the use of on-line detection for maintenance of gradually deteriorating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouladirad, Mitra [Institut Charles Delaunay, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, FRE CNRS 2848, LM2S 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Grall, Antoine [Institut Charles Delaunay, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, FRE CNRS 2848, LM2S 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France)], E-mail: antoine.grall@utt.fr; Dieulle, Laurence [Institut Charles Delaunay, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, FRE CNRS 2848, LM2S 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France)

    2008-12-15

    This paper deals with condition-based maintenance and non-stationary degradation process due to sudden changes. This is an attempt to propose an adaptive maintenance policy based on the on-line change detection procedure which can help to detect switches from a nominal mode to an accelerated mode in a non-informative context about the change mode time.

  17. Study Progress of On-line Monitoring Device for Uranium and Plutonium by XRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was designed and set up, which was used to determine uranium and plutonium on-line in reprocessing process stream. Uranium in aqueous and organic phase, plutonium in aqueous were measured by using the device,

  18. A P2P approach to resource discovery in on-line monitoring of Grid workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Łabno, B.; Bubak, M.; Baliś, B.

    2008-01-01

    On-line monitoring of Grid workflows is challenging since workflows are loosely coupled and highly dynamic. An efficient mechanism of automatic resource discovery is needed in order to discover new producers of workflow monitoring data fast. However, currently used Grid information systems are not s

  19. Modern on-line control system for refuse-fueled power plants. Moderne Leittechnik fuer Muellverbrennungsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasmueck, L. (Asea Brown Boveri AG, Mannheim (Germany, F.R.)); Klitzke, H.J. (Goepfert und Reimer und Partner, Beratende Ingenieure, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.)); Schumacher, E. (Technische Werke Ludwigshafen am Rhein AG (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-10-01

    30 years after commissioning a refuse-fueled power plant in Ludwigshafen was retrofitted and extended. A process control system provides an optimal waste combustion and flue gas cleanup. An on-line central strategy, special requirements on waste combustion and solutions are presented in this report. (orig.).

  20. Institutional Perspectives for on-line learning: Policy and Return-on-Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, J.C.M.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this article an analysis will be presented about why, at the institutional level and in particular at the university level, on-line learning is being introduced. This will be done in the context of a general design approach to steer innovation in education. Costs and financial-benefit issues will

  1. Electrochemical oxidation and cleavage of peptides analyzed with on-line mass spectrometric detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Permentier, H.P.; Jurva, U; Barroso, B.; Bruins, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    An on-line electrochernistry/electrospray mass spectrometry system (EC/MS) is described that allows fast analysis of the oxidation products of peptides. A range of peptides was oxidized in an electrochemical cell by application of a potential ramp from 0 to 1.5 V during passage of the sample. Electr

  2. Efficient On-line Schemes for Encoding Individual Sequences with Side Information at the Decoder

    CERN Document Server

    Reani, Avraham

    2009-01-01

    We present adaptive on-line schemes for lossy encoding of individual sequences under the conditions of the Wyner-Ziv (WZ) problem. In the first part of this article, a set of fixed-rate scalar source codes with zero delay is presented. We propose a randomized on-line coding scheme, which achieves asymptotically (and with high probability), the performance of the best source code in the set, uniformly over all source sequences. The scheme uses the same rate and has zero delay. We then present an efficient algorithm for implementing our on-line coding scheme in the case of a relatively small set of encoders. We also present an efficient algorithm for the case of a larger set of encoders with a structure, using the method of the weighted graph and the Weight Pushing Algorithm (WPA). In the second part of this article, we extend our results to the case of variable-rate coding. A set of variable-rate scalar source codes is presented. We generalize the randomized on-line coding scheme, to our case. This time, the p...

  3. Development and Application of On-line Wind Power Risk Assessment System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Because of the large-scale integration of wind power, the dynamic characteristics of power system have many uncertain effects. Based on deterministic analysis methods, traditional on-line security assessment system cannot quantitatively estimate the actual operating conditions of the power system for only considering the most serious and credible accidents. Therefore, the risk theory is introduced into an on-line security assessment system and then an on-line risk assessment dynamic security assessment system system for wind power is designed Based on multiple data integration, and implemented by combining with the the wind power disturbance probability is available and the security assessment of the power grid can obtain security indices in different aspects. The operating risk index is an expectation of severity, computed by summing up all the products of the result probability and its severity. Analysis results are reported to the dispatchers in on-line environment, while the comprehensive weak links are automatically provided to the power dispatching center. The risk assessment system in operation can verify the reasonableness of the system.

  4. Antioxidants in Raspberry: On-line analysis links antioxidant activity to a diversity of individual metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Jonker, H.H.; Hall, R.D.; Meer, van der I.M.; Vos, de C.H.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of antioxidant compounds can be considered as a quality parameter for edible fruit. In this paper, we studied the antioxidant compounds in raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to an on-line postcolumn antioxidant detection system. Both

  5. The On-Line Yes/No Test as a Placement Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Michael; Carey, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the concurrent validity of an on-line Yes/No test of recognition vocabulary as a placement tool at an Australian English language school. Newly entering students (n = 88) completed a Yes/No test, which measured accuracy and speed of response, and a school placement battery consisting of grammar, writing, speaking and listening…

  6. Research of PD on-line Monitoring System for DC Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Da-Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to monitor the insulation of XLPE cable of rail system, an On-line Partial Discharge (PD Monitoring System applied for 1500V DC cables of Shanghai Traction Substation is described, including its hardware and software structure. After installed, this system successfully detected one PD signal. The results demonstrated that this system worked stably and reliably.

  7. On-line Versus Face-to-Face Education: Utilizing Technology to Increase Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Company, 2001. Gould , Jay W., III. "Program Planning of Asynchronous On-Line Courses: Design Complexities and Ethics." Acquisition Review Quarterly...Vanessa, Juanita Johnson-Bailey,Scipio A.J. Colin, Elizabeth Peterson, and Stephen D. Brookfield. The Handbook of Race and Adult Education. San Francisco

  8. English Collocation Learning through Corpus Data: On-Line Concordance and Statistical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, Hiroshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Morren, Brian; Ugawa, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We developed an English Collocations On Demand system offering on-line corpus and concordance information to help Japanese researchers acquire a better command of English collocation patterns. The Life Science Dictionary Corpus consists of approximately 90,000,000 words collected from life science related research papers published in academic…

  9. Determination of Peroxide-Based Explosives Using Liquid Chromatography with On-Line Infrared Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Rasmus; Edelmann, Andrea; Quintas, Guillermo; Lendl, Bernhard; Karst, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    A nondestructive analytical method for peroxide-based explosives determination in solid samples is described. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with on-line Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) detection is used for the analysis of triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and he

  10. Comparing the Hierarchy of Keywords in On-Line News Portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Sousa-Rodrigues, David; Pollner, Péter; Palla, Gergely

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical organization is prevalent in networks representing a wide range of systems in nature and society. An important example is given by the tag hierarchies extracted from large on-line data repositories such as scientific publication archives, file sharing portals, blogs, on-line news portals, etc. The tagging of the stored objects with informative keywords in such repositories has become very common, and in most cases the tags on a given item are free words chosen by the authors independently. Therefore, the relations among keywords appearing in an on-line data repository are unknown in general. However, in most cases the topics and concepts described by these keywords are forming a latent hierarchy, with the more general topics and categories at the top, and more specialized ones at the bottom. There are several algorithms available for deducing this hierarchy from the statistical features of the keywords. In the present work we apply a recent, co-occurrence-based tag hierarchy extraction method to sets of keywords obtained from four different on-line news portals. The resulting hierarchies show substantial differences not just in the topics rendered as important (being at the top of the hierarchy) or of less interest (categorized low in the hierarchy), but also in the underlying network structure. This reveals discrepancies between the plausible keyword association frameworks in the studied news portals.

  11. Comparison and Contrast of Paper-based and On-line Dictionaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of paper printed and on-line dictionaries in terms of macrostruc-ture and microstructure, availability, portability and practicality etc. Different kinds of dictionaries have unique features that can-not be fully replaced by other kinds.

  12. On-line blind source separation algorithm based on second order statistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An on-line blind source separation (BSS) algorithm is presented in this paper under the assumption that sources are temporarily correlated signals. By using only some of the observed samples in a recursive calculation, the whitening matrix and the rotation matrix could be approximately obtained through the measurement of only one cost function. Simulations show good performance of the algorithm.

  13. Problem-based learning in an on-line biotechnology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheaney, James Daniel

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogical tool that uses a "real world" problem or situation as a context for learning. PBL encourages student development of critical thinking skills, a high professional competency, problem-solving ability, knowledge acquisition, the ability to work productively as a team member and make decisions in unfamiliar situations, and the acquisition of skills that support self-directed life-long learning, metacognition, and adaptation to change. However, little research has focused on the use of PBL in on-line "virtual" classes. We conducted two studies exploring the use of PBL in an on-line biotechnology course. In the first study, ethical, legal, social, and human issues were used as a motivation for learning about DNA testing technologies, applications, and bioethical issues. In the second study, we combined PBL pedagogy with a rich multimedia environment of streaming video interviews, physical artifacts, and extensive links to articles and databases to create a multidimensional immersive PBL environment called "Robert's World". In "Robert's World", a man is determining whether to undergo a pre-symptomatic DNA test for an untreatable, incurable, fatal genetic disease for which he has a family history. In both studies, design and implementation issues of the on-line PBL environment are discussed, as are differences between on-line PBL and face-to-face PBL. Both studies provide evidence to suggest that PBL stimulates higher-order learning in students. However, in both studies, student performance on an exam testing acquisition of lower-order factual learning was lower for PBL students than for students who learned the same material through a traditional lecture-based approach. Possible reasons for this lower level of performance are explored. Student feedback expressed engagement with the issues and material covered, with reservations about some aspects of the PBL format, such as the lack of flexibility provided in cooperative

  14. On Line Service Composition in the Integrated Clinical Environment for eHealth and Medical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valls, Marisol; Touahria, Imad Eddine

    2017-06-08

    Medical and eHealth systems are progressively realized in the context of standardized architectures that support safety and ease the integration of the heterogeneous (and often proprietary) medical devices and sensors. The Integrated Clinical Environment (ICE) architecture appeared recently with the goal of becoming a common framework for defining the structure of the medical applications as concerns the safe integration of medical devices and sensors. ICE is simply a high level architecture that defines the functional blocks that should be part of a medical system to support interoperability. As a result, the underlying communication backbone is broadly undefined as concerns the enabling software technology (including the middleware) and associated algorithms that meet the ICE requirements of the flexible integration of medical devices and services. Supporting the on line composition of services in a medical system is also not part of ICE; however, supporting this behavior would enable flexible orchestration of functions (e.g., addition and/or removal of services and medical equipment) on the fly. iLandis one of the few software technologies that supports on line service composition and reconfiguration, ensuring time-bounded transitions across different service orchestrations; it supports the design, deployment and on line reconfiguration of applications, which this paper applies to service-based eHealth domains. This paper designs the integration between ICE architecture and iLand middleware to enhance the capabilities of ICE with on line service composition and the time-bounded reconfiguration of medical systems based on distributed services. A prototype implementation of a service-based eHealth system for the remote monitoring of patients is described; it validates the enhanced capacity of ICE to support dynamic reconfiguration of the application services. Results show that the temporal cost of the on line reconfiguration of the eHealth application is bounded

  15. Laser mass spectrometry as on-line sensor for industrial process analysis: process control of coffee roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfner, Ralph; Ferge, Thomas; Yeretzian, Chahan; Kettrup, Antonius; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the project is to develop on-line, real-time, and noninvasive process control tools of coffee roasting that help deliver a consistent and high-quality coffee aroma. The coffee roasting process was analyzed by direct injection of the roaster gas into a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and ionized either by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) at 266 and 248 nm or vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization (VUV-SPI) at 118 nm. The VUV ionization scheme allows detecting mainly the most volatile and abundant compounds of molecular mass below 100 m/z, while REMPI ionizes mainly aromatic compounds of molecular mass larger than 100 m/z. Combining the compounds ionized by resonant and single-photon ionization, approximately 30 volatile organic compounds are monitored in real time. Time-intensity profiles of 10 important volatile coffee compounds were discussed in connection with their formation chemistry during roasting. Applying multivariate statistics (principle component analysis) on time-intensity traces of nine volatile coffee compounds, the roasting degree could be traced as a consistent path in the score plot of the two most significant principle components (including 68% of the total variance), for a range of roasting temperatures (200-250 degrees C).

  16. Generic on-line solid phase extraction sample preparation strategies for the analysis of drugs in biological matrices by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgogne, Emmanuel; Grivet, Chantal; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we investigate the integration of a single hardware platform (Prospekt-2) allowing on-line SPE with pre-/post-trapping dilution and direct injection of plasma extracts, and also compare the benefits and challenges of the different approaches for pharmaceutical drugs with heterogeneous physicochemical properties. In the first part, the generic use of on-line SPE with direct plasma injection or after protein precipitation was investigated for the quantitative analysis of talinolol. In the second part, pre-trapping and post-trapping dilution for on-line SPE is discussed for generic method development on an oxadiazole and its major metabolite. Finally, the difference of performance between direct plasma injection vs. off-line liquid-liquid extraction is also described for the quantification of buprenorphine and naltrexone down to 50 and 100 pg/ml using a 0.25 ml plasma aliquot. All assays were in human plasma and detection was performed by mass spectrometry detection either on simple or triple stage quadrupoles. Regardless of the tested strategy, assays were found linear, with precision and accuracy with <15% for all quality controls samples and <20% for lower limit of quantitation.

  17. Educação on-line em contabilidade: propensão e aspectos curriculares On-line accounting education: tendency and curriculum aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard B. Cornachione Jr

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Com base na literatura envolvendo educação na área de negócios, bem como nos achados de pesquisadores da área de desenvolvimento de recursos humanos e considerando as necessidades educacionais e de treinamento no ambiente de trabalho, este estudo foca a análise da metacognição e propensão de estudantes-executivos (alunos adultos trabalhadores em participar de disciplinas oferecidas on-line relacionadas a programas de MBA com ênfase em Contabilidade e áreas afins, além de explorar quais conteúdos específicos podem estar relacionados a esse fenômeno. O crescimento da oferta de cursos on-line, considerando a flexibilidade e adaptabilidade que essa modalidade de ensino permite, reforça a importância da compreensão dos fatores que influenciam a propensão à participação. Segundo dados do Anuário Brasileiro Estatístico de EAD 2007, um em cada 80 brasileiros estudoupor EAD em 2006. Foram cerca 2.279.000 alunos a distância matriculados em vários tipos (ensino credenciado, educação corporativa e em outros projetos nacionais e regionais dentre os 889 cursos a distância (credenciados pelo Sistema de Ensino - MEC e conselhos estaduais de educação. Esses números confirmam a importância de se examinar esse tema. Foi estudada uma amostra composta de 189 alunos de pós-graduação matriculados em programas de MBA em Contabilidade, no formato presencial, oferecido por reconhecida instituição brasileira de ensino e pesquisa (a Fundação Instituto de Pesquisas Contábeis, Atuariais e Financeiras - FIPECAFI, órgão de apoio ao Departamento de Contabilidade e Atuária da FEA/USP. Além da análise estatística descritiva, estudos e testes de correlação, de comparação de médias e análise de conglomerados foram conduzidos para apoiar a discussão e resposta às questões de pesquisa aqui estabelecidas. De forma integrada, os resultados reforçam a premissa de que o conteúdo de disciplinas possui papel relevante na propens

  18. Small unmanned helicopter's attitude controller by an on-line adaptive fuzzy control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Tong-yue; RAO Jin-jun; GONG Zhen-bang; LUO Jun

    2009-01-01

    Since small unmanned helicopter flight attitude control process has strong time-varying characteristics and there are random disturbances, the conventional control methods with unchanged parameters are often unworkable. An on-line adaptive fuzzy control system (AFCS) was designed, in a way that does not depend on a process model of the plant or its approximation in the form of a Jacobian matrix. Neither is it necessary to know the desired response at each instant of time. AFCS implement a simultaneous on-line tuning of fuzzy rules and output scale of fuzzy control system. The two cascade controller design with an inner (attitude controller) and outer controller (navigation controller) of the small unmanned helicopter was proposed. At last, an attitude controller based on AFCS was implemented. The flight experiment showed that the proposed fuzzy logic controller provides quicker response, smaller overshoot, higher precision, robustness and adaptive ability. It satisfies the needs of autonomous flight.

  19. On-Line Method and Apparatus for Coordinated Mobility and Manipulation of Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A simple and computationally efficient approach is disclosed for on-line coordinated control of mobile robots consisting of a manipulator arm mounted on a mobile base. The effect of base mobility on the end-effector manipulability index is discussed. The base mobility and arm manipulation degrees-of-freedom are treated equally as the joints of a kinematically redundant composite robot. The redundancy introduced by the mobile base is exploited to satisfy a set of user-defined additional tasks during the end-effector motion. A simple on-line control scheme is proposed which allows the user to assign weighting factors to individual degrees-of-mobility and degrees-of-manipulation, as well as to each task specification. The computational efficiency of the control algorithm makes it particularly suitable for real-time implementations. Four case studies are discussed in detail to demonstrate the application of the coordinated control scheme to various mobile robots.

  20. On-line adaptive line frequency noise cancellation from a nuclear power measuring channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadir Javed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On-line software for adaptively canceling 50 Hz line frequency noise has been designed and tested at Pakistan Research Reactor 1. Line frequency noise causes much problem in weak signals acquisition. Sometimes this noise is so dominant that original signal is totally corrupted. Although notch filter can be used for eliminating this noise, but if signal of interest is in close vicinity of 50 Hz, then original signal is also attenuated and hence overall performance is degraded. Adaptive noise removal is a technique which could be employed for removing line frequency without degrading the desired signal. In this paper line frequency noise has been eliminated on-line from a nuclear power measuring channel. The adaptive LMS algorithm has been used to cancel 50 Hz noise. The algorithm has been implemented in labVIEW with NI 6024 data acquisition card. The quality of the acquired signal has been improved much as can be seen in experimental results.