WorldWideScience

Sample records for on-line sample processing

  1. On-line sample processing methods in flow analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, the state of the art of flow injection and related approaches thereof for automation and miniaturization of sample processing regardless of the aggregate state of the sample medium is overviewed. The potential of the various generation of flow injection for implementation of in...

  2. Sampling and sample preparation development for analytical and on-line measurement techniques of process liquids; Naeytteenoton ja kaesittelyn kehittaeminen prosessinesteiden analytiikan ja on-line mittaustekniikan tarpeisiin - MPKT 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, K [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    Main goal of the research project is to develop sampling and sample handling methods and techniques for pulp and paper industry to be used for analysis and on-line purposes. The research focus specially on the research and development of the classification and separation methods and techniques needed for liquid and colloidal substances as well as in ion analysis. (orig.)

  3. Sampling and sample preparation development for analytical and on-line measurement techniques of process liquids; Naeytteenoton ja kaesittelyn kehittaeminen prosessinesteiden analytiikan ja on-line mittaustekniikan tarpeisiin - MPKT 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, K. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Main goal of the research project is to develop sampling and sample handling methods and techniques for pulp and paper industry to be used for analysis and on-line purposes. The research focus specially on the research and development of the classification and separation methods and techniques needed for liquid and colloidal substances as well as in ion analysis. (orig.)

  4. Determination of drugs in biological fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line sample processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, R; Richter, K; Gramatté, T; Kirch, W

    1998-02-27

    An automated two column HPLC system with the new packing material LiChrospher RP-18 ADS (alkyl-diol-silica) was tested for the determination of several drugs and metabolites (talinolol, celiprolol, metoprolol, oxprenolol, triamterene, trimethoprim, tiracizine, articaine, detajmium, ajmaline, lamotrigine) in various biological fluids (serum, urine, intestinal aspirates, supernatants of cell cultures and supernatants after protein denaturation). The method allows the direct injection of biological fluids into a reversed-phase HPLC system and on-line clean-up and sample enrichment by a column-switching technique. Precision, accuracy and sensitivity were similar to conventional assays as described in the literature. With this new method it was possible to measure drug concentrations in various biological fluids without changing the sample preparation procedure. In some cases an additional sample preparation like protein denaturation or solid-phase extraction was advantageous to enhance the sensitivity of the method and the life-time of the ADS column.

  5. Looking into individual coffee beans during the roasting process: direct micro-probe sampling on-line photo-ionisation mass spectrometric analysis of coffee roasting gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Schünemann, Romy; Streibel, Thorsten; Ehlert, Sven; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    A micro-probe (μ-probe) gas sampling device for on-line analysis of gases evolving in confined, small objects by single-photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) was developed. The technique is applied for the first time in a feasibility study to record the formation of volatile and flavour compounds during the roasting process within (inside) or in the direct vicinity (outside) of individual coffee beans. A real-time on-line analysis of evolving volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC and SVOC) as they are formed under the mild pyrolytic conditions of the roasting process was performed. The soft-ionisation mass spectra depict a molecular ion signature, which is well corresponding with the existing knowledge of coffee roasting and evolving compounds. Additionally, thereby it is possible to discriminate between Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora (Robusta). The recognized differences in the roasting gas profiles reflect the differences in the precursor composition of the coffee cultivars very well. Furthermore, a well-known set of marker compounds for Arabica and Robusta, namely the lipids kahweol and cafestol (detected in their dehydrated form at m/z 296 and m/z 298, respectively) were observed. If the variation in time of different compounds is observed, distinctly different evolution behaviours were detected. Here, phenol (m/z 94) and caffeine (m/z 194) are exemplary chosen, whereas phenol shows very sharp emission peaks, caffeine do not have this highly transient behaviour. Finally, the changes of the chemical signature as a function of the roasting time, the influence of sampling position (inside, outside) and cultivar (Arabica, Robusta) is investigated by multivariate statistics (PCA). In summary, this pilot study demonstrates the high potential of the measurement technique to enhance the fundamental knowledge of the formation processes of volatile and semi-volatile flavour compounds inside the individual coffee bean.

  6. Trends in on-line data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masetti, M.

    1981-01-01

    The developement of integrated circuits has been characterized by an exponential growth of gates on a single chip that will still continue in the coming years. In parallel the price per bit is dropping down with more or less the same law. As a consequence of this a few statements can be made: The present 16-bit minicomputer in a small configuration is going to be substituted by a 16-bit microcomputer, and the 16-bit microcomputer in a powerful configuration by a 32-bit midi having also a virtual memory facility. Fully programmable or microcoded powerful devices like the LASS hardware processor or MICE, will allow an efficient on-line filter. Higher computing speed can be achieved by a multiprocessor configuration which can be insensitive to hardware failures. Therefore we are moving towards an integrated on-line computing system with much higher computing power than now and the present distinction between on-line and off-line will no longer be so sharp. As more processing can be performed on-line, fast high quality feed-back can be provided for the experiment. In the years to come the trend towards more processing power, at a lower price, and assembled in the same hardware volume will continue for at least five years; at the same time the future large high-energy physics experiments at LEP will be carried out within a wide international collaboration. In this environment methods must be found for a large fraction of the work to be distributed amongst the collaborators. To accomplish this aim it is necessary to introduce common standard practices concerning both hardware and software, in such a way that the seperate parts, developed by the collaborators, will be plug-compatible. (orig.)

  7. Application of on-line analytical processing technique in accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Dong; Li Weimin; He Duohui; Liu Gongfa; Xuan Ke

    2005-01-01

    A method of application of the on-line analytical processing technique in accelerator is described, which includes data pre-processing, the process of constructing of data warehouse and on-line analytical processing. (authors)

  8. On-line sample treatment - Capillary gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosens, EC; de Jong, D; de Jong, GJ; Brinkman, UAT

    Sample pretreatment is often the bottleneck of a trace level analytical procedure. In order to increase performance, increasing attention is therefore being devoted to combining sample pretreatment on-line with the separation technique that has to be used. In the present review, a variety of

  9. On-line process control monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Van Hare, D.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes apparatus for monitoring at a plurality of locations within a system the concentration of at least one chemical substance involved in a chemical process. It comprises plurality of process cells; first means for carrying the light; second means for carrying the light; means for producing a spectrum from the light received by the second carrying means; multiplexing means for selecting one process cell of the plurality of process cells at a time so that the producing means can produce a process spectrum from the one cell of the process cells; a reference cell for producing a reference spectrum for comparison to the process spectrum; a standard cell for producing a standard spectrum for comparison to the process spectrum; and means for comparing the reference spectrum, the standard spectrum and the process spectrum and determining the concentration of the chemical substance in the process cell

  10. Semi-on-line analysis for fast and precise monitoring of bioreaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.H.; Marcher, J.; Schulze, Ulrik

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring of substrates and products during fermentation processes can be achieved either by on-line, in situ sensors or by semi-on-line analysis consisting of an automatic sampling step followed by an ex situ analysis of the retrieved sample. The potential risk of introducing time delays...

  11. Robust on-line monitoring of biogas processes; Robusta maettekniker on-line foer optimerad biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Aake; Hansson, Mikael; Kanerot, Mija; Krozer, Anatol; Loefving, Bjoern; Sahlin, Eskil

    2010-03-15

    project showed that pH-adjustment with Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} can be a way of compensating for the losses of volatile compounds (up to 20% of VS), which occurs when standardized reference methods are used. This is a fundamental problem and requires further research. Monitoring of a laboratory-scale anaerobic digester with NIR showed that a previously developed multivariate model could predict propionate concentrations (R2= 0,92; RMSEP 0,39 g/L) in the interval 0-5 g/L, which is a relevant interval for inhibition (limit ca 3 g/L). A commercial FT-NIR instrument was subsequently installed at the production plant. However, the organic loading was decreased during the evaluation period due to process disturbances, at which the dynamic of the process was not in the range needed for prediction of e.g. propionate. Measurements and evaluation will continue during normal conditions after the completion of this project. Evaluation of a potentiometric sensor for ammonia with potential for on-line application showed low stability and a need for daily calibration, which therefore did not fulfill the requested demand. The project has demonstrated technologies with significant potential for on-line monitoring at production scale facilities, thus improving the knowledge base for making important decisions. Knowledge about on-line implementation has increased, and important insights into the limitations of standardized reference methods and substrate characteristics have been achieved. Instrument suppliers have in general a limited insight in the conditions at a biogas plant, which suggests that this type of WR-financed project is important for development in the area

  12. ADAPTIVE CONTEXT PROCESSING IN ON-LINE HANDWRITTEN CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwayama, N.; Ishigaki, K.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new approach to context processing in on-line handwritten character recognition (OLCR). Based on the observation that writers often repeat the strings that they input, we take the approach of adaptive context processing. (ACP). In ACP, the strings input by a writer are automatically

  13. Specialization processes in on-line unsupervised learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biehl, M.; Freking, A.; Reents, G.; Schlösser, E.

    1998-01-01

    From the recent analysis of supervised learning by on-line gradient descent in multilayered neural networks it is known that the necessary process of student specialization can be delayed significantly. We demonstrate that this phenomenon also occurs in various models of unsupervised learning. A

  14. Children's On-Line Processing of Scrambling in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takaaki

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the on-line processing of scrambled sentences in Japanese by preschool children and adults using a combination of self-paced listening and speeded picture selection tasks. The effects of a filler-gap dependency, reversibility, and case markers were examined. The results show that both children and adults had difficulty in…

  15. On-line data processing for scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueyanagi, Hideo

    1974-01-01

    To process on-line the information from scintillation cameras, the computing/processing device of wired program type, with a specialized mini-computer for the processing, is generally used; and by this method, the data processing is done by the users of scintillation cameras. In the device with a mini-computer with processing programming by software, the almost all items in processing can be executed; but the operation requires some skill. With mini-computer operation, on the other hand, there are the problems of data-point number, process-time reduction, and image storage for both long and short terms. (Mori, K.)

  16. On-line optimal control improves gas processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, P.N.; Papadopoulos, M.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the authors' companies jointly funded the first phase of a gas processing liquids optimization project that has the specific purposes to: Improve the return of processing natural gas liquids, Develop sets of control algorithms, Make available a low-cost solution suitable for small to medium-sized gas processing plants, Test and demonstrate the feasibility of line control. The ARCO Willard CO 2 gas recovery processing plant was chosen as the initial test site to demonstrate the application of multivariable on-line optimal control. One objective of this project is to support an R ampersand D effort to provide a standardized solution to the various types of gas processing plants in the U.S. Processes involved in these gas plants include cryogenic separations, demethanization, lean oil absorption, fractionation and gas treating. Next, the proposed solutions had to be simple yet comprehensive enough to allow an operator to maintain product specifications while operating over a wide range of gas input flow and composition. This had to be a supervisors system that remained on-line more than 95% of the time, and achieved reduced plant operating variability and improved variable cost control. It took more than a year to study various gas processes and to develop a control approach before a real application was finally exercised. An initial process for C 2 and CO 2 recoveries was chosen

  17. In Their Words: Connecting On-Line Weblogs to Developmental Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Garcia, Eddie C. M.; Harsono, Lidwina Stella; Li, Janice S.; Lipana, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to connect adolescents' communication within on-line weblogs or blogs to developmental processes. A total of 195 English language blogs written by self-identified 14- to 18-year-olds were selected; three entries from each blog were analysed, resulting in a sample of 585 entries. Blogger demographics, self-presentation, and blog…

  18. A simulation of the SDC on-line processing farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.; Chen, Y.; Dorenbosch, J.; Lee, J.; Sayle, R.

    1993-10-01

    In the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) data acquisition system (DAQ), an enormous amount of data flows into a processor farm for extraction of interesting physics events. To design an efficient on-line filter, the operations in the farm must be carefully modeled. The authors present a simulation model developed at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory which efficiently allocates physics events to the farm

  19. On-line measurement and control in sustainable mineral processing and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.D.

    2002-01-01

    Sustainable development can be defined as development that 'meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs' (WCED, 1987). A sustainable minerals and energy industry will need to achieve a number of related objectives including greater energy efficiency, improved utilisation of ore deposits, improved utilisation of existing plant, improved product quality, reduction of waste material, reduction of pollution levels and improved safety margins. These objectives all relate in varying degrees to the triple bottom line of economic, social and environmental benefits. One critical component in achieving these objectives is to develop and apply improved control systems across the full range of industry applications from mining to processing and utilisation. However process control relies heavily on the availability of suitable on-line process instrumentation to provide the data and feedback necessary for its implementation. There is a lot of truth in the saying 'if you can't measure it you can't control it'. In the past measurement was achieved by manual sampling followed by sample preparation (such as drying, mixing, crushing and dividing) and off-line laboratory analysis. However this procedure is often subject to significant sampling errors and, most importantly, the measurements are too slow for control purposes. By contrast, on-line analysis can provide rapid and accurate measurement in real time thus opening up new possibilities for improved process control. As a result, there has been a rapid increase in the industrial application of on-line analysis instrumentation over the past few decades. The main purpose of this paper is to briefly review some past Australian developments of on-line analysis systems in the mineral and coal industries and to discuss present developments and future trends

  20. On-line determination of manganese in solid seafood samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yebra, M.C.; Moreno-Cid, A.

    2003-01-01

    Manganese is extracted on-line from solid seafood samples by a simple continuous ultrasound-assisted extraction system (CUES). This system is connected to an on-line manifold, which permits the flow-injection flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of manganese. Optimisation of the continuous leaching procedure is performed by an experimental design. The proposed method allows the determination of manganese with a relative standard deviation of 0.9% for a sample containing 23.4 μg g -1 manganese (dry mass). The detection limit is 0.4 μg g -1 (dry mass) for 30 mg of sample and the sample throughput is ca. 60 samples per hour. Accurate results are obtained by measuring TORT-1 certified reference material. The procedure is finally applied to mussel, tuna, sardine and clams samples

  1. Automation and integration of multiplexed on-line sample preparation with capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, H.

    1999-03-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multiplexed sample processing system in conjunction with multiplexed capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The concept from DNA template to called bases was first demonstrated with a manually operated single capillary system. Later, an automated microfluidic system with 8 channels based on the same principle was successfully constructed. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were implemented to manage flow direction and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into a corresponding size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at {approximately} 60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at {approximately} 70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. DNA sequencing data from this system allow base calling up to 460 bases with accuracy of 98%.

  2. A system for on-line monitoring of light element concentration distributions in thin samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brands, P.J.M. E-mail: p.j.m.brands@tue.nl; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; Voigt, M.J.A. de

    1999-09-02

    At the Cyclotron Laboratory, a scanning proton microprobe is used to determine concentration distributions in biomedical samples. The data acquired in these measurements used to be analysed in a time consuming off-line analysis. To avoid the loss of valuable measurement and analysis time, DYANA was developed. DYANA is an on-line method for the analysis of data from biomedical measurements. By using a database of background shapes, light elements such as Na and Mg, can be fitted even more precisely than in conventional fitting procedures. The entire analysis takes only several seconds and is performed while the acquisition system is gathering a new subset of data. Data acquisition must be guaranteed and may not be interfered by other parallel processes. Therefore, the analysis, the data acquisition and the experiment control is performed on a PCI-based Pentium personal computer (PC), running a real-time operating system. A second PC is added to run a graphical user interface for interaction with the experimenter and the monitoring of the analysed results. The system is here illustrated using atherosclerotic tissue but is applicable to all kinds of thin samples.

  3. Process Analytical Technology and On-Line Spectroscopic Measurements of Chemical Meat Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Klavs Martin

    This thesis deals with process analytical technology and how it can be implemented in the meat industry through on-line grading of chemical meat quality. The focus will be on two applications, namely the rapid quality control of fat quality and the development of a method for on-line detection...... of nano-molar quantification in few seconds, in addition to an accelerated extraction-free GC-MS method that through automation can deliver results much faster than other similar methods. The implementation of these high tech methods will provide the meat industry with a leading edge not only with product...... of boar taint. The chemical makeup of fat has a large effect on meat cut quality. Fat quality has traditionally been determined by methylation of a tissue sample followed by chromatography on a GC-MS system, elucidating the composition of the individual fatty acids. As this procedure typically takes far...

  4. An on-line potentiometric sequential injection titration process analyser for the determination of acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staden, J F; Mashamba, Mulalo G; Stefan, Raluca I

    2002-09-01

    An on-line potentiometric sequential injection titration process analyser for the determination of acetic acid is proposed. A solution of 0.1 mol L(-1) sodium chloride is used as carrier. Titration is achieved by aspirating acetic acid samples between two strong base-zone volumes into a holding coil and by channelling the stack of well-defined zones with flow reversal through a reaction coil to a potentiometric sensor where the peak widths were measured. A linear relationship between peak width and logarithm of the acid concentration was obtained in the range 1-9 g/100 mL. Vinegar samples were analysed without any sample pre-treatment. The method has a relative standard deviation of 0.4% with a sample frequency of 28 samples per hour. The results revealed good agreement between the proposed sequential injection and an automated batch titration method.

  5. On-line Determination of Hydrochloric Acid in Process Effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Van Staden

    The sample is sandwiched between two titrants in a holding coil, with the volume of the first base being twice to that of the second one and channeled by flow reversal through a reaction coil to the potentiometric sensor. A linear relationship between peak width and logarithm of the hydrochloric acid concentration was.

  6. On-Line Ion Exchange Liquid Chromatography as a Process Analytical Technology for Monoclonal Antibody Characterization in Continuous Bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhumit A; Pinto, Nuno D S; Gospodarek, Adrian; Kilgore, Bruce; Goswami, Kudrat; Napoli, William N; Desai, Jayesh; Heo, Jun H; Panzera, Dominick; Pollard, David; Richardson, Daisy; Brower, Mark; Richardson, Douglas D

    2017-11-07

    Combining process analytical technology (PAT) with continuous production provides a powerful tool to observe and control monoclonal antibody (mAb) fermentation and purification processes. This work demonstrates on-line liquid chromatography (on-line LC) as a PAT tool for monitoring a continuous biologics process and forced degradation studies. Specifically, this work focused on ion exchange chromatography (IEX), which is a critical separation technique to detect charge variants. Product-related impurities, including charge variants, that impact function are classified as critical quality attributes (CQAs). First, we confirmed no significant differences were observed in the charge heterogeneity profile of a mAb through both at-line and on-line sampling and that the on-line method has the ability to rapidly detect changes in protein quality over time. The robustness and versatility of the PAT methods were tested by sampling from two purification locations in a continuous mAb process. The PAT IEX methods used with on-line LC were a weak cation exchange (WCX) separation and a newly developed shorter strong cation exchange (SCX) assay. Both methods provided similar results with the distribution of percent acidic, main, and basic species remaining unchanged over a 2 week period. Second, a forced degradation study showed an increase in acidic species and a decrease in basic species when sampled on-line over 7 days. These applications further strengthen the use of on-line LC to monitor CQAs of a mAb continuously with various PAT IEX analytical methods. Implementation of on-line IEX will enable faster decision making during process development and could potentially be applied to control in biomanufacturing.

  7. Development of an on-line analyzer for organic phase uranium concentration in extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yanwu; Song Yufen; Zhu Yaokun; Cong Peiyuan; Cui Songru

    1998-10-01

    The working principle, constitution, performance of an on-line analyzer and the development characteristic of immersion sonde, data processing system and examination standard are reported. The performance of this instrument is reliable. For identical sample, the signal fluctuation in continuous monitoring for four months is less than +-1%. According to required measurement range by choosing appropriate length of sample cell the precision of measurement is better than 1% at uranium concentration 100 g/L. The detection limit is (50 +- 10) mg/L. The uranium concentration in process stream can be automatically displayed and printed out in real time and 4∼20 mA current signal being proportional to the uranium concentration can be presented. So the continuous control and computer management for the extraction process can be achieved

  8. Automatic data acquisition and on-line analysis of trace element concentration in serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.

    1978-01-01

    A completely automated system has been developed to determine the trace element concentration in biological samples by measuring charged particle induced X-rays. A CDC-3100 computer with ADC and CAMAC interface is employed to control the data collection apparatus, acquire data and perform simultaneously the analysis. The experimental set-up consists of a large square plexiglass chamber in which a commercially available 750H Kodak Carousel is suitably arranged as a computer controlled sample changer. A method of extracting trace element concentrations using reference spectra is presented and an on-line program has been developed to easily and conveniently obtain final results at the end of each run. (Auth.)

  9. On-line Automated Sample Preparation-Capillary Gas Chromatography for the Analysis of Plasma Samples.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, A.J.H.; van der Wagt, R.A.C.A.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1995-01-01

    An automated sample preparation module, (the automated sample preparation with extraction columns, ASPEC), was interfaced with a capillary gas chromatograph (GC) by means of an on-column interface. The system was optimised for the determination of the antidepressant trazodone in plasma. The clean-up

  10. Design development of robotic system for on line sampling in fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, G.R.; Venugopal, P.R.; Padmashali, G.K.

    1990-01-01

    This presentation describes the design and developmental work that is being carried out for the design of an automated sampling system for fast reactor fuel reprocessing plants. The plant proposes to use integrated sampling system. The sample is taken across regular process streams from any intermediate hold up pot. A robot system is planned to take the sample from the sample pot, transfer it to the sample bottle, cap the bottle and transfer the bottle to a pneumatic conveying station. The system covers a large number of sample pots. Alternate automated systems are also examined (1). (author). 4 refs., 2 figs

  11. On-Line Monitoring of Fermentation Processes by Near Infrared and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Carina

    Monitoring and control of fermentation processes is important to ensure high product yield, product quality and product consistency. More knowledge on on-line analytical techniques such as near infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy is desired in the fermentation industry to increase the efficiency...... of on-line monitoring systems. The primary aim of this thesis is to elucidate and explore the dynamics in fermentation processes by spectroscopy. Though a number of successful on-line lab-scale monitoring systems have been reported, it seems that several challenges are still met, which limits the number...... of full-scale systems implemented in industrial fermentation processes. This thesis seeks to achieve a better understanding of the techniques near infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy and thereby to solve some of the challenges that are encountered. The thesis shows the advantages of applying real...

  12. SAFARI, an On-Line Text-Processing System User's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, P.G.; And Others.

    This report describes for the potential user a set of procedures for processing textual materials on-line. In this preliminary model an information analyst can scan through messages, reports, and other documents on a display scope and select relevant facts, which are processed linguistically and then stored in the computer in the form of logical…

  13. Radiometric on-line-determination of lead in lead-zinc ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubecki, A.; Wiese, K.; Gralher, M.

    1983-01-01

    By the example of Pb determination in PbS-ZnS flotation liquids the advancement of the radionuclide (Co-57) excited X-ray fluorescence assay technique Graf is reported. The technique of measurement, previously tested in analyzing baryte contained in the fluorsphar flotation liquid was adapted to the conditions prevailing in the PbS-ZnS flotation liquid by modification of theory, principle of measurement, and measuring technique. Testing on an industrial scale was performed in the flotation facility of Preussag AG Metall at Bad Grund, more particularly in the process streams of strategic importance such as ''total tailings'', ''Pb tailings'', and ''lotation feed''. Correspondence between the on-line analytical values and the comparable values from conventional operating analysis was fair. For 31 reference samples from ''total tailings'' and for 20 reference samples from ''Pb tailings'' the mean scattering was calculated to be approx. 0,04%, for 20 reference samples from ''flotation feed'' it amounted to 0,14% Pb. (orig./HP) [de

  14. On-line statistical processing of radiation detector pulse trains with time-varying count rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolopoulos, G.

    2008-01-01

    Statistical analysis is of primary importance for the correct interpretation of nuclear measurements, due to the inherent random nature of radioactive decay processes. This paper discusses the application of statistical signal processing techniques to the random pulse trains generated by radiation detectors. The aims of the presented algorithms are: (i) continuous, on-line estimation of the underlying time-varying count rate θ(t) and its first-order derivative dθ/dt; (ii) detection of abrupt changes in both of these quantities and estimation of their new value after the change point. Maximum-likelihood techniques, based on the Poisson probability distribution, are employed for the on-line estimation of θ and dθ/dt. Detection of abrupt changes is achieved on the basis of the generalized likelihood ratio statistical test. The properties of the proposed algorithms are evaluated by extensive simulations and possible applications for on-line radiation monitoring are discussed

  15. On-line combination of liquid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography : preconcentration and analysis of organic compounds in aqueous samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noij, T.H.M.; Weiss, E.; Herps, T.; Cruchten, van H.; Rijks, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a new, versatile, and low-cost on-line LC-GC interface that allows the fast and reliable introduction of large sample volumes onto a capillary GC column. The sample introduction procedure consists successively of: evaporation of the entire sample (LC fraction),

  16. On-Line Sentence Processing in Swedish: Cross-Linguistic Developmental Comparisons with French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Michele; Kihlstedt, Maria; Bonnet, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This study examined on-line processing of Swedish sentences in a grammaticality-judgement experiment within the framework of the Competition Model. Three age groups from 6 to 11 and an adult group were asked to detect grammatical violations as quickly as possible. Three factors concerning cue cost were studied: violation position (early vs. late),…

  17. Verb Agreements during On-Line Sentence Processing in Alzheimer's Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C.C.; Grossman, M.

    2005-01-01

    An on-line ''word detection'' paradigm was used to assess the comprehension of thematic and transitive verb agreements during sentence processing in individuals diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's Disease (AD, n=15) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD, n=14). AD, FTD, and control participants (n=17) were asked to listen for a word in a sentence.…

  18. Pipeline leak detection and location by on-line-correlation with a process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebert, H.; Isermann, R.

    1977-01-01

    A method for leak detection using a correlation technique in pipelines is described. For leak detection and also for leak localisation and estimation of the leak flow recursive estimation algorithms are used. The efficiency of the methods is demonstrated with a process computer and a pipeline model operating on-line. It is shown that very small leaks can be detected. (orig.) [de

  19. The On-Line Processing of Verb-Phrase Ellipsis in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Josee; Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy; Grodzinsky, Yosef

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the on-line processing of verb-phrase ellipsis (VPE) constructions in two brain injured populations: Broca's and Anomic aphasics. VPE constructions are built from two simple clauses; the first is the antecedent clause and the second is the ellipsis clause. The ellipsis clause is missing its verb and object (i.e., its verb phrase…

  20. An improved, computer-based, on-line gamma monitor for plutonium anion exchange process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, N.G.; Marsh, S.F.

    1987-06-01

    An improved, low-cost, computer-based system has replaced a previously developed on-line gamma monitor. Both instruments continuously profile uranium, plutonium, and americium in the nitrate anion exchange process used to recover and purify plutonium at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The latest system incorporates a personal computer that provides full-feature multichannel analyzer (MCA) capabilities by means of a single-slot, plug-in integrated circuit board. In addition to controlling all MCA functions, the computer program continuously corrects for gain shift and performs all other data processing functions. This Plutonium Recovery Operations Gamma Ray Energy Spectrometer System (PROGRESS) provides on-line process operational data essential for efficient operation. By identifying abnormal conditions in real time, it allows operators to take corrective actions promptly. The decision-making capability of the computer will be of increasing value as we implement automated process-control functions in the future. 4 refs., 6 figs

  1. On-line video image processing system for real-time neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujine, S; Yoneda, K; Kanda, K [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1983-09-15

    The neutron radiography system installed at the E-2 experimental hole of the KUR (Kyoto University Reactor) has been used for some NDT applications in the nuclear field. The on-line video image processing system of this facility is introduced in this paper. A 0.5 mm resolution in images was obtained by using a super high quality TV camera developed for X-radiography viewing a NE-426 neutron-sensitive scintillator. The image of the NE-426 on a CRT can be observed directly and visually, thus many test samples can be sequentially observed when necessary for industrial purposes. The video image signals from the TV camera are digitized, with a 33 ms delay, through a video A/D converter (ADC) and can be stored in the image buffer (32 KB DRAM) of a microcomputer (Z-80) system. The digitized pictures are taken with 16 levels of gray scale and resolved to 240 x 256 picture elements (pixels) on a monochrome CRT, with the capability also to display 16 distinct colors on a RGB video display. The direct image of this system could be satisfactory for penetrating the side plates to test MTR type reactor fuels and for the investigation of moving objects.

  2. A model-based approach to on-line process disturbance management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    The methodology developed can be applied to the design of a real-time expert system to aid control-room operators in coping with process abnormalities. The approach encompasses diverse functional aspects required for an effective on-line process disturbance management: (1) intelligent process monitoring and alarming, (2) on-line sensor data validation, (3) on-line sensor and hardware (except sensors) fault diagnosis, and (4) real-time corrective measure synthesis. Accomplishment of these functions is made possible through the application of various models, goal-tree success-tree, process monitor-tree, sensor failure diagnosis, and hardware failure diagnosis models. The models used in the methodology facilitate not only the knowledge-acquisition process - a bottleneck in the development of an expert system - but also the reasoning process of the knowledge-based system. These transparent models and model-based reasoning significantly enhance the maintainability of the real-time expert systems. The proposed approach was applied to the feedwater control system of a nuclear power plant, and implemented into a real-time expert system, MOAS II, using the expert system shell, PICON, on the LMI machine

  3. [Analysis of phthalate esters in plastic-packaging bags on-line sample stacking-microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jia; Huang, Ying; Wang, Minyi; Chen, Guonan

    2012-09-01

    Two convenient, effective, and reproducible methods using microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC)-normal stacking mode (NSM) and reversed electrode polarity stacking mode (REPSM) were developed for the on-line sample stacking of phthalate esters (PAEs). REPSM coupled with MEEKC increased the sensitivity of 937.5 to 7,143 times for four PAEs compared to the conventional MEEKC. The separating conditions in the MEEKC method were studied, and many factors influencing the two sample stacking processes were investigated in detail. The optimum sample matrices for the two stacking methods were as follows: 30 mmol/L sodium cholate (SC) and 30.0 mmol/L borate (pH 8.5). Additionally, sample injections as large as 3.45 kPa x 40 s and 3.45 kPa x 90 s were applied for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The linear relationship and reproducibility were also examined. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits (S/N = 3) of the PAEs were in the ranges of 0.021 - 0.33 mg/L and 0.7 - 4 microg/L for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The proposed REPSM-MEEKC has been successfully applied to determine PAEs in plastic-packaging bags, and the spiked recoveries were in the range of 89.1% - 105.6% with satisfactory results.

  4. On-line calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Farmer, J.P. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    An on-line instrumentation monitoring system was developed and validated for use in nuclear power plants. This system continuously monitors the calibration status of instrument channels and determines whether or not they require manual calibrations. This is accomplished by comparing the output of each instrument channel to an estimate of the process it is monitoring. If the deviation of the instrument channel from the process estimate is greater than an allowable limit, then the instrument is said to be {open_quotes}out of calibration{close_quotes} and manual adjustments are made to correct the calibration. The success of the on-line monitoring system depends on the accuracy of the process estimation. The system described in this paper incorporates both simple intercomparison techniques as well as analytical approaches in the form of data-driven empirical modeling to estimate the process. On-line testing of the calibration of process instrumentation channels will reduce the number of manual calibrations currently performed, thereby reducing both costs to utilities and radiation exposure to plant personnel.

  5. Development of a New Microextraction Fiber Combined to On-Line Sample Stacking Capillary Electrophoresis UV Detection for Acidic Drugs Determination in Real Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Lilia; Prieto, Avismelsi; Navalón, Alberto; Vílchez, José Luis; Valera, Paola; Zambrano, Ana; Dugas, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    A new analytical method coupling a (off-line) solid-phase microextraction with an on-line capillary electrophoresis (CE) sample enrichment technique was developed for the analysis of ketoprofen, naproxen and clofibric acid from water samples, which are known as contaminants of emerging concern in aquatic environments. New solid-phase microextraction fibers based on physical coupling of chromatographic supports onto epoxy glue coated needle were studied for the off-line preconcentration of these micropollutants. Identification and quantification of such acidic drugs were done by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) using ultraviolet diode array detection (DAD). Further enhancement of concentration sensitivity detection was achieved by on-line CE “acetonitrile stacking” preconcentration technique. Among the eight chromatographic supports investigated, Porapak Q sorbent showed higher extraction and preconcentration capacities. The screening of parameters that influence the microextraction process was carried out using a two-level fractional factorial. Optimization of the most relevant parameters was then done through a surface response three-factor Box-Behnken design. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for the three drugs ranged between 0.96 and 1.27 µg∙L−1 and 2.91 and 3.86 µg∙L−1, respectively. Recovery yields of approximately 95 to 104% were measured. The developed method is simple, precise, accurate, and allows quantification of residues of these micropollutants in Genil River water samples using inexpensive fibers. PMID:28686186

  6. Development of a New Microextraction Fiber Combined to On-Line Sample Stacking Capillary Electrophoresis UV Detection for Acidic Drugs Determination in Real Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Espina-Benitez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new analytical method coupling a (off-line solid-phase microextraction with an on-line capillary electrophoresis (CE sample enrichment technique was developed for the analysis of ketoprofen, naproxen and clofibric acid from water samples, which are known as contaminants of emerging concern in aquatic environments. New solid-phase microextraction fibers based on physical coupling of chromatographic supports onto epoxy glue coated needle were studied for the off-line preconcentration of these micropollutants. Identification and quantification of such acidic drugs were done by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE using ultraviolet diode array detection (DAD. Further enhancement of concentration sensitivity detection was achieved by on-line CE “acetonitrile stacking” preconcentration technique. Among the eight chromatographic supports investigated, Porapak Q sorbent showed higher extraction and preconcentration capacities. The screening of parameters that influence the microextraction process was carried out using a two-level fractional factorial. Optimization of the most relevant parameters was then done through a surface response three-factor Box-Behnken design. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for the three drugs ranged between 0.96 and 1.27 µg∙L−1 and 2.91 and 3.86 µg∙L−1, respectively. Recovery yields of approximately 95 to 104% were measured. The developed method is simple, precise, accurate, and allows quantification of residues of these micropollutants in Genil River water samples using inexpensive fibers.

  7. Development of a New Microextraction Fiber Combined to On-Line Sample Stacking Capillary Electrophoresis UV Detection for Acidic Drugs Determination in Real Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina-Benitez, Maria; Araujo, Lilia; Prieto, Avismelsi; Navalón, Alberto; Vílchez, José Luis; Valera, Paola; Zambrano, Ana; Dugas, Vincent

    2017-07-07

    A new analytical method coupling a (off-line) solid-phase microextraction with an on-line capillary electrophoresis (CE) sample enrichment technique was developed for the analysis of ketoprofen, naproxen and clofibric acid from water samples, which are known as contaminants of emerging concern in aquatic environments. New solid-phase microextraction fibers based on physical coupling of chromatographic supports onto epoxy glue coated needle were studied for the off-line preconcentration of these micropollutants. Identification and quantification of such acidic drugs were done by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) using ultraviolet diode array detection (DAD). Further enhancement of concentration sensitivity detection was achieved by on-line CE "acetonitrile stacking" preconcentration technique. Among the eight chromatographic supports investigated, Porapak Q sorbent showed higher extraction and preconcentration capacities. The screening of parameters that influence the microextraction process was carried out using a two-level fractional factorial. Optimization of the most relevant parameters was then done through a surface response three-factor Box-Behnken design. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for the three drugs ranged between 0.96 and 1.27 µg∙L -1 and 2.91 and 3.86 µg∙L -1 , respectively. Recovery yields of approximately 95 to 104% were measured. The developed method is simple, precise, accurate, and allows quantification of residues of these micropollutants in Genil River water samples using inexpensive fibers.

  8. On-line monitoring of the crystallization process: relationship between crystal size and electrical impedance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yanlin; Yao, Jun; Wang, Mi

    2016-01-01

    On-line monitoring of crystal size in the crystallization process is crucial to many pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industrial applications. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for the on-line monitoring of the cooling crystallization process of L-glutamic acid (LGA) using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS method can be used to monitor the growth of crystal particles relying on the presence of an electrical double layer on the charged particle surface and the polarization of double layer under the excitation of alternating electrical field. The electrical impedance spectra and crystal size were measured on-line simultaneously by an impedance analyzer and focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), respectively. The impedance spectra were analyzed using the equivalent circuit model and the equivalent circuit elements in the model can be obtained by fitting the experimental data. Two equivalent circuit elements, including capacitance ( C 2 ) and resistance ( R 2 ) from the dielectric polarization of the LGA solution and crystal particle/solution interface, are in relation with the crystal size. The mathematical relationship between the crystal size and the equivalent circuit elements can be obtained by a non-linear fitting method. The function can be used to predict the change of crystal size during the crystallization process. (paper)

  9. Trends and perspectives of flow injection/sequential injection on-line sample-pretreatment schemes coupled to ETAAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2005-01-01

    Flow injection (FI) analysis, the first generation of this technique, became in the 1990s supplemented by its second generation, sequential injection (SI), and most recently by the third generation (i.e.,Lab-on-Valve). The dominant role played by FI in automatic, on-line, sample pretreatments in ...

  10. On-line monitoring of fermentation processes using multi-wavelength fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odman, Peter; Petersen, Nanna; Johansen, Claus Lindvald

    2007-01-01

    . The model system considered in this work is the antibiotic production by Streptomyces coelicolor, a filamentous bacterium. In addition to predicting concentrations of biomass in the fermentation broth, the data allowed detection of different physiological states, i.e. growth phase and phosphate limitation......Fermentation processes often suffer from a lack of real-time methods for on-line determination of variables like the concentrations of nutrients and products. This work aims at investigating the possibilities of implementing an on-line fermentation monitoring system based on multi......-wavelength fluorescence (MWF). This type of sensor has previously showed promising accuracy and selectivity for in situ monitoring of cell mass and certain metabolites in bioreactors (Lantz et al., 2006). The sensor generates multivariate data outputs, which necessitate chemometric modeling for signal interpretation...

  11. Expert System Development on On-line Measurement of Sewage Treatment Based Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun QIN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article puts forward a solution in which an instrument on-line automatic measurement and expert system process are optimized according to the complexity and great process dynamics of sewage treatment process. Firstly modeling has been set up with configuration sewage treatment process in which the process has been integrated into the computer software environment. Secondly certain number of water quality automatic monitoring instruments and sensor probes are set in the reaction tanks according to the needs of process changes and management. The data information acquired can be displayed and recorded at the real time. A human-machine integration expert system featuring computer automation management is developed for the base by one-off method thus to realize the intelligent and unmanned management. The advantages brought about from it can fill up the inexperience of the on-site management personnel and solve the contradiction between the water quality dynamics and difficulty in the process adjustment.

  12. On-Line Monitoring for Process Control and Safeguarding of Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.; Levitskaia, T.; Casella, A.

    2015-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safe- guards standards for fissionable material at spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide a more timely, cost-effective and resource-efficient means for MC&A verification at such facilities. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including a spectroscopy-based monitoring system, to potentially reduce the time and re- source burden associated with current techniques. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major cold flowsheet chemicals using ultra-violet and visible, near infrared and Raman spectroscopy. This paper will provide an overview of the methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies. Our ability to identify material intentionally diverted from a liquid-liquid solvent extraction contactor system was successfully tested using on-line process monitoring as a means to detect the amount of material diverted. A chemical diversion, and detection of that diversion, from a solvent extraction scheme was demonstrated using a centrifugal contactor system operating with the PUREX flowsheet. A portion of the feed from a counter-current extraction system was diverted while a continuous extraction experiment was underway. The amount observed to be diverted by on-line spectroscopic process monitoring was in excellent agreement with values based from the known mass of

  13. [On-line processing mechanisms in text comprehension: a theoretical review on constructing situation models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, Ryuta

    2004-12-01

    This article reviewed research on construction of situation models during reading. To position variety of research in overall process appropriately, an unitary framework was devised in terms of three theories for on-line processing: resonance process, event-indexing model, and constructionist theory. Resonance process was treated as a basic activation mechanism in the framework. Event-indexing model was regarded as a screening system which selected and encoded activated information in situation models along with situational dimensions. Constructionist theory was considered to have a supervisory role based on coherence and explanation. From a view of the unitary framework, some problems concerning each theory were examined and possible interpretations were given. Finally, it was pointed out that there were little theoretical arguments on associative processing at global level and encoding text- and inference-information into long-term memory.

  14. On-line coupling of sample preconcentration by LVSEP with gel electrophoretic separation on T-channel chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Fumihiko; Kinami, Saeko; Takegawa, Yuuki; Nukatsuka, Isoshi; Sueyoshi, Kenji; Kawai, Takayuki; Otsuka, Koji

    2017-01-01

    To achieve an on-line coupling of the sample preconcentration by a large-volume sample stacking with an electroosmotic flow pump (LVSEP) with microchip gel electrophoresis (MCGE), a sample solution, a background solution for LVSEP and a sieving solution for MCGE were loaded in a T-form channel and three reservoirs on PDMS microchips. By utilizing the difference in the flow resistance of the two channels, a low-viscosity sample and a viscous polymer solution were easily introduced into the LVSEP and MCGE channels, respectively. Fluorescence imaging of the sequential LVSEP-MCGE processes clearly demonstrated that a faster stacking of anionic fluorescein and successive introduction into the MCGE channel can be carried out on the T-channel chip. To evaluate the preconcentration performance, a conventional MCZE analysis of fluorescein on the cross-channel chip was compared with LVSEP-MCGE on the short T-channel chip, and as a result that the value of sensitive enhancement factor (SEF) was estimated to be 370. The repeatability of the peak height was good with the RSD value of 3.2%, indicating the robustness of the enrichment performance. In the successive LVSEP-MCGE analysis of φX174/HaeIII digest, the DNA fragments were well enriched to a sharp peak in the LVSEP channel, and they were separated in the MCGE channel, whose electropherogram was well-resembled with that in the conventional MCGE. The values of SEF for the DNA fragments were calculated to be ranging from 74 to 108. Thus, the successive LVSEP-MCGE analysis was effective for both preconcentrating and separating DNA fragments. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Extending Practical Pre-Aggregation in On-Line Analytical Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Bach; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Dyreson, Curtis E.

    On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) based on a dimensional view of data is being used increasingly in traditional business applications as well as in applications such as health care for the purpose of analyzing very large amounts of data. Pre-aggregation, the prior materialization of aggregate...... select combinations of aggregates and then re-use these for efficiently computing other aggregates. However, this re-use of aggregates is contingent on the dimension hierarchies and the relationships between facts and dimensions satisfying stringent constraints. This severely limits the scope...

  16. An on-line monitoring system for a micro electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Y S; Chang, T Y; Chuang, T J

    2008-01-01

    A pulse-type discriminating system to monitor the process of micro electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) is developed and implemented. The specific features are extracted and the pulses from a RC-type power source are classified into normal, effective arc, transient short circuit and complex types. An approach to discriminate the pulse type according to three durations measured at three pre-determined voltage levels of a pulse is proposed. The developed system is verified by using simulated signals. Discrimination of the pulse trains in actual machining processes shows that the pulses are mainly the normal type for micro wire-EDM and micro-EDM milling. The pulse-type distribution varies during the micro-EDM drilling process. The percentage of complex-type pulse increases monotonically with the drilling depth. It starts to drop when the gap condition is seriously deteriorated. Accordingly, an on-line monitoring strategy for the micro-EDM drilling process is proposed

  17. Virtual sensors for on-line wheel wear and part roughness measurement in the grinding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriandiaga, Ander; Portillo, Eva; Sánchez, Jose A; Cabanes, Itziar; Pombo, Iñigo

    2014-05-19

    Grinding is an advanced machining process for the manufacturing of valuable complex and accurate parts for high added value sectors such as aerospace, wind generation, etc. Due to the extremely severe conditions inside grinding machines, critical process variables such as part surface finish or grinding wheel wear cannot be easily and cheaply measured on-line. In this paper a virtual sensor for on-line monitoring of those variables is presented. The sensor is based on the modelling ability of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for stochastic and non-linear processes such as grinding; the selected architecture is the Layer-Recurrent neural network. The sensor makes use of the relation between the variables to be measured and power consumption in the wheel spindle, which can be easily measured. A sensor calibration methodology is presented, and the levels of error that can be expected are discussed. Validation of the new sensor is carried out by comparing the sensor's results with actual measurements carried out in an industrial grinding machine. Results show excellent estimation performance for both wheel wear and surface roughness. In the case of wheel wear, the absolute error is within the range of microns (average value 32 μm). In the case of surface finish, the absolute error is well below Ra 1 μm (average value 0.32 μm). The present approach can be easily generalized to other grinding operations.

  18. Combining On-Line Characterization Tools with Modern Software Environments for Optimal Operation of Polymerization Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Ghadipasha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the initial steps towards the formulation and implementation of a generic and flexible model centric framework for integrated simulation, estimation, optimization and feedback control of polymerization processes. For the first time it combines the powerful capabilities of the automatic continuous on-line monitoring of polymerization system (ACOMP, with a modern simulation, estimation and optimization software environment towards an integrated scheme for the optimal operation of polymeric processes. An initial validation of the framework was performed for modelling and optimization using literature data, illustrating the flexibility of the method to apply under different systems and conditions. Subsequently, off-line capabilities of the system were fully tested experimentally for model validations, parameter estimation and process optimization using ACOMP data. Experimental results are provided for free radical solution polymerization of methyl methacrylate.

  19. 7 CFR 42.143 - Operating Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...=Number of sample units in a subgroup. T=Subgroup tolerance.L=Acceptance limit.S=Starting value. EC02SE91... ng=Number of sample units in a subgroup. T=Subgroup tolerance. L=Acceptance limit. S=Starting value... of sample units in a subgroup. T=Subgroup tolerance. L=Acceptance limit. S=Starting value. EC02SE91...

  20. Automated analysis of heterogeneous carbon nanostructures by high-resolution electron microscopy and on-line image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, P.; Farrer, J.K.; Palotas, A.B.; Lighty, J.S.; Eddings, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution electron microscopy is an efficient tool for characterizing heterogeneous nanostructures; however, currently the analysis is a laborious and time-consuming manual process. In order to be able to accurately and robustly quantify heterostructures, one must obtain a statistically high number of micrographs showing images of the appropriate sub-structures. The second step of analysis is usually the application of digital image processing techniques in order to extract meaningful structural descriptors from the acquired images. In this paper it will be shown that by applying on-line image processing and basic machine vision algorithms, it is possible to fully automate the image acquisition step; therefore, the number of acquired images in a given time can be increased drastically without the need for additional human labor. The proposed automation technique works by computing fields of structural descriptors in situ and thus outputs sets of the desired structural descriptors in real-time. The merits of the method are demonstrated by using combustion-generated black carbon samples. - Highlights: ► The HRTEM analysis of heterogeneous nanostructures is a tedious manual process. ► Automatic HRTEM image acquisition and analysis can improve data quantity and quality. ► We propose a method based on on-line image analysis for the automation of HRTEM image acquisition. ► The proposed method is demonstrated using HRTEM images of soot particles

  1. A system for on-line monitoring of light element concentration distributions in thin samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, P.J.M.; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; Voigt, de M.J.A.

    1999-01-01

    At the Cyclotron Laboratory, a scanning proton microprobe is used to determine concentration distributions in biomedical samples. The data acquired in these measurements used to be analysed in a time consuming off-line analysis. To avoid the loss of valuable measurement and analysis time, DYANA was

  2. Thin layer activation : on-line monitoring of metal loss in process plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulton, L.H.; Wallace, G.

    1993-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion and wear of metals is a common cause of failure in some process plant and equipment. Monitoring of these destructive effects has been done for many years to help plant engineers minimise the damage, in order to avoid unexpected failures and unscheduled shutdowns. Traditional methods of monitoring, such as standard NDT techniques, inform the engineer of what has happened, providing data such as culmulative loss of wall thickness. The modern approach to monitoring however, is to employ a technique which gives both current loss rates as well as integrated losses. Thin Layer Activation (TLA) provides on-line monitoring of corrosion, erosion and wear of metals, to a high degree of accuracy. It also gives cumulative information which can be backed up with weight-loss results if required. Thus current rather than historical loss rates are measured before any significant loss of metal has occurred. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs

  3. On-line stacking techniques for the nonaqueous capillary electrophoretic determination of acrylamide in processed food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezcan, Filiz; Erim, F. Bedia

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, field amplified sample stacking (FASS) techniques in the nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis method (NACE) were introduced for the on-line concentration of the acrylamide to improve acrylamide detection at 210 nm by diode-array detection. Acetonitrile (ACN) as a nonaqueous solvent permits acrylamide to be protonated through the change of its acid-base chemistry, allowing capillary electrophoretic separation of this compound. Choosing 30 mmol L -1 HClO 4 , 20 mmol L -1 NaClO 4 , 218 mmol L -1 CH 3 COOH in ACN as the separation electrolyte and employing sample stacking methods, the LOD value of acrylamide was decreased to 2.6 ng mL -1 with electrokinetic injection and 4.4 ng mL -1 with hydrodynamic injection. Optimized stacking conditions were applied to the determination of acrylamide in several foodstuffs. The method is simple, rapid, inexpensive, and widely applicable for the determination of acrylamide in food samples

  4. Using mark-recapture distance sampling methods on line transect surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Louise M.; Borchers, David L.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Marques, Tigao A

    2014-01-01

    Mark–recapture distance sampling (MRDS) methods are widely used for density and abundance estimation when the conventional DS assumption of certain detection at distance zero fails, as they allow detection at distance zero to be estimated and incorporated into the overall probability of detection to better estimate density and abundance. However, incorporating MR data in DS models raises survey and analysis issues not present in conventional DS. Conversely, incorporating DS assumptions in MR models raises issues not present in conventional MR. As a result, being familiar with either conventional DS methods or conventional MR methods does not on its own put practitioners in good a position to apply MRDS methods appropriately. This study explains the sometimes subtly different varieties of MRDS survey methods and the associated concepts underlying MRDS models. This is done as far as possible without giving mathematical details – in the hope that this will make the key concepts underlying the methods accessible to a wider audience than if we were to present the concepts via equations.

  5. Comparison of process estimation techniques for on-line calibration monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumaker, B. D.; Hashemian, H. M.; Morton, G. W.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of on-line calibration monitoring is to reduce the number of unnecessary calibrations performed each refueling cycle on pressure, level, and flow transmitters in nuclear power plants. The effort requires a baseline for determining calibration drift and thereby the need for a calibration. There are two ways to establish the baseline: averaging and modeling. Averaging techniques have proven to be highly successful in the applications when there are a large number of redundant transmitters; but, for systems with little or no redundancy, averaging methods are not always reliable. That is, for non-redundant transmitters, more sophisticated process estimation techniques are needed to augment or replace the averaging techniques. This paper explores three well-known process estimation techniques; namely Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Auto-Associative Neural Networks (AANN), and Auto-Associative Kernel Regression (AAKR). Using experience and data from an operating nuclear plant, the paper will present an evaluation of the effectiveness of these methods in detecting transmitter drift in actual plant conditions. (authors)

  6. Analysis of plant hormones by microemulsion electrokinetic capillary chromatography coupled with on-line large volume sample stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zongbao; Lin, Zian; Zhang, Lin; Cai, Yan; Zhang, Lan

    2012-04-07

    A novel method of microemulsion electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEEKC) coupled with on-line large volume sample stacking was developed for the analysis of six plant hormones including indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, indole-3-propionic acid, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, abscisic acid and salicylic acid. Baseline separation of six plant hormones was achieved within 10 min by using the microemulsion background electrolyte containing a 97.2% (w/w) 10 mM borate buffer at pH 9.2, 1.0% (w/w) ethyl acetate as oil droplets, 0.6% (w/w) sodium dodecyl sulphate as surfactant and 1.2% (w/w) 1-butanol as cosurfactant. In addition, an on-line concentration method based on a large volume sample stacking technique and multiple wavelength detection was adopted for improving the detection sensitivity in order to determine trace level hormones in a real sample. The optimal method provided about 50-100 fold increase in detection sensitivity compared with a single MEEKC method, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) were between 0.005 and 0.02 μg mL(-1). The proposed method was simple, rapid and sensitive and could be applied to the determination of six plant hormones in spiked water samples, tobacco leaves and 1-naphthylacetic acid in leaf fertilizer. The recoveries ranged from 76.0% to 119.1%, and good reproducibilities were obtained with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6.6%.

  7. On-line data processing apparatus for spectroscopic measurements of atomic uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miron, E.; Levin, L.A.; Erez, G; Baumatz, D; Goren, I.; Shpancer, I.

    1977-01-01

    A computer-based apparatus for on-line spectroscopic measurements of atomic uranium is described. The system is capable of enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio by averaging, and performing calculations. Computation flow charts and programs are included

  8. Atomic emission spectroscopy for the on-line monitoring of incineration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, E.A.H.; Groote, F.P.J. de; Jonkers, J.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A.; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der

    2003-01-01

    A diagnostic measurement system based on atomic emission spectroscopy has been developed for the purpose of on-line monitoring of hazardous elements in industrial combustion gases. The aim was to construct a setup with a high durability for rough and variable experimental conditions, e.g. a strongly fluctuating gas composition, a high gas temperature and the presence of fly ash and corrosive effluents. Since the setup is primarily intended for the analysis of combustion gases with extremely high concentrations of pollutants, not much effort has been made to achieve low detection limits. It was found that an inductively coupled argon plasma was too sensitive to molecular gas introduction. Therefore, a microwave induced plasma torch, compromising both the demands of a high durability and an effective evaporation and excitation of the analyte was used as excitation source. The analysis system has been installed at an industrial hazardous waste incinerator and successfully tested on combustion gases present above the incineration process. Abundant elements as zinc, lead and sodium could be easily monitored

  9. Application of laser ultrasonic method for on-line monitoring of friction stir spot welding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kuanshuang; Zhou, Zhenggan; Zhou, Jianghua

    2015-09-01

    Application of a laser ultrasonic method is developed for on-line monitoring of the friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process. Based on the technology of FSSW, laser-generated ultrasonic waves in a good weld and nonweld area are simulated by a finite element method. The reflected and transmitted waves are analyzed to disclose the properties of the welded interface. The noncontact-laser ultrasonic-inspection system was established to verify the numerical results. The reflected waves in the good-weld and nonweld area can be distinguished by time-of-flight. The transmitted waves evidently attenuate in the nonweld area in contrast to signal amplitude in the good weld area because of interfacial impedance difference. Laser ultrasonic C-scan images can sufficiently evaluate the intrinsic character of the weld area in comparison with traditional water-immersion ultrasonic testing results. The research results confirm that laser ultrasonics would be an effective method to realize the characterization of FSSW defects.

  10. Determination of total and inorganic mercury in fish samples with on-line oxidation coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Lijun; Gan Wuer; Su Qingde

    2006-01-01

    An atomic fluorescence spectrometry system for determination of total and inorganic mercury with electromagnetic induction-assisted heating on-line oxidation has been developed. Potassium peroxodisulphate was used as the oxidizing agent to decompose organomercury compounds. Depending on the temperature selected, inorganic or total mercury could be determined with the same manifold. Special accent was put on the study of the parameters influencing the on-line digestion efficiency. The tolerance to the interference of coexisting ions was carefully examined in this system. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits (3σ) were evaluated to be 2.9 ng l -1 for inorganic mercury and 2.6 ng l -1 for total mercury, respectively. The relative standard deviations for 10 replicate determinations of 1.0 μg l -1 Hg were 2.4 and 3.2% for inorganic mercury and total mercury, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of total and inorganic mercury in fish samples

  11. Development of on-line electrochemical sample pretreatment methods for the analysis of thallium and uranium by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, F.; Van Berkel, G.J.; Morton, S.J.; Duckworth, D.C.; Adeniyi, W.K.; Keller, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Anodic and adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AWV and AdSV, respectively) were performed on-line with a mercury thin-film electrode (MTFE) to effect the selective accumulation and detection of thallium and uranium, respectively. ASV-ICP-MS experiments using thallium as the test element were performed to characterize the behavior of the on-line system for low level and quantitative determinations. Excellent linearity in response was demonstrated for thallium standards ranging from 0.25 ng/L to 50 microg/L. The 1.0 pg/L detection limit calculated from this data for thallium (3σ/sensitivity) was 400 times lower than that of conventional ICP-MS. The ability to overcome sample matrix effects in quantitative determinations was demonstrated by the analysis of an undiluted synthetic urine sample. AdSV-ICP-MS experiments were performed using uranium as the test element to demonstrate the utility of this method for the determination of radiologically important elements. A uranium(VI)-cupferron complex was used to effect adsorptive accumulation of uranium from a 10 microg/L standard solution onto the MTFE. The uranium was chemically stripped from the electrode for subsequent downstream detection by the ICP-MS. The quantitative nature of this method and a modest enhancement of signal levels (∼X10) over those levels obtained with conventional ICP-MS for samples in the microgram/liter concentration range were demonstrated. Modifications to the current system to provide low flow rate operation will allow further optimization of the ASV-ICP-MS and AdSV-ICP-MS combinations

  12. On-line immunoaffinity column-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for trace analysis of diuron in wastewater treatment plant effluent sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuli; Martens, Dieter; Krämer, Petra M; Kettrup, Antonius A; Liang, Xinmiao

    2006-11-10

    An on-line immunoaffinity column with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (IAC-LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of diuron in water matrices was described. This method used a sol-gel immunoaffinity column (20 mm x 4 mm I.D.) for on-line sample cleanup and enrichment, a monolithic analytical column (100 mm x 4.6 mm I.D.) for separation, and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for quantitation. The major challenges for the on-line set-up were discussed. The optimized on-line protocol was emphasized by the fact that low limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 1.0 ng/L was achieved with only 2.5-mL sample. In addition, a satisfactory accuracy ( approximately 90% of recovery) and precision (effect, the on-line IAC-LC-MS/MS analysis method can reliably determine diuron in wastewater treatment plant effluent sample.

  13. Determination of trace thorium in water samples by flow injection fluorescence spectrophotometry with microcolumn on-line preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Zhuqin; Zhang Yanan; Guo Dongfa; Huang Yun

    1991-01-01

    An on-line preconcentration time resolved fluorimetric method was developed for the determination of trace thorium in water, based on luminescence of complex Th-morin-TOPO (or TRPO)-sodium lauryl sulfate in sulfuric acid medium. Interferences from companied cations, such as Al 3+ and Zr 4+ , which emit fluorescence with much slower rising rate at the same condition were effectively eliminated through optimization of the manifold parameters and precisely controlling of the elution flow rate. Effects of nearly 40 ions were also investigated. The detection limit, the liner range and relative standard deviation for 50 ng Th are 2.5 ng/L, 0∼80 ng and 3.6%, respectively. Sampling rate is 30 per hour

  14. On-line preconcentration and determination of mercury in biological and environmental samples by cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrua, N.; Cerutti, S.; Salonia, J.A.; Olsina, R.A.; Martinez, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    An on-line procedure for the determination of traces of total mercury in environmental and biological samples is described. The present methodology combines cold vapor generation associated to atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) with preconcentration of the analyte on a minicolumn packed with activated carbon. The retained analyte was quantitatively eluted from the minicolumn with nitric acid. After that, volatile specie of mercury was generated by merging the acidified sample and sodium tetrahydroborate(III) in a continuous flow system. The gaseous analyte was subsequently introduced via a stream of Ar carrier into the atomizer device. Optimizations of both, preconcentration and mercury volatile specie generation variables were carried out using two level full factorial design (2 3 ) with 3 replicates of the central point. Considering a sample consumption of 25 mL, an enrichment factor of 13-fold was obtained. The detection limit (3σ) was 10 ng L -1 and the precision (relative standard deviation) was 3.1% (n = 10) at the 5 μg L -1 level. The calibration curve using the preconcentration system for mercury was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9995 at levels near the detection limit up to at least 1000 μg L -1 . Satisfactory results were obtained for the analysis of mercury in tap water and hair samples

  15. Application of on-line near-infrared analyzer to process control in fermentation plant; Hakko plant no unten kanri ni okeru kinsekigai bunsekikei no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OKayasu, S.; Kitayama, M.; Miyashiro, S. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc. Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-10

    Aiming for stable operation and rationalization of a fermentation plant, a near-infrared analyzer was introduced into the on-line analyzing system of the fermentation process. An on-line sampling system with a deforming apparatus was applied to a fermenter in a commercial scale plant. A new efficient method for obtaining highly accurate calibration curves of the near-infrared analyzer was presented. The established method for on-line determination of the main components in the fermentation medium for amino acid production was applied to a real-time measurement system in a commercial fermentation plant. The pattern of sugar concentration change was successfully obtained on a real-time basis. The system was partially incorporated into operation control, even if there was room for improvement of analytical accuracy in response to raw material differences in each lot. 9 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. 76 FR 7102 - Simplified Network Application Processing System, On-line Registration and Account Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... the Chief Counsel for Advocacy of the Small Business Administration that the proposed rule, if adopted... Industry and Security (BIS) amends the Export Administration Regulations to implement a mandatory on-line... in their accounts current. This rulemaking is consistent with the goals and principles of Executive...

  17. Atomic emission spectroscopy for the on-line monitoring of incineration processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, E.A.H.; de Groote, F.P.J.; Jonkers, J.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    A diagnostic measurement system based on atomic emission spectroscopy has been developed for the purpose of on-line monitoring of hazardous elements in industrial combustion gases. The aim was to construct a setup with a high durability for rough and variable experimental conditions, e.g. a strongly

  18. Spectroscopic and physicochemical measurements for on-line monitoring of used nuclear fuel separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nee, Ko; Nilsson, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of California, 916 Engineering Tower, Irvine, CA 92697-2575 (United States); Bryan, S.; Levitskaia, T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO BOX 999, Richland, CA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Separation processes for used nuclear fuel are often complicated and challenging due to the high constraints in purity of the products and safeguards of the process streams. In order to achieve a safe, secure and efficient separation process, the liquid streams in the separation process require close monitoring. Due to the high radiation environment, sampling of the materials is difficult. Availability of a detection technique that is remote, non-destructive and can avoid time-delay caused by retrieving samples would be beneficial and could minimize the exposure to personnel and provide material accountancy to avoid diversion (non-proliferation). For example, Ultra Violet (UV), Visible (Vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy that detect and quantify elements present in used nuclear fuel, e.g. lanthanides, actinides and molecules such as nitrate, can be used. In this work, we have carried out NIR and Raman spectroscopy to study aqueous solutions composed of different concentrations of nitric acid, sodium nitrate, and neodymium at varied temperatures. A chemometric model for online monitoring based on the PLS-Toolbox (MATLAB) software has been developed and validated to provide chemical composition of process streams based on spectroscopic data. In conclusion, both of our NIR and Raman spectra were useful for H{sup +} and NO{sub 3} prediction, and only NIR was helpful for the Nd{sup 3+} prediction.

  19. MINIMALISM IN A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC POINT OF VIEW: BINDING PRINCIPLES AND ITS OPERATION IN ON-LINE PROCESSING OF COREFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ferrari Neto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate how much a formal model of Grammar can be apply to on-line mental processes that underlying the sentential processing. For this intent, it was carried on an experiment in which it was observed how the Binding Principles act in the processing of correferential relations in Brazilian Portuguese (BP. The results suggest that there is a convergence between linguistic computation and theories about linguistic processing.

  20. On-line technique for preparingand measuring stable carbon isotopeof total dissolved inorganic carbonin water samples ( d13CTDIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Inguaggiato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A fast and completely automated procedure is proposed for the preparation and determination of d13C of total inorganic carbon dissolved in water ( d13CTDIC. This method is based on the acidification of water samples transforming the whole dissolved inorganic carbon species into CO2. Water samples are directly injected by syringe into 5.9 ml vials with screw caps which have a pierciable rubber septum. An Analytical Precision «Carbonate Prep System» was used both to flush pure helium into the vials and to automatically dispense a fixed amount of H3PO4. Full-equilibrium conditions between produced CO2 and water are reached at a temperature of 70°C (± 0.1°C in less than 24 h. Carbon isotope ratios (13C/ 12C were measured on an AP 2003 continuous flow mass spectrometer, connected on-line with the injection system. The precision and reproducibility of the proposed method was tested both on aqueous standard solutions prepared using Na2CO3 with d13C=-10.78 per mil versus PDB (1 s= 0.08, n = 11, and at five different concentrations (2, 3, 4, 5 and 20 mmol/l and on more than thirty natural samples. Mean d13CTDIC on standard solution samples is ?10.89 < per mil versus PDB (1 s= 0.18, n = 50, thus revealing both a good analytical precision and reproducibility. A comparison between average d13CTDIC values on a quadruplicate set of natural samples and those obtained following the chemical and physical stripping method highlights a good agreement between the two analytical methods.

  1. On-line monitoring of wear and/or corrosion processes by thin layer activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Popa-Simil, L.; Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Thin Layer Activation (TLA) principle consists in creating a radioactive layer by ion beam irradiation of a machine part subjected to wear. The method is based on the determination of the increasing radioactivity in the lubricant due to suspended wear particles and has a sensitivity threshold of about 40 μ g / cm 2 . The most used radioactive markers are 56 Co, 57 Co, 65 Zn, 51 Cr, 48 V, 124 Sb. In this paper, we have chosen to present an on-line wear level determination experiment performed for a thermal engine. The study of possible influence of a SR3 added lubricant upon the wear level of a Dacia 1410 car engine is presented, illustrating the on-line TLA based monitoring of wear for industrial uses. The examples presented outline the advantages of this method over the conventional one, like the fast response and the high sensitivity, while no dismantling of the engine is implied. (author)

  2. On-line monitoring of food fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peris, Miguel, E-mail: mperist@qim.upv.es [Departamento de Química, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Escuder-Gilabert, Laura [Departamento de Química Analítica, Universitat de Valencia, C/ Vicente Andrés Estellés s/n, E-46100 Burjasot, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •This review paper deals with the applications of electronic noses and electronic tongues to the monitoring of fermentation processes. •Positive and negative aspects of the different approaches reviewed are analyzed. •Current and future endeavors in this field are also commented. -- Abstract: Fermentation processes are often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, close follow-up of this type of processes is critical for detecting unfavorable deviations as early as possible in order to save downtime, materials and resources. Nevertheless the use of traditional analytical techniques is often hindered by the need for expensive instrumentation and experienced operators and complex sample preparation. In this sense, one of the most promising ways of developing rapid and relatively inexpensive methods for quality control in fermentation processes is the use of chemical multisensor systems. In this work we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the monitoring of fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues. After a brief description of the fundamentals of both types of devices, the different approaches are critically commented, their strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. Finally, future trends in this field are also mentioned in the last section of the article.

  3. On-line monitoring of food fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peris, Miguel; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •This review paper deals with the applications of electronic noses and electronic tongues to the monitoring of fermentation processes. •Positive and negative aspects of the different approaches reviewed are analyzed. •Current and future endeavors in this field are also commented. -- Abstract: Fermentation processes are often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, close follow-up of this type of processes is critical for detecting unfavorable deviations as early as possible in order to save downtime, materials and resources. Nevertheless the use of traditional analytical techniques is often hindered by the need for expensive instrumentation and experienced operators and complex sample preparation. In this sense, one of the most promising ways of developing rapid and relatively inexpensive methods for quality control in fermentation processes is the use of chemical multisensor systems. In this work we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the monitoring of fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues. After a brief description of the fundamentals of both types of devices, the different approaches are critically commented, their strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. Finally, future trends in this field are also mentioned in the last section of the article

  4. Automated on-line solid phase extraction coupled to HPLC-APCI-MS detection as a versatile tool for the analysis of phenols in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissiack, R.

    2001-05-01

    determination of the entire US EPA phenol range within a single chromatographic run with only one MSD interface and could be easily adapted for the analysis of further phenolic compounds. This represents a significant improvement over methods reported for the analysis of phenolic compounds by on-line SPE HPLC-MS so far. For the on-line SPE of phenols from water samples the recently introduced Hysphere GP and the Waters Oasis adsorbent materials were found to be most satisfactory. Their application resulted in quantitative recoveries for sample volumes up to 100 ml, excellent elution behavior (enabling fast elution resulting in narrower peaks) and relative standard deviations for the overall analysis system below 8 percent for all phenols. Typical enrichment factors for automated on-line SPE were estimated to be about one thousand compared to autosampler-injections. Thus, LODs ranging between 40-280 ng/l in SCAN mode could be achieved even when only 10 ml of spiked distilled or river water sample were processed which attests to the excellent screening capabilities of the optimized method. When using the SIM mode the sensitivity could be further increased by about one order of magnitude. The applicability of the proposed method to environmental analysis was demonstrated by preconcentrating phenols from spiked river water samples or waster water treatment effluents via automated on-line SPE HPLC-MS. Due to the very high concentration of matrix in the case of waste water treatment effluents, the sample volume preconcentrated had to be decreased to only 1 ml. Still, the sensitivity is high enough to monitor phenols at levels relevant for waste water monitoring. As a further example for the general applicability of the HPLC-MS method for the tentative structural elucidation of phenolic compounds, it was also used for the analysis of diesel exhaust condensate samples where a number of phenolic compounds could be tentatively identified. (author)

  5. Flow injection on-line oxidizing fluorometry coupled to dialysis sampling for the study of carbamazepine-protein binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhiqi [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)]. E-mail: zqzhang@snnu.edu.cn; Liang Guoxi [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2005-04-22

    The mechanism of binding of carbamazepine (CBZ) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated in vitro based on a new flow injection fluorometry coupled to the technique of dialysis sampling. The CBZ and BSA were mixed in different molar ratios in 0.050 mol L{sup -1} phosphate buffer (containing 0.9% NaCl), pH 7.4, and incubated at 37 {+-} 0.5 deg. C in a water bath. The dialysis sampler was utilized to sample free CBZ from mixed solution with a relative dialytic efficiency of 7.6%. Then the CBZ in dialysis solution was injected into carrier and on-line oxidized by lead dioxide solid-phase reactor into fluorescent product with a maximum excitation wavelength of 355 nm and a maximum emission wavelength of 478 nm. The fluorescence intensity measured was linear proportional with the concentration of free CBZ in mixed solution over the range of 1 x 10{sup -5} to 2 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1} with the detection limit of 6 x 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1}. According to the fluorescence measurement results from mixed solution, the association constant (K) estimated for CBZ-BSA binding and the number of the binding site (n) with Scatchard analysis were 1.08 x 10{sup 4} L mol{sup -1} and 0.94, respectively. Stern-Volmer plots indicated the presence of dynamic component in the quenching mechanism. The acting force was suggested to be mainly hydrophobic and the distance between the acceptor and donor was 3.12 nm. The estimated binding parameters agreed well with literature values.

  6. Implementation of an integrated on-line process surveillance and diagnostic system at the Halden reactor project: MOAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Grini, R.-E.; Nilsen, S.

    2001-01-01

    MOAS is an integrated on-line process surveillance and diagnostic system that uses several different models for knowledge acquisition and diagnostic reasoning, such as goal-tree success-tree model, process monitor trees, and sensor failure diagnosis trees. Within these models, the knowledge of the process and its operation, including deep knowledge, like mass balance or controller algorithm, is incorporated. During an extensive review, made as part of the integrated diagnosis system project of the Halden reactor project, MOAS (Maryland Operator Advisory System) was identified as one of the most thorough systems developed thus far. MOAS encompasses diverse functional aspects that are required for an effective process disturbance management: (1) intelligent process monitoring and alarming, (2) on-line sensor data validation and sensor failure diagnosis, (3) on-line hardware (besides sensors) failure diagnosis, and (4) real-time corrective measure synthesis. The MOAS methodology was used for the NORS (Nokia Research Simulator) process at the Halden man-machine laboratory HAMMLAB of the OECD Halden reactor project. The performance tests of MOAS, implemented in G2 real-time expert system shell, show that MOAS successfully carries out its intended functions, i.e. quickly recognizing an occurring disturbance, correctly diagnosing its cause, and presenting advice on its control to the operator. The lessons learned and insights gained during the implementation and performance tests also are discussed

  7. Response of STFZ diode as on-line gamma dosimeter in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Fabio de; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Pascoalino, Kelly C.; Bueno, Carmen C.; Tuominen, Eija; Tuovinen, Esa; Haerkoenen, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    In this work, it is presented the results obtained with this rad-hard STFZ silicon diode as a high-dose gamma dosimeter. This device is a p + /n/n + junction diode, made on FZ Si wafer manufactured by Okmetic Oyj., Vantaa, Finland and processed by the Microelectronics Center of Helsinki University of Technology. The results obtained about the photocurrent registered and total charge accumulated on the diode as a function of the total absorbed dose are presented. The diodes' response showed a significant saturation effect for total absorbed doses higher than approximately 15 kGy. To reduce this effect, some STFZ samples have been pre-irradiated with gamma rays at accumulated dose of 700 kGy in order to saturate the trap production in the diode's sensitive volume. (author)

  8. Organization of the M-6000 computer calculating process in the CAMAC on-line measurement systems for a physical experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalova, T.V.; Volkov, A.S.; Golutvin, I.A.; Maslov, V.V.; Nevskaya, N.A.; Okonishnikov, A.A.; Terekhov, V.E.; Shilkin, I.P.

    1977-01-01

    Discussed are the basic results of the work on designing the software of the computer measuring complex (CMC) which uses the M-6000 computer and operates on line with an accelerator. All the CMC units comply with the CAMAC standard. The CMC incorporates a mainframe memory, twenty-four kilobytes of 16-digit words in size, and external memory on magnetic disks, 1 megabyte in size. Suggested is a modification of the technique for designing the CMC software providing for program complexes which are dynamically adjusted by an experimentalist for the given experiment for a short time. The CMC software comprises the following major portions: a software generator, data acquisition program, on-line data processing routines, off-line data processing programs and programs for data recording on magnetic tapes and disks. Testing of the designed CMC has revealed that the total data processing time equals to from 150 to 500 ms

  9. Representative process sampling - in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Friis-Pedersen, Hans Henrik; Julius, Lars Petersen

    2007-01-01

    Didactic data sets representing a range of real-world processes are used to illustrate "how to do" representative process sampling and process characterisation. The selected process data lead to diverse variogram expressions with different systematics (no range vs. important ranges; trends and....../or periodicity; different nugget effects and process variations ranging from less than one lag to full variogram lag). Variogram data analysis leads to a fundamental decomposition into 0-D sampling vs. 1-D process variances, based on the three principal variogram parameters: range, sill and nugget effect...

  10. Integrating shallow and deep knowledge in the design of an on-line process monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallanti, M.; Gilardoni, L.; Guida, G.; Stefanini, A.; Tomada, L.

    1989-01-01

    Monitoring and malfunctions diagnosis of complex industrial plants involves, in addition to shallow empirical knowledge about plant operation, also deep knowledge about structure and function. This paper presents the results obtained in the design and experimentation of PROP and PROP-2 systems, devoted to on-line monitoring and diagnosis of pollution phenomena in the cycle water of a thermal power plant. In particular, it focuses on PROP-2 architecture, with encompasses a four-level hierarchical knowledge base including both empirical knowledge and a deep model of the plant. Shallow knowledge is represented by production rules and event-graphs (a formalism for expressing procedural knowledge), while deep knowledge is expressed using a representation language based on the concept of component. One major contribution of the proposed approach has been to show in a running experimental system that a suitable blend of shallow and deep knowledge can offer substantial advantages over a single paradigm.

  11. The on-line graph processing study on phase separation of two-phase flow in T-tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Yong; Xu Jijun; Yang Zhilin; Chen Yifen

    1997-01-01

    The on-line graph processing measure system is equipped with and experimental study of phase separation of air-water bubbly flow in the horizontal T-junction is carried out. For the first time, the author have found and defined the new type of complete phase separation, by the visual experiment, which shows that under certain conditions, the air flow entering the T junction will flow into the run outlet completely, which had never been reported in the literature Also, the pressure wave feed back effect and the branch bubble flow reorganization effect were found and analyzed. The complexity of this phase separation phenomenon in the T junction has been further revealed via the on-line graph processing technology. Meanwhile the influences of the inlet mass flow rate W1, the inlet mass quality X1, and the mass extraction rate G3/G1 on phase separation were analyzed

  12. Signal processing and general purpose data acquisition system for on-line tomographic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, A.; Martin, P.; Hemming, O.; Manduchi, G.; Marrelli, L.; Taliercio, C.; Hoffmann, A.

    1997-01-01

    New analog signal conditioning electronics and data acquisition systems have been developed for the soft x-ray and bolometric tomography diagnostic in the reverse field pinch experiment (RFX). For the soft x-ray detectors the analog signal processing includes a fully differential current to voltage conversion, with up to a 200 kHz bandwidth. For the bolometers, a 50 kHz carrier frequency amplifier allows a maximum bandwidth of 10 kHz. In both cases the analog signals are digitized with a 1 MHz sampling rate close to the diagnostic and are transmitted via a transparent asynchronous xmitter/receiver interface (TAXI) link to purpose built Versa Module Europa (VME) modules which perform data acquisition. A software library has been developed for data preprocessing and tomographic reconstruction. It has been written in C language and is self-contained, i.e., no additional mathematical library is required. The package is therefore platform-free: in particular it can perform online analysis in a real-time application, such as continuous display and feedback, and is portable for long duration fusion or other physical experiments. Due to the modular organization of the library, new preprocessing and analysis modules can be easily integrated in the environment. This software is implemented in RFX over three different platforms: open VMS, digital Unix, and VME 68040 CPU.

  13. FPGA implementation of a hybrid on-line process monitoring in PC based real-time systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one way of FPGA implementation of hybrid (hardware-software based on-line process monitoring in Real-Time systems (RTS. The reasons for RTS monitoring are presented at the beginning. The summary of different RTS monitoring approaches along with its advantages and drawbacks are also exposed. Finally, monitoring module is described in details. Also, FPGA implementation results and some useful monitoring system applications are mentioned.

  14. Real-time synchronization of batch trajectories for on-line multivariate statistical process control using Dynamic Time Warping

    OpenAIRE

    González Martínez, Jose María; Ferrer Riquelme, Alberto José; Westerhuis, Johan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the real-time monitoring of batch processes with multiple different local time trajectories of variables measured during the process run. For Unfold Principal Component Analysis (U-PCA)—or Unfold Partial Least Squares (U-PLS)-based on-line monitoring of batch processes, batch runs need to be synchronized, not only to have the same time length, but also such that key events happen at the same time. An adaptation from Kassidas et al.'s approach [1] will be introduced to ach...

  15. Analytical techniques for in-line/on-line monitoring of uranium and plutonium in process solutions : a brief literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, S.G.; Sood, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    In-line/on-line monitoring of various parameters such as uranium-plutonium-fission product concentration, acidity, density etc. plays an important role in quickly understanding the efficiency of processes in a reprocessing plant. Efforts in studying and installation of such analytical instruments are going on since more than three decades with adaptation of newer methods and technologies. A review on the developement of in-line analytical instrumentation was carried out in this laboratory about two decades ago. This report presents a very short literature survey of the work in the last two decades. The report includes an outline of principles of the main techniques employed in the in-line/on-line monitoring. (author). 77 refs., 6 tabs

  16. A basic experimental study on characteristics of on-line human information processing associated with man-machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Nagai, Yoshinori; Kojima, Shin-ichi.

    1990-01-01

    Regarding human factors research on man-machine interface, a basic psychological experiment was conducted to observe psycho-physiological characteristics of on-line human cognitive behavior when cognitive tasks on learning and pattern classification were given to subjects by personal computer using a simple state transition model. During the experiment, three different types of subjects' data were recorded: (i) eye movement data by eye mark recorder, (ii) physio-electric signals by polygraph and (iii) verbal reports. Those subjects' data were analyzed with respect to: (i) the related human cognitive characteristics concerning problem solving strategy, measures of problem difficulty and mental image effect, (ii) observed eye movement characteristics such as saccade, attention, pupil reaction and blinking, etc., and (iii) obtained characteristics of skin potential response and heart rate. It was found that the application of psycho-physiological measurement would serve to objective and detailed analysis of on-line cognitive process. (author)

  17. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of J55ERW Steel Pipe Processed by On-Line Spray Water Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An on-line spray water cooling (OSWC process for manufacturing electric resistance welded (ERW steel pipes is presented to enhance their mechanical properties and performances. This technique reduces the processing needed for the ERW pipe and overcomes the weakness of the conventional manufacturing technique. Industrial tests for J55 ERW steel pipe were carried out to validate the effectiveness of the OSWC process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the J55 ERW steel pipe processed by the OSWC technology were investigated. The optimized OSWC technical parameters are presented based on the mechanical properties and impact the performance of steel pipes. The industrial tests show that the OSWC process can be used to efficiently control the microstructure, enhance mechanical properties, and improve production flexibility of steel pipes. The comprehensive mechanical properties of steel pipes processed by the OSWC are superior to those of other published J55 grade steels.

  18. Automated on-line liquid–liquid extraction system for temporal mass spectrometric analysis of dynamic samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Kai-Ta; Liu, Pei-Han [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Rd, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Urban, Pawel L. [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Rd, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Rd, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-24

    Most real samples cannot directly be infused to mass spectrometers because they could contaminate delicate parts of ion source and guides, or cause ion suppression. Conventional sample preparation procedures limit temporal resolution of analysis. We have developed an automated liquid–liquid extraction system that enables unsupervised repetitive treatment of dynamic samples and instantaneous analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). It incorporates inexpensive open-source microcontroller boards (Arduino and Netduino) to guide the extraction and analysis process. Duration of every extraction cycle is 17 min. The system enables monitoring of dynamic processes over many hours. The extracts are automatically transferred to the ion source incorporating a Venturi pump. Operation of the device has been characterized (repeatability, RSD = 15%, n = 20; concentration range for ibuprofen, 0.053–2.000 mM; LOD for ibuprofen, ∼0.005 mM; including extraction and detection). To exemplify its usefulness in real-world applications, we implemented this device in chemical profiling of pharmaceutical formulation dissolution process. Temporal dissolution profiles of commercial ibuprofen and acetaminophen tablets were recorded during 10 h. The extraction-MS datasets were fitted with exponential functions to characterize the rates of release of the main and auxiliary ingredients (e.g. ibuprofen, k = 0.43 ± 0.01 h{sup −1}). The electronic control unit of this system interacts with the operator via touch screen, internet, voice, and short text messages sent to the mobile phone, which is helpful when launching long-term (e.g. overnight) measurements. Due to these interactive features, the platform brings the concept of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) to the chemistry laboratory environment. - Highlights: • Mass spectrometric analysis normally requires sample preparation. • Liquid–liquid extraction can isolate analytes from complex matrices. • The proposed system automates

  19. Automated on-line liquid–liquid extraction system for temporal mass spectrometric analysis of dynamic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Kai-Ta; Liu, Pei-Han; Urban, Pawel L.

    2015-01-01

    Most real samples cannot directly be infused to mass spectrometers because they could contaminate delicate parts of ion source and guides, or cause ion suppression. Conventional sample preparation procedures limit temporal resolution of analysis. We have developed an automated liquid–liquid extraction system that enables unsupervised repetitive treatment of dynamic samples and instantaneous analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). It incorporates inexpensive open-source microcontroller boards (Arduino and Netduino) to guide the extraction and analysis process. Duration of every extraction cycle is 17 min. The system enables monitoring of dynamic processes over many hours. The extracts are automatically transferred to the ion source incorporating a Venturi pump. Operation of the device has been characterized (repeatability, RSD = 15%, n = 20; concentration range for ibuprofen, 0.053–2.000 mM; LOD for ibuprofen, ∼0.005 mM; including extraction and detection). To exemplify its usefulness in real-world applications, we implemented this device in chemical profiling of pharmaceutical formulation dissolution process. Temporal dissolution profiles of commercial ibuprofen and acetaminophen tablets were recorded during 10 h. The extraction-MS datasets were fitted with exponential functions to characterize the rates of release of the main and auxiliary ingredients (e.g. ibuprofen, k = 0.43 ± 0.01 h"−"1). The electronic control unit of this system interacts with the operator via touch screen, internet, voice, and short text messages sent to the mobile phone, which is helpful when launching long-term (e.g. overnight) measurements. Due to these interactive features, the platform brings the concept of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) to the chemistry laboratory environment. - Highlights: • Mass spectrometric analysis normally requires sample preparation. • Liquid–liquid extraction can isolate analytes from complex matrices. • The proposed system automates the

  20. Analysis of microcontaminants in aqueous samples by fully automated on-line solid-phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass selective detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, A.J.H.; van Beekvelt, C.A.; Cid Montanes, P.; Slobodník, J.; Vreuls, J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1996-01-01

    The trace-level analysis of unknown organic pollutants in water requires the use of fast and sensitive methods which also provide structural information. In the present study, an on-line technique was used which combines sample preparation by means of solid-phase extraction (SPE) on a small

  1. Validation of a high performance liquid chromatography analysis for the determination of noradrenaline and adrenaline in human urine with an on-line sample purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, J; Nielsen, J L

    1999-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection including an on-line purification was established for determination of catecholamines in human urine. The method was evaluated using samples of pooled urine spiked with catecholamines and validated for measurements...

  2. On-line, real-time monitoring for petrochemical and pipeline process control applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Russell D.; Eden, D.C.; Cayard, M.S.; Eden, D.A.; Mclean, D.T. [InterCorr International, Inc., 14503 Bammel N. Houston, Suite 300, Houston Texas 77014 (United States); Kintz, J. [BASF Corporation, 602 Copper Rd., Freeport, Texas 77541 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Corrosion problems in petroleum and petrochemical plants and pipeline may be inherent to the processes, but costly and damaging equipment losses are not. With the continual drive to increase productivity, while protecting both product quality, safety and the environment, corrosion must become a variable that can be continuously monitored and assessed. This millennium has seen the introduction of new 'real-time', online measurement technologies and vast improvements in methods of electronic data handling. The 'replace when it fails' approach is receding into a distant memory; facilities management today is embracing new technology, and rapidly appreciating the value it has to offer. It has offered the capabilities to increase system run time between major inspections, reduce the time and expense associated with turnaround or in-line inspections, and reduce major upsets which cause unplanned shut downs. The end result is the ability to know on a practical basis of how 'hard' facilities can be pushed before excessive corrosion damage will result, so that process engineers can understand the impact of their process control actions and implement true asset management. This paper makes reference to use of a online, real-time electrochemical corrosion monitoring system - SmartCET 1- in a plant running a mostly organic process media. It also highlights other pertinent examples where similar systems have been used to provide useful real-time information to detect system upsets, which would not have been possible otherwise. This monitoring/process control approach has operators and engineers to see, for the first time, changes in corrosion behavior caused by specific variations in process parameters. Process adjustments have been identified that reduce corrosion rates while maintaining acceptable yields and quality. The monitoring system has provided a new window into the chemistry of the process, helping chemical engineers improve their process

  3. On-line validation of linear process models using generalized likelihood ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylee, J.L.

    1981-12-01

    A real-time method for testing the validity of linear models of nonlinear processes is described and evaluated. Using generalized likelihood ratios, the model dynamics are continually monitored to see if the process has moved far enough away from the nominal linear model operating point to justify generation of a new linear model. The method is demonstrated using a seventh-order model of a natural circulation steam generator

  4. ASSEMBLER program group for preliminary data processing on-line with ES-1010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pshenichnyj, V.A.; Gritsaj, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The paper deals with programs on the ASSEMBLER language for processing of physical data, obtained in a time-of-flight neutron spectrometer. A program which provides the connection between a measuring room with a computer is given. There are also auxilliary programs for spectra processing recorded on a magnetic disk, spectra plotting and for calculation of areas under peaks for a ν-spectrum ed on a magnetic disk, spectra plotting and for cal

  5. On-line Biomass Estimation in a Batch Biotechnological Process: Bacillus thuringiensis δ - endotoxins production.

    OpenAIRE

    Amicarelli, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    In this Chapter it has been addressed the problem of the biomass estimation in a batch biotechnological process: the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) δ-endotoxins production process. Different alternatives that can be successfully used in this sense were presented. It has been exposed the design of various biomass estimators, namely: a phenomenological biomass estimator, a standard EKF biomass estimator, a biomass estimator based on ANN, a decentralized Kalman Filter, and a biomass concentration ...

  6. Children's and adults' on-line processing of syntactically ambiguous sentences during reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly S S L Joseph

    Full Text Available While there has been a fair amount of research investigating children's syntactic processing during spoken language comprehension, and a wealth of research examining adults' syntactic processing during reading, as yet very little research has focused on syntactic processing during text reading in children. In two experiments, children and adults read sentences containing a temporary syntactic ambiguity while their eye movements were monitored. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences such as, 'The boy poked the elephant with the long stick/trunk from outside the cage' in which the attachment of a prepositional phrase was manipulated. In Experiment 2, participants read sentences such as, 'I think I'll wear the new skirt I bought tomorrow/yesterday. It's really nice' in which the attachment of an adverbial phrase was manipulated. Results showed that adults and children exhibited similar processing preferences, but that children were delayed relative to adults in their detection of initial syntactic misanalysis. It is concluded that children and adults have the same sentence-parsing mechanism in place, but that it operates with a slightly different time course. In addition, the data support the hypothesis that the visual processing system develops at a different rate than the linguistic processing system in children.

  7. On-line testing of calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. Phase 2, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1995-11-01

    The nuclear industry is interested in automating the calibration of process instrumentation channels; this report provides key results of one of the sponsored projects to determine the validity of automated calibrations. Conclusion is that the normal outputs of instrument channels in nuclear plants can be monitored over a fuel cycle while the plant is operating to determine calibration drift in the field sensors and associated signal conversion and signal conditioning equipment. The procedure for on-line calibration tests involving calculating the deviation of each instrument channel from the best estimate of the process parameter that the instrument is measuring. Methods were evaluated for determining the best estimate. Deviation of each signal from the best estimate is updated frequently while the plant is operating and plotted vs time for entire fuel cycle, thereby providing time history plots that can reveal channel drift and other anomalies. Any instrument channel that exceeds allowable drift or channel accuracy band is then scheduled for calibration during a refueling outage or sooner. This provides calibration test results at the process operating point, one of the most critical points of the channel operation. This should suffice for most narrow-range instruments, although the calibration of some instruments can be verified at other points throughout their range. It should be pointed out that the calibration of some process signals such as the high pressure coolant injection flow in BWRs, which are normally off- scale during plant operation, can not be tested on-line

  8. Sample processing device and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A sample processing device is disclosed, which sample processing device comprises a first substrate and a second substrate, where the first substrate has a first surface comprising two area types, a first area type with a first contact angle with water and a second area type with a second contact...... angle with water, the first contact angle being smaller than the second contact angle. The first substrate defines an inlet system and a preparation system in areas of the first type which two areas are separated by a barrier system in an area of the second type. The inlet system is adapted to receive...

  9. Robotic system for process sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyches, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    A three-axis cartesian geometry robot for process sampling was developed at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and implemented in one of the site radioisotope separations facilities. Use of the robot reduces personnel radiation exposure and contamination potential by routinely handling sample containers under operator control in a low-level radiation area. This robot represents the initial phase of a longer term development program to use robotics for further sample automation. Preliminary design of a second generation robot with additional capabilities is also described. 8 figs

  10. On-line experimental data processing system for JIPP T-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Kenzo.

    1978-08-01

    A large computer system has been installed at the Plasma Physics Institute of Nagoya University for data processing in plasma physics experiments. The system is composed of three computers: FACOM M-190 as the host computer; PANAFACOM U-400 as the front computer; and HITAC 10-2 as the front-end computers. This document provides information about the hardware and software structures of this system and the details of subsystem of each software. Also system design, function of each computer, input output processing system, interfaces between the front-end computers (minicomputer), interface with the 32-channel AD converter, and the examples of output are described. (Aoki, K.)

  11. Fast on-line analysis of process alkane gas mixtures by NIR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, H. F. M.; Kok, W. T.; de Noord, O. E.; Smilde, A. K.

    2000-01-01

    Proper operation of a molecular sieve process for the separation of iso- and cyclo-alkanes front normal alkanes requires the fast online detection of normal alkanes breaking through the column. The feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for this application was investigated. Alkane

  12. On-line Cutting Tool Condition Monitoring in Machining Processes Using Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo, Antonio J.; Morales-Menéndez, Rub&#;n; Alique, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presented new ideas for monitoring and diagnosis of the cutting tool condition with two different algorithms for pattern recognition: HMM, and ANN. The monitoring and diagnosis system was implemented for peripheral milling process in HSM, where several Aluminium alloys and cutting tools were used. The flank wear (VB) was selected as the criterion to evaluate the tool's life and four cutting tool conditions were defined to be recognized: New, half new, half worn, and worn conditio...

  13. Fast algorithm for spectral processing with application to on-line welding quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirapeix, J.; Cobo, A.; Jaúregui, C.; López-Higuera, J. M.

    2006-10-01

    A new technique is presented in this paper for the analysis of welding process emission spectra to accurately estimate in real-time the plasma electronic temperature. The estimation of the electronic temperature of the plasma, through the analysis of the emission lines from multiple atomic species, may be used to monitor possible perturbations during the welding process. Unlike traditional techniques, which usually involve peak fitting to Voigt functions using the Levenberg-Marquardt recursive method, sub-pixel algorithms are used to more accurately estimate the central wavelength of the peaks. Three different sub-pixel algorithms will be analysed and compared, and it will be shown that the LPO (linear phase operator) sub-pixel algorithm is a better solution within the proposed system. Experimental tests during TIG-welding using a fibre optic to capture the arc light, together with a low cost CCD-based spectrometer, show that some typical defects associated with perturbations in the electron temperature can be easily detected and identified with this technique. A typical processing time for multiple peak analysis is less than 20 ms running on a conventional PC.

  14. On-line process failure diagnosis: The necessity and a comparative review of the methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.

    1991-01-01

    Three basic approaches to process failure management are defined and discussed to elucidate the role of diagnosis in the operation of nuclear power plants. The rationale for the necessity of diagnosis is given from various perspectives. A comparative review of some representative diagnostic methodologies is presented and their shortcomings are discussed. Based on the insights from the review, the desirable characteristics from the review, the desirable characteristics of advanced diagnostic methodologies are derived from the viewpoints of failure detection, diagnosis, and correction. 11 refs

  15. Young children with ASD use lexical and referential information during on-line sentence processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith L. Bavin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research with adults and older children indicates that verb biases are strong influences on listeners’ interpretations when processing sentences, but they can be overruled. In this paper we ask two questions: (i are children with ASD who are high functioning sensitive to verb biases like their same age typically developing peers?, and (ii do young children with ASD and young children with typical development override strong verb biases to consider alternative interpretations of ambiguous sentences? Participants were aged 5-9 years (mean age 6.65 years: children with ASD who were high functioning and children with typical development. In task 1 biasing and neutral verbs were included (e.g., eat cake versus move cake. In task 2 the focus was on whether the prepositional phrase occurring with an instrument biasing verb (e.g. ‘chop the tree with the axe’ was interpreted as an instrument even if the named item was an implausible instrument (e.g. candle in ‘Cut the cake with the candle’. Overall, the results showed similarities between groups but the ASD group was generally slower. In task 1, both groups looked at the named object faster in the biasing than the non-biasing condition, and in the biasing condition the ASD group looked away from the target more quickly than the TD group. In task 2, both groups identified the target in the prepositional phrase. They were more likely to override the verb instrument bias and consider the alternative (modification interpretation in the implausible condition (e.g., looking at the picture of a cake with a candle on it’. Our findings indicate that children of age 5 years and above can use context to override verb biases. Additionally, an important component of the sentence processing mechanism is largely intact for young children with ASD who are high functioning. Like children with typical development, they draw on verb semantics and plausibility in integrating information. However, they are likely

  16. On-Line GIS Analysis and Image Processing for Geoportal Kielce/poland Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejmanowska, B.; Głowienka, E.; Florek-Paszkowski, R.

    2016-06-01

    GIS databases are widely available on the Internet, but mainly for visualization with limited functionality; very simple queries are possible i.e. attribute query, coordinate readout, line and area measurements or pathfinder. A little more complex analysis (i.e. buffering or intersection) are rare offered. Paper aims at the concept of Geoportal functionality development in the field of GIS analysis. Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) is planned to be implemented in web application. OGC Service is used for data acquisition from the server and results visualization. Advanced GIS analysis is planned in PostGIS and Python programming. In the paper an example of MCE analysis basing on Geoportal Kielce is presented. Other field where Geoportal can be developed is implementation of processing new available satellite images free of charge (Sentinel-2, Landsat 8, ASTER, WV-2). Now we are witnessing a revolution in access to the satellite imagery without charge. This should result in an increase of interest in the use of these data in various fields by a larger number of users, not necessarily specialists in remote sensing. Therefore, it seems reasonable to expand the functionality of Internet's tools for data processing by non-specialists, by automating data collection and prepared predefined analysis.

  17. ON-LINE GIS ANALYSIS AND IMAGE PROCESSING FOR GEOPORTAL KIELCE/POLAND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hejmanowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available GIS databases are widely available on the Internet, but mainly for visualization with limited functionality; very simple queries are possible i.e. attribute query, coordinate readout, line and area measurements or pathfinder. A little more complex analysis (i.e. buffering or intersection are rare offered. Paper aims at the concept of Geoportal functionality development in the field of GIS analysis. Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE is planned to be implemented in web application. OGC Service is used for data acquisition from the server and results visualization. Advanced GIS analysis is planned in PostGIS and Python programming. In the paper an example of MCE analysis basing on Geoportal Kielce is presented. Other field where Geoportal can be developed is implementation of processing new available satellite images free of charge (Sentinel-2, Landsat 8, ASTER, WV-2. Now we are witnessing a revolution in access to the satellite imagery without charge. This should result in an increase of interest in the use of these data in various fields by a larger number of users, not necessarily specialists in remote sensing. Therefore, it seems reasonable to expand the functionality of Internet's tools for data processing by non-specialists, by automating data collection and prepared predefined analysis.

  18. Development and application of gamma scanning technology for on-line investigation of industrial process columns and vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar Abdullah

    1999-01-01

    Plant Assessment Technology (PAT) group, in association with Intelligent System (IS) Group and Engineering Services Department of Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) has developed gamma scanning facilities for on-line investigation of industrial process columns and vessels. The technology, based on the principle of gamma-ray absorption, has been successfully applied for troubleshooting of a number of distillation columns and process vessels in petroleum refineries, gas processing plants and chemical plants in the country and the region. This paper outlines basic characteristics of the system and describes the inspection procedures, and in addition, case studies are also presented. The case studies are purposely chosen to illustrate the versatility of the technology, and furthermore to demonstrate the economic benefits which can be realised from the application of this technology. (author)

  19. On-line process analysis innovation: DiComp (tm) shunting dielectric sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Craig R.; Waldman, Frank A.

    1993-01-01

    The DiComp Shunting Dielectric Sensor (SDS) is a new patent-pending technology developed under the Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) for NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The incorporation of a shunt electrode into a conventional fringing field dielectric sensor makes the SDS uniquely sensitive to changes in material dielectric properties in the KHz to MHz range which were previously detectable only at GHz measurement frequencies. The initial NASA application of the SDS for Nutrient Delivery Control has demonstrated SDS capabilities for thickness and concentration measurement of Hoagland nutrient solutions. The commercial introduction of DiComp SDS technology for concentration and percent solids measurements in dispersions, emulsions and solutions represents a new technology for process measurements for liquids in a variety of industries.

  20. Distributive On-line Processing, Visualization and Analysis System for Gridded Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptoukh, G.; Berrick, S.; Liu, Z.; Pham, L.; Rui, H.; Shen, S.; Teng, W.; Zhu, T.

    2004-01-01

    , development and processing tasks that are redundantly incurred by an archive's user community. The current implementation utilizes the GrADS-DODS Server (GDS), a stable, secure data server that provides subsetting and analysis services across the Internet for any GrADS-readable dataset. The subsetting capability allows users to retrieve a specified temporal and/or spatial subdomain from a large dataset, eliminating the need to download everything simply to access a small relevant portion of a dataset. The analysis capability allows users to retrieve the results of an operation applied to one or more datasets on the server. In our case, we use this approach to read pre-processed binary files and/or to read and extract the needed parts from HDF or HDF-EOS files. These subsets then serve as inputs into GrADS processing and analysis scripts. It can be used in a wide variety of Earth science applications: climate and weather events study and monitoring; modeling. It can be easily configured for new applications.

  1. On-line Data Transmission, as Part of the Seismic Evaluation Process in the Buildings Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorin Dragomir, Claudiu; Dobre, Daniela; Craifaleanu, Iolanda; Georgescu, Emil-Sever

    2017-12-01

    The thorough analytical modelling of seismic actions, of the structural system and of the foundation soil is essential for a proper dynamic analysis of a building. However, the validation of the used models should be made, whenever possible, with reference to results obtained from experimental investigations, building instrumentation and monitoring of vibrations generated by various seismic or non-seismic sources. In Romania, the permanent seismic instrumentation/monitoring of buildings is part of a special follow-up activity, performed in accordance with the P130/1999 code for the time monitoring of building behaviour and with the seismic design code, P100-2013. By using the state-of-the-art modern equipment (GeoSIG and Kinemetrics digital accelerographs) in the seismic network of the National Institute for Research and Development URBAN-INCERC, the instrumented buildings can be monitored remotely, with recorded data being sent to authorities or to research institutes in the field by a real-time data transmission system. The obtained records are processed, computing the Fourier amplitude spectra and the response spectra, and the modal parameters of buildings are determined. The paper presents some of the most important results of the institute in the field of building monitoring, focusing on the situation of some significant instrumented buildings located in different parts of the country. In addition, maps with data received from seismic stations after the occurrence of two recent Vrancea (Romania) earthquakes, showing the spatial distribution of ground accelerations, are presented, together with a comparative analysis, performed with reference to previous studies in the literature.

  2. Research on on-line monitoring technology for steel ball's forming process based on load signal analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-jun; Ai, Chang-sheng; Men, Xiu-hua; Zhang, Cheng-liang; Zhang, Qi

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a novel on-line monitoring technology to obtain forming quality in steel ball's forming process based on load signal analysis method, in order to reveal the bottom die's load characteristic in initial cold heading forging process of steel balls. A mechanical model of the cold header producing process is established and analyzed by using finite element method. The maximum cold heading force is calculated. The results prove that the monitoring on the cold heading process with upsetting force is reasonable and feasible. The forming defects are inflected on the three feature points of the bottom die signals, which are the initial point, infection point, and peak point. A novel PVDF piezoelectric force sensor which is simple on construction and convenient on installation is designed. The sensitivity of the PVDF force sensor is calculated. The characteristics of PVDF force sensor are analyzed by FEM. The PVDF piezoelectric force sensor is fabricated to acquire the actual load signals in the cold heading process, and calibrated by a special device. The measuring system of on-line monitoring is built. The characteristics of the actual signals recognized by learning and identification algorithm are in consistence with simulation results. Identification of actual signals shows that the timing difference values of all feature points for qualified products are not exceed ±6 ms, and amplitude difference values are less than ±3%. The calibration and application experiments show that PVDF force sensor has good static and dynamic performances, and is competent at dynamic measuring on upsetting force. It greatly improves automatic level and machining precision. Equipment capacity factor with damages identification method depends on grade of steel has been improved to 90%.

  3. Process measuring techniques applying in-line and on-line analyzers. Betriebsmesstechnik unter Einsatz von in-line und on-line Analysatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehme, F; Jola, M

    1982-01-01

    The measurement and control of classical physical parameters such as pressure, temperature etc, is frequently not sufficient now for optimum process control in chemistry and associated fields. Only the use of inline and online analysers makes it possible to maintain the narrow limits of chemical reaction conditions. This ABC pocket book should help the user to select the best from the large number of available methods of measurement. Using 120 alphabetically arranged key words with many cross-references, it has a well-thought-out treatment of basic measurements and descriptions of apparatus, and on the other hand, it contains selected typical examples of applications. Width rather than depth of information is aimed at. The electrochemical methods discussed are potentiometry (pH value, redox potential, direct potentiometry with ion selective electrodes), conductometry (measurement of conductivity) and voltammetry (polarography, ammetry). Photometry, the measurement of density, the refractive index, surface tension and viscosity are described. From the large number of applications, the examples of textile processing, the cellulose and paper industry, the surface treatment of materials and petrochemicals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the treatment of service water, drinking water and boiler feed water. In connection with questions of work and environmental protection, emission control and the treatment of domestic and industrial waste water are described. With 119 figs.

  4. On-line Processing of German Number-marked Relative Clauses in the Visual-world Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Adelt

    2014-04-01

    (3 Filler: Wo ist das Schwein mit dem Ballon? (Where is the pig with the balloon? All sentences are randomized and presented auditorily. Simultaneously, colored illustrations of animals performing an action are shown on a computer screen (see Figure 1. Participants have to identify via button press (left/right the target animal to which the question refers. During this task, eye movements are collected as an on-line measure of sentence processing. Off-line comprehension is measured in terms of accuracy of target identification. Ten IWAs with sentence comprehension deficits and 30 healthy controls are tested. Discussion Following Burchert et al. (2003, we expect the IWA’s off-line comprehension of SRCs and ORCs to be at chance level, while controls make hardly any errors. In the on-line data, the number of fixations to the target picture are supposed to increase only at the verb or shortly after the sentence offset, since disambiguation occurs sentence finally at the verb. Controls are expected to show faster or longer fixations to the target in SRCs compared to ORCs (Caplan et al., 2007. In line with Hanne, Sekerina, Vasishth, Burchert, and De Bleser (2011, IWA’s fixations to the target should not differ qualitatively from those of controls, at least for correct responses, but eye gaze patterns may be delayed. Data collection and analysis is still ongoing. Results will be ready by October and presented and discussed at the Academy of Aphasia conference.

  5. Development of a magnetic resonance sensor for on-line monitoring of 99Tc and 23Na in tank waste cleanup processes: Final report and implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckman, S. L.; Jendrzejczyk, J. A.; Raptis, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    In response to US Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for advanced cross-cutting technologies, Argonne National Laboratory is developing an on-line sensor system for the real-time monitoring of 99 Tc and 23 Na in various locations throughout radioactive-waste processing facilities. Based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the highly automated sensor system can provide near-real-time response with minimal sampling. The technology, in the form of a flow-through nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based on-line process sensing and control system, can rapidly monitor 99 Tc speciation and concentration (from 0.1 molar to 10 micro molar) in the feedstocks and eluents of radioactive-waste treatment processes. The system is nonintrusive, capable of withstanding harsh plant environments, and reasonably immune to contaminants. Furthermore, the system is capable of operating over large variations in pH, conductivity, and salinity. This document describes design parameters, results from sensitivity studies, and initial results obtained from oxidation-reduction studies that were conducted on technetium standards and waste specimens obtained from DOE's Hanford site. A cursory investigation of the system's capabilities to monitor 23 Na at high concentrations are also reported, as are descriptions of site requirements, implementation recommendations, and testing techniques

  6. Quantitation of promethazine and metabolites in urine samples using on-line solid-phase extraction and column-switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Q.; Putcha, L.; Harm, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    A chromatographic method for the quantitation of promethazine (PMZ) and its three metabolites in urine employing on-line solid-phase extraction and column-switching has been developed. The column-switching system described here uses an extraction column for the purification of PMZ and its metabolites from a urine matrix. The extraneous matrix interference was removed by flushing the extraction column with a gradient elution. The analytes of interest were then eluted onto an analytical column for further chromatographic separation using a mobile phase of greater solvent strength. This method is specific and sensitive with a range of 3.75-1400 ng/ml for PMZ and 2.5-1400 ng/ml for the metabolites promethazine sulfoxide, monodesmethyl promethazine sulfoxide and monodesmethyl promethazine. The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) were 3.75 ng/ml with less than 6.2% C.V. for PMZ and 2.50 ng/ml with less than 11.5% C.V. for metabolites based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 10:1 or greater. The accuracy and precision were within +/- 11.8% in bias and not greater than 5.5% C.V. in intra- and inter-assay precision for PMZ and metabolites. Method robustness was investigated using a Plackett-Burman experimental design. The applicability of the analytical method for pharmacokinetic studies in humans is illustrated.

  7. On-line near infrared spectroscopy as a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tool to control an industrial seeded API crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C; Lecomte, C; Clicq, D; Merschaert, A; Norrant, E; Fotiadu, F

    2013-09-01

    The final step of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) manufacturing synthesis process consists of a crystallization during which the API and residual solvent contents have to be quantified precisely in order to reach a predefined seeding point. A feasibility study was conducted to demonstrate the suitability of on-line NIR spectroscopy to control this step in line with new version of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) guideline [1]. A quantitative method was developed at laboratory scale using statistical design of experiments (DOE) and multivariate data analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. NIR models were built to quantify the API in the range of 9-12% (w/w) and to quantify the residual methanol in the range of 0-3% (w/w). To improve the predictive ability of the models, the development procedure encompassed: outliers elimination, optimum model rank definition, spectral range and spectral pre-treatment selection. Conventional criteria such as, number of PLS factors, R(2), root mean square errors of calibration, cross-validation and prediction (RMSEC, RMSECV, RMSEP) enabled the selection of three model candidates. These models were tested in the industrial pilot plant during three technical campaigns. Results of the most suitable models were evaluated against to the chromatographic reference methods. Maximum relative bias of 2.88% was obtained about API target content. Absolute bias of 0.01 and 0.02% (w/w) respectively were achieved at methanol content levels of 0.10 and 0.13% (w/w). The repeatability was assessed as sufficient for the on-line monitoring of the 2 analytes. The present feasibility study confirmed the possibility to use on-line NIR spectroscopy as a PAT tool to monitor in real-time both the API and the residual methanol contents, in order to control the seeding of an API crystallization at industrial scale. Furthermore, the successful scale-up of the method proved its capability to be

  8. An integrated on-line system for the evaluation of ECG patterns with a small process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoffa, G.; Eggenberger, O.; Krueger, G.; Karlsruhe Univ.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes an on-line system for ECG processing with a small computer (8K memory) and a magnetic tape cassette for mass storage capable to evaluate 30 ECG patterns in a twelfe lead system per day. The use of a small computer was possible by a compact and easy-to-handle operating system and space-saving programs. The system described was specifically intended for use in smaller hospitals with a low number of ECG's per day which do not allow an economic operation of greater DP installations. The economy calculations, based on the 'Break-even-point method' with special regard to the installations, mainennance and personnel costs already grant an economic operation of a small computer at a rate of 5 ECG's per day. (orig.) [de

  9. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes.

  10. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes. PMID:26201073

  11. Monitoring of an esterification reaction by on-line direct liquid sampling mass spectrometry and in-line mid infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Andrew W.; McAulay, Edith A.J.; Nordon, Alison; Littlejohn, David; Lynch, Thomas P.; Lancaster, J. Steven; Wright, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High efficiency thermal vaporiser designed and used for on-line reaction monitoring. • Concentration profiles of all reactants and products obtained from mass spectra. • By-product formed from the presence of an impurity detected by MS but not MIR. • Mass spectrometry can detect trace and bulk components unlike molecular spectrometry. - Abstract: A specially designed thermal vaporiser was used with a process mass spectrometer designed for gas analysis to monitor the esterification of butan-1-ol and acetic anhydride. The reaction was conducted at two scales: in a 150 mL flask and a 1 L jacketed batch reactor, with liquid delivery flow rates to the vaporiser of 0.1 and 1.0 mL min −1 , respectively. Mass spectrometry measurements were made at selected ion masses, and classical least squares multivariate linear regression was used to produce concentration profiles for the reactants, products and catalyst. The extent of reaction was obtained from the butyl acetate profile and found to be 83% and 76% at 40 °C and 20 °C, respectively, at the 1 L scale. Reactions in the 1 L reactor were also monitored by in-line mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry; off-line gas chromatography (GC) was used as a reference technique when building partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration models for prediction of butyl acetate concentrations from the MIR spectra. In validation experiments, good agreement was achieved between the concentration of butyl acetate obtained from in-line MIR spectra and off-line GC. In the initial few minutes of the reaction the profiles for butyl acetate derived from on-line direct liquid sampling mass spectrometry (DLSMS) differed from those of in-line MIR spectrometry owing to the 2 min transfer time between the reactor and mass spectrometer. As the reaction proceeded, however, the difference between the concentration profiles became less noticeable. DLSMS had advantages over in-line MIR spectrometry as it was easier to generate

  12. On-line measurement with automatic emulsion analysis system and off-line data processing (E531 neutrino experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanishi, Motoaki

    1984-01-01

    The automatic emulsion analysis system developed by Nagoya cosmic ray observation group was practically used for the experiment (FNAL-E531) on determining the lifetime of charm particles for the first time in the world, and achieved a great successful result. The system consists of four large precise coordinate-measuring stages capable of conducting simultaneous measurement and multiple (currently four) DOMS (digitized on-line microscope), supported with one mini-computer (ECLIPS S/130). The purpose of E531 experiment was the determination of charm particle lifetime. The experiment was carried out at FNAL, USA, and by the irradiation of wide band ν sub(μ) beam equivalent to 7 x 10 18 of 350 GeV/c protons. The detector was a hybrid system of emulsions and a counter spectrometer. The scan of neutrino reaction, the scan of charm particles, and charm event measurement were analyzed in emulsions, and the on-line programs for-respective analyses were created. Nagoya group has found 726 neutrino reactions in the first run, obtained 37 charm particle candidates, and found 1442 neutrino reactions in the second run, and obtained 56 charm particle candidates. The capability of the automatic emulsion analysis system in terms of the time equired for analysis is in total 3.5 hours per event; 15 minutes for C.S. scan, 15 minutes for coupling to module, 20 minutes for tracing to vertex, 1 hour for neutrino reaction measurement, 10 minutes for offline data processing and 1.5 hours for charm particle scanning. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. A study on the advanced methods for on-line signal processing by using artificial intelligence in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wan Joo

    1993-02-01

    In order to assist the operators at the transient states of a nuclear power plant, the automation of signal processing is needed. This study has the objective to process the signals from a nuclear power plant for the purpose of advising the operator. To meet this objective, in this study, two kinds of on-line signal processing system based on AI techniques are developed for the nuclear power plant application with on-line signals. First, an artificial neural network for signal prediction is developed for the adequate countermoves at transient states. The steam generator water level is adopted as the example and the outputs of a simulation program for the dynamics of steam generator combined with noises are used as the training patterns. For the training of the artificial neural network, the modified backpropagation algorithm is proposed for escaping quickly from local minima. The modified algorithm is different from the ordinary backpropagation algorithm in the aspect that the training rate coefficient is repeatedly adjusted randomly and taken when the training is improved. This trial has an effect to search for an adequate magnitude of a training rate coefficient. The comparison result shows that the modified algorithm enables the neural network to be trained more quickly. The simulation result shows that the outputs of the artificial neural network are not sensitive to noises. Using the artificial neural networks proposed in this thesis, the operators can predict the next status of a plant and can take actions to maintain the stability of plant. Second, the multi sensor integration system has been developed for the identification of transient states. The developed system is divided into two parts; pre-processors and a fusion part. An artificial neural network is adopted in the fusion part to include the knowledge about the identification and to make a decision of the transient state. The developed pre-processors play a role of classifying the trend types of

  14. Anionic microemulsion to solvent stacking for on-line sample concentration of cationic analytes in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukusamude, Chunyapuk; Srijaranai, Supalax; Quirino, Joselito P

    2014-05-01

    The common SDS microemulsion (i.e. 3.3% SDS, 0.8% octane, and 6.6% butanol) and organic solvents were investigated for the stacking of cationic drugs in capillary zone electrophoresis using a low pH separation electrolyte. The sample was prepared in the acidic microemulsion and a high percentage of organic solvent was included in the electrolyte at anodic end of capillary. The stacking mechanism was similar to micelle to solvent stacking where the micelles were replaced by the microemulsion for the transport of analytes to the organic solvent rich boundary. This boundary is found between the microemulsion and anodic electrolyte. The effective electrophoretic mobility of the cations reversed from the direction of the anode in the microemulsion to the cathode in the boundary. Microemulsion to solvent stacking was successfully achieved with 40% ACN in the anodic electrolyte and hydrodynamic sample injection of 21 s at 1000 mbar (equivalent to 30% of the effective length). The sensitivity enhancement factors in terms of peak height and corrected peak area were 15 to 35 and 21 to 47, respectively. The linearity R(2) in terms of corrected peak area were >0.999. Interday precisions (%RSD, n = 6) were 3.3-4.0% for corrected peak area and 2.0-3.0% for migration time. Application to spiked real sample is also presented. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Modeling and identification of ARMG models for stochastic processes: application to on-line computation of the power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingelstein, Gilles; Thabet, Gabriel.

    1977-01-01

    Control algorithms for components of nuclear power plants are currently based on external diagnostic methods. Modeling and identification techniques for autoregressive moving average models (ARMA) for stochastic processes are described. The identified models provide a means of estimating the power spectral density with improved accuracy and computer time compared with the classical methods. They are particularly will suited for on-line estimation of the power spectral density. The observable stochastic process y (t) is modeled assuming that it is the output of a linear filter driven by Gaussian while noise w (t). Two identification schemes were tested to find the orders m and n of the ARMA (m,n) models and to estimate the parameters of the recursion equation relating the input and output signals. The first scheme consists in transforming the ARMA model to an autoregressive model. The parameters of this AR model are obtained using least squares estimation techniques. The second scheme consists in finding the parameters of the ARMA by nonlinear programming techniques. The power spectral density of y(t) is instantaneously deduced from these ARMA models [fr

  16. Surface quality monitoring for process control by on-line vibration analysis using an adaptive spline wavelet algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, G. Y.; Osypiw, D.; Irle, M.

    2003-05-01

    The dynamic behaviour of wood machining processes affects the surface finish quality of machined workpieces. In order to meet the requirements of increased production efficiency and improved product quality, surface quality information is needed for enhanced process control. However, current methods using high price devices or sophisticated designs, may not be suitable for industrial real-time application. This paper presents a novel approach of surface quality evaluation by on-line vibration analysis using an adaptive spline wavelet algorithm, which is based on the excellent time-frequency localization of B-spline wavelets. A series of experiments have been performed to extract the feature, which is the correlation between the relevant frequency band(s) of vibration with the change of the amplitude and the surface quality. The graphs of the experimental results demonstrate that the change of the amplitude in the selective frequency bands with variable resolution (linear and non-linear) reflects the quality of surface finish, and the root sum square of wavelet power spectrum is a good indication of surface quality. Thus, surface quality can be estimated and quantified at an average level in real time. The results can be used to regulate and optimize the machine's feed speed, maintaining a constant spindle motor speed during cutting. This will lead to higher level control and machining rates while keeping dimensional integrity and surface finish within specification.

  17. On-line sampling of apatite-nepheline ore using apron feeders by gamma-gamma method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliznyuk, G.I.

    1981-01-01

    The yield flow of an underground mine equipped with a crushing complex was investigated. /sup 241/Am source and 20x20 mm NaI(Tl) crystal were used; the lump size of apatite-nepheline ore was 200 mm, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ content varied from 10 to 22%. The mean-square error was 1% P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ in 100-ton portions of mined ore. The method can be also applied for sampling iron, copper-nickel, and polymetallic ores.

  18. An on-line coupling of nanofibrous extraction with column-switching high performance liquid chromatography - A case study on the determination of bisphenol A in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Háková, Martina; Chocholoušová Havlíková, Lucie; Chvojka, Jiří; Solich, Petr; Šatínský, Dalibor

    2018-02-01

    Polyamide 6 nanofiber polymers were used as modern sorbents for on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography. The on-line SPE system was tested for the determination of bisphenol A in river water samples. Polyamide nanofibers were prepared using needleless electrospinning, inserted into a mini-column cartridge (5 × 4.6mm) and coupled with HPLC. The effect of column packing and the amount of polyamide 6 on extraction efficiency was tested and the packing process was optimized. The proposed method was performed using a 50-µL sample injection followed by an on-line nanofibrous extraction procedure. The influence of the washing mobile phase on the retention of bisphenol A during the extraction procedure was evaluated. Ascentis ® Express C18 (10cm × 4.6mm) core-shell column was used as an analytical column. Fluorescence detection wavelengths (λ ex = 225nm and λ em = 320nm) were used for identification and quantification of Bisphenol A in river waters. The linearity was tested in the range from 2 to 500µgL -1 (using nine calibration points). The limits of detection and quantification were 0.6 and 2µgL -1 , respectively. The developed method was successfully used for the determination of bisphenol A in various samples of river waters in the Czech Republic (The Ohře, Labe, Nisa, Úpa, and Opava Rivers). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Adaptive Spatial Filter Based on Similarity Indices to Preserve the Neural Information on EEG Signals during On-Line Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Delisle-Rodriguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new on-line adaptive filter, which is based on a similarity analysis between standard electrode locations, in order to reduce artifacts and common interferences throughout electroencephalography (EEG signals, but preserving the useful information. Standard deviation and Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC between target electrodes and its correspondent neighbor electrodes are analyzed on sliding windows to select those neighbors that are highly correlated. Afterwards, a model based on CCC is applied to provide higher values of weight to those correlated electrodes with lower similarity to the target electrode. The approach was applied to brain computer-interfaces (BCIs based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA to recognize 40 targets of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP, providing an accuracy (ACC of 86.44 ± 2.81%. In addition, also using this approach, features of low frequency were selected in the pre-processing stage of another BCI to recognize gait planning. In this case, the recognition was significantly ( p < 0.01 improved for most of the subjects ( A C C ≥ 74.79 % , when compared with other BCIs based on Common Spatial Pattern, Filter Bank-Common Spatial Pattern, and Riemannian Geometry.

  20. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  1. A needle extraction utilizing a molecularly imprinted-sol-gel xerogel for on-line microextraction of the lung cancer biomarker bilirubin from plasma and urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Jabbar, Dunia; Colmsjö, Anders; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2014-10-31

    In the present work, a needle trap utilizing a molecularly imprinted sol-gel xerogel was prepared for the on-line microextraction of bilirubin from plasma and urine samples. Each prepared needle could be used for approximately one hundred extractions before it was discarded. Imprinted and non-imprinted sol-gel xerogel were applied for the extraction of bilirubin from plasma and urine samples. The produced molecularly imprinted sol-gel xerogel polymer showed high binding capacity and fast adsorption/desorption kinetics for bilirubin in plasma and urine samples. The adsorption capacity of molecularly imprinted sol-gel xerogel polymer was approximately 60% higher than that of non-imprinted polymer. The effect of the conditioning, washing and elution solvents, pH, extraction time, adsorption capacity and imprinting factor were investigated. The limit of detection and the lower limit of quantification were set to 1.6 and 5nmolL(-1), respectively using plasma or urine samples. The standard calibration curves were obtained within the concentration range of 5-1000nmolL(-1) in both plasma and urine samples. The coefficients of determination values (R(2)) were ≥0.998 for all runs. The extraction recovery was approximately 80% for BR in the human plasma and urine samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of a Mechanistic Model as a Tool for On-line Monitoring of Pilot Scale Filamentous Fungal Fermentation Processes - The Importance of Evaporation Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Albæk, Mads Orla

    2017-01-01

    A mechanistic model-based soft sensor is developed and validated for 550L filamentous fungus fermentations operated at Novozymes A/S. The soft sensor is comprised of a parameter estimation block based on a stoichiometric balance, coupled to a dynamic process model. The on-line parameter estimation...... a historical dataset of eleven batches from the fermentation pilot plant (550L) at Novozymes A/S. The model is then implemented on-line in 550L fermentation processes operated at Novozymes A/S in order to validate the state estimator model on fourteen new batches utilizing a new strain. The product...... block models the changing rates of formation of product, biomass, and water, and the rate of consumption of feed using standard, available on-line measurements. This parameter estimation block, is coupled to a mechanistic process model, which solves the current states of biomass, product, substrate...

  3. How and When Accentuation Influences Temporally Selective Attention and Subsequent Semantic Processing during On-Line Spoken Language Comprehension: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-qing; Ren, Gui-qin

    2012-01-01

    An event-related brain potentials (ERP) experiment was carried out to investigate how and when accentuation influences temporally selective attention and subsequent semantic processing during on-line spoken language comprehension, and how the effect of accentuation on attention allocation and semantic processing changed with the degree of…

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction as an on-line clean-up technique for determination of riboflavin vitamins in food samples by capillary electrophoresis with fluorimetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zougagh, Mohammed; Ríos, Angel

    2008-08-01

    An automatic method for the separation and determination of riboflavin (RF) vitamins (RF, flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide) in food samples (chicken liver, tablet and powder milk) is proposed. The method is based on the on-line coupling of a supercritical fluid extractor (SFE) with a continuous flow-CE system with guided optical fiber fluorimetric detection (CF-CE-FD). The whole SFE-CF-CE-FD arrangement allowed the automatic treatment of food samples (clean-up of the sample followed by the extraction of the analytes), and the direct introduction of a small volume of the extracted plug to the CE-FD system for the determination of RF vitamins. Fluorescence detection introduced an appropriated sensitivity and contributed to avoid interferences of nonfluorescent polar compounds coming from the matrix samples in the extracted plug. Electrophoretic responses were linear within the 0.05-1 microg/g range, whereas the detection limits of RF vitamins were in the 0.036-0.042 microg/g range. The proposed arrangement opens up interesting prospects for the direct determination of polar analytes in complex samples with a good throughput and high level of automation.

  5. Two-Dimensional Capillary Electrophoresis with On-Line Sample Preparation and Cyclodextrin Separation Environment for Direct Determination of Serotonin in Human Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piešťanský, Juraj; Maráková, Katarína; Mikuš, Peter

    2017-10-07

    An advanced two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis method, based on on-line combination of capillary isotachophoresis and capillary zone electrophoresis with cyclodextrin additive in background electrolyte, was developed for effective determination of serotonin in human urine. Hydrodynamically closed separation system and large bore capillaries (300-800 µm) were chosen for the possibility to enhance the sample load capacity, and, by that, to decrease limit of detection. Isotachophoresis served for the sample preseparation, defined elimination of sample matrix constituents (sample clean up), and preconcentration of the analyte. Cyclodextrin separation environment enhanced separation selectivity of capillary zone electrophoresis. In this way, serotonin could be successfully separated from the rest of the sample matrix constituents migrating in capillary zone electrophoresis step so that human urine could be directly (i.e., without any external sample preparation) injected into the analyzer. The proposed method was successfully validated, showing favorable parameters of sensitivity (limit of detection for serotonin was 2.32 ng·mL -1 ), linearity (regression coefficient higher than 0.99), precision (repeatability of the migration time and peak area were in the range of 0.02-1.17% and 5.25-7.88%, respectively), and recovery (ranging in the interval of 90.0-93.6%). The developed method was applied for the assay of the human urine samples obtained from healthy volunteers. The determined concentrations of serotonin in such samples were in the range of 12.4-491.2 ng·mL -1 that was in good agreement with literature data. This advanced method represents a highly effective, reliable, and low-cost alternative for the routine determination of serotonin as a biomarker in human urine.

  6. An integrated sample pretreatment platform for quantitative N-glycoproteome analysis with combination of on-line glycopeptide enrichment, deglycosylation and dimethyl labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Yejing; Qu, Yanyan; Jiang, Hao; Wu, Qi [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Lihua, E-mail: lihuazhang@dicp.ac.cn [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Yuan, Huiming [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Zhou, Yuan [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Yukui [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2014-06-23

    Highlights: • An integrated platform for quantitative N-glycoproteome analysis was established. • On-line enrichment, deglycosylation and labeling could be achieved within 160 min. • A N{sub 2}-assisted interface was applied to improve the compatibility of the platform. • The platform exhibited improved quantification accuracy, precision and throughput. - Abstract: Relative quantification of N-glycoproteomes shows great promise for the discovery of candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The traditional protocol for quantitative analysis of glycoproteomes is usually off-line performed, and suffers from long sample preparation time, and the risk of sample loss or contamination due to manual manipulation. In this study, a novel integrated sample preparation platform for quantitative N-glycoproteome analysis was established, with combination of online N-glycopeptide capture by a HILIC column, sample buffer exchange by a N{sub 2}-assisted HILIC–RPLC interface, deglycosylation by a hydrophilic PNGase F immobilized enzymatic reactor (hIMER) and solid dimethyl labeling on a C18 precolumn. To evaluate the performance of such a platform, two equal aliquots of immunoglobulin G (IgG) digests were sequentially pretreated, followed by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The signal intensity ratio of heavy/light (H/L) labeled deglycosylated peptides with the equal aliquots was 1.00 (RSD = 6.2%, n = 3), much better than those obtained by the offline protocol, with H/L ratio as 0.76 (RSD = 11.6%, n = 3). Additionally, the total on-line sample preparation time was greatly shortened to 160 min, much faster than that of offline approach (24 h). Furthermore, such an integrated pretreatment platform was successfully applied to analyze the two kinds of hepatocarcinoma ascites syngeneic cell lines with high (Hca-F) and low (Hca-P) lymph node metastasis rates. For H/L labeled Hca-P lysates with the equal aliquots, 99.6% of log 2 ratios (H/L) of quantified glycopeptides ranged from −1

  7. On-line characterization of emulsions aiming equipment sizing and definition of primary processing conditions; Caracterizacao em tempo real de emulsoes visando o dimensionamento de equipamentos e a definicao das condicoes de processamento primario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Gloria M.S. [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Roberto C.G. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In this work are presented the results of the test of emulsion generation, carried out in the Experimental Nucleus of PETROBRAS in Atalaia city Brazil, in which equipment for on-line measurement of droplet size distribution was tested, whose operation principle is of acoustic attenuation. One of the objectives of this study was the validation of this technology for on-line characterization of petroleum emulsions, aiming at the optimization of the sub sea or top side processing equipment. The emulsions had been on-line monitored by the acoustic spectrometer, installed downstream of a choke valve. Samples of generated emulsions had been collected in different points of the circuit and characterized off-line how much its stability, droplet size distribution (DSD), water cut and viscosity. Moreover, in some stages of the test a demulsifier was injected so as to verify the behavior of emulsions. The acoustic spectrometry technique demonstrated to be efficient in the on-line characterization of the droplet size distributions of emulsions generated in different operational conditions. The acoustic technique presented satisfactory performance, in view of the comparison of the values of median gotten on-line and off-line. (author)

  8. Accelerated solvent extraction followed by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ion trap LC/MS/MS for analysis of benzalkonium chlorides in sediment samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.

    2002-01-01

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) were successfully extracted from sediment samples using a new methodology based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by an on-line cleanup step. The BACs were detected by liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an electrospray interface operated in the positive ion mode. This methodology combines the high efficiency of extraction provided by a pressurized fluid and the high sensitivity offered by the ion trap MS/MS. The effects of solvent type and ASE operational variables, such as temperature and pressure, were evaluated. After optimization, a mixture of acetonitrile/water (6:4 or 7:3) was found to be most efficient for extracting BACs from the sediment samples. Extraction recoveries ranged from 95 to 105% for C12 and C14 homologues, respectively. Total method recoveries from fortified sediment samples, using a cleanup step followed by ASE, were 85% for C12BAC and 79% for C14-BAC. The methodology developed in this work provides detection limits in the subnanogram per gram range. Concentrations of BAC homologues ranged from 22 to 206 ??g/kg in sediment samples from different river sites downstream from wastewater treatment plants. The high affinity of BACs for soil suggests that BACs preferentially concentrate in sediment rather than in water.

  9. Derivative spectrum chromatographic method for the determination of trimethoprim in honey samples using an on-line solid-phase extraction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Kazuhisa; Kondo, Mari; Yokochi, Rika; Takeuchi, Yuri; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2011-07-01

    A simple, selective and rapid analytical method for determination of trimethoprim (TMP) in honey samples was developed and validated. This method is based on a SPE technique followed by HPLC with photodiode array detection. After dilution and filtration, aliquots of 500 μL honey samples were directly injected to an on-line SPE HPLC system. TMP was extracted on an RP SPE column, and separated on a hydrophilic interaction chromatography column during HPLC analysis. At the first detection step, the noise level of the photodiode array data was reduced with two-dimensional equalizer filtering, and then the smoothed data were subjected to derivative spectrum chromatography. On the second-derivative chromatogram at 254 nm, the limit of detection and the limit of quantification of TMP in a honey sample were 5 and 10 ng/g, respectively. The proposed method showed high accuracy (60-103%) with adequate sensitivity for TMP monitoring in honey samples. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Flow injection microfluidic device with on-line fluorescent derivatization for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in water samples after solid phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Guilong [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment of Three Gorges Region of Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400045 (China); Department of Chemistry, Beijing Key Laboratory of Microanalytical Methods and Instrumentation, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); He, Qiang, E-mail: heqiang0980@163.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment of Three Gorges Region of Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400045 (China); Lu, Ying [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Armed Police College, Chengdu, 610213 (China); Huang, Jing [Research Center for Advanced Computation, College of Science, Xihua University, Chengdu, 610039 (China); Lin, Jin-Ming, E-mail: jmlin@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Beijing Key Laboratory of Microanalytical Methods and Instrumentation, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2017-02-22

    In this paper, a rapid and simple method using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTS), as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent, was successfully developed for extraction and preconcentration trace amounts of Cr(III) in water samples. The synthesized magnetic-MWCNTs nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A rhodamine derivative (R1) was synthesized and characterized as a highly selective and sensitive fluorescent derivatizing agent for Cr(III). After SPE procedure, Cr(III) analysis was performed by flow injection microfluidic chip with on-line fluorescent derivatization and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy detection. The parameters, which affected the efficiency of the developed method were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the method exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0–10.0 nM, with a detection limit of 0.094 nM and an enrichment factor of 38. Furthermore, real water samples were analyzed and good recoveries were obtained from 91.0 to 101.6%. - Graphical abstract: Flow injection microfluidic device with on-line fluorescent derivatization and detection coupled to LIF. - Highlights: • A highly selective and sensitive derivatizing reagent for Cr(III) was synthesized and characterized. • The magnetic-MWCNTs nanocomposite as a SPE sorbent was successfully synthesized and characterized. • A new portable detection system was developed for microfluidic chip FIA platform.

  11. Sample and data management process description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessner, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    The sample and data management process was initiated in 1994 as a result of a process improvement workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to develop a sample and data management process that would reduce cycle time and costs, simplify systems and procedures, and improve customer satisfaction for sampling, analytical services, and data management activities

  12. Radar Doppler Processing with Nonuniform Sampling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Conventional signal processing to estimate radar Doppler frequency often assumes uniform pulse/sample spacing. This is for the convenience of t he processing. More recent performance enhancements in processor capability allow optimally processing nonuniform pulse/sample spacing, thereby overcoming some of the baggage that attends uniform sampling, such as Doppler ambiguity and SNR losses due to sidelobe control measures.

  13. On Processing Hexagonally Sampled Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    A. Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. (96ABW-2011-0325) Neuromorphic Infrared Sensor (NIFS) 31 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved...J ••• • Drawn chip size Focal plane size Focal plane resolution Pixel type Pixel pit ch Post -pixel circuitry Interface Process Chip ...analog out 12-bit command bus in two 6-bit words 8-bit digital out Optional 3 input chip select Optional analog out Alternat ive 12 bit input

  14. Low-molecular-weight color pI markers to monitor on-line the peptide focusing process in OFFGEL fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelland, Sylvie; Bourgoin-Voillard, Sandrine; Cunin, Valérie; Tollance, Axel; Bertolino, Pascal; Slais, Karel; Seve, Michel

    2017-08-01

    High-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis requires peptide fractionation to simplify complex biological samples and increase proteome coverage. OFFGEL fractionation technology became a common method to separate peptides or proteins using isoelectric focusing in an immobilized pH gradient. However, the OFFGEL focusing process may be further optimized and controlled in terms of separation time and pI resolution. Here we evaluated OFFGEL technology to separate peptides from different samples in the presence of low-molecular-weight (LMW) color pI markers to visualize the focusing process. LMW color pI markers covering a large pH range were added to the peptide mixture before OFFGEL fractionation using a 24-wells device encompassing the pH range 3-10. We also explored the impact of LMW color pI markers on peptide fractionation labeled previously for iTRAQ. Then, fractionated peptides were separated by RP_HPLC prior to MS analysis using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry in MS and MS/MS modes. Here we report the performance of the peptide focusing process in the presence of LMW color pI markers as on-line trackers during the OFFGEL process and the possibility to use them as pI controls for peptide focusing. This method improves the workflow for peptide fractionation in a bottom-up proteomic approach with or without iTRAQ labeling. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Application of a mechanistic model as a tool for on-line monitoring of pilot scale filamentous fungal fermentation processes-The importance of evaporation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M; Albaek, Mads O; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V

    2017-03-01

    A mechanistic model-based soft sensor is developed and validated for 550L filamentous fungus fermentations operated at Novozymes A/S. The soft sensor is comprised of a parameter estimation block based on a stoichiometric balance, coupled to a dynamic process model. The on-line parameter estimation block models the changing rates of formation of product, biomass, and water, and the rate of consumption of feed using standard, available on-line measurements. This parameter estimation block, is coupled to a mechanistic process model, which solves the current states of biomass, product, substrate, dissolved oxygen and mass, as well as other process parameters including k L a, viscosity and partial pressure of CO 2 . State estimation at this scale requires a robust mass model including evaporation, which is a factor not often considered at smaller scales of operation. The model is developed using a historical data set of 11 batches from the fermentation pilot plant (550L) at Novozymes A/S. The model is then implemented on-line in 550L fermentation processes operated at Novozymes A/S in order to validate the state estimator model on 14 new batches utilizing a new strain. The product concentration in the validation batches was predicted with an average root mean sum of squared error (RMSSE) of 16.6%. In addition, calculation of the Janus coefficient for the validation batches shows a suitably calibrated model. The robustness of the model prediction is assessed with respect to the accuracy of the input data. Parameter estimation uncertainty is also carried out. The application of this on-line state estimator allows for on-line monitoring of pilot scale batches, including real-time estimates of multiple parameters which are not able to be monitored on-line. With successful application of a soft sensor at this scale, this allows for improved process monitoring, as well as opening up further possibilities for on-line control algorithms, utilizing these on-line model outputs

  16. Sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotay, Steven J; Cook, Jo Marie

    2015-05-13

    Proper sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis of food and soil have always been essential to obtain accurate results, but the subject is becoming a greater concern as approximately 100 mg test portions are being analyzed with automated high-throughput analytical methods by agrochemical industry and contract laboratories. As global food trade and the importance of monitoring increase, the food industry and regulatory laboratories are also considering miniaturized high-throughput methods. In conjunction with a summary of the symposium "Residues in Food and Feed - Going from Macro to Micro: The Future of Sample Processing in Residue Analytical Methods" held at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, this is an opportune time to review sampling theory and sample processing for pesticide residue analysis. If collected samples and test portions do not adequately represent the actual lot from which they came and provide meaningful results, then all costs, time, and efforts involved in implementing programs using sophisticated analytical instruments and techniques are wasted and can actually yield misleading results. This paper is designed to briefly review the often-neglected but crucial topic of sample collection and processing and put the issue into perspective for the future of pesticide residue analysis. It also emphasizes that analysts should demonstrate the validity of their sample processing approaches for the analytes/matrices of interest and encourages further studies on sampling and sample mass reduction to produce a test portion.

  17. An investigation of the parameters affecting continuous on-line neutron activation analysis and its application to process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, C.

    1977-03-01

    A system analysis was made and a description was given of on-line continuous activation analysis. The suitability of the various languages available on the Burroughs B6700 computer for simulation of such systems was assessed. A programme was written in the selected languages to incorporate facilities for specifying the geometry of both activation and detector cells and of the delay line linking the two

  18. Rapid and automated on-line solid phase extraction HPLC-MS/MS with peak focusing for the determination of ochratoxin A in wine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campone, Luca; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Celano, Rita; Pagano, Imma; Russo, Mariateresa; Rastrelli, Luca

    2018-04-01

    This study reports a fast and automated analytical procedure based on an on-line SPE-HPLC-MS/MS method for the automatic pre-concentration, clean up and sensitive determination of OTA in wine. The amount of OTA contained in 100μL of sample (pH≅5.5) was retained and concentrated on an Oasis MAX SPE cartridge. After a washing step to remove matrix interferents, the analyte was eluted in back-flush mode and the eluent from the SPE column was diluted through a mixing Tee, using an aqueous solution before the chromatographic separation achieved on a monolithic column. The developed method has been validated according to EU regulation N. 519/2014 and applied for the analysis of 41 red and 17 white wines. The developed method features minimal sample handling, low solvent consumption, high sample throughput, low analysis cost and provides an accurate and highly selective results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of hydroxamate siderophores in soil solution using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry with on-line sample preconcentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Madelen A; Bylund, Dan

    2015-10-01

    A liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method was developed to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze 13 hydroxamate siderophores (ferrichrome, ferrirubin, ferrirhodin, ferrichrysin, ferricrocin, ferrioxamine B, D1 , E and G, neocoprogen I and II, coprogen and triacetylfusarinine C). Samples were preconcentrated on-line by a switch-valve setup prior to analyte separation on a Kinetex C18 column. Gradient elution was performed using a mixture of an ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile. Total analysis time including column conditioning was 20.5 min. Analytes were fragmented by applying collision-induced dissociation, enabling structural identification by tandem mass spectrometry. Limit of detection values for the selected ion monitoring method ranged from 71 pM to 1.5 nM with corresponding values of two to nine times higher for the multiple reaction monitoring method. The liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry method resulted in a robust and sensitive quantification of hydroxamate siderophores as indicated by retention time stability, linearity, sensitivity, precision and recovery. The analytical error of the methods, assessed through random-order, duplicate analysis of soil samples extracted with a mixture of 10 mM phosphate buffer and methanol, appears negligible in relation to between-sample variations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Rapid determination of 99Tc in environmental samples by high resolution ICP-MS coupled with on-line flow injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.K.; Kim, C.S.; Rho, B.H.; Lee, J.I.

    2002-01-01

    High resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry coupled with an on-line flow injection system (FI-HR-ICP-MS) was applied to determine the ultra-trace level 99 Tc in soil. The flow injection system (PrepLab TM ) was composed of two TEVA-Spec R resins, reduced remarkably the sample amounts and the analysis time, compared to the conventional analytical methods. In the flow injection system, Mo and Ru were sufficiently eliminated by using the flow injection system, with the decontamination factors of 1.6 x 10 4 and 9.9 x 10 5 , respectively. With the present method, it was possible to determine ultra-low level of 99 Tc in 3∼6 soil at 3-5 hours of analysis time per sample. The relative standard deviation for each sample was less than 4%. The detection limits for 99 Tc was 85 fg x ml -1 (0.05 mBq x ml -1 ), which was calculated from the three times standard deviation of the count rate of the blank. (author)

  1. Metal-organic framework MIL-101 as sorbent based on double-pumps controlled on-line solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of flavonoids in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Hu, Jia; Li, Yan; Li, Xiao-Shuang; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2016-10-01

    A novel method with high sensitivity for the rapid determination of chrysin, apigenin and luteolin in environment water samples was developed by double-pumps controlled on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the developed technique, metal organic framework MIL-101 was synthesized and applied as a sorbent for SPE. The as-synthesized MIL-101 was characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, thermal gravimetric analysis and micropore physisorption analysis. The MIL-101 behaved as a fast kinetics in the adsorption of chrysin, apigenin and luteolin. On-line SPE of chrysin, apigenin and luteolin was processed by loading a sample solution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min for 10 min. The extracted analytes were subsequently eluted into a ZORBAX Bonus-RP analytical column (25 cm long × 4.6 mm i.d.) for HPLC separation under isocratic condition with a mobile phase (MeOH: ACN: 0.02 M H 3 PO 4 = 35:35:30) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Experimental conditions, including ionic strength, sample pH, sample loading rates, sample loading time and desorption analytes time, were further optimized to obtain efficient preconcentration and high-precision determination of the analytes mentioned above. The method achieved the merits of simplicity, rapidity, sensitivity, wide linear range and high sample throughput. The possible mechanism for the adsorption of flavonoids on MIL-101 was proposed. The developed method has been applied to determine trace chrysin, apigenin and luteolin in a variety of environmental water samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Determination of As(III) and total inorganic As in water samples using an on-line solid phase extraction and flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrist, Mirna, E-mail: msigrist@fiq.unl.edu.ar [Laboratorio Central, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2654-Piso 6, (3000) Santa Fe (Argentina); Albertengo, Antonela; Beldomenico, Horacio [Laboratorio Central, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2654-Piso 6, (3000) Santa Fe (Argentina); Tudino, Mabel [Laboratorio de Analisis de Trazas, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-04-15

    A simple and robust on-line sequential injection system based on solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to a flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HGAAS) with a heated quartz tube atomizer (QTA) was developed and optimized for the determination of As(III) in groundwater without any kind of sample pretreatment. The method was based on the selective retention of inorganic As(V) that was carried out by passing the filtered original sample through a cartridge containing a chloride-form strong anion exchanger. Thus the most toxic form, inorganic As(III), was determined fast and directly by AsH{sub 3} generation using 3.5 mol L{sup -1} HCl as carrier solution and 0.35% (m/v) NaBH{sub 4} in 0.025% NaOH as the reductant. Since the uptake of As(V) should be interfered by several anions of natural occurrence in waters, the effect of Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -} on retention was evaluated and discussed. The total soluble inorganic arsenic concentration was determined on aliquots of filtered samples acidified with concentrated HCl and pre-reduced with 5% KI-5% C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 6} solution. The concentration of As(V) was calculated by difference between the total soluble inorganic arsenic and As(III) concentrations. Detection limits (LODs) of 0.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 0.6 {mu}g L{sup -1} for As(III) and inorganic total As, respectively, were obtained for a 500 {mu}L sample volume. The obtained limits of detection allowed testing the water quality according to the national and international regulations. The analytical recovery for water samples spiked with As(III) ranged between 98% and 106%. The sampling throughput for As(III) determination was 60 samples h{sup -1}. The device for groundwater sampling was especially designed for the authors. Metallic components were avoided and the contact between the sample and the atmospheric oxygen was carried to a minimum. On-field arsenic species

  3. Determination of As(III) and total inorganic As in water samples using an on-line solid phase extraction and flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigrist, Mirna; Albertengo, Antonela; Beldomenico, Horacio; Tudino, Mabel

    2011-01-01

    A simple and robust on-line sequential injection system based on solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to a flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HGAAS) with a heated quartz tube atomizer (QTA) was developed and optimized for the determination of As(III) in groundwater without any kind of sample pretreatment. The method was based on the selective retention of inorganic As(V) that was carried out by passing the filtered original sample through a cartridge containing a chloride-form strong anion exchanger. Thus the most toxic form, inorganic As(III), was determined fast and directly by AsH 3 generation using 3.5 mol L -1 HCl as carrier solution and 0.35% (m/v) NaBH 4 in 0.025% NaOH as the reductant. Since the uptake of As(V) should be interfered by several anions of natural occurrence in waters, the effect of Cl - , SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , HPO 4 2- , HCO 3 - on retention was evaluated and discussed. The total soluble inorganic arsenic concentration was determined on aliquots of filtered samples acidified with concentrated HCl and pre-reduced with 5% KI-5% C 6 H 8 O 6 solution. The concentration of As(V) was calculated by difference between the total soluble inorganic arsenic and As(III) concentrations. Detection limits (LODs) of 0.5 μg L -1 and 0.6 μg L -1 for As(III) and inorganic total As, respectively, were obtained for a 500 μL sample volume. The obtained limits of detection allowed testing the water quality according to the national and international regulations. The analytical recovery for water samples spiked with As(III) ranged between 98% and 106%. The sampling throughput for As(III) determination was 60 samples h -1 . The device for groundwater sampling was especially designed for the authors. Metallic components were avoided and the contact between the sample and the atmospheric oxygen was carried to a minimum. On-field arsenic species separation was performed through the employ of a serial connection of membrane filters and

  4. Software supervisor: extension to the on-line codes utilization in order to help the process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.; Dumas, M.; Evrard, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Calculation is a complex problem, which is usually solved by human experts. The complexity and the potentiality of the software increases. The introduction of the calculations in real time systems needs additional specifications. These aims cab be achieved by means of the control of the knowledge based systems, as well as by the introduction of the software techniques in the existing computer world. The following examples are given: the automatic generation of the calculation methods (in control language) in the modular code systems; the calculations monitoring by the expert systems, in order to help the on-line operations [fr

  5. On-line monitoring of glucose and/or lactate in a fermentation process using an expanded micro-bed flow injection analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, M P; Lali, A M; Mattiasson, B

    1999-01-01

    A novel flow injection biosensor system for monitoring fermentation processes has been developed using an expanded micro bed as the enzyme reactor. An expanded bed reactor is capable of handling a mobile phase containing suspended matter like cells and cell debris. Thus, while the analyte is free to interact with the adsorbent, the suspended particulate matter passes through unhindered. With the use of a scaled down expanded bed in the flow injection analysis (FIA) system, it was possible to analyse samples directly from a fermentor without the pretreatment otherwise required to extract the analyte or remove the suspended cells. This technique, therefore, provides a means to determine the true concentrations of the metabolites in a fermentor, with more ease than possible with other techniques. Glucose oxidase immobilised on STREAMLINE was used to measure glucose concentration in a suspension of dead yeast cells. There was no interference from the cell particles even at high cell densities such as 15 gm dry weight per litre. The assay time was about 6 min. Accuracy and reproducibility of the system was found to be good. In another scheme, lactate oxidase was covalently coupled to STREAMLINE for expanded bed operation. With the on-line expanded micro bed FIA it was possible to follow the fermentation with Lactobacillus casei.

  6. On-line near-infrared spectroscopy optimizing and monitoring biotransformation process of γ-aminobutyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Ding

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS with its fast and nondestructive advantages can be qualified for the real-time quantitative analysis. This paper demonstrates that NIRS combined with partial least squares (PLS regression can be used as a rapid analytical method to simultaneously quantify l-glutamic acid (l-Glu and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA in a biotransformation process and to guide the optimization of production conditions when the merits of NIRS are combined with response surface methodology. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC reference analysis was performed by the o-phthaldialdehyde pre-column derivatization. NIRS measurements of two batches of 141 samples were firstly analyzed by PLS with several spectral pre-processing methods. Compared with those of the HPLC reference analysis, the resulting determination coefficients (R2, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP and residual predictive deviation (RPD of the external validation for the l-Glu concentration were 99.5%, 1.62 g/L, and 11.3, respectively. For the GABA concentration, R2, RMSEP, and RPD were 99.8%, 4.00 g/L, and 16.4, respectively. This NIRS model was then used to optimize the biotransformation process through a Box-Behnken experimental design. Under the optimal conditions without pH adjustment, 200 g/L l-Glu could be catalyzed by 7148 U/L glutamate decarboxylase (GAD to GABA, reaching 99% conversion at the fifth hour. NIRS analysis provided timely information on the conversion from l-Glu to GABA. The results suggest that the NIRS model can not only be used for the routine profiling of enzymatic conversion, providing a simple and effective method of monitoring the biotransformation process of GABA, but also be considered to be an optimal tool to guide the optimization of production conditions.

  7. Effects of push/pull perfusion and ultrasonication on the extraction efficiencies of phthalate esters in sports drink samples using on-line hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Ying; Lee, Chien-Hung; Chien, Tzu-Yang; Shih, Yu-Hsuan; Lu, Yin-An; Kuo, Ting-Hsuan; Huang, Yeou-Lih

    2013-08-28

    In previous studies, we developed a process, on-line ultrasound-assisted push/pull perfusion hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (UA-PPP-HF-LPME), combining the techniques of push/pull perfusion (PPP) and ultrasonication with hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME), to achieve rapid extraction of acidic phenols from water samples. In this present study, we further evaluated three more-advanced and novel effects of PPP and ultrasonication on the extraction efficiencies of neutral high-molecular-weight phthalate esters (HPAEs) in sports drinks. First, we found that inner-fiber fluid leakage occurs only in push-only perfusion-based and pull-only perfusion-based HF-LPME, but not in the PPP mode. Second, we identified a significant negative interaction between ultrasonication and temperature. Third, we found that the extraction time of the newly proposed system could be shortened by more than 93%. From an investigation of the factors affecting UA-PPP-HF-LPME, we established optimal extraction conditions and achieved acceptable on-line enrichment factors of 92-146 for HPAEs with a sampling time of just 2 min.

  8. Coupling on-line preconcentration by ion-exchange with ETAAS. A novel flow injection approach based on the use of a renewable microcolumn as demonstrated for the determination of nickel in environmental and biological samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2000-01-01

    microcolumn incorporated within an integrated micro FI-system, the column is loaded with a defined volume of small beads of an SP Sephadex C-25 cation-exchange resin and subsequently exposed to a metered amount of sample solution. However, instead of eluting the retained analyte from the organic ion-exchange......A novel way of exploiting flow injection/sequential injection (FIA/SIA) on-line ion-exchange preconcentration with detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is described and demonstrated for the determination of trace-levels of nickel. Based on the use of a renewable...... resin, the beads are along with 30 mul of carrier (buffer) solution transported via air segmentation directly into the graphite tube, where they are ashed during the pyrolysis and atomization process. The ETAAS determination is performed in parallel with the preconcentration process of the ensuing...

  9. A sustainable on-line CapLC method for quantifying antifouling agents like irgarol-1051 and diuron in water samples: Estimation of the carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Tolós, J; Serra-Mora, P; Hakobyan, L; Molins-Legua, C; Moliner-Martinez, Y; Campins-Falcó, P

    2016-11-01

    In this work, in-tube solid phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) coupled to capillary LC (CapLC) with diode array detection has been reported, for on-line extraction and enrichment of booster biocides (irgarol-1051 and diuron) included in Water Frame Directive 2013/39/UE (WFD). The analytical performance has been successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, in the present work, the environmental friendliness of the procedure has been quantified by means of the implementation of the carbon footprint calculation of the analytical procedure and the comparison with other methodologies previously reported. Under the optimum conditions, the method presents good linearity over the range assayed, 0.05-10μg/L for irgarol-1051 and 0.7-10μg/L for diuron. The LODs were 0.015μg/L and 0.2μg/L for irgarol-1051 and diuron, respectively. Precision was also satisfactory (relative standard deviation, RSDcarbon footprint values for the proposed procedure consolidate the operational efficiency (analytical and environmental performance) of in-tube SPME-CapLC-DAD, in general, and in particular for determining irgarol-1051 and diuron in water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and application of an on-line sequential injection system for the separation of artificial and natural radionuclides in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.-K.; Sansone, U.; Martin, P.; Kim, C.-S.

    2007-02-01

    The Chemistry Unit of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory in the IAEA's Seibersdorf Laboratory in Austria, has the programmatic responsibility to provide assistance to Member State laboratories in maintaining and improving the reliability of analytical measurement results, both in trace element and radionuclide determinations. This is accomplished through the provision of reference materials of terrestrial origin, validated analytical procedures, training in the implementation of internal quality control, and through the evaluation of measurement performance by organization of worldwide and regional interlaboratory comparison exercises. In this framework an on-line sequential injection (SI) system was developed, which can be widely used for the separation and preconcentration of target analytes from diverse environmental samples. The system enables the separation time to be shortened by maintaining a constant flow rate of solution and by avoiding clogging or bubbling in a chromatographic column. The SI system was successfully applied to the separation of Pu in IAEA reference material (IAEA Soil-6) and to the sequential separation of 210 Po and 210 Pb in phosphogypsum candidate reference material. The replicate analysis results of Pu in IAEA reference material (Soil-6) obtained with the SI system are in good agreement with the recommended value within 5% of standard deviation. The SI system enabled a halving in the separation time required for of radionuclides

  11. On-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples using elemental chromium: An extension for high temperature elemental-analyzer techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Meijer, Harro A.J.; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method may produce inaccurate δ2H results, with values deviating by more than 20 mUr (milliurey = 0.001 = 1‰) from the true value for some materials. We show that a single-oven, chromium-filled elemental analyzer coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability for hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic substances (Cr-EA method). Hot chromium maximizes the yield of molecular hydrogen in a helium carrier gas by irreversibly and quantitatively scavenging all reactive elements except hydrogen. In contrast, under TC/EA conditions, heteroelements like nitrogen or chlorine (and other halogens) can form hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) and this can cause isotopic fractionation. The Cr-EA technique thus expands the analytical possibilities for on-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples significantly. This method yielded reproducibility values (1-sigma) for δ2H measurements on water and caffeine samples of better than 1.0 and 0.5 mUr, respectively. To overcome handling problems with water as the principal calibration anchor for hydrogen isotopic measurements, we have employed an effective and simple strategy using reference waters or other liquids sealed in silver-tube segments. These crimped silver tubes can be employed in both the Cr-EA and TC/EA techniques. They simplify considerably the normalization of hydrogen-isotope measurement data to the VSMOW-SLAP (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, and their use improves accuracy of the data by eliminating evaporative loss and associated isotopic fractionation while

  12. On-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples using elemental chromium: an extension for high temperature elemental-analyzer techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Meijer, Harro A J; Brand, Willi A; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method may produce inaccurate δ(2)H results, with values deviating by more than 20 mUr (milliurey = 0.001 = 1‰) from the true value for some materials. We show that a single-oven, chromium-filled elemental analyzer coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability for hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic substances (Cr-EA method). Hot chromium maximizes the yield of molecular hydrogen in a helium carrier gas by irreversibly and quantitatively scavenging all reactive elements except hydrogen. In contrast, under TC/EA conditions, heteroelements like nitrogen or chlorine (and other halogens) can form hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) and this can cause isotopic fractionation. The Cr-EA technique thus expands the analytical possibilities for on-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples significantly. This method yielded reproducibility values (1-sigma) for δ(2)H measurements on water and caffeine samples of better than 1.0 and 0.5 mUr, respectively. To overcome handling problems with water as the principal calibration anchor for hydrogen isotopic measurements, we have employed an effective and simple strategy using reference waters or other liquids sealed in silver-tube segments. These crimped silver tubes can be employed in both the Cr-EA and TC/EA techniques. They simplify considerably the normalization of hydrogen-isotope measurement data to the VSMOW-SLAP (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, and their use improves accuracy of the data by eliminating evaporative loss and associated isotopic fractionation while

  13. Analysis of multivariate stochastic signals sampled by on-line particle analyzers: Application to the quantitative assessment of occupational exposure to NOAA in multisource industrial scenarios (MSIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ipiña, J M López; Vaquero, C; Gutierrez-Cañas, C; Pui, D Y H

    2015-01-01

    In multisource industrial scenarios (MSIS) coexist NOAA generating activities with other productive sources of airborne particles, such as parallel processes of manufacturing or electrical and diesel machinery. A distinctive characteristic of MSIS is the spatially complex distribution of aerosol sources, as well as their potential differences in dynamics, due to the feasibility of multi-task configuration at a given time. Thus, the background signal is expected to challenge the aerosol analyzers at a probably wide range of concentrations and size distributions, depending of the multisource configuration at a given time. Monitoring and prediction by using statistical analysis of time series captured by on-line particle analyzersin industrial scenarios, have been proven to be feasible in predicting PNC evolution provided a given quality of net signals (difference between signal at source and background). However the analysis and modelling of non-consistent time series, influenced by low levels of SNR (Signal-Noise Ratio) could build a misleading basis for decision making. In this context, this work explores the use of stochastic models based on ARIMA methodology to monitor and predict exposure values (PNC). The study was carried out in a MSIS where an case study focused on the manufacture of perforated tablets of nano-TiO 2 by cold pressing was performed. (paper)

  14. On-line monitoring the extract process of Fu-fang Shuanghua oral solution using near infrared spectroscopy and different PLS algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qian; Ru, Qingguo; Liu, Yan; Xu, Lingyan; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yifei; Zhang, Yewen; Li, Hui; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    An on-line near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy monitoring method with an appropriate multivariate calibration method was developed for the extraction process of Fu-fang Shuanghua oral solution (FSOS). On-line NIR spectra were collected through two fiber optic probes, which were designed to transmit NIR radiation by a 2 mm flange. Partial least squares (PLS), interval PLS (iPLS) and synergy interval PLS (siPLS) algorithms were used comparatively for building the calibration regression models. During the extraction process, the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy was employed to determine the concentrations of chlorogenic acid (CA) content, total phenolic acids contents (TPC), total flavonoids contents (TFC) and soluble solid contents (SSC). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultraviolet spectrophotometric method (UV) and loss on drying methods were employed as reference methods. Experiment results showed that the performance of siPLS model is the best compared with PLS and iPLS. The calibration models for AC, TPC, TFC and SSC had high values of determination coefficients of (R2) (0.9948, 0.9992, 0.9950 and 0.9832) and low root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) (0.0113, 0.0341, 0.1787 and 1.2158), which indicate a good correlation between reference values and NIR predicted values. The overall results show that the on line detection method could be feasible in real application and would be of great value for monitoring the mixed decoction process of FSOS and other Chinese patent medicines.

  15. On-line control of the plasma spraying process by monitoring the temperature, velocity, and trajectory of in-flight particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, C.; Gougeon, P.; Lamontagne, M.; Lacasse, V.; Vaudreuil, G.; Cielo, P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new optical sensing device for on-line monitoring of the temperature, velocity and trajectory of in-flight particles during industrial coating production. Thermal radiation emitted by the in-flight particles is collected by a small and robust sensing head that can be attached to the plasma gun providing continuous monitoring of the spray process. The collected radiation is transmitted through optical fibers to a detection cabinet located away from the dusty environment around the operating plasma gun. On-line measurement of the particle velocity, temperature and trajectory can provide an efficient diagnostic tool to maintain optimum spraying conditions leading to a better reproducibility of the coating properties

  16. Design and development of a highly sensitive, field portable plasma source instrument for on-line liquid stream monitoring and real-time sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Yixiang; Su, Yongxuan; Jin, Zhe; Abeln, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    The development of a highly sensitive, field portable, low-powered instrument for on-site, real-time liquid waste stream monitoring is described in this article. A series of factors such as system sensitivity and portability, plasma source, sample introduction, desolvation system, power supply, and the instrument configuration, were carefully considered in the design of the portable instrument. A newly designed, miniature, modified microwave plasma source was selected as the emission source for spectroscopy measurement, and an integrated small spectrometer with a charge-coupled device detector was installed for signal processing and detection. An innovative beam collection system with optical fibers was designed and used for emission signal collection. Microwave plasma can be sustained with various gases at relatively low power, and it possesses high detection capabilities for both metal and nonmetal pollutants, making it desirable to use for on-site, real-time, liquid waste stream monitoring. An effective in situ sampling system was coupled with a high efficiency desolvation device for direct-sampling liquid samples into the plasma. A portable computer control system is used for data processing. The new, integrated instrument can be easily used for on-site, real-time monitoring in the field. The system possesses a series of advantages, including high sensitivity for metal and nonmetal elements; in situ sampling; compact structure; low cost; and ease of operation and handling. These advantages will significantly overcome the limitations of previous monitoring techniques and make great contributions to environmental restoration and monitoring. (c)

  17. Representative process sampling for reliable data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julius, Lars Petersen; Esbensen, Kim

    2005-01-01

    (sampling variances) can be reduced greatly however, and sampling biases can be eliminated completely, by respecting a simple set of rules and guidelines provided by TOS. A systematic approach for description of process heterogeneity furnishes in-depth knowledge about the specific variability of any 1-D lot...

  18. Quality evaluation of processed clay soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Harrison, Obed Akwaa; Vuvor, Frederick; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the microbial quality of clay samples sold on two of the major Ghanaian markets. The study was a cross-sectional assessing the evaluation of processed clay and effects it has on the nutrition of the consumers in the political capital town of Ghana. The items for the examination was processed clay soil samples. Staphylococcus spp and fecal coliforms including Klebsiella, Escherichia, and Shigella and Enterobacterspp were isolated from the clay samples. Samples from the Kaneshie market in Accra recorded the highest total viable counts 6.5 Log cfu/g and Staphylococcal count 5.8 Log cfu/g. For fecal coliforms, Madina market samples had the highest count 6.5 Log cfu/g and also recorded the highest levels of yeast and mould. For Koforidua, total viable count was highest in the samples from the Zongo market 6.3 Log cfu/g. Central market samples had the highest count of fecal coliforms 4.6 Log cfu/g and yeasts and moulds 6.5 Log cfu/g. "Small" market recorded the highest staphylococcal count 6.2 Log cfu/g. The water activity of the clay samples were low, and ranged between 0.65±0.01 and 0.66±0.00 for samples collected from Koforidua and Accra respectively. The clay samples were found to contain Klebsiella spp. Escherichia, Enterobacter, Shigella spp. staphylococcus spp., yeast and mould. These have health implications when consumed.

  19. Disc valve for sampling erosive process streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochek, J.E.; Dinsmore, S.R.; Chandler, E.W.

    1986-01-07

    A four-port disc valve is described for sampling erosive, high temperature process streams. A rotatable disc defining opposed first and second sampling cavities rotates between fired faceplates defining flow passageways positioned to be alternatively in axial alignment with the first and second cavities. Silicon carbide inserts and liners composed of [alpha] silicon carbide are provided in the faceplates and in the sampling cavities to limit erosion while providing lubricity for a smooth and precise operation when used under harsh process conditions. 1 fig.

  20. On-line sample-pre-treatment schemes for trace-level determinations of metals by coupling flow injection or sequential injection with ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2003-01-01

    a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) knotted reactor (KR), solvent extraction-back extraction and hydride/vapor generation. It also addresses a novel, robust approach, whereby the protocol of SI-LOV-bead injection (BI) on-line separation and pre-concentration of ultra-trace levels of metals by a renewable microcolumn...

  1. Determination of thromboxanes, leukotrienes and lipoxins using high-temperature capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and on-line sample preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sandra Rinne; Kleiveland, Charlotte Ramstad; Kassem, Moustapha

    2009-01-01

    An on-line strong cation-exchange (SCX)-reversed-phase (RP) capillary liquid chromatographic (cLC) method with ion-trap tandem mass spectrometric (IT-MS/MS) detection for the simultaneous determination of thromboxane (TX) B(2), TXB(3), leukotriene (LT) B(4), LTD(4) and lipoxin (LX) A(4) in cell...

  2. On-line moisture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Mijak, D.G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk material. Nuclear-based analysers measure the total hydrogen content in the sample and do not differentiate between free and combined moisture. Such analysers may also be sensitive to material presentation and elemental composition. Very low frequency electromagnetic probes, such as capacitance or conductance probes, operate in the frequency region where the DC conductivity dominates much of the response, which is a function not only of moisture content but also of ionic composition and chemistry. These problems are overcome using microwave transmission techniques, which also have the following advantages, as a true bulk moisture analysis is obtained, because a high percentage of the bulk material is analysed; the moisture estimate is mostly insensitive to any biased presentation of moisture, for example due to stratification of bulk material with different moisture content and because no physical contact is made between the sensor and the bulk material. This is

  3. Pierre Gy's sampling theory and sampling practice heterogeneity, sampling correctness, and statistical process control

    CERN Document Server

    Pitard, Francis F

    1993-01-01

    Pierre Gy's Sampling Theory and Sampling Practice, Second Edition is a concise, step-by-step guide for process variability management and methods. Updated and expanded, this new edition provides a comprehensive study of heterogeneity, covering the basic principles of sampling theory and its various applications. It presents many practical examples to allow readers to select appropriate sampling protocols and assess the validity of sampling protocols from others. The variability of dynamic process streams using variography is discussed to help bridge sampling theory with statistical process control. Many descriptions of good sampling devices, as well as descriptions of poor ones, are featured to educate readers on what to look for when purchasing sampling systems. The book uses its accessible, tutorial style to focus on professional selection and use of methods. The book will be a valuable guide for mineral processing engineers; metallurgists; geologists; miners; chemists; environmental scientists; and practit...

  4. On-line and bulk analysis for the resource industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.S.; Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.; Madsen, I.C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are the basis of many CSIRO on-line and bulk analysis systems that are now widely used in the mineral and energy industries. The continuous analysis and rapid response of these systems have led to improved control of mining, processing and blending operations. This paper reviews recent developments in neutron, gamma-ray and X-ray techniques for on-line and bulk analysis by CSIRO Minerals including neutron techniques for the on-conveyor belt determination of the composition of cement raw meal, the on-line analysis of composition in pyrometallurgical applications, the on-conveyor belt determination of ash in coal, and the rapid and accurate determination of gold in bulk laboratory samples. The paper also discusses a new gamma-ray technique for the on-line determination of ash in coal and the application of X-ray diffraction techniques for the on-line determination of mineralogy in the cement industry

  5. On-line monitoring of extraction process of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae using near infrared spectroscopy combined with synergy interval PLS and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wang, Lei; Wu, Yongjiang; Liu, Xuesong; Bi, Yuan; Xiao, Wei; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    There is a growing need for the effective on-line process monitoring during the manufacture of traditional Chinese medicine to ensure quality consistency. In this study, the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique to monitor the extraction process of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae was investigated. A new algorithm of synergy interval PLS with genetic algorithm (Si-GA-PLS) was proposed for modeling. Four different PLS models, namely Full-PLS, Si-PLS, GA-PLS, and Si-GA-PLS, were established, and their performances in predicting two quality parameters (viz. total acid and soluble solid contents) were compared. In conclusion, Si-GA-PLS model got the best results due to the combination of superiority of Si-PLS and GA. For Si-GA-PLS, the determination coefficient (Rp2) and root-mean-square error for the prediction set (RMSEP) were 0.9561 and 147.6544 μg/ml for total acid, 0.9062 and 0.1078% for soluble solid contents, correspondingly. The overall results demonstrated that the NIR spectroscopy technique combined with Si-GA-PLS calibration is a reliable and non-destructive alternative method for on-line monitoring of the extraction process of TCM on the production scale.

  6. Sample processing procedures and radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlik, Ivo; Tomaskova, Lenka; Dreslerova, Dagmar

    2010-01-01

    The article outlines radiocarbon dating routines and highlights the potential and limitations of this method. The author's institutions have been jointly running a conventional radiocarbon dating laboratory using the international CRL code. A procedure based on the synthesis of benzene is used. Small samples are sent abroad for dating because no AMS instrumentation is available in the Czech Republic so far. Our laboratory plans to introduce routines for the processing of milligram samples and preparation of graphitized targets for AMS

  7. Development of a method of absorbed dose on-line monitoring at product processing by scanned electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomatsalyuk, R.I.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Tenishev, A.Eh.; Titov, D.V.; Uvarov, V.L.

    2016-01-01

    The conditions of the contact-free absorbed dose monitoring at industrial product processing by electron beam are investigated. The method is based on analysing the collected charge in a stack monitor (SM) mounted down-stream of irradiated object. Using computer simulation on the basis of a modified transport code PENELOPE-2008, it is shown that by placing a filter of low-energy electrons before SM it is possible to obtain the one-to-one correlation dependence between the monitor charge and absorbed energy of radiation in the processed object. At a certain surface density of the filter, this dependence takes on the form similar to linear. The possibility to use an air gap between the object and SM as such a filter has been demonstrated. For the conditions of radiation plant with an electron accelerator LU-10 of NSC KIPT, the optimum distance of the SM location has been established. For the practical range of the electron energy, beam scan width and surface density of the irradiated product, the constants of ''product absorbed energy-to- SM charge '' linear dependence have been determined. The capability to establish the average absorbed dose in the object moving trough the irradiation zone on the SM current is shown. The calculation data are in satisfactory agreement with the results of measurements.

  8. Trace analysis of halogenated hydrocarbons in gaseous samples by on-line enrichment in an adsorption trap, on-column cold-trapping and capillary gas chromatography. I.Method and instrumentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noij, T.H.M.; Fabian, P.; Borchers, R.; Janssen, F.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Rijks, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of halocarbons in gaseous samples down to the ppt level (1:1012, v/v), consisting of successive on-line sub-ambient enrichment on an adsorbent, on-column cryofocusing, capillary gas chromatography and electron-capture detection. The quantitative aspects of

  9. Solid-phase extraction of polar pesticides from environmental water samples on graphitized carbon and Empore-activated carbon disks and on-line coupling to octadecyl-bonded silica analytical columns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slobodník, J.; Oztekizan, O.; Lingeman, H.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of Empore-activated carbon disks (EACD), Envi-Carb graphitized carbon black (GCB) and CPP-50 graphitized carbon for the trace enrichment of polar pesticides from water samples was studied by means of off-line and on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE). In the off-line procedure, 0.5-2

  10. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as an Analytical Process Technology for the On-Line Quantification of Water Precipitation Processes during Danhong Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper used near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy for the on-line quantitative monitoring of water precipitation during Danhong injection. For these NIR measurements, two fiber optic probes designed to transmit NIR radiation through a 2 mm flow cell were used to collect spectra in real-time. Partial least squares regression (PLSR was developed as the preferred chemometrics quantitative analysis of the critical intermediate qualities: the danshensu (DSS, (R-3, 4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde (PA, rosmarinic acid (RA, and salvianolic acid B (SAB concentrations. Optimized PLSR models were successfully built and used for on-line detecting of the concentrations of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB of water precipitation during Danhong injection. Besides, the information of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB concentrations would be instantly fed back to site technical personnel for control and adjustment timely. The verification experiments determined that the predicted values agreed with the actual homologic value.

  11. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as an Analytical Process Technology for the On-Line Quantification of Water Precipitation Processes during Danhong Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuesong; Wu, Chunyan; Geng, Shu; Jin, Ye; Luan, Lianjun; Chen, Yong; Wu, Yongjiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper used near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the on-line quantitative monitoring of water precipitation during Danhong injection. For these NIR measurements, two fiber optic probes designed to transmit NIR radiation through a 2 mm flow cell were used to collect spectra in real-time. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was developed as the preferred chemometrics quantitative analysis of the critical intermediate qualities: the danshensu (DSS, (R)-3, 4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid), protocatechuic aldehyde (PA), rosmarinic acid (RA), and salvianolic acid B (SAB) concentrations. Optimized PLSR models were successfully built and used for on-line detecting of the concentrations of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB of water precipitation during Danhong injection. Besides, the information of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB concentrations would be instantly fed back to site technical personnel for control and adjustment timely. The verification experiments determined that the predicted values agreed with the actual homologic value.

  12. Surface studies of plasma processed Nb samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Puneet V.; Doleans, Marc; Hannah, Brian S.; Afanador, Ralph; Stewart, Stephen; Mammosser, John; Howell, Matthew P; Saunders, Jeffrey W; Degraff, Brian D; Kim, Sang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Contaminants present at top surface of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities can act as field emitters and restrict the cavity accelerating gradient. A room temperature in-situ plasma processing technology for SRF cavities aiming to clean hydrocarbons from inner surface of cavities has been recently developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Surface studies of the plasma-processed Nb samples by Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) showed that the NeO_2 plasma processing is very effective to remove carbonaceous contaminants from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5 to 1.0 eV.

  13. On-line measurement of crystalline color by color-image processing system; Gazo shori system wo mochiita kessho no online iro sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okayasu, S.; Katayama, M.; Shinohara, T. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-20

    Aiming for the stable operation and the rationalization of factory plant, the color-image processing has been tried to introduce into the on-line system to measure the crystalline color of L-Lysine in its refining process. Because the practical spectro-photometry was used to be employed by manual measurement. In this paper, the calculation formula of the transmittance by spectrophotometry is theoretically introduced by analyzing the relation of Lambert-Beer`s law of luminous transparency with the Kubelka-Munk`s function of the luminous dispersion using color image data. The parameters of the calculation formula were decided by actual measurement, so that the formula with accuracy value of {plus_minus}3% elucidated the possible estimation of transmittance by spectrophotometry. The system was tested on a commercial plant, and some issues are discussed. 8 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Adaptive multiple importance sampling for Gaussian processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Xiong, X.; Šmídl, Václav; Filippone, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 8 (2017), s. 1644-1665 ISSN 0094-9655 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14287 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Gaussian Process * Bayesian estimation * Adaptive importance sampling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 0.757, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/AS/smidl-0469804.pdf

  15. NIR technology for on-line determination of superficial a(w) and moisture content during the drying process of fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collell, Carles; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint; Muñoz, Israel; Comaposada, Josep

    2012-12-01

    Three different NIR equipment were evaluated based on their ability to predict superficial water activity (a(w)) and moisture content in two types of fermented sausages (with and without moulds on surface), using partial least squares (PLS) regression models. The instruments differed mainly in wavelength range, resolution and measurement configuration. The most accurate equipment was used in a new experiment to achieve robust models in sausages with different salt contents and submitted to different drying conditions. The models developed showed determination coefficients (R(2)(P)) values of 0.990, 0.910 and 0.984, and RMSEP values of 1.560%, 0.220% and 0.007% for moisture, salt and a(w) respectively. It was demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy could be a suitable non-destructive method for on-line monitoring and control of the drying process in fermented sausages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of signal processing electronics for self powered neutron detector signal with built-in on-line insulation monitoring [Paper No.:E3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Amitabha; Chaganty, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    Self powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) are employed to monitor in-core neutron flux in nuclear reactors for control, safety and mapping of in-core neutron flux. The d.c. current produced by SPND is converted into a proportional d.c. voltage, which in turn is used for various purposes stated above. This paper describes various features of the SPND amplifier developed in the Electronics Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). It also outlines the principle of working of on-line monitoring of insulation resistance (IR) of the detector and associated mineral insulated (MI) and soft cables. The amplifier generates an alarm in case of the IR of the detector and the cable assembly falls below an accepted value or the cable is not connected to the amplifier and relieves the operator from periodic and manual checking of each of the individual detectors and ensures the validity of the signal for further processing. (author). 3 figs

  17. On line portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to examine the various imaging devices that have been developed for portal imaging, describe some of the image registration methods that have been developed to determine geometric errors quantitatively, and discuss how portal imaging has been incorporated into clinical practice. Discussion: Verification of patient positioning has always been an important aspect of external beam radiation therapy. Over the past decade many portal imaging devices have been developed by individual investigators and most accelerator manufacturers now offer 'on-line' portal imaging systems. The commercial devices include T.V. camera-based systems, liquid ionisation chamber systems, and shortly, flat panel systems. The characteristics of these imaging systems will be discussed. In addition, other approaches such as the use of kilovoltage x-ray sources, video monitoring, and ultrasound have been proposed for improving patient positioning. Some of the advantages of these approaches will be discussed. One of the major advantages of on-line portal imaging is that many quantitative techniques have been developed to detect errors in patient positioning. The general approach is to register anatomic structures on a portal image with the same structures on a digitized simulator film. Once the anatomic structures have been registered, any discrepancies in the position of the patient can be identified. One problem is finding a common frame of reference for the simulator and portal images, since the location of the radiation field within the pixel matrix may differ for the two images. As a result, a common frame of reference has to be established before the anatomic structures in the images can be registered - generally by registering radiation field edges identified in the simulator and portal images. In addition, distortions in patient geometry or rotations out of the image plane can confound the image registration techniques. Despite the

  18. On line portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to examine the various imaging devices that have been developed for portal imaging; describe some of the image registration methods that have been developed to determine geometric errors quantitatively; discuss some of the ways that portal imaging has been incorporated into routine clinical practice; describe quality assurance procedures for these devices, and discuss the use of portal imaging devices for dosimetry applications. Discussion: Verification of patient positioning has always been an important aspect of external beam radiation therapy. Over the past decade many portal imaging devices have been developed by individual investigators and most accelerator manufacturers now offer 'on-line' portal imaging systems. The commercial devices can be classified into three categories: T.V. camera-based systems, liquid ionisation chamber systems, and amorphous silicon systems. Many factors influence the quality of images generated by these portal imaging systems. These include factors which are unavoidable (e.g., low subject contrast), factors which depend upon the individual imaging device forming the image (e.g., dose utilisation, spatial resolution) as well as factors which depend upon the characteristics of the linear accelerator irradiating the imaging system (x-ray source size, image magnification). The characteristics of individual imaging systems, such as spatial resolution, temporal response, and quantum utilisation will be discussed. One of the major advantages of on-line portal imaging is that many quantitative techniques have been developed to detect errors in patient positioning. The general approach is to register anatomic structures on a portal image with the same structures on a digitized simulator film. Once the anatomic structures have been registered, any discrepancies in the position of the patient can be identified. However, the task is not nearly as straight-forward as it sounds. One problem

  19. Optimum yields of dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignans from Cynareae fruits, during their ripening, germination and enzymatic hydrolysis processes, determined by on-line chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szokol-Borsodi, Lilla; Sólyomváry, Anna; Molnár-Perl, Ibolya; Boldizsár, Imre

    2012-01-01

    Dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignans are the physiologically active constituents of the achene fruits of Cynareae. These lignans occur in glycoside/aglycone forms: in the highest quantity of the arctiin/arctigenin, matairesinoside/matairesinol and tracheloside/trachelogenin pairs found in the fruits of Arctium lappa L., Centaurea scabiosa L. and Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. To optimise the extraction yield of the arctiin/arctigenin, matairesinoside/matairesinol and tracheloside/trachelogenin glycoside/aglycone pairs, from the fruits of Arctium lappa, Centaurea scabiosa and Cirsium arvense, under the ripening, germination and enzymatic hydrolysis processes of the fruits. Identification and quantification of lignans were performed with on-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), both with UV and mass selective detections (HPLC-UV/MS). As novelties to the field it was confirmed that: (i) the unripe fruits provide a high amount of lignans, similar to the ripe fruit; (ii) the fruits of Arctium lappa and Cirsium arvense do have glycosidase activity to hydrolyse their lignan glycosides into free lignans; (iii) the glycosidase of Centaurea scabiosa fruit becomes activated under its germination process only; and (iv) the overwhelming part of the fruits lignan contents (80-94%) in all three species are accumulated in the embryo. The best sources of (i) lignan aglycones are the enzyme-hydrolysed embryos, separating spontaneously during the germination process, and (ii) lignan glycosides are the unripe fruits. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Ergonomic analysis of radiopharmaceuticals samples preparation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Luciene Betzler C.; Santos, Isaac Luquetti dos; Fonseca, Antonio Carlos C. da; Pellini, Marcos Pinto; Rebelo, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    The doses of radioisotopes to be administrated in patients for diagnostic effect or therapy are prepared in the radiopharmacological sector. The preparation process adopts techniques that are aimed to reduce the exposition time of the professionals and the absorption of excessive doses for patients. The ergonomic analysis of this process contributes in the prevention of occupational illnesses and to prevent risks of accidents during the routines, providing welfare and security to the involved users and conferring to the process an adequate working standard. In this context it is perceived relevance of studies that deal with the analysis of factors that point with respect to the solution of problems and for establishing proposals that minimize risks in the exercise of the activities. Through a methodology that considers the application of the concepts of Ergonomics, it is searched the improvement of the effectiveness or the quality and reduction of the difficulties lived for the workers. The work prescribed, established through norms and procedures codified will be faced with the work effectively carried through, the real work, shaped to break the correct appreciation, with focus in the activities. This work has as objective to argue an ergonomic analysis of samples preparation process of radioisotopes in the Setor de Radiofarmacia do Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). (author)

  1. Static sampling of dynamic processes - a paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mälicke, Mirko; Neuper, Malte; Jackisch, Conrad; Hassler, Sibylle; Zehe, Erwin

    2017-04-01

    Environmental systems monitoring aims at its core at the detection of spatio-temporal patterns of processes and system states, which is a pre-requisite for understanding and explaining their baffling heterogeneity. Most observation networks rely on distributed point sampling of states and fluxes of interest, which is combined with proxy-variables from either remote sensing or near surface geophysics. The cardinal question on the appropriate experimental design of such a monitoring network has up to now been answered in many different ways. Suggested approaches range from sampling in a dense regular grid using for the so-called green machine, transects along typical catenas, clustering of several observations sensors in presumed functional units or HRUs, arrangements of those cluster along presumed lateral flow paths to last not least a nested, randomized stratified arrangement of sensors or samples. Common to all these approaches is that they provide a rather static spatial sampling, while state variables and their spatial covariance structure dynamically change in time. It is hence of key interest how much of our still incomplete understanding stems from inappropriate sampling and how much needs to be attributed to an inappropriate analysis of spatial data sets. We suggest that it is much more promising to analyze the spatial variability of processes, for instance changes in soil moisture values, than to investigate the spatial variability of soil moisture states themselves. This is because wetting of the soil, reflected in a soil moisture increase, is causes by a totally different meteorological driver - rainfall - than drying of the soil. We hence propose that the rising and the falling limbs of soil moisture time series belong essentially to different ensembles, as they are influenced by different drivers. Positive and negative temporal changes in soil moisture need, hence, to be analyzed separately. We test this idea using the CAOS data set as a benchmark

  2. PENGEMBANGAN DATA WAREHOUSE DAN ON-LINE ANALYTICAL PROCESSING (OLAP UNTUK PENEMUAN INFORMASI DAN ANALISIS DATA (Studi Kasus : Sistem Informasi Penerimaan Mahasiswa Baru STMIK AMIKOM PURWOKERTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giat Karyono

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background preparation of this thesis report, Silva (2007 mentions that the competition for students between universities was inevitable as it grows, universities should equip themselves to survive in the competition that ultimately colleges that are not sensitive to compete. The demand for a high performance organization that has also faced by STMIK AMIKOM Purwokerto. Existing data on the colleges that are so big and much needed storage space allocation will be helped and be efficient with the data warehouse (Wikramanayake, 2006. Based on the data management / decision makers in education institutions is always a constant attempt to find an information / decision analysis that are useful in the search for new students. For the needs of the analysis method was used OLAP (OnLine Analytical Processing which presents the data in the form of multidimensional query that is easier to be presented and analyzed.Data collection methods used in the preparation of this report include the method of observation of interviews and field studies, literature, internet search, as well as observing systems that are already running.This research was conducted with the following steps: 1 The analysis system that includes the current SIPMB analysis, identification of the cause of the problem, analysis of system requirements. 2 System design, including design of data warehouses and OLAP applications PMB. This design produces data warehouse architecture, data modeling dimensional, the establishment of a data warehouse, OLAP stakeholders PMB, PMB OLAP viewpoint, scenario, model systems, and user interface design. 3 Implementation, covers the application of OLAP applications PMB and operations performed included, 4 testing system, test the product in accordance with ISO 9126 software includes six quality characteristics of Functionality, Reliability, Usability, efficiency, Maintainability, Portability. In order not to interfere the performance of the operational

  3. Progressive sample processing of band selection for hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keng-Hao; Chien, Hung-Chang; Chen, Shih-Yu

    2017-10-01

    Band selection (BS) is one of the most important topics in hyperspectral image (HSI) processing. The objective of BS is to find a set of representative bands that can represent the whole image with lower inter-band redundancy. Many types of BS algorithms were proposed in the past. However, most of them can be carried on in an off-line manner. It means that they can only be implemented on the pre-collected data. Those off-line based methods are sometime useless for those applications that are timeliness, particular in disaster prevention and target detection. To tackle this issue, a new concept, called progressive sample processing (PSP), was proposed recently. The PSP is an "on-line" framework where the specific type of algorithm can process the currently collected data during the data transmission under band-interleavedby-sample/pixel (BIS/BIP) protocol. This paper proposes an online BS method that integrates a sparse-based BS into PSP framework, called PSP-BS. In PSP-BS, the BS can be carried out by updating BS result recursively pixel by pixel in the same way that a Kalman filter does for updating data information in a recursive fashion. The sparse regression is solved by orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm, and the recursive equations of PSP-BS are derived by using matrix decomposition. The experiments conducted on a real hyperspectral image show that the PSP-BS can progressively output the BS status with very low computing time. The convergence of BS results during the transmission can be quickly achieved by using a rearranged pixel transmission sequence. This significant advantage allows BS to be implemented in a real time manner when the HSI data is transmitted pixel by pixel.

  4. Programa de mentoria online para professores iniciantes: fases de um processo On-line mentoring program for novice teachers: phases of a process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline M. de M. R. Reali

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo analisamos as fases evidenciadas no desenvolvimento do Programa de Mentoria do Portal dos Professores da Universidade Federal de São Carlos (SP. O programa se caracteriza por ser online e é dirigido para professores dos anos iniciais do ensino fundamental com até cinco anos de experiência. Foi conduzido por três pesquisadoras e onze mentoras (professoras experientes que acompanharam individualmente, a distância e por meio de correspondências eletrônicas, 56 professoras iniciantes durante períodos entre seis meses a dois anos e meio. Do ponto de vista teórico consideramos a literatura relativa à aprendizagem e desenvolvimento profissional da docência; início da carreira docente; processos de mentoria e educação a distância. Metodologicamente desenvolvemos uma pesquisa-ação a partir de estratégias construtivo-colaborativas. As principais fontes de dados foram as correspondências trocadas entre mentoras e professoras iniciantes; diários reflexivos de mentoras e professoras iniciantes; redação de casos de ensino pelas professoras iniciantes; registros de observação das reuniões semanais ocorridos entre pesquisadoras e mentoras. Os resultados apontam que os processos de mentoria investigados ocorrem segundo fases distintas (fase inicial ou de aproximação; fase de desenvolvimento ou aprofundamento; fase de desligamento com características, objetivos e procedimentos próprios.This article analyzes the development phases of the On-line Mentoring Program at the Teachers Portal of Universidade Federal de São Carlos. The mentoring program is an on-line program aimed at elementary school teachers at the first grades with up to five years of experience. It is carried out by ten mentors coaching by electronic 56 novice teachers during six to 28 months. Its theoretical framework includes literature on teacher learning and professional development, the first years of teaching, mentoring processes and distance education

  5. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 4 of 6: ON-LINE, NON-DESTRUCTIVE MECHANICAL PROPERTY MEASUREMENT USING LASER-ULTRASOUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre' Moreau; Martin Lord; Daniel Levesqure; Marc Dubois; Jean Bussiere; Jean-Pierre Monchalin; Christian Padioleau; Guy Lamouche; Teodor Veres; Martin Viens; Harold Hebert; Pierre Basseras; Cheng-Kuei Jen

    2001-03-31

    The goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility to measure the mechanical properties, such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, strain hardening exponent and plastic strain ratio parameters, of low carbon steel sheets on the production line using laser ultrasound. The ultrasound generated by the developed apparatus travels mostly back and forth in the thickness of the steel sheet. By measuring the time delay between two echoes, and the relative amplitude of these two echoes, one can measure ultrasound velocity and attenuation. These are governed by the microstructure: grain size, crystallographic texture, dislocations, etc. Thus, by recording the time behavior of the ultrasonic signal, one can extract microstructural information. These microstructural information together with the modified Hall-Petch equation allow measurement of the mechanical properties. Through laboratory investigations with a laboratory laser ultrasound system, followed by the installation of a prototype system at LTV Steel Company's No.1 Inspection Line in Cleveland, all target mechanical properties of ultra low carbon (ULC), low carbon (LC) and high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel sample lots were measured meeting or nearly meeting all the target accuracies. Thus, the project realized its goal to demonstrate that the mechanical properties of low carbon steel sheets can be measured on-line using laser ultrasound

  6. Use of an Open Port Sampling Interface Coupled to Electrospray Ionization for the On-Line Analysis of Organic Aerosol Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kenneth D.; Worth, Anne L.; Glish, Gary L.

    2018-02-01

    A simple design for an open port sampling interface coupled to electrospray ionization (OPSI-ESI) is presented for the analysis of organic aerosols. The design uses minimal modifications to a Bruker electrospray (ESI) emitter to create a continuous flow, self-aspirating open port sampling interface. Considerations are presented for introducing aerosol to the open port sampling interface including aerosol gas flow and solvent flow rates. The device has been demonstrated for use with an aerosol of nicotine as well as aerosol formed in the pyrolysis of biomass. Upon comparison with extractive electrospray ionization (EESI), this device has similar sensitivity with increased reproducibility by nearly a factor of three. The device has the form factor of a standard Bruker/Agilent ESI emitter and can be used without any further instrument modifications.

  7. On-line LC-GC and comprehensive two-dimensional LCxGC-ToF MS for the analysis of complex samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Hans-Gerd [Central Analytical Science, Unilever Research and Development, P.O. Box 114, 3130 AC, Vlaardingen (Netherlands); Koning, Sjaak de [Separation Science Group, LECO Instrumente GmbH, Marie-Bernays-Ring 31, 41199, Moenchengladbach (Germany); Brinkman, Udo A.Th. [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Free University, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-04-01

    LC x GC is a logical extension of LC-GC. Unlike LC-GC, which only allows detailed analysis of one group of analytes from a complex sample, LC x GC enables detailed mapping of the entire sample. Due to the high degree of orthogonality and the complementary nature of the two dimensions, the method has a very high resolving power. Comprehensive LC x GC chromatograms often show ordered structures which allow group-wise integration as well as detailed target compound analysis. Hyphenation with mass spectrometry is straightforward, which further widens the application range of the technique. (orig.)

  8. On line portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to review the physics of imaging with high energy x-ray beams; examine the various imaging devices that have been developed for portal imaging; describe some of the image registration methods that have been developed to determine errors in patient positioning quantitatively; and discuss some of the ways that portal imaging has been incorporated into routine clinical practice. Verification of patient positioning has always been an important aspect of external beam radiation therapy. Checks of patient positioning have generally been done with film, however, film suffers from a number of drawbacks, such as poor image display and delays due to film development. Over the past decade many portal imaging devices have been developed by individual investigators and most accelerator manufacturers now offer 'on-line' portal imaging systems, which are intended to overcome the limitations of portal films. The commercial devices can be classified into three categories: T.V. camera-based systems, liquid ionisation chamber systems, and amorphous silicon systems. Many factors influence the quality of images generated by these portal imaging systems. These include factors which are unavoidable (e.g., low subject contrast), factors which depend upon the individual imaging device forming the image (e.g., dose utilisation, spatial resolution) as well as factors which depend upon the characteristics of the linear accelerator irradiating the imaging system (x-ray source size, image magnification). The fundamental factors which limit image quality and the characteristics of individual imaging systems, such as spatial resolution, temporal response, and quantum utilisation will be discussed. One of the major advantages of on-line portal imaging is that many quantitative techniques have been developed to detect errors in patient positioning. The general approach is to register anatomic structures on a portal image with the same

  9. Molecularly imprinted polymer cartridges coupled on-line with high performance liquid chromatography for simple and rapid analysis of dextromethorphan in human plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Javanbakht, Mehran; Akbari-Adergani, Behrouz

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, a novel method is described for automated determination of dextromethorphan in biological fluids using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) as a sample clean-up technique combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The water-compatible molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared using methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker, chloroform as porogen and dextromethorphan as template molecule. These imprinted polymers were used as solid-phase extraction sorbent for the extraction of dextromethorphan from human plasma samples. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the MIP cartridges were evaluated. The high selectivity of the sorbent coupled to the high performance liquid chromatographic system permitted a simple and rapid analysis of this drug in plasma samples with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 0.12 ng/mL and 0.35 ng/mL, respectively. The MIP selectivity was evaluated by analyzing of the dextromethorphan in presence of several substances with similar molecular structures and properties. Results from the HPLC analyses showed that the recoveries of dextromethorphan using MIP cartridges from human plasma samples in the range of 1-50 ng/mL were higher than 87%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Considerations in applying on-line IC techniques to BWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleda, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Ion-Chromatography (IC) has moved from its traditional role as a laboratory analytical tool to a real time, dynamic, on-line measurement device to follow ppb and sub-ppb concentrations of deleterious impurities in nuclear power plants. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), individual utilities, and industry all have played significant roles in effecting the transition. This paper highlights considerations and the evolution in current on-line Ion Chromatography systems. The first applications of on-line techniques were demonstrated by General Electric (GE) under EPRI sponsorship at Rancho Seco (1980), Calvert Cliffs, and McGuire nuclear units. The primary use was for diagnostic purposes. Today the on-line IC applications have been expanded to include process control and routine plant monitoring. Current on-line IC's are innovative in design, promote operational simplicity, are modular for simplified maintenance and repair, and use field-proven components which enhance reliability. Conductivity detection with electronic or chemical suppression and spectrometric detection techniques are intermixed in applications. Remote multi-point sample systems have addressed memory effects. Early applications measured ionic species in the part per billion range. Today reliable part per trillion measurements are common for on-line systems. Current systems are meeting the challenge of EPRI guideline requirements. Today's on-line IC's, with programmed sampling systems, monitor fluid streams throughout a power plant, supplying data that can be trended, stored and retrieved easily. The on-line IC has come of age. Many technical challenges were overcome to achieve today's IC

  11. Continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe connected on-line with high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for spatially resolved analysis of small molecules and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2013-06-30

    A continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe extracts soluble material from surfaces for direct ionization and detection by mass spectrometry. Demonstrated here is the on-line coupling of such a probe with high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) enabling extraction, separation and detection of small molecules and proteins from surfaces in a spatially resolved (~0.5 mm diameter spots) manner. A continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe was connected to a six-port, two-position valve for extract collection and injection to an HPLC column. A QTRAP® 5500 hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap equipped with a Turbo V™ ion source operated in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode was used for all experiments. The system operation was tested with the extraction, separation and detection of propranolol and associated metabolites from drug dosed tissues, caffeine from a coffee bean, cocaine from paper currency, and proteins from dried sheep blood spots on paper. Confirmed in the tissue were the parent drug and two different hydroxypropranolol glucuronides. The mass spectrometric response for these compounds from different locations in the liver showed an increase with increasing extraction time (5, 20 and 40 s). For on-line separation and detection/identification of extracted proteins from dried sheep blood spots, two major protein peaks dominated the chromatogram and could be correlated with the expected masses for the hemoglobin α and β chains. Spatially resolved sampling, separation, and detection of small molecules and proteins from surfaces can be accomplished using a continuous-flow liquid microjunction surface sampling probe coupled on-line with HPLC/MS detection. Published in 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Application of cotton as a solid phase extraction sorbent for on-line preconcentration of copper in water samples prior to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Mohammad; Yamini, Yadollah; Shariati, Shahab

    2009-07-30

    Copper, as a heavy metal, is toxic for many biological systems. Thus, the determination of trace amounts of copper in environmental samples is of great importance. In the present work, a new method was developed for the determination of trace amounts of copper in water samples. The method is based on the formation of ternary Cu(II)-CAS-CTAB ion-pair and adsorption of it into a mini-column packed with cotton prior applying inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The experimental parameters that affected the extraction efficiency of the method such as pH, flow rate and volume of the sample solution, concentration of chromazurol S (CAS) and cethyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as well as type and concentration of eluent were investigated and optimized. The ion-pair (Cu(II)-CAS-CTAB) was quantitatively retained on the cotton under the optimum conditions, then eluted completely using a solution of 25% (v/v) 1-propanol in 0.5 mol L(-1) HNO(3) and directly introduced into the nebulizer of the ICP-OES. The detection limit (DL) of the method for copper was 40 ng L(-1) (V(sample)=100mL) and the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for the determination of copper at 10 microg L(-1) level was found to be 1.3%. The method was successfully applied to determine the trace amounts of copper in tap water, deep well water, seawater and two different mineral waters, and suitable recoveries were obtained (92-106%).

  13. Lead ultra-trace on-line preconcentration and determination using selective solid phase extraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: applications in seawaters and biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vereda Alonso, E.; Siles Cordero, M.T.; Garcia de Torres, A.; Cano Pavon, J.M. [University of Malaga, Department of Analytical Chemistry Faculty of Sciences, Malaga (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    In this work, a new chelating resin [1,5-bis (2-pyridyl)-3-sulphophenyl methylene] thiocarbonohydrazide immobilised on aminopropyl-controlled pore glass (550 Aa; PSTH-cpg) was synthesised and packed in a microcolumn which replaced the sample tip of the autosampler arm. The system was applied to the preconcentration of lead. When microliters of 10% HNO{sub 3}, which acts as elution agent, pass through the microcolumn, the preconcentrated Pb(II) is eluted and directly deposited in a tungsten-rhodium coated graphite tube. With the use of the separation and preconcentration step and the permanent modifiers, the analytical characteristics of the technique were improved. The proposed method has a linear calibration range from 0.012 to 10 ng ml{sup -1} of lead. At a sample frequency of 36 h{sup -1} with a 90 s preconcentration time, the enrichment factor was 20.5, the detection and determination limits were 0.012 and 0.14 ng ml{sup -1}, respectively and the precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was 3.2% (at 1 ng ml{sup -1}). Results from the determination of Pb in biological certified reference materials were in agreement with the certified values. Seawaters and other biological samples were analysed too. (orig.)

  14. Rapid Screening of Carboxylic Acids from Waste and Surface Waters by ESI-MS/MS Using Barium Ion Chemistry and On-Line Membrane Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kyle D.; Volmer, Dietrich A.; Gill, Chris G.; Krogh, Erik T.

    2016-03-01

    Negative ion tandem mass spectrometric analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids often yields only non-diagnostic ([M - H]-) ions with limited selective fragmentation. However, carboxylates cationized with Ba2+ have demonstrated efficient dissociation in positive ion mode, providing structurally diagnostic product ions. We report the application of barium adducts followed by collision induced dissociation (CID), to improve selectivity for rapid screening of carboxylic acids in complex aqueous samples. The quantitative MS/MS method presented utilizes common product ions of [M - H + Ba]+ precursor ions. The mechanism of product ion formation is investigated using isotopically labeled standards and a series of structurally related carboxylic acids. The results suggest that hydrogen atoms in the β and γ positions yield common product ions ([BaH]+ and [BaOH]+). Furthermore, the diagnostic product ion at m/z 196 serves as a qualifying ion for carboxylate species. This methodology has been successfully used in conjunction with condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS), with barium acetate added directly to the methanol acceptor phase. The combination enables rapid screening of carboxylic acids directly from acidified water samples (wastewater effluent, spiked natural waters) using a capillary hollow fiber PDMS membrane immersion probe. We have applied this technique for the direct analysis of complex naphthenic acid mixtures spiked into natural surface waters using CP-MIMS. Selectivity at the ionization and tandem mass spectrometry level eliminate isobaric interferences from hydroxylated species present within the samples, which have been observed in negative electrospray ionization.

  15. Rapid Screening of Carboxylic Acids from Waste and Surface Waters by ESI-MS/MS Using Barium Ion Chemistry and On-Line Membrane Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kyle D; Volmer, Dietrich A; Gill, Chris G; Krogh, Erik T

    2016-03-01

    Negative ion tandem mass spectrometric analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids often yields only non-diagnostic ([M - H](-)) ions with limited selective fragmentation. However, carboxylates cationized with Ba(2+) have demonstrated efficient dissociation in positive ion mode, providing structurally diagnostic product ions. We report the application of barium adducts followed by collision induced dissociation (CID), to improve selectivity for rapid screening of carboxylic acids in complex aqueous samples. The quantitative MS/MS method presented utilizes common product ions of [M - H + Ba](+) precursor ions. The mechanism of product ion formation is investigated using isotopically labeled standards and a series of structurally related carboxylic acids. The results suggest that hydrogen atoms in the β and γ positions yield common product ions ([BaH](+) and [BaOH](+)). Furthermore, the diagnostic product ion at m/z 196 serves as a qualifying ion for carboxylate species. This methodology has been successfully used in conjunction with condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS), with barium acetate added directly to the methanol acceptor phase. The combination enables rapid screening of carboxylic acids directly from acidified water samples (wastewater effluent, spiked natural waters) using a capillary hollow fiber PDMS membrane immersion probe. We have applied this technique for the direct analysis of complex naphthenic acid mixtures spiked into natural surface waters using CP-MIMS. Selectivity at the ionization and tandem mass spectrometry level eliminate isobaric interferences from hydroxylated species present within the samples, which have been observed in negative electrospray ionization.

  16. An on-line push/pull perfusion-based hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction system for high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of alkylphenols in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Ying; Jian, Zhi-Xuan; Tu, Yi-Ming; Wang, Hsaio-Wen; Huang, Yeou-Lih

    2013-06-07

    In this study, we employed a novel on-line method, push/pull perfusion hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (PPP-HF-LPME), to extract 4-tert-butylphenol, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, 4-n-nonylphenol, and 4-n-octylphenol from river and tap water samples; we then separated and quantified the extracted analytes through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using this approach, we overcame the problem of fluid loss across the porous HF membrane to the donor phase, permitting on-line coupling of HF-LPME to HPLC. In our PPP-HF-LPME system, we used a push/pull syringe pump as the driving source to perfuse the acceptor phase, while employing a heating mantle and an ultrasonic probe to accelerate mass transfer. We optimized the experimental conditions such as the nature of the HF supported intermediary phase and the acceptor phase, the composition of the donor and acceptor phases, the sample temperature, and the sonication conditions. Our proposed method provided relative standard deviations of 3.1-6.2%, coefficients of determination (r(2)) of 0.9989-0.9998, and limits of detection of 0.03-0.2 ng mL(-1) for the analytes under the optimized conditions. When we applied this method to analyses of river and tap water samples, our results confirmed that this microextraction technique allows reliable monitoring of alkylphenols in water samples.

  17. Solid-phase extraction of polar pesticides from environmental water samples on graphitized carbon and Empore-activated carbon disks and on-line coupling to octadecyl-bonded silica analytical columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodník, J; Oztezkizan, O; Lingeman, H; Brinkman, U A

    1996-10-25

    The suitability of Empore-activated carbon disks (EACD), Envi-Carb graphitized carbon black (GCB) and CPP-50 graphitized carbon for the trace enrichment of polar pesticides from water samples was studied by means of off-line and on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE). In the off-line procedure, 0.5-2 l samples spiked with a test mixture of oxamyl, methomyl and aldicarb sulfoxide were enriched on EnviCarb SPE cartridges or 47 mm diameter EACD and eluted with dichloromethane-methanol. After evaporation, a sample was injected onto a C18-bonded silica column and analysed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (LC-UV) detection. EACD performed better than EnviCarb cartridges in terms of breakthrough volumes (> 2 l for all test analytes), reproducibility (R.S.D. of recoveries, 4-8%, n = 3) and sampling speed (100 ml/min); detection limits in drinking water were 0.05-0.16 microgram/l. In the on-line experiments, 4.6 mm diameter pieces cut from original EACD and stacked onto each other in a 9 mm long precolumn, and EnviCarb and CPP-50 packed in 10 x 2.0 mm I.D. precolumn, were tested, and 50-200 ml spiked water samples were preconcentrated. Because of the peak broadening caused by the strong sorption of the analytes on carbon, the carbon-packed precolumns were eluted by a separate stream of 0.1 ml/min acetonitrile which was mixed with the gradient LC eluent in front of the C18 analytical column. The final on-line procedure was also applied for the less polar propoxur, carbaryl and methiocarb. EnviCarb could not be used due to its poor pressure resistance. CPP-50 provided less peak broadening than EACD: peak widths were 0.1-0.3 min and R.S.D. of peak heights 4-14% (n = 3). In terms of analyte trapping efficiency on-line SPE-LC-UV with a CPP-50 precolumn also showed better performance than when Bondesil C18/OH or polymeric PLRP-S was used, but chromatographic resolution was similar. With the CPP-50-based system, detection limits of the test compounds were 0.05-1 microgram

  18. Automated sampling and data processing derived from biomimetic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Mark; Vissing, Thomas; Boesen, P.

    2009-01-01

    data processing software to analyze and organize the large amounts of data generated. In this work, we developed an automated instrumental voltage clamp solution based on a custom-designed software controller application (the WaveManager), which enables automated on-line voltage clamp data acquisition...... applicable to long-time series experiments. We designed another software program for off-line data processing. The automation of the on-line voltage clamp data acquisition and off-line processing was furthermore integrated with a searchable database (DiscoverySheet (TM)) for efficient data management......Recent advances in biomimetic membrane systems have resulted in an increase in membrane lifetimes from hours to days and months. Long-lived membrane systems demand the development of both new automated monitoring equipment capable of measuring electrophysiological membrane characteristics and new...

  19. On-Line Organic Solvent Field Enhanced Sample Injection in Capillary Zone Electrophoresis for Analysis of Quetiapine in Beagle Dog Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE method with field enhanced sample injection (FESI was developed and validated for the determination of quetiapine fumarate in beagle dog plasma, with a sample pretreatment by LLE in 96-well deep format plate. The optimum separation was carried out in an uncoated 31.2 cm × 75 μm fused-silica capillary with an applied voltage of 13 kV. The electrophoretic analysis was performed by 50 mM phosphate at pH 2.5. The detection wavelength was 210 nm. Under these optimized conditions, FESI with acetonitrile enhanced the sensitivity of quetiapine about 40–50 folds in total. The method was suitably validated with respect to stability, specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision and extraction recovery. Using mirtazapine as an internal standard (100 ng/mL, the response of quetiapine was linear over the range of 1–1000 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions for the assay were within 4.8% and 12.7%, respectively. The method represents the first application of FESI-CZE to the analysis of quetiapine fumarate in beagle dog plasma after oral administration.

  20. Determination of antimony by electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry in samples with high iron content using chelating resins as on-line removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolea, E.; Arroyo, D.; Laborda, F.; Castillo, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the removal of the interference caused by iron on electrochemical generation of stibine is proposed. It consists of a chelating resin Chelex 100 column integrated into a flow injection system and coupled to the electrochemical hydride generator quartz tube atomic absorption spectrometer (EcHG-QT-AAS). Iron, as Fe(II), is retained in the column with high efficiency, close to 99.9% under optimal conditions. No significant retention was observed for Sb(III) under same conditions and a 97 ± 5% signal recovery was achieved. An electrochemical hydride generator with a concentric configuration and a reticulated vitreous carbon cathode was employed. The system is able to determine antimony concentrations in the range of ng ml -1 in presence of iron concentrations up to 400 mg l -1 . The procedure was validated by analyzing PACS-2 marine sediments reference material with a 4% (w/w) iron content and a [Fe]:[Sb] ratio of 4000:1, which caused total antimony signal suppression on the electrochemical hydride generation system. A compost sample with high iron content (0.7%, w/w), was also analyzed. A good agreement was found on both samples with the certified value and the antimony concentration determined by ICP-MS, respectively

  1. On-line preconcentration of ultra-trace thallium(I in water samples with titanium dioxide nanoparticles and determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Asadpour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new method has been developed for the determination of Tl(I based on simultaneous sorption and preconcentration with a microcolumn packed with TiO2 nanoparticle with a high specific surface area prepared by Sonochemical synthesis prior to its determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS. The optimum experimental parameters for preconcentration of thallium, such as elution condition, pH, and sample volume and flow rate have been investigated. Tl(I can be quantitatively retained by TiO2 nanoparticles at pH 9.0, then eluted completely with 1.0 mol L−1 HCl. The adsorption capacity of TiO2 nanoparticles for Tl(I was found to be 25 mg g−1. Also detection limit, precision (RSD, n = 8 and enrichment factor for Tl(I were 87 ng L−1, 6.4% and 100, respectively. The method has been applied for the determination of trace amounts of Tl(I in some environmental water samples with satisfactory results.

  2. Grafting 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane on multi-walled carbon nanotubes surface for improving on-line cadmium(II) preconcentration from water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corazza, Marcela Zanetti; Somera, Bruna Fabrin; Segatelli, Mariana Gava [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, PR 445, Km 380, Campus Universitario, Londrina-PR, CEP 86051-990 (Brazil); Tarley, Cesar Ricardo Teixeira, E-mail: tarley@uel.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, PR 445, Km 380, Campus Universitario, Londrina-PR, CEP 86051-990 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia (INCT) de Bioanalitica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino, Vaz, s/n, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-Mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane grafted on MWCNT surface was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material promoted an increase on performance of MWCNT for Cd{sup 2+} adsorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The life time of adsorbent was very high. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An improvement of 84% on the sensitivity was achieved. - Abstract: In the present study, the performance of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) grafted with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (3-MPTMS), used as a solid phase extractor for Cd{sup 2+} preconcentration in a flow injection system coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), was evaluated. The procedure involved the preconcentration of 20.0 mL of Cd{sup 2+} solution at pH 7.5 (0.1 mol L{sup -1} buffer phosphate) through 70 mg of 3-MPTMS-grafted MWCNTs packed into a minicolumn at 6.0 mL min{sup -1}. The elution step was carried out with 1.0 mol L{sup -1} HCl. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to estimate the extent of the MWCNT chemical modification. The 3-MPTMS-grafted MWCNTs provided a 1.68 times improvement in the sensitivity of the Cd{sup 2+} FAAS determination compared to the unsilanized oxidized MWCNTs. The following parameters were obtained: preconcentration factor of 31.5, consumptive index of 0.635 mL, sample throughput of 14 h{sup -1}, and concentration efficiency of 9.46 min{sup -1}. The analytical curve was constructed in the range of 1.0-60.0 {mu}g L{sup -1} (r = 0.9988), and the detection and quantification limits were found to be 0.15 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 0.62 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. Different types of water samples and cigarette sample were successfully analyzed, and the results were compared using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) as reference technique. In addition, the accuracy of proposed method was also checked by analysis of

  3. Development of a simple extraction cell with bi-directional continuous flow coupled on-line to ICP-MS for assessment of elemental associations in solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buanuam, Janya; Tiptanasup, Kasipa; Shiowatana, Juwadee

    2006-01-01

    A continuous-flow system comprising a novel, custom-built extraction module and hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection is proposed for assessing metal mobilities and geochemical associations in soil compartments as based on using the three step BCR (now...... the Measurements and Testing Programme of the European Commission) sequential extraction scheme. Employing a peristaltic pump as liquid driver, alternate directional flows of the extractants are used to overcome compression of the solid particles within the extraction unit to ensure a steady partitioning flow rate...... and thus to maintain constant operationally defined extraction conditions. The proposed flow set-up is proven to allow for trouble-free handling of soil samples up to 1 g and flow rates ≤ 10 mL min–1. The miniaturized extraction system was coupled to ICP-MS through a flow injection interface in order...

  4. Multi-Sensor Distributive On-line Processing, Visualization, and Analysis Infrastructure for an Agricultural Information System at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, W.; Berrick, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Liu, Z.; Rui, H.; Pham, L.; Shen, S.; Zhu, T.

    2004-12-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is developing an Agricultural Information System (AIS), evolved from an existing TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS), which will operationally provide precipitation and other satellite data products and services. AIS outputs will be integrated into existing operational decision support systems for global crop monitoring, such as that of the U.N. World Food Program. The ability to use the raw data stored in the GES DAAC archives is highly dependent on having a detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation. To gain this understanding is a time-consuming process and not a productive investment of the user's time. This is an especially difficult challenge when users need to deal with multi-sensor data that usually are of different structures and resolutions. The AIS has taken a major step towards meeting this challenge by incorporating an underlying infrastructure, called the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure or "Giovanni," that integrates various components to support web interfaces that allow users to perform interactive analysis on-line without downloading any data. Several instances of the Giovanni-based interface have been or are being created to serve users of TRMM precipitation, MODIS aerosol, and SeaWiFS ocean color data, as well as agricultural applications users. Giovanni-based interfaces are simple to use but powerful. The user selects geophysical parameters, area of interest, and time period; and the system generates an output on screen in a matter of seconds. The currently available output options are (1) area plot - averaged or accumulated over any available data period for any rectangular area; (2) time plot - time series averaged over any rectangular area; (3) Hovmoller plots - longitude-time and latitude-time plots; (4) ASCII

  5. GEM-AQ, an on-line global multiscale chemical weather modelling system: model description and evaluation of gas phase chemistry processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Kaminski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric chemistry and air quality processes were implemented on-line in the Global Environmental Multiscale weather prediction model. The integrated model, GEM-AQ, was developed as a platform to investigate chemical weather at scales from global to urban. The current chemical mechanism is comprised of 50 gas-phase species, 116 chemical and 19 photolysis reactions, and is complemented by a sectional aerosol module with 5 aerosols types. All tracers are advected using the semi-Lagrangian scheme native to GEM. The vertical transport includes parameterized subgrid-scale turbulence and large scale deep convection. Dry deposition is included as a flux boundary condition in the vertical diffusion equation. Wet deposition of gas-phase species is treated in a simplified way, and only below-cloud scavenging is considered. The emissions used include yearly-averaged anthropogenic, and monthly-averaged biogenic, ocean, soil, and biomass burning emission fluxes, as well as NOx from lightning. In order to evaluate the ability to simulate seasonal variations and regional distributions of trace gases such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide, the model was run for a period of five years (2001–2005 on a global uniform 1.5°×1.5° horizontal resolution domain and 28 hybrid levels extending up to 10 hPa. Model results were compared with observations from satellites, aircraft measurement campaigns and balloon sondes. We find that GEM-AQ is able to capture the spatial details of the chemical fields in the middle and lower troposphere. The modelled ozone consistently shows good agreement with observations, except over tropical oceans. The comparison of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide with satellite measurements emphasizes the need for more accurate, year-specific emissions fluxes for biomass burning and anthropogenic sources. Other species also compare well with available observations.

  6. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in Camembert irradiated before and after the maturing process-comparison of florisil column chromatography and on-line coupled liquid chromatography-gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Bögl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of the maturing process on the detection of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons in the fat of Camembert has been investigated. Two analytical methods for separation of the hydrocarbon fraction from the lipid were applied: Florisil column chromatography with subsequent gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) determination as well as on-line coupled liquid chromatography-GC-MS. The maturing process had no influence on the detection of radiation-induced volatiles. Comparable results were achieved with both analytical methods. However, preference is given to the more effective on-line coupled LC-GC method

  7. Electronical set-up and on-line data processing for the determination of the cross section of the reaction 1H(n,d)γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutsch, J.; Moesner, J.; Schmidt, G.; Stiehler, T.; Kudin, L.G.; Spiridenkov, E.M.; Volkov, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    After a brief description of the physical problem the electronical set-up for the investigation of the reaction 1 H(n,d)γ at Esub(n) = 25 MeV and the connection with the on-line computer are described in the first part of the present work. The second part includes the software and the data handling. (author)

  8. Manual of process automation. On-line control systems for devices in the process technology. 3. tot. rev. and enl. ed.; Handbuch der Prozessautomatisierung. Prozessleittechnik fuer verfahrenstechnische Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, U.; Frueh, K.F. (eds.)

    2004-07-01

    This is a reference manual for engineers who need answers to automation problems in chemical engineering. Some new current subjects have been introduced to complement the information. The following chapters are new or have been rewritten by new authors: Internet and intranet technologies; Outline of process-related functions; Control systems in industrial applications; Problems and solutions; Model-based predicative control (MPC); Report archive analysis; Control Loop Performance Monitoring (CPM); Automation structures; Explosion protection; Remote-I/O; Integration of intelligent field equipment in PLS; Weighing and filling techniques; Safety; Maintenance - structures and strategies. The other chapters have been revised and updated as well. (orig.) [German] Das grundsaetzliche Konzept des Handbuchs ist unveraendert: Es dient als Nachschlagewerk fuer Ingenieure, die sich in verschiedenen Taetigkeitsbereichen mit Fragen der Automatisierung verfahrenstechnischer Anlagen auseinandersetzen muessen. Einige Themen wurden neu aufgenommen - wegen ihrer Aktualitaet und zur Abrundung des Themenspektrums. Folgende Kapitel sind voellig neu oder mit neuen Autoren wesentlich erweitert: Internet-/Intranettechnologien; Uebersicht ueber prozessnahe Funktionen; Industrielle Regelung: Probleme und Problemloesungen; Modellgestuetzte praediktive Regelung (MPC); Meldearchivanalyse; Control Loop Performance Monitoring (CPM); Automatisierungsstrukturen; Explosionsschutz; Remote-I/O; Integration intelligenter Feldgeraete in PLS; Waege- und Abfuelltechnik; Anlagensicherheit; Ganzheitliche Instandhaltung - Strukturen und Strategien. Die uebrigen Kapitel wurden aktualisiert und teilweise auch wesentlich ueberarbeitet. (orig.)

  9. On-line filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day electronic detectors used in high energy physics make it possible to obtain high event rates and it is likely that future experiments will face even higher data rates than at present. The complexity of the apparatus increases very rapidly with time and also the criteria for selecting desired events become more and more complex. So complex in fact that the fast trigger system cannot be designed to fully cope with it. The interesting events become thus contaminated with multitudes of uninteresting ones. To distinguish the 'good' events from the often overwhelming background of other events one has to resort to computing techniques. Normally this selection is made in the first part of the analysis of the events, analysis normally performed on a powerful scientific computer. This implies however that many uninteresting or background events have to be recorded during the experiment for subsequent analysis. A number of undesired consequences result; and these constitute a sufficient reason for trying to perform the selection at an earlier stage, in fact ideally before the events are recorded on magnetic tape. This early selection is called 'on-line filtering' and it is the topic of the present lectures. (Auth.)

  10. High throughput sample processing and automated scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar eBrunborg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The comet assay is a sensitive and versatile method for assessing DNA damage in cells. In the traditional version of the assay, there are many manual steps involved and few samples can be treated in one experiment. High throughput modifications have been developed during recent years, and they are reviewed and discussed. These modifications include accelerated scoring of comets; other important elements that have been studied and adapted to high throughput are cultivation and manipulation of cells or tissues before and after exposure, and freezing of treated samples until comet analysis and scoring. High throughput methods save time and money but they are useful also for other reasons: large-scale experiments may be performed which are otherwise not practicable (e.g., analysis of many organs from exposed animals, and human biomonitoring studies, and automation gives more uniform sample treatment and less dependence on operator performance. The high throughput modifications now available vary largely in their versatility, capacity, complexity and costs. The bottleneck for further increase of throughput appears to be the scoring.

  11. Synthesis and application of chloromethylated polystyrene modified with 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione-2-oxime thiosemicarbazone (PPDOT) as a new sorbent for the on-line preconcentration and determination of copper in water, soil, and food samples by FAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamjangali, Mansour Arab, E-mail: marab@shahroodut.ac.ir [College of Chemistry, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 36155-316, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagherian, Ghadamali; Mokhlesian, Ali; Bahramian, Bahram [College of Chemistry, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 36155-316, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} This paper is the first report on the use of PS-PPDOT resin in the SPE studies. {yields} The proposed adsorbent is highly selective for trace determination of copper. {yields} The method is applicable for copper determination in water, soil, and food samples. - Abstract: In this paper, we report a simple and sensitive on-line solid phase extraction system for the preconcentration and determination of Cu(II) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). This method is based upon the on-line retention of copper at pH 5.0 on a minicolumn packed with chloromethylated polystyrene modified by 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione-2-oxime thiosemicarbazone (PPDOT) as a new solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent. The retained Cu(II) ions were eluted with 1.0 M HNO{sub 3}, and transported directly to FAAS for determination. Several chemical and flow variables were studied and optimized for a quantitative preconcentration and determination of copper(II). At the optimized conditions, for preconcentration of 10.0 mL of a sample solution, a linear calibration graph was obtained over the concentration range of 3.00-120.0 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cu(II). The limit of detection (3{sigma}), limit of quantification (10{sigma}), and enrichment factor are 0.56 {mu}g L{sup -1}, 2.0 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 41, respectively. The relative standard deviation (n = 6) at 20 {mu}g L{sup -1} of Cu(II) is 2.0%. This method could be applied for determination of trace amounts of Cu(II) in water, soil, and food samples with satisfactory results.

  12. A simple and highly sensitive on-line column extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of protein-unbound tacrolimus in human plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittersohl, Heike; Schniedewind, Björn; Christians, Uwe; Luppa, Peter B

    2018-04-27

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of the immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus is essential to avoid side effects and rejection of the allograft after transplantation. In the blood circulation, tacrolimus is largely located inside erythrocytes or bound to plasma proteins and less than 0.1% is protein-unbound (free). One basic principle of clinical pharmacology is that only free drug is pharmacologically active and monitoring this portion has the potential to better reflect the drug effect than conventional measurements of total tacrolimus in whole blood. To address this, a highly sensitive and straightforward on-line liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed, validated and applied to patient plasma samples. The sample preparation included ultracentrifugation and addition of the stable isotope labeled drug analogue D2,13C-tacrolimus, followed by on-line sample extraction and measurement using a Sciex QTRAP ® 6500 in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Due to very low concentrations of protein-unbound tacrolimus, it was important to develop a highly sensitive, precise and accurate assay. Here, we first report the efficient formation of tacrolimus lithium adduct ions, which greatly increased assay sensitivity. A lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1 pg/mL (10 fg on column) was achieved and the assay was linear between 1 and 200 pg/mL. There was no carry-over detected. The inaccuracy ranged from -9.8 to 7.4% and the greatest imprecision was 7.5%. The matrix factor was found to be smaller than 1.1%. In summary, this method represents a suitable tool to investigate the potential clinical value of free tacrolimus monitoring in organ transplant recipients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and application of chloromethylated polystyrene modified with 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione-2-oxime thiosemicarbazone (PPDOT) as a new sorbent for the on-line preconcentration and determination of copper in water, soil, and food samples by FAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamjangali, Mansour Arab; Bagherian, Ghadamali; Mokhlesian, Ali; Bahramian, Bahram

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This paper is the first report on the use of PS-PPDOT resin in the SPE studies. → The proposed adsorbent is highly selective for trace determination of copper. → The method is applicable for copper determination in water, soil, and food samples. - Abstract: In this paper, we report a simple and sensitive on-line solid phase extraction system for the preconcentration and determination of Cu(II) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). This method is based upon the on-line retention of copper at pH 5.0 on a minicolumn packed with chloromethylated polystyrene modified by 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione-2-oxime thiosemicarbazone (PPDOT) as a new solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent. The retained Cu(II) ions were eluted with 1.0 M HNO 3 , and transported directly to FAAS for determination. Several chemical and flow variables were studied and optimized for a quantitative preconcentration and determination of copper(II). At the optimized conditions, for preconcentration of 10.0 mL of a sample solution, a linear calibration graph was obtained over the concentration range of 3.00-120.0 μg L -1 for Cu(II). The limit of detection (3σ), limit of quantification (10σ), and enrichment factor are 0.56 μg L -1 , 2.0 μg L -1 and 41, respectively. The relative standard deviation (n = 6) at 20 μg L -1 of Cu(II) is 2.0%. This method could be applied for determination of trace amounts of Cu(II) in water, soil, and food samples with satisfactory results.

  14. Detection and on-line prediction of leak magnitude in a gas pipeline using an acoustic method and neural network data processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of monitoring pipeline systems, this work presents the development of a technique to detect gas leakage in pipelines, based on an acoustic method, and on-line prediction of leak magnitude using artificial neural networks. On-line audible noises generated by leakage were obtained with a microphone installed in a 60 m long pipeline. The sound noises were decomposed into sounds of different frequencies: 1 kHz, 5 kHz and 9 kHz. The dynamics of these noises in time were used as input to the neural model in order to determine the occurrence and the leak magnitude. The results indicated the great potential of the technique and of the developed neural network models. For all on-line tests, the models showed 100% accuracy in leak detection, except for a small orifice (1 mm under 4 kgf/cm² of nominal pressure. Similarly, the neural network models could adequately predict the magnitude of the leakages.

  15. Low power and high accuracy spike sorting microprocessor with on-line interpolation and re-alignment in 90 nm CMOS process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tung-Chien; Ma, Tsung-Chuan; Chen, Yun-Yu; Chen, Liang-Gee

    2012-01-01

    Accurate spike sorting is an important issue for neuroscientific and neuroprosthetic applications. The sorting of spikes depends on the features extracted from the neural waveforms, and a better sorting performance usually comes with a higher sampling rate (SR). However for the long duration experiments on free-moving subjects, the miniaturized and wireless neural recording ICs are the current trend, and the compromise on sorting accuracy is usually made by a lower SR for the lower power consumption. In this paper, we implement an on-chip spike sorting processor with integrated interpolation hardware in order to improve the performance in terms of power versus accuracy. According to the fabrication results in 90nm process, if the interpolation is appropriately performed during the spike sorting, the system operated at the SR of 12.5 k samples per second (sps) can outperform the one not having interpolation at 25 ksps on both accuracy and power.

  16. Metrology Sampling Strategies for Process Monitoring Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Vincent, Tyrone L.

    2011-11-01

    Shrinking process windows in very large scale integration semiconductor manufacturing have already necessitated the development of control systems capable of addressing sub-lot-level variation. Within-wafer control is the next milestone in the evolution of advanced process control from lot-based and wafer-based control. In order to adequately comprehend and control within-wafer spatial variation, inline measurements must be performed at multiple locations across the wafer. At the same time, economic pressures prompt a reduction in metrology, for both capital and cycle-time reasons. This paper explores the use of modeling and minimum-variance prediction as a method to select the sites for measurement on each wafer. The models are developed using the standard statistical tools of principle component analysis and canonical correlation analysis. The proposed selection method is validated using real manufacturing data, and results indicate that it is possible to significantly reduce the number of measurements with little loss in the information obtained for the process control systems. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. On-line preconcentration using a resin functionalized with 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid for the determination of trace elements in biological samples by thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Valfredo A.; Bezerra, Marcos A.; Amorim, Fabio A.C.

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper, an on-line preconcentration procedure for determination of cadmium, copper and zinc by thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS) is proposed. Amberlite XAD-4 functionalized with 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (XAD4-DHB) packed in a minicolumn was used as sorbent material. The metals were retained on the XAD-DHB resin, from which it could be eluted directly to the thermospray flame furnace system. The detection limits were 28 (Cd), 100 (Cu) and 77 ng L -1 (Zn) for 60 s preconcentration time, at a sample flow rate of 7.0 mL min -1 . Enrichment factors were 102, 91 and 62, for cadmium, copper and zinc, respectively. The procedure has been applied successfully to metal determination in biological standard reference materials

  18. Automated sampling and data processing derived from biomimetic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, M; Vissing, T; Hansen, J S; Nielsen, C H; Boesen, T P; Emneus, J

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in biomimetic membrane systems have resulted in an increase in membrane lifetimes from hours to days and months. Long-lived membrane systems demand the development of both new automated monitoring equipment capable of measuring electrophysiological membrane characteristics and new data processing software to analyze and organize the large amounts of data generated. In this work, we developed an automated instrumental voltage clamp solution based on a custom-designed software controller application (the WaveManager), which enables automated on-line voltage clamp data acquisition applicable to long-time series experiments. We designed another software program for off-line data processing. The automation of the on-line voltage clamp data acquisition and off-line processing was furthermore integrated with a searchable database (DiscoverySheet(TM)) for efficient data management. The combined solution provides a cost efficient and fast way to acquire, process and administrate large amounts of voltage clamp data that may be too laborious and time consuming to handle manually. (communication)

  19. Automated sampling and data processing derived from biomimetic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, M; Vissing, T; Hansen, J S; Nielsen, C H [Aquaporin A/S, Diplomvej 377, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Boesen, T P [Xefion ApS, Kildegaardsvej 8C, DK-2900 Hellerup (Denmark); Emneus, J, E-mail: Claus.Nielsen@fysik.dtu.d [DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-12-15

    Recent advances in biomimetic membrane systems have resulted in an increase in membrane lifetimes from hours to days and months. Long-lived membrane systems demand the development of both new automated monitoring equipment capable of measuring electrophysiological membrane characteristics and new data processing software to analyze and organize the large amounts of data generated. In this work, we developed an automated instrumental voltage clamp solution based on a custom-designed software controller application (the WaveManager), which enables automated on-line voltage clamp data acquisition applicable to long-time series experiments. We designed another software program for off-line data processing. The automation of the on-line voltage clamp data acquisition and off-line processing was furthermore integrated with a searchable database (DiscoverySheet(TM)) for efficient data management. The combined solution provides a cost efficient and fast way to acquire, process and administrate large amounts of voltage clamp data that may be too laborious and time consuming to handle manually. (communication)

  20. The development of an on-line gold analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, R.V.D.; Ormrod, G.T.W.

    1982-01-01

    An on-line analyser to monitor the gold in solutions from the carbon-in-pulp process is described. The automatic system is based on the delivery of filtered samples of the solutions to a distribution valve for measurement by flameless atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. The samples is introduced by the aerosol-deposition method. Operation of the analyser on a pilot plant and on a full-scale carbon-in-pulp plant has shown that the system is economically feasible and capable of providing a continuous indication of the efficiency of the extraction process

  1. On-Line Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Anica Pintea

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interactive implementation which makes the link between a human operator and a system of an administration of relational databases MySQL. This application conceived as a multimedia presentations is illustrative for the way in which the transfer and the remaking of the information between the human operator, the module of data processing and the database which stores the information can be solved (with help of the PHP language and the web use.

  2. On line monitoring of a welding process by pulsed Nd-YAG laser; Controle en ligne d'un procede de soudage par laser Nd-YAG pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chardon, St.; Voisin, Y.; Gorria, P. [Universite de Bourgogne, Lab. LE2I, 21 - Dijon (France); Vauzelle, Th. [CEA/Valduc, Dept. Fabrications et Technologies Nucleaires, DFTN, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    1999-07-01

    Laser weld quality inspection can be assured by the machine qualification (before and during welding), and by on line monitoring of the operation. The similarity of the signals produced by pulsed lasers (machine or interaction) leads us to develop a specific data acquisition and processing software. During a welding operation, laser-material interaction results in a characteristically emission of optical, acoustical and electrical signals. These signals are measured by different kinds of sensors (photodiode, microphone, or an electric probe), then recorded and treated with the quoted software. Signal processing tools utilization in conjunction with classification techniques (stress polytopes), introduce an innovating approach of on line inspection. Discriminant parameters determination (signals/defect correlation) become thus automatic and non subjective. (authors)

  3. On-line atomic data access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, D.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Nash, J.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The need for atomic data is one which continues to expand in a wide variety of applications including fusion energy, astrophysics, laser- produced plasma research, and plasma processing. Modern computer database and communications technology nables this data to be placed on-line and obtained by users of the Internet. Presented here is a summary of the observations and conclusions regarding such on-line atomic data access derived from a forum held at the Tenth APS Topical Conference on Atomic Processes in Plasmas.

  4. On line routing per mobile phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieding, Thomas; Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    On-line routing is concerned with building vehicle routes in an ongoing fashion in such a way that customer requests arriving dynamically in time are efficiently and effectively served. An indispensable prerequisite for applying on-line routing methods is mobile communication technology....... Additionally it is of utmost importance that the employed communication system is suitable integrated with the firm’s enterprise application system and business processes. On basis of a case study, we describe in this paper a system that is cheap and easy to implement due to the use of simple mobile phones...

  5. Non-Contact Conductivity Measurement for Automated Sample Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kirby, James P.

    2012-01-01

    A new method has been developed for monitoring and control of automated sample processing and preparation especially focusing on desalting of samples before analytical analysis (described in more detail in Automated Desalting Apparatus, (NPO-45428), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 8 (August 2010), page 44). The use of non-contact conductivity probes, one at the inlet and one at the outlet of the solid phase sample preparation media, allows monitoring of the process, and acts as a trigger for the start of the next step in the sequence (see figure). At each step of the muti-step process, the system is flushed with low-conductivity water, which sets the system back to an overall low-conductivity state. This measurement then triggers the next stage of sample processing protocols, and greatly minimizes use of consumables. In the case of amino acid sample preparation for desalting, the conductivity measurement will define three key conditions for the sample preparation process. First, when the system is neutralized (low conductivity, by washing with excess de-ionized water); second, when the system is acidified, by washing with a strong acid (high conductivity); and third, when the system is at a basic condition of high pH (high conductivity). Taken together, this non-contact conductivity measurement for monitoring sample preparation will not only facilitate automation of the sample preparation and processing, but will also act as a way to optimize the operational time and use of consumables

  6. Sample Handling and Processing on Mars for Future Astrobiology Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Luther; Kirby, James P.; Fisher, Anita; Hodyss, Robert; Saltzman, Alison; Soto, Juancarlos; Lasnik, James; Roark, Shane

    2011-01-01

    In most analytical investigations, there is a need to process complex field samples for the unique detection of analytes especially when detecting low concentration organic molecules that may identify extraterrestrial life. Sample processing for analytical instruments is time, resource and manpower consuming in terrestrial laboratories. Every step in this laborious process will have to be automated for in situ life detection. We have developed, and are currently demonstrating, an automated wet chemistry preparation system that can operate autonomously on Earth and is designed to operate under Martian ambient conditions. This will enable a complete wet chemistry laboratory as part of future missions. Our system, namely the Automated Sample Processing System (ASPS) receives fines, extracts organics through solvent extraction, processes the extract by removing non-organic soluble species and delivers sample to multiple instruments for analysis (including for non-organic soluble species).

  7. Remote sampling of process fluids in radiochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengar, P.B.; Bhattacharya, R.; Ozarde, P. D.; Rana, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    Sampling of process fluids, continuous or periodic, is an essential requirement in any chemical process plant, so as to keep a control on process variables. In a radiochemical plant the task of taking and conveying the samples is a very tricky affair. This is due to the fact that neither the vessels/equipment containing radioactive effluents can be approached for manual sampling nor sampled fluids can be handled directly. The problems become more accute with higher levels of radioactivity. As such, inovative systems have to be devised to obtain and handle the raioactive samples employing remote operations. The remote sampling system developed in this Division has some of the unique features such as taking only requisite amount of samples in microlitre range, practically maintenance free design, avoidence of excess radioactive fluids coming out of process systems, etc. The paper describes in detail the design of remote sampling system and compares the same with existing systems. The design efforts are towards simplicity in operation, obtaining homogenised representative samples and highly economical on man-rem expenditure. The performance of a prototype system has also been evaluated. (author). 3 refs

  8. Recommended practice for process sampling for partial pressure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blessing, James E.; Ellefson, Robert E.; Raby, Bruce A.; Brucker, Gerardo A.; Waits, Robert K.

    2007-01-01

    This Recommended Practice describes and recommends various procedures and types of apparatus for obtaining representative samples of process gases from >10 -2 Pa (10 -4 Torr) for partial pressure analysis using a mass spectrometer. The document was prepared by a subcommittee of the Recommended Practices Committee of the American Vacuum Society. The subcommittee was comprised of vacuum users and manufacturers of mass spectrometer partial pressure analyzers who have practical experience in the sampling of process gas atmospheres

  9. NOASYS, a system for on-line noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massier, H.

    1978-07-01

    This report describes NOASYS, a versatile NOise Analysis SYStem for digital on-line signal processing. The system based on a minicomputer, was originally developed for the analysis of noise signals from nuclear reactors. NOASYS computes various statistical functions e.g. cross- und auto-correlation functions and power spectral densities resp., which may be used for reactor diagnosis and malfunction detection. The system processes up to 16 analog signals with a maximum sampling frequency of 100 kcps (1 channel). The processing of the sampled data is done by a number of software tasks, which may be called from a teletype or linked together for specific measuring programs. The standard configuration contains the often used processing routines e.g. Fast Fourier Transform, complex multiplication, summation etc. In addition NOASYS may be extended by users own tasks (in Assembler or Fortran) to fit for specific applications. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  10. Data Set for the manuscript entitled, "Sample Processing Approach for Detection of Ricin in Surface Samples."

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Figure. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Shah, S., S. Kane, A.M. Erler, and T. Alfaro. Sample Processing Approach for Detection of Ricin in...

  11. New Trends in on-line Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Palkovič, Lukáš

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with new trend of internet marketing, it focuses especially on viral marketing. The theoretical part charasterizes the process of viral campaigns, furthermore deals with the components and aspects of on-line environment. Another separated chapter presents social networks, their place in viral marketing and at last but not least the viral video making process. The practical part contains different analyses of specific viral campaigns. The next and equally the last pa...

  12. Automation of plasma-process fultext bibliography databases. An on-line data-collection, data-mining and data-input system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Manabu; Pichl, Lukas; Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Takako; Sasaki, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Searching for relevant data, information retrieval, data extraction and data input are time- and resource-consuming activities in most data centers. Here we develop a Linux system automating the process in case of bibliography, abstract and fulltext databases. The present system is an open-source free-software low-cost solution that connects the target and provider databases in cyberspace through various web publishing formats. The abstract/fulltext relevance assessment is interfaced to external software modules. (author)

  13. An Automated Sample Processing System for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Juancarlos; Lasnik, James; Roark, Shane; Beegle, Luther

    2012-01-01

    An Automated Sample Processing System (ASPS) for wet chemistry processing of organic materials on the surface of Mars has been jointly developed by Ball Aerospace and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The mechanism has been built and tested to demonstrate TRL level 4. This paper describes the function of the system, mechanism design, lessons learned, and several challenges that were overcome.

  14. 1-D and 2-D processing for on-line control and data analysis assistance for the multidetector 4π INDRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkirane, A.

    1994-02-01

    The first part of the thesis is concerned with the quality control of the detection modules and three analysis methods are studied and compared: spectral analysis, distribution function method and correlation form measurement; implementation of the spectral analysis technique is then described. The second part is concerned with the non controlled identification of the Z lines; an image processing approach is adopted which handles the peak line recognition problem as an edge detection problem. A contextual edge detection system with a-priori knowledge is presented. Examples of implementation and integration are given. 44 figs., 59 refs

  15. Unattended reaction monitoring using an automated microfluidic sampler and on-line liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Darshan C; Lyu, Yaqi Fara; Gandarilla, Jorge; Doherty, Steve

    2018-04-03

    In-process sampling and analysis is an important aspect of monitoring kinetic profiles and impurity formation or rejection, both in development and during commercial manufacturing. In pharmaceutical process development, the technology of choice for a substantial portion of this analysis is high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Traditionally, the sample extraction and preparation for reaction characterization have been performed manually. This can be time consuming, laborious, and impractical for long processes. Depending on the complexity of the sample preparation, there can be variability introduced by different analysts, and in some cases, the integrity of the sample can be compromised during handling. While there are commercial instruments available for on-line monitoring with HPLC, they lack capabilities in many key areas. Some do not provide integration of the sampling and analysis, while others afford limited flexibility in sample preparation. The current offerings provide a limited number of unit operations available for sample processing and no option for workflow customizability. This work describes development of a microfluidic automated program (MAP) which fully automates the sample extraction, manipulation, and on-line LC analysis. The flexible system is controlled using an intuitive Microsoft Excel based user interface. The autonomous system is capable of unattended reaction monitoring that allows flexible unit operations and workflow customization to enable complex operations and on-line sample preparation. The automated system is shown to offer advantages over manual approaches in key areas while providing consistent and reproducible in-process data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Potentiometric analytical microsystem based on the integration of a gas-diffusion step for on-line ammonium determination in water recycling processes in manned space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-López, Antonio; Ymbern, Oriol; Puyol, Mar; Casalta, Joan Manel; Alonso-Chamarro, Julián

    2015-05-18

    The design, construction and evaluation of a versatile cyclic olefin copolymer (COC)-based continuous flow potentiometric microanalyzer to monitor the presence of ammonium ion in recycling water processes for future manned space missions is presented. The microsystem integrates microfluidics, a gas-diffusion module and a detection system in a single substrate. The gas-diffusion module was integrated by a hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. The potentiometric detection system is based on an all-solid state ammonium selective electrode and a screen-printed Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The analytical features provided by the analytical microsystem after the optimization process were a linear range from 0.15 to 500 mg L(-1) and a detection limit of 0.07 ± 0.01 mg L(-1). Nevertheless, the operational features can be easily adapted to other applications through the modification of the hydrodynamic variables of the microfluidic platform. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of volume of sample processed on detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital samples by PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessens, W H; Kluytmans, J A; den Toom, N; van Rijsoort-Vos, T H; Niesters, B G; Stolz, E; Verbrugh, H A; Quint, W G

    In the present study, it was demonstrated that the sensitivity of the PCR for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis is influenced by the volume of the clinical sample which is processed in the PCR. An adequate sensitivity for PCR was established by processing at least 4%, i.e., 80 microliters, of

  18. Tar formation in a steam-O2 blown CFB gasifier and a steam blown PBFB gasifier (BabyHPR) : Comparison between different on-line measurement techniques and the off-line SPA sampling and analysis method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, X.; Mitsakis, P.; Mayerhofen, M.; De Jong, W.; Gaderer, M.; Verkooijen, A.H.M.; Spliethoff, H.

    2012-01-01

    Two on-line tar measurement campaigns were carried out using an atmospheric pressure 100 “”kWth steam-O2 blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier at the Delft University of Technology (TUD) and a 30–40kWth steam blown pressurized bubbling fluidized bed (PBFB) gasifier BabyHPR (Heatpipe

  19. CERN Video News on line

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The latest CERN video news is on line. In this issue : an interview with the Director General and reports on the new home for the DELPHI barrel and the CERN firemen's spectacular training programme. There's also a vintage video news clip from 1954. See: www.cern.ch/video or Bulletin web page

  20. The current role of on-line extraction approaches in clinical and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Daniel M

    2014-08-01

    In today's clinical and forensic toxicological laboratories, automation is of interest because of its ability to optimize processes, to reduce manual workload and handling errors and to minimize exposition to potentially infectious samples. Extraction is usually the most time-consuming step; therefore, automation of this step is reasonable. Currently, from the field of clinical and forensic toxicology, methods using the following on-line extraction techniques have been published: on-line solid-phase extraction, turbulent flow chromatography, solid-phase microextraction, microextraction by packed sorbent, single-drop microextraction and on-line desorption of dried blood spots. Most of these published methods are either single-analyte or multicomponent procedures; methods intended for systematic toxicological analysis are relatively scarce. However, the use of on-line extraction will certainly increase in the near future.

  1. On-line monitoring for calibration reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Mario; Gran, Frauke Schmitt; Thunem, Harald P-J.

    2004-04-01

    On-Line Monitoring (OLM) of a channel's calibration state evaluates instrument channel performance by assessing its consistency with other plant indications. Industry and experience at several plants has shown this overall approach to be very effective in identifying instrument channels that are exhibiting degrading or inconsistent performance characteristics. The Halden Reactor Project has developed the signal validation system PEANO, which can be used to assist with the tasks of OLM. To further enhance the PEANO System for use as a calibration reduction tool, the following two additional modules have been developed; HRP Prox, which performs pre-processing and statistical analysis of signal data, Batch Monitoring Module (BMM), which is an off-line batch monitoring and reporting suite. The purpose and functionality of the HRP Prox and BMM modules are discussed in this report, as well as the improvements made to the PEANO Server to support these new modules. The Halden Reactor Project has established a Halden On-Line Monitoring User Group (HOLMUG), devoted to the discussion and implementation of on-line monitoring techniques in power plants. It is formed by utilities, vendors, regulatory bodies and research institutes that meet regularly to discuss implementation aspects of on-line monitoring, technical specification changes, cost-benefit analysis and regulatory issues. (Author)

  2. ISOLOK VALVE ACCEPTANCE TESTING FOR DWPF SME SAMPLING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.; Hera, K.; Coleman, C.; Jones, M.; Wiedenman, B.

    2011-12-05

    Evaluation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) cycle time identified several opportunities to improve the CPC processing time. Of the opportunities, a focus area related to optimizing the equipment and efficiency of the sample turnaround time for DWPF Analytical Laboratory was identified. The Mechanical Systems & Custom Equipment Development (MS&CED) Section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated the possibility of using an Isolok{reg_sign} sampling valve as an alternative to the Hydragard{reg_sign} valve for taking process samples. Previous viability testing was conducted with favorable results using the Isolok sampler and reported in SRNL-STI-2010-00749 (1). This task has the potential to improve operability, reduce maintenance time and decrease CPC cycle time. This report summarizes the results from acceptance testing which was requested in Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0036 (2) and which was conducted as outlined in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNL-RP-2011-00145 (3). The Isolok to be tested is the same model which was tested, qualified, and installed in the Sludge Receipt Adjustment Tank (SRAT) sample system. RW-0333P QA requirements apply to this task. This task was to qualify the Isolok sampler for use in the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) sampling process. The Hydragard, which is the current baseline sampling method, was used for comparison to the Isolok sampling data. The Isolok sampler is an air powered grab sampler used to 'pull' a sample volume from a process line. The operation of the sampler is shown in Figure 1. The image on the left shows the Isolok's spool extended into the process line and the image on the right shows the sampler retracted and then dispensing the liquid into the sampling container. To determine tank homogeneity, a Coliwasa sampler was used to grab samples at a high and low location within the mixing tank. Data from

  3. Double Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem Definition Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RASMUSSEN, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report defines the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem (PWSS). This subsystem definition report fully describes and identifies the system boundaries of the PWSS. This definition provides a basis for developing functional, performance, and test requirements (i.e., subsystem specification), as necessary, for the PWSS. The resultant PWSS specification will include the sampling requirements to support the transfer of waste from the DSTs to the Privatization Contractor during Phase 1 of Waste Feed Delivery

  4. Processing scarce biological samples for light and transmission electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Taupin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Light microscopy (LM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM aim at understanding the relationship structure-function. With advances in biology, isolation and purification of scarce populations of cells or subcellular structures may not lead to enough biological material, for processing for LM and TEM. A protocol for preparation of scarce biological samples is presented. It is based on pre-embedding the biological samples, suspensions or pellets, in bovine serum albumin (BSA and bis-acrylamide (BA, cross-linked and polymerized. This preparation provides a simple and reproducible technique to process biological materials, present in limited quantities that can not be amplified, for light and transmission electron microscopy.

  5. Sample processing method for the determination of perchlorate in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyke, Jason V.; Kirk, Andrea B.; Kalyani Martinelango, P.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, many different water sources and foods have been reported to contain perchlorate. Studies indicate that significant levels of perchlorate are present in both human and dairy milk. The determination of perchlorate in milk is particularly important due to its potential health impact on infants and children. As for many other biological samples, sample preparation is more time consuming than the analysis itself. The concurrent presence of large amounts of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, etc., demands some initial cleanup; otherwise the separation column lifetime and the limit of detection are both greatly compromised. Reported milk processing methods require the addition of chemicals such as ethanol, acetic acid or acetonitrile. Reagent addition is undesirable in trace analysis. We report here an essentially reagent-free sample preparation method for the determination of perchlorate in milk. Milk samples are spiked with isotopically labeled perchlorate and centrifuged to remove lipids. The resulting liquid is placed in a disposable centrifugal ultrafilter device with a molecular weight cutoff of 10 kDa, and centrifuged. Approximately 5-10 ml of clear liquid, ready for analysis, is obtained from a 20 ml milk sample. Both bovine and human milk samples have been successfully processed and analyzed by ion chromatography-mass spectrometry (IC-MS). Standard addition experiments show good recoveries. The repeatability of the analytical result for the same sample in multiple sample cleanup runs ranged from 3 to 6% R.S.D. This processing technique has also been successfully applied for the determination of iodide and thiocyanate in milk

  6. A Monte Carlo Sampling Technique for Multi-phonon Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegberg, Thure

    1961-12-15

    A sampling technique for selecting scattering angle and energy gain in Monte Carlo calculations of neutron thermalization is described. It is supposed that the scattering is separated into processes involving different numbers of phonons. The number of phonons involved is first determined. Scattering angle and energy gain are then chosen by using special properties of the multi-phonon term.

  7. Quality evaluation of processed clay soil samples | Steiner-Asiedu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: This study assessed the microbial quality of clay samples sold on two of the major Ghanaian markets. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional assessing the evaluation of processed clay and effects it has on the nutrition of the consumers in the political capital town of Ghana. The items for the examination was ...

  8. Sampling and Timing: A Task for the Environmetal Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink, G.H.; Broenink, Johannes F.

    2003-01-01

    Sampling and timing is considered a responsibility of the environment of controller software. In this paper we will illustrate a concept whereby an environmental process and multi-way events play an important role in applying timing for untimed CSP software architectures. We use this timing concept

  9. Testing results of Monte Carlo sampling processes in MCSAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnera, I.; Cruz, C.; Abreu, Y.; Leyva, A.; Correa, C.; Demydenko, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Monte Carlo Simulation of Atom Displacements (MCSAD) is a code implemented by the authors to simulate the complete process of atom displacement (AD) formation. This code makes use of the Monte Carlo (MC) method to sample all the processes involved in the gamma and electronic radiation transport through matter. The kernel of the calculations applied to this code relies on a model based on an algorithm developed by the authors, which firstly splits out multiple electron elastic scattering events from those single ones at higher scattering angles and then, from the last one, sampling those leading to AD at high transferred atomic recoil energies. Some tests have been developed to check the sampling algorithms with the help of the corresponding theoretical distribution functions. Satisfactory results have been obtained, which indicate the strength of the methods and subroutines used in the code. (Author)

  10. Rare behavior of growth processes via umbrella sampling of trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymko, Katherine; Geissler, Phillip L.; Garrahan, Juan P.; Whitelam, Stephen

    2018-03-01

    We compute probability distributions of trajectory observables for reversible and irreversible growth processes. These results reveal a correspondence between reversible and irreversible processes, at particular points in parameter space, in terms of their typical and atypical trajectories. Thus key features of growth processes can be insensitive to the precise form of the rate constants used to generate them, recalling the insensitivity to microscopic details of certain equilibrium behavior. We obtained these results using a sampling method, inspired by the "s -ensemble" large-deviation formalism, that amounts to umbrella sampling in trajectory space. The method is a simple variant of existing approaches, and applies to ensembles of trajectories controlled by the total number of events. It can be used to determine large-deviation rate functions for trajectory observables in or out of equilibrium.

  11. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  12. From Off-line to On-line Handwriting Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lallican, P.; Viard-Gaudin, C.; Knerr, S.

    2004-01-01

    On-line handwriting includes more information on time order of the writing signal and on the dynamics of the writing process than off-line handwriting. Therefore, on-line recognition systems achieve higher recognition rates. This can be concluded from results reported in the literature, and has been

  13. Sampling Strategies and Processing of Biobank Tissue Samples from Porcine Biomedical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blutke, Andreas; Wanke, Rüdiger

    2018-03-06

    In translational medical research, porcine models have steadily become more popular. Considering the high value of individual animals, particularly of genetically modified pig models, and the often-limited number of available animals of these models, establishment of (biobank) collections of adequately processed tissue samples suited for a broad spectrum of subsequent analyses methods, including analyses not specified at the time point of sampling, represent meaningful approaches to take full advantage of the translational value of the model. With respect to the peculiarities of porcine anatomy, comprehensive guidelines have recently been established for standardized generation of representative, high-quality samples from different porcine organs and tissues. These guidelines are essential prerequisites for the reproducibility of results and their comparability between different studies and investigators. The recording of basic data, such as organ weights and volumes, the determination of the sampling locations and of the numbers of tissue samples to be generated, as well as their orientation, size, processing and trimming directions, are relevant factors determining the generalizability and usability of the specimen for molecular, qualitative, and quantitative morphological analyses. Here, an illustrative, practical, step-by-step demonstration of the most important techniques for generation of representative, multi-purpose biobank specimen from porcine tissues is presented. The methods described here include determination of organ/tissue volumes and densities, the application of a volume-weighted systematic random sampling procedure for parenchymal organs by point-counting, determination of the extent of tissue shrinkage related to histological embedding of samples, and generation of randomly oriented samples for quantitative stereological analyses, such as isotropic uniform random (IUR) sections generated by the "Orientator" and "Isector" methods, and vertical

  14. Random sampling of evolution time space and Fourier transform processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof; Zawadzka, Anna; Kozminski, Wiktor; Zhukov, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Application of Fourier Transform for processing 3D NMR spectra with random sampling of evolution time space is presented. The 2D FT is calculated for pairs of frequencies, instead of conventional sequence of one-dimensional transforms. Signal to noise ratios and linewidths for different random distributions were investigated by simulations and experiments. The experimental examples include 3D HNCA, HNCACB and 15 N-edited NOESY-HSQC spectra of 13 C 15 N labeled ubiquitin sample. Obtained results revealed general applicability of proposed method and the significant improvement of resolution in comparison with conventional spectra recorded in the same time

  15. On line ultrasonic integrated backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landini, L.; Picano, E.; Mazzarisi, A.; Santarelli, F.; Benassi, A.; De Pieri, G.

    1988-01-01

    A new equipment for on-line evaluation of index based on two-dimensional integrated backscatter from ultrasonic images is described. The new equipment is fully integrated into a B-mode ultrasonic apparatus which provides a simultaneous display of conventional information together with parameters of tissue characterization. The system has been tested with a backscattering model of microbubbles in polysaccharide solution, characterized by a physiological exponential time decay. An exponential fitting to the experimental data was performed which yielded r=0.95

  16. On-line nuclear orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    This grant has as its overall goal the pursuit of on-line nuclear orientation experiments for the purpose of eliciting details of nuclear structure from the decays of neutron-deficient nuclei, such as those produced by the Holifield Heavy-Ion Research Facility at Oak Ridge and extracted by the UNISOR Isotope Separator. This paper discusses: refrigerator development; the decay of 184 Au; the decay of 191 Hg to 191 Au; the decay of 189 Pt to 189 Ir; the decays of 109,111 Pd; the decay of 172 Er; and solid angle corrections

  17. Graphene oxide-based composite monolith as new sorbent for the on-line solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography determination of ß-sitosterol in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Beijiao; Guo, Bin; Wang, Huimin; Zhang, Doudou; Liu, Haiyan; Bai, Ligai; Yan, Hongyuan; Han, Dandan

    2018-08-15

    A composite monolithic column was prepared by redox initiation method for the on-line purification and enrichment of β-sitosterol, in which graphene oxide (GO) was embedded. The obtained monolithic column was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm measurement, which indicated that the monolith possessed characteristics of porous structure and high permeability. Under the optimum conditions for extraction and determination, the calibration equation was y = 47.92 × -0.1391; the linear range was 0.008-1.0 mg mL -1 ; the linear regression coefficient was 0.998; the limit of detection (LOD) is 2.4 μg mL -1 ; the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 8 μg mL -1 ; precisions for intra-day and inter-day assays presented as relative standard deviations were less than 4.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Under the selective conditions, the enrichment factor of the method was 119. The recovery was in the range of 80.40-98.00%. Moreover, the adsorption amount of the monolith was compared with silica gel-C18 adsorbent and the monolith without graphene oxide being embedded. The polymerization monolithic column showed high selectivity and good permeability, and it was successfully used as on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) column for determination of β-sitosterol in edible oil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Large sample hydrology in NZ: Spatial organisation in process diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, H. K.; Woods, R. A.; Clark, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    A key question in hydrology is how to predict the dominant runoff generation processes in any given catchment. This knowledge is vital for a range of applications in forecasting hydrological response and related processes such as nutrient and sediment transport. A step towards this goal is to map dominant processes in locations where data is available. In this presentation, we use data from 900 flow gauging stations and 680 rain gauges in New Zealand, to assess hydrological processes. These catchments range in character from rolling pasture, to alluvial plains, to temperate rainforest, to volcanic areas. By taking advantage of so many flow regimes, we harness the benefits of large-sample and comparative hydrology to study patterns and spatial organisation in runoff processes, and their relationship to physical catchment characteristics. The approach we use to assess hydrological processes is based on the concept of diagnostic signatures. Diagnostic signatures in hydrology are targeted analyses of measured data which allow us to investigate specific aspects of catchment response. We apply signatures which target the water balance, the flood response and the recession behaviour. We explore the organisation, similarity and diversity in hydrological processes across the New Zealand landscape, and how these patterns change with scale. We discuss our findings in the context of the strong hydro-climatic gradients in New Zealand, and consider the implications for hydrological model building on a national scale.

  19. Challenging genosensors in food samples: The case of gluten determination in highly processed samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Begoña; de-los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Martín-Clemente, Juan Pedro; Lobo-Castañón, María Jesús; López-Ruiz, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical genosensors have undergone an enormous development in the last decades, but only very few have achieved a quantification of target content in highly processed food samples. The detection of allergens, and particularly gluten, is challenging because legislation establishes a threshold of 20 ppm for labeling as gluten-free but most genosensors expresses the results in DNA concentration or DNA copies. This paper describes the first attempt to correlate the genosensor response and the wheat content in real samples, even in the case of highly processed food samples. A sandwich-based format, comprising a capture probe immobilized onto the screen-printed gold electrode, and a signaling probe functionalized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), both hybridizing with the target was used. The hybridization event was electrochemically monitored by adding an anti-FITC peroxidase (antiFITC-HRP) and its substrate, tetramethylbenzidine. Binary model mixtures, as a reference material, and real samples have been analyzed. DNA from food was extracted and a fragment encoding the immunodominant peptide of α2-gliadin amplified by a tailored PCR. The sensor was able to selectively detect toxic cereals for celiac patients, such as different varieties of wheat, barley, rye and oats, from non-toxic plants. As low as 0.001% (10 mg/kg) of wheat flour in an inert matrix was reliably detected, which directly compete with the current method of choice for DNA detection, the real-time PCR. A good correlation with the official immunoassay was found in highly processed food samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of anions with an on-line capillary electrophoresis method; Anionien on-line maeaeritys kapillaarielektroforeesilla - MPKT 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siren, H; Saerme, T; Kotiaho, T; Hiissa, T; Savolahti, P; Komppa, V [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    The aim of the study was to set-up an on-line capillary electrophoresis method for determination of anions in process waters of pulp and paper industry with exporting the results to the process control system of the mill. The quantification is important, since it will give information about the possible causes of precipitation. In recent years, the capillary electrophoresis (CE) due to its high separation efficiency has been shown as a method to take into consideration when analyzing chemical species ranging from small inorganic anions to different macromolecules. Many compounds are not easily detected in their native state, why analysis methods must be developed to improve their detection. Especially, small inorganic and organic anions which do not have chromophores are not sensitive enough for direct-UV detection. In such analyses the anions are mostly detected with indirect-UV technique. Capillary electrophoresis instruments are used to analyze samples in off-line, which seldom represent the situation in process. Therefore, on-line instrument technology with autoanalyzing settings will be needed in quality control. The development of a fully automatic capillary electrophoresis system is underway in co-operation with KCL (The Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute). In our research, we have first concentrated on the determination of sulphate in waters of paper industry. The method used for detection of sulphate is based on indirect-UV detection with CE, where the background electrolyte (BGE) is an absorbing mixture of secondary amines. The whole procedure for quantification of sulphate is performed within 15 minutes, after which a new sample is analyzed automatically. The only sample pretreatment is filtration, which is necessary before analysis. The concentrations of sulphate in process waters tested were between 300 and 800 ppm. Our tests show that a simultaneous determination of chloride, sulphate, nitrate, nitrite, sulphite, carbonate and oxalate is also

  1. Determination of anions with an on-line capillary electrophoresis method; Anionien on-line maeaeritys kapillaarielektroforeesilla - MPKT 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siren, H.; Saerme, T.; Kotiaho, T.; Hiissa, T.; Savolahti, P.; Komppa, V. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of the study was to set-up an on-line capillary electrophoresis method for determination of anions in process waters of pulp and paper industry with exporting the results to the process control system of the mill. The quantification is important, since it will give information about the possible causes of precipitation. In recent years, the capillary electrophoresis (CE) due to its high separation efficiency has been shown as a method to take into consideration when analyzing chemical species ranging from small inorganic anions to different macromolecules. Many compounds are not easily detected in their native state, why analysis methods must be developed to improve their detection. Especially, small inorganic and organic anions which do not have chromophores are not sensitive enough for direct-UV detection. In such analyses the anions are mostly detected with indirect-UV technique. Capillary electrophoresis instruments are used to analyze samples in off-line, which seldom represent the situation in process. Therefore, on-line instrument technology with autoanalyzing settings will be needed in quality control. The development of a fully automatic capillary electrophoresis system is underway in co-operation with KCL (The Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute). In our research, we have first concentrated on the determination of sulphate in waters of paper industry. The method used for detection of sulphate is based on indirect-UV detection with CE, where the background electrolyte (BGE) is an absorbing mixture of secondary amines. The whole procedure for quantification of sulphate is performed within 15 minutes, after which a new sample is analyzed automatically. The only sample pretreatment is filtration, which is necessary before analysis. The concentrations of sulphate in process waters tested were between 300 and 800 ppm. Our tests show that a simultaneous determination of chloride, sulphate, nitrate, nitrite, sulphite, carbonate and oxalate is also

  2. Neutron-activation analysis of routine mineral-processing samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watterson, J.; Eddy, B.; Pearton, D.

    1974-01-01

    Instrumental neutron-activation analysis was applied to a suite of typical mineral-processing samples to establish which elements can be rapidly determined in them by this technique. A total of 35 elements can be determined with precisions (from the counting statistics) ranging from better than 1 per cent to approximately 20 per cent. The elements that can be determined have been tabulated together with the experimental conditions, the precision from the counting statistics, and the estimated number of analyses possible per day. With an automated system, this number can be as high as 150 in the most favourable cases [af

  3. Order–disorder–reorder process in thermally treated dolomite samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zucchini, Azzurra; Comodi, Paola; Katerinopoulou, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A combined powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2] heated to 1,200oC at 3 GPa was made to study the order–disorder–reorder process. The order/disorder transition is inferred to start below 1,100oC, and complete disorder is attained at approximately 1,200o......C. Twinned crystals characterized by high internal order were found in samples annealed over 1,100oC, and their fraction was found to increase with temperature. Evidences of twinning domains combined with probable remaining disordered portions of the structure imply that reordering processes occur during...

  4. DSMC multicomponent aerosol dynamics: Sampling algorithms and aerosol processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswaamy, Geethpriya

    The post-accident nuclear reactor primary and containment environments can be characterized by high temperatures and pressures, and fission products and nuclear aerosols. These aerosols evolve via natural transport processes as well as under the influence of engineered safety features. These aerosols can be hazardous and may pose risk to the public if released into the environment. Computations of their evolution, movement and distribution involve the study of various processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, etc., and are influenced by factors such as particle shape, charge, radioactivity and spatial inhomogeneity. These many factors make the numerical study of nuclear aerosol evolution computationally very complicated. The focus of this research is on the use of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique to elucidate the role of various phenomena that influence the nuclear aerosol evolution. In this research, several aerosol processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, and source reinforcement are explored for a multi-component, aerosol dynamics problem in a spatially homogeneous medium. Among the various sampling algorithms explored the Metropolis sampling algorithm was found to be effective and fast. Several test problems and test cases are simulated using the DSMC technique. The DSMC results obtained are verified against the analytical and sectional results for appropriate test problems. Results show that the assumption of a single mean density is not appropriate due to the complicated effect of component densities on the aerosol processes. The methods developed and the insights gained will also be helpful in future research on the challenges associated with the description of fission product and aerosol releases.

  5. Development of a minicomputer system for on-line processing of gamma--gamma coincidence events and measurements of E2/M1 mixing ratios in 110Cd and 134Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.D.

    1977-12-01

    A megachannel pulse-height analysis system using a 32,000-word PDP-8/E minicomputer and two moving-head disk memories was developed. The system has a storage capacity of 2 18 events at any of 2 20 data locations, is capable of processing 1,040 events/s, and provides on-line sorting and disk storage. An X- or Y- pulse-height spectrum in coincidence with one to four arithmetically combined pulse-height windows can be assembled in core for scope display and spectral analysis within 2 to 20 seconds. The software for the system was written extensively in machine language. Excellent energy and timing resolution were achieved. An energy resolution of 2.3 keV fwhm and a timing resolution of 8.5 ns fwhm were obtained for 60 Co at a singles rate of 10,000 counts/s. The prompt timing peak remained Gaussian down to the fwtm by gating the TAC with SCAs which discriminated against low-energy events. The coincidence electronics also allowed on-line subtraction of accidental coincidence events. Alignment of the detectors and tests of the system's performance were made by measuring solid-angle correction factors for the Ge(Li) detectors through the correlation measurements of the 0 + --2 + --0 + cascade in 106 Pd, and by measuring the angular spread of positron annihilation radiation coincidences. Results were in excellent agreement with theoretical solid-angle correction factors calculated for the detector and source sizes used. Directional correlation data were obtained for gamma-ray cascades in 134 Ba and 110 Cd. Analyses of these data gave E2/M1 mixing ratios which are in excellent agreement with results obtained by other investigators. The improved resolution and data processing capabilities of this system gave new results for the 563-keV transition in 134 Ba and the 1505-keV transition in 110 Cd. E2/M1 mixing ratios of 13.3/sup +2.3/sub -1.8/ for the 563-keV transition and -1.24 +- 0.20 for the 1505-keV transition were measured

  6. On-line data display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sherman Y. T.; Brooks, Martin; Gauthier, Marc; Wein, Marceli

    1993-05-01

    A data display system for embedded realtime systems has been developed for use as an operator's user interface and debugging tool. The motivation for development of the On-Line Data Display (ODD) have come from several sources. In particular the design reflects the needs of researchers developing an experimental mobile robot within our laboratory. A proliferation of specialized user interfaces revealed a need for a flexible communications and graphical data display system. At the same time the system had to be readily extensible for arbitrary graphical display formats which would be required for data visualization needs of the researchers. The system defines a communication protocol transmitting 'datagrams' between tasks executing on the realtime system and virtual devices displaying the data in a meaningful way on a graphical workstation. The communication protocol multiplexes logical channels on a single data stream. The current implementation consists of a server for the Harmony realtime operating system and an application written for the Macintosh computer. Flexibility requirements resulted in a highly modular server design, and a layered modular object- oriented design for the Macintosh part of the system. Users assign data types to specific channels at run time. Then devices are instantiated by the user and connected to channels to receive datagrams. The current suite of device types do not provide enough functionality for most users' specialized needs. Instead the system design allows the creation of new device types with modest programming effort. The protocol, design and use of the system are discussed.

  7. Spectral BRDF measurements of metallic samples for laser processing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitali, L; Fustinoni, D; Gramazio, P; Niro, A

    2015-01-01

    The spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of metals plays an important role in industrial processing involving laser-surface interaction. In particular, in laser metal machining, absorbance is strongly dependent on the radiation incidence angle as well as on finishing and contamination grade of the surface, and in turn it can considerably affect processing results. Very recently, laser radiation is also used to structure metallic surfaces, in order to produce many particular optical effects, ranging from a high level polishing to angular color shifting. Of course, full knowledge of the spectral BRDF of these structured layers makes it possible to infer reflectance or color for any irradiation and viewing angles. In this paper, we present Vis-NIR spectral BRDF measurements of laser-polished metallic, opaque, flat samples commonly employed in such applications. The resulting optical properties seem to be dependent on the atmospheric composition during the polishing process in addition to the roughness. The measurements are carried out with a Perkin Elmer Lambda 950 double-beam spectrophotometer, equipped with the Absolute Reflectance/Transmittance Analyzer (ARTA) motorized goniometer. (paper)

  8. On-line neutron activation analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flahaut, V.; Colmon, A.

    1999-01-01

    A neutronic analyser has been designed to determine the composition of the flow of raw materials entering a cement factory on the conveyor belt. This new system gives a reliable analysis of the whole cargo that outdates the sampling or the usual surface analysis based on fluorescence spectrometry. The accuracy is about 1%.The neutrons interact with the materials on an average depth of 25 cm and are absorbed by nuclei, these nuclei produce photons whose energy is characteristic of the chemical element itself. The composition can be deduced by measuring the number of photons emitted and their energy. The analysis is made on-line and can concern the search for about 10 compounds. In the case of cement the list of compounds is: SiO 2 , CaO, Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , MgO, Na 2 O, TiO 2 , S, Mn 2 O 3 , K 2 O, and H 2 O. The neutron generator involves a deuterium ion source whose deuterium ions are accelerated by means of an electrical field and impinge on a tritiated target, the nuclear reactions between deuterium and tritium produce 14 MeV neutrons. This neutron analysing technique can be adapted to any need of on-line composition determination. (A.C.)

  9. Solubility of airborne uranium samples from uranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchik, T.; Oved, S.; Sarah, R.; Gonen, R.; Paz-Tal, O.; Pelled, O.; German, U.; Tshuva, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: During the production and machining processes of uranium metal, aerosols might be released to the air. Inhalation of these aerosols is the main route of internal exposure of workers. To assess the radiation dose from the intake of these uranium compounds it is necessary to know their absorption type, based on their dissolution rate in extracellular aqueous environment of lung fluid. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has assigned UF4 and U03 to absorption type M (blood absorption which contains a 10 % fraction with an absorption rate of 10 minutes and 90 % fraction with an absorption rate of 140 fays) and UO2 and U3O8 to absorption type S (blood absorption rate with a half-time of 7000 days) in the ICRP-66 model.The solubility classification of uranium compounds defined by the ICRP can serve as a general guidance. At specific workplaces, differences can be encountered, because of differences in compounds production process and the presence of additional compounds, with different solubility characteristics. According to ICRP recommendations, material-specific rates of absorption should be preferred to default parameters whenever specific experimental data exists. Solubility profiles of uranium aerosols were determined by performing in vitro chemical solubility tests on air samples taken from uranium production and machining facilities. The dissolution rate was determined over 100 days in a simultant solution of the extracellular airway lining fluid. The filter sample was immersed in a test vial holding 60 ml of simultant fluid, which was maintained at a 37 o C inside a thermostatic bath and at a physiological pH of 7.2-7.6. The test vials with the solution were shaken to simulate the conditions inside the extracellular aqueous environment of the lung as much as possible. The tests indicated that the uranium aerosols samples taken from the metal production and machining facilities at the Nuclear Research Center Negev (NRCN

  10. Focusing and non-focusing modulation strategies for the improvement of on-line two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography × reversed phase profiling of complex food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Lidia; Ibáñez, Elena; Russo, Mariateresa; Rastrelli, Luca; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Herrero, Miguel

    2017-09-08

    Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC × LC) is ever gaining interest in food analysis, as often, food-related samples are too complex to be analyzed through one-dimensional approaches. The use of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) combined with reversed phase (RP) separations has already been demonstrated as a very orthogonal combination, which allows attaining increased resolving power. However, this coupling encompasses different analytical challenges, mainly related to the important solvent strength mismatch between the two dimensions, besides those common to every LC × LC method. In the present contribution, different strategies are proposed and compared to further increase HILIC × RP method performance for the analysis of complex food samples, using licorice as a model sample. The influence of different parameters in non-focusing modulation methods based on sampling loops, as well as under focusing modulation, through the use of trapping columns in the interface and through active modulation procedures are studied in order to produce resolving power and sensitivity gains. Although the use of a dilution strategy using sampling loops as well as the highest possible first dimension sampling rate allowed significant improvements on resolution, focusing modulation produced significant gains also in peak capacity and sensitivity. Overall, the obtained results demonstrate the great applicability and potential that active modulation may have for the analysis of complex food samples, such as licorice, by HILIC × RP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Automated force volume image processing for biological samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Polyakov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM has now become a powerful technique for investigating on a molecular level, surface forces, nanomechanical properties of deformable particles, biomolecular interactions, kinetics, and dynamic processes. This paper specifically focuses on the analysis of AFM force curves collected on biological systems, in particular, bacteria. The goal is to provide fully automated tools to achieve theoretical interpretation of force curves on the basis of adequate, available physical models. In this respect, we propose two algorithms, one for the processing of approach force curves and another for the quantitative analysis of retraction force curves. In the former, electrostatic interactions prior to contact between AFM probe and bacterium are accounted for and mechanical interactions operating after contact are described in terms of Hertz-Hooke formalism. Retraction force curves are analyzed on the basis of the Freely Jointed Chain model. For both algorithms, the quantitative reconstruction of force curves is based on the robust detection of critical points (jumps, changes of slope or changes of curvature which mark the transitions between the various relevant interactions taking place between the AFM tip and the studied sample during approach and retraction. Once the key regions of separation distance and indentation are detected, the physical parameters describing the relevant interactions operating in these regions are extracted making use of regression procedure for fitting experiments to theory. The flexibility, accuracy and strength of the algorithms are illustrated with the processing of two force-volume images, which collect a large set of approach and retraction curves measured on a single biological surface. For each force-volume image, several maps are generated, representing the spatial distribution of the searched physical parameters as estimated for each pixel of the force-volume image.

  12. Application of 241Am EDXRF to the determination of rare earth samples of solvent extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Chunhua; Jia Jiangtao; Liao Chunsheng; Li Biaoguo

    1998-01-01

    A rapid energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) analysis system is established to determine rare earth concentrations. The characteristic K-shell series X-rays of rare earths were excited by a 1.1 x 10 9 Bq 241 Am radioisotope source. The spectra were recorded and analyzed using a multi-channel analyzer, employing a high-purity Ge detector. In this method, the Compton scattering peak, absorption of elements, and specific simplification are considered. Samples of light, middle and heavy rare earths during separation processes in both hydrochloride solution and rare earth loaded organic phases were analyzed off-line. Some comparative results measured by ICP are also given. The results show that the method can be used for a wide range of rare earth concentrations (0.1-300 g l -1 rare earth oxide). Being rapid, effective, precise and non-destructive, the method can be applied to on-line analysis to determine rare earth concentrations during separation by solvent extraction. (orig.)

  13. Microfabricated Devices for Sample Extraction, Concentrations, and Related Sample Processing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-12-01

    This is an invited book chapter. As with other analytical techniques, sample pretreatments, sample extraction, sample introduction, and related techniques are of extreme importance for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Bio-MEMS devices and systems start with a sampling step. The biological sample then usually undergoes some kinds of sample preparation steps before the actual analysis. These steps may involve extracting the target sample from its matrix, removing interferences from the sample, derivatizing the sample to detectable species, or performing a sample preconcentration step. The integration of the components for sample pretreatment into microfluidic devices represents one of the remaining the bottle-neck towards achieving true miniaturized total analysis systems (?TAS). This chapter provides a thorough state-of-art of the developments in this field to date.

  14. High rate spectroscopy for on-line nuclear coal analyzer (Nucoalyzer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuaid, J.H.; Brown, D.R.; Gozani, T.; Bozorgmanesh, H.

    1980-01-01

    A high count rate, time-variant Ge(Li) spectrometer has been developed for on-line coal analysis. The analyzer is being fabricated for use in a power generating station. Prompt neutron activation of coal samples is the basis of analysis, with 252 Cf as the source for irradiation. The spectroscopy system allows counting rates up to 150 k counts per second without significant loss in energy resolution or peak shape. The high data throughput allows the coal analyzer to be used for on-line process control. The coal analyzer will be discussed, with emphasis on the high-rate signal processing system. Results of analysis of coal samples will be presented

  15. Automated sequential injection-microcolumn approach with on-line flame atomic absorption spectrometric detection for implementing metal fractionation schemes of homogeneous and non-homogeneous solid samples of environmental interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomchoei, Roongrat; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2005-01-01

    spectrometric detection and used for the determination of Cu as a model analyte, the potentials of this novel hyphenated approach are demonstrated by the ability of handling up to 300 mg sample of a nonhomogeneous sewage amended soil (viz., CRM 483). The three steps of the endorsed Standards, Measurements...

  16. Hyphenating multisyringe flow injection lab-on-valve analysis with atomic fluorescence spectrometry for on-line bead-injection preconcentration and determination of trace levels of hydride-forming elements in environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2006-01-01

    the determination of ultratrace level concentrations of total inorganic arsenic in freshwater. Employing quantitative preoxidation of As(III) to As(V) in the samples by means of permanganate, the method involves the preconcentration of arsenate at pH 10 on a renewable anion exchanger, namely Q-Sepharose, packed...

  17. Sample vial inserts: A better approach for sampling heterogeneous slurry samples in the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.; Goode, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    A convenient and effective new approach for analyzing DWPF samples involves the use of inserts with volumes of 1.5--3 ml placed in the neck of 14 ml sample vials. The inserts have rims that conform to the rim of the vials so that they sit straight and stable in the vial. The DWPF tank sampling system fills the pre-weighed insert rather than the entire vial, so the vial functions only as the insert holder. The shielded cell operator then removes the vial cap and decants the insert containing the sample into a plastic bottle, crucible, etc., for analysis. Inert materials such as Teflon, plastic, and zirconium are used for the insert so it is unnecessary to separate the insert from the sample for most analyses. The key technique advantage of using inserts to take DWPF samples versus filling sample vials is that it provides a convenient and almost foolproof way of obtaining and handling small volumes of slurry samples in a shielded cell without corrupting the sample. Since the insert allows the entire sample to be analyzed, this approach eliminates the errors inherent with subsampling heterogeneous slurries that comprise DWPF samples. Slurry samples can then be analyzed with confidence. Analysis times are dramatically reduced by eliminating the drying and vitrification steps normally used to produce a homogeneous solid sample. Direct dissolution and elemental analysis of slurry samples are achieved in 8 hours or less compared with 40 hours for analysis of vitrified slurry samples. Comparison of samples taken in inserts versus full vials indicate that the insert does not significantly affect sample composition

  18. On line protection systems for induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, I.; Celik, H.; Sefa, I.; Demirbas, S.

    2005-01-01

    Protection of induction motors is very important since they are widely used in industry for many applications due to their high robustness, reliability, low cost and maintenance, high efficiency and long service life. So, protecting these motors is crucial for operations. This paper presents a combined protection approach for induction motors. To achieve this, the electrical values of the induction motor were measured with sensitivity ±1% through a data acquisition card and processed with software developed in Visual C++. An on line protection system for induction motors was achieved easily and effectively. The experimental results have shown that the induction motor was protected against the possible problems faced during the operation. The software developed for this protection provides flexible and reliable media for operators and their motors. It is expected that the motor protection achieved in this study might be faster than the classical techniques and also may be applied to larger motors easily after small modifications of the software

  19. Automated processing of whole blood samples for the determination of immunosuppressants by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeser, Michael; Spöhrer, Ute

    2006-01-01

    Liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is an efficient technology for routine determination of immunosuppressants in whole blood; however, time-consuming manual sample preparation remains a significant limitation of this technique. Using a commercially available robotic pipetting system (Tecan Freedom EVO), we developed an automated sample-preparation protocol for quantification of tacrolimus in whole blood by LC-MS/MS. Barcode reading, sample resuspension, transfer of whole blood aliquots into a deep-well plate, addition of internal standard solution, mixing, and protein precipitation by addition of an organic solvent is performed by the robotic system. After centrifugation of the plate, the deproteinized supernatants are submitted to on-line solid phase extraction, using column switching prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. The only manual actions within the entire process are decapping of the tubes, and transfer of the deep-well plate from the robotic system to a centrifuge and finally to the HPLC autosampler. Whole blood pools were used to assess the reproducibility of the entire analytical system for measuring tacrolimus concentrations. A total coefficient of variation of 1.7% was found for the entire automated analytical process (n=40; mean tacrolimus concentration, 5.3 microg/L). Close agreement between tacrolimus results obtained after manual and automated sample preparation was observed. The analytical system described here, comprising automated protein precipitation, on-line solid phase extraction and LC-MS/MS analysis, is convenient and precise, and minimizes hands-on time and the risk of mistakes in the quantification of whole blood immunosuppressant concentrations compared to conventional methods.

  20. THE SAMPLING PROCESS IN THE FINANCIAL AUDIT .TECHNICAL PRACTICE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardos Vasile-Daniel

    2014-12-01

    “Audit sampling” (sampling assumes appliancing audit procedures for less than 100% of the elements within an account or a trasaction class balance, such that all the samples will be selected. This will allow the auditor to obtain and to evaluate the audit evidence on some features for the selected elements, in purpose to assist or to express a conclusion regardind the population within the sample was extracted. The sampling in audit can use both a statistical or a non-statistical approach. (THE AUDIT INTERNATIONAl STANDARD 530 –THE SAMPLING IN AUDIT AND OTHER SELECTIVE TESTING PROCEDURES

  1. THE SAMPLING PROCESS IN THE FINANCIAL AUDIT .TECHNICAL PRACTICE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIGORE MARIAN

    2014-07-01

    “Audit sampling” (sampling assumes appliancing audit procedures for less than 100% of the elements within an account or a trasaction class balance, such that all the samples will be selected. This will allow the auditor to obtain and to evaluate the audit evidence on some features for the selected elements, in purpose to assist or to express a conclusion regardind the population within the sample was extracted. The sampling in audit can use both a statistical or a non-statistical approach. (THE AUDIT INTERNATIONAl STANDARD 530 –THE SAMPLING IN AUDIT AND OTHER SELECTIVE TESTING PROCEDURES

  2. Semi-continuous on-line uranium ore analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.; Gurdy, E.M.; Hatchowski, L.

    1984-01-01

    The efficient process control of a uranium mill and its associated mining operation requires a nearly continuous knowledge of the uranium concentration in the ore. Generally, the approach is to use laboratory assays of grab samples from the mill feed belt. In some cases, elaborate and expensive systems have been used to ensure random sampling, but even with these systems, mass-balance discrepancies still exist. There is a requirement for an on-line instrument that can give a prompt, accurate analysis of a large portion of the feed stock. The authors have recently evaluated a laboratory system that achieves these goals using neutron activation and delayed neutron counting. The development of the on-line uranium ore analyzer is a consequence of previous work done at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE) (Campbell et al., 1978 and 1981), and is based on the emission of delayed neutrons after the neutron irradiation of fissionable materials. The mechanism of delayed neutron emission has been described (Keepin, 1965), but briefly is as follows. The fission fragments resulting from irradiation are in an excited state. Certain of these delayed fission products, precursors, decay to a more stable state by the emission of a delayed neutron. The delayed neutrons can be divided into six groups with effective half-lives ranging from 0.2-55 sec. It is important to note that more than 50% of the delayed neutrons are emitted within the first 6 sec after irradiation; this has an influence on the design of the analysis instrument

  3. The rationalization of desulfurization by on-line analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Y; Kohmura, S; Taketomi, H; Matsumura, S; Sasaki, Y

    1986-01-01

    Nippon Kokan uses the Takahax and Sulfiban processes for the desulfurization of coke oven gas. The authors outline the Sulfiban Process and describe a recently developed system for the on-line determination of H/sub 2/S in coke oven gas, and of CO/sub 2/ and monoethanolamine (MEA) in the wash oil. This new on-line analysis system has proved effective in rationalizing the Sulfiban Process via lower MEA production costs and decreased power consumption. The introduction of a computerized control system is now being studied. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. On-line nuclear analysis of coal (Nucoalyzer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.R.; Gozani, T.; Bozorgmanesh, H.

    1980-01-01

    Control of quality in the coal process stream is increasingly important in both coal preparation facilities and coal fire power plants. Traditional wet chemistry methods of monitoring coal composition are incapable of providing anything approaching real-time analysis of coal. Typically, small samples of the coal stream are laboratory analyzed and the results made available between a day to a week later. By this time the coal is through the process stream, often already burned and no control is possible. The need of real-time analysis of bulk quantities of the coal has long been recognized and this need motivated Science Applications, Inc. to develop, since 1975, a continuous on-line nuclear analyzer of coal (or CONAC). Over the last three years a prototype of this instrument has undergone extensive testing using 200 pound bulk samples of a wide variety of US coal types. The Nucoalyzer has proven capable of measuring the abundances of all the important elemental constituents of coal along with the ash and calorific value. In the past year the first instrument has been installed and undergone testing at Detroit Edison's Monroe Coal blending facility, where it will control the blending of high and low sulfur coal to meet EPA emission regulations

  5. Plasmodium species differentiation by non-expert on-line volunteers for remote malaria field diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Ruiz, Alejandra; Postigo, María; Gil-Casanova, Sara; Cuadrado, Daniel; Bautista, José M; Rubio, José Miguel; Luengo-Oroz, Miguel; Linares, María

    2018-01-30

    Routine field diagnosis of malaria is a considerable challenge in rural and low resources endemic areas mainly due to lack of personnel, training and sample processing capacity. In addition, differential diagnosis of Plasmodium species has a high level of misdiagnosis. Real time remote microscopical diagnosis through on-line crowdsourcing platforms could be converted into an agile network to support diagnosis-based treatment and malaria control in low resources areas. This study explores whether accurate Plasmodium species identification-a critical step during the diagnosis protocol in order to choose the appropriate medication-is possible through the information provided by non-trained on-line volunteers. 88 volunteers have performed a series of questionnaires over 110 images to differentiate species (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium knowlesi) and parasite staging from thin blood smear images digitalized with a smartphone camera adapted to the ocular of a conventional light microscope. Visual cues evaluated in the surveys include texture and colour, parasite shape and red blood size. On-line volunteers are able to discriminate Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. knowlesi) and stages in thin-blood smears according to visual cues observed on digitalized images of parasitized red blood cells. Friendly textual descriptions of the visual cues and specialized malaria terminology is key for volunteers learning and efficiency. On-line volunteers with short-training are able to differentiate malaria parasite species and parasite stages from digitalized thin smears based on simple visual cues (shape, size, texture and colour). While the accuracy of a single on-line expert is far from perfect, a single parasite classification obtained by combining the opinions of multiple on-line volunteers over the same smear, could improve accuracy and reliability of Plasmodium species

  6. On-Line Algorithms and Reverse Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Seth

    In this thesis, we classify the reverse-mathematical strength of sequential problems. If we are given a problem P of the form ∀X(alpha(X) → ∃Zbeta(X,Z)) then the corresponding sequential problem, SeqP, asserts the existence of infinitely many solutions to P: ∀X(∀nalpha(Xn) → ∃Z∀nbeta(X n,Zn)). P is typically provable in RCA0 if all objects involved are finite. SeqP, however, is only guaranteed to be provable in ACA0. In this thesis we exactly characterize which sequential problems are equivalent to RCA0, WKL0, or ACA0.. We say that a problem P is solvable by an on-line algorithm if P can be solved according to a two-player game, played by Alice and Bob, in which Bob has a winning strategy. Bob wins the game if Alice's sequence of plays 〈a0, ..., ak〉 and Bob's sequence of responses 〈 b0, ..., bk〉 constitute a solution to P. Formally, an on-line algorithm A is a function that inputs an admissible sequence of plays 〈a 0, b0, ..., aj〉 and outputs a new play bj for Bob. (This differs from the typical definition of "algorithm", though quite often a concrete set of instructions can be easily deduced from A.). We show that SeqP is provable in RCA0 precisely when P is solvable by an on-line algorithm. Schmerl proved this result specifically for the graph coloring problem; we generalize Schmerl's result to any problem that is on-line solvable. To prove our separation, we introduce a principle called Predictk(r) that is equivalent to -WKL0 for standard k, r.. We show that WKL0 is sufficient to prove SeqP precisely when P has a solvable closed kernel. This means that a solution exists, and each initial segment of this solution is a solution to the corresponding initial segment of the problem. (Certain bounding conditions are necessary as well.) If no such solution exists, then SeqP is equivalent to ACA0 over RCA 0 + ISigma02; RCA0 alone suffices if only sequences of standard length are considered. We use different techniques from Schmerl to prove

  7. On-line monitoring of monoclonal antibody formation in high density perfusion culture using FIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenge, C; Fraune, E; Freitag, R; Scheper, T; Schügerl, K

    1991-05-01

    An automated flow injection system for on-line analysis of proteins in real fermentation fluids was developed by combining the principles of stopped-flow, merging zones flow injection analysis (FIA) with antigen-antibody reactions. IgG in the sample reacted with its corresponding antibody (a-IgG) in the reagent solution. Formation of insoluble immunocomplexes resulted in an increase of the turbidity which was determined photometrically. This system was used to monitor monoclonal antibody production in high cell density perfusion culture of hybridoma cells. Perfusion was performed with a newly developed static filtration unit equipped with hydrophilic microporous tubular membranes. Different sampling devices were tested to obtain a cell-free sample stream for on-line product analysis of high molecular weight (e.g., monoclonal antibodies) and low molecular weight (e.g., glucose, lactate) medium components. In fermentation fluids a good correlation (coefficient: 0.996) between the FIA method and an ELISA test was demonstrated. In a high density perfusion cultivation process mAb formation was successfully monitored on-line over a period of 400 h using a reliable sampling system. Glucose and lactate were measured over the same period of time using a commercially available automatic analyser based on immobilized enzyme technology.

  8. Development of sampling systems and special analyses for pressurized gasification processes; Paineistettujen kaasutusprosessien naeytteenottomenetelmien ja erityisanalytiikan kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staahlberg, P.; Oesch, P.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Moilanen, A.; Nieminen, M.; Korhonen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The reliability of sampling methods used for measuring impurities contained in gasification gas were studied, and new methods were developed for sampling and sample analyses. The aim of the method development was to improve the representativeness of the samples and to speed up the analysis of gas composition. The study focused on tar, nitrogen and sulphur compounds contained in the gasification gas. In the study of the sampling reliability, the effects of probe and sampling line materials suitable for high temperatures and of the solids deposited in the sampling devices on gas samples drawn from the process were studied. Measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 250 - 850 deg C both in real conditions and in conditions simulating gasification gas. The durability of samples during storage was also studied. The other main aim of the study was to increase the amount of quick-measurable gas components by developing on-line analytical methods based on GC, FTIR and FI (flow injection) techniques for the measurements of nitrogen and sulphur compounds in gasification gas. As these methods are suitable only for the gases that do not contain condensing gas components disturbing the operation of analysers (heavy tar compounds, water), a sampling system operating in dilution principle was developed. The system operates at high pressures and temperatures and is suitable for gasification gases containing heavy tar compounds. The capabilities of analysing heavy tar compounds (mole weight >200 g mol) was improved by adding the amount of compounds identified and calibrated by model substances and by developing analytical methods based on the high-temperature-GC analysis and the thermogravimetric method. (author)

  9. sampling plans for monitoring quality control process at a plastic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    AT A PLASTIC MANUFACTURING FIRM IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY. By. E.A. Onyeagoro ... manufacture similar products, so that each company ... monitoring of production to maintain process ... concept of designing quality into product, with.

  10. Approaches for on-line coupling of extraction and chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyoetylaeinen, Tuulia; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, 00014, Helsinki (Finland)

    2004-04-01

    This review provides an overview of the approaches available in order to perform on-line coupling of various extraction techniques with liquid and gas chromatography, for the analysis of semivolatile and nonvolatile analytes in liquid and solid samples. The main focus is on the instrumental set-up of these techniques. Selected real applications are described by way of illustration. The extraction methods suitable for on-line coupling covered in this review are: liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, membrane-based techniques, pressurised liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and microwave- and sonication-assisted extractions. The following systems are not covered in this review: on-line coupled solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography, purge-and-trap-GC, and membrane extraction with a sorbent interface-GC. (orig.)

  11. Embedding the Finite Sampling Process at a Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Shorack, Galen R.

    1991-01-01

    A huge body of if and only if theorems can be obtained based on certain strong embedding theorems for the partial sum process $\\mathbb{S}_n$ and the uniform empirical and quantile processes $\\mathbb{U}_n$ and $\\mathbb{V}_n$. This embedding was accomplished in 1986 by M. Csorgo, S. Csorgo, L. Horvath and D. Mason. Their embedding is beautifully formulated so that many necessary and sufficient type results can be established using it. It is worthwhile to have an accessible proof. Indeed, these ...

  12. Learning process mapping heuristics under stochastic sampling overheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieumwananonthachai, Arthur; Wah, Benjamin W.

    1991-01-01

    A statistical method was developed previously for improving process mapping heuristics. The method systematically explores the space of possible heuristics under a specified time constraint. Its goal is to get the best possible heuristics while trading between the solution quality of the process mapping heuristics and their execution time. The statistical selection method is extended to take into consideration the variations in the amount of time used to evaluate heuristics on a problem instance. The improvement in performance is presented using the more realistic assumption along with some methods that alleviate the additional complexity.

  13. On-Line Impact Load Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Sekuła

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The so-called Adaptive Impact Absorption (AIA is a research area of safety engineering devoted to problems of shock absorption in various unpredictable scenarios of collisions. It makes use of smart technologies (systems equipped with sensors, controllable dissipaters and specialised tools for signal processing. Examples of engineering applications for AIA systems are protective road barriers, automotive bumpers or adaptive landing gears. One of the most challenging problems for AIA systems is on-line identification of impact loads, which is crucial for introducing the optimum real-time strategy of adaptive impact absorption. This paper presents the concept of an impactometer and develops the methodology able to perform real-time impact load identification. Considered dynamic excitation is generated by a mass M1 impacting with initial velocity V0. An analytical formulation of the problem, supported with numerical simulations and experimental verifications is presented. Two identification algorithms based on measured response of the impacted structure are proposed and discussed. Finally, a concept of the AIA device utilizing the idea of impactometer is briefly presented.

  14. Communication Barriers in Quality Process: Sakarya University Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Mehmet Ali

    2012-01-01

    Communication has an important role in life and especially in education. Nowadays, lots of people generally use technology for communication. When technology uses in education and other activities, there may be some communication barriers. And also, quality process has an important role in higher education institutes. If a higher education…

  15. Sampling Plans for Monitoring Quality Control Process at a Plastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the problem of high quality cost at a medium –sized firm manufacturing various types and sizes of plastic container, using a real life data. In pursuance of their quality objectives, the company established a policy that dictates and expensive and time-consuming post-manufacturing process. While the ...

  16. Shawnee Mission's On-Line Cataloging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wasby Miller

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available An on-line cataloging pilot project for two elementary schools is discussed. The system components are 2740 terminals, upper-lower-case input, IBM's FASTER generalized software package, and usual cards/labels output. Reasons for choosing FASTER, software and hardware features, operating procedures, system performance and costs are detailed. Future expansion to cataloging 100,000 annual K-12 acquisitions, on-line circulation, retrospective conversion, and union book catalogs is set forth.

  17. Gap processing for adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2013-10-17

    In this article, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii. First, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets. This analysis is the basis for maximal and adaptive sampling in Euclidean space and on manifolds. Second, we propose efficient algorithms and data structures to detect gaps and update gaps when disks are inserted, deleted, moved, or when their radii are changed.We build on the concepts of regular triangulations and the power diagram. Third, we show how our analysis contributes to the state-of-the-art in surface remeshing. © 2013 ACM.

  18. Gap processing for adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming; Wonka, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii. First, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets. This analysis is the basis for maximal and adaptive sampling in Euclidean space and on manifolds. Second, we propose efficient algorithms and data structures to detect gaps and update gaps when disks are inserted, deleted, moved, or when their radii are changed.We build on the concepts of regular triangulations and the power diagram. Third, we show how our analysis contributes to the state-of-the-art in surface remeshing. © 2013 ACM.

  19. Development of on-line heavy water analysis by vibrating probe density meter and multiple internal reflectance infrared spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, V.D.; Nora, B.

    1984-01-01

    Achieving high productivity in the Savannah River Plant nuclear reactors requires that the heavy water (D 2 O) moderator be maintained at a high purity level. Since the D 2 O purity will degrade with time, a fraction of the moderator must be continually reprocessed to remove H 2 O. This rework process uses a series of fractional distillation columns. The process control is based on laboratory analyses of process samples every four hours. The sample streams, which can range from 0.10 to 99.80 mol % D 2 O, are analyzed using infrared spectrophotometry. An automatic on-line analysis would provide tighter process control and reduce personnel exposure to the tritiated moderator. Two instruments are being evaluated for on-line control; an Anton/Parr DPR 2000 density measuring system and a General Analysis Corporation LAN-I infrared liquid stream monitor

  20. INIS retrieval service, towards on-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio; Komatsubara, Yasutoshi

    1983-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute executes the retrieval service of INIS atomic energy information by batch system in cooperation with Genshiryoku Kozaikai. This service is very popular to the users in whole Japan, but the demand of on-line service has increased recently. Therefore, it was decided to begin the INIS on-line service from January, 1984, through the on-line information retrieval system of the Japan Information Center of Science and Technology. It is expected that when the operation will be started, the utilization of INIS atomic energy information in Japan will drastically increase. Also Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has carried out the retrieval service by on-line system for those in the institute besides the batch system, accordingly, at this opportunity, the state of utilization of both systems and their distinction to use effectively, and the operation and the method of utilization of the on-line information retrieval system of JICST are explained. In the on-line system, the users are accessible to the data base themselves, and immediate information retrieval is possible, while in the batch system, the related information can be retrieved without fail, and the troublesome operation of equipment is not necessary. (Kako, I.)

  1. WMI2, the Student's On-Line Symbolic Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Zoltan

    2011-01-01

    Student activities focused on discovering mathematics play an important role in the teaching and learning process. WebMathematics Interactive (WMI2) was developed to offer a fast and user-friendly on-line web interface to enhance the quality of both theoretical and applied mathematics courses. For the teacher, in the classroom, it provides…

  2. The User-friendly On-Line Diffusion Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Aviles Acosta, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The On-Line Diffusion Chamber is a stand-alone apparatus built to carry out short-live radiotracer diffusion studies. The availability of the on-demand production of isotopes in the ISOLDE facility, and the design of the apparatus to streamline the implantation process, annealing treatment, ion gun ablation with a tape transport system, and radiation intensity measurement with a Ge gamma detector all in the same apparatus, gives the On-Line Diffusion Chamber a unique ability to studies with short-lived radioisotopes or isomer states that are not possible in any other facility in the world.

  3. On-line maintenance PSA support at NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosen, R.; Vrbanic, I.; Kastelan, M.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997 Krsko NPP initiated the on-line maintenance (OLM) practice. On-line maintenance constitutes of corrective activities, preventive activities, surveillance activities, tests and inspections, as well as calibrations and modifications, taking place during the normal power operations. The on-line maintenance is a multidisciplinary process consisting of activity specification, planning, and preparation and performing of the OLM activity of interest. The primary role of the PSA group is to assess from the r isk perspective , using the plant-specific NEK PSA model, system unavailability and the impact to the plant operational risk. The intent is to support planning of the on-line maintenance activities from the risk perspective. The risk evaluation of the OLM activities is based on the probability of core damage evaluation for the defined discrete plant configuration states, determined by the OLM activities. Within this application, the optimized, plant-specific PSA model is used on Risk Spectrum platform. To perform the risk assessment of the on-line maintenance activities, first the systems to be affected are defined based on the planned OLM activities. The next important step is the assessment of the planned work schedule. To define the final schedule, the co-ordination and optimizing the planned OLM activities needs activation of all participating departments, supported also from PSA group. The P3 (i.e. Primavera) planning tool system windows are defined for different systems and groups of systems, and the activities are sorted in particular weeks according to these windows. (author)

  4. OLDASS: On-line data acquisition system at SF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omata, Kazuo; Yasue, Masaharu; Hamagaki, Hideki

    1982-01-01

    The on-line data acquisition system in the Institute for Nuclear Study, the University of Tokyo, is composed of 2 systems of Fujitsu mini-computer PFU-400 for data processing at the high energy synchrotron and one system of that computer for low energy cyclotron as terminals, the host computer being M 180 II AD of the same company. This system has been developed to have the features of being the on-line system capable of following the improvement of host computer performance, being capable of developing the on-line programmes of other experimenting groups in parallel with batch jobs or the operation of the on-line system, and capable of developing programmes using FORTRAN. The result of about 220 KB/s was obtained for the data transfer rate between the programmes of the host computer and terminals, and this fulfilled the aimed performance. The terminal system on the low energy side is provided with an ADC interface and a display interface specified particularly in addition to the miniature computer PFU400 and standard I/O devices of the manufacture. The accumulating type graphic display of the I/O devices can be switched to be connected to the host computer, and immediately displays the results transferred to the host computer and analyzed. Hard copy is also available. The above hardware and software are explained. The on-line system insures 80 K bytes of the total memory of 224 K bytes for data area. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. The sample ACF of a simple bilinear process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basrak, B; Davis, RA; Mikosch, T

    1999-01-01

    We consider a simple bilinear process X-t = aX(t-1) + bX(t-1)Z(t-1) +Z(t), where (Z(t)) is a sequence of iid N(0, 1) random variables. It follows from a result by Kesten (1973, Acta Math. 131, 207-248) that X-t has a distribution with regularly varying tails of index alpha > 0 provided the equation

  6. Strengthening weak ties through on-line gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana Virginia; Kirchner, Kathrin

    On-line gaming became widespread in the last couple of years. The aim of the research presented in the paper is to figure out to what extent does game playing helps to strengthen weak ties and what additional factors influence this process. The approach is rather exploratory – some factors...... are grounded in theory, some are new. These factors are age, gender, place of origin, number of their Facebook connections (friends in Facebook terminology), the amount of time they are on Facebook, the amount of time they keep the Facebook site open, the amount of time they play on-line games, and the reasons...... for starting to play on-line games. Regarding the latter, we chose to focus only on escapist reasons....

  7. Immunosuppressant therapeutic drug monitoring by LC-MS/MS: workflow optimization through automated processing of whole blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Mariela; Artusi, Carlo; Brugnolo, Laura; Antonelli, Giorgia; Zaninotto, Martina; Plebani, Mario

    2013-11-01

    Although, due to its high specificity and sensitivity, LC-MS/MS is an efficient technique for the routine determination of immunosuppressants in whole blood, it involves time-consuming manual sample preparation. The aim of the present study was therefore to develop an automated sample-preparation protocol for the quantification of sirolimus, everolimus and tacrolimus by LC-MS/MS using a liquid handling platform. Six-level commercially available blood calibrators were used for assay development, while four quality control materials and three blood samples from patients under immunosuppressant treatment were employed for the evaluation of imprecision. Barcode reading, sample re-suspension, transfer of whole blood samples into 96-well plates, addition of internal standard solution, mixing, and protein precipitation were performed with a liquid handling platform. After plate filtration, the deproteinised supernatants were submitted for SPE on-line. The only manual steps in the entire process were de-capping of the tubes, and transfer of the well plates to the HPLC autosampler. Calibration curves were linear throughout the selected ranges. The imprecision and accuracy data for all analytes were highly satisfactory. The agreement between the results obtained with manual and those obtained with automated sample preparation was optimal (n=390, r=0.96). In daily routine (100 patient samples) the typical overall total turnaround time was less than 6h. Our findings indicate that the proposed analytical system is suitable for routine analysis, since it is straightforward and precise. Furthermore, it incurs less manual workload and less risk of error in the quantification of whole blood immunosuppressant concentrations than conventional methods. © 2013.

  8. On-line analysis of water contamination by organic compounds; On-line-Analytik der Wasserverschmutzung durch organische Substanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagt, R. van der; Vos, F. de [Skalar Analytical (Netherlands); Babichenko, S.; Poryvkina, L. [Institute of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1999-08-01

    In many environmental applications decomposing the mixture of substances in the water into its various chemical ingredients, for subsequent analysis, is a very complicated task. The most productive approach to on-line diagnosis is to treat the object as an integral spectroscopic sample, characterized by certain specific Spectral Fluorescent Signatures (SFS). The SFS are recorded as a matrix of fluorescent intensity of organic compounds in water, in co-ordinates of excitation and emission spectra, providing a three-dimensional spectrum. Spectral windows of SFS are defined by fluorescent characteristics of basic groups of organic substances in the water sample. The novel Skalar Fluo Imager, based on this principle, is intended for the analysis of organic compounds in natural, domestic, and technological waters in an on-line mode. (orig.) [German] In vielen Umweltschutzanwendungen stellt die Auftrennung eines Substanzgemisches zum Zweck der Analyse eine sehr komplizierte Aufgabe dar. Ein erfolgversprechender Ansatz fuer eine on-line-Diagnostik besteht darin, das Objekt als integrale Spektroskopieprobe zu betrachten, die durch bestimmte spezifische Spektral-Fluoreszenz-Signaturen (SFS) charakterisiert wird. Diese werden als Fluoreszenz-Intensitaets-Matrix organischer Verbindungen in Wasser dargestellt, mit Anregungs- und Emissionsspektren als weiteren Koordinaten, wodurch ein dreidimensionales Spektrum entsteht. Spektrale Fenster der SFS sind definiert als Fluoreszenzcharakteristika von Funktionsgruppen organischer Substanzen in der Wasserprobe. Der auf diesem Prinzip basierende Skalar Fluo Imager ist fuer die on-line-Analyse organischer Bestandteile in natuerlichen, Haus- und technischen Waessern gedacht. (orig.)

  9. Making the most of on-line recruiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, P

    2001-03-01

    Ninety percent of large U.S. companies are already recruiting via the Internet. By simply logging on to the Web, company recruiters can locate vast numbers of qualified candidates for jobs at every level, screen them in minutes, and contact the most promising ones immediately. The payoffs can be enormous: it costs substantially less to hire someone on-line, and the time saved is equally great. In this article, Peter Cappelli examines some of the emerging service providers and technologies--matchmakers, job boards, hiring management systems software, and applicant-screening mechanisms that test skills and record interests. He also looks at some of the strategies companies are adopting as they enter on-line labor markets. Recruiting needs to be refashioned to resemble marketing, he stresses. Accordingly, smart companies are designing Web pages, and even product ads, with potential recruits in mind. They're giving line managers authority to hire so that candidates in cyberspace aren't lost. They're building internal on-line job networks to retain talent. Integrating recruiting efforts with overall marketing campaigns, especially through coordination and identification with the company's brand, is the most important thing companies can do to ensure success in on-line hiring. Along the way, Cappelli sounds two cautionary notes. First, a human touch, not electronic contact, is vital in the last steps of a successful hiring process. Second, companies must make sure that on-line testing and hiring criteria do not discriminate against women, disabled people, workers over 40, or members of minority groups. When competition for talent is fierce, companies that master the art and science of on-line recruiting will be the ones that attract and keep the best people.

  10. On-line monitoring for calibration reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, M.

    2005-09-01

    On-Line Monitoring evaluates instrument channel performance by assessing its consistency with other plant indications. Elimination or reduction of unnecessary field calibrations can reduce associated labour costs, reduce personnel radiation exposure, and reduce the potential for calibration errors. On-line calibration monitoring is an important technique to implement a state-based maintenance approach and reduce unnecessary field calibrations. In this report we will look at how the concept is currently applied in the industry and what the arising needs are as it becomes more commonplace. We will also look at the PEANO System, a tool developed by the Halden Project to perform signal validation and on-line calibration monitoring. Some issues will be identified that are being addressed in the further development of these tools to better serve the future needs of the industry in this area. An outline for how to improve these points and which aspects should be taken into account is described in detail. (Author)

  11. On-line monitoring of low-level plutonium concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Huff, G.A.; Rebagay, T.V.

    1979-10-01

    An on-line monitor has been developed to assay plutonium in nitric acid solutions. The performance of the monitor has been assessed by a laboratory experimentation program using solutions with plutonium concentrations from 0.1 to 10 g/l. These conditions are typical of the plutonium solutions in an input stream to a plutonium-purification cycle in a reprocessing plant following uranium/plutonium partitioning. The monitoring system can be fully automated and shows great promise for detecting and quantifying plutonium in situ, thus minimizing the reliance on traditional sampling and laboratory-analysis techniques. The total concentration and isotopic abundance of plutonium are determined by measuring the absolute intensities of the low-energy gamma rays characteristics of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu nuclides by direct gamma-ray spectroscopy and computer analysis of the spectral data. The addition of a monitoring system of this type to the input stream of a plutonium-purification cycle along with other suitable monitors on the waste streams and on the product stream provides the basis for a near real-time materials control and inventory system. Results of the laboratory-evaluation program employing plutonium in solutions with isotopic compositions typical of those involved in processing light water reactor fuels are presented. The detailed design of a monitoring cell and detection system is given. The precision and accuracy of the results relative to those measured by mass spectrometry and controlled potential coulometry are also summarized

  12. On-line signal trend identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambouratzis, T.; Antonopoulos-Domis, M.

    2004-01-01

    An artificial neural network, based on the self-organizing map, is proposed for on-line signal trend identification. Trends are categorized at each incoming signal as steady-state, increasing and decreasing, while they are further classified according to characteristics such signal shape and rate of change. Tests with model-generated signals illustrate the ability of the self-organizing map to accurately and reliably perform on-line trend identification in terms of both detection and classification. The proposed methodology has been found robust to the presence of white noise

  13. On-line chemistry monitoring for the secondary side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) has developed a computerized water chemistry data acquisition and management system for nuclear plant secondary coolant systems. The Integrated Water Chemistry Monitoring System (IWCMS) provides on-line monitoring of conditions and rapid trend analysis of sampled data. So far it has been installed at GPU Three Mile Island unit 1 and at Toledo Edison Davis-Besse. The IWCMS meets the following utility needs for monitoring power plant chemistry: control of chemistry conditions to minimize corrosion and extend component/system life; continuous analysis of data from on-line detectors and grab samples; expediting of transient recovery actions with trend, alarm and evaluation capability; provision for rapid sharing of useful operational chemistry information; concentration of attention on evaluation instead of data manipulation. The system is composed of three functional parts: data acquisition hardware; PC-based computer system and customised system software. (author)

  14. Investigating on-line pornography at the University of Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Laughton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The on-line user of today has access to a vast collection of information resources. In addition, the developments in Internet and Web technologies have made it even easier for surfers to anonymously get access to on-line pornography. The purpose of this research was to investigate the extent to which access to on-line pornography at the University of Johannesburg can be managed. For the empirical part of this research 1037 questionnaires were proportionally distributed to and completed by students on all five campuses of the university. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: biographical information; university computer facility usage; university acceptable use policy; and personal experience with university computer facilities. The gender distribution for the sample was almost even, with a total of 49,4% male participants and 50,6% female, with the largest grouping of respondents (61,6% aged between 19 years and 21 years. Of the respondents, 36,7% indicated that exposure to unsolicited pornography did not bother them. When asked to what extent students should have access to pornography, 60,5% stated 'None' while 32,6% believed that 'Restricted' access should be granted for research purposes and 6,9% believed that students should be granted 'Total' access to pornography. Results from the research will be used to manage access to on-line resources at the University of Johannesburg better.

  15. On-line soft sensing in upstream bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randek, Judit; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik

    2018-02-01

    This review provides an overview and a critical discussion of novel possibilities of applying soft sensors for on-line monitoring and control of industrial bioprocesses. Focus is on bio-product formation in the upstream process but also the integration with other parts of the process is addressed. The term soft sensor is used for the combination of analytical hardware data (from sensors, analytical devices, instruments and actuators) with mathematical models that create new real-time information about the process. In particular, the review assesses these possibilities from an industrial perspective, including sensor performance, information value and production economy. The capabilities of existing analytical on-line techniques are scrutinized in view of their usefulness in soft sensor setups and in relation to typical needs in bioprocessing in general. The review concludes with specific recommendations for further development of soft sensors for the monitoring and control of upstream bioprocessing.

  16. Construction of prototype of on-line analyzer detection system for coal on belt conveyor using neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rony Djokorayono; Agus Cahyono; MP Indarzah; SG Usep; Sukandar

    2015-01-01

    The use of on-line neutron activation technique for coal analysis is proposed as an alternative method for analysis based on sampling technique. Compared to this conventional technique, the on-line neutron activation technique has much shorter time of analysis and more accurate results. The construction of detection system prototype for the on-line analyzer is described in this paper. This on-line analyzer consists of detection system, data acquisition system, and computer console. This detection system comprises several modules, i.e. NaI(Tl) scintillation detector completed with a photomultiplier tube (PMT), pre-amplifier, single channel analyzer (SCA), and analog signal transmitter and pulse counter processor. The construction processes of these four modules include the development of configuration block, lay out, and selection of electronic components. The modules have been integrated and tested. This detection system was tested using radioactive element Zn-65 having energy of 1115.5 keV and activity of 1 μCi. The test results show that the prototype of the on-line analyzer detection system has functioned as expected. (author)

  17. Well scintillation counter with automatic sample changing and data processing: an inexpensive instrument incorporating consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, R.A.; Figdor, H.C.; Keroe, E.A.; Morris, A.C. Jr.; Mutz, O.J.

    1977-01-01

    An automatic well scintillation-counting system suitable for in vitro assays with 125 I has been designed with the express purpose of allowing effective operation and maintenance in laboratories in developing countries. The system incorporates comparatively simple components, notably two consumer products: A Kodak Carousel slide projector as sample changer and a Hewlett-Packard HP-97 programmable printing calculator as system controller and data processor. The instrument can accomodate 80 counting vials of demensions 12 mm diameter x 75 mm, or 40 vials of 16 mm diameter x 100 mm. The calculator provides on-line control and data reduction with the mediation of an interface somewhat resembling that required between a scaler and a printer. Its program capacity is adequate for fairly complicated on-line operations, including, interpolation from a standard curve in logit-log space, calculation of error in hormone concentration, and termination of counting when the counting error is rediced to a prescribed fraction of the composite of other random assay errors (as stored in the calculator's memory). This system is inexpensive, robust, and capable of being operated manually if automatic accessories fail. It could be improved in several ways, particularly by providing for operation from batteries and, no doubt in the immediate future, substitution of the next generation of cheaper and more powerful calculators. The instrument may be cost-effective in any small to medium-sized laboratory. (orig.) [de

  18. SPIRES I: on-line search guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addis, L.

    1975-06-01

    SPIRES I is the first generation of the on-line Stanford Public Information Retrieval System. Designed as a prototype system, SPIRES I was later moved to the SLAC computing facility where it has been routinely available to SLAC users in the field of high-energy physics. The scope and use of the SPIRES I system are described in this manual

  19. HOPI: on-line injection optimization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMaire, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    A method of matching the beam from the 200 MeV linac to the AGS without the necessity of making emittance measurements is presented. An on-line computer program written on the PDP10 computer performs the matching by modifying independently the horizontal and vertical emittance. Experimental results show success with this method, which can be applied to any matching section

  20. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  1. Project development and commercialization of on-line analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    A project team first in the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) and since 1982 in CSIRO has developed many on-line analysis systems for the mineral and energy industries. The development of these projects has followed a common pattern of laboratory R and D, field trials, commercialisation and technology transfer. This successful pattern is illustrated using examples of the development of systems for the on-line analysis of mineral slurries, for determination of the ash content of coal on conveyors, and for determination of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in pipelines. The first two systems are licensed to Australian companies, Amdel Ltd and Mineral Control Instrumentation Ltd. Both systems are used by industry worldwide, and are the market leaders for radioisotope gauges in their application field. The third system, the multiphase flow meter, was licensed in 1997 to Kvaerner FSSL Ltd of Aberdeen. This meter has even greater potential than the other two systems for economic benefit from its used and for numbers of installations. The on-line analysis systems have been developed to increase the productivity of the Australian mineral and energy industries, and to provide economic benefit to Australia. The economic benefit sought is predominantly improved process control based on use of the instrument, rather than from its sale. Sales of instruments are significant, however, with about A$80 million from the analysis systems and their derivatives since the 1970s. Some of the issues associated with the development of the on-line analysis system are outlined

  2. General-purpose chemical analyzer for on-line analyses of radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, W.A.; Kronberg, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    An automated analyzer is being developed to perform analytical measurements on radioactive solutions on-line in a hostile environment. This General Purpose Chemical Analyzer (GPCA) samples a process stream, adds reagents, measures solution absorbances or electrode potentials, and automatically calculates the results. The use of modular components, under microprocessor control, permits a single analyzer design to carry out many types of analyses. This paper discusses the more important design criteria for the GPCA, and describes the equipment being tested in a prototype unit

  3. Development and application of model RAIA uranium on-line analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yanwu; Song Yufen; Zhu Yaokun; Cong Peiyuan; Cui Songru

    1999-01-01

    The working principle, structure, adjustment and application of model RAIA on-line analyser are reported. The performance of this instrument is reliable. For identical sample, the signal fluctuation in continuous monitoring for four months is less than +-1%. According to required measurement range, appropriate length of sample cell is chosen. The precision of measurement process is better than 1% at 100 g/L U. The detection limit is 50 mg/L. The uranium concentration in process stream can be displayed automatically and printed at any time. It presents 4∼20 mA current signal being proportional to the uranium concentration. This makes a long step towards process continuous control and computer management

  4. Review of trigger and on-line processors at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, A.J.

    1984-07-01

    The role of trigger and on-line processors in reducing data rates to manageable proportions in e + e - physics experiments is defined not by high physics or background rates, but by the large event sizes of the general-purpose detectors employed. The rate of e + e - annihilation is low, and backgrounds are not high; yet the number of physics processes which can be studied is vast and varied. This paper begins by briefly describing the role of trigger processors in the e + e - context. The usual flow of the trigger decision process is illustrated with selected examples of SLAC trigger processing. The features are mentioned of triggering at the SLC and the trigger processing plans of the two SLC detectors: The Mark II and the SLD. The most common on-line processors at SLAC, the BADC, the SLAC Scanner Processor, the SLAC FASTBUS Controller, and the VAX CAMAC Channel, are discussed. Uses of the 168/E, 3081/E, and FASTBUS VAX processors are mentioned. The manner in which these processors are interfaced and the function they serve on line is described. Finally, the accelerator control system for the SLC is outlined. This paper is a survey in nature, and hence, relies heavily upon references to previous publications for detailed description of work mentioned here. 27 references, 9 figures, 1 table

  5. On-line analyzers to distributed control system linking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S.F.; Buchanan, B.R.; Sanders, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Analytical Development Section (ADS) of the Savannah River Laboratory is developing on-line analyzers to monitor various site processes. Data from some of the on-line analyzers (OLA's) will be used for process control by distributed control systems (DCS's) such as the Fisher PRoVOX. A problem in the past has been an efficient and cost effective way to get analyzer data onto the DCS data highway. ADS is developing a system to accomplish the linking of OLA's to PRoVOX DCS's. The system will be described, and results of operation in a research and development environment given. Plans for the installation in the production environment will be discussed.

  6. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. METHODS: Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed...... and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. RESULTS: For samples taken in the winter, relative...... differences between the paired samples ranged between -77 and +38% for individual perfluoroalkyl acids. In most cases concentrations were lower in the delayed and transported samples, e.g. the relative difference was -29% (95% confidence interval -30; -27) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. For perfluorooctanoate...

  7. Automatic sample changer control software for automation of neutron activation analysis process in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yussup, N.; Ibrahim, M. M.; Rahman, N. A. A.; Mokhtar, M.; Salim, N. A. A.; Soh@Shaari, S. C.; Azman, A.; Lombigit, L.; Azman, A.; Omar, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Most of the procedures in neutron activation analysis (NAA) process that has been established in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) since 1980s were performed manually. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel are time consuming and inefficient especially for sample counting and measurement process. The sample needs to be changed and the measurement software needs to be setup for every one hour counting time. Both of these procedures are performed manually for every sample. Hence, an automatic sample changer system (ASC) that consists of hardware and software is developed to automate sample counting process for up to 30 samples consecutively. This paper describes the ASC control software for NAA process which is designed and developed to control the ASC hardware and call GammaVision software for sample measurement. The software is developed by using National Instrument LabVIEW development package.

  8. Event Processing and Variable Part of Sample Period Determining in Combined Systems Using GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strémy, Maximilián; Závacký, Pavol; Jedlička, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with combined dynamic systems and usage of modern techniques in dealing with these systems, focusing particularly on sampling period design, cyclic processing tasks and related processing algorithms in the combined event management systems using genetic algorithms.

  9. In-process weld sampling during hot end welds of type W overpacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Establish the criteria and process controls to be used in obtaining, testing, and evaluating in-process weld sample during the hot end welding of Type W Overpack capsules used to overpack CsCl capsules for storage at WESF

  10. Continuous determination of volatile products in anaerobic fermenters by on-line capillary gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamantis, V.; Melidis, P.; Aivasidis, A.

    2006-01-01

    Bio-ethanol and biogas produced during the anaerobic conversion of organic compounds has been a subject of great interest since the oil crisis of the 1970s. In ethanol fermentation and anaerobic treatment of wastewaters, end-product (ethanol) and intermediate-products (short-chain fatty acids, SCFA) cause inhibition that results in reduced process efficiency. Control of these constituents is of utmost importance for bioreactor optimization and process stability. Ethanol and SCFA can be detected with precision by capillary gas chromatography usually conducted in off-line measurements. In this work, an on-line monitoring and controlling system was developed and connected to the fermenter via an auto-sampling equipment, which could perform the feeding, filtration and dilution of the sample and final injection into the gas chromatograph through an automation-based programmed procedure. The sample was continuously pumped from the recycle stream of the bioreactor and treated using a microfiltration unit. The concentrate was returned to the reactor while the permeate was quantitatively mixed with an internal standard solution. The system comprised of a gas chromatograph with the flow cell and one-shot sampler and a PC with the appropriate software. The on-line measurement of ethanol and SCFA, directly from the liquid phase of an ethanol fermenter and a high-rate continuous mode anaerobic digester, was accomplished by gas chromatography. Also, this monitoring and controlling system was proved to be effective in the continuous fermentation of alcohol-free beer

  11. Mentoring Narratives ON-LINE:Teaching the Principalship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison I. Griffith

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop new models for preparation of school administrators has been a prominent concern in educational discourse in the last decade. Having been criticized for the inadequate preparation of the school leadership cadre, academic departments responsible for training future school administrators have had to revisit their approaches and to reframe their teaching philosophies to ensure the readiness of their graduates for the challenges and complexities of school leadership. This article reports on the new model of principals' training that has been used in York University's Principals' Qualification Program (PQP from the late 1990s onward. One component of the program brings traditional case methodology into a computer-mediated/on-line environment. The on-line cases are narratives from the everyday lives of the Ontario school administrators who serve as mentors in the on-line environment. Situating our discussion within the context of the rapidly changing educational landscape of Ontario, we focus on the PQP model to explore experientially generated case narratives as one method for teaching and learning the work of the local school administrator. We focus particularly on the teaching and learning embedded in computer-mediated or on-line case narratives used in training teachers for school leadership. We argue that the complexities of school leadership—the social, cultural, relational, ethical and moral context of school leadership—can be taught effectively through the reflective processes of on-line case narratives. We seek to contribute to the ongoing dialogue on the potential of new pedagogies and new technologies to help prepare the competent and responsible leaders for tomorrow's schools.

  12. Educational On-Line Gaming Propensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Educational on-line games are promising for new generations of students who are grown up digital. Th e new generations of students are technology savvy and spend lots of time on the web and on social networks. Based on an exploratory study, this article investigates the factors that infl uence...... students’ willingness to participate in serious games for teaching/learning. Th is study investigates the relationship between students’ behavior on Facebook, Facebook games, and their attitude toward educational on-line games. Th e results of the study reveal that the early adopters of educational games...... are likely to be students, who are young, have only a few Facebook connections, who currently play Facebook game(s). Furthermore, the study emphasizes that there may be differences between students coming from various countries....

  13. On-Line Maintenance Methodology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Won; Kim, Jae Ho; Jae, Moo Sung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Most of domestic maintenance activities for nuclear power plants are performed while overhaul. Therefore, On-Line Maintenance (OLM) is one of the proper risks informed application techniques for diffusing maintenance burden during overhaul with safety of the plant is secured. The NUMARC 93-01 (Rev.3) presents the OLM state of the art and it provides methodology. This study adopts NUMARC 93-01 (Rev.3) and present OLM. The reference component is Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) of Ulchin 3, 4

  14. Evaluation of standard methods for collecting and processing fuel moisture samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally M. Haase; José Sánchez; David R. Weise

    2016-01-01

    A variety of techniques for collecting and processing samples to determine moisture content of wildland fuels in support of fire management activities were evaluated. The effects of using a chainsaw or handsaw to collect samples of largediameter wood, containers for storing and transporting collected samples, and quick-response ovens for estimating moisture content...

  15. Real-time recursive hyperspectral sample and band processing algorithm architecture and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chein-I

    2017-01-01

    This book explores recursive architectures in designing progressive hyperspectral imaging algorithms. In particular, it makes progressive imaging algorithms recursive by introducing the concept of Kalman filtering in algorithm design so that hyperspectral imagery can be processed not only progressively sample by sample or band by band but also recursively via recursive equations. This book can be considered a companion book of author’s books, Real-Time Progressive Hyperspectral Image Processing, published by Springer in 2016. Explores recursive structures in algorithm architecture Implements algorithmic recursive architecture in conjunction with progressive sample and band processing Derives Recursive Hyperspectral Sample Processing (RHSP) techniques according to Band-Interleaved Sample/Pixel (BIS/BIP) acquisition format Develops Recursive Hyperspectral Band Processing (RHBP) techniques according to Band SeQuential (BSQ) acquisition format for hyperspectral data.

  16. High peak power processing up to 100 MV/M on various metallic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, M.; Bonin, B.; Safa, H.

    1996-01-01

    The high peak power processing (HPPP) is a well established way to reduce electronic field emission from radiofrequency (RF) metallic surfaces. The processing occurs because of some kind of instability destroys the emitter, but the basic physical mechanism at work has not yet been clearly identified. RF processing experiments on samples of restricted area, are described with well localized artificial emitting sites (protrusions from scratches on the sample surface). In order to disentangle the role of thermal and mechanical effects, in the processing, the samples were made from metals with different melting temperatures and tensile strengths. (author)

  17. High peak power processing up to 100 MV/m on various metallic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, M.; Bonin, B.; Safa, H.; Le Goff, A.

    1996-01-01

    The high peak power processing (HPPP) is a well established way to reduce electronic field emission from radiofrequency (RF) metallic surfaces. The processing occurs because of some kind of instability destroys the emitter, but the basic physical mechanism at work has not yet been clearly identified. The present study describes RF processing experiments on samples of restricted area, with well localized artificial emitting sites (protrusions from scratches on the sample surface). In order to disentangle the role of thermal and mechanical effects in the processing, the samples were made from metals with different melting temperatures and tensile strengths. (author)

  18. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Fuglsang, Jens; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    In studies of perfluoroalkyl acids, the validity and comparability of measured concentrations may be affected by differences in the handling of biospecimens. We aimed to investigate whether measured plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl acids differed between blood samples subjected to delay and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. For samples taken in the winter, relative differences between the paired samples ranged between -77 and +38% for individual perfluoroalkyl acids. In most cases concentrations were lower in the delayed and transported samples, e.g. the relative difference was -29% (95% confidence interval -30; -27) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. For perfluorooctanoate there was no difference between the two setups [corresponding estimate 1% (0, 3)]. Differences were negligible in the summer for all compounds. Transport of blood samples and processing delay, similar to conditions applied in some large, population-based studies, may affect measured perfluoroalkyl acid concentrations, mainly when outdoor temperatures are low. Attention to processing conditions is needed in studies of perfluoroalkyl acid exposure in humans.

  19. UniFlex - Collaborative on-line learning environment tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Borch

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Første gang publiceret i UNEV nr. 2: E-læringsplatforme - muligheder og potentialer, januar - marts 2004, red. Tom Nyvand og Michael Pedersen. ISSN 1603-5518.

    Increasing demands for remote on-line education are changing the way teaching and learning is performed. New behavior in using pedagogy and supporting technology is needed to drive the learning process. To facilitate the use of services for selected activities to participants in distance education, a web site named UniFlex (University Flexible learning has been developed and brought into use. The site is a comprehensive set of bookmarks including course taking, upload/download, and - of special significance - collaborative on-line project work. UniFlex has been developed to meet the requirement for a simple and cheap personalized interactive site, supporting problem oriented and project organized study form, which has characterized Aalborg University for more than 27 years.

  20. UniFlex - Collaborative on-line learning environment tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Borch

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Første gang publiceret i UNEV nr. 2: E-læringsplatforme - muligheder og potentialer, januar - marts 2004, red. Tom Nyvand og Michael Pedersen. ISSN 1603-5518. Increasing demands for remote on-line education are changing the way teaching and learning is performed. New behavior in using pedagogy and supporting technology is needed to drive the learning process. To facilitate the use of services for selected activities to participants in distance education, a web site named UniFlex (University Flexible learning has been developed and brought into use. The site is a comprehensive set of bookmarks including course taking, upload/download, and - of special significance - collaborative on-line project work. UniFlex has been developed to meet the requirement for a simple and cheap personalized interactive site, supporting problem oriented and project organized study form, which has characterized Aalborg University for more than 27 years.

  1. The Task Manager for the LHCb On-Line Farm

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifazi, F; Carbone, A; Galli, D; Gregori, D; Marconi, U; Peco, G; Vagnoni, V

    2004-01-01

    The Task Manager is a utility to start, stop and list processes on the on-line farm. Each process started by the Task Manager has a string environment variable set, named UTGID (User defined unique Thread Group Identifier) which allows to identify the process. The Task Manager uses the UTGID to list the running processes and to identify the processes to be stopped. It has also the ability to start a process using a particular user name and to set the scheduler type and the priority for the process itself. The Task Manager package includes a Linux DIM server (tmSrv), four Linux command line DIM clients (tmStart, tmLs, tmKill and tmStop) and a JCOP (Joint Control Project) PVSS client.

  2. On-line monitoring and control of animal-cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der J.J.

    1996-01-01


    On-line analysis and control of biotechnological processes is still the stepchild in industry. In general, only parameters as dissolved-oxygen concentration, pH and temperature are controlled on-line. Important parameters as substrate and inhibitor concentrations are only measured

  3. On-line scheduling of two-machine open shops where jobs arrive over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, B.; Vestjens, A.P.A.; Woeginger, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the problem of on-line scheduling two-machine open shops with the objective of minimizing the makespan.Jobs arrive independently over time, and the existence of a job is not known until its arrival. In the clairvoyant on-line model, the processing requirement of every job becomes

  4. Study on auto-plating process time versus recovery for polonium, Po-210 in environmental sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal Sharib; Zaharudin Ahmad; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Norfaizal Mohamed; Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar; Yii Mei Wo; Kamarozaman Ishak; Siti Aminah Yusoff

    2008-08-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate time effectiveness and recovery 16 samples of 4 Kuala Muda stations during auto-plating process procedures for determination Polonium, Po 210 activity concentration in environmental sample. The study was performed using Kuala Muda sediment as sample in the same methodology. The auto-plating process runs for 4, 12, 24 and 30 hours on a silver disc for 4 samples each station, and then counted for one (1) day using an alpha spectrometry counting system. The objectives for this study is to justify on time duration for auto-plating process effecting a chemical yield of Po-209.The results showed recovery are increasing versus time and constantly at 24 hour auto-plating. Its mean, 24 hour is an optimum time for auto-plating process for determination of Polonium, Po 210 activity concentration in environmental sample. (Author)

  5. 21 CFR 211.110 - Sampling and testing of in-process materials and drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICALS Production and Process Controls § 211.110 Sampling and testing of in-process materials and drug... capsule weight variation; (2) Disintegration time; (3) Adequacy of mixing to assure uniformity and... production process, e.g., at commencement or completion of significant phases or after storage for long...

  6. 32 CFR 806.27 - Samples of Air Force FOIA processing documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.27 Samples of Air Force FOIA processing... determination within 20 workdays, we have instituted multitrack processing of requests. Based on the information... source; responsive records were part of the Air Force's decision-making process, and the prerelease...

  7. Capillary absorption spectrometer and process for isotopic analysis of small samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Kelly, James F.; Sams, Robert L.; Moran, James J.; Newburn, Matthew K.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2018-04-24

    A capillary absorption spectrometer and process are described that provide highly sensitive and accurate stable absorption measurements of analytes in a sample gas that may include isotopologues of carbon and oxygen obtained from gas and biological samples. It further provides isotopic images of microbial communities that allow tracking of nutrients at the single cell level. It further targets naturally occurring variations in carbon and oxygen isotopes that avoids need for expensive isotopically labeled mixtures which allows study of samples taken from the field without modification. The process also permits sampling in vivo permitting real-time ambient studies of microbial communities.

  8. Characterizing chemical systems with on-line computers and graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazer, J.W.; Rigdon, L.P.; Brand, H.R.; Pomernacki, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Incorporating computers and graphics on-line to chemical experiments and processes opens up new opportunities for the study and control of complex systems. Systems having many variables can be characterized even when the variable interactions are nonlinear, and the system cannot a priori be represented by numerical methods and models. That is, large sets of accurate data can be rapidly acquired, then modeling and graphic techniques can be used to obtain partial interpretation plus design of further experimentation. The experimenter can thus comparatively quickly iterate between experimentation and modeling to obtain a final solution. We have designed and characterized a versatile computer-controlled apparatus for chemical research, which incorporates on-line instrumentation and graphics. It can be used to determine the mechanism of enzyme-induced reactions or to optimize analytical methods. The apparatus can also be operated as a pilot plant to design control strategies. On-line graphics were used to display conventional plots used by biochemists and three-dimensional response-surface plots

  9. Stationary and related stochastic processes sample function properties and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cramér, Harald

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text offers a comprehensive account of the general theory of stationary processes, with special emphasis on the properties of sample functions. Assuming a familiarity with the basic features of modern probability theory, the text develops the foundations of the general theory of stochastic processes, examines processes with a continuous-time parameter, and applies the general theory to procedures key to the study of stationary processes. Additional topics include analytic properties of the sample functions and the problem of time distribution of the intersections between a

  10. On-line radioactivity detector for HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last ten years the technique of high performance liquid chromotography (HPLC) has become extensively employed for the separation and quantitation of various biological, organic, and inorganic substances. The use of HPLC for the separation of various metabolic compounds has become routine. The major problem of analyzing the metabolism process is that the quantitation is accomplished by the use of radioactive substrates. Until recently the only method to quantitate these radioactive compounds eluting from the HPLC was by collecting fractions at preset times, removing aliquots and quantitating in a liquid scintillation counter. Once the radioactivity present in each fraction was determined, the results were plotted on a graph and the area of each of the radioactive peaks was determined. This entire process required from 3-20 hours. The introduction of the flow through radioactivity detector enable the investigator to directly quantitate the radioactive peaks as they elute from the HPLC in real time and at about one-tenth the original cost of the previous methods. The detection limits of this technique are dependent on the residence time of the sample in the flow cell and the type of flow cell used for the analysis. Using a 2.5 ml liquid flow cell, (mixing with liquid scintillation solution), base line resolution can be obtained for peaks 1.5 minutes apart, and a sensitivity of 70 dpm for tritium and 30 dpm for carbon-14 can be achieved

  11. Sampling phased array a new technique for signal processing and ultrasonic imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Bulavinov, A.; Joneit, D.; Kröning, M.; Bernus, L.; Dalichow, M.H.; Reddy, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Different signal processing and image reconstruction techniques are applied in ultrasonic non-destructive material evaluation. In recent years, rapid development in the fields of microelectronics and computer engineering lead to wide application of phased array systems. A new phased array technique, called "Sampling Phased Array" has been developed in Fraunhofer Institute for non-destructive testing. It realizes unique approach of measurement and processing of ultrasonic signals. The sampling...

  12. Improvements to sample processing and measurement to enable more widespread environmental application of tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, James; Alexander, Thomas; Aalseth, Craig; Back, Henning; Mace, Emily; Overman, Cory; Seifert, Allen; Freeburg, Wilcox

    2017-08-01

    Previous measurements have demonstrated the wealth of information that tritium (T) can provide on environmentally relevant processes. We present modifications to sample preparation approaches that enable T measurement by proportional counting on small sample sizes equivalent to 120 mg of water and demonstrate the accuracy of these methods on a suite of standardized water samples. This enhanced method should provide the analytical flexibility needed to address persistent knowledge gaps in our understanding of T behavior in the environment.

  13. On a Robust MaxEnt Process Regression Model with Sample-Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hea-Jung Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In a regression analysis, a sample-selection bias arises when a dependent variable is partially observed as a result of the sample selection. This study introduces a Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt process regression model that assumes a MaxEnt prior distribution for its nonparametric regression function and finds that the MaxEnt process regression model includes the well-known Gaussian process regression (GPR model as a special case. Then, this special MaxEnt process regression model, i.e., the GPR model, is generalized to obtain a robust sample-selection Gaussian process regression (RSGPR model that deals with non-normal data in the sample selection. Various properties of the RSGPR model are established, including the stochastic representation, distributional hierarchy, and magnitude of the sample-selection bias. These properties are used in the paper to develop a hierarchical Bayesian methodology to estimate the model. This involves a simple and computationally feasible Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm that avoids analytical or numerical derivatives of the log-likelihood function of the model. The performance of the RSGPR model in terms of the sample-selection bias correction, robustness to non-normality, and prediction, is demonstrated through results in simulations that attest to its good finite-sample performance.

  14. Probabilistic Round Trip Contamination Analysis of a Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling Process Using Markovian Decompositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicolas; Lin, Ying; Barengoltz, Jack

    2010-01-01

    A method for evaluating the probability of a Viable Earth Microorganism (VEM) contaminating a sample during the sample acquisition and handling (SAH) process of a potential future Mars Sample Return mission is developed. A scenario where multiple core samples would be acquired using a rotary percussive coring tool, deployed from an arm on a MER class rover is analyzed. The analysis is conducted in a structured way by decomposing sample acquisition and handling process into a series of discrete time steps, and breaking the physical system into a set of relevant components. At each discrete time step, two key functions are defined: The probability of a VEM being released from each component, and the transport matrix, which represents the probability of VEM transport from one component to another. By defining the expected the number of VEMs on each component at the start of the sampling process, these decompositions allow the expected number of VEMs on each component at each sampling step to be represented as a Markov chain. This formalism provides a rigorous mathematical framework in which to analyze the probability of a VEM entering the sample chain, as well as making the analysis tractable by breaking the process down into small analyzable steps.

  15. Stability of arsenic compounds in seafood samples during processing and storage by freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Lisbeth; Molin, Marianne; Amlund, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    was observed after processing or after storage by freezing. The content of tetramethylarsonium ion was generally low in all samples types, but increased significantly in all fried samples of both fresh and frozen seafood. Upon storage by freezing, the arsenobetaine content was reduced significantly, but only...

  16. A method for disaggregating clay concretions and eliminating formalin smell in the processing of sediment samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1989-01-01

    A complete handling procedure for processing sediment samples is described. It includes some improvements of conventional methods. The fixed sediment sample is mixed with a solution of the alkaline detergent AJAX® (Colgate-Palmolive). It is kept at 80-900 C for 20-40 min. This treatment facilitates...

  17. On-line determination of anions in pulp mills by capillary electrophoresis (CE); Tehdasoloissa tapahtuva anionien kapillaarielektroforeettinen on-line maeaeritys ja sen hyoedyntaeminen prosessivalvonnassa - MPKY 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokkonen, R; Holmberg, M; Vainikka, V [Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    The aim of the study was to set-up a process control system for on-line measurement of certain anions. Typical anions which forms precipitates in pulp and paper mills are oxalate, carbonate and sulphate. Thus it is important to develop a continuous process analyzing system to control concentration levels of this anions. For the preliminary tests of continuous determinations of chloride and sulphate anions in tap water a simple on-line system was build in KCL (The Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute) and connected to a capillary electroforesis apparatus. In the preliminary tests a chromate buffer (ph = 7.6) was used. Separation of chloride and sulphate was excellent but the stability of buffer was not good enough and it was usable only for few hours. After experimental studies VTT developed a stable capillary electrophoresis method based on mixed amine buffer and this was selected for an on-line method for determination of anions in process waters of the pulp and paper industry. In the preliminary on-line test (r = 20) repeatabilities of migration times of sulphate and chloride with the chromate buffer were < 5 % (RSD) and peak heights < 15 % (RSD). With the mixed amine buffer repeatabilities were better. The preliminary tests showed that it is possible to connect a capillary electrophoresis system to on-line measurements. For the moment no commercial on-line CE apparatus is available. (orig.)

  18. On-line determination of anions in pulp mills by capillary electrophoresis (CE); Tehdasoloissa tapahtuva anionien kapillaarielektroforeettinen on-line maeaeritys ja sen hyoedyntaeminen prosessivalvonnassa - MPKY 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokkonen, R.; Holmberg, M.; Vainikka, V. [Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of the study was to set-up a process control system for on-line measurement of certain anions. Typical anions which forms precipitates in pulp and paper mills are oxalate, carbonate and sulphate. Thus it is important to develop a continuous process analyzing system to control concentration levels of this anions. For the preliminary tests of continuous determinations of chloride and sulphate anions in tap water a simple on-line system was build in KCL (The Finnish Pulp and Paper Research Institute) and connected to a capillary electroforesis apparatus. In the preliminary tests a chromate buffer (ph = 7.6) was used. Separation of chloride and sulphate was excellent but the stability of buffer was not good enough and it was usable only for few hours. After experimental studies VTT developed a stable capillary electrophoresis method based on mixed amine buffer and this was selected for an on-line method for determination of anions in process waters of the pulp and paper industry. In the preliminary on-line test (r = 20) repeatabilities of migration times of sulphate and chloride with the chromate buffer were < 5 % (RSD) and peak heights < 15 % (RSD). With the mixed amine buffer repeatabilities were better. The preliminary tests showed that it is possible to connect a capillary electrophoresis system to on-line measurements. For the moment no commercial on-line CE apparatus is available. (orig.)

  19. Special study for the manual transfer of process samples from CPP [Chemical Processing Plant] 601 to RAL [Remote Analytical Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marts, D.J.

    1987-05-01

    A study of alternate methods to manually transport radioactive samples from their glove boxes to the Remote Analytical Laboratory (RAL) was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The study was performed to mitigate the effects of a potential loss of sampling capabilities that could take place if a malfunction in the Pneumatic Transfer System (PTS) occurred. Samples are required to be taken from the cell glove boxes and analyzed at the RAL regardless of the operational status of the PTS. This paper documents the conclusions of the study and how a decision was reached that determined the best handling scenarios for manually transporting 15 mL vials of liquid process samples from the K, W, U, WG, or WH cell glove boxes in the Chemical Processing Plant (CPP) 601 to the RAL. This study of methods to manually remove the samples from the glove boxes, package them for safe shipment, transport them by the safest route, receive them at the RAL, and safely unload them was conducted by EG and G Idaho, Inc., for Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company as part of the Glove Box Sampling and Transfer System Project for the Fuel Processing Facilities Upgrade, Task 10, Subtask 2. The study focused on the safest and most reliable scenarios that could be implemented using existing equipment. Hardware modifications and new hardware proposals were identified, and their impact on the handling scenario has been evaluated. A conclusion was reached that by utilizing the existing facility hardware, these samples can be safely transported manually from the sample stations in CPP 601 to the RAL, and that additional hardware could facilitate the transportation process even further

  20. On line nuclear orientation: opportunity and challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the on-line nuclear orientation (OLNO) technique is reviewed. The present potential of the technique is discussed in the light of the attainable temperatures, the use of ion implantation and the required isotope flux. Limitations associated with spin-lattice relaxation are considered in some detail and a survey of accessible nuclei is presented. An outline comparison is given between OLNO and other methods for producing orientation of nuclei, for measuring nuclear spins and static moments and for the study of level structure and transition probabilities. The conclusion is drawn that the method in its present form has extensive potential over a wide range of nuclei. Future prospects for in-beam polarisation giving access to nuclei of shorter half lives are referred to briefly. (Auth.)

  1. An on-line diagnostic expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felkel, L.

    1987-01-01

    As experience with on-line information systems, experts systems and artificial intelligence tools grows, the authors retreat from the first euphoria that AI could help them solve the problem they were unable to solve with conventional programming. The major effort of the development time goes into building the knowledge-base. There is no such thing as a generic knowledge-base for nuclear power plants as there is, for example, for the diagnosis of a Boeing 747 aircraft. AI-methods, tools and hardware are still in a state which does not optimally lend itself to real-time application. The ability of developing prototype systems to investigate variants otherwise too costly to justify is one advantage that the authors gladly accept. Last, but no least the tools provide a flexible and adaptable user interface (desktop window systems) etc. The development of such tools in a project would be prohibitive and room for experimentation would be limited

  2. Software for on-line experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanchenko, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    A review of nowadays development state of software of on-line electron experiments is presented. The principles of organization of real time systems on second generation computer base are considered. The following methods for projections search are considered: combinator methods, global methods, methods of tracking, methods of a supporting band. The following methods for determining parameter estimates based on the Lorentz equation are analysed: analytical simulation of trajectories, determination of parameters by the iterative method using the technique of calculation of recycled integrals, multidimensional statistical analysis. For the purpose of successful usage and development of software the technique of selfdocumented programs is created and the computer is applied for preparing, revising and circulation of external descriptions which as program complexes are constructed according to the hierarchical principle [ru

  3. Aprender a innovar: una experiencia on line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín MORENO MARCHAL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La creatividad y la innovación se han convertido en recursos clave en la denominada sociedad del conocimiento, que bien podría ser también llamada sociedad de la innovación. Pero innovar es una actividad compleja, que integra la aplicación de múltiples capacidades, el pensamiento divergente y convergente, la gestión de equipos humanos, la comunicación. Ahora bien, a innovar se puede, y se debe, aprender. Aprender a innovar es un reto y también una obligación para el conjunto del sistema educativo en todos sus niveles. Partiendo de estas consideraciones este trabajo expone una experiencia de aprendizaje de la creatividad y de la innovación a través de un curso totalmente on line basado en la plataforma MOODLE, en el marco del Programa de Formación Permanente de la Universidad de Cádiz. Se presenta un modelo del proceso de innovación, denominado CREALAB, de elaboración propia. Este modelo se ha utilizado como base del proceso de aprendizaje de la creatividad y de la innovación y en el diseño del curso, está organizado en torno a actividades y tiene un carácter iterativo y realimentado. Se presentan además el conjunto del diseño metodológico y los resultados obtenidos en las dos ediciones celebradas hasta el momento. El diseño del curso totalmente on line y los resultados alcanzados permiten estimar un alto potencial de aplicación, tanto a nivel personal como a nivel organizacional.

  4. Robust Control Methods for On-Line Statistical Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capobianco Enrico

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of controlling that data processing in an experiment results not affected by the presence of outliers is relevant for statistical control and learning studies. Learning schemes should thus be tested for their capacity of handling outliers in the observed training set so to achieve reliable estimates with respect to the crucial bias and variance aspects. We describe possible ways of endowing neural networks with statistically robust properties by defining feasible error criteria. It is convenient to cast neural nets in state space representations and apply both Kalman filter and stochastic approximation procedures in order to suggest statistically robustified solutions for on-line learning.

  5. Development of an on-line radon monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Huiping; Shang Aiguo; Liu Junfeng; Zhou Chunlin; Di Yuming

    2004-01-01

    Of the actual demand by the strategic missile troops, the author has successfully developed a specially designed passive diffusion collecting chamber to collect the decay products of radon by high voltage static electricity, and using the single-chip microcomputer to reckon the radon concentration in air, which is actually a portable, continuous and automatic on-line monitoring instrument. It was made into a four-slot standard plug-in board of a NIM, and it functions as auto data memory, data process, display, over-threshold alarming and so on. (authors)

  6. On-line computing in a classified environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) recently developed a Department of Energy (DOE) approved real-time, on-line computer system to control nuclear material. The system simultaneously processes both classified and unclassified information. Implementation of this system required application of many security techniques. The system has a secure, but user friendly interface. Many software applications protect the integrity of the data base from malevolent or accidental errors. Programming practices ensure the integrity of the computer system software. The audit trail and the reports generation capability record user actions and status of the nuclear material inventory

  7. On-line system for investigation of atomic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amus'ya, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L.V.

    1983-01-01

    A description of the on-line ATOM system is presented that enables to investigate the structure of atomic electron shells and their interactions with different scattering particles-electrons, positronse photons, mesons - with the use of computerized numerical solutions. The problem is stated along with mathematical description of atomic properties including theoretical and numerical models for each investigated physical process. The ATOM system structure is considered. The Hartree-Fock method is used to determine the wave functions of the ground and excited atomic states. The programs are written in the ALGOL langauge. Different atomic characteristics were possible to be calculated for the first time with an accuracy exceeding an experimental one

  8. Sample Size for Tablet Compression and Capsule Filling Events During Process Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoo, Naseem Ahmad; Durivage, Mark; Rahman, Ziyaur; Ayad, Mohamad Haitham

    2017-12-01

    During solid dosage form manufacturing, the uniformity of dosage units (UDU) is ensured by testing samples at 2 stages, that is, blend stage and tablet compression or capsule/powder filling stage. The aim of this work is to propose a sample size selection approach based on quality risk management principles for process performance qualification (PPQ) and continued process verification (CPV) stages by linking UDU to potential formulation and process risk factors. Bayes success run theorem appeared to be the most appropriate approach among various methods considered in this work for computing sample size for PPQ. The sample sizes for high-risk (reliability level of 99%), medium-risk (reliability level of 95%), and low-risk factors (reliability level of 90%) were estimated to be 299, 59, and 29, respectively. Risk-based assignment of reliability levels was supported by the fact that at low defect rate, the confidence to detect out-of-specification units would decrease which must be supplemented with an increase in sample size to enhance the confidence in estimation. Based on level of knowledge acquired during PPQ and the level of knowledge further required to comprehend process, sample size for CPV was calculated using Bayesian statistics to accomplish reduced sampling design for CPV. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Capillary absorption spectrometer and process for isotopic analysis of small samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Kelly, James F.; Sams, Robert L.; Moran, James J.; Newburn, Matthew K.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2016-03-29

    A capillary absorption spectrometer and process are described that provide highly sensitive and accurate stable absorption measurements of analytes in a sample gas that may include isotopologues of carbon and oxygen obtained from gas and biological samples. It further provides isotopic images of microbial communities that allow tracking of nutrients at the single cell level. It further targets naturally occurring variations in carbon and oxygen isotopes that avoids need for expensive isotopically labeled mixtures which allows study of samples taken from the field without modification. The method also permits sampling in vivo permitting real-time ambient studies of microbial communities.

  10. On-line dry wood measurement in chips by nuclear means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oftedal, E.

    1978-01-01

    A system which has been installed and operating for two years in a Norwegian paper mill is described. It consists of a radiometric conveyor belt weighing instrument, a radiometric moisture guage and a data processor. The weighing instrument uses a cesium 137 source located above the conveyor belt with the radiation detector under the belt. The moisture gauge employs an americium-beryllium neutron source and a slow neutron detector, both placed above the belt. The data is processed and the moisture content calculated is continuously displayed. 4 analogue outputs are also available for automatic on-line process control. The results over a period of 20 months are shown, compared with results from laboratory measurements of samples. The two curves follow each other fairly closely. (JIW)

  11. Perspectives for on-line analysis of bauxite by neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurton, Gabriel; Ledru, Bertrand; Letourneur, Philippe

    1995-03-01

    The interest in bauxite as a major source of alumina results in a strong demand for on-line instrumentation suitable for sorting, blending, and processing operations at the bauxite mine and for monitoring instrumentation in the Bayer process. The results of laboratory experiments based on neutron interactions with bauxite are described. The technique was chosen in order to overcome the problem of spatial heterogeneity in bulk mineral analysis. The evaluated elements contributed to approximately 99.5% of the sample weight. In addition, the measurements provide valuable information on physical parameters such as density, hygrometry, and material flow. Using a pulsed generator, the analysis system offers potential for on-line measurements (borehole logging or conveyor belt). An overall description of the experimental set-up is given. The experimental data include measurements of natural radioactivity, delayed radioactivity induced by activation, and prompt gamma rays following neutron reaction. In situ applications of neutron interactions provide continuous analysis and produce results which are more statistically significant. The key factors contributing to advances in industrial applications are the development of high count rate gamma spectroscopy and computational tools to design measurement systems and interpret their results.

  12. Modeling of On-Line Catalyst Addition Effects in a Short Contact Time Reactor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zerkle, David K; Allendorf, Mark Donald; Wolf, Markus; Deutschmann, Olaf

    2000-01-01

    ... operating ( on-line catalyst addition). Our simulations indicate that the fundamental behavior of the ethane SCTR prepared with catalyst added online is the result of coupled heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical processes...

  13. Down sampled signal processing for a B Factory bunch-by-bunch feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindi, H.; Hosseini, W.; Briggs, D.; Fox, J.; Hutton, A.

    1992-03-01

    A bunch-by-bunch feedback scheme is studied for damping coupled bunch synchrotron oscillations in the proposed PEP II B Factory. The quasi-linear feedback systems design incorporates a phase detector to provide a quantized measure of bunch phase, digital signal processing to compute an error correction signal and a kicker system to correct the energy of the bunches. A farm of digital processors, operating in parallel, is proposed to compute correction signals for the 1658 bunches of the B Factory. This paper studies the use of down sampled processing to reduce the computational complexity of the feedback system. We present simulation results showing the effect of down sampling on beam dynamics. Results show that down sampled processing can reduce the scale of the processing task by a factor of 10

  14. Design aspects of automation system for initial processing of fecal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, Pramilla D.; Prabhu, Supreetha P.; Suja, A.; Wankhede, Sonal; Chaudhary, Seema; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Das, A.P.; Badodkar, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    The procedure for initial handling of the fecal samples at Bioassay Lab., Trombay is as follows: overnight fecal samples are collected from the worker in a kit consisting of a polythene bag placed in a wide mouth polythene container closed with an inner lid and a screw cap. Occupational worker collects the sample in the polythene bag. On receiving the sample, the polythene container along with the sample is weighed, polythene bag containing fecal sample is lifted out of the container using a pair of tongs placed inside a crucible and ashed inside a muffle furnace at 450℃. After complete ashing, the crucible containing white ash is taken-up for further radiochemical processing. This paper describes the various steps in developing a prototype automated system for initial handling of fecal samples. The proposed system for handling and processing of fecal samples is proposed to automate the above. The system once developed will help eliminate manual intervention till the ashing stage and reduce the biological hazard involved in handling such samples mentioned procedure

  15. Nonuniform sampling and non-Fourier signal processing methods in multidimensional NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobli, Mehdi; Hoch, Jeffrey C

    2014-11-01

    Beginning with the introduction of Fourier Transform NMR by Ernst and Anderson in 1966, time domain measurement of the impulse response (the free induction decay, FID) consisted of sampling the signal at a series of discrete intervals. For compatibility with the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), the intervals are kept uniform, and the Nyquist theorem dictates the largest value of the interval sufficient to avoid aliasing. With the proposal by Jeener of parametric sampling along an indirect time dimension, extension to multidimensional experiments employed the same sampling techniques used in one dimension, similarly subject to the Nyquist condition and suitable for processing via the discrete Fourier transform. The challenges of obtaining high-resolution spectral estimates from short data records using the DFT were already well understood, however. Despite techniques such as linear prediction extrapolation, the achievable resolution in the indirect dimensions is limited by practical constraints on measuring time. The advent of non-Fourier methods of spectrum analysis capable of processing nonuniformly sampled data has led to an explosion in the development of novel sampling strategies that avoid the limits on resolution and measurement time imposed by uniform sampling. The first part of this review discusses the many approaches to data sampling in multidimensional NMR, the second part highlights commonly used methods for signal processing of such data, and the review concludes with a discussion of other approaches to speeding up data acquisition in NMR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A review of blood sample handling and pre-processing for metabolomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Vinicius Veri; Barbas, Coral; Dudzik, Danuta

    2017-09-01

    Metabolomics has been found to be applicable to a wide range of clinical studies, bringing a new era for improving clinical diagnostics, early disease detection, therapy prediction and treatment efficiency monitoring. A major challenge in metabolomics, particularly untargeted studies, is the extremely diverse and complex nature of biological specimens. Despite great advances in the field there still exist fundamental needs for considering pre-analytical variability that can introduce bias to the subsequent analytical process and decrease the reliability of the results and moreover confound final research outcomes. Many researchers are mainly focused on the instrumental aspects of the biomarker discovery process, and sample related variables sometimes seem to be overlooked. To bridge the gap, critical information and standardized protocols regarding experimental design and sample handling and pre-processing are highly desired. Characterization of a range variation among sample collection methods is necessary to prevent results misinterpretation and to ensure that observed differences are not due to an experimental bias caused by inconsistencies in sample processing. Herein, a systematic discussion of pre-analytical variables affecting metabolomics studies based on blood derived samples is performed. Furthermore, we provide a set of recommendations concerning experimental design, collection, pre-processing procedures and storage conditions as a practical review that can guide and serve for the standardization of protocols and reduction of undesirable variation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A novel heterogeneous training sample selection method on space-time adaptive processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Yongshun; Guo, Yiduo

    2018-04-01

    The performance of ground target detection about space-time adaptive processing (STAP) decreases when non-homogeneity of clutter power is caused because of training samples contaminated by target-like signals. In order to solve this problem, a novel nonhomogeneous training sample selection method based on sample similarity is proposed, which converts the training sample selection into a convex optimization problem. Firstly, the existing deficiencies on the sample selection using generalized inner product (GIP) are analyzed. Secondly, the similarities of different training samples are obtained by calculating mean-hausdorff distance so as to reject the contaminated training samples. Thirdly, cell under test (CUT) and the residual training samples are projected into the orthogonal subspace of the target in the CUT, and mean-hausdorff distances between the projected CUT and training samples are calculated. Fourthly, the distances are sorted in order of value and the training samples which have the bigger value are selective preference to realize the reduced-dimension. Finally, simulation results with Mountain-Top data verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. On-line monitoring system for I-131 manufacturing labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osovizky, A.; Malamud, Y.; Paran, Y.; Tal, N.; Turgeman, S.; Weinstein, M.

    1997-01-01

    An on-line monitoring and safety system has been installed in a lab for manufacturing 1-131 capsules for nuclear medicine use. Production of up to 100mCi batches is performed in shielded glove boxes. The safety system is based on a unique, 'Medi SMARTS' system (Medical Survey Mapping Automatic Radiation Tracing System), that collects continuously the radiation measurements for processing, display, and storage for future retrieval. Radiation is measured by GM tubes, data is transferred to a data processing unit, and then via a RS-485 communication line to a computer. In addition to the operational advantages and radiation levels storage, the system is being evaluated for the purpose of identifying risky stages in the process. (authors)

  19. Issues for Bringing Electron Beam Irradiators On-Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, R.J.; Turman, B.N.

    1999-01-01

    Irradiation of red meat and poultry has been approved by the U.S. FDA, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's rule for processing red meat is out for comment. Looking beyond the current issues of packaging materials, labeling, and consumer acceptance, this paper reviews the next step of implementation and how to remove, or at least reduce, the barriers to utilization. Polls of the user community identified their requirements for electron beam or x-ray processing of meat or poultry and their concerns about implementation for on-line processing. These needs and issues are compared to the capabilities of the accelerator industry. The critical issues of beam utilization and dose uniformity, factors affecting floor space requirements, and treatment costs are examined

  20. On-line Monitoring of Instrumentation in Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-12-01

    This publication is the result of a benchmarking effort undertaken under the IAEA coordinated research project on improved instrumentation and control (I&C) maintenance techniques for research reactors. It lays the foundation for implementation of on-line monitoring (OLM) techniques and establishment of the validity of those for improved maintenance practices in research reactors for a number of applications such as change to condition based calibration, performance monitoring of process instrumentation systems, detection of process anomalies and to distinguish between process problems/effects and instrumentation/sensor issues. The techniques and guidance embodied in this publication will serve the research reactor community in providing the technical foundation for implementation of OLM techniques. It is intended to be used by Member States to implement I&C maintenance and to improve performance of research reactors.

  1. On-line control of nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parus, I.; Kierzek, J.; Zoltowski, T.

    1977-01-01

    The development trends in the field of chemical processes control and the present state of the development of continuous composition analysers has been described. On this background the peculiarities of on-line control methods for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing have been discussed. The measuring methods for direct and indirect determination of chemical composition and nuclear safety are reviewed in detail. The review comprises such methods as: measurement of α, γ and neutron radiation emitted both by nuclides present in technological solutions and using external sources of different radiation, X-ray fluorescence, measurements of physicochemical parameters connected with the composition (pH, density, electrical conductivity), polarography and spectrophotometry. At the end of this review some new trends in process control based on dynamic process models have been presented. (author)

  2. Issues for Bringing Electron Beam Irradiators On-Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, R.J.; Turman, B.N.

    1999-04-20

    Irradiation of red meat and poultry has been approved by the U.S. FDA, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's rule for processing red meat is out for comment. Looking beyond the current issues of packaging materials, labeling, and consumer acceptance, this paper reviews the next step of implementation and how to remove, or at least reduce, the barriers to utilization. Polls of the user community identified their requirements for electron beam or x-ray processing of meat or poultry and their concerns about implementation for on-line processing. These needs and issues are compared to the capabilities of the accelerator industry. The critical issues of beam utilization and dose uniformity, factors affecting floor space requirements, and treatment costs are examined.

  3. Finite element simulation of the T-shaped ECAP processing of round samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban Ghazani, Mehdi; Fardi-Ilkhchy, Ali; Binesh, Behzad

    2018-05-01

    Grain refinement is the only mechanism that increases the yield strength and toughness of the materials simultaneously. Severe plastic deformation is one of the promising methods to refine the microstructure of materials. Among different severe plastic deformation processes, the T-shaped equal channel angular pressing (T-ECAP) is a relatively new technique. In the present study, finite element analysis was conducted to evaluate the deformation behavior of metals during T-ECAP process. The study was focused mainly on flow characteristics, plastic strain distribution and its homogeneity, damage development, and pressing force which are among the most important factors governing the sound and successful processing of nanostructured materials by severe plastic deformation techniques. The results showed that plastic strain is localized in the bottom side of sample and uniform deformation cannot be possible using T-ECAP processing. Friction coefficient between sample and die channel wall has a little effect on strain distributions in mirror plane and transverse plane of deformed sample. Also, damage analysis showed that superficial cracks may be initiated from bottom side of sample and their propagation will be limited due to the compressive state of stress. It was demonstrated that the V shaped deformation zone are existed in T-ECAP process and the pressing load needed for execution of deformation process is increased with friction.

  4. On-line maintenance at Cofrentes NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan Vilches, J.; Moreno Matarranz, M. A.; Hermana Mendioroz, I.

    1998-01-01

    Cofrentes NPP has begun in 1997 activities related to At Power Preventive Maintenance over trains or systems which lead to a voluntary entry in a Limitative Condition of Operation (LCO) of the Technical Specifications. From others benefits, this program ha improved the risk management and the staff's knowledge over the functions and safety implications of the different systems, the better exploit of the resources, the co-ordination of the different organisations involved (Maintenance an Operation) and the reductions of works during shutdowns. Previous to each work, a feasibility study analyzes qualitative and quantitative (PSA), using the Risk Monitor, the implications on safety of all the tasks, assuring that the global safety of the Plant is always maintained. Tech. Spec. are analyzed in detail and also are analyzed situations of simultaneous unavailabilities of systems which could lead to a high risk situation. Two different risk controls are defined (punctual and accumulated) to assure that high risk situations will not be given. Finally, historical risk profile is analyzed to assure that the accumulated risk increase is not significant. Risk Monitor helps staff in the schedule and follow-up of the activities of On-Line Maintenance. Each one of the tasks are deeply planned and harshly analyzed and are carried out by high qualified workers. By the moment, this program is running with fully satisfaction on the Plant. (Author)

  5. SOL: INNOVACIÓN ON-LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Faúndez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Las aplicaciones de simulación tienden a ser cada vez más cercanas a usuarios e industrias. Sin embargo, muchas de ellas no poseen ni la capacidad ni el conocimiento como para desarrollar internamente sus modelos de simulación. Por este motivo, y como una forma de apoyar la toma de decisiones basándose en modelos de simulación, se presenta la plataforma SOL (Simulación On Line. La metodología completa de trabajo, así como la interacción entre SOL, Empresa y Asesor, son presentadas. Su base de datos, los niveles de usuarios, sus funcionalidades, y la creación automatizada de información grafica y visual, también son explicadas. En el caso de aplicación, el uso de SOL para apoyar la toma de decisiones en una operación de movimiento de material, permite a los tomadores de decisión acceder a análisis robustos basados en información extraída de los modelos de simulación. SOL, al almacenar información, funcionar vía web, generar análisis automatizados y crear visualizaciones, permite cumplir con las expectativas de los usuarios respecto a una solución integral en simulación.

  6. Simplified automatic on-line document searching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio

    1983-01-01

    The author proposed searching method for users who need not-comprehensive retrieval. That is to provide flexible number of related documents for the users automatically. A group of technical terms are used as search terms to express an inquiry. Logical sums of the terms in the ascending order of frequency of the usage are prepared sequentially and automatically, and then the search formulas, qsub(m) and qsub(m-1) which meet certain threshold values are selected automatically also. Users justify precision of the search output up to 20 items retrieved by the formula qsub(m). If a user wishes more than 30% of recall ratio, the serach result should be output by qsub(m), and if he wishes less than 30% of it, it should be output by qsub(m-1). The search by this method using one year volume of INIS Database (76,600 items) and five inquiries resulted in 32% of recall ratio and 36% of precision ratio on the average in the case of qsub(m). The connecting time of a terminal was within 15 minutes per an inquiry. It showed more efficiency than that of an inexperienced searcher. The method can be applied to on-line searching system for database in which natural language only or natural language and controlled vocabulary are used. (author)

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Palladium and Platinum by On-line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with an on-line enrichment technique. Prior to ... The on-line enrichment system (Waters Corporation, USA) that was ... Using an appropriate volume (industrial plant effluents 20 mL,.

  8. Comportamento do Consumidor On-line: a perspectiva da teoria do fluxoOn-line Consumer Behavior: the flow theory perspectiveComportamiento del consumidor On-line: la perspectiva de la teoría del flujo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARIAS, Salomão Alencar de

    2008-03-01

    is its applicableness for achieving consumer satisfaction in the purchase by the Internet. It was used a descriptive methodology with the application of a survey to a sample of 237 electronic retail consumers. Collected data was analyzed by means of multivariate statistical techniques and results indicated that the on-line environment and the telepresence precede the flow, that in turn is associated to the exploratory behavior, positive effect of the navigation process, purchase and satisfaction with the purchase process.RESUMENEste artículo investiga el comportamiento del consumidor por Internet con base en el flujo, definido como la sensación holística que las personas sienten cuando realizan una actividad totalmente involucradas (CSIKSZENTMIHALYI, 1975. Esta teoría se utiliza para comprender mejor la conducta de compra por medio de la Internet, aunque este concepto todavía no esté muy claro en la literatura sobre el comportamiento del consumidor, puesto que no existe un consenso con respecto a los factores que preceden, caracterizan o son consecuencia del estado de flujo. De este modo, esta investigación buscó identificar los constructos relacionados con el estado de flujo que deben formar parte del esquema de comportamiento de la compra on line, además de indicar cuál es su aplicabilidad para obtención de la satisfacción del consumidor en la compra por la red. Fue utilizada una metodología del carácter descriptivo mediante aplicación de survey a una muestra de 237 consumidores de venta electrónica al por menor. Los datos recogidos se analizaron por medio de técnicas estadísticas multivariadas. Los resultados indicaron que el ambiente on line y la telepresencia preceden al flujo, que a su vez está asociado a la conducta exploratoria, un efecto positivo del proceso de navegación, compra y satisfacción con el proceso de compra.

  9. A mixed signal ECG processing platform with an adaptive sampling ADC for portable monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejung; Van Hoof, Chris; Yazicioglu, Refet Firat

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a mixed-signal ECG processing platform with an 12-bit ADC architecture that can adapt its sampling rate according to the input signals rate of change. This enables the sampling of ECG signals with significantly reduced data rate without loss of information. The presented adaptive sampling scheme reduces the ADC power consumption, enables the processing of ECG signals with lower power consumption, and reduces the power consumption of the radio while streaming the ECG signals. The test results show that running a CWT-based R peak detection algorithm using the adaptively sampled ECG signals consumes only 45.6 μW and it leads to 36% less overall system power consumption.

  10. On-line curriculum education for teaching and learning process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fast growth and rise in number of tertiary institutions in Nigeria has been unpleasantly turning away large numbers of qualified applicants due to lack of facilities. To solve some of these problems, the use of ICT through E-Learning have major role to play. This research work discusses and elaborates the importance of ...

  11. Aria Sardinia: the on line community joining tradition and innovatiom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Lao

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The "ARIA Sardinia" project (Network Actions for Italians Abroad has been especially designed to integrate and give value to the network of relationships between public administrations, local socio-economic stakeholders and Italian communities abroad, this goal to be pursued with the support of new technologies and learning approaches emerging within the context of on line interest communities. The general objective of the project is the development of competencies and knowledge, intended to combine specific technical skills with local "territorial knowledge", in a process where the strengthening and the dissemination of these forms of culture come from the prompt use of innovative tools. The main activities of the project are the actions intended to guide and assist entrepreneurs, associations, development projects' partners or promoters in the path of acquisition and dissemination of the competencies which are necessary to the involvement of Italians abroad into the internationalization process of Sardinian economy. ARIA Sardinia was funded by the Italian Foreign Affairs Ministry and the European Social Fund (FSE, within the framework of the National Operational Program for Technical Assistance and System Action (PON ATAS aimed at specific promotion initiatives and fostering of permanent links between Southern Italy economy and Italians living abroad. Keywords: on line community, networking, Italians abroad, Sardinian economy, Sardinia, culture.

  12. The Automated Threaded Fastening Based on On-line Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Ivan Giannoccaro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The principle of the thread fastenings have been known and used for decades with the purpose of joining one component to another. Threaded fastenings are popular because they permit easy disassembly for maintenance, repair, relocation and recycling. Screw insertions are typically carried out manually. It is a difficult problem to automat. As a result there is very little published research on automating threaded fastenings, and most research on automated assembly focus on the peg-in-hole assembly problem. This paper investigates the problem of automated monitoring of the screw insertion process. The monitoring problem deals with predicting integrity of a threaded insertion, based on the torque vs. insertion depth curve generated during the insertions. The authors have developed an analytical model to predict the torque signature signals during self-tapping screw insertions. However, the model requires parameters on the screw dimensions and plate material properties are difficult to measure. This paper presents a study on on-line identification during screw fastenings. An identification methodology for two unknown parameter estimation during a self-tapping screw insertion process is presented. It is shown that friction and screw properties required by the model can be reliably estimated on-line. Experimental results are presented to validate the identification procedure.

  13. Automatic drawing and CAD actualization in processing data of radiant sampling in physics prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinsheng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper discussed a method of processing radiant sampling data with computer. By this method can get expain the curve of radiant sampling data, and we can combine mineral masses and analyse and calculate them, then record the result on Notebook. There are many merites of this method: easy to learn, simple to use, high efficient. It adapts to all sorts of mines. (authors)

  14. Automatic drawing and cad actualiztion in processing data of radiant sampling in physics prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinsheng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper discussed a method of processing radiant sampling data with computer. By this method can get explain the curve of radiant sampling data, and we can combine mineral masses and analyses and calculate them, then record the result on Notebook. There are many merites of this method: easy to learn, simple to use, high efficient. It adapts to all sorts of mines. (authors)

  15. Influence of visualization on consumption during on-line shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Hictaler, Urška

    2013-01-01

    This diploma work studies the influence of visualization on consumption during on-line shopping. The first part of the thesis starts with key areas of visualization, consumption and on-line shopping. Visualization, areas of use, human perception and ways of product presentation in on-line shops are defined discussed first. Next, consumption, consumers and factors that influence their decisions and satisfaction are defined. The last topic in the first part of the thesis discusses on-line shopp...

  16. Dry sample storage system for an analytical laboratory supporting plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treibs, H.A.; Hartenstein, S.D.; Griebenow, B.L.; Wade, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Special Isotope Separation (SIS) plant is designed to provide removal of undesirable isotopes in fuel grade plutonium by the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. The AVLIS process involves evaporation of plutonium metal, and passage of an intense beam of light from a laser through the plutonium vapor. The laser beam consists of several discrete wavelengths, tuned to the precise wavelength required to ionize the undesired isotopes. These ions are attracted to charged plates, leaving the bulk of the plutonium vapor enriched in the desired isotopes to be collected on a cold plate. Major portions of the process consist of pyrochemical processes, including direct reduction of the plutonium oxide feed material with calcium metal, and aqueous processes for purification of plutonium in residues. The analytical laboratory for the plant is called the Material and Process Control Laboratory (MPCL), and provides for the analysis of solid and liquid process samples

  17. Optimized convective transport with automated pressure control in on-line postdilution hemodiafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyeux, V; Sijpkens, Y; Haddj-Elmrabet, A; Bijvoet, A J; Nilsson, L-G

    2008-11-01

    In a stable patient population we evaluated on-line postdilution hemodiafiltration (HDF) on the incremental improvement in blood purification versus high-flux HD, using the same dialyzer and blood flow rate. For HDF we used a new way of controlling HDF treatments based on the concept of constant pressure control where the trans-membrane pressure is automatically set by the machine using a feedback loop on the achieved filtration (HDF UC). We enrolled 20 patients on on-line HDF treatment and during a 4-week study period recorded key treatment parameters in HDF UC. For one mid-week study treatment performed in HD and one midweek HDF UC treatment we sampled blood and spent dialysate to evaluate the removal of small- and middle-sized solutes. We achieved 18+/-3 liters of ultrafiltration in four-hour HDF UC treatments, corresponding to 27+/-3% of the treated blood volume. That percentage varied by patient hematocrit level. The ultrafiltration amounted to 49+/-4% of the estimated plasma water volume treated. We noted few machine alarms. For beta2m and factor D the effective reduction in plasma level by HDF (76+/-6% and 43+/-9%, respectively) was significantly greater than in HD, and a similar relation was seen in mass recovered in spent dialysate. Small solute removal was similar in HDF and HD. Albumin loss was low. The additional convective transport provided by on-line HDF significantly improved the removal of middle molecules when all other treatment settings were equal. Using the automated pressure control mode in HDF, the convective volume depended on the blood volume processed and the patient hematocrit level.

  18. Highly oriented Bi-system bulk sample prepared by a decomposition-crystallization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Zhengping; Zhou Lian; Ji Chunlin

    1992-01-01

    A decomposition-crystallization method, preparing highly oriented Bi-system bulk sample is reported. The effects of processing parameter, decomposition temperature, cooling rate and post-treatment condition on texture and superconductivity are investigated. The method has successfully prepared highly textured Bi-system bulk samples. High temperature annealing does not destroy the growing texture, but the cooling rate has some effect on texture and superconductivity. Annealing in N 2 /O 2 atmosphere can improve superconductivity of the textured sample. The study on the superconductivity of the Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O bulk material has been reported in numerous papers. The research on J c concentrates on the tape containing the 2223 phase, with very few studies on the J c of bulk sample. The reason for the lack of studies is that the change of superconducting phases at high temperatures has not been known. The authors have reported that the 2212 phase incongruently melted at about 875 degrees C and proceeded to orient the c-axis perpendicular to the surface in the process of crystallization of the 2212 phase. Based on that result, a decomposition-crystallization method was proposed to prepare highly oriented Bi-system bulk sample. In this paper, the process is described in detail and the effects of processing parameters on texture and superconductivity are reported

  19. A Distributed System for Learning Programming On-Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Elena; Regueras, Luisa M.; Verdu, Maria J.; Leal, Jose P.; de Castro, Juan P.; Queiros, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Several Web-based on-line judges or on-line programming trainers have been developed in order to allow students to train their programming skills. However, their pedagogical functionalities in the learning of programming have not been clearly defined. EduJudge is a project which aims to integrate the "UVA On-line Judge", an existing…

  20. RAPID PROCESSING OF ARCHIVAL TISSUE SAMPLES FOR PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS USING PRESSURE-CYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinuth N. Puttamallesh1,2

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Advent of mass spectrometry based proteomics has revolutionized our ability to study proteins from biological specimen in a high-throughput manner. Unlike cell line based studies, biomedical research involving tissue specimen is often challenging due to limited sample availability. In addition, investigation of clinically relevant research questions often requires enormous amount of time for sample collection prospectively. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE archived tissue samples are a rich source of tissue specimen for biomedical research. However, there are several challenges associated with analysing FFPE samples. Protein cross-linking and degradation of proteins particularly affects proteomic analysis. We demonstrate that barocycler that uses pressure-cycling technology enables efficient protein extraction and processing of small amounts of FFPE tissue samples for proteomic analysis. We identified 3,525 proteins from six 10µm esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC tissue sections. Barocycler allows efficient protein extraction and proteolytic digestion of proteins from FFPE tissue sections at par with conventional methods.

  1. Virtual sampling in variational processing of Monte Carlo simulation in a deep neutron penetration problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allagi, Mabruk O.; Lewins, Jeffery D.

    1999-01-01

    In a further study of virtually processed Monte Carlo estimates in neutron transport, a shielding problem has been studied. The use of virtual sampling to estimate the importance function at a certain point in the phase space depends on the presence of neutrons from the real source at that point. But in deep penetration problems, not many neutrons will reach regions far away from the source. In order to overcome this problem, two suggestions are considered: (1) virtual sampling is used as far as the real neutrons can reach, then fictitious sampling is introduced for the remaining regions, distributed in all the regions, or (2) only one fictitious source is placed where the real neutrons almost terminate and then virtual sampling is used in the same way as for the real source. Variational processing is again found to improve the Monte Carlo estimates, being best when using one fictitious source in the far regions with virtual sampling (option 2). When fictitious sources are used to estimate the importances in regions far away from the source, some optimization has to be performed for the proportion of fictitious to real sources, weighted against accuracy and computational costs. It has been found in this study that the optimum number of cells to be treated by fictitious sampling is problem dependent, but as a rule of thumb, fictitious sampling should be employed in regions where the number of neutrons from the real source fall below a specified limit for good statistics

  2. Relationships between processing delay and microbial load of broiler neck skin samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucianez, A; Holmes, M A; Tucker, A W

    2010-01-01

    The measurable microbial load on poultry carcasses during processing is determined by a number of factors including farm or origin, processing hygiene, and external temperature. This study investigated associations between carcass microbial load and progressive delays to processing. A total of 30 carcasses were delayed immediately after defeathering and before evisceration in a commercial abattoir in groups of five, and were held at ambient temperature for 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h. Delayed carcasses were reintroduced to the processing line, and quantitative assessment of total viable count, coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas spp. was undertaken on neck skin flap samples collected after carcass chilling and then pooled for each group. Sampling was repeated on 5 separate days, and the data were combined. Significant increases in total viable count (P = 0.001) and coliforms (P = 0.004), but not for S. aureus or Pseudomonas loads, were observed across the 8-h period of delay. In line with previous studies, there was significant variation in microbiological data according to sampling day. In conclusion, there is a significant and measurable decline in microbiological status of uneviscerated but defeathered poultry carcasses after an 8-h delay, but the variability of sampling results, reflecting the wide range of factors that impact microbial load, means that it is not possible to determine maximum or minimum acceptable periods of processing delay based on this criterion alone.

  3. Sampling phased array - a new technique for ultrasonic signal processing and imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Verkooijen, J.; Boulavinov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the improvement in the field of microelectronics and computer engineering has led to significant advances in ultrasonic signal processing and image construction techniques that are currently being applied to non-destructive material evaluation. A new phased array technique, called 'Sampling Phased Array', has been developed in the Fraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing([1]). It realises a unique approach of measurement and processing of ultrasonic signals. Th...

  4. Sampling phased array, a new technique for ultrasonic signal processing and imaging now available to industry

    OpenAIRE

    Verkooijen, J.; Bulavinov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years the improvement in the field of microelectronics and computer engineering has led to significant advances in ultrasonic signal processing and image construction techniques that are currently being applied to non-destructive material evaluation. A new phased array technique, called "Sampling Phased Array" has been developed in the Fraunhofer Institute for non-destructive testing [1]. It realizes a unique approach of measurement and processing of ultrasonic signals. The s...

  5. Rapid DNA analysis for automated processing and interpretation of low DNA content samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turingan, Rosemary S; Vasantgadkar, Sameer; Palombo, Luke; Hogan, Catherine; Jiang, Hua; Tan, Eugene; Selden, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis of casework samples with low DNA content include those resulting from the transfer of epithelial cells from the skin to an object (e.g., cells on a water bottle, or brim of a cap), blood spatter stains, and small bone and tissue fragments. Low DNA content (LDC) samples are important in a wide range of settings, including disaster response teams to assist in victim identification and family reunification, military operations to identify friend or foe, criminal forensics to identify suspects and exonerate the innocent, and medical examiner and coroner offices to identify missing persons. Processing LDC samples requires experienced laboratory personnel, isolated workstations, and sophisticated equipment, requires transport time, and involves complex procedures. We present a rapid DNA analysis system designed specifically to generate STR profiles from LDC samples in field-forward settings by non-technical operators. By performing STR in the field, close to the site of collection, rapid DNA analysis has the potential to increase throughput and to provide actionable information in real time. A Low DNA Content BioChipSet (LDC BCS) was developed and manufactured by injection molding. It was designed to function in the fully integrated Accelerated Nuclear DNA Equipment (ANDE) instrument previously designed for analysis of buccal swab and other high DNA content samples (Investigative Genet. 4(1):1-15, 2013). The LDC BCS performs efficient DNA purification followed by microfluidic ultrafiltration of the purified DNA, maximizing the quantity of DNA available for subsequent amplification and electrophoretic separation and detection of amplified fragments. The system demonstrates accuracy, precision, resolution, signal strength, and peak height ratios appropriate for casework analysis. The LDC rapid DNA analysis system is effective for the generation of STR profiles from a wide range of sample types. The technology broadens the range of sample

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    Thermo Power Corporation has proven the technical viability of an on-line, real-time alpha radionuclide instrument for aqueous sample analysis through laboratory and initial field tests of the instrument. The instrument has been shown to be isotonically sensitive to extremely low (ten parts per trillion, or femto Curies per liter) levels of a broad range of radioisotopes. Performance enhancement and other scaling data obtained during the course of this investigation have shown that on-line, real-time operation is possible, with a sub 30-minute response time analyzing 20 ppb (30 pCi/1) natural uranium. Now that these initial field tests in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have been successfully completed, Thermo Power plans to conduct comprehensive field tests of the instrument. The purpose of these endurance tests will be to determine the endurance characteristics of the Thermo Alpha Monitor for Water when it is used by non-Thermo Power personnel in a series of one or more extended field tests. Such endurance testing is the vital next step towards the commercialization of the Alpha Monitor. Subsequently, it will be possible to provide the DOE with an instrument that has the capability of obtaining rapid feedback about the concentrations of alpha-emitting isotope contamination in effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area). It will also be useful for process control of remediation and D and D operations such as monitoring scrubber/rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste, Plutonium and D and D Focus Areas)

  7. Development and Integration of on-line Data Analysis for the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE detector setup is a dedicated experiment in Heavy Ion Physics, located at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)/ Geneva. Its various sub-detectors are electronically read out by a few millions of channels and are expected to provide a huge sample of data for the investigation of strongly interacting matter. A data rate of up to 25 GByte/s imposes a challenge to both storage facilities and subsequent data analysis. On-line data processing is applied in order to reduce the data volume and selection of interesting events is suggested to increase the valuable information in the recorded data. In general, trigger systems cover the task of event selection. As the first signal needs to be available immediately after the collision, often a multi-level triggering scheme is applied. Fast detectors are deployed to generate different levels of hardware triggers. Subsequent software triggers accomplish event selection on the basis of on-line analysis. A High-Lev...

  8. The Monitor System for the LHCb on-line farm

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifazi, F; Carbone, A; Galli, D; Gregori, D; Marconi, U; Peco, G; Vagnoni, V

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb on-line farm Monitor System is to keep under control all the working indicators which are relevant for the farm operation, and to set the appropriate alarms whenever an error or a critical condition comes up. Since the most stressing tasks of the farm are the data transfer and processing, relevant indicators includes the CPU and the memory load of the system, the network interface and the TCP/IP stack parameters, the rates of the interrupts raised by the network interface card and the detailed status of the running processes. The monitoring of computers’ physical conditions (temperatures, fan speeds and motherboard voltages) are the subject of a separate technical note, since they are accessed in a different way, by using the IPMI protocol.

  9. Data Validation Package May 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Lakeview, Oregon, Processing Site August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Hall, Steve [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This biennial event includes sampling five groundwater locations (four monitoring wells and one domestic well) at the Lakeview, Oregon, Processing Site. For this event, the domestic well (location 0543) could not be sampled because no one was in residence during the sampling event (Note: notification was provided to the resident prior to the event). Per Appendix A of the Groundwater Compliance Action Plan, sampling is conducted to monitor groundwater quality on a voluntary basis. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). One duplicate sample was collected from location 0505. Water levels were measured at each sampled monitoring well. The constituents monitored at the Lakeview site are manganese and sulfate. Monitoring locations that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels for these constituents are listed in Table 1. Review of time-concentration graphs included in this report indicate that manganese and sulfate concentrations are consistent with historical measurements.

  10. Study on infrasonic characteristics of coal samples in failure process under uniaxial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Jia

    Full Text Available To study the precursory failure infrasonic characteristics of coal samples, coal rock stress loading system and infrasonic wave acquisition system were adopted, and infrasonic tests in uniaxial loading process were made for the coal samples in the studied area. Wavelet filtering, fast Fourier transform, and relative infrasonic energy methods were used to analyze the characteristics of the infrasonic waves in the loading process, including time domain characteristics, and relative energy. The analysis results demonstrated that the frequencies of the infrasonic signals in the loading process mainly distribute within 5–10 Hz, which are significantly different from noise signals. The changes of the infrasonic signals show clear periodic characters in time domain. Meanwhile, the relative energy changes of the infrasonic wave also show periodic characters, which are divided into two stages by the yield limit of coal samples, and are clear and easy to be recognized, so that they can be used as the precursory characteristics for recognizing coal sample failures. Moreover, the infrasonic waves generated by coal samples have low frequency and low attenuation, which can be collected without coupling and transmitted in long distance. This study provides an important support for the further in-situ prediction of coal rock failures. Keywords: Infrasound, Relative energy, Time-frequency analysis, Failure prediction, Identification feature

  11. A novel approach to process carbonate samples for radiocarbon measurements with helium carrier gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, L., E-mail: wacker@phys.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Fueloep, R.-H. [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, 50674 Cologne (Germany); Hajdas, I. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Molnar, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Rethemeyer, J. [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, 50674 Cologne (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Most laboratories prepare carbonates samples for radiocarbon analysis by acid decomposition in evacuated glass tubes and subsequent reduction of the evolved CO{sub 2} to graphite in self-made reduction manifolds. This process is time consuming and labor intensive. In this work, we have tested a new approach for the preparation of carbonate samples, where any high-vacuum system is avoided and helium is used as a carrier gas. The liberation of CO{sub 2} from carbonates with phosphoric acid is performed in a similar way as it is often done in stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry where CO{sub 2} is released with acid in septum sealed tube under helium atmosphere. The formed CO{sub 2} is later flushed in a helium flow by means of a double-walled needle mounted from the tubes to the zeolite trap of the automated graphitization equipment (AGE). It essentially replaces the elemental analyzer normally used for the combustion of organic samples. The process can be fully automated from sampling the released CO{sub 2} in the septum-sealed tubes with a commercially available auto-sampler to the graphitization with the automated graphitization. The new method yields in low sample blanks of about 50000 years. Results of processed reference materials (IAEA-C2, FIRI-C) are in agreement with their consensus values.

  12. Limit theory for the sample autocorrelations and extremes of a GARCH (1,1) process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikosch, T; Starica, C

    2000-01-01

    The asymptotic theory for the sample autocorrelations and extremes of a GARCH(I, 1) process is provided. Special attention is given to the case when the sum of the ARCH and GARCH parameters is close to 1, that is, when one is close to an infinite Variance marginal distribution. This situation has

  13. Unambiguous range-Doppler LADAR processing using 2 giga-sample-per-second noise waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Z.; Roos, P.A.; Berg, T.; Kaylor, B.; Merkel, K.D.; Babbitt, W.R.; Reibel, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate sub-nanosecond range and unambiguous sub-50-Hz Doppler resolved laser radar (LADAR) measurements using spectral holographic processing in rare-earth ion doped crystals. The demonstration utilizes pseudo-random-noise 2 giga-sample-per-second baseband waveforms modulated onto an optical carrier

  14. Comparison of room temperature and cyrogenic sample processing in the analysis of chemical contaminants in foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, analytical results were compared when using different approaches to bulk food sample comminution, consisting of a vertical chopper (Blixer) at room temperature and at dry ice cryogenic conditions, followed by further subsample processing (20 g) using liquid nitrogen cryogenic conditio...

  15. Unambiguous range-Doppler LADAR processing using 2 giga-sample-per-second noise waveforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Z. [S2 Corporation, 2310 University Way 4-1, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States)]. E-mail: cole@s2corporation.com; Roos, P.A. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, P.O. Box 173510, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Berg, T. [S2 Corporation, 2310 University Way 4-1, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States); Kaylor, B. [S2 Corporation, 2310 University Way 4-1, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States); Merkel, K.D. [S2 Corporation, 2310 University Way 4-1, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States); Babbitt, W.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, P.O. Box 173510, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Reibel, R.R. [S2 Corporation, 2310 University Way 4-1, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    We demonstrate sub-nanosecond range and unambiguous sub-50-Hz Doppler resolved laser radar (LADAR) measurements using spectral holographic processing in rare-earth ion doped crystals. The demonstration utilizes pseudo-random-noise 2 giga-sample-per-second baseband waveforms modulated onto an optical carrier.

  16. Sampling and Hydrogeology of the Vadose Zone Beneath the 300 Area Process Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2004-01-01

    Four open pits were dug with a backhoe into the vadose zone beneath the former 300 Area Process Ponds in April 2003. Samples were collected about every 2 feet for physical, chemical, and/or microbiological characterization. This reports presents a stratigraphic and geohydrologic summary of the four excavations

  17. Amdel on-line analyser at Rooiberg Tin Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, T.V.

    1987-01-01

    An Amdel on line analysis system was installed on the 'A' mine tin flotation plant at Rooiberg in April 1984. The motivation for the installation was made on account of the large variations in the feed grade to the plant and the resulting need for rapid operational adjustments to control concentrate grades thereby maximising the financial returns. An 'on-line' analyser system presented itself as a suitable alternative to the existing control method of smaller laboratory x-ray fluorescence analysers. On the system as installed at Rooiberg, two probes were fitted in each analysis zone, viz a density probe using high energy gamma radiation from a Cesium 127 source and a specific element absorption probe using low energy gamma radiation from a Americium 241 source. The signals as received from the probes are fed to a line receiver unit in the control room where a micro computer is doing the processing and prints out the information as required. Several advantages of this type of installation were gained at Rooiberg Tin Limited

  18. Pippi — Painless parsing, post-processing and plotting of posterior and likelihood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Pat

    2012-11-01

    Interpreting samples from likelihood or posterior probability density functions is rarely as straightforward as it seems it should be. Producing publication-quality graphics of these distributions is often similarly painful. In this short note I describe pippi, a simple, publicly available package for parsing and post-processing such samples, as well as generating high-quality PDF graphics of the results. Pippi is easily and extensively configurable and customisable, both in its options for parsing and post-processing samples, and in the visual aspects of the figures it produces. I illustrate some of these using an existing supersymmetric global fit, performed in the context of a gamma-ray search for dark matter. Pippi can be downloaded and followed at http://github.com/patscott/pippi.

  19. Marine sediment sample pre-processing for macroinvertebrates metabarcoding: mechanical enrichment and homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Aylagas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabarcoding is an accurate and cost-effective technique that allows for simultaneous taxonomic identification of multiple environmental samples. Application of this technique to marine benthic macroinvertebrate biodiversity assessment for biomonitoring purposes requires standardization of laboratory and data analysis procedures. In this context, protocols for creation and sequencing of amplicon libraries and their related bioinformatics analysis have been recently published. However, a standardized protocol describing all previous steps (i.e. processing and manipulation of environmental samples for macroinvertebrate community characterization is lacking. Here, we provide detailed procedures for benthic environmental sample collection, processing, enrichment for macroinvertebrates, homogenization, and subsequent DNA extraction for metabarcoding analysis. Since this is the first protocol of this kind, it should be of use to any researcher in this field, having the potential for improvement.

  20. X-Ray Computed Tomography: The First Step in Mars Sample Return Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzenbach, L. C.; Fries, M. D.; Grady, M. M.; Greenwood, R. C.; McCubbin, F. M.; Zeigler, R. A.; Smith, C. L.; Steele, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars 2020 rover mission will collect and cache samples from the martian surface for possible retrieval and subsequent return to Earth. If the samples are returned, that mission would likely present an opportunity to analyze returned Mars samples within a geologic context on Mars. In addition, it may provide definitive information about the existence of past or present life on Mars. Mars sample return presents unique challenges for the collection, containment, transport, curation and processing of samples [1] Foremost in the processing of returned samples are the closely paired considerations of life detection and Planetary Protection. In order to achieve Mars Sample Return (MSR) science goals, reliable analyses will depend on overcoming some challenging signal/noise-related issues where sparse martian organic compounds must be reliably analyzed against the contamination background. While reliable analyses will depend on initial clean acquisition and robust documentation of all aspects of developing and managing the cache [2], there needs to be a reliable sample handling and analysis procedure that accounts for a variety of materials which may or may not contain evidence of past or present martian life. A recent report [3] suggests that a defined set of measurements should be made to effectively inform both science and Planetary Protection, when applied in the context of the two competing null hypotheses: 1) that there is no detectable life in the samples; or 2) that there is martian life in the samples. The defined measurements would include a phased approach that would be accepted by the community to preserve the bulk of the material, but provide unambiguous science data that can be used and interpreted by various disciplines. Fore-most is the concern that the initial steps would ensure the pristine nature of the samples. Preliminary, non-invasive techniques such as computed X-ray tomography (XCT) have been suggested as the first method to interrogate and

  1. On-line NIR analysis of fat, water and protein in industrial scale ground meat batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøgersen, G; Isaksson, T; Nilsen, B N; Bakker, E A; Hildrum, K I

    1999-01-01

    Fat, water and protein contents in industrial scale meat batches were determined on-line by near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. The NIR instrument was mounted at the outlet of a large meat grinder, and the measurements were performed in an industrial environment. Beef and pork samples, with chemical compositions of 7-26% fat, 58-75% water and 15-21% protein, were processed with hole diameters of 13mm in the grinder plate. Calibrations were made both for a combined set of beef and pork samples, and for separate sets of beef and pork samples. Validations were either done by full cross validation of the calibration set, or by bias corrected prediction of a test set. Prediction errors for the two sample sets, expressed as root mean square errors of cross validation or standard error of prediction, were in the ranges 0.82-1.49% fat, 0.94-1.33% water and 0.35-0.70% protein, depending of sample set and species of animal. The presented application is an improvement to the existing manual meat standardisation procedure, and has been implemented for regular use in a Norwegian meat manufacturing plant.

  2. On-line measurement of moisture content of powdered food using microwave free-space transmission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Park, Seong Un; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Jong Heon; Lee, ChanJoo

    2006-01-01

    The moisture content of food is not only the most important quality factor but also one of the essential parameters affecting their physical and chemical properties related to storage, capability of processing and quality control. The moisture measurement technique using microwave is very attractive because that method has merits of rapid and accurate measurement in the wider range of moisture content, simple implementation and inexpensive compared with other methods. In this study, microwave free-space transmission technique was applied to measure the moisture content of powdered food. The on-line measurement system consisting of microwave system with 2.5 GHz, 7.0 GHz and 10.5 GHz, conveying device to move the food samples, inlet and outlet of the food samples, guide plate to control the thickness of the food samples, temperature sensing nit, taco-meter and central processing unit having analog to digital convert and microprocessor was constructed and its performance was evaluated.

  3. Improvements to sample processing and measurement to enable more widespread environmental application of tritium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, James; Alexander, Thomas; Aalseth, Craig; Back, Henning; Mace, Emily; Overman, Cory; Seifert, Allen; Freeburg, Wilcox

    2017-08-01

    Previous measurements have demonstrated the wealth of information that tritium (T) can provide on environmentally relevant processes. We present modifications to sample preparation approaches that enable T measurement by proportional counting on small sample sizes equivalent to 120mg of water and demonstrate the accuracy of these methods on a suite of standardized water samples. We identify a current quantification limit of 92.2 TU which, combined with our small sample sizes, correlates to as little as 0.00133Bq of total T activity. This enhanced method should provide the analytical flexibility needed to address persistent knowledge gaps in our understanding of both natural and artificial T behavior in the environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Note: A simple image processing based fiducial auto-alignment method for sample registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Wesley D; Porto, Lucas R; Ip, Candice J X; Nantel, Megan K T; Tellkamp, Friedjof; Lu, Yinfei; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2015-08-01

    A simple method for the location and auto-alignment of sample fiducials for sample registration using widely available MATLAB/LabVIEW software is demonstrated. The method is robust, easily implemented, and applicable to a wide variety of experiment types for improved reproducibility and increased setup speed. The software uses image processing to locate and measure the diameter and center point of circular fiducials for distance self-calibration and iterative alignment and can be used with most imaging systems. The method is demonstrated to be fast and reliable in locating and aligning sample fiducials, provided here by a nanofabricated array, with accuracy within the optical resolution of the imaging system. The software was further demonstrated to register, load, and sample the dynamically wetted array.

  5. Beyond accessibility? Toward an on-line and memory-based model of framing effects

    OpenAIRE

    Matthes, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    This theoretical article investigates the effects of media frames on individuals' judgments. In contrast to previous theorizing, we suggest that framing scholars should embrace both, on-line and memory-based judgment formation processes. Based on that premise, we propose a model that distinguishes between two phases of framing effects. Along the first phase, the media's framing contributes to the formation of an on-line or a memory-based judgment. The second phase describes six hypothetical r...

  6. Field experience with advanced methods of on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion degradation in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellwag, B.; Aaltonen, P.; Hickling, J.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced methods for on-line, in-situ water chemistry and corrosion monitoring in nuclear power stations have been developed during the past decade. The terms ''on-line'' and ''in-situ'' characterize approaches involving continuous measurement of relevant parameters in high temperature water, preferably directly in the systems and components and not in removed samples at room temperature. This paper describes the field experience to-date with such methods in terms of three examples: (1) On-line chemistry monitoring of the primary coolant during shutdown of a Type WWER-440 PWR. (2) Redox and corrosion potential measurements in final feedwater preheaters and steam generators of two large KWU PWRs over several cycles of plant operation. (3) Real-time, in-situ corrosion surveillance inside the calundia vault of a CANDU reactor. The way in which water chemistry sensors and corrosion monitoring sensors complement each other is outlined: on-line, in-situ measurement of pH, conductivity and redox potential gives information about the possible corrosivity of the environment. Electrochemical noise techniques display signals of corrosion activity under the actual environmental conditions. A common experience gained from separate use of these different types of sensors has been that new and additional information about plants and their actual process conditions is obtained. Moreover, they reveal the intimate relationship between the operational situation and its consequences for the quality of the working fluid and the corrosion behaviour of the plant materials. On this basis, the efficiency of the existing chemistry sampling and control system can be checked and corrosion degradation can be minimized. Furthermore, activity buildup in the primary circuit can be studied. Further significant advantages can be expected from an integration of these various types of sensors into a common water chemistry and corrosion surveillance system. For confirmation, a complete set of sensors

  7. Field experience with advanced methods of on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion degradation in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stellwag, B [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Aaltonen, P [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hickling, J [CML GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Advanced methods for on-line, in-situ water chemistry and corrosion monitoring in nuclear power stations have been developed during the past decade. The terms ``on-line`` and ``in-situ`` characterize approaches involving continuous measurement of relevant parameters in high temperature water, preferably directly in the systems and components and not in removed samples at room temperature. This paper describes the field experience to-date with such methods in terms of three examples: (1) On-line chemistry monitoring of the primary coolant during shutdown of a Type WWER-440 PWR. (2) Redox and corrosion potential measurements in final feedwater preheaters and steam generators of two large KWU PWRs over several cycles of plant operation. (3) Real-time, in-situ corrosion surveillance inside the calundia vault of a CANDU reactor. The way in which water chemistry sensors and corrosion monitoring sensors complement each other is outlined: on-line, in-situ measurement of pH, conductivity and redox potential gives information about the possible corrosivity of the environment. Electrochemical noise techniques display signals of corrosion activity under the actual environmental conditions. A common experience gained from separate use of these different types of sensors has been that new and additional information about plants and their actual process conditions is obtained. Moreover, they reveal the intimate relationship between the operational situation and its consequences for the quality of the working fluid and the corrosion behaviour of the plant materials. On this basis, the efficiency of the existing chemistry sampling and control system can be checked and corrosion degradation can be minimized. Furthermore, activity buildup in the primary circuit can be studied. Further significant advantages can be expected from an integration of these various types of sensors into a common water chemistry and corrosion surveillance system. (Abstract Truncated)

  8. On-line monitoring applications at nuclear power plants. A risk informed approach to calibration reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, Ramesh; Hussey, Aaron; Davis, Eddie

    2003-01-01

    On-line monitoring of instrument channels provides increased information about the condition of monitored channels through accurate, more frequent evaluation of each cannel's performance over time. This type of performance monitoring is a methodology that offers an alternate approach to traditional time-directed calibration. EPRI's strategic role in on-line monitoring is to facilitate its implementation and cost-effective use in numerous applications at power plants. To this end, EPRI has sponsored an on-line monitoring implementation project at multiple nuclear plants specifically intended to install and use on-line monitoring technology. The selected on-line monitoring method is based on the Multivariate State Estimation Technique. The project has a planned three-year life; seven plants are participating in the project. The goal is to apply on-line monitoring to all types of power plant applications and document all aspects of the implementation process in a series of EPRI reports. These deliverables cover installation, modeling, optimization, and proven cost-benefit. This paper discusses the actual implementation of on-line monitoring to various nuclear plant instrument systems. Examples of detected instrument drift are provided. (author)

  9. In Situ Visualization of the Phase Behavior of Oil Samples Under Refinery Process Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde-Boutet, Cedric; McCaffrey, William C

    2017-02-21

    To help address production issues in refineries caused by the fouling of process units and lines, we have developed a setup as well as a method to visualize the behavior of petroleum samples under process conditions. The experimental setup relies on a custom-built micro-reactor fitted with a sapphire window at the bottom, which is placed over the objective of an inverted microscope equipped with a cross-polarizer module. Using reflection microscopy enables the visualization of opaque samples, such as petroleum vacuum residues, or asphaltenes. The combination of the sapphire window from the micro-reactor with the cross-polarizer module of the microscope on the light path allows high-contrast imaging of isotropic and anisotropic media. While observations are carried out, the micro-reactor can be heated to the temperature range of cracking reactions (up to 450 °C), can be subjected to H2 pressure relevant to hydroconversion reactions (up to 16 MPa), and can stir the sample by magnetic coupling. Observations are typically carried out by taking snapshots of the sample under cross-polarized light at regular time intervals. Image analyses may not only provide information on the temperature, pressure, and reactive conditions yielding phase separation, but may also give an estimate of the evolution of the chemical (absorption/reflection spectra) and physical (refractive index) properties of the sample before the onset of phase separation.

  10. Software development for on-line computation with PDP 15/76 computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viyogi, Y P; Bhattacharjee, T K; De, S K; Basu, A K; Ganguly, N K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Variable Energy Cyclotron Project

    1979-01-01

    Two important capabilities have been incorporated in the on-line data processing system for the pulse height analysis at VEC, for the processing of data by using codes PHA1 and PHA2, the single parameter and dual parameter data acquisition programs. (1) RDMA is written in assembly language for randomly accessing any element of data from data filing devices. This increases the availability of core so that capability of processing programs can be enhanced. (2) PHARAD, also written in assembly language, converts data files created by acquisition programs into FORTRAN compatible files. These are very essential for on-line processing of data. The on-line data acqujsition and processing by PDP 15/76 using these facilities are discussed.

  11. Automated processing of forensic casework samples using robotic workstations equipped with nondisposable tips: contamination prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frégeau, Chantal J; Lett, C Marc; Elliott, Jim; Yensen, Craig; Fourney, Ron M

    2008-05-01

    An automated process has been developed for the analysis of forensic casework samples using TECAN Genesis RSP 150/8 or Freedom EVO liquid handling workstations equipped exclusively with nondisposable tips. Robot tip cleaning routines have been incorporated strategically within the DNA extraction process as well as at the end of each session. Alternative options were examined for cleaning the tips and different strategies were employed to verify cross-contamination. A 2% sodium hypochlorite wash (1/5th dilution of the 10.8% commercial bleach stock) proved to be the best overall approach for preventing cross-contamination of samples processed using our automated protocol. The bleach wash steps do not adversely impact the short tandem repeat (STR) profiles developed from DNA extracted robotically and allow for major cost savings through the implementation of fixed tips. We have demonstrated that robotic workstations equipped with fixed pipette tips can be used with confidence with properly designed tip washing routines to process casework samples using an adapted magnetic bead extraction protocol.

  12. On-line monitoring system for utility boiler diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radovanovic, P.M.; Afgan, N.H.; Caralho, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the new developed modular type Monitoring System for Utility Boiler Diagnostics. Each module is intended to assess the specific process and can be used as a stand alone application. Four modules are developed, namely: LTC - module for the on-line monitoring of parameters related to the life-time consumption of selected boiler components; TRD - module for the tube rupture detection by the position and working fluid Ieakage quantity; FAM - module for the boiler surfaces fouling (slagging) assessment and FLAP - module for visualization of the boiler furnace flame position. All four modules are tested on respective pilot plants built oil the 200 and 300 MWe utility boilers. Monitoring System is commercially available and can be realized in any combination of its modules depending on demands induced by the operational problems of specific boiler. Further development of Monitoring System is performed in accordance with the respective EU project on development of Boiler Expert System. (Author)

  13. On-line efficiency optimization of a synchronous reluctance motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubin, Thierry; Razik, Hubert; Rezzoug, Abderrezak [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, GREEN, CNRS-UMR 7037, Universite Henri Poincare, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2007-04-15

    This paper deals with an on-line optimum-efficiency control of a synchronous reluctance motor drive. The input power minimization control is implemented with a search controller using Fibonacci search algorithm. It searches the optimal reference value of the d-axis stator current for which the input power is minimum. The input power is calculated from the measured dc-bus current and dc-bus voltage of the inverter. A rotor-oriented vector control of the synchronous reluctance machine with the optimization efficiency controller is achieved with a DSP board (TMS302C31). Experimental results are presented to validate the proposed control methods. It is shown that stability problems can appear during the search process. (author)

  14. On-line Ciphers and the Hash-CBC Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellare, M.; Boldyreva, A.; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a study of on-line ciphers. These are ciphers that can take input plaintexts of large and varying lengths and will output the i th block of the ciphertext after having processed only the first i blocks of the plaintext. Such ciphers permit length-preserving encryption of a data stream...... with only a single pass through the data. We provide security definitions for this primitive and study its basic properties. We then provide attacks on some possible candidates, including CBC with fixed IV. We then provide two constructions, HCBC1 and HCBC2, based on a given block cipher E and a family...... of computationally AXU functions. HCBC1 is proven secure against chosen-plaintext attacks assuming that E is a PRP secure against chosen-plaintext attacks, while HCBC2 is proven secure against chosen-ciphertext attacks assuming that E is a PRP secure against chosen-ciphertext attacks....

  15. Processing a Complex Architectural Sampling with Meshlab: the Case of Piazza della Signoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callieri, M.; Cignoni, P.; Dellepiane, M.; Ranzuglia, G.; Scopigno, R.

    2011-09-01

    The paper presents a recent 3D scanning project performed with long range scanning technology showing how a complex sampled dataset can be processed with the features available in MeshLab, an open source tool. MeshLab is an open source mesh processing system. It is a portable and extensible system aimed to help the processing of the typical not-so-small unstructured models that arise in 3D scanning, providing a set of tools for editing, cleaning, processing, inspecting, rendering and converting meshes. The MeshLab system started in late 2005 as a part of a university course, and considerably evolved since then thanks to the effort of the Visual Computing Lab and of the support of several funded EC projects. MeshLab gained so far an excellent visibility and distribution, with several thousands downloads every month, and a continuous evolution. The aim of this scanning campaign was to sample the façades of the buildings located in Piazza della Signoria (Florence, Italy). This digital 3D model was required, in the framework of a Regional Project, as a basic background model to present a complex set of images using a virtual navigation metaphor (following the PhotoSynth approach). Processing of complex dataset, such as the ones produced by long range scanners, often requires specialized, difficult to use and costly software packages. We show in the paper how it is possible to process this kind of data inside an open source tool, thanks to the many new features recently introduced in MeshLab for the management of large sets of sampled point.

  16. On-line milk spectrometry: analysis of bovine milk composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Kyle; Kuennemeyer, Rainer; Woolford, Murray; Claycomb, Rod

    2005-04-01

    We present partial least squares (PLS) regressions to predict the composition of raw, unhomogenised milk using visible to near infrared spectroscopy. A total of 370 milk samples from individual quarters were collected and analysed on-line by two low cost spectrometers in the wavelength ranges 380-1100 nm and 900-1700 nm. Samples were collected from 22 Friesian, 17 Jersey, 2 Ayrshire and 3 Friesian-Jersey crossbred cows over a period of 7 consecutive days. Transmission spectra were recorded in an inline flowcell through a 0.5 mm thick milk sample. PLS models, where wavelength selection was performed using iterative PLS, were developed for fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell content. The root mean square error of prediction (and correlation coefficient) for the nir and visible spectrometers respectively were 0.70%(0.93) and 0.91%(0.91) for fat, 0.65%(0.5) and 0.47%(0.79) for protein, 0.36%(0.49) and 0.45%(0.43) for lactose, and 0.50(0.54) and 0.48(0.51) for log10 somatic cells.

  17. On-line bacteriological detection in water

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Roldan, Ramon; Tusell, Pol; Courtois, Sophie; Cortina Pallás, José Luís

    2013-01-01

    Microorganism contamination is a permanent concern in a wide range of fields, including the water-treatment, food and pharmaceutical industries, in which fast detection is critical to prevent microbial outbreaks. In water monitoring, current procedures for water-quality analysis are based on periodic sampling and detection by culture methods, which are slow, requiring 24–48 h for completion, so that, when first results reach the decision-takers and trigger an alarm, significant time has a...

  18. PHENIX On-Line Distributed Computing System Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmond, Edmond; Haggerty, John; Kehayias, Hyon Joo; Purschke, Martin L.; Witzig, Chris; Kozlowski, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    PHENIX is one of the two large experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The detector consists of 11 sub-detectors, that are further subdivided into 29 units (''granules'') that can be operated independently, which includes simultaneous data taking with independent data streams and independent triggers. The detector has 250,000 channels and is read out by front end modules, where the data is buffered in a pipeline while awaiting the level trigger decision. Zero suppression and calibration is done after the level accept in custom built data collection modules (DCMs) with DSPs before the data is sent to an event builder (design throughput of 2 Gb/sec) and higher level triggers. The On-line Computing Systems Group (ONCS) has two responsibilities. Firstly it is responsible for receiving the data from the event builder, routing it through a network of workstations to consumer processes and archiving it at a data rate of 20 MB/sec. Secondly it is also responsible for the overall configuration, control and operation of the detector and data acquisition chain, which comprises the software integration for several thousand custom built hardware modules. The software must furthermore support the independent operation of the above mentioned granules, which includes the coordination of processes that run in 60-100 VME processors and workstations. ONOS has adapted the Shlaer- Mellor Object Oriented Methodology for the design of the top layer software. CORBA is used as communication layer between the distributed objects, which are implemented as asynchronous finite state machines. We will give an overview of the PHENIX online system with the main focus on the system architecture, software components and integration tasks of the On-line Computing group ONCS and report on the status of the current prototypes

  19. The Effect of Sterilization on Size and Shape of Fat Globules in Model Processed Cheese Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tremlová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Model cheese samples from 4 independent productions were heat sterilized (117 °C, 20 minutes after the melting process and packing with an aim to prolong their durability. The objective of the study was to assess changes in the size and shape of fat globules due to heat sterilization by using image analysis methods. The study included a selection of suitable methods of preparation mounts, taking microphotographs and making overlays for automatic processing of photographs by image analyser, ascertaining parameters to determine the size and shape of fat globules and statistical analysis of results obtained. The results of the experiment suggest that changes in shape of fat globules due to heat sterilization are not unequivocal. We found that the size of fat globules was significantly increased (p < 0.01 due to heat sterilization (117 °C, 20 min, and the shares of small fat globules (up to 500 μm2, or 100 μm2 in the samples of heat sterilized processed cheese were decreased. The results imply that the image analysis method is very useful when assessing the effect of technological process on the quality of processed cheese quality.

  20. Adaptive on-line calibration for around-view monitoring system using between-camera homography estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungsoo; Lee, Seohyung; Kim, Jun-geon; Lee, Daeho

    2018-01-01

    The around-view monitoring (AVM) system is one of the major applications of advanced driver assistance systems and intelligent transportation systems. We propose an on-line calibration method, which can compensate misalignments for AVM systems. Most AVM systems use fisheye undistortion, inverse perspective transformation, and geometrical registration methods. To perform these procedures, the parameters for each process must be known; the procedure by which the parameters are estimated is referred to as the initial calibration. However, when only using the initial calibration data, we cannot compensate misalignments, caused by changing equilibria of cars. Moreover, even small changes such as tire pressure levels, passenger weight, or road conditions can affect a car's equilibrium. Therefore, to compensate for this misalignment, additional techniques are necessary, specifically an on-line calibration method. On-line calibration can recalculate homographies, which can correct any degree of misalignment using the unique features of ordinary parking lanes. To extract features from the parking lanes, this method uses corner detection and a pattern matching algorithm. From the extracted features, homographies are estimated using random sample consensus and parameter estimation. Finally, the misaligned epipolar geographies are compensated via the estimated homographies. Thus, the proposed method can render image planes parallel to the ground. This method does not require any designated patterns and can be used whenever cars are placed in a parking lot. The experimental results show the robustness and efficiency of the method.

  1. Hydrogen determination using secondary processes of recoil proton interaction with sample material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muminov, V.A.; Khajdarov, R.A.; Navalikhin, L.V.; Pardaev, Eh.

    1980-01-01

    Possibilities of hydrogen content determination in different materials according to secondary processes of interaction of recoil protons(irradiation in the field of fast neutrons) with sample material resulting in the appearance of characteristic X-ray irradiation are studied. Excitated irradiation is recorded with a detector placed in the protective screen and located at a certain distance from the object analyzed and neutron source. The method is tested taking as an example analysis of bromine-containing samples (30% Br, 0.5% H) and tungsten dioxide. The determination limit of hydrogen content constitutes 0.05% at confidence coefficient of 0.9. Neutron flux constituted 10 3 neutrons/cm 2 xs, the time of measurement being 15-20 minutes, the distance from the sample to the detector being 12-15 cm [ru

  2. Robowell: An automated process for monitoring ground water quality using established sampling protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, G.E.; Smith, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    Robowell is an automated process for monitoring selected ground water quality properties and constituents by pumping a well or multilevel sampler. Robowell was developed and tested to provide a cost-effective monitoring system that meets protocols expected for manual sampling. The process uses commercially available electronics, instrumentation, and hardware, so it can be configured to monitor ground water quality using the equipment, purge protocol, and monitoring well design most appropriate for the monitoring site and the contaminants of interest. A Robowell prototype was installed on a sewage treatment plant infiltration bed that overlies a well-studied unconfined sand and gravel aquifer at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, during a time when two distinct plumes of constituents were released. The prototype was operated from May 10 to November 13, 1996, and quality-assurance/quality-control measurements demonstrated that the data obtained by the automated method was equivalent to data obtained by manual sampling methods using the same sampling protocols. Water level, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved ammonium were monitored by the prototype as the wells were purged according to U.S Geological Survey (USGS) ground water sampling protocols. Remote access to the data record, via phone modem communications, indicated the arrival of each plume over a few days and the subsequent geochemical reactions over the following weeks. Real-time availability of the monitoring record provided the information needed to initiate manual sampling efforts in response to changes in measured ground water quality, which proved the method and characterized the screened portion of the plume in detail through time. The methods and the case study described are presented to document the process for future use.

  3. A Pipeline for Large Data Processing Using Regular Sampling for Unstructured Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berres, Anne Sabine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Adhinarayanan, Vignesh [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Turton, Terece [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Feng, Wu [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rogers, David Honegger [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-12

    Large simulation data requires a lot of time and computational resources to compute, store, analyze, visualize, and run user studies. Today, the largest cost of a supercomputer is not hardware but maintenance, in particular energy consumption. Our goal is to balance energy consumption and cognitive value of visualizations of resulting data. This requires us to go through the entire processing pipeline, from simulation to user studies. To reduce the amount of resources, data can be sampled or compressed. While this adds more computation time, the computational overhead is negligible compared to the simulation time. We built a processing pipeline at the example of regular sampling. The reasons for this choice are two-fold: using a simple example reduces unnecessary complexity as we know what to expect from the results. Furthermore, it provides a good baseline for future, more elaborate sampling methods. We measured time and energy for each test we did, and we conducted user studies in Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) for a range of different results we produced through sampling.

  4. DOE-EPRI On-Line Monitoring Implementation Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Davis, R. Bickford

    2003-01-01

    Industry and EPRI experience at several plants has shown on-line monitoring to be very effective in identifying out-of-calibration instrument channels or indications of equipment-degradation problems. The EPRI implementation project for on-line monitoring has demonstrated the feasibility of on-line monitoring at several participating nuclear plants. The results have been very encouraging, and substantial progress is anticipated in the coming years

  5. Review of Worcestershire On-line Fabric Type Series website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Nenk

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of archaeological ceramics is advanced through the creation and development of regional and national pottery type-series, which contain samples of each type of pottery identified from a particular area or region. Pottery researchers working in any period, from prehistoric to post-medieval, require access to such type-series, and to their associated data, in order to be able to advance the identification of all types of pottery, not only those types produced in the local area, but those produced in surrounding regions, as well as those imported from abroad. The publication of such type-series, as well as their accessibility to researchers, is essential if the information they contain is to be disseminated. The development of the Worcestershire On-Line Fabric Type Series is the first stage in a remarkable project designed to make the complete fabric and form type series for Worcestershire ceramics accessible on the internet. As part of the Historic Environment Record for Worcestershire, formerly the Sites and Monuments Record, it is designed to improve access to finds and environmental data, with the aim of encouraging and facilitating research. Funded by Worcestershire County Council as part of its commitment to e-government, it is being developed by Worcestershire County Council Archaeology Service with OxfordArchDigital. It is one of a proposed series of on-line specialist resources (to include, for example, clay pipes, environmental archaeology, flint tools, historic buildings, which are also designed to stand alone as research tools. The ceramics website is the first part of Pottery in Perspective, a web-based project to provide information on the pottery used and made in Worcestershire from prehistory to c. 1900AD.

  6. Gaussian process based intelligent sampling for measuring nano-structure surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. J.; Ren, M. J.; Yin, Y. H.

    2016-09-01

    Nanotechnology is the science and engineering that manipulate matters at nano scale, which can be used to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications. As the nanotech product increasingly enters the commercial marketplace, nanometrology becomes a stringent and enabling technology for the manipulation and the quality control of the nanotechnology. However, many measuring instruments, for instance scanning probe microscopy, are limited to relatively small area of hundreds of micrometers with very low efficiency. Therefore some intelligent sampling strategies should be required to improve the scanning efficiency for measuring large area. This paper presents a Gaussian process based intelligent sampling method to address this problem. The method makes use of Gaussian process based Bayesian regression as a mathematical foundation to represent the surface geometry, and the posterior estimation of Gaussian process is computed by combining the prior probability distribution with the maximum likelihood function. Then each sampling point is adaptively selected by determining the position which is the most likely outside of the required tolerance zone among the candidates and then inserted to update the model iteratively. Both simulationson the nominal surface and manufactured surface have been conducted on nano-structure surfaces to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results imply that the proposed method significantly improves the measurement efficiency in measuring large area structured surfaces.

  7. Research on the Influence of Perceived Risk in Consumer On-line Purchasing Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhao; Yi, Li

    Perceived risk is an important factor that affects consumer's on-line shopping purchasing decision, through the perceived theories the consumer can know clearly which step owns higher risk in the whole shopping process, then learn how to prevent it, this process also strengthen the consumer confidence, thus lowering to know that the risk adjudicate to the feeling, so the essay has important and realistic meaning for further expand the electronic commerce. At first, investigate, collect, tidy up, analyze the questionnaire information, and thus get the primary data. Finally try to find out the influence of perceived risk to each stage of purchasing decision during consumer on-line shopping process with data and personal analytical. The paper is a complement to the local and existing perceived theories. The result of the study manifests that, the order of main perceived risks which felt by consumer during on-line shopping process are as follow: financial risk, the performance risk and service risk.

  8. Tank vapor sampling and analysis data package for tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process test phase III, sampled March 28, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the March 28, 1999, vapor sampling of Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 during active sluicing. Samples were obtained from the 296-C-006 ventilation system stack and ambient air at several locations. Characterization Project Operations (CPO) was responsible for the collection of all SUMMATM canister samples. The Special Analytical Support (SAS) vapor team was responsible for the collection of all triple sorbent trap (TST), sorbent tube train (STT), polyurethane foam (PUF), and particulate filter samples collected at the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team used the non-electrical vapor sampling (NEVS) system to collect samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team collected and analyzed these samples for Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) and Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in accordance with the sampling and analytical requirements specified in the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Evaluation of Organic Emissions, Process Test Phase III, HNF-4212, Rev. 0-A, (LMHC, 1999). All samples were stored in a secured Radioactive Materials Area (RMA) until the samples were radiologically released and received by SAS for analysis. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) performed the radiological analyses. The samples were received on April 5, 1999

  9. Impact of sample processing on the measurement of circulating microparticles: storage and centrifugation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Liante, Virtudes; Sánchez-López, Verónica; Martínez-Sales, Vicenta; Ramón-Nuñez, Luis A; Arellano-Orden, Elena; Cano-Ruiz, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Martorell, Francisco J; Gao, Lin; Otero-Candelera, Remedios

    2016-11-01

    Microparticles (MPs) have been shown to be markers of cellular activation and interactions. Pre-analytical conditions such as the centrifugation protocol and sample storage conditions represent an important source of variability in determining MPs values. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of sample storage conditions and centrifugation speed and temperature on the determination of MPs in plasma. Citrate-anticoagulated blood samples obtained from 21 healthy subjects were centrifuged under four different protocols involving different speeds (2500 g or 1500 g) and temperatures (4 °C or 20 °C) to isolate platelet-poor plasma (PPP). The number of MPs in fresh and frozen-thawed PPP were analyzed by flow cytometry, and MPs-mediated procoagulant activity was determined by a thrombin generation test and phospholipid-dependent procoagulant tests. The number of MPs and their procoagulant activity were affected by freeze-thaw cycling and centrifugation speed but not by centrifugation temperature. Sample freezing increased MPs number (six-fold) and thrombin generation (four-fold), and decreased clotting time (two-fold). Low centrifugation speed caused an increase in MPs number and a parallel increase in MP-mediated procoagulant activity. Sample storage conditions and centrifugation speed are important processing conditions affecting MPs number and activity. Before any study, the protocol for MPs isolation should be optimized to ensure a reliable characterization of MPs, which could provide important information for diagnostic purposes and for understanding the pathogenesis of diseases.

  10. Evaluation of SRAT Sampling Data in Support of a Six Sigma Yellow Belt Process Improvement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Thomas B.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Six Sigma continuous improvement initiatives at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), a Yellow Belt team was formed to evaluate the frequency and types of samples required for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt in the DWPF. The team asked, via a technical task request, that the Statistical Consulting Section (SCS), in concert with the Immobilization Technology Section (ITS) (both groups within the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)), conduct a statistical review of recent SRAT receipt results to determine if there is enough consistency in these measurements to allow for less frequent sampling. As part of this review process, key decisions made by DWPF Process Engineering that are based upon the SRAT sample measurements are outlined in this report. For a reduction in SRAT sampling to be viable, these decisions must not be overly sensitive to the additional variation that will be introduced as a result of such a reduction. Measurements from samples of SRAT receipt batches 314 through 323 were reviewed as part of this investigation into the frequency of SRAT sampling. The associated acid calculations for these batches were also studied as part of this effort. The results from this investigation showed no indication of a statistically significant relationship between the tank solids and the acid additions for these batches. One would expect that as the tank solids increase there would be a corresponding increase in acid requirements. There was, however, an indication that the predicted reduction/oxidation (REDOX) ratio (the ratio of Fe 2+ to the total Fe in the glass product) that was targeted by the acid calculations based on the SRAT receipt samples for these batches was on average 0.0253 larger than the predicted REDOX based upon Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) measurements. This is a statistically significant difference (at the 5% significance level), and the study also suggested that the difference was due to

  11. Data transfer in on-line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharov, V.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of transfer of data in both directions between experimental equipment and process systems on the one hand, and hardware processors on the other, is an important one. This fundamental question is discussed in the coxtent of contemporary practice, where the principal processing element is the minicomputer. Although several interface conventions are considered, practice is dominated by the CAMAC system, and the main emphasis is to review recent developments in that system, particularly in the area of distributed configurations. The impact of new microcircuit technology on the way in which data transfers are performed is only beginning. The present discussion trys to assess this impact and to identify the main changes that are expected to occur. (Auth.)

  12. Purity, adulteration and price of drugs bought on-line versus off-line in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gouwe, Daan; Brunt, Tibor M; van Laar, Margriet; van der Pol, Peggy

    2017-04-01

    On-line drug markets flourish and consumers have high expectations of on-line quality and drug value. The aim of this study was to (i) describe on-line drug purchases and (ii) compare on-line with off-line purchased drugs regarding purity, adulteration and price. Comparison of laboratory analyses of 32 663 drug consumer samples (stimulants and hallucinogens) purchased between January 2013 and January 2016, 928 of which were bought on-line. The Netherlands. Primary outcome measures were (i) the percentage of samples purchased on-line and (ii) the chemical purity of powders (or dosage per tablet); adulteration; and the price per gram, blotter or tablet of drugs bought on-line compared with drugs bought off-line. The proportion of drug samples purchased on-line increased from 1.4% in 2013 to 4.1% in 2015. The frequency varied widely, from a maximum of 6% for controlled, traditional substances [ecstasy tablets, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) powder, amphetamine powder, cocaine powder, 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)] to more than a third for new psychoactive substances (NPS) [4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA), 5/6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5/6-APB) and methoxetamine (MXE)]. There were no large differences in drug purity, yet small but statistically significant differences were found for 4-FA (on-line 59% versus off-line 52% purity for 4-FA on average, P = 0.001), MDMA powders (45 versus 61% purity for MDMA, P = 0.02), 2C-B tablets (21 versus 10 mg 2C-B/tablet dosage, P = 0.49) and ecstasy tablets (131 versus 121 mg MDMA/tablet dosage, P = 0.05). The proportion of adulterated samples purchased on-line and off-line did not differ, except for 4-FA powder, being less adulterated on-line (χ 2  = 8.3; P < 0.02). Drug prices were mainly higher on-line, ranging for various drugs from 10 to 23% higher than that of drugs purchased off-line (six of 10 substances: P < 0.05). Dutch drug users increasingly

  13. Endophytic bacterial community of grapevine leaves influenced by sampling date and phytoplasma infection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Daniela; Casati, Paola; Quaglino, Fabio; Bianco, Piero A

    2014-07-21

    Endophytic bacteria benefit host plant directly or indirectly, e.g. by biocontrol of the pathogens. Up to now, their interactions with the host and with other microorganisms are poorly understood. Consequently, a crucial step for improving the knowledge of those relationships is to determine if pathogens or plant growing season influence endophytic bacterial diversity and dynamic. Four healthy, four phytoplasma diseased and four recovered (symptomatic plants that spontaneously regain a healthy condition) grapevine plants were sampled monthly from June to October 2010 in a vineyard in north-western Italy. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from sterilized leaves and the endophytic bacterial community dynamic and diversity were analyzed by taxon specific real-time PCR, Length-Heterogeneity PCR and genus-specific PCR. These analyses revealed that both sampling date and phytoplasma infection influenced the endophytic bacterial composition. Interestingly, in June, when the plants are symptomless and the pathogen is undetectable (i) the endophytic bacterial community associated with diseased grapevines was different from those in the other sampling dates, when the phytoplasmas are detectable inside samples; (ii) the microbial community associated with recovered plants differs from that living inside healthy and diseased plants. Interestingly, LH-PCR database identified bacteria previously reported as biocontrol agents in the examined grapevines. Of these, Burkholderia, Methylobacterium and Pantoea dynamic was influenced by the phytoplasma infection process and seasonality. Results indicated that endophytic bacterial community composition in grapevine is correlated to both phytoplasma infection and sampling date. For the first time, data underlined that, in diseased plants, the pathogen infection process can decrease the impact of seasonality on community dynamic. Moreover, based on experimental evidences, it was reasonable to hypothesize that after recovery the restructured

  14. Delayed matching-to-sample: A tool to assess memory and other cognitive processes in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Thomas R; Smith, Aaron P

    2016-02-01

    Delayed matching-to-sample is a versatile task that has been used to assess the nature of animal memory. Although once thought to be a relatively passive process, matching research has demonstrated considerable flexibility in how animals actively represent events in memory. But delayed matching can also demonstrate how animals fail to maintain representations in memory when they are cued that they will not be tested (directed forgetting) and how the outcome expected can serve as a choice cue. When pigeons have shown divergent retention functions following training without a delay, it has been taken as evidence of the use of a single-code/default coding strategy but in many cases an alternative account may be involved. Delayed matching has also been used to investigate equivalence learning (how animals represent stimuli when they learn that the same comparison response is correct following the presentation of two different samples) and to test for metamemory (the ability of pigeons to indicate that they understand what they know) by allowing animals to decline to be tested when they are uncertain that they remember a stimulus. How animals assess the passage of time has also been studied using the matching task. And there is evidence that when memory for the sample is impaired by a delay, rather than use the probability of being correct for choice of each of the comparison stimuli, pigeons tend to choose based on the overall sample frequency (base-rate neglect). Finally, matching has been used to identify natural color categories as well as dimensional categories in pigeons. Overall, matching to sample has provided an excellent methodology for assessing an assortment of cognitive processes in animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Combination of On-line pH and Oxygen Transfer Rate Measurement in Shake Flasks by Fiber Optical Technique and Respiration Activity MOnitoring System (RAMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Büchs

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Shake flasks are commonly used for process development in biotechnologyindustry. For this purpose a lot of information is required from the growth conditions duringthe fermentation experiments. Therefore, Anderlei et al. developed the RAMOS technology[1, 2], which proviedes on-line oxygen and carbondioxide transfer rates in shake flasks.Besides oxygen consumption, the pH in the medium also plays an important role for thesuccessful cultivation of micro-organisms and for process development. For online pHmeasurement fiber optical methods based on fluorophores are available. Here a combinationof the on-line Oxygen Transfer Rate (OTR measurements in the RAMOS device with anon-line, fiber optical pH measurement is presented. To demonstrate the application of thecombined measurement techniques, Escherichia coli cultivations were performed and on-line pH measurements were compared with off-line samples. The combination of on-lineOTR and pH measurements gives a lot of information about the cultivation and, therefore, itis a powerful technique for monitoring shake flask experiments as well as for processdevelopment.

  16. Progress and performance of on-line analyzers of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, C.M.; Brown, D.R.; Gozani, T.; Bozorgmanesh, H.; Bernatowicz, H.; Tassicker, O.J.; Karlson, F.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the past year's progress in the laboratory testing of the most comprehensive Nucoalyzer, the CONAC, and the performance of a Nucoalyzer-Sulfurmeter in special field tests. Previous papers and presentations provide more detailed background information. The near real-time analysis provided by a Nucoalyzer can be used in a variety of strategies to optimize efficiency of coal use. Nucoalyzers can be used to monitor coal deliveries and achieve uniformity in coal storage and recovery. In a coal cleaning plant, on-line analysis with a Nucoalyzer can lead to optimum Btu recovery while meeting specifications for the washed coal. A Nucoalyzer can monitor the blending of different coals to maintain a key cosntituent such as sulfur below a specified level, or can predict sulfur dioxide emissions, allowing feed-forward control to gas scrubbers and precipitators. Variability in coal feed to the boiler can lead to gross changes in thermodynamic efficiency in combustion. In addition, fouling and slagging incidents due to poor coal quality cause costly boiler shutdowns and maintenance. Nucoalyzer monitoring of key constituents and Btu in the coal feed allows operators to adjust boiler parameters for increased efficiency. To summarize, the primary advantages of Nucoalyzers relate to their ability to quickly identify changes in coal composition so that adjustments can be made in a timely manner to accommodate these changes in the process being monitored. Nucoalyzers are the only instruments available that can monitor the coal (for ash, Btu, sulfur, etc.) on-line and provide real-time continuous results. One Nucoalyzer is already working in the field, and by the time of the next Symposium we will have had performance reports on two more

  17. Using NDVI and guided sampling to develop yield prediction maps of processing tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, A.; Henar Prieto, M. del; García-Martín, A.; Córdoba, A.; Martínez, L.; Campillo, C.

    2015-07-01

    The use of yield prediction maps is an important tool for the delineation of within-field management zones. Vegetation indices based on crop reflectance are of potential use in the attainment of this objective. There are different types of vegetation indices based on crop reflectance, the most commonly used of which is the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index). NDVI values are reported to have good correlation with several vegetation parameters including the ability to predict yield. The field research was conducted in two commercial farms of processing tomato crop, Cantillana and Enviciados. An NDVI prediction map developed through ordinary kriging technique was used for guided sampling of processing tomato yield. Yield was studied and related with NDVI, and finally a prediction map of crop yield for the entire plot was generated using two geostatistical methodologies (ordinary and regression kriging). Finally, a comparison was made between the yield obtained at validation points and the yield values according to the prediction maps. The most precise yield maps were obtained with the regression kriging methodology with RRMSE values of 14% and 17% in Cantillana and Enviciados, respectively, using the NDVI as predictor. The coefficient of correlation between NDVI and yield was correlated in the point samples taken in the two locations, with values of 0.71 and 0.67 in Cantillana and Enviciados, respectively. The results suggest that the use of a massive sampling parameter such as NDVI is a good indicator of the distribution of within-field yield variation. (Author)

  18. On-line caloric value sensor and validation of dynamic models applied to municipal solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, van L.B.M.; Leskens, M.; Brem, G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with two aspects concerning the optimization of municipal solid waste combustion (MSWC) processes. First of all, an on-line calorific value sensor is discussed by means of which the calorific value of the waste can be estimated from actual process data. Experimental results on a

  19. Safeguarding on-line accountability data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    HEDL is developing a computerized accountability system that addresses the concerns of data access and data protection. The system utilizes a distributed processing network with transaction oriented software. Microprocessor controlled data accumulation stations are utilized which permit data editing to reduce errors, while maintaining several levels of backup protection. Software changes are allowed only after thorough review, protected by passwording, and are overchecked by audit. Protection against misuse by unauthorized individuals utilizes extensive physical security of the computer and the remote terminals. The positive identification devices and strict software control ensure that individuals cannot subvert the system without leaving an audit trail of their actions. This serves as a deterrent against malevolent acts by the authorized user

  20. Recent results of the investigation of a micro-fluidic sampling chip and sampling system for hot cell aqueous processing streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Smith, T.; Law, J.

    2013-01-01

    A Fuel Cycle Research and Development project has investigated an innovative sampling method that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements present in aqueous processing streams. Initially sampling technologies were evaluated and micro-fluidic sampling chip technology was selected and tested. A conceptual design for a fully automated microcapillary-based system was completed and a robotic automated sampling system was fabricated. The mechanical and sampling operation of the completed sampling system was investigated. Different sampling volumes have been tested. It appears that the 10 μl volume has produced data that had much smaller relative standard deviations than the 2 μl volume. In addition, the production of a less expensive, mass produced sampling chip was investigated to avoid chip reuse thus increasing sampling reproducibility/accuracy. The micro-fluidic-based robotic sampling system's mechanical elements were tested to ensure analytical reproducibility and the optimum robotic handling of micro-fluidic sampling chips. (authors)

  1. Automated sample-processing and titration system for determining uranium in nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrar, J.E.; Boyle, W.G.; Breshears, J.D.; Pomernacki, C.L.; Brand, H.R.; Kray, A.M.; Sherry, R.J.; Pastrone, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The system is designed for accurate, precise, and selective determination of from 10 to 180 mg of uranium in 2 to 12 cm 3 of solution. Samples, standards, and their solutions are handled on a weight basis. These weights, together with their appropriate identification numbers, are stored in computer memory and are used automatically in the assay calculations after each titration. The measurement technique (controlled-current coulometry) is based on the Davies-Gray and New Brunswick Laboratory method, in which U(VI) is reduced to U(IV) in strong H 3 PO 4 , followed by titration of the U(IV) with electrogenerated V(V). Solution pretreatment and titration are automatic. The analyzer is able to process 44 samples per loading of the sample changer, at a rate of 4 to 9 samples per hour. The system includes a comprehensive fault-monitoring system that detects analytical errors, guards against abnormal conditions which might cause errors, and prevents unsafe operation. A detailed description of the system, information on the reliability of the component subsystems, and a summary of its evaluation by the New Brunswick Laboratory are presented

  2. The impact of fecal sample processing on prevalence estimates for antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omulo, Sylvia; Lofgren, Eric T; Mugoh, Maina; Alando, Moshe; Obiya, Joshua; Kipyegon, Korir; Kikwai, Gilbert; Gumbi, Wilson; Kariuki, Samuel; Call, Douglas R

    2017-05-01

    Investigators often rely on studies of Escherichia coli to characterize the burden of antibiotic resistance in a clinical or community setting. To determine if prevalence estimates for antibiotic resistance are sensitive to sample handling and interpretive criteria, we collected presumptive E. coli isolates (24 or 95 per stool sample) from a community in an urban informal settlement in Kenya. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to nine antibiotics using agar breakpoint assays and results were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. We observed a 0.1). Prevalence estimates did not differ for five distinct E. coli colony morphologies on MacConkey agar plates (P>0.2). Successive re-plating of samples for up to five consecutive days had little to no impact on prevalence estimates. Finally, culturing E. coli under different conditions (with 5% CO 2 or micro-aerobic) did not affect estimates of prevalence. For the conditions tested in these experiments, minor modifications in sample processing protocols are unlikely to bias estimates of the prevalence of antibiotic-resistance for fecal E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Algorithms for the on-line travelling salesman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ausiello, G.; Feuerstein, E.; Leonardi, S.; Stougie, L.; Talamo, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the problem of efficiently serving a sequence of requests presented in an on-line fashion located at points of a metric space is considered. We call this problem the On-Line Travelling Salesman Problem (OLTSP). It has a variety of relevant applications in logistics and robotics. We

  4. An algorithm for on-line price discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.D.B. van Bragt; D.J.A. Somefun (Koye); E. Kutschinski; J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe combination of on-line dynamic pricing with price discrimination can be very beneficial for firms operating on the Internet. We therefore develop an on-line dynamic pricing algorithm that can adjust the price schedule for a good or service on behalf of a firm. This algorithm (a

  5. On-Line Voltage Stability Assessment based on PMU Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; P. Da Silva, Luiz C.; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for on-line monitoring of risk voltage collapse based on synchronised phasor measurement. As there is no room for intensive computation and analysis in real-time, the method is based on the combination of off-line computation and on-line monitoring, which are correlat...

  6. On-line Learning of Prototypes and Principal Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biehl, M.; Freking, A.; Hölzer, M.; Reents, G.; Schlösser, E.; Saad, David

    1998-01-01

    We review our recent investigation of on-line unsupervised learning from high-dimensional structured data. First, on-line competitive learning is studied as a method for the identification of prototype vectors from overlapping clusters of examples. Specifically, we analyse the dynamics of the

  7. On-line stable isotope measurements during plant and soil gas exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakir, D.

    2001-01-01

    Recent techniques for on-line stable isotope measurements during plant and soil exchange of CO 2 and/or water vapor are briefly reviewed. For CO 2 , these techniques provide means for on-line measurements of isotopic discrimination during CO 2 exchange by leaves in the laboratory and in the field, of isotopic discrimination during soil respiration and during soil-atmosphere CO 2 exchange, and of isotopic discrimination in O 2 during plant respiration. For water vapor, these techniques provide means to measure oxygen isotopic composition of water vapor during leaf transpiration and for the analysis of sub microliter condensed water vapor samples. Most of these techniques involve on-line sampling of CO 2 and water vapor from a dynamic, intact soil or plant system. In the laboratory, these systems also allow on-line isotopic analysis by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The information obtained with these on-line techniques is becoming increasingly valuable, and often critical, for ecophysiologial research and in the study of biosphere-atmosphere interactions. (author)

  8. Genetic effects on information processing speed are moderated by age--converging results from three samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ising, M; Mather, K A; Zimmermann, P; Brückl, T; Höhne, N; Heck, A; Schenk, L A; Rujescu, D; Armstrong, N J; Sachdev, P S; Reppermund, S

    2014-06-01

    Information processing is a cognitive trait forming the basis of complex abilities like executive function. The Trail Making Test (TMT) is a well-established test of information processing with moderate to high heritability. Age of the individual also plays an important role. A number of genetic association studies with the TMT have been performed, which, however, did not consider age as a moderating factor. We report the results of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on age-independent and age-dependent TMT performance in two population-representative community samples (Munich Antidepressant Response Signature, MARS: N1 = 540; Ludwig Maximilians University, LMU: N2 = 350). Age-dependent genome-wide findings were then evaluated in a third sample of healthy elderly subjects (Sydney Memory and Ageing Study, Sydney MAS: N3 = 448). While a meta-analysis on the GWAS findings did not reveal age-independent TMT associations withstanding correction for multiple testing, we found a genome-wide significant age-moderated effect between variants in the DSG1 gene region and TMT-A performance predominantly reflecting visual processing speed (rs2199301, P(meta-analysis) = 1.3 × 10(-7)). The direction of the interaction suggests for the minor allele a beneficial effect in younger adults turning into a detrimental effect in older adults. The detrimental effect of the missense single nucleotide polymorphism rs1426310 within the same DSG1 gene region could be replicated in Sydney MAS participants aged 70-79, but not in those aged 80 years and older, presumably a result of survivor bias. Our findings demonstrate opposing effects of DSG1 variants on information processing speed depending on age, which might be related to the complex processes that DSG1 is involved with, including cell adhesion and apoptosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  9. Data Validation Package - April and July 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites. Samples were collected from 28 monitoring wells, three domestic wells, and six surface locations in April at the processing site as specified in the 2010 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site. Domestic wells 0476 and 0477 were sampled in July because the homes were unoccupied in April, and the wells were not in use. Duplicate samples were collected from locations 0113, 0248, and 0477. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  10. Sampling device for in vivo sampling of liquids from the gastrointestinal tract, process for the production thereof and mould or mask for use in the production process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenkels, A.J.; Jenneboer, Antonius J.S.M.; Venema, Konraad; van den Berg, Albert; de Vos, Willem M.

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to a sampling device suitable for in vivo sampling of liquid(s) from the gastro-intestinal tract, comprising a body, the body comprising a channel and an opening for entrance of the liquid(s) at one end of the channel, and a cover bonded to at least part of the body and

  11. A new formulation of the linear sampling method: spatial resolution and post-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piana, M; Aramini, R; Brignone, M; Coyle, J

    2008-01-01

    A new formulation of the linear sampling method is described, which requires the regularized solution of a single functional equation set in a direct sum of L 2 spaces. This new approach presents the following notable advantages: it is computationally more effective than the traditional implementation, since time consuming samplings of the Tikhonov minimum problem and of the generalized discrepancy equation are avoided; it allows a quantitative estimate of the spatial resolution achievable by the method; it facilitates a post-processing procedure for the optimal selection of the scatterer profile by means of edge detection techniques. The formulation is described in a two-dimensional framework and in the case of obstacle scattering, although generalizations to three dimensions and penetrable inhomogeneities are straightforward

  12. Remote Automatic Material On-Line Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnuson, Erik

    2005-12-20

    Low cost NMR sensor for measuring moisture content of forest products. The Department of Energy (DOE) Industries of the Future (IOF) program seeks development and implementation of technologies that make industry more efficient--in particular, more energy-efficient. Quantum Magnetics, Inc. (QM), a wholly-owned subsidiary of GE Security, received an award under the program to investigate roles for low-cost Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technology in furtherance of these goals. Most NMR systems are designed for high-resolution spectroscopy applications. These systems use intense magnetic fields produced by superconducting magnets that drive price and operating cost to levels beyond industry tolerance. At low magnetic fields, achievable at low cost, one loses the ability to obtain spectroscopic information. However, measuring the time constants associated with the NMR signal, called NMR relaxometry, gives indications of chemical and physical states of interest to process control and optimization. It was the purpose of this effort to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of using such low-field, low-cost NMR to monitor parameters enabling greater process efficiencies. The primary target industry identified in the Cooperative Development Agreement was the wood industry, where the moisture content of wood is a key process parameter from the time the cut tree enters a mill until the time it is delivered as pieces of lumber. Extracting the moisture is energy consuming, and improvements in drying efficiency stand to reduce costs and emissions substantially. QM designed and developed a new, low-cost NMR instrument suitable for inspecting lumber up to 3 inches by 12 inches in cross section, and other materials of similar size. Low cost is achieved via an inexpensive, permanent magnet and low-cost NMR spectrometer electronics. Laboratory testing demonstrated that the NMR system is capable of accurate ({+-} 0.5%) measurements of the moisture content of wood for

  13. Automated CBED processing: Sample thickness estimation based on analysis of zone-axis CBED pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinger, M., E-mail: klinger@post.cz; Němec, M.; Polívka, L.; Gärtnerová, V.; Jäger, A.

    2015-03-15

    An automated processing of convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) patterns is presented. The proposed methods are used in an automated tool for estimating the thickness of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) samples by matching an experimental zone-axis CBED pattern with a series of patterns simulated for known thicknesses. The proposed tool detects CBED disks, localizes a pattern in detected disks and unifies the coordinate system of the experimental pattern with the simulated one. The experimental pattern is then compared disk-by-disk with a series of simulated patterns each corresponding to different known thicknesses. The thickness of the most similar simulated pattern is then taken as the thickness estimate. The tool was tested on [0 1 1] Si, [0 1 0] α-Ti and [0 1 1] α-Ti samples prepared using different techniques. Results of the presented approach were compared with thickness estimates based on analysis of CBED patterns in two beam conditions. The mean difference between these two methods was 4.1% for the FIB-prepared silicon samples, 5.2% for the electro-chemically polished titanium and 7.9% for Ar{sup +} ion-polished titanium. The proposed techniques can also be employed in other established CBED analyses. Apart from the thickness estimation, it can potentially be used to quantify lattice deformation, structure factors, symmetry, defects or extinction distance. - Highlights: • Automated TEM sample thickness estimation using zone-axis CBED is presented. • Computer vision and artificial intelligence are employed in CBED processing. • This approach reduces operator effort, analysis time and increases repeatability. • Individual parts can be employed in other analyses of CBED/diffraction pattern.

  14. Chemical process to separate iron oxides particles in pottery sample for EPR dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S.; Farias, T. M. B.; Gennari, R. F.; Ferraz, G. M.; Kunzli, R.; Chubaci, J. F. D.

    2008-12-01

    Ancient potteries usually are made of the local clay material, which contains relatively high concentration of iron. The powdered samples are usually quite black, due to magnetite, and, although they can be used for thermoluminescene (TL) dating, it is easiest to obtain better TL reading when clearest natural or pre-treated sample is used. For electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements, the huge signal due to iron spin-spin interaction, promotes an intense interference overlapping any other signal in this range. Sample dating is obtained by dividing the radiation dose, determined by the concentration of paramagnetic species generated by irradiation, by the natural dose so as a consequence, EPR dating cannot be used, since iron signal do not depend on radiation dose. In some cases, the density separation method using hydrated solution of sodium polytungstate [Na 6(H 2W 12O 40)·H 2O] becomes useful. However, the sodium polytungstate is very expensive in Brazil; hence an alternative method for eliminating this interference is proposed. A chemical process to eliminate about 90% of magnetite was developed. A sample of powdered ancient pottery was treated in a mixture (3:1:1) of HCl, HNO 3 and H 2O 2 for 4 h. After that, it was washed several times in distilled water to remove all acid matrixes. The original black sample becomes somewhat clearer. The resulting material was analyzed by plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with the result that the iron content is reduced by a factor of about 9. In EPR measurements a non-treated natural ceramic sample shows a broad spin-spin interaction signal, the chemically treated sample presents a narrow signal in g = 2.00 region, possibly due to a radical of (SiO 3) 3-, mixed with signal of remaining iron [M. Ikeya, New Applications of Electron Spin Resonance, World Scientific, Singapore, 1993, p. 285]. This signal increases in intensity under γ-irradiation. However, still due to iron influence, the additive method yielded too

  15. L. monocytogenes in a cheese processing facility: Learning from contamination scenarios over three years of sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückerl, I; Muhterem-Uyar, M; Muri-Klinger, S; Wagner, K-H; Wagner, M; Stessl, B

    2014-10-17

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changing patterns of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in a cheese processing facility manufacturing a wide range of ready-to-eat products. Characterization of L. monocytogenes isolates included genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Disinfectant-susceptibility tests and the assessment of L. monocytogenes survival in fresh cheese were also conducted. During the sampling period between 2010 and 2013, a total of 1284 environmental samples were investigated. Overall occurrence rates of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes were 21.9% and 19.5%, respectively. Identical L. monocytogenes genotypes were found in the food processing environment (FPE), raw materials and in products. Interventions after the sampling events changed contamination scenarios substantially. The high diversity of globally, widely distributed L. monocytogenes genotypes was reduced by identifying the major sources of contamination. Although susceptible to a broad range of disinfectants and cleaners, one dominant L. monocytogenes sequence type (ST) 5 could not be eradicated from drains and floors. Significantly, intense humidity and steam could be observed in all rooms and water residues were visible on floors due to increased cleaning strategies. This could explain the high L. monocytogenes contamination of the FPE (drains, shoes and floors) throughout the study (15.8%). The outcome of a challenge experiment in fresh cheese showed that L. monocytogenes could survive after 14days of storage at insufficient cooling temperatures (8 and 16°C). All efforts to reduce L. monocytogenes environmental contamination eventually led to a transition from dynamic to stable contamination scenarios. Consequently, implementation of systematic environmental monitoring via in-house systems should either aim for total avoidance of FPE colonization, or emphasize a first reduction of L. monocytogenes to sites where

  16. Can an inadequate cervical cytology sample in ThinPrep be converted to a satisfactory sample by processing it with a SurePath preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørbye, Sveinung Wergeland; Pedersen, Mette Kristin; Ekeberg, Bente; Williams, Merete E Johansen; Sauer, Torill; Chen, Ying

    2017-01-01

    The Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Program recommends screening every 3 years for women between 25 and 69 years of age. There is a large difference in the percentage of unsatisfactory samples between laboratories that use different brands of liquid-based cytology. We wished to examine if inadequate ThinPrep samples could be satisfactory by processing them with the SurePath protocol. A total of 187 inadequate ThinPrep specimens from the Department of Clinical Pathology at University Hospital of North Norway were sent to Akershus University Hospital for conversion to SurePath medium. Ninety-one (48.7%) were processed through the automated "gynecologic" application for cervix cytology samples, and 96 (51.3%) were processed with the "nongynecological" automatic program. Out of 187 samples that had been unsatisfactory by ThinPrep, 93 (49.7%) were satisfactory after being converted to SurePath. The rate of satisfactory cytology was 36.6% and 62.5% for samples run through the "gynecology" program and "nongynecology" program, respectively. Of the 93 samples that became satisfactory after conversion from ThinPrep to SurePath, 80 (86.0%) were screened as normal while 13 samples (14.0%) were given an abnormal diagnosis, which included 5 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 5 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 2 atypical glandular cells not otherwise specified, and 1 atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. A total of 2.1% (4/187) of the women got a diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or higher at a later follow-up. Converting cytology samples from ThinPrep to SurePath processing can reduce the number of unsatisfactory samples. The samples should be run through the "nongynecology" program to ensure an adequate number of cells.

  17. Directionally Solidified Aluminum - 7 wt% Silicon Alloys: Comparison of Earth and International Space Station Processed Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N,; Tewari, Surendra; Rajamure, R. S.; Erdman, Robert; Poirier, David

    2012-01-01

    Primary dendrite arm spacings of Al-7 wt% Si alloy directionally solidified in low gravity environment of space (MICAST-6 and MICAST-7: Thermal gradient approx. 19 to 26 K/cm, Growth speeds varying from 5 to 50 microns/s show good agreement with the Hunt-Lu model. Primary dendrite trunk diameters of the ISS processed samples show a good fit with a simple analytical model based on Kirkwood s approach, proposed here. Natural convection, a) decreases primary dendrite arm spacing. b) appears to increase primary dendrite trunk diameter.

  18. Interactive 3d Landscapes on Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanini, B.; Calori, L.; Ferdani, D.; Pescarin, S.

    2011-09-01

    The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.

  19. INTERACTIVE 3D LANDSCAPES ON LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fanini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.

  20. On-line Peer Review in Teaching Design-oriented Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Ning

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Peer review has been one of the very important designfacilitating processes practiced in education field, particularly in design-oriented courses such as MIT's 2.007 Robot Design. Typically students exchange ideas sketched on a piece of paper and critique on each other's design within a small team. We designed PREP web application backed up by a range of web services that handle the peer-review process on-line, and we argue that this is a significant step towards supporting designoriented course on-line. We believe that the lessons learned could be applied to other interested institutes that offer designoriented courses.