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Sample records for on-line image-guided prostate

  1. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

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    Bard, Robert L. [Bard Cancer Center, Biofoundation for Angiogenesis Research and Development, New York, NY (United States); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen, Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Sperling, Dan (ed.) [Sperling Prostate Center, Alpha 3TMRI, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  2. Robotic image-guided needle interventions of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozer, Pierre C; Partin, Alan W; Stoianovici, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Prostate biopsy and needle-directed prostate therapies are currently performed free-handed or with needle external templates under ultrasound guidance. Direct image-guided intervention robots are modern instruments that have the potential to substantially enhance these procedures. These may increase the accuracy and repeatability with which needles are placed in the gland. The authors' group has developed a robot for precise prostate targeting that operates remotely alongside the patient in the magnetic resonance imaging scanner, as guided according to the image.

  3. Photoacoustic image-guided drug delivery in the prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shanshan; Chen, Jian; Samant, Pratik; Xiang, Liangzhong

    2016-03-01

    Image guided drug delivery is a novel strategy that combines the effect of therapy and visibility into one system. Here we apply photoacoustic (PA) imaging to visualize the drug delivery process, and perform a simulation study on monitoring the photosensitizer concentration in a prostate tumor during photodynamic therapy (PDT). A 3D optical model of the human prostate is developed, and the light absorption distribution in the prostate is estimated by the Monte Carlo simulation method. The filtered back-projection algorithm is used to reconstruct PA images. PA images of transurethral laser/transrectal ultrasound are compared to those of transrectal laser/ultrasound. Results show that the transurethral laser has a better penetration depth in the prostate compared with transrectal one. Urethral thermal safety is investigated via COMSOL Multiphysics, and the results show that the proposed pulsed transurethral laser will cause no thermal damage on the urethral surface. Regression analysis for PA signal amplitude and drug concentration demonstrates that the PA technique has the potential to monitor drug distributions in PDT, as well as in other laser-based prostate therapy modalities.

  4. Photoacoustic and Ultrasonic Image-Guided Needle Biopsy of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0024 TITLE: Photoacoustic and Ultrasonic Image-Guided Needle Biopsy of the Prostate PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Richard...light sources to yield multi-spectral photoacoustic (PA) imaging data in excised prostate tissue. Two types of interstitial sources – a directional...ANSI Std. Z39.18 Photoacoustic and Ultrasonic Image-Guided Needle Biopsy of the Prostate 34 Table of Contents Page 1. Introduction

  5. Testicular Doses in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer

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    Deng Jun, E-mail: jun.deng@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Chen Zhe; Yu, James B.; Roberts, Kenneth B.; Peschel, Richard E.; Nath, Ravinder [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate testicular doses contributed by kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: An EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to calculate three-dimensional dose distributions from kVCBCT on 3 prostate cancer patients. Absorbed doses to various organs were compared between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments and kVCBCT scans. The impact of CBCT scanning mode, kilovoltage peak energy (kVp), and CBCT field span on dose deposition to testes and other organs was investigated. Results: In comparison with one 10-MV IMRT treatment, a 125-kV half-fan CBCT scan delivered 3.4, 3.8, 4.1, and 5.7 cGy to the prostate, rectum, bladder, and femoral heads, respectively, accounting for 1.7%, 3.2%, 3.2%, and 8.4% of megavoltage photon dose contributions. However, the testes received 2.9 cGy from the same CBCT scan, a threefold increase as compared with 0.7 cGy received during IMRT. With the same kVp, full-fan mode deposited much less dose to organs than half-fan mode, ranging from 9% less for prostate to 69% less for testes, except for rectum, where full-fan mode delivered 34% more dose. As photon beam energy increased from 60 to 125 kV, kVCBCT-contributed doses increased exponentially for all organs, irrespective of scanning mode. Reducing CBCT field span from 30 to 10 cm in the superior-inferior direction cut testicular doses from 5.7 to 0.2 cGy in half-fan mode and from 1.5 to 0.1 cGy in full-fan mode. Conclusions: Compared with IMRT, kVCBCT-contributed doses to the prostate, rectum, bladder, and femoral heads are clinically insignificant, whereas dose to the testes is threefold more. Full-fan CBCT usually deposits much less dose to organs (except for rectum) than half-fan mode in prostate patients. Kilovoltage CBCT-contributed doses increase exponentially with photon beam energy. Reducing CBCT field significantly cuts doses to testes and other organs.

  6. Five-year follow-up using a prostate stent as fiducial in image-guided radiotherapy of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Jesper; Sander, Lotte

    2015-06-01

    To report results from the five-year follow-up on a previously reported study using image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of localized or locally advanced prostate cancer (PC) and a removable prostate stent as fiducial. Patients with local or locally advanced PC were treated using five-field 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DRT). The clinical target volumes (CTV) were treated to 78 Gy in 39 fractions using daily on-line image guidance (IG). Late genito-urinary (GU) and gastro-intestinal (GI) toxicities were scored using the radiotherapy oncology group (RTOG) score and the common toxicity score of adverse events (CTC) score. Urinary symptoms were also scored using the international prostate symptom score (IPSS). Median observation time was 5.4 year. Sixty-two of the 90 patients from the original study cohort were eligible for toxicity assessment. Overall survival, cancer-specific survival and biochemical freedom from failure were 85%, 96% and 80%, respectively at five years after radiotherapy. Late toxicity GU and GI RTOG scores≥2 were 5% and 0%. Comparing pre- and post-radiotherapy IPSS scores indicate that development in urinary symptoms after radiotherapy may be complex. Prostate image-guided radiotherapy using a prostate stent demonstrated survival data comparable with recently published data. GU and GI toxicities at five-year follow-up were low and comparable to the lowest toxicity rates reported. These findings support that the precision of the prostate stent technique is at least as good as other techniques. IPSS revealed a complex development in urinary symptoms after radiotherapy.

  7. Extreme Hypofractionated Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Greco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An emerging body of data suggests that hypofractionated radiation schedules, where a higher dose per fraction is delivered in a smaller number of sessions, may be superior to conventional fractionation schemes in terms of both tumour control and toxicity profile in the management of adenocarcinoma of the prostate. However, the optimal hypofractionation scheme is still the subject of scientific debate. Modern computer-driven technology enables the safe implementation of extreme hypo fractionation (often referred to as stereotactic body radiation therapy [SBRT]. Several studies are currently being conducted to clarify the yet unresolved issues regarding treatment techniques and fractionation regimens. Recently, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO issued a model policy indicating that data supporting the use of SBRT for prostate cancer have matured to a point where SBRT could be considered an appropriate alternative for select patients with low-to-intermediate risk disease. The present article reviews some of the currently available data and examines the impact of tracking technology to mitigate intra-fraction target motion, thus, potentially further improving the clinical outcomes of extreme hypofractionated radiation therapy in appropriately selected prostate cancer patients. The Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown (CCU’s currently ongoing Phase I feasibility study is described; it delivers 45 Gy in five fractions using prostate fixation via a rectal balloon, and urethral sparing via catheter placement with on-line intra-fractional motion tracking through beacon transponder technology.

  8. Image-guided diagnosis of prostate cancer can increase detection of tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the largest prospective study to date of image-guided technology for identifying suspicious regions of the prostate to biopsy, researchers compared the ability of this technology to detect high-risk prostate cancer with that of the current standard of

  9. The MITK image guided therapy toolkit and its application for augmented reality in laparoscopic prostate surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumhauer, Matthias; Neuhaus, Jochen; Fritzsche, Klaus; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2010-02-01

    Image Guided Therapy (IGT) faces researchers with high demands and efforts in system design, prototype implementation, and evaluation. The lack of standardized software tools, like algorithm implementations, tracking device and tool setups, and data processing methods escalate the labor for system development and sustainable system evaluation. In this paper, a new toolkit component of the Medical Imaging and Interaction Toolkit (MITK), the MITK-IGT, and its exemplary application for computer-assisted prostate surgery are presented. MITK-IGT aims at integrating software tools, algorithms and tracking device interfaces into the MITK toolkit to provide a comprehensive software framework for computer aided diagnosis support, therapy planning, treatment support, and radiological follow-up. An exemplary application of the MITK-IGT framework is introduced with a surgical navigation system for laparos-copic prostate surgery. It illustrates the broad range of application possibilities provided by the framework, as well as its simple extensibility with custom algorithms and other software modules.

  10. Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy.

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    Yaseen, Mohammad A; Ermilov, Sergey A; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Su, Richard; Conjusteau, André; Fronheiser, Matthew; Bell, Brent A; Motamedi, Massoud; Oraevsky, Alexander A

    2010-01-01

    Optoacoustic (OA) tomography has demonstrated utility in identifying blood-rich malignancies in breast tissue. We describe the development and characterization of a laser OA imaging system for the prostate (LOIS-P). The system consists of a fiber-coupled Q-switched laser operating at 757 nm, a commercial 128-channel ultrasonic probe, a digital signal processor, and software that uses the filtered radial back-projection algorithm for image reconstruction. The system is used to reconstruct OA images of a blood-rich lesion induced in vivo in a canine prostate. OA images obtained in vivo are compared to images acquired using ultrasound, the current gold standard for guiding biopsy of the prostate. Although key structural features such as the urethra could be identified with both imaging techniques, a bloody lesion representing a highly vascularized tumor could only be clearly identified in OA images. The advantages and limitations of both forward and backward illumination modes are also evaluated by collecting OA images of phantoms simulating blood vessels within tissue. System resolution is estimated to be 0.2 mm in the radial direction of the acoustic array. The minimum detectable pressure signal is 1.83 Pa. Our results encourage further development toward a dual-modality OA/ultrasonic system for prostate imaging and image-guided biopsy.

  11. Possibility of transrectal photoacoustic imaging-guided biopsy for detection of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Miya; Shinchi, Masayuki; Horiguchi, Akio; Shinmoto, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Irisawa, Kaku; Wada, Takatsugu; Asano, Tomohiko

    2017-03-01

    A transrectral ultrasonography (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy is mandatory for histological diagnosis in patients with an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), but its diagnostic accuracy is not satisfactory; therefore, a considerable number of patients are forced to have an unnecessary repeated biopsy. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has the ability to visualize the distribution of hemoglobin clearly. Thus, there is the potential to acquire different maps of small vessel networks between cancerous and normal tissue. We developed an original TRUS-type PA probe consisting of a microconvex array transducer with an optical illumination system providing coregistered PA and ultrasound images. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the clinical possibility of a transrectral PA image. The prostate biopsy cores obtained by transrectal systemic biopsies under TRUS guidance were stained with HE staining and anti-CD34 antibodies as a marker of the endothelium of the blood vessel in order to find a pattern in the map of a small vessel network, which allows for imaging-based identification of prostate cancer. We analyzed the association of PA signal patterns, the cancer location by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study, and the pathological diagnosis with CD34 stains as a prospective intervention study. In order to demonstrate the TRUS-merged-with-PA imaging guided targeted biopsy combined with a standard biopsy for capturing the clinically significant tumors, we developed a puncture needle guide attachment for the original TRUS-type PA probe.

  12. Phase II Evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guided Focal Laser Ablation of Prostate Cancer.

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    Eggener, Scott E; Yousuf, Ambereen; Watson, Sydeaka; Wang, Shiyang; Oto, Aytekin

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging guided focal laser ablation is an investigational strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer. This phase II evaluation of focal laser ablation included men with stage T1c-T2a, prostate specific antigen less than 15 ng/ml or prostate specific antigen density less than 0.15 ng/ml(3), Gleason 7 or less in 25% or less of biopsies and magnetic resonance imaging with 1 or 2 lesions concordant with biopsy detected cancer. At 3 months all patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging with biopsy of ablation zone(s). At 12 months all underwent magnetic resonance imaging and systematic biopsy. I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) and SHIM (Sexual Health Inventory for Men) scores were collected before focal laser ablation, and at 1, 3 and 12 months. The primary end point was no cancer on the 3-month ablation zone biopsy. Secondary end points were safety, 12-month biopsy, and urinary and sexual function. In the 27 men median age was 62 years and mean prostate specific antigen was 4.4 ng/ml. Biopsy Gleason score was 6 in 23 patients (85%) and Gleason 7 in 4 (15%). Seven men (26%) had low volume Gleason 6 disease outside the intended ablation zone(s). At 3 months 26 patients (96%) had no evidence of cancer on magnetic resonance imaging guided biopsy of the ablation zone. No significant I-PSS changes were observed (each p >0.05). SHIM was lower at 1 month (p = 0.03), marginally lower at 3 months (p = 0.05) and without a significant difference at 12 months (p = 0.38). At 12-month biopsy cancer was identified in 10 patients (37%), including in the ablation zone(s) in 3 (11%) and outside the ablation zone(s) in 8 (30%) with cancer in and outside the ablation zone in 1. In select men with localized prostate cancer and visible magnetic resonance imaging lesions focal laser ablation has an acceptable morbidity profile and is associated with encouraging short-term oncologic outcomes. Significantly longer followup is mandatory to fully assess this

  13. Toxicity after intensity-modulated, image-guided radiotherapy for prostate cancer

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    Flentje, Michael [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany); Guckenberger, Matthias; Ok, Sami; Polat, Buelent; Sweeney, Reinhart A.

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate toxicity after dose-escalated radiotherapy for prostate cancer using intensity-modulated treatment planning (IMRT) and image-guided treatment (IGRT) delivery. Patients and Methods: 100 patients were treated with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) IMRT for prostate cancer: doses of 76.23 Gy and 60 Gy in 33 fractions were prescribed to the prostate and the seminal vesicles, respectively, for intermediate- and high-risk patients (n = 74). The total dose was 73.91 Gy in 32 fractions for low-risk patients and after transurethral resection of the prostate (n = 26). The pelvic lymphatics were treated with 46 Gy in 25 fractions in patients with high risk of lymph node metastases using an SIB to the prostate (n = 25). IGRT was practiced with cone-beam computed tomography. Acute and late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity was evaluated prospectively (CTCAE v3.0). Results: Treatment was completed as planned by all patients. Acute GI and GU toxicity grade {>=} 2 was observed in 12% and 42% of the patients, respectively, with 4% suffering from GU toxicity grade 3. 6 weeks after treatment, the incidence of acute toxicity grade {>=} 2 had decreased to 12%. With a median follow-up of 26 months, late GI and GU toxicity grade {>=} 2 was seen in 1.5% and 7.7% of the patients at 24 months. Four patients developed late toxicity grade 3 (GI n = 1; GU n = 3). Presence of acute GI and GU toxicity was significantly associated with late GI (p = 0.0007) and GU toxicity (p = 0.006). Conclusion: High-dose radiotherapy for prostate cancer using IMRT and IGRT resulted in low rates of acute toxicity and preliminary results of late toxicity are promising. (orig.)

  14. Image-guided adaptive radiotherapy for prostate and head-and-neck cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Daniel, Jennifer C.

    In the current practice of radiation therapy, daily patient alignments have been based on external skin marks or on bone. However, internal organ variation (both motion and volumetric changes) between treatment fractions can displace the treatment target, causing target underdosage and normal tissue overdosage. In order to deliver the radiation treatment as planned, more accurate knowledge of the daily internal anatomy was needed. Additionally, treatments needed to adapt to these variations by either shifting the patient to account for the daily target position or by altering the treatment plan. In this dissertation, the question of whether inter-fractional variations in internal patient anatomy combined with external set-up uncertainties produced measurable differences between planned and delivered doses for prostate and head-and-neck cancer patients was investigated. Image-guided adaptive treatment strategies to improve tumor coverage and/or reduce normal tissue dose were examined. Treatment deliveries utilizing various alignment procedures for ten prostate cancer patients and eleven head-and-neck cancer patients, each of whom received multiple CT scans over the course of treatment, were simulated. The largest prostate dose losses between planning and delivery were correlated with anterior/posterior and superior/inferior prostate displacement. Daily bone alignment sufficiently maintained target coverage for 70% of patients, ultrasound for 90%, and CT for 100%. A no-action-level correction protocol, which corrected the daily bone alignment for the systematic internal displacement of the prostate based on a pre-determined number of CT image sets, successfully improved the prostate and seminal vesicle dosimetric coverage. Three CT image sets were sufficient to accurately correct the bone alignment scheme for the prostate internal systematic shifts. For head-and-neck cancer patient treatment, setup uncertainties and internal organ variations did not greatly affect

  15. Image guided position verification for intensity modulated radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederveen, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to provide a practical framework for dose escalation in the prostate using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and to find out if marker based on-line position verification is clinically feasible and effective. We present a class solution for dose escalation in the pros

  16. Early Outcomes From Three Prospective Trials of Image-Guided Proton Therapy for Prostate Cancer

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    Mendenhall, Nancy P., E-mail: menden@shands.ufl.edu [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Li Zuofeng; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Marcus, Robert B.; Mendenhall, William M.; Nichols, R. Charles; Morris, Christopher G. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Williams, Christopher R.; Costa, Joseph [Division of Urology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Henderson, Randal [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report early outcomes with image-guided proton therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We accrued 211 prostate cancer patients on prospective Institutional Review Board-approved trials of 78 cobalt gray equivalent (CGE) in 39 fractions for low-risk disease, dose escalation from 78 to 82 CGE for intermediate-risk disease, and 78 CGE with concomitant docetaxel followed by androgen deprivation for high-risk disease. Minimum follow-up was 2 years. Results: One intermediate-risk patient and 2 high-risk patients had disease progression. Pretreatment genitourinary (GU) symptom management was required in 38% of patients. A cumulative 88 (42%) patients required posttreatment GU symptom management. Four transient Grade 3 GU toxicities occurred, all among patients requiring pretreatment GU symptom management. Multivariate analysis showed correlation between posttreatment GU 2+ symptoms and pretreatment GU symptom management (p < 0.0001) and age (p = 0.0048). Only 1 Grade 3+ gastrointestinal (GI) symptom occurred. The prevalence of Grade 2+ GI symptoms was 0 (0%), 10 (5%), 12 (6%), and 8 (4%) at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, with a cumulative incidence of 20 (10%) patients at 2 years after proton therapy. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed significant correlation between Grade 2+ rectal bleeding and proctitis and the percentage of rectal wall (rectum) receiving doses ranging from 40 CGE (10 CGE) to 80 CGE. Conclusions: Early outcomes with image-guided proton therapy suggest high efficacy and minimal toxicity with only 1.9% Grade 3 GU symptoms and <0.5% Grade 3 GI toxicities.

  17. Prostate displacement during transabdominal ultrasound image-guided radiotherapy assessed by real-time four-dimensional transperineal monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Mariwan; Behrens, Claus F.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) imaging is currently available for localizing the prostate in daily image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The aim of this study was to determine the induced prostate displacement during such TAUS imaging. The prostate displacement was monitored using a novel...... transperineal four-dimensional (4D) US (TPUS) system. Material and methods. Ten prostate cancer patients, with a mean age of 68 years (58/76), were US scanned in the computed tomography (CT) room utilizing the Clarity 4D TPUS monitoring system. The patients were asked to comply with a moderate bladder fi lling...... a TAUS scan. The time dependent prostate displacements induced by the 2D probe pressure were recorded for the three orthogonal directions. In total 42 monitoring curves with applied 2D probe were recorded. Results. Data analysis of 42 US scans resulted in pressure induced prostate displacements with mean...

  18. Incremental Learning With Selective Memory (ILSM): Towards Fast Prostate Localization for Image Guided Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yaozong; Zhan, Yiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) requires fast and accurate localization of the prostate in 3-D treatment-guided radiotherapy, which is challenging due to low tissue contrast and large anatomical variation across patients. On the other hand, the IGRT workflow involves collecting a series of computed tomography (CT) images from the same patient under treatment. These images contain valuable patient-specific information yet are often neglected by previous works. In this paper, we propose a novel learning framework, namely incremental learning with selective memory (ILSM), to effectively learn the patient-specific appearance characteristics from these patient-specific images. Specifically, starting with a population-based discriminative appearance model, ILSM aims to “personalize” the model to fit patient-specific appearance characteristics. The model is personalized with two steps: backward pruning that discards obsolete population-based knowledge and forward learning that incorporates patient-specific characteristics. By effectively combining the patient-specific characteristics with the general population statistics, the incrementally learned appearance model can localize the prostate of a specific patient much more accurately. This work has three contributions: 1) the proposed incremental learning framework can capture patient-specific characteristics more effectively, compared to traditional learning schemes, such as pure patient-specific learning, population-based learning, and mixture learning with patient-specific and population data; 2) this learning framework does not have any parametric model assumption, hence, allowing the adoption of any discriminative classifier; and 3) using ILSM, we can localize the prostate in treatment CTs accurately (DSC ∼0.89) and fast (∼4 s), which satisfies the real-world clinical requirements of IGRT. PMID:24495983

  19. Incremental learning with selective memory (ILSM): towards fast prostate localization for image guided radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yaozong; Zhan, Yiqiang; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-02-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) requires fast and accurate localization of the prostate in 3-D treatment-guided radiotherapy, which is challenging due to low tissue contrast and large anatomical variation across patients. On the other hand, the IGRT workflow involves collecting a series of computed tomography (CT) images from the same patient under treatment. These images contain valuable patient-specific information yet are often neglected by previous works. In this paper, we propose a novel learning framework, namely incremental learning with selective memory (ILSM), to effectively learn the patient-specific appearance characteristics from these patient-specific images. Specifically, starting with a population-based discriminative appearance model, ILSM aims to "personalize" the model to fit patient-specific appearance characteristics. The model is personalized with two steps: backward pruning that discards obsolete population-based knowledge and forward learning that incorporates patient-specific characteristics. By effectively combining the patient-specific characteristics with the general population statistics, the incrementally learned appearance model can localize the prostate of a specific patient much more accurately. This work has three contributions: 1) the proposed incremental learning framework can capture patient-specific characteristics more effectively, compared to traditional learning schemes, such as pure patient-specific learning, population-based learning, and mixture learning with patient-specific and population data; 2) this learning framework does not have any parametric model assumption, hence, allowing the adoption of any discriminative classifier; and 3) using ILSM, we can localize the prostate in treatment CTs accurately (DSC  ∼ 0.89 ) and fast (  ∼ 4 s), which satisfies the real-world clinical requirements of IGRT.

  20. Acute toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with and without image-guided radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Scott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT increases the accuracy of treatment delivery through daily target localisation. We report on toxicity symptoms experienced during radiotherapy treatment, with and without IGRT in prostate cancer patients treated radically. Methods Between 2006 and 2009, acute toxicity data for ten symptoms were collected prospectively onto standardized assessment forms. Toxicity was scored during radiotherapy, according to the Common Terminology Criteria Adverse Events V3.0, for 275 prostate cancer patients before and after the implementation of a fiducial marker IGRT program and dose escalation from 74Gy in 37 fractions, to 78Gy in 39 fractions. Margins and planning constraints were maintained the same during the study period. The symptoms scored were urinary frequency, cystitis, bladder spasm, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, proctitis, anal skin discomfort and fatigue. Analysis was conducted for the maximum grade of toxicity and the median number of days from the onset of that toxicity to the end of treatment. Results In the IGRT group, 14228 toxicity scores were analysed from 249 patients. In the non-IGRT group, 1893 toxicity scores were analysed from 26 patients. Urinary frequency ≥G3 affected 23% and 7% in the non-IGRT and IGRT group respectively (p = 0.0188. Diarrhoea ≥G2 affected 15% and 3% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0174. Fatigue ≥G2 affected 23% and 8% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0271. The median number of days with a toxicity was higher for ≥G2 (p = 0.0179 and ≥G3 frequency (p = 0.0027, ≥G2 diarrhoea (p = 0.0033 and ≥G2 fatigue (p = 0.0088 in the non-IGRT group compared to the IGRT group. Other toxicities were not of significant statistical difference. Conclusions In this study, prostate cancer patients treated radically with IGRT had less severe urinary frequency, diarrhoea and fatigue during treatment

  1. Reliability of EUCLIDIAN: an autonomous robotic system for image-guided prostate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, Tarun K; Buzurovic, Ivan; Huang, Ke; Showalter, Timothy; Dicker, Adam P; Yu, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Recently, several robotic systems have been developed to perform accurate and consistent image-guided brachytherapy. Before introducing a new device into clinical operations, it is important to assess the reliability and mean time before failure (MTBF) of the system. In this article, the authors present the preclinical evaluation and analysis of the reliability and MTBF of an autonomous robotic system, which is developed for prostate seed implantation. The authors have considered three steps that are important in reliability growth analysis. These steps are: Identification and isolation of failures, classification of failures, and trend analysis. For any one-of-a-kind product, the reliability enhancement is accomplished through test-fix-test. The authors have used failure mode and effect analysis for collection and analysis of reliability data by identifying and categorizing the failure modes. Failures were classified according to severity. Failures that occurred during the operation of this robotic system were considered as nonhomogenous Poisson process. The failure occurrence trend was analyzed using Laplace test. For analyzing and predicting reliability growth, commonly used and widely accepted models, Duane's model and the Army Material Systems Analysis Activity, i.e., Crow's model, were applied. The MTBF was used as an important measure for assessing the system's reliability. During preclinical testing, 3196 seeds (in 53 test cases) were deposited autonomously by the robot and 14 critical failures were encountered. The majority of the failures occurred during the first few cases. The distribution of failures followed Duane's postulation as well as Crow's postulation of reliability growth. The Laplace test index was -3.82 (robotic system. At 95% confidence, the reliability for deposition of 65 seeds was more than 90%. Analyses of failure mode strongly indicated a gradual improvement of reliability of this autonomous robotic system. High MTBF implied that

  2. Evaluation of volume change in rectum and bladder during application of image-guided radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, J. A.; Rojas, J. I.

    2016-07-01

    All prostate cancer patients from Centro Médico Radioterapia Siglo XXI receive Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). This therapy uses image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) with the Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). This study compares the planned dose in the reference CT image against the delivered dose recalculate in the CBCT image. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomic changes and related dosimetric effect based on weekly CBCT directly for patients with prostate cancer undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment. The collected data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA.

  3. Evaluation of volume change in rectum and bladder during application of image-guided radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma

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    Luna, J. A., E-mail: yosimoon13@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, Heredia (Costa Rica); Rojas, J. I., E-mail: isaac.rojas@siglo21.cr [Centro Médico Radioterapia Siglo XX1, La Uruca (Costa Rica); PROXTRONICS CR, Ltda, Heredia (Costa Rica)

    2016-07-07

    All prostate cancer patients from Centro Médico Radioterapia Siglo XXI receive Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). This therapy uses image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) with the Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). This study compares the planned dose in the reference CT image against the delivered dose recalculate in the CBCT image. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomic changes and related dosimetric effect based on weekly CBCT directly for patients with prostate cancer undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment. The collected data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA.

  4. Reliability of EUCLIDIAN: An autonomous robotic system for image-guided prostate brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podder, Tarun K.; Buzurovic, Ivan; Huang Ke; Showalter, Timothy; Dicker, Adam P.; Yu, Yan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center (NCI-designated), Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Recently, several robotic systems have been developed to perform accurate and consistent image-guided brachytherapy. Before introducing a new device into clinical operations, it is important to assess the reliability and mean time before failure (MTBF) of the system. In this article, the authors present the preclinical evaluation and analysis of the reliability and MTBF of an autonomous robotic system, which is developed for prostate seed implantation. Methods: The authors have considered three steps that are important in reliability growth analysis. These steps are: Identification and isolation of failures, classification of failures, and trend analysis. For any one-of-a-kind product, the reliability enhancement is accomplished through test-fix-test. The authors have used failure mode and effect analysis for collection and analysis of reliability data by identifying and categorizing the failure modes. Failures were classified according to severity. Failures that occurred during the operation of this robotic system were considered as nonhomogenous Poisson process. The failure occurrence trend was analyzed using Laplace test. For analyzing and predicting reliability growth, commonly used and widely accepted models, Duane's model and the Army Material Systems Analysis Activity, i.e., Crow's model, were applied. The MTBF was used as an important measure for assessing the system's reliability. Results: During preclinical testing, 3196 seeds (in 53 test cases) were deposited autonomously by the robot and 14 critical failures were encountered. The majority of the failures occurred during the first few cases. The distribution of failures followed Duane's postulation as well as Crow's postulation of reliability growth. The Laplace test index was -3.82 (<0), indicating a significant trend in failure data, and the failure intervals lengthened gradually. The continuous increase in the failure occurrence interval suggested a trend toward

  5. Five-year outcomes from a prospective trial of image-guided accelerated hypofractionated proton therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Randal H; Bryant, Curtis; Hoppe, Bradford S; Nichols, R Charles; Mendenhall, William M; Flampouri, Stella; Su, Zhong; Li, Zuofeng; Morris, Christopher G; Mendenhall, Nancy P

    2017-07-01

    To report 5-year outcomes of a prospective trial of image-guided accelerated hypofractionated proton therapy (AHPT) for prostate cancer. 215 prostate cancer patients accrued to a prospective institutional review board-approved trial of 70Gy(RBE) in 28 fractions for low-risk disease (n = 120) and 72.5Gy(RBE) in 29 fractions for intermediate-risk disease (n = 95). This trial excluded patients with prostate volumes of ≥60 cm(3) or International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS) of ≥15, patients on anticoagulants or alpha-blockers, and patients in whom dose-constraint goals for organs at risk (OAR) could not be met. Toxicities were graded prospectively according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. This trial can be found on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00693238). Median follow-up was 5.2 years. Five-year rates of freedom from biochemical and clinical disease progression were 95.9%, 98.3%, and 92.7% in the overall group and the low- and intermediate-risk subsets, respectively. Actuarial 5-year rates of late radiation-related CTCAE v3.0 grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal and urologic toxicities were 0.5% and 1.7%, respectively. Median IPSS before treatment and at 4+ years after treatment were 6 and 5 for low-risk patients and 4 and 6 for intermediate-risk patients. Image-guided AHPT 5-year outcomes show high efficacy and minimal physician-assessed toxicity in selected patients. These results are comparable to the 5-year results of our prospective trials of standard fractionated proton therapy for patients with low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Longer follow-up and a larger cohort are necessary to confirm these findings.

  6. MO-FG-210-02: Implementation of Image-Guided Prostate HDR Brachytherapy Using MR-Ultrasound Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, B. [University of Virginia (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Ultrasound (US) is one of the most widely used imaging modalities in medical practice. Since US imaging offers real-time imaging capability, it has becomes an excellent option to provide image guidance for brachytherapy (IGBT). (1) The physics and the fundamental principles of US imaging are presented, and the typical steps required to commission an US system for IGBT is provided for illustration. (2) Application of US for prostate HDR brachytherapy, including partial prostate treatments using MR-ultrasound co-registration to enable a focused treatment on the disease within the prostate is also presented. Prostate HDR with US image guidance planning can benefit from real time visualization of the needles, and fusion of the ultrasound images with T2 weighted MR allows the focusing of the treatment to the specific areas of disease within the prostate, so that the entire gland need not be treated. Finally, (3) ultrasound guidance for an eye plaque program is presented. US can be a key component of placement and QA for episcleral plaque brachytherapy for ocular cancer, and the UCLA eye plaque program with US for image guidance is presented to demonstrate the utility of US verification of plaque placement in improving the methods and QA in episcleral plaque brachytherapy. Learning Objectives: To understand the physics of an US system and the necessary aspects of commissioning US for image guided brachytherapy (IGBT). To understand real time planning of prostate HDR using ultrasound, and its application in partial prostate treatments using MR-ultrasound fusion to focus treatment on disease within the prostate. To understand the methods and QA in applying US for localizing the target and the implant during a episcleral plaque brachytherapy procedures.

  7. Five-Year Outcomes from 3 Prospective Trials of Image-Guided Proton Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendenhall, Nancy P., E-mail: menden@shands.ufl.edu [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Hoppe, Bradford S.; Nichols, Romaine C.; Mendenhall, William M.; Morris, Christopher G.; Li, Zuofeng; Su, Zhong [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Williams, Christopher R.; Costa, Joseph [Division of Urology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Henderson, Randal H. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To report 5-year clinical outcomes of 3 prospective trials of image-guided proton therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 211 prostate cancer patients (89 low-risk, 82 intermediate-risk, and 40 high-risk) were treated in institutional review board-approved trials of 78 cobalt gray equivalent (CGE) in 39 fractions for low-risk disease, 78 to 82 CGE for intermediate-risk disease, and 78 CGE with concomitant docetaxel therapy followed by androgen deprivation therapy for high-risk disease. Toxicities were graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. Median follow-up was 5.2 years. Results: Five-year rates of biochemical and clinical freedom from disease progression were 99%, 99%, and 76% in low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients, respectively. Actuarial 5-year rates of late CTCAE, version 3.0 (or version 4.0) grade 3 gastrointestinal and urologic toxicity were 1.0% (0.5%) and 5.4% (1.0%), respectively. Median pretreatment scores and International Prostate Symptom Scores at >4 years posttreatment were 8 and 7, 6 and 6, and 9 and 8, respectively, among the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients. There were no significant changes between median pretreatment summary scores and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite scores at >4 years for bowel, urinary irritative and/or obstructive, and urinary continence. Conclusions: Five-year clinical outcomes with image-guided proton therapy included extremely high efficacy, minimal physician-assessed toxicity, and excellent patient-reported outcomes. Further follow-up and a larger patient experience are necessary to confirm these favorable outcomes.

  8. Influence of volumes of prostate, rectum, and bladder on treatment planning CT on interfraction prostate shifts during ultrasound image-guided IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Nandanuri M. S.; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Sartin, William; Maiorano, Samuel; Modena, Jennifer; Mazur, Andrej; Osian, Adrian; Sood, Brijmohan; Ravi, Akkamma; Sampath, Seshadri; Lange, Christopher S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Hospital Queens, Flushing, New York 11355 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Hospital Queens, Flushing, New York 11355 and Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Presbyterian Hospital Weill-Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Hospital Queens, Flushing, New York 11355 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Hospital Queens, Flushing, New York 11355 and Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Presbyterian Hospital Weill-Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Hospital Queens, Flushing, New York 11355 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, State University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11203 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between prostate, bladder, and rectum volumes on treatment planning CT day and prostate shifts in the XYZ directions on treatment days. Methods: Prostate, seminal vesicles, bladder, and rectum were contoured on CT images obtained in supine position. Intensity modulated radiation therapy plans was prepared. Contours were exported to BAT-ultrasound imaging system. Patients were positioned on the couch using skin marks. An ultrasound probe was used to obtain ultrasound images of prostate, bladder, and rectum, which were aligned with CT images. Couch shifts in the XYZ directions as recommended by BAT system were made and recorded. 4698 couch shifts for 42 patients were analyzed to study the correlations between interfraction prostate shifts vs bladder, rectum, and prostate volumes on planning CT. Results: Mean and range of volumes (cc): Bladder: 179 (42-582), rectum: 108 (28-223), and prostate: 55 (21-154). Mean systematic prostate shifts were (cm, {+-}SD) right and left lateral: -0.047{+-}0.16 (-0.361-0.251), anterior and posterior: 0.14{+-}0.3 (-0.466-0.669), and superior and inferior: 0.19{+-}0.26 (-0.342-0.633). Bladder volume was not correlated with lateral, anterior/posterior, and superior/inferior prostate shifts (P>0.2). Rectal volume was correlated with anterior/posterior (P<0.001) but not with lateral and superior/inferior prostate shifts (P>0.2). The smaller the rectal volume or cross sectional area, the larger was the prostate shift anteriorly and vice versa (P<0.001). Prostate volume was correlated with superior/inferior (P<0.05) but not with lateral and anterior/posterior prostate shifts (P>0.2). The smaller the prostate volume, the larger was prostate shift superiorly and vice versa (P<0.05). Conclusions: Prostate and rectal volumes, but not bladder volumes, on treatment planning CT influenced prostate position on treatment fractions. Daily image-guided adoptive radiotherapy would be

  9. The impact of image-guided radiation therapy on the dose distribution in prostate cancer using deformable registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaly, Bryan

    Dosimetric uncertainties due to variable anatomy and beam setup variability pose a significant limitation in modern precision radiotherapy. These uncertainties may lead to discrepancies between the planned and actual dose distribution delivered to the patient. This may have an adverse impact on the treatment outcome in terms of recurrent tumour growth and/or causing complications in normal tissues. This work investigates the hypothesis that image-guided radiation therapy is needed to reduce the detrimental effects of changes in anatomy on the delivered dose distribution in cancer patients. To test this hypothesis, a deformable model is developed to enable the quantification of dose differences due to patient repositioning and variable anatomy. The deformable model is based on contour-driven thin-plate splines to track the position of tissue elements within the patient. This is combined with recalculation of the treatment plan using frequent computed tomography (CT) image data acquired at different times during treatment. It is demonstrated using a clinical prostate case that dose differences in the rectum and bladder are significant (˜25%) after a multiple fraction treatment. The deformable model is validated using phantom and clinical prostate CT data. A mathematical phantom is used to demonstrate that the accuracy in tracking the dose delivered to a tissue element is 3--4% in high dose gradient regions. Ten prostate cancer patients with radio-opaque markers implanted in the prostate and seminal vesicles are used to demonstrate that the deformable model is accurate (˜2.5 mm) to within the intra-observer contouring variability. The impact of correcting for setup uncertainty and inter-fraction tumour motion is explored by comparing treatment scenarios that would employ current image guidance technology to conventional treatment (i.e., alignment to external markers). This work demonstrates that geographic tumour miss is remedied using image-guided treatment and day

  10. Hybrid Registration of Prostate and Seminal Vesicles for Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Johan de; Herk, Marcel van; Pos, Floris J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sonke, Jan-Jakob, E-mail: j.sonke@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Fiducial markers are a good surrogate for the prostate but provide little information on the position and orientation of the seminal vesicles (SVs). Therefore, a more advanced localization method is warranted if the SVs are part of the target volume. The purpose of this study was to develop a hybrid registration technique for the localization of the prostate and SVs. Methods and Materials: Twenty prostate patients implanted with 2 or 3 elongated fiducial markers had cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans acquired at every fraction. The first step of the hybrid registration was to localize the prostate by CBCT-to-planning-CT alignment of the fiducial markers, allowing both translations and rotations. Using this marker registration as a starting point, the SVs were registered based on gray values, allowing only rotations around the lateral axis. We analyzed the differential rotation between the prostate and SVs and compared the required SV margins for 3 correction strategies. Results: The SV registration had a precision of 2.7° (1 standard deviation) and was successful for 96% of the scans. Mean (M), systematic (Σ), and random (σ) differences between the orientation of the prostate and SV were M = −0.4°, Σ = 7.2°, and σ = 6.4°. Daily marker-based corrections required an SV margin of 11.4 mm (translations only) and 11.6 mm (translations + rotations). Rotation corrections of the SVs reduced the required margin to 8.2 mm. Conclusions: We found substantial differences between the orientation of the prostate and SVs. The hybrid registration technique can accurately detect these rotations during treatment. Rotation correction of the SVs allows for margin reduction for the SVs.

  11. Modeling prostate anatomy from multiple view TRUS images for image-guided HIFU therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Michael A; Dines, Kris A; Seip, Ralf; Carlson, Roy F; Sanghvi, Narendra T

    2007-01-01

    Current planning methods for transrectal high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of prostate cancer rely on manually defining treatment regions in 15-20 sector transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images of the prostate. Although effective, it is desirable to reduce user interaction time by identifying functionally related anatomic structures (segmenting), then automatically laying out treatment sites using these structures as a guide. Accordingly, a method has been developed to effectively generate solid three-dimensional (3-D) models of the prostate, urethra, and rectal wall from boundary trace data. Modeling the urethra and rectal wall are straightforward, but modeling the prostate is more difficult and has received much attention in the literature. New results presented here are aimed at overcoming many of the limitations of previous approaches to modeling the prostate while using boundary traces obtained via manual tracing in as few as 5 sector and 3 linear images. The results presented here are based on a new type of surface, the Fourier ellipsoid, and the use of sector and linear TRUS images. Tissue-specific 3-D models will ultimately permit finer control of energy deposition and more selective destruction of cancerous regions while sparing critical neighboring structures.

  12. Geometric-model-based segmentation of the prostate and surrounding structures for image-guided radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoli; Jeong, Yongwon; Radke, Richard J.; Chen, George T. Y.

    2004-01-01

    We present a computer vision tool to improve the clinical outcome of patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer by improving irradiation technique. While intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) allows one to irradiate a specific region in the body with high accuracy, it is still difficult to know exactly where to aim the radiation beam on every day of the 30~40 treatments that are necessary. This paper presents a geometric model-based technique to accurately segment the prostate and other surrounding structures in a daily serial CT image, compensating for daily motion and shape variation. We first acquire a collection of serial CT scans of patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy, and manual segmentation of the prostate and other nearby structures by radiation oncologists. Then we train shape and local appearance models for the structures of interest. When new images are available, an iterative algorithm is applied to locate the prostate and surrounding structures automatically. Our experimental results show that excellent matches can be given to the prostate and surrounding structure. Convergence is declared after 10 iterations. For 256 x 256 images, the mean distance between the hand-segmented contour and the automatically estimated contour is about 1.5 pixels (2.44 mm), with variance about 0.6 pixel (1.24 mm).

  13. In vivo testing of laser optoacoustic system for image-guided biopsy of prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraevsky, Alexander; Ermilov, Sergey; Mehta, Ketan; Miller, Tom; Bell, Brent; Orihuela, Eduardo; Motamedi, Massoud

    2006-02-01

    We have developed and used a laser optoacoustic imaging system with transrectal probe (LOIS-P) for detection of mechanical lesions in canine prostates in vivo. LOIS images have been acquired with a 128-channel transrectal probe and a 32-channel data acquisition system. Optoacoustic images showed a strong contrast enhancement for a blood containing lesion, when compared with ultrasound images. Our studies demonstrated that sufficient optoacoustic contrast exists between blood containing lesion and prostate tissue, although the lesion has been undetectable with ultrasound. The imaging results have been compared with visual examination of surgically excised prostates. Although axial resolution of the wide-band transducers employed in the transrectal probe provides good axial resolution of 0.5 mm, the convex arc geometry of the this array of transducers provides lateral resolution degrading with depth in tissue. A two step algorithm has been developed to improve the lateral resolution of deeply located objects. This algorithm employs optoacoustic image reconstruction based on radial back-projection to determine location and shape of the target object, then a procedure, we call Maximum Angular Amplitude Probability (MAAP), to determine true brightness of the object and simultaneously remove arc-shaped artifacts associated with radial back-projection. A laser optoacoustic imaging system (LOIS-P) with transrectal probe operating in backward detection mode empowered with the new image reconstruction algorithm seems promising as a modality for detection of prostate cancer and guiding prostate biopsy.

  14. A Bayesian nonrigid registration method to enhance intraoperative target definition in image-guided prostate procedures through uncertainty characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursley, Jennifer; Risholm, Petter; Fedorov, Andriy; Tuncali, Kemal; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Wells, William M.; Tempany, Clare M.; Cormack, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study introduces a probabilistic nonrigid registration method for use in image-guided prostate brachytherapy. Intraoperative imaging for prostate procedures, usually transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), is typically inferior to diagnostic-quality imaging of the pelvis such as endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MR images contain superior detail of the prostate boundaries and provide substructure features not otherwise visible. Previous efforts to register diagnostic prostate images with the intraoperative coordinate system have been deterministic and did not offer a measure of the registration uncertainty. The authors developed a Bayesian registration method to estimate the posterior distribution on deformations and provide a case-specific measure of the associated registration uncertainty. Methods: The authors adapted a biomechanical-based probabilistic nonrigid method to register diagnostic to intraoperative images by aligning a physician's segmentations of the prostate in the two images. The posterior distribution was characterized with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method; the maximum a posteriori deformation and the associated uncertainty were estimated from the collection of deformation samples drawn from the posterior distribution. The authors validated the registration method using a dataset created from ten patients with MRI-guided prostate biopsies who had both diagnostic and intraprocedural 3 Tesla MRI scans. The accuracy and precision of the estimated posterior distribution on deformations were evaluated from two predictive distance distributions: between the deformed central zone-peripheral zone (CZ-PZ) interface and the physician-labeled interface, and based on physician-defined landmarks. Geometric margins on the registration of the prostate's peripheral zone were determined from the posterior predictive distance to the CZ-PZ interface separately for the base, mid-gland, and apical regions of the prostate. Results: The authors observed

  15. A Dosimetric Comparison between Conventional Fractionated and Hypofractionated Image-guided Radiation Therapies for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Li; Gao-Feng Li; Xiu-Yu Hou; Hong Gao; Yong-Gang Xu; Ting Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Background:Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is the preferred method for curative treatment of localized prostate cancer,which could improve disease outcome and reduce normal tissue toxicity reaction.IGRT using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in combination with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) potentially allows smaller treatment margins and dose escalation to the prostate.The aim of this study was to compare the difference of dosimetric diffusion in conventional IGRT using 7-field,step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and hypofractionated IGRT using VMAT for patients with localized prostate cancer.Methods:We studied 24 patients who received 78 Gy in 39 daily fractions or 70 Gy in 28 daily fractions to their prostate with/without the seminal vesicles using IMRT (n =12) or VMAT (n =12) for prostate cancer between November 2013 and October 2015.Image guidance was performed using kilovoltage CBCT scans equipped on the linear accelerator.Offline planning was performed using the daily treatment images registered with simulation computed tomography (CT) images.A total of 212 IMRT plans in conventional cohort and 292 VMAT plans in hypofractionated cohort were enrolled in the study.Dose distributions were recalculated on CBCT images registered with the planning CT scanner.Results:Compared with 7-field,step-and-shoot IMRT,VMAT plans resulted in improved planning target volume (PTV) D95% (7663.17 ± 69.57 cGy vs.7789.17 ± 131.76 cGy,P < 0.001).VMAT reduced the rectal D25 (P < 0.001),D35 (P < 0.001),and D50 (P < 0.001),bladder V50 (P < 0.001),D25 (P =0.002),D35 (P =0.028),and D50 (P =0.029).However,VMAT did not statistically significantly reduce the rectal V50,compared with 7-field,step-and-shoot IMRT (25.02 ± 5.54% vs.27.43 ± 8.79%,P =0.087).Conclusions:To deliver the hypofractionated radiotherapy in prostate cancer,VMAT significantly increased PTV D95% dose and decreased the dose of radiation delivered to adjacent

  16. A Dosimetric Comparison between Conventional Fractionated and Hypofractionated Image-guided Radiation Therapies for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Gao-Feng; Hou, Xiu-Yu; Gao, Hong; Xu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Background: Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is the preferred method for curative treatment of localized prostate cancer, which could improve disease outcome and reduce normal tissue toxicity reaction. IGRT using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in combination with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) potentially allows smaller treatment margins and dose escalation to the prostate. The aim of this study was to compare the difference of dosimetric diffusion in conventional IGRT using 7-field, step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and hypofractionated IGRT using VMAT for patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods: We studied 24 patients who received 78 Gy in 39 daily fractions or 70 Gy in 28 daily fractions to their prostate with/without the seminal vesicles using IMRT (n = 12) or VMAT (n = 12) for prostate cancer between November 2013 and October 2015. Image guidance was performed using kilovoltage CBCT scans equipped on the linear accelerator. Offline planning was performed using the daily treatment images registered with simulation computed tomography (CT) images. A total of 212 IMRT plans in conventional cohort and 292 VMAT plans in hypofractionated cohort were enrolled in the study. Dose distributions were recalculated on CBCT images registered with the planning CT scanner. Results: Compared with 7-field, step-and-shoot IMRT, VMAT plans resulted in improved planning target volume (PTV) D95% (7663.17 ± 69.57 cGy vs. 7789.17 ± 131.76 cGy, P V50 (P statistically significantly reduce the rectal V50, compared with 7-field, step-and-shoot IMRT (25.02 ± 5.54% vs. 27.43 ± 8.79%, P = 0.087). Conclusions: To deliver the hypofractionated radiotherapy in prostate cancer, VMAT significantly increased PTV D95% dose and decreased the dose of radiation delivered to adjacent normal tissues comparing to 7-field, step-and-shoot IMRT. Daily online image-guidance and better management of bladder and rectum could make a more precise

  17. Cavernosal nerve functionality evaluation after magnetic resonance imaging-guided transurethral ultrasound treatment of the prostate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steffen Sammet; Ari Partanen; Ambereen Yousuf; Christina L Sammet; Emily V Ward; Craig Wardrip; Marek Niekrasz; Tatjana Antic; Aria Razmaria; Keyvan Farahani; Shunmugavelu Sokka; Gregory Karczmar; Aytekin Oto

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of using therapeutic ultrasound as an alternative treatment option for organconfined prostate cancer. METHODS: In this study, a trans-urethral therapeutic ultrasound applicator in combination with 3T magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) guidance was used for realtime multi-planar MRI-based temperature monitoring and temperature feedback control of prostatic tissue thermal ablation in vivo. We evaluated the feasibility and safety of MRI-guided trans-urethral ultrasound to effectively and accurately ablate prostate tissue while minimizing the damage to surrounding tissues in eight canine prostates. MRI was used to plan sonications, monitor temperature changes during therapy, and to evaluate treatment outcome. Real-time temperature and thermal dose maps were calculated using the proton resonance frequency shift technique and were displayed as two-dimensional color-coded overlays on top of the anatomical images. After ultrasound treatment, an evaluation of the integrity of cavernosal nerves was performed during prostatectomy with a nerve stimulator that measured tumescence response quantitatively and indicated intact cavernous nerve functionality. Planned sonication volumes were visually correlated to MRI ablation volumes and corresponding histo-pathological sections after prostatectomy. RESULTS: A total of 16 sonications were performed in 8 canines. MR images acquired before ultrasound treatment were used to localize the prostate and to prescribe sonication targets in all canines. Temperature elevations corresponded within 1 degree of the targeted sonication angle, as well as with the width and length of the active transducer elements. The ultrasound treatment procedures were automatically interrupted when the temperature in the target zone reached 56 ℃. In all canines erectile responses were evaluated with a cavernous nerve stimulator post-treatment and showed a tumescence response after stimulation with an electric current. These

  18. Image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Analysis of interfractional errors and acute toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudat, Volker; Nour, A.; Hammoud, M.; Alaradi, A.; Mohammed, A. [Saad Specialist Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Al Khobar (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of the study was to estimate interfractional deviations in patient and prostate position, the impact of the frequency of online verification on the treatment margins, and to assess acute radiation reactions of high-dose external beam image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) of localized prostate cancer. IG-IMRT was performed by daily online verification of implanted fiducial prostate markers using a megavoltage electronic portal imaging device (EPID). A total of 1011 image-guided treatment fractions from 23 consecutive unselected prostate cancer patients were analyzed. The median total dose was 79.2 Gy (range 77.4-81.0 Gy). Acute radiation reactions were assessed weekly during radiotherapy using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v.4.03. A relevant combined patient set-up and prostate motion population random error of 4-5 mm was observed. Compared to daily IGRT, image guidance every other day required an expansion of the CTV-PTV (clinical target volume-planning target volume) margin of 8.1, 6.6, and 4.1 mm in the longitudinal, vertical, and lateral directions, thereby, increasing the PTV by approximately 30-40 %. No grade 3 or 4 acute radiation reactions were observed with daily IG-IMRT. A high dose with surprisingly low acute toxicity can be applied with daily IG-IMRT using implanted fiducial prostate markers. Daily image guidance is clearly superior to image guidance every other fraction concerning adequate target coverage with minimal margins. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Studie war es, die interfraktionelle Variabilitaet der Patientenlagerung und Prostataposition, den Einfluss der Bildgebungsfrequenz und die akuten Strahlenreaktionen bei einer hochdosierten bildgesteuerten intensitaetsmodulierten Strahlentherapie (IG-IMRT) des Prostatakarzinoms zu untersuchen. IG-IMRT wurde durch taegliche Verifikation von implantierten roentgendichten Prostatamarkern mittels Megavolt-Bildgebung (''electronic portal imaging

  19. Histological Evaluation of Prostate Tissue Response to Image-Guided Transurethral Thermal Therapy After a 48h Recovery Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Aaron; Tang, Kee; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Image-guided transurethral ultrasound thermal therapy shows strong potential for sparing of critical adjacent structures during prostate cancer treatment. Preclinical experiments were conducted to provide further information on the extent of the treatment margin. Four experiments were carried out in a canine model to investigate the pathology of this margin during the early stages of recovery and were compared to previous results obtained immediately post-treatment. Sedated animals were placed in a 1.5T clinical MRI, and the heating device was positioned accurately within the prostatic urethra with image guidance. Using an MRI-compatible system, the ultrasound device was rotated 365° treating a prescribed volume contained within the gland. Quantitative temperature maps were acquired throughout the treatment, providing feedback information for device control. Animals were allowed to recover and, after 48h, an imaging protocol including T2 and contrast enhanced (CE) MRI was repeated before the animals were sacrificed. Prostate sections were stained with H&E. Careful slice alignment methods during histological procedures and image registration were employed to ensure good correspondence between MR images and microscopy. Although T2 MRI revealed no lesion acutely, a hypo-intense region was clearly visible 2 days post-treatment. The lesion volume defined by CE-MRI increased appreciably during this time. Whole-mount H&E sections showed that the margin between coagulated and normal-appearing cells narrowed during recovery, typically to a width of under 1mm compared to 3mm acutely. These results illustrate the high level of precision achievable with transurethral thermal therapy and suggest methods to monitor the physiological response non-invasively.

  20. Imaging-guided preclinical trials of vascular targeting in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmuk, James

    Purpose: Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy in American men and is characterized by dependence on androgens (Testosterone/Dihydrotestosterone) for growth and survival. Although reduction of serum testosterone levels by surgical or chemical castration transiently inhibits neoplastic growth, tumor adaptation to castrate levels of androgens results in the generation of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Progression to CRPC following androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been associated with changes in vascular morphology and increased angiogenesis. Based on this knowledge, we hypothesized that targeting tumor vasculature in combination with ADT would result in enhanced therapeutic efficacy against prostate cancer. Methods: To test this hypothesis, we examined the therapeutic activity of a tumor-vascular disrupting agent (tumor-VDA), EPC2407 (Crolibulin(TM)), alone and in combination with ADT in a murine model of prostate cancer (Myc-CaP). A non-invasive multimodality imaging approach based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and ultrasound (US) was utilized to characterize tumor response to therapy and to guide preclinical trial design. Imaging results were correlated with histopathologic (H&E) and immunohistochemical (CD31) assessment as well as tumor growth inhibition and survival analyses. Results: Our imaging techniques were able to capture an acute reduction (within 24 hours) in tumor perfusion following castration and VDA monotherapy. BLI revealed onset of recurrent disease 5-7 days post castration prior to visible tumor regrowth suggestive of vascular recovery. Administration of VDA beginning 1 week post castration for 3 weeks resulted in sustained vascular suppression, inhibition of tumor regrowth, and conferred a more pronounced survival benefit compared to either monotherapy. Conclusion: The high mortality rate associated with CRPC underscores the need for investigating novel treatment

  1. Simulation of 3D Needle-Tissue Interaction with Application to Image Guided Prostate Brachytherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜杉; HATA; Nobuhiko; 肖渤瀚; 安蔚瑾

    2010-01-01

    To improve global control of disease and reduce global toxicity, a complex seed distribution pattern should be achieved with great accuracy during brachytherapy.However, the interaction between the needle and prostate will cause large deformation of soft tissue.As a result, seeds will be misplaced, sharp demarcation between irradiated volume and healthy structures is unavailable and this will cause side effects such as impotence and urinary incontinence.In this paper, a 3D nonlinear dynamic finite element s...

  2. Seminal vesicle interfraction displacement and margins in image guided radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak Daisy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyze interfraction motion of seminal vesicles (SV, and its motion relative to rectal and bladder filling. Methods and Materials SV and prostate were contoured on 771 daily computed tomography “on rails” scans from 24 prostate cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Random and systematic errors for SV centroid displacement were measured relative to the prostate centroid. Margins required for complete geometric coverage of SV were determined using isotropic expansion of reference contours. SV motion relative to rectum and bladder was determined. Results Systematic error for the SV was 1.9 mm left-right (LR, 2.9 mm anterior-posterior (AP and 3.6 mm superior-inferior (SI. Random error was 1.4 mm (LR, 2.7 mm (AP and 2.1 mm (SI. 10 mm margins covered the entire left SV and right SV on at least 90% of fractions in 50% and 33% of patients and 15 mm margins covered 88% and 79% respectively. SV AP movement correlated with movement of the most posterior point of the bladder (mean R2 = 0.46, SD = 0.24 and rectal area (mean R2 = 0.38, SD = 0.21. Conclusions Considerable interfraction displacement of SV was observed in this cohort of patients. Bladder and rectal parameters correlated with SV movement.

  3. Real-time registration of 3D to 2D ultrasound images for image-guided prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Derek J; Gardi, Lori; De Silva, Tharindu; Zhao, Shuang-Ren; Fenster, Aaron

    2017-09-01

    During image-guided prostate biopsy, needles are targeted at tissues that are suspicious of cancer to obtain specimen for histological examination. Unfortunately, patient motion causes targeting errors when using an MR-transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) fusion approach to augment the conventional biopsy procedure. This study aims to develop an automatic motion correction algorithm approaching the frame rate of an ultrasound system to be used in fusion-based prostate biopsy systems. Two modes of operation have been investigated for the clinical implementation of the algorithm: motion compensation using a single user initiated correction performed prior to biopsy, and real-time continuous motion compensation performed automatically as a background process. Retrospective 2D and 3D TRUS patient images acquired prior to biopsy gun firing were registered using an intensity-based algorithm utilizing normalized cross-correlation and Powell's method for optimization. 2D and 3D images were downsampled and cropped to estimate the optimal amount of image information that would perform registrations quickly and accurately. The optimal search order during optimization was also analyzed to avoid local optima in the search space. Error in the algorithm was computed using target registration errors (TREs) from manually identified homologous fiducials in a clinical patient dataset. The algorithm was evaluated for real-time performance using the two different modes of clinical implementations by way of user initiated and continuous motion compensation methods on a tissue mimicking prostate phantom. After implementation in a TRUS-guided system with an image downsampling factor of 4, the proposed approach resulted in a mean ± std TRE and computation time of 1.6 ± 0.6 mm and 57 ± 20 ms respectively. The user initiated mode performed registrations with in-plane, out-of-plane, and roll motions computation times of 108 ± 38 ms, 60 ± 23 ms, and 89 ± 27 ms, respectively, and corresponding

  4. MR imaging-guided prostate biopsy: technical features and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panebianco, Valeria; Barchetti, Flavio; Manenti, Guglielmo; Aversa, Tommaso; Catalano, Carlo; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Repeatedly negative prostate biopsies in individuals with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels can be frustrating for both the patient and the urologist. This study was performed to investigate if magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided transrectal biopsy (MRGB) increases diagnostic performance in individuals with suspected prostate cancer (PCa). Twenty-three consecutive men with a total PSA >4 ng/mL, PSA density >0.15, PSA velocity >0.75 ng/mL/year and suspicious MRI findings were included (average age 64 years; age range 53-75 years; total PSA levels ranging from 4.7 to 54 ng/mL; median 9 ng/mL). MRGB was performed with a closed unit at 1.5 Tesla, an MRI compatible biopsy device, a needle guide, and a titanium double-shoot biopsy gun. At prebiopsy MRI, in the 23 patients, a total of 26 suspicious areas to which the MRGB should be directed were found, 23 of them in the peripheral zone and three in the transitional zone. The needle guide was depicted and could be positioned with MRI guidance in all 23 patients. The duration of the procedure ranged from 35 to 55 min (mean 40 min). MRGB was well tolerated by all patients, and no major complications were observed. The detection rate for the diagnosis of PCa was 80, and 90 % of detected PCa were of intermediate aggressiveness. MRGB has the potential to improve cancer detection rates in men with suspected PCa to deliver the relevant treatment as soon as possible.

  5. Robotic Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiotherapy, for Isolated Recurrent Primary, Lymph Node or Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja, E-mail: barbara.jereczek@ieo.it [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Beltramo, Giancarlo [CyberKnife Center CDI, Milan (Italy); Fariselli, Laura [Radiotherapy Unit, Carlo Besta Neurological Institute Foundation, Milan (Italy); Fodor, Cristiana [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Santoro, Luigi [Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Vavassori, Andrea; Zerini, Dario [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Gherardi, Federica [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Ascione, Carmen [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Bossi-Zanetti, Isa; Mauro, Roberta [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Bregantin, Achille; Bianchi, Livia Corinna [CyberKnife Center CDI, Milan (Italy); De Cobelli, Ottavio [Department of Urology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Orecchia, Roberto [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Milan (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of robotic CyberKnife (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA)-based stereotactic radiotherapy (CBK-SRT) for isolated recurrent primary, lymph node, or metastatic prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between May 2007 and December 2009, 34 consecutive patients/38 lesions were treated (15 patients reirradiated for local recurrence [P], 4 patients reirradiated for anastomosis recurrence [A], 16 patients treated for single lymph node recurrence [LN], and 3 patients treated for single metastasis [M]). In all but 4 patients, [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography was performed. CBK-SRT consisted of reirradiation and first radiotherapy in 27 and 11 lesions, respectively. The median CBK-SRT dose was 30 Gy in 4.5 fractions (P, 30 Gy in 5 fractions; A, 30 Gy in 5 fractions; LN, 33 Gy in 3 fractions; and M, 36 Gy in 3 fractions). In 18 patients (21 lesions) androgen deprivation was added to CBK-SRT (median duration, 16.6 months). Results: The median follow-up was 16.9 months. Acute toxicity included urinary events (3 Grade 1, 2 Grade 2, and 2 Grade 3 events) and rectal events (1 Grade 1 event). Late toxicity included urinary events (3 Grade 1, 2 Grade 2, and 2 Grade 3 events) and rectal events (1 Grade 1 event and 1 Grade 2 event). Biochemical response was observed in 32 of 38 evaluable lesions. Prostate-specific antigen stabilization was seen for 4 lesions, and in 2 cases prostate-specific antigen progression was reported. The 30-month progression-free survival rate was 42.6%. Disease progression was observed for 14 lesions (5, 2, 5, and 2 in Groups P, A, LN, and M respectively). In only 3 cases, in-field progression was seen. At the time of analysis (May 2010), 19 patients are alive with no evidence of disease and 15 are alive with disease. Conclusions: CyberKnife-based stereotactic radiotherapy is a feasible approach for isolated recurrent primary, lymph node, or metastatic prostate cancer, offering excellent in-field tumor

  6. Prostatic fiducial markers implantation by transrectal ultrasound for adaptive image guided radiotherapy in localized cancer: 7-years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Lacetera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: we present our 7-years’ experience with fiducial gold markers inserted before Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT focusing on our echo-guided technique reporting early and late complications. Material and methods: 78 prostate cancer (PCA patients who underwent fiducial markers placement for adaptive IGRT (period 2007-2014 were selected. Mean patient age was 75 years (range 60-81, mean PSA 7.8 ng/ml (range 3.1-10, clinical stage < T3, mean Gleason Score 6.4 (range 6-7. We recorded early and late complications. Maximum distance between the Clinical Target Volume (CTV and Planning Target Volume (PTV was assessed for each direction and the mean PTV reduction was estimated. Results: we describe in details our echo-guided technique of intraprostatic gold fiducial markers insertion prior to adaptative IGRT. We report rare early toxicity (5-7% grade 1-2, a mean PTV reduction of 37% and a very low late toxicity (only 3.4% bladder G3 and 8% rectal G2 side effects. Conclusion: Our technique of fiducial gold markers implantation for adaptative IGRT is safe and well-tolerated and it resulted helpful to reduce CTV-PTV margin in all cases; the effects on clinical practice seem significant in terms of late toxicity but further investigations are needed with longer follow-up.

  7. Prostate image-guided radiotherapy by megavolt cone-beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucca, Sergio; Carau, Barbara; Solla, Ignazio; Garibaldi, Elisabetta; Farace, Paolo; Lay, Giancarlo; Meleddu, Gianfranco; Gabriele, Pietro [Regional Oncological Hospital, Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Radiooncology

    2011-08-15

    To test megavolt cone-beam CT (MV-CBCT) in order to evaluate setup errors in prostate radiotherapy. The setup of 9 patients was verified weekly by electronic portal imaging (EPI) and MV-CBCT, both performed in the same treatment session. EPI were compared with digitally reconstructed radiographies (DRRs). MV-CBCTs were matched to simulation CTs by manual registration based on bone markers (BMR), by manual registration based on soft tissues (STR) - rectum, bladder, and seminal vesicles - and by automatic registration (AR) performed by a mutual information algorithm. Shifts were evaluated along the three main axes: anteroposterior (AP), craniocaudal (CC), and laterolateral (LL). Finally, in 4 additional patients showing intraprostatic calcifications, the calcification mismatch error was used to evaluate the three MV-CBCT matching methods. A total of 50 pairs of orthogonal EPIs and 50 MV-CBCTs were analyzed. Assuming an overall tolerance of 2 mm, no significant differences were observed comparing EPI vs BMR in any axis. A significant difference (p < 0.001) was observed along the AP axis comparing EPI vs AR and EPI vs STR. On the calcification data set (22 measures), the calcification mismatch along the AP direction was significantly lower (p < 0.05) after STR than after BMR or AR. Bone markers were not an effective surrogate of the target position and significant differences were observed comparing EPI or BMR vs STR, supporting the assessment of soft tissue position by MVCBs to verify and correct patient setup in prostate radiotherapy. (orig.)

  8. Image Guided Hypofractionated Radiotherapy by Helical Tomotherapy for Prostate Carcinoma: Toxicity and Impact on Nadir PSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvina Barra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the toxicity of a hypofractionated schedule for primary radiotherapy (RT of prostate cancer as well as the value of the nadir PSA (nPSA and time to nadir PSA (tnPSA as surrogate efficacy of treatment. Material and Methods. Eighty patients underwent hypofractionated schedule by Helical Tomotherapy (HT. A dose of 70.2 Gy was administered in 27 daily fractions of 2.6 Gy. Acute and late toxicities were graded on the RTOG/EORTC scales. The nPSA and the tnPSA for patients treated with exclusive RT were compared to an equal cohort of 20 patients treated with conventional fractionation and standard conformal radiotherapy. Results. Most of patients (83% did not develop acute gastrointestinal (GI toxicity and 50% did not present genitourinary (GU toxicity. After a median follow-up of 36 months only grade 1 of GU and GI was reported in 6 and 3 patients as late toxicity. Average tnPSA was 30 months. The median value of nPSA after exclusive RT with HT was 0.28 ng/mL and was significantly lower than the median nPSA (0.67 ng/mL of the conventionally treated cohort (P=0.02. Conclusions. Hypofractionated RT schedule with HT for prostate cancer treatment reports very low toxicity and reaches a low level of nPSA that might correlate with good outcomes.

  9. Two Solutions for Registration of Ultrasound to MRI for Image-Guided Prostate Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Mehdi; Janoos, Firdaus; Fedorov, Andriy; Risholm, Petter; Kapur, Tina; Wolfsberger, Luciant D.; Nguyen, Paul L.; Tempany, Clare M; Wells, William M

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided prostate interventions could benefit from incorporating the radiologic localization of the tumor which can be acquired from multiparametric MRI. To enable this integration, we propose and compare two solutions for registration of T2 weighted MR images with transrectal ultrasound. Firstly, we propose an innovative and practical approach based on deformable registration of binary label maps obtained from manual segmentation of the gland in the two modalities. This resulted in a target registration error of 3.6±1.7 mm. Secondly, we report a novel surface-based registration method that uses a biomechanical model of the tissue and results in registration error of 3.2±1.3 mm. We compare the two methods in terms of accuracy, clinical use and technical limitations. PMID:23366095

  10. SU-E-J-144: MRI Visualization of a Metallic Fiducial Marker Used for Image Guided Prostate Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, S; Krauss, D; Yan, D [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Unlike on the daily CBCT used for the image-guided radiation therapy, the visualization of an implantable metallic fiducial marker on the planning MRI images has been a challenge due to the inherent insensitivity of metal in MRI, and very thin (∼ 1 mm or less) diameter. Here, an MRI technique to visualize a marker used for prostate cancer radiotherapy is reported. Methods: During the MRI acquisitions, a multi-shot turbo spin echo (TSE) technique (TR=3500 ms, TE=8.6 ms, ETL=17, recon voxel=0.42x0.42x3.5 mm3) was acquired in Philips 3T Ingenia together with a T2-weighted multi-shot TSE (TR=5381 ms, TE=110 ms, ETL=17, recon voxel=0.47×0.47×3 mm3) and a balanced turbo field echo (bTFE, flip angle 60, TR=2.76 ms, TE=1.3 ms, 0.85×0.85×3 mm3, NSA=4). In acquiring the MRI to visualize the fiducial marker, a particular emphasis was made to improve the spatial resolution and visibility in the generally dark, inhomogeneous prostate area by adjusting the slice profile ordering and TE values of TSE acquisition (in general, the lower value of TE in TSE acquisition generates a brighter signal but at the cost of high spatial resolution since the k-space, responsible for high spatial resolution, is filled with noisier data). Results: While clearly visible in CT, the marker was not visible in either T2-weighted TSE or bTFE, although the image qualities of both images were superior. In the new TSE acquisition (∼ a proton-density weighted image) adjusted by changing the profile ordering and the TE value, the marker was visible as a negative (but clear) contrast in the magnitude MRI, and as a positive contrast in the imaginary image of the phase-sensitive MRI. Conclusion: A metallic fiducial marker used for image guidance before prostate cancer radiotherapy can be made visible in MRI, which may facilitate more use of MRI in planning and guiding such radiation therapy.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided prostate biopsy. Institutional analysis and systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polanec, S.H.; Helbich, T.H.; Kubin, K.; Pinker-Domenig, K.; Brader, P. [Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy; Margreiter, M.; Klingler, H.C. [Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Urology; Susani, M. [Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Pathology

    2014-05-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the detection rate of prostate cancer (PCa) after magnetic resonance-guided biopsy (MRGB); to monitor the patient cohort with negative MRGB results and to compare our own results with other reports in the current literature. Materials and Methods: A group of 41 patients was included in this IRB-approved study and subjected to combined MRI and MRGB. MRGB was performed in a closed 1.5 T MR unit and the needle was inserted rectally. The follow-up period ranged between 12 and 62 months (mean 3.1 years). To compare the results with the literature, a systematic literature search was performed. Eighteen publications were evaluated. Results: The cancer-suspicious regions were punctured successfully in all cases. PCa was detected in eleven patients (26.9 %) who were all clinically significant. MRGB showed a benign histology in the remaining 30 patients. In the follow-up (mean 3.1 years) of patients with benign histology, no new PCa was diagnosed. The missed cancer rate during follow-up was 0.0 % in our study. Conclusion: MRGB is effective for the detection of clinically significant cancer, and this is in accordance with the recent literature. In the follow-up of patients with benign histology, no new PCa was discovered. Although the probability of developing PCa after negative MRGB is very low, active surveillance is reasonable. (orig.)

  12. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF IMAGE-GUIDED RADIOTHERAPY FOR RADIATION DOSE ESCALATION IN PATIENTS WITH EARLY STAGE HIGH-RISK PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Phong Nguyen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with early stage high-risk prostate cancer (PSA >20, Gleason score >7 are at high risk of recurrence following prostate cancer irradiation. Radiation dose escalation to the prostate may improve biochemical free survival for these patients. However, high rectal and bladder dose with conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT may lead to excessive gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT, by virtue of combining the steep dose gradient of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT and daily pretreatment imaging, may allow for radiation dose escalation and decreased treatment morbidity. Reduced treatment time is feasible with hypofractionated IGRT and it may improve patient quality of life.

  13. Transperineal gold marker implantation for image-guided external beam radiotherapy of prostate cancer. A single institution, prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgo, Kliton; Agoston, Peter; Major, Tibor; Takacsi-Nagy, Zoltan; Polgar, Csaba [National Institute of Oncology, Centre of Radiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-06-15

    To present the feasibility and complications of transperineal fiducial marker implantation in prostate cancer patients undergoing image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) Between November 2011 and April 2016, three radiopaque, gold-plated markers were transperineally implanted into the prostate of 300 patients under transrectal ultrasound guidance and with local anaesthesia. A week after the procedure patients filled in a questionnaire regarding pain, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, rectal bleeding, hematuria, hematospermia or fever symptoms caused by the implantation. Pain was scored on a 1-10 scale, where score 1 meant very weak and score 10 meant unbearable pain. The implanted gold markers were used for daily verification and online correction of patients' setup during IGRT. Based on the questionnaires no patient experienced fever, infection, dysuria or rectal bleeding after implantation. Among the 300 patients, 12 (4%) had hematospermia, 43 (14%) hematuria, which lasted for an average of 3.4 and 1.8 days, respectively. The average pain score was 4.6 (range 0-9). Of 300 patients 87 (29%) felt any pain after the intervention, which took an average of 1.5 days. None of the patients needed analgesics after implantation. Overall, 105 patients (35%) reported less, 80 patients (27%) more, and 94 patients (31%) equal amount of pain during marker implantation compared to biopsy. The 21 patients who had a biopsy performed under general anesthesia did not answer this question. Transperineal gold marker implantation under local anesthesia was well tolerated. Complications were limited; rate and frequency of perioperative pain was comparable to the pain caused by biopsy. The method can be performed safely in clinical practice. (orig.) [German] Darstellung von Machbarkeit und Komplikationen der transperinealen Implantation von Goldmarkern bei mit perkutaner Strahlentherapie (IGRT) behandelten Prostatakarzinompatienten. Zwischen November 2011 und April 2016 bekamen 300

  14. Pathologic correlation of transperineal in-bore 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging-guided prostate biopsy samples with radical prostatectomy specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Erik; Fedorov, Andriy; Tuncali, Kemal; Olubiyi, Olutayo; Allard, Christopher B; Kibel, Adam S; Tempany, Clare M

    2017-08-01

    To determine the accuracy of in-bore transperineal 3-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided prostate biopsies for predicting final Gleason grades in patients who subsequently underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). A retrospective review of men who underwent transperineal MR imaging-guided prostate biopsy (tpMRGB) with subsequent radical prostatectomy within 1 year was conducted from 2010 to 2015. All patients underwent a baseline 3-T multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) with endorectal coil and were selected for biopsy based on MR findings of a suspicious prostate lesion and high degree of clinical suspicion for cancer. Spearman correlation was performed to assess concordance between tpMRGB and final RP pathology among patients with and without previous transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies. A total of 24 men met all eligibility requirements, with a median age of 65 years (interquartile range [IQR] 11.7). The median time from biopsy to RP was 85 days (IQR 50.5). Final pathology revealed Gleason 3 + 4 = 7 in 12 patients, 4 + 3 = 7 in 10 patients, and 4 + 4 = 8 in 2 patients. A strong correlation (ρ: +0.75, p < 0.001) between tpMRGB and RP results was observed, with Gleason scores concordant in 17 cases (71%). 16 of the 24 patients underwent prior TRUS biopsies. Subsequent tpMRGB revealed Gleason upgrading in 88% of cases, which was concordant with RP Gleason scores in 69% of cases (ρ: +0.75, p < 0.001). Final Gleason scores diagnosed by tpMRGB at 3-T correlate strongly with final RP surgical pathology. This may facilitate prostate cancer diagnosis, particularly in patients with negative or low-grade TRUS biopsy results in whom clinically significant cancer is suspected or detected on mpMRI.

  15. Three-dimensional nonrigid landmark-based magnetic resonance to transrectal ultrasound registration for image-guided prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue; Qiu, Wu; Yuan, Jing; Romagnoli, Cesare; Fenster, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Registration of three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance (MR) to 3-D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) prostate images is an important step in the planning and guidance of 3-D TRUS guided prostate biopsy. In order to accurately and efficiently perform the registration, a nonrigid landmark-based registration method is required to account for the different deformations of the prostate when using these two modalities. We describe a nonrigid landmark-based method for registration of 3-D TRUS to MR prostate images. The landmark-based registration method first makes use of an initial rigid registration of 3-D MR to 3-D TRUS images using six manually placed approximately corresponding landmarks in each image. Following manual initialization, the two prostate surfaces are segmented from 3-D MR and TRUS images and then nonrigidly registered using the following steps: (1) rotationally reslicing corresponding segmented prostate surfaces from both 3-D MR and TRUS images around a specified axis, (2) an approach to find point correspondences on the surfaces of the segmented surfaces, and (3) deformation of the surface of the prostate in the MR image to match the surface of the prostate in the 3-D TRUS image and the interior using a thin-plate spline algorithm. The registration accuracy was evaluated using 17 patient prostate MR and 3-D TRUS images by measuring the target registration error (TRE). Experimental results showed that the proposed method yielded an overall mean TRE of [Formula: see text] for the rigid registration and [Formula: see text] for the nonrigid registration, which is favorably comparable to a clinical requirement for an error of less than 2.5 mm. A landmark-based nonrigid 3-D MR-TRUS registration approach is proposed, which takes into account the correspondences on the prostate surface, inside the prostate, as well as the centroid of the prostate. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method yields clinically sufficient accuracy.

  16. Dosimetric and deformation effects of image-guided interventions during stereotactic body radiation therapy of the prostate using an endorectal balloon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Bernard L.; Gan, Gregory; Diot, Quentin; Kavanagh, Brian; Timmerman, Robert D.; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    .9% (p = 0.03). Additionally, ERB interventions reduced prostate deformation in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction, reduced errors in the sagittal rotation of the prostate, and increased the similarity in shape of the prostate to the radiotherapy plan (increased Dice coefficient from 0.76 {+-} 0.06 to 0.80 {+-} 0.04, p = 0.01). Postintervention decreases in prostate volume receiving less than the prescribed dose and decreases in the voxel-wise displacement of the prostate, bladder, and anterior rectal wall were observed, which resulted in improved dose-volume histogram (DVH) characteristics. Conclusions: Image-guided interventions in ERB volume and/or position during prostate SBRT were necessary to ensure the delivery of the dose distribution as planned. ERB interventions resulted in reductions in prostate deformations that would have prevented accurate localization of patient anatomy.

  17. Prospective assessment of urinary, gastrointestinal and sexual symptoms before, during and after image-guided volumetric modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveistrup, Joen; Widmark, Anders; Fransson, Per

    2015-01-01

    . One year after RT, there was no longer any difference compared to baseline for any of the urinary symptoms. All gastrointestinal symptoms except for nausea increased significantly at the end of RT. One year after RT, patients also reported slightly higher degrees of stool frequency, bowel leakage......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the development of 24 urinary, gastrointestinal and sexual symptoms in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) during and after image-guided volumetric modulated arc therapy (IG-VMAT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 87 patients with PCa...... RT compared to baseline were analysed by a mixed model analysis of repeated measurements with the following covariates: age, comorbidity, smoking and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). RESULTS: All urinary problems except for haematuria increased significantly at the end of RT compared to baseline...

  18. Accuracy of image-guided radiotherapy of prostate cancer based on the BeamCath urethral catheter technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Fokdal, Lars; Petersen, Jørgen B.B.;

    2007-01-01

    was 0.6 mm (LR), 2.4 mm (CC), and 2.8 mm (AP), while the prostate movement relative to external skin markers was considerably larger. Removal of the catheter resulted in a mean cranial prostate movement of 1.5mm relative to the pelvic bone. Caudal catheter displacements of 7-30 mm were observed in 5...

  19. On-line Adaptive Radiation Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    volume (GTV), mandible, rainstem, parotids , and lymph nodes. Another physician repeated he contouring on all planning and on-line images...computed entation. Note the consistency of delineation of gross olume; light blue, nodes; purple, parotid glands; green,k com ostregicomp urs on e...0.9 1.0 Mandible D S C in de x Patient # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Left Parotid D S C in de x Patient # Fig. 6. Dice similarity

  20. Long-term outcomes from dose-escalated image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy with androgen deprivation: encouraging results for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilcox SW

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shea W Wilcox,1,4 Noel J Aherne,2,4 Linus C Benjamin,1 Bosco Wu,1 Thomaz de Campos Silva,3 Craig S McLachlan,4 Michael J McKay,3,5 Andrew J Last,1 Thomas P Shakespeare1–4 1North Coast Cancer Institute, Port Macquarie, NSW, Australia; 2North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour, NSW, Australia; 3North Coast Cancer Institute, Lismore, NSW, Australia; 4The University of New South Wales, Rural Clinical School, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: Dose-escalated (DE radiotherapy in the setting of localized prostate cancer has been shown to improve biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS in several studies. In the same group of patients, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT has been shown to confer a survival benefit when combined with radiotherapy doses of up to 70 Gy; however, there is currently little long-term data on patients who have received high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT with ADT. We report the long-term outcomes in a large cohort of patients treated with the combination of DE image-guided IMRT (IG-IMRT and ADT. Methods and materials: Patients with localized prostate cancer were identified from a centralized database across an integrated cancer center. All patients received DE IG-IMRT, combined with ADT, and had a minimum follow up of 12 months post-radiotherapy. All relapse and toxicity data were collected prospectively. Actuarial bDFS, metastasis-free survival, prostate cancer-specific survival, and multivariate analyses were calculated using the SPSS v20.0 statistical package. Results: Seven hundred and eighty-two eligible patients were identified with a median follow up of 46 months. Overall, 4.3% of patients relapsed, 2.0% developed distant metastases, and 0.6% died from metastatic prostate cancer. At 5-years, bDFS was 88%, metastasis-free survival was 95%, and prostate cancer-specific survival was 98%. Five-year grade 2 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity was 2

  1. Inter-fractional Target Displacement in the Prostate Image-Guided Radiotherapy using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Kap Sang; Back, Chang Wook; Jeong, Yun Jeong; Bae, Jae Beom; Choi, Young Eun; Sung, Ki Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To quantify the inter-fractional variation in prostate displacement and their dosimetric effects for prostate cancer treatment. A total of 176 daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) sets acquired for 6 prostate cancer patients treated with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were retrospectively reviewed. For each patient, the planning CT (pCT) was registered to each daily CBCT by aligning the bony anatomy. The prostate, rectum, and bladder were delineated on daily CBCT, and the contours of these organs in the pCT were copied to the daily CBCT. The concordance of prostate displacement, deformation, and size variation between pCT and daily CBCT was evaluated using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). The mean volume of prostate was 37.2 cm3 in the initial pCT, and the variation was around ±5% during the entire course of treatment for all patients. The mean DSC was 89.9%, ranging from 70% to 100% for prostate displacement. Although the volume change of bladder and rectum per treatment fraction did not show any correlation with the value of DSC (r=-0.084, p=0.268 and r=-0.162, p=0.032, respectively), a decrease in the DSC value was observed with increasing volume change of the bladder and rectum (r=-0.230,p=0.049 and r=-0.240,p=0.020, respectively). Consistency of the volume of the bladder and rectum cannot guarantee the accuracy of the treatment. Our results suggest that patient setup with the registration between the pCT and daily CBCT should be considered aligning soft tissue.

  2. A Web application for the management of clinical workflow in image-guided and adaptive proton therapy for prostate cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Daniel; Boes, Peter; Ho, Meng Wei; Li, Zuofeng

    2015-05-08

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), based on radiopaque markers placed in the prostate gland, was used for proton therapy of prostate patients. Orthogonal X-rays and the IBA Digital Image Positioning System (DIPS) were used for setup correction prior to treatment and were repeated after treatment delivery. Following a rationale for margin estimates similar to that of van Herk,(1) the daily post-treatment DIPS data were analyzed to determine if an adaptive radiotherapy plan was necessary. A Web application using ASP.NET MVC5, Entity Framework, and an SQL database was designed to automate this process. The designed features included state-of-the-art Web technologies, a domain model closely matching the workflow, a database-supporting concurrency and data mining, access to the DIPS database, secured user access and roles management, and graphing and analysis tools. The Model-View-Controller (MVC) paradigm allowed clean domain logic, unit testing, and extensibility. Client-side technologies, such as jQuery, jQuery Plug-ins, and Ajax, were adopted to achieve a rich user environment and fast response. Data models included patients, staff, treatment fields and records, correction vectors, DIPS images, and association logics. Data entry, analysis, workflow logics, and notifications were implemented. The system effectively modeled the clinical workflow and IGRT process.

  3. Improved Clinical Outcomes With High-Dose Image Guided Radiotherapy Compared With Non-IGRT for the Treatment of Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelefsky, Michael J., E-mail: Zelefskm@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Kollmeier, Marisa; Cox, Brett; Fidaleo, Anthony; Sperling, Dahlia; Pei, Xin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Carver, Brett; Coleman, Jonathan [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Lovelock, Michael; Hunt, Margie [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To compare toxicity profiles and biochemical tumor control outcomes between patients treated with high-dose image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for clinically localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Between 2008 and 2009, 186 patients with prostate cancer were treated with IGRT to a dose of 86.4 Gy with daily correction of the target position based on kilovoltage imaging of implanted prostatic fiducial markers. This group of patients was retrospectively compared with a similar cohort of 190 patients who were treated between 2006 and 2007 with IMRT to the same prescription dose without, however, implanted fiducial markers in place (non-IGRT). The median follow-up time was 2.8 years (range, 2-6 years). Results: A significant reduction in late urinary toxicity was observed for IGRT patients compared with the non-IGRT patients. The 3-year likelihood of grade 2 and higher urinary toxicity for the IGRT and non-IGRT cohorts were 10.4% and 20.0%, respectively (p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis identifying predictors for grade 2 or higher late urinary toxicity demonstrated that, in addition to the baseline Internatinoal Prostate Symptom Score, IGRT was associated with significantly less late urinary toxicity compared with non-IGRT. The incidence of grade 2 and higher rectal toxicity was low for both treatment groups (1.0% and 1.6%, respectively; p = 0.81). No differences in prostate-specific antigen relapse-free survival outcomes were observed for low- and intermediate-risk patients when treated with IGRT and non-IGRT. For high-risk patients, a significant improvement was observed at 3 years for patients treated with IGRT compared with non-IGRT. Conclusions: IGRT is associated with an improvement in biochemical tumor control among high-risk patients and a lower rate of late urinary toxicity compared with high-dose IMRT. These data suggest that, for definitive radiotherapy, the placement of fiducial markers

  4. Reduced rectal toxicity with ultrasound-based image guided radiotherapy using BAT trademark (B-mode acquisition and targeting system) for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohrer, Markus; Schroeder, Peter; Welzel, Grit; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik; Mai, Sabine Kathrin [University Medical Center, Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate the effect of image guided radiotherapy with stereotactic ultrasound BAT (B-mode acquisition and targeting system) on rectal toxicity in conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Patients and Methods 42 sequential patients with prostate cancer undergoing radiotherapy before and after the introduction of BAT were included. Planning computed tomography (CT) was performed with empty rectum and moderately filled bladder. The planning target volume (PTV) included the prostate and seminal vesicles with a safety margin of 1.5 cm in anterior and lateral direction. In posterior direction the anterior 1/3 of the rectum circumference were included. Total dose was 66 Gy and a boost of 4 Gy excluding the seminal vesicles. 22 patients (BAT group) were treated with daily stereotactic ultrasound positioning, for the other 20 patients (NoBAT group) an EPID (electronic portal imaging device) was performed once a week. Acute and late genito-urinary (GU) and rectal toxicity and PSA values were evaluated after 1.5, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The total median follow up of toxicity was 3 years in the BAT group and 4 years in the NoBAT group. Results In the NoBAT group significant more rectal toxicity occurred, while in GU toxicity no difference was seen. Two patients in the NoBAT group showed late rectal toxicity grade 3, no toxicity > grade 2 occurred in the BAT group. There was no significant difference in PSA reduction between the groups. Conclusion Without BAT significant more acute and a trend to more late rectal toxicity was found. With regard to dose escalation this aspect is currently evaluated with a larger number of patients using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). (orig.)

  5. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and image-guided biopsy to detect seminal vesicle invasion by prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskolnikov, Dima; George, Arvin K; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Turkbey, Baris; Shakir, Nabeel A; Okoro, Chinonyerem; Rothwax, Jason T; Walton-Diaz, Annerleim; Siddiqui, M Minhaj; Su, Daniel; Stamatakis, Lambros; Merino, Maria J; Wood, Bradford J; Choyke, Peter L; Pinto, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the correlation between multiparametric prostate MRI (MP-MRI) suspicion for seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) by prostate cancer (PCa) and pathology on MRI/ultrasound (US) fusion-guided biopsy. From March 2007 to June 2013, 822 patients underwent MP-MRI at 3 Tesla and MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy. Of these, 25 patients underwent targeted biopsy of the seminal vesicles (SVs). In six patients, bilateral SVI was suspected, resulting in 31 samples. MP-MRI findings that triggered these SV biopsies were scored as low, moderate, or high suspicion for SVI based on the degree of involvement on MRI. Correlative prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy (RP) pathology were reviewed by a single genitourinary pathologist. At the time of MP-MRI, the median age was 64 years with a median prostate-specific antigen of 10.74 ng/mL. Of the 31 SV lesions identified, MP-MRI suspicion scores of low, moderate, and high were assigned to 3, 19, and 9 lesions, respectively. MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy detected SVI in 20/31 (65%) of cases. For the four patients who underwent RP after a preoperative assessment of SVI, biopsy pathology and RP pathology were concordant in all cases. As this technology becomes more available, MP-MRI and MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy may play a role in the preoperative staging for PCa. Future work will determine if improved preoperative staging leads to better surgical outcomes.

  6. A Dosimetric Comparison between Conventional Fractionated and Hypofractionated Image-guided Radiation Therapies for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: To deliver the hypofractionated radiotherapy in prostate cancer, VMAT significantly increased PTV D95% dose and decreased the dose of radiation delivered to adjacent normal tissues comparing to 7-field, step-and-shoot IMRT. Daily online image-guidance and better management of bladder and rectum could make a more precise treatment delivery.

  7. Impact of different setup approaches in image-guided radiotherapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer. A study of 2940 setup deviations in 980 MVCTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, Kilian; Specht, Hanno; Kampfer, Severin; Duma, Marciana Nona [Technische Universitaet Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Radiation Oncology, Muenchen (Germany); Petrucci, Alessia [University of Florence, Department of Radiation Oncology, Florence (Italy); Geinitz, Hans [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern Linz, Department of Radiation Oncology, Linz (Austria); Schuster, Tibor [Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    The goal of this study was to assess the impact of different setup approaches in image-guided radiotherapy (IMRT) of the prostatic gland. In all, 28 patients with prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. After the placement of an endorectal balloon, the planning target volume (PTV) was treated to a dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. A simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) of 76 Gy (2.17 Gy per fraction and per day) was delivered to a smaller target volume. All patients underwent daily prostate-aligned IGRT by megavoltage CT (MVCT). Retrospectively, three different setup approaches were evaluated by comparison to the prostate alignment: setup by skin alignment, endorectal balloon alignment, and automatic registration by bones. A total of 2,940 setup deviations were analyzed in 980 fractions. Compared to prostate alignment, skin mark alignment was associated with substantial displacements, which were ≥ 8 mm in 13 %, 5 %, and 44 % of all fractions in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions, respectively. Endorectal balloon alignment yielded displacements ≥ 8 mm in 3 %, 19 %, and 1 % of all setups; and ≥ 3 mm in 27 %, 58 %, and 18 % of all fractions, respectively. For bone matching, the values were 1 %, 1 %, and 2 % and 3 %, 11 %, and 34 %, respectively. For prostate radiotherapy, setup by skin marks alone is inappropriate for patient positioning due to the fact that, during almost half of the fractions, parts of the prostate would not be targeted successfully with an 8-mm safety margin. Bone matching performs better but not sufficiently for safety margins ≤ 3 mm. Endorectal balloon matching can be combined with bone alignment to increase accuracy in the vertical direction when prostate-based setup is not available. Daily prostate alignment remains the gold standard for high-precision radiotherapy with small safety margins. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser Studie bestand darin, den Einfluss verschiedener Herangehensweisen bei der Einstellung einer

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided biopsies may improve diagnosis in biopsy-naive men with suspicion of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Mads Dochedahl; Balslev, Ingegerd; Boesen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate whether a short prostate biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (bp-MRI) protocol provides a valuable diagnostic addition for biopsy guidance in biopsy-naive men with a suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: A total of 62...... underwent TRUS-bx followed by bp-MRI-guided biopsies (bp-MRI-bx) under MRI/TRUS image fusion from any bp-MRI suspicious lesions not obviously targeted by TRUS-bx. RESULTS: PCa was found in 42 (68%) and 32 (52%) patients by TRUS-bx and bp-MRI-bx, respectively. Bp-MRI-bx de-tected PCa in one patient who had...

  9. 3D non-rigid registration using surface and local salient features for transrectal ultrasound image-guided prostate biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Akbari, Hamed; Halig, Luma; Fei, Baowei

    2011-03-01

    We present a 3D non-rigid registration algorithm for the potential use in combining PET/CT and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images for targeted prostate biopsy. Our registration is a hybrid approach that simultaneously optimizes the similarities from point-based registration and volume matching methods. The 3D registration is obtained by minimizing the distances of corresponding points at the surface and within the prostate and by maximizing the overlap ratio of the bladder neck on both images. The hybrid approach not only capture deformation at the prostate surface and internal landmarks but also the deformation at the bladder neck regions. The registration uses a soft assignment and deterministic annealing process. The correspondences are iteratively established in a fuzzy-to-deterministic approach. B-splines are used to generate a smooth non-rigid spatial transformation. In this study, we tested our registration with pre- and postbiopsy TRUS images of the same patients. Registration accuracy is evaluated using manual defined anatomic landmarks, i.e. calcification. The root-mean-squared (RMS) of the difference image between the reference and floating images was decreased by 62.6+/-9.1% after registration. The mean target registration error (TRE) was 0.88+/-0.16 mm, i.e. less than 3 voxels with a voxel size of 0.38×0.38×0.38 mm3 for all five patients. The experimental results demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of the 3D non-rigid registration algorithm.

  10. Protocol-based image-guided salvage brachytherapy. Early results in patients with local failure of prostate cancer after radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahmer, G.; Lotter, M.; Kreppner, S.; Fietkau, R.; Strnad, V. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the overall clinical outcome of protocol-based image-guided salvage pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy for locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy failure particularly regarding feasibility and side effects. Patients and methods: Eighteen consecutive patients with locally recurrent prostate cancer (median age, 69 years) were treated during 2005-2011 with interstitial PDR brachytherapy (PDR-BT) as salvage brachytherapy after radiotherapy failure. The treatment schedule was PDR-BT two times with 30 Gy (pulse dose 0.6 Gy/h, 24 h per day) corresponding to a total dose of 60 Gy. Dose volume adaptation was performed with the aim of optimal coverage of the whole prostate (V{sub 100} > 95 %) simultaneously respecting the protocol-based dose volume constraints for the urethra (D{sub 0.1} {sub cc} < 130 %) and the rectum (D{sub 2} {sub cc} < 50-60 %) taking into account the previous radiation therapy. Local relapse after radiotherapy (external beam irradiation, brachytherapy with J-125 seeds or combination) was confirmed mostly via choline-PET and increased PSA levels. The primary endpoint was treatment-related late toxicities - particularly proctitis, anal incontinence, cystitis, urinary incontinence, urinary frequency/urgency, and urinary retention according to the Common Toxicity Criteria. The secondary endpoint was PSA-recurrence-free survival. Results: We registered urinary toxicities only. Grade 2 and grade 3 toxicities were observed in up to 11.1 % (2/18) and 16.7 % (3/18) of patients, respectively. The most frequent late-event grade 3 toxicity was urinary retention in 17 % (3/18) of patients. No late gastrointestinal side effects occurred. The biochemical PSA-recurrence-free survival probability at 3 years was 57.1 %. The overall survival at 3 years was 88.9 %; 22 % (4/18) of patients developed metastases. The median follow-up time for all patients after salvage BT was 21 months (range, 8-77 months). Conclusion: Salvage PDR

  11. Residual translational and rotational errors after kV X-ray image-guided correction of prostate location using implanted fiducials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wust, Peter [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Charite - Univ. Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Graf, Reinhold; Boehmer, Dirk; Budach, Volker

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the residual errors and required safety margins after stereoscopic kilovoltage (kV) X-ray target localization of the prostate in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) using internal fiducials. Patients and Methods: Radiopaque fiducial markers (FMs) have been inserted into the prostate in a cohort of 33 patients. The ExacTrac/Novalis Body trademark X-ray 6d image acquisition system (BrainLAB AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) was used. Corrections were performed in left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) direction. Rotational errors around LR (x-axis), AP (y) and SI (z) have been recorded for the first series of nine patients, and since 2007 for the subsequent 24 patients in addition corrected in each fraction by using the Robotic Tilt Module trademark and Varian Exact Couch trademark. After positioning, a second set of X-ray images was acquired for verification purposes. Residual errors were registered and again corrected. Results: Standard deviations (SD) of residual translational random errors in LR, AP, and SI coordinates were 1.3, 1.7, and 2.2 mm. Residual random rotation errors were found for lateral (around x, tilt), vertical (around y, table), and longitudinal (around z, roll) and of 3.2 , 1.8 , and 1.5 . Planning target volume (PTV)-clinical target volume (CTV) margins were calculated in LR, AP, and SI direction to 2.3, 3.0, and 3.7 mm. After a second repositioning, the margins could be reduced to 1.8, 2.1, and 1.8 mm. Conclusion: On the basis of the residual setup error measurements, the margin required after one to two online X-ray corrections for the patients enrolled in this study would be at minimum 2 mm. The contribution of intrafractional motion to residual random errors has to be evaluated. (orig.)

  12. On-line re-optimization of prostate IMRT plans for adaptive radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q Jackie; Thongphiew, Danthai; Wang, Zhiheng; Mathayomchan, Boonyanit; Chankong, Vira; Yoo, Sua; Lee, W Robert; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2008-02-01

    For intermediate and high risk prostate cancer, both the prostate gland and seminal vesicles are included in the clinical target volume. Internal motion patterns of these two organs vary, presenting a challenge for adaptive treatment. Adaptive techniques such as isocenter repositioning and soft tissue alignment are effective when tumor volumes only exhibit translational shift, while direct re-optimization of the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan maybe more desirable when extreme deformation or differential positioning changes of the organs occur. Currently, direct re-optimization of the IMRT plan using beamlet (or fluence map) has not been reported. In this study, we report a novel on-line re-optimization technique that can accomplish plan adjustment on-line. Deformable image registration is used to provide position variation information on each voxel along the three dimensions. The original planned dose distribution is used as the 'goal' dose distribution for adaptation and to ensure planning quality. Fluence maps are re-optimized via linear programming, and a plan solution can be achieved within 2 min. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated with a clinical case with large deformation. Such on-line ART process can be highly valuable with hypo-fractionated prostate IMRT treatment.

  13. On-line re-optimization of prostate IMRT plans for adaptive radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q Jackie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC (United States); Thongphiew, Danthai [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC (United States); Wang, Zhiheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC (United States); Mathayomchan, Boonyanit [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH (United States); Chankong, Vira [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH (United States); Yoo, Sua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC (United States); Lee, W Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC (United States); Yin, Fang-Fang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC (United States)

    2008-02-07

    For intermediate and high risk prostate cancer, both the prostate gland and seminal vesicles are included in the clinical target volume. Internal motion patterns of these two organs vary, presenting a challenge for adaptive treatment. Adaptive techniques such as isocenter repositioning and soft tissue alignment are effective when tumor volumes only exhibit translational shift, while direct re-optimization of the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan maybe more desirable when extreme deformation or differential positioning changes of the organs occur. Currently, direct re-optimization of the IMRT plan using beamlet (or fluence map) has not been reported. In this study, we report a novel on-line re-optimization technique that can accomplish plan adjustment on-line. Deformable image registration is used to provide position variation information on each voxel along the three dimensions. The original planned dose distribution is used as the 'goal' dose distribution for adaptation and to ensure planning quality. Fluence maps are re-optimized via linear programming, and a plan solution can be achieved within 2 min. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated with a clinical case with large deformation. Such on-line ART process can be highly valuable with hypo-fractionated prostate IMRT treatment.

  14. On-line re-optimization of prostate IMRT plans for adaptive radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q. Jackie; Thongphiew, Danthai; Wang, Zhiheng; Mathayomchan, Boonyanit; Chankong, Vira; Yoo, Sua; Lee, W. Robert; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2008-02-01

    For intermediate and high risk prostate cancer, both the prostate gland and seminal vesicles are included in the clinical target volume. Internal motion patterns of these two organs vary, presenting a challenge for adaptive treatment. Adaptive techniques such as isocenter repositioning and soft tissue alignment are effective when tumor volumes only exhibit translational shift, while direct re-optimization of the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan maybe more desirable when extreme deformation or differential positioning changes of the organs occur. Currently, direct re-optimization of the IMRT plan using beamlet (or fluence map) has not been reported. In this study, we report a novel on-line re-optimization technique that can accomplish plan adjustment on-line. Deformable image registration is used to provide position variation information on each voxel along the three dimensions. The original planned dose distribution is used as the 'goal' dose distribution for adaptation and to ensure planning quality. Fluence maps are re-optimized via linear programming, and a plan solution can be achieved within 2 min. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated with a clinical case with large deformation. Such on-line ART process can be highly valuable with hypo-fractionated prostate IMRT treatment. Abstract and preliminary data presented at 49th AAPM Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, USA, July 2007.

  15. Evaluation of multiple image-based modalities for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of prostate carcinoma: A prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayyas, Essa; Chetty, Indrin J.; Chetvertkov, Mikhail; Wen, Ning; Neicu, Toni; Nurushev, Teamor; Ren Lei; Pradhan, Deepak; Movsas, Benjamin; Elshaikh, Mohamed A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Lu Mei [Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit Michigan 48202 (United States); Stricker, Hans [Department of Urology, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit Michigan 48202 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Setup errors and prostate intrafraction motion are main sources of localization uncertainty in prostate cancer radiation therapy. This study evaluates four different imaging modalities 3D ultrasound (US), kV planar images, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and implanted electromagnetic transponders (Calypso/Varian) to assess inter- and intrafraction localization errors during intensity-modulated radiation therapy based treatment of prostate cancer. Methods: Twenty-seven prostate cancer patients were enrolled in a prospective IRB-approved study and treated to a total dose of 75.6 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction). Overall, 1100 fractions were evaluated. For each fraction, treatment targets were localized using US, kV planar images, and CBCT in a sequence defined to determine setup offsets relative to the patient skin tattoos, intermodality differences, and residual errors for each patient and patient cohort. Planning margins, following van Herk's formalism, were estimated based on error distributions. Calypso-based localization was not available for the first eight patients, therefore centroid positions of implanted gold-seed markers imaged prior to and immediately following treatment were used as a motion surrogate during treatment. For the remaining 19 patients, Calypso transponders were used to assess prostate intrafraction motion. Results: The means ({mu}), and standard deviations (SD) of the systematic ({Sigma}) and random errors ({sigma}) of interfraction prostate shifts (relative to initial skin tattoo positioning), as evaluated using CBCT, kV, and US, averaged over all patients and fractions, were: [{mu}{sub CBCT}= (-1.2, 0.2, 1.1) mm, {Sigma}{sub CBCT}= (3.0, 1.4, 2.4) mm, {sigma}{sub CBCT}= (3.2, 2.2, 2.5) mm], [{mu}{sub kV}= (-2.9, -0.4, 0.5) mm, {Sigma}{sub kV}= (3.4, 3.1, 2.6) mm, {sigma}{sub kV}= (2.9, 2.0, 2.4) mm], and [{mu}{sub US}= (-3.6, -1.4, 0.0) mm, {Sigma}{sub US}= (3.3, 3.5, 2.8) mm, {sigma}{sub US}= (4.1, 3.8, 3.6) mm], in the anterior

  16. MR image-based synthetic CT for IMRT prostate treatment planning and CBCT image-guided localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shupeng; Quan, Hong; Qin, An; Yee, Seonghwan; Yan, Di

    2016-05-08

    The purpose of this study was to propose and evaluate a method of creating a synthetic CT (S-CT) from MRI simulation for dose calculation and daily CBCT localization. A pair of MR and CT images was obtained in the same day from each of 10 prostate patients. The pair of MR and CT images was preregistered using the deformable image registration (DIR). Using the corresponding displacement vector field (atlas-DVF), the CT image was deformed to the MR image to create an atlas MR-CT pair. Regions of interest (ROI) on the atlas MR-CT pair were delineated and used to create atlas-ROI masks. 'Leave-one-out' test (one pair of MR and CT was used as subject-MR and subject-CT for evaluation, and the remaining 9 pairs were in the atlas library) was performed. For a subject-MR, autosegmentation and DVFs were generated using DIR between the subject-MR and the 9 atlas-MRs. An S-CT was then generated using the corresponding 9 paired atlas-CTs, the 9 atlas-DVFs and the corresponding atlas-ROI masks. The total 10 S-CTs were evaluated using the Hounsfield unit (HU), the calculated dose distribution, and the auto bony registration to daily CBCT images with respect to the 10 subject-CTs. HU differences (mean ± STD) were (2.4 ± 25.23), (1.18 ± 39.49), (32.46 ± 81.9), (0.23 ± 40.13), and (3.74 ± 144.76) for prostate, bladder, rectal wall, soft tissue outside all ROIs, and bone, respectively. The discrepancy of dose-volume param-eters calculated using the S-CT for treatment planning was small (≤ 0.22% with 95% confidence). Gamma pass rate (2% & 2 mm) was higher than 99.86% inside PTV and 98.45% inside normal structures. Using the 10 S-CTs as the reference CT for daily CBCT localization achieved the similar results compared to using the subject-CT. The translational vector differences were within 1.08 mm (0.37 ± 0.23 mm), and the rotational differences were within 1.1° in all three directions. S-CT created from a simulation MR image using the proposed approach with the

  17. Prospective assessment of the quality of life before, during and after image guided intensity modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveistrup, Joen; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Bjørner, Jakob B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy (RT) in combination with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) carries a risk of gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary toxicity, which might affect the quality of life (QoL). The purpose of this study was to assess the QoL in patients with PCa...... before, during and after radiotherapy (RT) and to compare the QoL 1 year after RT to a normal population. METHODS: The QoL was evaluated prospectively by the self-administered questionnaire SF-36 in 87 patients with PCa. The SF-36 was completed before RT (baseline), at start of RT, at end of RT and 1...... year after RT. A mixed model analysis was used to determine the changes in QoL at each time point compared to baseline. The patients' QoL 1 year after RT was compared to a normal population consisting of 462 reference subjects matched on age and education. RESULTS: One year after RT, patients reported...

  18. Image-guided radiation therapy; Bildgefuehrte Strahlentherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boda-Heggemann, J.; Wertz, H.; Blessing, M.; Wenz, F.; Lohr, F. [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim der Universitaet Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Mannheim (Germany); Guckenberger, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Wuerzburg (Germany); Ganswindt, U.; Belka, C. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Muenchen (Germany); Fuss, M. [Oregon Health and Science University, Program in Image-guided Radiation Therapy, Department of Radiation Medicine, Portland, OR (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Radiotherapy technology has improved rapidly over the past two decades. New imaging modalities, such as positron emission (computed) tomography (PET, PET-CT) and high-resolution morphological and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been introduced into the treatment planning process. Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) with 3D soft tissue depiction directly imaging target and normal structures, is currently replacing patient positioning based on patient surface markers, frame-based intracranial and extracranial stereotactic treatment and partially also 2D field verification methods. On-line 3D soft tissue-based position correction unlocked the full potential of new delivery techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy, by safely delivering highly conformal dose distributions that facilitate dose escalation and hypofractionation. These strategies have already resulted in better clinical outcomes, e.g. in prostate and lung cancer and are expected to further improve radiotherapy results. (orig.) [German] Die Strahlentherapie hat in den vergangenen 2 Dekaden von zahlreichen technischen Entwicklungen profitiert. Neue Bildgebungsmodalitaeten wie Positronenemissionstomographie (PET, PET/CT) und hochaufloesende morphologische und funktionelle MR-Sequenzen wurden in den Bestrahlungsplanungsprozess integriert. Die bildgesteuerte Strahlentherapie (''image-guided radiation therapy'', IGRT) ermoeglicht mittlerweile unmittelbar am Beschleuniger auch die 3-D-Darstellung von Weichgewebetumoren und ersetzt die Patientenpositionierung mittels Hautmarkern, rahmenbasierten stereotaktischen Verfahren im Kopf- und Koerperstamm und teilweise auch die 2-D-Verifikation der Bestrahlungsfelder. IGRT gestattet die Realisierung des vollen Potenzials fortgeschrittener Bestrahlungstechniken wie der intensitaetsmodulierten Strahlentherapie, mit deren Hilfe hochkonformale Dosisverteilungen realisiert werden koennen. Diese Strategien haben zu verbesserten

  19. Interfractional Seminal Vesicle Motion Relative to the Prostate Gland for Image-guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer with/without Androgen Deprivation Therapy: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waki, Takahiro; Katsui, Kuniaki; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Ogata, Takeshi; Katayama, Norihisa; Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2017-02-01

    We investigated differences in seminal vesicle (SV) length and interfractional SV motion relative to the prostate gland in prostate cancer patients. We compared 32 patients who received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) before radiotherapy with 12 patients receiving radiotherapy alone at Okayama University Hospital in August 2008-July 2011. We examined the right and left SVs' length and motion by computed tomography (CT) to determine the ADT's effects and analyzed 347 CT scans in a multiple linear regression model. The ADT patients' SV length was significantly shorter than the non-ADT patients'. The differences in right and left SV lengths between the ADT and non-ADT patients were 6.8 mm (95% CI 2.0-11.7 mm) and 7.2 mm (95% CI 3.1- 11.3 mm) respectively in an adjusted regression model. SV motion did not differ between the ADT and non- ADT patients in terms of interfractional motion of the SV tips and the SVs' center relative to the prostate gland. The ADT patients had significantly shorter SVs compared to the non-ADT patients, but no difference in SV motion was observed. SV interfractional motion should thus be compensated using the same planning margins, regardless of whether ADT is used.

  20. Image-guided robot-assisted prostate ablation using water jet-hydrodissection: initial study of a novel technology for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Kenneth; de Abreu, Andre Luis Castro; Ramos, Patrick; Aljuri, Nikolai; Mantri, Surag; Gill, Inderbir; Ukimura, Osamu; Desai, Mihir

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel robotic tissue ablation system (PROCEPT Aquablation(™) System), in performing prostate ablation in a survival canine model. This novel technology uses a high-velocity saline stream that aims to selectively ablate prostatic glandular tissue while sparing collagenous structures such as blood vessels and capsule. Once the ablation is complete, a laser beam is captured by a low-pressure water jet to produce surface hemostasis. The extent and depth of ablation is predetermined by endoscopic and transrectal ultrasonography guidance. The procedure was performed in eight noncastrated male beagles aged 6 years or older (Acute 2, Chronic 6) through a previously created perineal urethrostomy. Aquablation time ranged from 40 to 84 seconds (mean 60.5 sec). There was no active bleeding in any of the dogs during or after Aquablation. Water jet-guided laser coagulation was used for purposes of monitoring its safety and efficacy. Five of the six dogs reached the predetermined 6-week mark. Complications included two dogs with infection successfully treated with antibiotics, a false passage created during catheter placement, and two bladder neck perforations (from mechanical insertion), one leading to euthanasia. Histologic evaluation at 6 weeks revealed a normal cellular architecture and full reepithelialization of the treatment cavity. We report the initial survival data in the animal model of a novel robotic device developed for managing symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Aquablation produces ablation of adenomatous elements while preserving collagenous structures and is a promising technology for surgical management of symptomatic BPH.

  1. Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Compared to 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortel, Ruud C.; Incrocci, Luca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Witte, Marnix G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heemsbergen, Wilma D., E-mail: w.heemsbergen@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows significant dose reductions to organs at risk in prostate cancer patients. However, clinical data identifying the benefits of IG-IMRT in daily practice are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions to organs at risk and acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity levels of patients treated to 78 Gy with either IG-IMRT or 3D-CRT. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with 3D-CRT (n=215) and IG-IMRT (n=260) receiving 78 Gy in 39 fractions within 2 randomized trials were selected. Dose surface histograms of anorectum, anal canal, and bladder were calculated. Identical toxicity questionnaires were distributed at baseline, prior to fraction 20 and 30 and at 90 days after treatment. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 endpoints were derived directly from questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were applied. Results: The median volumes receiving 5 to 75 Gy were significantly lower (all P<.001) with IG-IMRT for anorectum, anal canal, and bladder. The mean dose to the anorectum was 34.4 Gy versus 47.3 Gy (P<.001), 23.6 Gy versus 44.6 Gy for the anal canal (P<.001), and 33.1 Gy versus 43.2 Gy for the bladder (P<.001). Significantly lower grade ≥2 toxicity was observed for proctitis, stool frequency ≥6/day, and urinary frequency ≥12/day. IG-IMRT resulted in significantly lower overall RTOG grade ≥2 GI toxicity (29% vs 49%, respectively, P=.002) and overall GU grade ≥2 toxicity (38% vs 48%, respectively, P=.009). Conclusions: A clinically meaningful reduction in dose to organs at risk and acute toxicity levels was observed in IG-IMRT patients, as a result of improved technique and tighter margins. Therefore reduced late toxicity levels can be expected as well; additional research is needed to quantify such reductions.

  2. Adaptive Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) Eliminates the Risk of Biochemical Failure Caused by the Bias of Rectal Distension in Prostate Cancer Treatment Planning: Clinical Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sean S.; Yan Di; McGrath, Samuel; Dilworth, Joshua T.; Liang Jian; Ye Hong; Krauss, Daniel J.; Martinez, Alvaro A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Kestin, Larry L., E-mail: lkestin@comcast.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Rectal distension has been shown to decrease the probability of biochemical control. Adaptive image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) corrects for target position and volume variations, reducing the risk of biochemical failure while yielding acceptable rates of gastrointestinal (GI)/genitourinary (GU) toxicities. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2006, 962 patients were treated with computed tomography (CT)-based offline adaptive IGRT. Patients were stratified into low (n = 400) vs. intermediate/high (n = 562) National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk groups. Target motion was assessed with daily CT during the first week. Electronic portal imaging device (EPID) was used to measure daily setup error. Patient-specific confidence-limited planning target volumes (cl-PTV) were then constructed, reducing the standard PTV and compensating for geometric variation of the target and setup errors. Rectal volume (RV), cross-sectional area (CSA), and rectal volume from the seminal vesicles to the inferior prostate (SVP) were assessed on the planning CT. The impact of these volumetric parameters on 5-year biochemical control (BC) and chronic Grades {>=}2 and 3 GU and GI toxicity were examined. Results: Median follow-up was 5.5 years. Median minimum dose covering cl-PTV was 75.6 Gy. Median values for RV, CSA, and SVP were 82.8 cm{sup 3}, 5.6 cm{sup 2}, and 53.3 cm{sup 3}, respectively. The 5-year BC was 89% for the entire group: 96% for low risk and 83% for intermediate/high risk (p < 0.001). No statistically significant differences in BC were seen with stratification by RV, CSA, and SVP in quartiles. Maximum chronic Grades {>=}2 and 3 GI toxicities were 21.2% and 2.9%, respectively. Respective values for GU toxicities were 15.5% and 4.3%. No differences in GI or GU toxicities were noted when patients were stratified by RV. Conclusions: Incorporation of adaptive IGRT reduces the risk of geometric miss and results in excellent biochemical control that is

  3. Benefit of intensity modulated and image-guided radiotherapy in prostate cancer; Apports de la radiotherapie avec modulation d'intensite guidee par l'image dans les cancers prostatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latorzeff, I.; Mazurier, J. [Service de radiotherapie, groupe Oncorad-Garonne, clinique Pasteur, -L' Atrium-, 31 - Toulouse (France); Boutry, C.; Dudouet, P. [Service d' oncologie, groupe Oncorad-Garonne, clinique du Pont-de-Chaume, 82 - Montauban (France); Richaud, P. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut Bergonie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Crevoisier, R. de [Departement de radiotherapie, centre Eugene-Marquis, 35 - Rennes (France)

    2010-10-15

    External beam radiotherapy (RT) is used to treat all stages of localized prostate cancer. Using a 3D conformal RT (3DCRT) without any androgen deprivation, a clear dose-effect relationship has been shown in terms of both biochemical control and also unfortunately of rectal and urinary toxicity. Compared to a 'standard' 3DCRT, intensity modulated RT (IMRT) improves the dose distribution by mainly providing concave dose distribution and tight dose gradients. Based on large clinical experiences for at least one decade, IMRT is widely used to increase the dose in the prostate and therefore local control, without increasing toxicity. Indeed, toxicity rates observed after high dose delivered in the prostate (80 Gy) with IMRT appear no different than those observed after a standard dose (70 Gy) delivered by a standard 3DCRT. Arc IMRT appears a new promising IMRT modality, decreasing dramatically treatment duration. However, this IMRT-based dosimetric benefit may not be translated into a full clinical benefit, if intra-pelvic prostate motion is not taken in account. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) should be therefore associated with IMRT for a maximal clinical benefit. This article is a literature review showing the interest of both combined approaches. (authors)

  4. Prostate cancer treated with image-guided helical TomoTherapy {sup registered} and image-guided LINAC-IMRT. Correlation between high-dose bladder volume, margin reduction, and genitourinary toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdz, Sonia; Wendt, Thomas G. [University Hospital Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jena (Germany); Schwedas, Michael; Salz, Henning [University Hospital Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Radiation Oncology, Section of Medical Physics, Jena (Germany); Foller, Susan [University Hospital Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Urology, Jena (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    We compared different image-guidance (IG) strategies for prostate cancer with high-precision IG intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using TomoTherapy {sup registered} (Accuray Inc., Madison, WI, USA) and linear accelerator (LINAC)-IMRT and their impact on planning target volume (PTV) margin reduction. Follow-up data showed reduced bladder toxicity in TomoTherapy patients compared to LINAC-IMRT. The purpose of this study was to quantify whether the treatment delivery technique and decreased margins affect reductions in bladder toxicity. Setup corrections from 30 patients treated with helical TomoTherapy and 30 treated with a LINAC were analyzed. These data were used to simulate three IG protocols based on setup error correction and a limited number of imaging sessions. For all patients, gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity was documented and correlated with the treatment delivery technique. For fiducial marker (FM)-based RT, a margin reduction of up to 3.1, 3.0, and 4.8 mm in the left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions, respectively, could be achieved with calculation of a setup correction from the first three fractions and IG every second day. Although the bladder volume was treated with mean doses of 35 Gy in the TomoTherapy group vs. 22 Gy in the LINAC group, we observed less GU toxicity after TomoTherapy. Intraprostate FMs allow for small safety margins, help decrease imaging frequency after setup correction, and minimize the dose to bladder and rectum, resulting in lower GU toxicity. In addition, IMRT delivered with TomoTherapy helps to avoid hotspots in the bladder neck, a critical anatomic structure associated with post-RT urinary toxicity. (orig.) [German] Wir haben im Rahmen der Prostatakarzinombehandlung verschiedene bildgefuehrte (IG) Strategien der hochpraezisen intensitaetsmodulierten Radiotherapie (IMRT) unter Einsatz der Tomotherapie (TomoTherapy {sup registered}, Accuray Inc., Madison

  5. Image-guided urological interventions: What the urologists must know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan J Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in imaging technology, especially in the last two decades, have led to a paradigm shift in the field of image-guided interventions in urology. While the traditional biopsy and drainage techniques are firmly established, image-based stone management and endovascular management of hematuria have evolved further. Ablative techniques for renal and prostate cancer and prostate artery embolization for benign prostatic hypertrophy have evolved into viable alternative treatments. Many urologic diseases that were earlier treated surgically are now effectively managed using minimally invasive image-guided techniques, often on a day care basis using only local anesthesia or conscious sedation. This article presents an overview of the technique and status of various image-guided urological procedures, including recent emerging techniques.

  6. Dosimetric and Deformation Effects of Image-Guided Interventions during Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of the Prostate using an Endorectal Balloon

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Bernard L; Diot, Quentin; Kavanagh, Brian; Timmerman, Robert D; Miften, Moyed

    2013-01-01

    During Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of prostate cancer, an inflatable endorectal balloon (ERB) may be used to reduce motion of the target and reduce the dose to the posterior rectal wall. This work assessed the dosimetric impact of manual interventions on ERB position in patients receiving prostate SBRT and investigated the impact of ERB interventions on prostate shape. Daily kilovoltage (kV) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging was performed to localize the PTV, and an automated fusion with the planning images yielded displacements required for PTV re-localization. When the ERB volume and/or position were judged to yield inaccurate repositioning, manual adjustment (ERB re-inflation and/or repositioning) was performed. Based on all 59 CBCT image sets acquired, a deformable registration algorithm was used to determine the dose received by, displacement of, and deformation of the prostate, bladder, and anterior rectal wall. This dose tracking methodology was applied to images ...

  7. A comparison of 3 on-line nomograms with the detection of primary circulating prostate cells to predict prostate cancer at initial biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, N P; Fuentealba, C; Reyes, E; Jacob, O

    2017-05-01

    The use of nomograms which include the PSA may improve the predictive power of obtaining a prostate biopsy (PB) positive for cancer. We compare the use of three on-line nomagrams with the detection of primary malignant circulating prostate cells (CPCs) to predict the results of an initial PB in men with suspicion of prostate cancer. Consecutive men with suspicion of prostate cancer underwent a 12 core TRUS prostate biopsy; age, total serum PSA, percent free PSA, family history, ethnic origin and prostate ultrasound results were used for risk assessment using the online nomograms. Mononuclear cells were obtained by differential gel centrifugation from 8ml of blood and CPCs were identified using double immunomarcation with anti-PSA and anti-P504S. A CPC was defined as a cell expressing PSA and P504S and defined as negative/positive. Biopsies were classified as cancer/no-cancer. Areas under the curve (AUC) for each parameter were calculated and compared and diagnostic yields were calculated. 1,223 men aged>55 years participated, 467 (38.2%) had a biopsy positive for cancer of whom 114/467 (24.4%) complied with the criteria for active observation. Area under the curve analysis showed CPC detection to be superior (p<0.001), avoiding 57% of potential biopsies while missing 4% of clinically significant prostate cancers. The CPC detection was superior to the nomograms in predicting the presence of prostate cancer at initial biopsy; its high negative predictive value potentially reduces the number of biopsies while missing few significant cancers, being superior to the nomograms in this aspect. Being a positive/negative test the detection of CPCs avoids defining a cutoff value which may differ between populations. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Trial of Concomitant Boost Using Indium-111-Capromab Pendetide (ProstaScint) Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, William W., E-mail: wong.william@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Schild, Steven E.; Vora, Sujay A.; Ezzell, Gary A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Nguyen, Ba D.; Ram, Panol C.; Roarke, Michael C. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate, in a prospective study, the use of {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide (ProstaScint) scan to guide the delivery of a concomitant boost to intraprostatic region showing increased uptake while treating the entire gland with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From September 2002 to November 2005, 71 patients were enrolled. Planning pelvic CT and {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide scan images were coregistered. The entire prostate gland received 75.6 Gy/42 fractions, whereas areas of increased uptake in {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide scan received 82 Gy. For patients with T3/T4 disease, or Gleason score {>=}8, or prostate-specific antigen level >20 ng/mL, 12 months of adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy was given. In January 2005 the protocol was modified to give 6 months of androgen deprivation therapy to patients with a prostate-specific antigen level of 10-20 ng/mL or Gleason 7 disease. Results: Thirty-one patients had low-risk, 30 had intermediate-risk, and 10 had high-risk disease. With a median follow-up of 66 months, the 5-year biochemical control rates were 94% for the entire cohort and 97%, 93%, and 90% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. Maximum acute and late urinary toxicities were Grade 2 for 38 patients (54%) and 28 patients (39%) and Grade 3 for 1 and 3 patients (4%), respectively. One patient had Grade 4 hematuria. Maximum acute and late gastrointestinal toxicities were Grade 2 for 32 patients (45%) and 15 patients (21%), respectively. Most of the side effects improved with longer follow-up. Conclusion: Concomitant boost to areas showing increased uptake in {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide scan to 82 Gy using intensity-modulated radiotherapy while the entire prostate received 75.6 Gy was feasible and tolerable, with 94% biochemical control rate at 5 years.

  9. First Clinical Release of an Online, Adaptive, Aperture-Based Image-Guided Radiotherapy Strategy in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy to Correct for Inter- and Intrafractional Rotations of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutschmann, Heinz, E-mail: h.deutschmann@salk.at [University Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Salzburg (Austria); radART Institute for Research and Development of Advanced Radiation Technologies, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); Kametriser, Gerhard [University Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Salzburg (Austria); Steininger, Philipp [radART Institute for Research and Development of Advanced Radiation Technologies, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); Scherer, Philipp; Schoeller, Helmut [University Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Salzburg (Austria); Gaisberger, Christoph [University Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Salzburg (Austria); radART Institute for Research and Development of Advanced Radiation Technologies, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); Mooslechner, Michaela [radART Institute for Research and Development of Advanced Radiation Technologies, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); Mitterlechner, Bernhard; Weichenberger, Harald [University Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Salzburg (Austria); radART Institute for Research and Development of Advanced Radiation Technologies, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); Fastner, Gert; Wurstbauer, Karl [University Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Salzburg (Austria); Jeschke, Stephan [University Clinic for Urology and Andrology, Salzburg (Austria); Forstner, Rosemarie [University Clinic for Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Sedlmayer, Felix [University Clinic for Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Salzburg (Austria); radART Institute for Research and Development of Advanced Radiation Technologies, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria)

    2012-08-01

    adaptive image-guided, intensity-modulated prostate protocol on a standard linear accelerator to correct 6 degrees of freedom of internal organ motion, allowing safe and straightforward implementation of margin reduction and dose escalation.

  10. Hydrogel Spacer Prospective Multicenter Randomized Controlled Pivotal Trial: Dosimetric and Clinical Effects of Perirectal Spacer Application in Men Undergoing Prostate Image Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariados, Neil, E-mail: nmariados@ampofny.com [Associated Medical Professionals of New York, Syracuse, New York (United States); Sylvester, John [21st Century Oncology, East Bradenton, Florida (United States); Shah, Dhiren [Western New York Urology Associates, Cancer Care of WNY, Cheektowaga, New York (United States); Karsh, Lawrence [The Urology Center of Colorado, Denver, Colorado (United States); Hudes, Richard [Chesapeake Urology Research Associates, The Prostate Center, Owings Mills, Maryland (United States); Beyer, David [Arizona Oncology Services Foundation, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Kurtzman, Steven [Urological Surgeons of Northern California, Campbell, California (United States); Bogart, Jeffrey [The Research Foundation of State University of New York, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York (United States); Hsi, R. Alex [Peninsula Cancer Center, Poulsbo, Washington (United States); Kos, Michael [Urology Nevada, Reno, Nevada (United States); Ellis, Rodney [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Logsdon, Mark [Sutter Health Sacramento Sierra Region, Sutter Institute for Medical Research, Sacramento, California (United States); Zimberg, Shawn [Advanced Radiation Centers of New York, Lake Success, New York (United States); Forsythe, Kevin [Oregon Urology Institute, Springfield, Oregon (United States); Zhang, Hong [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (United States); Soffen, Edward [CentraState Medical Center, Freehold, New Jersey (United States); Francke, Patrick [Carolina Regional Cancer Center, 21st Century Oncology, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina (United States); Mantz, Constantine [21st Century Oncology, Fort Meyers, Florida (United States); Rossi, Peter [Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); DeWeese, Theodore [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); and others

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Perirectal spacing, whereby biomaterials are placed between the prostate and rectum, shows promise in reducing rectal dose during prostate cancer radiation therapy. A prospective multicenter randomized controlled pivotal trial was performed to assess outcomes following absorbable spacer (SpaceOAR system) implantation. Methods and Materials: Overall, 222 patients with clinical stage T1 or T2 prostate cancer underwent computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for treatment planning, followed with fiducial marker placement, and were randomized to receive spacer injection or no injection (control). Patients received postprocedure CT and MRI planning scans and underwent image guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (79.2 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). Spacer safety and impact on rectal irradiation, toxicity, and quality of life were assessed throughout 15 months. Results: Spacer application was rated as “easy” or “very easy” 98.7% of the time, with a 99% hydrogel placement success rate. Perirectal spaces were 12.6 ± 3.9 mm and 1.6 ± 2.0 mm in the spacer and control groups, respectively. There were no device-related adverse events, rectal perforations, serious bleeding, or infections within either group. Pre-to postspacer plans had a significant reduction in mean rectal V70 (12.4% to 3.3%, P<.0001). Overall acute rectal adverse event rates were similar between groups, with fewer spacer patients experiencing rectal pain (P=.02). A significant reduction in late (3-15 months) rectal toxicity severity in the spacer group was observed (P=.04), with a 2.0% and 7.0% late rectal toxicity incidence in the spacer and control groups, respectively. There was no late rectal toxicity greater than grade 1 in the spacer group. At 15 months 11.6% and 21.4% of spacer and control patients, respectively, experienced 10-point declines in bowel quality of life. MRI scans at 12 months verified spacer absorption. Conclusions: Spacer

  11. SU-E-J-215: Towards MR-Only Image Guided Identification of Calcifications and Brachytherapy Seeds: Application to Prostate and Breast LDR Implant Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzibak, A; Fatemi-Ardekani, A; Soliman, A; Mashouf, S; Safigholi, H; Ravi, A; Morton, G; Song, WY [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Han, D [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To identify and analyze the appearance of calcifications and brachytherapy seeds on magnitude and phase MRI images and to investigate whether they can be distinguished from each other on corrected phase images for application to prostate and breast low dose rate (LDR) implant dosimetry. Methods: An agar-based gel phantom containing two LDR brachytherapy seeds (Advantage Pd-103, IsoAid, 0.8mm diameter, 4.5mm length) and two spherical calcifications (large: 7mm diameter and small: 4mm diameter) was constructed and imaged on a 3T Philips MR scanner using a 16-channel head coil and a susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) sequence (2mm slices, 320mm FOV, TR/ TE= 26.5/5.3ms, 15 degree flip angle). The phase images were unwrapped and corrected using a 32×32, 2D Hanning high pass filter to remove background phase noise. Appearance of the seeds and calcifications was assessed visually and quantitatively using Osirix (http://www.osirix-viewer.com/). Results: As expected, calcifications and brachytherapy seeds appeared dark (hypointense) relative to the surrounding gel on the magnitude MRI images. The diameter of each seed without the surrounding artifact was measured to be 0.1 cm on the magnitude image, while diameters of 0.79 and 0.37 cm were measured for the larger and smaller calcifications, respectively. On the corrected phase images, the brachytherapy seeds and the calcifications appeared bright (hyperintense). The diameter of the seeds was larger on the phase images (0.17 cm) likely due to the dipole effect. Conclusion: MRI has the best soft tissue contrast for accurate organ delineation leading to most accurate implant dosimetry. This work demonstrated that phase images can potentially be useful in identifying brachytherapy seeds and calcifications in the prostate and breast due to their bright appearance, which helps in their visualization and quantification for accurate dosimetry using MR-only. Future work includes optimizing phase filters to best identify

  12. TU-AB-201-11: A Novel Theoretical Framework for MRI-Only Image Guided LDR Prostate and Breast Brachytherapy Implant Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, A; Elzibak, A; Fatemi, A; Safigholi, H; Ravi, A; Morton, G; Song, W [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Han, D [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a novel framework for accurate model-based dose calculations using only MR images for LDR prostate and breast seed implant brachytherapy. Methods: Model-based dose calculation methodologies recommended by TG-186 require further knowledge about specific tissue composition, which is challenging with MRI. However, relying on MRI-only for implant dosimetry would reduce the soft tissue delineation uncertainty, costs, and uncertainties associated with multi-modality registration and fusion processes. We propose a novel framework to address this problem using quantitative MRI acquisitions and reconstruction techniques. The framework includes three steps: (1) Identify the locations of seeds(2) Identify the presence (or absence) of calcification(s)(3) Quantify the water and fat content in the underlying tissueSteps (1) and (2) consider the sources that limit patient dosimetry, particularly the inter-seed attenuation and the calcified regions; while step (3) targets the quantification of the tissue composition to consider the heterogeneities in the medium. Our preliminary work has shown that the seeds and the calcifications can be identified with MRI using both the magnitude and the phase images. By employing susceptibility-weighted imaging with specific post-processing techniques, the phase images can be further explored to distinguish the seeds from the calcifications. Absolute quantification of tissue, water, and fat content is feasible and was previously demonstrated in phantoms and in-vivo applications, particularly for brain diseases. The approach relies on the proportionality of the MR signal to the number of protons in an image volume. By employing appropriate correction algorithms for T1 - and T2*-related biases, B1 transmit and receive field inhomogeneities, absolute water/fat content can be determined. Results: By considering calcification and interseed attenuation, and through the knowledge of water and fat mass density, accurate patient

  13. Quantification of the volumetric benefit of image-guided radiotherapy (I.G.R.T.) in prostate cancer: Margins and presence probability map; Benefice volumetrique de la radiotherapie guidee par l'image dans les cancers prostatiques: marges et cartographies de probabilite de presence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazoulat, G.; Crevoisier, R. de; Simon, A.; Louvel, G.; Manens, J.P.; Haigron, P. [Inserm, U642, 35 - Rennes (France); Rennes-1 Univ., 35 (France); Crevoisier, R. de; Louvel, G.; Manens, J.P.; Lafond, C. [Centre Eugene-Marquis, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 35 - Rennes (France)

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: To quantify the prostate and seminal vesicles (S.V.) anatomic variations in order to choose appropriate margins including intrapelvic anatomic variations. To quantify volumetric benefit of image-guided radiotherapy (I.G.R.T.). Patients and methods: Twenty patients, receiving a total dose of 70 Gy in the prostate, had a planning CT scan and eight weekly CT scans during treatment. Prostate and S.V. were manually contoured. Each weekly CT scan was registered to the planning CT scan according to three modalities: radiopaque skin marks, pelvis bone or prostate. For each patient, prostate and S.V. displacements were quantified. 3-dimensional maps of prostate and S.V. presence probability were established. Volumes including minimal presence probabilities were compared between the three modalities of registration. Result: For the prostate intrapelvic displacements, systematic and random variations and maximal displacements for the entire population were: 5 mm, 2.7 mm and 16.5 mm in anteroposterior axis; 2.7 mm, 2.4 mm and 11.4 mm in supero-inferior axis and 0.5 mm, 0.8 mm and 3.3 mm laterally. Margins according to van Herk recipe (to cover the prostate for 90% of the patients with the 95% isodose) were: 8 mm, 8.3 mm and 1.9 mm, respectively. The 100% prostate presence probability volumes correspond to 37%, 50% and 61% according to the registration modality. For the S.V., these volumes correspond to 8%, 14% and 18% of the S.V. volume. Conclusions: Without I.G.R.T., 5 mm prostate posterior margins are insufficient and should be at least 8 mm, to account for intrapelvic anatomic variations. Prostate registration almost doubles the 100% presence probability volume compared to skin registration. Deformation of S.V. will require either to increase dramatically margins (simple) or new planning (not realistic). (authors)

  14. Image guided percutaneous splenic interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mandeep [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India)], E-mail: mandykang2005@yahoo.com; Kalra, Naveen; Gulati, Madhu; Lal, Anupam; Kochhar, Rohit [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Rajwanshi, Arvind [Department of Cytology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012 (India)

    2007-10-15

    Aim: The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of image-guided percutaneous splenic interventions as diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective review of our interventional records from July 2001 to June 2006. Ninety-five image-guided percutaneous splenic interventions were performed after informed consent in 89 patients: 64 men and 25 women who ranged in age from 5 months to 71 years (mean, 38.4 years) under ultrasound (n = 93) or CT (n = 2) guidance. The procedures performed were fine needle aspiration biopsy of focal splenic lesions (n = 78) and aspiration (n = 10) or percutaneous catheter drainage of a splenic abscess (n = 7). Results: Splenic fine needle aspiration biopsy was successful in 62 (83.78%) of 74 patients with benign lesions diagnosed in 43 (58.1%) and malignancy in 19 (25.67%) patients. The most common pathologies included tuberculosis (26 patients, 35.13%) and lymphoma (14 patients, 18.91%). Therapeutic aspiration or pigtail catheter drainage was successful in all (100%) patients. There were no major complications. Conclusions: Image-guided splenic fine needle aspiration biopsy is a safe and accurate technique that can provide a definitive diagnosis in most patients with focal lesions in the spleen. This study also suggests that image-guided percutaneous aspiration or catheter drainage of splenic abscesses is a safe and effective alternative to surgery.

  15. A Prospective Randomized Trial of Two Different Prostate Biopsy Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-03

    Prostate Cancer; Local Anesthesia; Prostate-Specific Antigen/Blood; Biopsy/Methods; Image-guided Biopsy/Methods; Prostatic Neoplasms/Diagnosis; Prostate/Pathology; Prospective Studies; Humans; Male; Ultrasonography, Interventional/Methods

  16. Image-guided endobronchial ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, William E.; Zang, Xiaonan; Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Byrnes, Patrick; Kuhlengel, Trevor; Bascom, Rebecca; Toth, Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is now recommended as a standard procedure for in vivo verification of extraluminal diagnostic sites during cancer-staging bronchoscopy. Yet, physicians vary considerably in their skills at using EBUS effectively. Regarding existing bronchoscopy guidance systems, studies have shown their effectiveness in the lung-cancer management process. With such a system, a patient's X-ray computed tomography (CT) scan is used to plan a procedure to regions of interest (ROIs). This plan is then used during follow-on guided bronchoscopy. Recent clinical guidelines for lung cancer, however, also dictate using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for identifying suspicious ROIs and aiding in the cancer-staging process. While researchers have attempted to use guided bronchoscopy systems in tandem with PET imaging and EBUS, no true EBUS-centric guidance system exists. We now propose a full multimodal image-based methodology for guiding EBUS. The complete methodology involves two components: 1) a procedure planning protocol that gives bronchoscope movements appropriate for live EBUS positioning; and 2) a guidance strategy and associated system graphical user interface (GUI) designed for image-guided EBUS. We present results demonstrating the operation of the system.

  17. From clinical imaging and computational models to personalised medicine and image guided interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, David J

    2016-10-01

    This short paper describes the development of the UCL Centre for Medical Image Computing (CMIC) from 2006 to 2016, together with reference to historical developments of the Computational Imaging sciences Group (CISG) at Guy's Hospital. Key early work in automated image registration led to developments in image guided surgery and improved cancer diagnosis and therapy. The work is illustrated with examples from neurosurgery, laparoscopic liver and gastric surgery, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer and breast cancer, and image guided radiotherapy for lung cancer.

  18. Rationale and development of image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy post-prostatectomy: the present standard of care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray JR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Julia R Murray,1,2 Helen A McNair,2 David P Dearnaley1,2 1Academic Urology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research, London, 2Department of Radiotherapy, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, UK Abstract: The indications for post-prostatectomy radiotherapy have evolved over the last decade, although the optimal timing, dose, and target volume remain to be well defined. The target volume is susceptible to anatomical variations with its borders interfacing with the rectum and bladder. Image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy has become the gold standard for radical prostate radiotherapy. Here we review the current evidence for image-guided techniques with intensity-modulated radiotherapy to the prostate bed and describe current strategies to reduce or account for interfraction and intrafraction motion. Keywords: radiotherapy, prostate cancer, post-prostatectomy, image-guided radiation therapy

  19. Prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Domingue, Gerald J.; Hellstrom, Wayne J.G.

    1998-01-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of acute bacterial prostatitis is straightforward and easily accomplished in clinical laboratories. Chronic bacterial prostatitis, and especially chronic idiopathic prostatitis (most often referred to as abacterial prostatitis), presents a real challenge to the clinician and clinical microbiologist. Clinically, the diagnosis of chronic idiopathic prostatitis is differentiated from that of acute prostatitis by a lack of prostatic inflammation and no “significant” (cont...

  20. Frameless image-guided neurosurgery in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdeman, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The general objective of this thesis was the enhancement of image-guidance system use by optimizing “man-machine” interaction in frameless image-guided neurosurgery. Part I. The application of frameless stereotaxy in the neurosurgical practice We aimed to compare three patient-to-image registration

  1. Toward integrated image guided liver surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnagin, W. R.; Simpson, Amber L.; Miga, M. I.

    2017-03-01

    While clinical neurosurgery has benefited from the advent of frameless image guidance for over three decades, the translation of image guided technologies to abdominal surgery, and more specifically liver resection, has been far more limited. Fundamentally, the workflow, complexity, and presentation have confounded development. With the first real efforts in translation beginning at the turn of the millennia, the work in developing novel augmented technologies to enhance screening, planning, and surgery has come to realization for the field. In this paper, we will review several examples from our own work that demonstrate the impact of image-guided procedure methods in eight clinical studies that speak to: (1) the accuracy in planning for liver resection, (2) enhanced surgical planning with portal vein embolization impact, (3) linking splenic volume changes to post-hepatectomy complications, (4) enhanced intraoperative localization in surgically occult lesions, (5) validation of deformation correction, and a (6) a novel blinded study focused at the value of deformation correction. All six of these studies were achieved in human systems and show the potential impact image guided methodologies could make on liver tissue resection procedures.

  2. Deformable image registration for image guided prostate radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassetta, Roberto; Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido [DEIB, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Leandro, Kleber; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo [Hospital Vitoria, Santos, SP (Brazil); Goncalves, Vinicius; Sakuraba, Roberto [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fattori, Giovanni [Paul Scherrer Institute, Center for Proton Therapy, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we present a CT to CBCT deformable registration method based on the ITK library. An algorithm was developed in order to explore the soft tissue information of the CT-CBCT images to perform deformable image registration (DIR), making efforts to overcome the poor signal-to-noise ratio and HU calibration issues that limits CBCT use for treatment planning purposes. Warped CT images and contours were generated and their impact in adaptive radiotherapy was evaluated by DVH analysis for photon and proton treatments. Considerable discrepancies, related to the treatment planning dose distribution, might be found due to changes in patient’s anatomy. (author)

  3. Image-guided drug delivery: preclinical applications and clinical translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojha, Tarun; Rizzo, Larissa; Storm, Gert; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

    2015-01-01

    Image-guided drug delivery refers to the combination of drug targeting and imaging. Preclinically, image-guided drug delivery can be used for several different purposes, including for monitoring biodistribution, target site accumulation, off-target localization, drug release and drug efficacy. Clini

  4. Image-guided drug delivery : Preclinical applications and clinical translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojha, Tarun; Rizzo, Larissa; Storm, G; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

    2015-01-01

    Image-guided drug delivery refers to the combination of drug targeting and imaging. Preclinically, image-guided drug delivery can be used for several different purposes, including for monitoring biodistribution, target site accumulation, off-target localization, drug release and drug efficacy. Clini

  5. The potential role of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in image-guided radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Lin Nguyen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS is a non-invasive technique to detect metabolites within the normal and tumoral tissues. The ability of MRS to diagnose areas of high metabolic activity linked to tumor cell proliferation is particularly useful for radiotherapy treatment planning because of better gross tumor volume (GTV delineation. The GTV may be targeted with higher radiation dose, potentially improving local control without excessive irradiation to the normal adjacent tissues. Prostate cancer and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM are two tumor models that are associated with a heterogeneous tumor distribution. Preliminary studies suggest that the integration of MRS into radiotherapy planning for these tumors is feasible and safe. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT by virtue of daily tumor imaging and steep dose gradient may allow for tumor dose escalation with the simultaneous integrated boost technique (SIB and potentially decrease the complications rates in patients with GBM and prostate cancers.

  6. The concept of image-guided therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosburgh, Kirby G; Jolesz, Ferenc A

    2003-02-01

    Parallel with current applications in minimally invasive surgery, the introduction of new imaging modalities, and the availability of high-performance computing, new image-guided therapies are being developed at an impressive rate. Indeed, across a broad front of imaging technologies, rapid advances are being realized. Vastly refined technology for processing and using images, as well as improved therapeutic end-effectors, have no doubt hastened this remarkable progress. At the same time, advances in clinical evaluation and complementary technologies will provide the necessary infrastructure through which IGT can be applied in diverse therapeutic settings--from the already well-established neurosurgical applications to the thermal ablation of tumors in organs other than the brain. That IGT is more efficient and effective and less expensive than conventional surgery has been confirmed both in extensive, long-term studies and in ongoing, revolutionary applications in the operating room. We have laid critical groundwork with this extraordinary technology and have now begun to realize quantifiable benefits in terms of improved surgical and patient outcomes.

  7. High dose for prostate irradiation with image guided radiotherapy: Contribution of intensity modulation arc-therapy; Haute dose dans la prostate par radiotherapie guidee par l'image: apport de l'arctherapie avec modulation d'intensite du faisceau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouyaux, B.; De Crevoisier, R.; Manens, J.P.; Bellec, J.; Chira, C.; Le Prise, E.; Lafond, C. [Centre Eugene-Marquis, 35 - Rennes (France); De Crevoisier, R.; Manens, J.P.; Cazoulat, G.; Haigron, P.; Lafond, C. [Inserm, U642, 35 - Rennes (France); Universite de Rennes-1, LTSI, 35 - Rennes (France)

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: To compare two Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) techniques for prostate cancer: the Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) and the 'Step and Shoot' technique (S and S). Materials and methods: VMAT and S and S plans (RX 18 MV) were created and compared (Wilcoxon test) for 10 patients. The dosimetric goal of both treatments was to deliver 46 Gy to the seminal vesicles and 80 Gy to the prostate, while respecting the dose constrains in the organs at risk of toxicity. For one patient, the two techniques were compared for dose painting and escalation in target volumes defined on MRI and registered thanks to intra-prostatic fiducial. Results: VMAT, compared to S and S, offered: an increase of the PTV2s (prostate) volume receiving 77 to 80 Gy and a decrease of V{sub 82} and V{sub 83}; a decrease of V{sub 4} to V{sub 6}, V{sub 16} to V{sub 23}, and V{sub 69} to V{sub 73} for the rectal wall; a decrease of V{sub 25} for the bladder wall; a decrease of V{sub 21} to V{sub 43} for the femoral heads; a decrease of V{sub 26} to V{sub 44} and V{sub 72} to V{sub 80} but an increase of V{sub 1} to V{sub 21} and V{sub 49} to V{sub 60} for the healthy tissues. The Conformal Index 'COIN' was better with VMAT than S and S (0.60 to 0.66). The delivered MU were significantly reduced with VMAT (8% mean) as well as the delivery time (4 min to 1.5 min). VMAT allowed delivering theoretically 90 Gy in the peripheral zone and 100 Gy in the tumor. Conclusion: In case of prostate irradiation, VMAT shows improvement compared with S and S. In particular, organs at risk are better spared, the delivery time is shortened and the number of delivered UM is decreased. (authors)

  8. Nanomedicines for image-guided cancer therapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinzi

    2016-09-01

    Imaging technologies are being increasingly employed to guide the delivery of cancer therapies with the intent to increase their performance and efficacy. To date, many patients have benefited from image-guided treatments through prolonged survival and improvements in quality of life. Advances in nanomedicine have enabled the development of multifunctional imaging agents that can further increase the performance of image-guided cancer therapy. Specifically, this talk will focus on examples that demonstrate the benefits and application of nanomedicine in the context of image-guide surgery, personalized drug delivery, tracking of cell therapies and high precision radiotherapy delivery.

  9. Image guided robotic surgery: Current evidence for effectiveness in urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Pervez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Discussion of the evolution of image guided surgery (IGS and its fundamental components and current evidence for effectiveness of IGS in clinical urology. Methods: Literature search for image-guided robotic urology. Results: Current literature in image-guided robotic urology with its use in robot assisted radical prostatectomy and robot assisted partial nephrectomy are shown. Conclusions: Image guided surgery can be a useful aid to improve visualisation of anatomy and subsurface structures during minimally invasive surgery. Soft-tissue deformation makes it difficult to implement IGS in urology but current studies have shown an attempt to address this issue. The feasibility of IGS requires randomised control trials assessing in particular its accuracy and affect on clinical outcome.

  10. Clinical application of image-guided radiotherapy, IGRT (on the Varian OBI platform); Applications cliniques de la radiotherapie guidee par l'image (RTGI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorcini, B.; Tilikidis, A. [Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Medical Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) can be used to measure and correct positional errors for target and critical structures immediately prior to or during treatment delivery. Some of the most recent available methods applied for target localization are: trans-abdominal ultrasound, implanted markers with in room MV or kV X-rays, optical surface tracking systems, implantable electromagnetic markers, in room CT such as kVCT on rail, kilo-voltage or mega-voltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) and helical megavoltage CT. The verification of the accurate treatment position in conjunction with detailed anatomical information before every fraction can be essential for the outcome of the treatment. In this paper we present the on-board imager (OBI, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) that has been in routine clinical use at the Karolinska University Hospital since June 2004. The OBI has been used for on-line set-up correction of prostate patients using internal gold markers. Displacements of these markers can be monitored radiographically during the treatment course and the registered marker shifts act as a surrogate for prostate motion. For this purpose, on-board kV-kV seems to be an ideal system in terms of image quality. The CBCT function of OBI was installed in March 2005 at our department. It focuses on localizing tumors based on internal anatomy, not just on the conventional external marks or tattoos. The CBCT system provides the capacity for soft tissue imaging in the treatment position and real-time radiographic monitoring during treatment delivery. (authors)

  11. Magnetic resonance image-guided versus ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound in the treatment of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Li; Pei-Hong Wu

    2013-01-01

    Image-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been used for more than ten years,primarily in the treatment of liver and prostate cancers.HIFU has the advantages of precise cancer ablation and excellent protection of healthy tissue.Breast cancer is a common cancer in women.HIFU therapy,in combination with other therapies,has the potential to improve both oncologic and cosmetic outcomes for breast cancer patients by providing a curative therapy that conserves mammary shape.Currently,HIFU therapy is not commonly used in breast cancer treatment,and efforts to promote the application of HIFU is expected.In this article,we compare different image-guided models for HIFU and reviewed the status,drawbacks,and potential of HIFU therapy for breast cancer.

  12. Value of MR contrast media in image-guided body interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Maythem; Wilson, Mark

    2012-01-28

    In the past few years, there have been multiple advances in magnetic resonance (MR) instrumentation, in vivo devices, real-time imaging sequences and interventional procedures with new therapies. More recently, interventionists have started to use minimally invasive image-guided procedures and local therapies, which reduce the pain from conventional surgery and increase drug effectiveness, respectively. Local therapy also reduces the systemic dose and eliminates the toxic side effects of some drugs to other organs. The success of MR-guided procedures depends on visualization of the targets in 3D and precise deployment of ablation catheters, local therapies and devices. MR contrast media provide a wealth of tissue contrast and allows 3D and 4D image acquisitions. After the development of fast imaging sequences, the clinical applications of MR contrast media have been substantially expanded to include pre- during- and post-interventions. Prior to intervention, MR contrast media have the potential to localize and delineate pathologic tissues of vital organs, such as the brain, heart, breast, kidney, prostate, liver and uterus. They also offer other options such as labeling therapeutic agents or cells. During intervention, these agents have the capability to map blood vessels and enhance the contrast between the endovascular guidewire/catheters/devices, blood and tissues as well as direct therapies to the target. Furthermore, labeling therapeutic agents or cells aids in visualizing their delivery sites and tracking their tissue distribution. After intervention, MR contrast media have been used for assessing the efficacy of ablation and therapies. It should be noted that most image-guided procedures are under preclinical research and development. It can be concluded that MR contrast media have great value in preclinical and some clinical interventional procedures. Future applications of MR contrast media in image-guided procedures depend on their safety, tolerability

  13. Image guided, adaptive, accelerated, high dose brachytherapy as model for advanced small volume radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haie-Meder, Christine; Siebert, Frank-André; Pötter, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Brachytherapy has consistently provided a very conformal radiation therapy modality. Over the last two decades this has been associated with significant improvements in imaging for brachytherapy applications (prostate, gynecology), resulting in many positive advances in treatment planning, application techniques and clinical outcome. This is emphasized by the increased use of brachytherapy in Europe with gynecology as continuous basis and prostate and breast as more recently growing fields. Image guidance enables exact knowledge of the applicator together with improved visualization of tumor and target volumes as well as of organs at risk providing the basis for very individualized 3D and 4D treatment planning. In this commentary the most important recent developments in prostate, gynecological and breast brachytherapy are reviewed, with a focus on European recent and current research aiming at the definition of areas for important future research. Moreover the positive impact of GEC-ESTRO recommendations and the highlights of brachytherapy physics are discussed what altogether presents a full overview of modern image guided brachytherapy. An overview is finally provided on past and current international brachytherapy publications focusing on "Radiotherapy and Oncology". These data show tremendous increase in almost all research areas over the last three decades strongly influenced recently by translational research in regard to imaging and technology. In order to provide high level clinical evidence for future brachytherapy practice the strong need for comprehensive prospective clinical research addressing brachytherapy issues is high-lighted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery with Intraoperative Image-Guided Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence T. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present our perioperative minimally invasive spine surgery technique using intraoperative computed tomography image-guided navigation for the treatment of various lumbar spine pathologies. We present an illustrative case of a patient undergoing minimally invasive percutaneous posterior spinal fusion assisted by the O-arm system with navigation. We discuss the literature and the advantages of the technique over fluoroscopic imaging methods: lower occupational radiation exposure for operative room personnel, reduced need for postoperative imaging, and decreased revision rates. Most importantly, we demonstrate that use of intraoperative cone beam CT image-guided navigation has been reported to increase accuracy.

  15. Technique development for photoacoustic imaging guided interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Zhang, Haonan; Yuan, Jie; Feng, Ting; Xu, Guan; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), i.e. tissue destruction induced by a local increase of temperature by means of laser light energy transmission, has been frequently used for minimally invasive treatments of various diseases such as benign thyroid nodules and liver cancer. The emerging photoacoustic (PA) imaging, when integrated with ultrasound (US), could contribute to LITT procedure. PA can enable a good visualization of percutaneous apparatus deep inside tissue and, therefore, can offer accurate guidance of the optical fibers to the target tissue. Our initial experiment demonstrated that, by picking the strong photoacoustic signals generated at the tips of optical fibers as a needle, the trajectory and position of the fibers could be visualized clearly using a commercial available US unit. When working the conventional US Bscan mode, the fibers disappeared when the angle between the fibers and the probe surface was larger than 60 degree; while working on the new PA mode, the fibers could be visualized without any problem even when the angle between the fibers and the probe surface was larger than 75 degree. Moreover, with PA imaging function integrated, the optical fibers positioned into the target tissue, besides delivering optical energy for thermotherapy, can also be used to generate PA signals for on-line evaluation of LITT. Powered by our recently developed PA physio-chemical analysis, PA measurements from the tissue can provide a direct and accurate feedback of the tissue responses to laser ablation, including the changes in not only chemical compositions but also histological microstructures. The initial experiment on the rat liver model has demonstrated the excellent sensitivity of PA imaging to the changes in tissue temperature rise and tissue status (from native to coagulated) when the tissue is treated in vivo with LITT.

  16. Intraoperative 3D Ultrasonography for Image-Guided Neurosurgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letteboer, Marloes Maria Johanna

    2004-01-01

    Stereotactic neurosurgery has evolved dramatically in recent years from the original rigid frame-based systems to the current frameless image-guided systems, which allow greater flexibility while maintaining sufficient accuracy. As these systems continue to evolve, more applications are found, and i

  17. Imaging guided differentiation of parotid tumors; Bildgebende Differenzierung von Parotistumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloth, C.; Horger, M.; Haap, M.; Ioanoviciu, S.D.; Boesmueller, H.

    2015-09-15

    Imaging guided differentiation of parotid tumors is helping diagnosis and therapy decision making. It is necessary to consider seldom tumor forms and their characteristic appearance. Modern techniques as diffusion supported NMR imaging sequences and correlated contrast agent kinetics may be helpful besides computer tomography and PET techniques.

  18. Biomedical nanomaterials for imaging-guided cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuran; He, Sha; Cao, Weipeng; Cai, Kaiyong; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2012-09-01

    To date, even though various kinds of nanomaterials have been evaluated over the years in order to develop effective cancer therapy, there is still significant challenges in the improvement of the capabilities of nano-carriers. Developing a new theranostic nanomedicine platform for imaging-guided, visualized cancer therapy is currently a promising way to enhance therapeutic efficiency and reduce side effects. Firstly, conventional imaging technologies are reviewed with their advantages and disadvantages, respectively. Then, advanced biomedical materials for multimodal imaging are illustrated in detail, including representative examples for various dual-modalities and triple-modalities. Besides conventional cancer treatment (chemotherapy, radiotherapy), current biomaterials are also summarized for novel cancer therapy based on hyperthermia, photothermal, photodynamic effects, and clinical imaging-guided surgery. In conclusion, biomedical materials for imaging-guided therapy are becoming one of the mainstream treatments for cancer in the future. It is hoped that this review might provide new impetus to understand nanotechnology and nanomaterials employed for imaging-guided cancer therapy.

  19. Image-guided endoscopic transnasal removal of recurrent pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasio, Giovanni; Ferroli, Paolo; Felisati, Giovanni; Broggi, Giovanni

    2002-07-01

    To assess the role that neuronavigation plays in assisting endoscopic transsphenoidal reoperations for recurrent pituitary adenomas. During a 45-month period, 19 endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal reoperations were performed for recurrent pituitary adenomas. In 11 of 19 patients, the procedure was performed with the aid of an optically guided system. Clinical records were reviewed retrospectively, with attention to the following: comparison of baseline clinical data, the duration of surgery, and the postoperative course and complications of both image-guided and non-image-guided endoscopic reoperations. In addition, to test the reliability of the neuronavigation system, we made measurements of intraoperative accuracy in five additional transnasal endoscopic procedures in "virgin" noses and sphenoidal sinuses. In both groups studied, we found no difference with regard to either morbidity or mortality, which were null. The mean setup time was 13 minutes shorter in non-image-guided procedures (P = 0.021), and the operative time was 36 minutes shorter in image-guided procedures (P = 0.038). No other statistically significant differences were found between the two groups. In all cases, we found that the system performed without malfunction. Continuous information regarding instrument location and trajectory was provided to the surgeon. Measurements of the intraoperative accuracy in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes indicated a mean intraoperatively verified system error of 1.6 +/- 0.6 mm. Neuronavigation can be applied during endonasal transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery and requires a minimal amount of time. It makes reoperation easier, faster, and probably safer.

  20. Challenges and opportunities in image guided particle therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, M; Baroni, G

    2015-01-01

    The application of biomedical imaging and image processing to radiation therapy with accelerated particles has unique challenges. The potential of particle therapy to precisely tailor the dose distribution around the target volume needs to account for the intrinsic sensitivity to uncertainties in dose deposition. These peculiar features motivate the use of image guided methods to consistently verify the accuracy in dose delivery. Dedicated imaging and image processing methods are required, from treatment planning to treatment verification phases, in order to reduce the effects of uncertainties. The scenario is also complicated by the lack of standardized layouts of treatment bunkers, which implies the relatively increased use of custom solutions. Conversely, imaging can be applied to verify the actual delivered dose, representing a valuable opportunity to validate specific protocols and visualize the efficacy of the intended treatment. In this contribution, challenges and opportunities in image guided particle therapy are overviewed, with a clear focus on research perspectives in biomedical imaging and image processing.

  1. Multifunctional ultrasound contrast agents for imaging guided photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Caixin; Jin, Yushen; Dai, Zhifei

    2014-05-21

    Among all the imaging techniques, ultrasound imaging has a unique advantage due to its features of real-time, low cost, high safety, and portability. Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have been widely used to enhance ultrasonic signals. One of the most exciting features of UCAs for use in biomedicine is the possibility of easily putting new combinations of functional molecules into microbubbles (MBs), which are the most routinely used UCAs. Various therapeutic agents and medical nanoparticles (quantum dots, gold, Fe3O4, etc.) can be loaded into ultrasound-responsive MBs. Hence, UCAs can be developed as multifunctional agents that integrate capabilities for early detection and diagnosis and for imaging guided therapy of various diseases. The current review will focus on such state-of-the-art UCA platforms that have been exploited for multimodal imaging and for imaging guided photothermal therapy.

  2. IMAGE-GUIDED RADIOTHERAPY AND -BRACHYTHERAPY FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh eDutta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional radiotherapy for cervical cancer relies on clinical examination, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT, and 2-dimensional intracavitary brachytherapy.Excellent local control and survival have been obtained for small early stage cervical cancer with definitive radiotherapy. For bulky and locally advanced disease, the addition of chemotherapy has improved the prognosis but toxicity remains significant. New imaging technology such as positron emission tomography (PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has improved tumor delineation for radiotherapy planning. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT may decrease treatment toxicity of whole pelvic radiation because of its potential for bone marrow, bowel, and bladder sparring. Tumor shrinkage during whole pelvic IGRT may optimize image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT, allowing for better local control and reduced toxicity for patients with cervical cancer. IGRT and IGBT should be integrated in future prospective studies for cervical cancer.

  3. Assessing image-guided implant surgery in today's clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, Frederic J; Ganeles, Jeffrey; Zfaz, Samuel; Modares, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    As implant dentistry has progressed, greater emphasis has been placed on natural-looking tooth replacement, minimally invasive techniques, and better cost efficiencies, with implant positioning being guided by the desired prosthetic outcome. Image-guided surgery is a technique that merges preoperative diagnostic imaging with computer-based planning tools to facilitate surgical and restorative plans and procedures. This article discusses the intricacies of guided implant surgery, including 3-dimensional presurgical planning and the challenges of maintaining guide stability during surgical execution.

  4. Image Guided Biodistribution of Drugs and Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Hong; Wu, Fang

    2012-01-01

    Image guided technique is playing an increasingly important role in the investigation of the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of drugs or drug delivery systems. The application of these new materials and techniques with combined properties of diagnosis and therapy can benefit the development of targeted drug delivery system and modern personalized medicine This special issue provides an up-to-date collection of original research articles and review on the development of novel targeted dru...

  5. Image-guided drainage of cystic vestibular schwannomata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Chris; Prasad, K S Manjunath; Hill, John; Johnson, Ian; Heaton, Judith M; Crossman, John E; Mendelow, Alexander D

    2010-01-01

    The management of vestibular schwannomata is controversial. Surveillance remains an acceptable option for elderly patients or those with small lesions. Stereoradiosurgery is also an option, while surgery is often preferred in younger patients with larger lesions. In elderly patients with lesions causing brainstem compression, craniotomy is a major undertaking. We report two cases of cystic cerebellopontine angle tumours in patients with co-morbidity, who were managed successfully with image-guided insertion of a cystoperitoneal shunt.

  6. SU-E-J-191: Motion Prediction Using Extreme Learning Machine in Image Guided Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, J; Cao, R; Pei, X; Wang, H; Hu, L [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Engineering Technology Research Center of Accurate Radiotherapy of Anhui Province, Hefei 230031 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, SuZhou (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Real-time motion tracking is a critical issue in image guided radiotherapy due to the time latency caused by image processing and system response. It is of great necessity to fast and accurately predict the future position of the respiratory motion and the tumor location. Methods: The prediction of respiratory position was done based on the positioning and tracking module in ARTS-IGRT system which was developed by FDS Team (www.fds.org.cn). An approach involving with the extreme learning machine (ELM) was adopted to predict the future respiratory position as well as the tumor’s location by training the past trajectories. For the training process, a feed-forward neural network with one single hidden layer was used for the learning. First, the number of hidden nodes was figured out for the single layered feed forward network (SLFN). Then the input weights and hidden layer biases of the SLFN were randomly assigned to calculate the hidden neuron output matrix. Finally, the predicted movement were obtained by applying the output weights and compared with the actual movement. Breathing movement acquired from the external infrared markers was used to test the prediction accuracy. And the implanted marker movement for the prostate cancer was used to test the implementation of the tumor motion prediction. Results: The accuracy of the predicted motion and the actual motion was tested. Five volunteers with different breathing patterns were tested. The average prediction time was 0.281s. And the standard deviation of prediction accuracy was 0.002 for the respiratory motion and 0.001 for the tumor motion. Conclusion: The extreme learning machine method can provide an accurate and fast prediction of the respiratory motion and the tumor location and therefore can meet the requirements of real-time tumor-tracking in image guided radiotherapy.

  7. Image-guided radiation therapy. Paradigm change in radiation therapy; Bildgestuetzte Strahlentherapie. Paradigmenwechsel in der Strahlentherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenz, F. [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim der Universitaet Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Mannheim (Germany); Belka, C. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Muenchen (Germany); Reiser, M. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Schoenberg, S.O. [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Mannheim (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The introduction of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) has changed the workflow in radiation oncology more dramatically than any other innovation in the last decades. Imaging for treatment planning before the initiation of the radiotherapy series does not take alterations in patient anatomy and organ movement into account. The principle of IGRT is the temporal and spatial connection of imaging in the treatment position immediately before radiation treatment. The actual position and the target position are compared using cone-beam computed tomography (CT) or stereotactic ultrasound. The IGRT procedure allows a reduction of the safety margins and dose to normal tissue without an increase in risk of local recurrence. In the future the linear treatment chain in radiation oncology will be developed based on the closed-loop feedback principle. The IGRT procedure is increasingly being used especially for high precision radiotherapy, e.g. for prostate or brain tumors. (orig.) [German] Die Einfuehrung der bildgestuetzten Radiotherapie (IGRT - ''image-guided radiotherapy'') hat wie kaum eine andere Innovation die Behandlungsablaeufe in der Radioonkologie veraendert. Eine einmalige Bildgebung zur Bestrahlungsplanung vor der Behandlungsserie beruecksichtigt nicht die Aenderung der Patientengeometrie und die Organbeweglichkeit. Das Prinzip der IGRT besteht in der raeumlichen und zeitlichen Zusammenfuehrung von Bildgebung in der Bestrahlungsposition unmittelbar vor der eigentlichen Bestrahlung. Mittels Cone-beam-CT oder stereotaktischem Ultraschall wird die Ist- mit der Sollposition verglichen. Die IGRT erlaubt die Reduktion der Sicherheitssaeume und damit die Schonung des Normalgewebes, ohne das Rezidivrisiko zu erhoehen. Zukuenftig wird die lineare Behandlungskette in der Radioonkologie durch eine geschlossene, multipel rueckgekoppelte Therapieschleife ersetzt werden. Speziell bei Praezisionsbestrahlungen wie z. B. Prostata- oder Hirntumoren kommt die IGRT

  8. Image-guided resection of cerebral cavernous malformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛颖; 周良辅; 杜固宏; 陈亮

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate retrospectively the effectiveness of image-guided navigation techniques in the management of cerebral CMs.Methods Between July 1997 and January 2001, 44 patients underwent image-guided resection of cerebral CMs. To counteract brain shift, a small silicon catheter was implanted as a guide in the case of deep-seated lesions (except in the case of brain stem CMs) and before excision of multiple lesions. Results A total of 27 men and 17 women with a mean age of 35 years underwent surgical procedures (5 patients had multiple lesions). The lesions were located in the frontal (n=14), lobe temporal lobe (n=12), parietal lobe (n=6), cerebellum (n=6), thalamus (n=5), pons (n=5), and orbital region (n=1). Under the guidance of a StealthStation navigator, total removal of the lesions was achieved in all patients. Follow-up revealed marked improvement of preoperative symptoms in 26 patients and no additional deficits in 13 patients. Five patients suffered from additional neurological deficits, but two of them gradually improved during the follow-up period. Conclusions With the assistance of an image-guided surgical system, functional areas can be effectively avoided and surgical injury can be decreased. This system is well suited for accurate localization and safe resection of small, deep-seated CMs.

  9. Recent advances in different modal imaging-guided photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiwen; Wen, Jia; Li, Hongjuan; Xu, Yongqian; Liu, Fengyu; Sun, Shiguo

    2016-11-01

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) has recently attracted considerable attention owing to its controllable treatment process, high tumour eradication efficiency and minimal side effects on non-cancer cells. PTT can melt cancerous cells by localising tissue hyperthermia induced by internalised therapeutic agents with a high photothermal conversion efficiency under external laser irradiation. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the significant potential of PTT to treat tumours in future practical applications. Unfortunately, the lack of visualisation towards agent delivery and internalisation, as well as imaging-guided comprehensive evaluation of therapeutic outcome, limits its further application. Developments in combined photothermal therapeutic nanoplatforms guided by different imaging modalities have compensated for the major drawback of PTT alone, proving PTT to be a promising technique in biomedical applications. In this review, we introduce recent developments in different imaging modalities including single-modal, dual-modal, triple-modal and even multi-modal imaging-guided PTT, together with imaging-guided multi-functional theranostic nanoplatforms.

  10. A finite state model for respiratory motion analysis in image guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Huanmei [College of Computer and Information Science, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Sharp, Gregory C [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Salzberg, Betty [College of Computer and Information Science, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kaeli, David [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Shirato, Hiroki [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Jiang, Steve B [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2004-12-07

    Effective image guided radiation treatment of a moving tumour requires adequate information on respiratory motion characteristics. For margin expansion, beam tracking and respiratory gating, the tumour motion must be quantified for pretreatment planning and monitored on-line. We propose a finite state model for respiratory motion analysis that captures our natural understanding of breathing stages. In this model, a regular breathing cycle is represented by three line segments, exhale, end-of-exhale and inhale, while abnormal breathing is represented by an irregular breathing state. In addition, we describe an on-line implementation of this model in one dimension. We found this model can accurately characterize a wide variety of patient breathing patterns. This model was used to describe the respiratory motion for 23 patients with peak-to-peak motion greater than 7 mm. The average root mean square error over all patients was less than 1 mm and no patient has an error worse than 1.5 mm. Our model provides a convenient tool to quantify respiratory motion characteristics, such as patterns of frequency changes and amplitude changes, and can be applied to internal or external motion, including internal tumour position, abdominal surface, diaphragm, spirometry and other surrogates.

  11. [Image-guided stereotaxic biopsy of central nervous system lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, J A; Confort, C I; Ferraz, A; Esperança, J C; Duarte, F

    1998-06-01

    In a series of 44 image guided stereotactic biopsy from August 1995 until March 1997, findings were as follows (frequency order). Tumors, glioblastoma was the most frequent. Primary lymphoma and other conditions associated to AIDS. Metastasis, three cases, Vasculites, two cases, Arachnoid cyst, Creutzfeldt-Jakob, cortical degeneration, inespecific calcification (one case each). The age varied from 1 to 83 years. Forty one lesions were supratentorial, two infratentorial, and one was outside the brain (dura and skull) and we used stereotaxy to localize it. There was no mortality and morbidity was 2.3%. The literature is reviewed. We conclude that this procedure is safe and highly diagnostic.

  12. Image-guided breast biopsy: state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Flynn, E.A.M., E-mail: lizoflynn@doctors.org.u [South East London Breast Screening Programme and National Breast Screening Training Centre, Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Wilson, A.R.M.; Michell, M.J. [South East London Breast Screening Programme and National Breast Screening Training Centre, Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Percutaneous image-guided breast biopsy is widely practised to evaluate predominantly non-palpable breast lesions. There has been steady development in percutaneous biopsy techniques. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was the original method of sampling, followed in the early 1990s by large core needle biopsy. The accuracy of both has been improved by ultrasound and stereotactic guidance. Larger bore vacuum-assisted biopsy devices became available in the late 1990s and are now commonplace in most breast units. We review the different types of breast biopsy devices currently available together with various localization techniques used, focusing on their advantages, limitations and current controversial clinical management issues.

  13. An ultrasound image-guided surgical workflow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bing; Lemke, Heinz; Liu, Brent; Huang, H. K.; Grant, Edward G.

    2006-03-01

    A 2003 report in the Journal of Annual Surgery predicted an increase in demand for surgical services to be as high as 14 to 47% in the workload of all surgical fields by 2020. Medical difficulties which are already now apparent in the surgical OR (Operation Room) will be amplified in the near future and it is necessary to address this problem and develop strategies to handle the workload. Workflow issues are central to the efficiency of the OR and in response to today's continuing workforce shortages and escalating costs. Among them include: Inefficient and redundant processes, System Inflexibility, Ergonomic deficiencies, Scattered Data, Lack of Guidelines, Standards, and Organization. The objective of this research is to validate the hypothesis that a workflow model does improve the efficiency and quality of surgical procedure. We chose to study the image-guided surgical workflow for US as a first proof of concept by minimizing the OR workflow issues. We developed, and implemented deformable workflow models using existing and projected future clinical environment data as well as a customized ICT system with seamless integration and real-time availability. An ultrasound (US) image-guided surgical workflow (IG SWF) for a specific surgical procedure, the US IG Liver Biopsy, was researched to find out the inefficient and redundant processes, scattered data in clinical systems, and improve the overall quality of surgical procedures to the patient.

  14. Image-guided plasma therapy of cutaneous wound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwu; Ren, Wenqi; Yu, Zelin; Zhang, Shiwu; Yue, Ting; Xu, Ronald

    2014-02-01

    The wound healing process involves the reparative phases of inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Interrupting any of these phases may result in chronically unhealed wounds, amputation, or even patient death. Despite the clinical significance in chronic wound management, no effective methods have been developed for quantitative image-guided treatment. We integrated a multimodal imaging system with a cold atmospheric plasma probe for image-guided treatment of chronic wound. Multimodal imaging system offers a non-invasive, painless, simultaneous and quantitative assessment of cutaneous wound healing. Cold atmospheric plasma accelerates the wound healing process through many mechanisms including decontamination, coagulation and stimulation of the wound healing. The therapeutic effect of cold atmospheric plasma is studied in vivo under the guidance of a multimodal imaging system. Cutaneous wounds are created on the dorsal skin of the nude mice. During the healing process, the sample wound is treated by cold atmospheric plasma at different controlled dosage, while the control wound is healed naturally. The multimodal imaging system integrating a multispectral imaging module and a laser speckle imaging module is used to collect the information of cutaneous tissue oxygenation (i.e. oxygen saturation, StO2) and blood perfusion simultaneously to assess and guide the plasma therapy. Our preliminary tests show that cold atmospheric plasma in combination with multimodal imaging guidance has the potential to facilitate the healing of chronic wounds.

  15. Fluorescence and image guided resection in high grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciani, Pier Paolo; Fontanella, Marco; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Garbossa, Diego; Agnoletti, Alessandro; Ducati, Alessandro; Lanotte, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The extent of resection in high grade glioma is increasingly been shown to positively effect survival. Nevertheless, heterogeneity and migratory behavior of glioma cells make gross total resection very challenging. Several techniques were used in order to improve the detection of residual tumor. Aim of this study was to analyze advantages and limitations of fluorescence and image guided resection. A multicentric prospective study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of each method. Furthermore, the role of 5-aminolevulinc acid and neuronavigation were reviewed. Twenty-three patients harboring suspected high grade glioma, amenable to complete resection, were enrolled. Fluorescence and image guides were used to perform surgery. Multiple samples were obtained from the resection cavity of each lesion according to 5-ALA staining positivity and boundaries as delineated by neuronavigation. All samples were analyzed by a pathologist blinded to the intra-operative labeling. Decision-making based on fluorescence showed a sensitivity of 91.1% and a specificity of 89.4% (pimage-guided resection accuracy was low (sensitivity: 57.8%; specificity: 57.4%; p=0.346). We observed that the sensitivity of 5-ALA can be improved by the combined use of neuronavigation, but this leads to a significant reduction in specificity. Thus, the use of auxiliary techniques should always be subject to critical skills of the surgeon. We advocate a large-scale study to further improve the assessment of multimodal approaches.

  16. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Prostate Prostate Enlargement (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) Prostatitis: Inflammation of the Prostate What is prostatitis? Prostatitis is a frequently painful condition that involves inflammation of the prostate and sometimes the areas around ...

  17. Image-guided neurosurgery--state of the art and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samii, M; Brinker, T; Samii, A

    1999-09-03

    The surgical possibilities of image guided neurosurgery are presented and critically reviewed. Image guided neurosurgery may enable neurosurgeons to work more precisely than before, and thus reduce mortality and morbidity. However, before the technology achieves widespread acceptance, technical standards must be developed, the intraoperative localisation technology improved, and clinical indications and the cost/benefit ratio clarified. Nevertheless, image guided neurosurgery appears to herald an exciting future in which virtual reality and robotic surgery will emerge as modern techniques.

  18. Development of Technology for Image-Guided Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Hypofractionation for Intermediate-Risk Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate Nine more are planned. We hope that because our trials will esse ntially be using the...Adenocarcinoma of the  Prostate    iii) A Feasibility Trial of Proton Radiation Therapy or Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Using Mild  Hypofractionation

  19. Prostate; Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouviere, O.; Valette, O.; Grivolat, S.; Colin-Pangaud, C.; Bouvier, R.; Chapelon, J.Y.; Gelet, A.; Lyonnet, D.; Rouviere, O.; Mege-Lechevallier, F.; Chapelon, J.Y.; Gelet, A.; Bouvier, R.; Boutitie, F.; Lyonnet, D. [69 - Lyon (France)

    2005-10-15

    Two methods to detect recurrence of prostate cancer are presented. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging after radiotherapy and color doppler after high intensity focused ultrasounds (but with patients that have not received a hormones therapy). These two methods presents an useful contribution. (N.C.)

  20. Image-guided ablation therapy of bone tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Tarun; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Buy, Xavier; Gangi, Afshin

    2009-04-01

    A wide range of thermal and cryoablation methods is currently available for the curative eradication or palliative treatment of a variety of bone and soft-tissue tumors. Radiofrequency ablation has been developed as a multipurpose tool for the skeletal system. Cryoablation has the added advantages of direct computed tomography or magnetic resonance visualization and monitoring of treatment outcome with less peri- and postoperative pain. Use of appropriate thermo-sensors and insulation techniques, like carbon dioxide insufflation, results in enhanced safety and efficacy. Ablation of weight-bearing bones has to be supplemented with cement consolidation. The authors present an overview of the current status of percutaneous image-guided ablation therapy of bone and soft-tissue tumors, analyze the merits and limitations of the various systems available, and discuss possible new applications for the future.

  1. 3D ultrasound imaging in image-guided intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, Aaron; Bax, Jeff; Neshat, Hamid; Cool, Derek; Kakani, Nirmal; Romagnoli, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is used extensively in diagnosis and image-guidance for interventions of human diseases. However, conventional 2D ultrasound suffers from limitations since it can only provide 2D images of 3-dimensional structures in the body. Thus, measurement of organ size is variable, and guidance of interventions is limited, as the physician is required to mentally reconstruct the 3-dimensional anatomy using 2D views. Over the past 20 years, a number of 3-dimensional ultrasound imaging approaches have been developed. We have developed an approach that is based on a mechanical mechanism to move any conventional ultrasound transducer while 2D images are collected rapidly and reconstructed into a 3D image. In this presentation, 3D ultrasound imaging approaches will be described for use in image-guided interventions.

  2. [Image-guided endoscopic transsphenoidal removal of pituitary adenoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qui-Hang; Liu, Hai-Sheng; Yang, Da-Zhang; Cheng, Jing-Yu

    2005-01-01

    To assess the role of neuronavigation in assisting endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas. Ten endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal reoperations for pituitary adenomas were selected. Clinical records were reviewed retrospectively. Five of 10 patients had gigantic adenoma, 3 microadenoma, 2 large adenoma. The mean setup time was 5 minutes, and the operative time was 50 minutes in image-guided procedures. In all cases, the system worked well without malfunction. Continuous information regarding instrument location and trajectory was provided to the surgeon. Measurements of intraoperative accuracy in the axial, coronal, and.sagittal planes indicated a mean verified system error of 1.5 mm. for pituitary adenomas. After operation, the symptoms relieved in all patients. Neuronavigation can be applied during endonasal transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery and requires a minimal amount of time. It makes reoperation easier, faster, and safer.

  3. Fast-MICP for frameless image-guided surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jiann-Der; Huang, Chung-Hsien; Wang, Sheng-Ta; Lin, Chung-Wei; Lee, Shin-Tseng [Department of Electrical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Mechatronics, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurosurgery and Medical Augmented Reality Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, No. 199, Tunghwa Rd., Taipei 105, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: In image-guided surgery (IGS) systems, image-to-physical registration is critical for reliable anatomical information mapping and spatial guidance. Conventional stereotactic frame-based or fiducial-based approaches provide accurate registration but are not patient-friendly. This study proposes a frameless cranial IGS system that uses computer vision techniques to replace the frame or fiducials with the natural features of the patient. Methods: To perform a cranial surgery with the proposed system, the facial surface of the patient is first reconstructed by stereo vision. Accuracy is ensured by capturing parallel-line patterns projected from a calibrated LCD projector. Meanwhile, another facial surface is reconstructed from preoperative computed tomography (CT) images of the patient. The proposed iterative closest point (ICP)-based algorithm [fast marker-added ICP (Fast-MICP)] is then used to register the two facial data sets, which transfers the anatomical information from the CT images to the physical space. Results: Experimental results reveal that the Fast-MICP algorithm reduces the computational cost of marker-added ICP (J.-D. Lee et al., ''A coarse-to-fine surface registration algorithm for frameless brain surgery,'' in Proceedings of International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2007, pp. 836-839) to 10% and achieves comparable registration accuracy, which is under 3 mm target registration error (TRE). Moreover, two types of optical-based spatial digitizing devices can be integrated for further surgical navigation. Anatomical information or image-guided surgical landmarks can be projected onto the patient to obtain an immersive augmented reality environment. Conclusion: The proposed frameless IGS system with stereo vision obtains TRE of less than 3 mm. The proposed Fast-MICP registration algorithm reduces registration time by 90% without compromising accuracy.

  4. Multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance image-guided photothermal therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiu-Li; Ma, Fang; Dai, Zhi-Fei

    2014-04-01

    Key advances in multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for magnetic resonance (MR) image-guided photothermal therapy of cancer are reviewed. We briefly outline the design and fabrication of such multifunctional MNPs. Bimodal image-guided photothermal therapies (MR/fluorescence and MR/ultrasound) are also discussed.

  5. Toxicity after post-prostatectomy image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy using Australian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Stephen; Aherne, Noel J; Last, Andrew; Assareh, Hassan; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2017-06-17

    We evaluated single institution toxicity outcomes after post-prostatectomy radiotherapy (PPRT) via image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) with implanted fiducial markers following national eviQ guidelines, for which late toxicity outcomes have not been published. Prospectively collected toxicity data were retrospectively reviewed for 293 men who underwent 64-66 Gy IG-IMRT to the prostate bed between 2007 and 2015. Median follow-up after PPRT was 39 months. Baseline grade ≥2 genitourinary (GU), gastrointestinal (GI) and sexual toxicities were 20.5%, 2.7% and 43.7%, respectively, reflecting ongoing toxicity after radical prostatectomy. Incidence of new (compared to baseline) acute grade ≥2 GU and GI toxicity was 5.8% and 10.6%, respectively. New late grade ≥2 GU, GI and sexual toxicity occurred in 19.1%, 4.7% and 20.2%, respectively. However, many patients also experienced improvements in toxicities. For this reason, prevalence of grade ≥2 GU, GI and sexual toxicities 4 years after PPRT was similar to or lower than baseline (21.7%, 2.6% and 17.4%, respectively). There were no grade ≥4 toxicities. Post-prostatectomy IG-IMRT using Australian contouring guidelines appears to have tolerable acute and late toxicity. The 4-year prevalence of grade ≥2 GU and GI toxicity was virtually unchanged compared to baseline, and sexual toxicity improved over baseline. This should reassure radiation oncologists following these guidelines. Late toxicity rates of surgery and PPRT are higher than following definitive IG-IMRT, and this should be taken into account if patients are considering surgery and likely to require PPRT. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  6. Deep architecture neural network-based real-time image processing for image-guided radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shinichiro

    2017-08-01

    To develop real-time image processing for image-guided radiotherapy, we evaluated several neural network models for use with different imaging modalities, including X-ray fluoroscopic image denoising. Setup images of prostate cancer patients were acquired with two oblique X-ray fluoroscopic units. Two types of residual network were designed: a convolutional autoencoder (rCAE) and a convolutional neural network (rCNN). We changed the convolutional kernel size and number of convolutional layers for both networks, and the number of pooling and upsampling layers for rCAE. The ground-truth image was applied to the contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) method of image processing. Network models were trained to keep the quality of the output image close to that of the ground-truth image from the input image without image processing. For image denoising evaluation, noisy input images were used for the training. More than 6 convolutional layers with convolutional kernels >5×5 improved image quality. However, this did not allow real-time imaging. After applying a pair of pooling and upsampling layers to both networks, rCAEs with >3 convolutions each and rCNNs with >12 convolutions with a pair of pooling and upsampling layers achieved real-time processing at 30 frames per second (fps) with acceptable image quality. Use of our suggested network achieved real-time image processing for contrast enhancement and image denoising by the use of a conventional modern personal computer. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluoroscopic image-guided intervention system for transbronchial localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Lav; Keast, Thomas M.; Wibowo, Henky; Yu, Kun-Chang; Draper, Jeffrey W.; Gibbs, Jason D.

    2012-02-01

    Reliable transbronchial access of peripheral lung lesions is desirable for the diagnosis and potential treatment of lung cancer. This procedure can be difficult, however, because accessory devices (e.g., needle or forceps) cannot be reliably localized while deployed. We present a fluoroscopic image-guided intervention (IGI) system for tracking such bronchoscopic accessories. Fluoroscopy, an imaging technology currently utilized by many bronchoscopists, has a fundamental shortcoming - many lung lesions are invisible in its images. Our IGI system aligns a digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) defined from a pre-operative computed tomography (CT) scan with live fluoroscopic images. Radiopaque accessory devices are readily apparent in fluoroscopic video, while lesions lacking a fluoroscopic signature but identifiable in the CT scan are superimposed in the scene. The IGI system processing steps consist of: (1) calibrating the fluoroscopic imaging system; (2) registering the CT anatomy with its depiction in the fluoroscopic scene; (3) optical tracking to continually update the DRR and target positions as the fluoroscope is moved about the patient. The end result is a continuous correlation of the DRR and projected targets with the anatomy depicted in the live fluoroscopic video feed. Because both targets and bronchoscopic devices are readily apparent in arbitrary fluoroscopic orientations, multiplane guidance is straightforward. The system tracks in real-time with no computational lag. We have measured a mean projected tracking accuracy of 1.0 mm in a phantom and present results from an in vivo animal study.

  8. Image-guided interventional therapy for cancer with radiotherapeutic nanoparticles✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, William T.; Bao, Ande; Brenner, Andrew J.; Goins, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    One of the major limitations of current cancer therapy is the inability to deliver tumoricidal agents throughout the entire tumor mass using traditional intravenous administration. Nanoparticles carrying beta-emitting therapeutic radionuclides that are delivered using advanced image-guidance have significant potential to improve solid tumor therapy. The use of image-guidance in combination with nanoparticle carriers can improve the delivery of localized radiation to tumors. Nanoparticles labeled with certain beta-emitting radionuclides are intrinsically theranostic agents that can provide information regarding distribution and regional dosimetry within the tumor and the body. Image-guided thermal therapy results in increased uptake of intravenous nanoparticles within tumors, improving therapy. In addition, nanoparticles are ideal carriers for direct intratumoral infusion of beta-emitting radionuclides by convection enhanced delivery, permitting the delivery of localized therapeutic radiation without the requirement of the radionuclide exiting from the nanoparticle. With this approach, very high doses of radiation can be delivered to solid tumors while sparing normal organs. Recent technological developments in image-guidance, convection enhanced delivery and newly developed nanoparticles carrying beta-emitting radionuclides will be reviewed. Examples will be shown describing how this new approach has promise for the treatment of brain, head and neck, and other types of solid tumors. PMID:25016083

  9. Image-guided conservative management of right colonic diverticulitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jin Park; Sung Il Choi; Suk Hwan Lee; Kil Yeon Lee

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the clinical outcomes of medical therapy in patients with right colonic diverticulitis. METHODS: The records of 189 patients with right colonic diverticulitis which was finally diagnosed by computed tomography, ultrasonography, or operative findings were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Of the 189 patients hospitalized for right colonic diverticulitis, the stages of diverticulitis by a modified Hinchey classification were 26 patients (13.8%) in stage 0, 139 patients (73.5%) in stage Ⅰ a, 23 patients (12.2%) in stage Ⅰb, and 1 patient (0.5%) in stage Ⅲ. Medical therapy was undertaken in 185 of 189 patients (97.9%). One hundred and eighty three of 185 patients were successfully treated with bowel rest and antibiotics. Two patients in stage Ⅰb required a resection or surgical drainage because of an inadequate response to conservative treatment. Recurrent diverticulitis developed in 15 of 183 patients (8.2%) who responded to medicaltherapy. All 15 patients who suffered a second attack had uncomplicated diverticulitis, and were successfully treated with medical therapy. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that right colonic diverticulitis is essentially benign and image-guided conservative treatment is primarily required.

  10. Photoacoustic image-guided navigation system for surgery (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sara; Jang, Jongseong; Kim, Jeesu; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Chulhong

    2017-03-01

    Identifying and delineating invisible anatomical and pathological details during surgery guides surgical procedures in real time. Various intraoperative imaging modalities have been increasingly employed to minimize such surgical risks as anatomical changes, damage to normal tissues, and human error. However, current methods provide only structural information, which cannot identify critical structures such as blood vessels. The logical next step is an intraoperative imaging modality that can provide functional information. Here, we have successfully developed a photoacoustic (PA) image-guided navigation system for surgery by integrating a position tracking system and a real-time clinical photoacoustic/ultrasound (PA/US) imaging system. PA/US images were acquired in real time and overlaid on pre-acquired cross-sectional magnetic resonance (MR) images. In the overlaid images, PA images represent the optical absorption characteristics of the surgical field, while US and MR images represent the morphological structure of surrounding tissues. To test the feasibility of the system, we prepared a tissue mimicking phantom which contained two samples, methylene blue as a contrast agent and water as a control. We acquired real-time overlaid PA/US/MR images of the phantom, which were well-matched with the optical and morphological properties of the samples. The developed system is the first approach to a novel intraoperative imaging technology based on PA imaging, and we believe that the system can be utilized in various surgical environments in the near future, improving the efficacy of surgical guidance.

  11. Frameless image-guided radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Lisa B. E.; Shanks, Todd S.; Shearer, Andrew J.; Shelton, Lauren A.; Shelton, Brent J.; Howe, Jonathan; Coons, James M.; Plato, Brian; Spalding, Aaron C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Frameless image-guided radiosurgery (IGRS) is a safe and effective noninvasive treatment for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). This study evaluates the use of frameless IGRS to treat patients with refractory TN. Methods: We reviewed the records of 20 patients diagnosed with TN who underwent frameless IGRS treatments between March 2012 and December 2013. Facial pain was graded using the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) scoring system. The initial setup uncertainty from simulation to treatment and the patient intrafraction uncertainty were measured. The median follow-up was 32 months. Results: All patients’ pain was BNI Grade IV or V before the frameless IGRS treatment. The mean intrafraction shift was 0.43 mm (0.28–0.76 mm), and the maximum intrafraction shift was 0.95 mm (0.53–1.99 mm). At last follow-up, 8 (40%) patients no longer required medications (BNI 1 or 2), 11 (55%) patients were pain free but required medication (BNI 3), and 1 (5%) patient had no pain relief (BNI 5). Patients who did not have prior surgery had a higher odds ratio for pain relief compared to patients who had prior surgery (14.9, P = 0.0408). Conclusions: Frameless IGRS provides comparable dosimetric and clinical outcomes to frame-based SRS in a noninvasive fashion for patients with medically refractory TN. PMID:28607821

  12. Image guided placement of temporary anchorage devices for tooth movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl-Palomo, L.; Bissada, N. [Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Dental Medicine, Dept. of Periodontics, Cleveland, OH (United States); Palomo, J.M.; Hans, M.G. [Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Dental Medicine, Dept. of Orthodontics, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this project is to develop an image guided protocol for placement of a temporary anchorage device without surgically reflecting a mucoperiosteal flap. Eighteen orthodontic cases were selected for skeletal anchorage from the department of orthodontics at Case University. CBCT images of the subjects were taken using the Hitachi CB MercuRay system set at 15 mA, 120 kVp. CBCT images evaluated the ideal location for TAD placement in three dimensions. Horizontal and vertical linear measurements were taken from fixed dental landmarks to clearly define the location for placement. Transverse slices were used to evaluate the thickness of the buccal plate. Using the transverse view, the angle of insertion was determined such that the maximum buccal plate surface area would contact the screw. TADs were placed in the optimum location, with the most appropriate angle of insertion using a closed approach and with minimal local anesthesia and without flap elevation. Results: All TADs were placed without anatomic encroachment and enabled fixed orthodontic anchorage. (orig.)

  13. Flat-panel cone-beam CT on a mobile isocentric C-arm for image-guided brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffray, David A.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Edmundson, Gregory K.; Wong, John W.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    2002-05-01

    Flat-panel imager (FPI) based cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a strong candidate technology for intraoperative imaging in image-guided procedures such as brachytherapy. The soft-tissue imaging performance and potential navigational utility have been investigated using a computer-controlled benchtop system. These early results have driven the development of an isocentric C-arm for intraoperative FPI-CBCT, capable of collecting 94 projections over 180 degrees in 110 seconds. The C-arm system employs a large-area FPI with 400 micron pixel pitch and Gd2O2S:Tb scintillator. Image acquisition, processing and reconstruction are orchestrated under a single Windows-based application. Reconstruction is performed by a modified Feldkamp algorithm implemented on a high-speed reconstruction engine. Non-idealities in the source and detector trajectories during orbital motion has been quantified and tested for stability. Cone-beam CT imaging performance was tested through both quantitative and qualitative methods. The system MTF was measured using a wire phantom and demonstrated frequency pass out to 0.6 mm-1. Voxel noise was measured at 2.7 percent in a uniform 12 cm diameter water bath. Anatomical phantoms were employed for qualitative evaluation of the imaging performance. Images of an anaesthetized rabbit demonstrated the capacity of the system to discern soft-tissue structures within a living subject while offering sub-millimeter spatial resolution. The dose delivered in each of the imaging procedures was estimated from in-air exposure measurements to be approximately 0.1 cGy. Imaging studies of an anthropomorphic prostate phantom were performed with and without radioactive seeds. Soft-tissue imaging performance and seed detection appear to satisfy the imaging and navigation requirements for image-guided brachytherapy. These investigations advance the development and evaluation of such technology for image-guided surgical procedures, including brachytherapy

  14. Frequency of complications in image guided percutaneous nephrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Mubarak; Mehmood, Khalid; Faiq, Syed Muhammed; Ali, Bux; Naqvi, Syed Ali Anwar; Rizvi, Adib-ul-Hasan

    2013-07-01

    To assess the frequency of complications in image-guided percutaneous nephrostomy and to identify common sources of error. The study was carried out at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, between November 2006 and May 2007. Patients of all age groups between 1 and 80 years were included using nonprobability convenience sampling technique. Those suffering from obstructive uropathy due to various causes were diagnosed by imaging modalities like ultrasound, computed tomography scan, conventional X-ray and contrast studies. It also included cases where percutaneous nephrostomy was used to temporarily divert urine in the presence of urinary tract leaks and fistula so that healing may occur. Patients with uncorrectable bleeding diathesis were excluded. Nephrostomies performed for supplementary procedures were also excluded. One-month follow-up was performed by means of direct communications and using various imaging modalities. SPSS 12 was used for statistical analysis. Three hundred patients enrolled in the study. The procedure was successful in all encounters. The complications were categorised as early and late complications. Early complications were sepsis in 6 (2%) patients, retroperitoneal haematoma in 5 (1.6%) patients, bleeding in 2 (0.6%), and urinoma in 1 (0.3%). Late complications included catheter blockage in 15 (5%) patients, and dislodgement of catheter in 7 (2.3%). Total early complications were noted in 14 (4.66%) patients, and there were 22 (7.33%) late complications. Percutaneous nephrostomy is a safe, simple and cost-effective technique with low morbidity and no major life-threatening complications.

  15. A novel multiwavelength fluorescence image-guided surgery imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, D.; Tullis, I. D. C.; Laios, A.; Pathiraja, P. N. J.; Haldar, K.; Ahmed, A. A.; Vojnovic, B.

    2014-02-01

    We describe the development and performance analysis of two clinical near-infrared fluorescence image-guided surgery (FIGS) devices that aim to overcome some of the limitations of current FIGS systems. The devices operate in a widefield-imaging mode and can work (1) in conjunction with a laparoscope, during minimally invasive surgery, and (2) as a hand-held, open surgery imaging system. In both cases, narrow-band excitation light, delivered at multiple wavelengths, is efficiently combined with white reflectance light. Light is delivered to ~100 cm2 surgical field at 1-2 mW/cm2 for white light and 3-7 mW/cm2 (depending on wavelength) of red - near infrared excitation, at a typical working distance of 350 mm for the hand-held device and 100 mm for the laparoscope. A single, sensitive, miniaturized color camera collects both fluorescence and white reflectance light. The use of a single imager eliminates image alignment and software overlay complexity. A novel filtering and illumination arrangement allows simultaneous detection of white reflectance and fluorescence emission from multiple dyes in real-time. We will present both fluorescence detection sensitivity modeling and practical performance data. We have demonstrated the efficiency and the advantages of the devices both pre-clinically and during live surgery on humans. Both the hand-held and the laparoscopic systems have proved to be reliable and beneficial in an ongoing clinical trial involving sentinel lymph node detection in gynecological cancers. We will show preliminary results using two clinically approved dyes, Methylene blue and indocyanine green. We anticipate that this technology can be integrated and routinely used in a larger variety of surgical procedures.

  16. Navigation concepts for magnetic resonance imaging-guided musculoskeletal interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Harald; Kahn, Thomas; Moche, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Image-guided musculoskeletal (MSK) interventions are a widely used alternative to open surgical procedures for various pathological findings in different body regions. They traditionally involve one of the established x-ray imaging techniques (radiography, fluoroscopy, computed tomography) or ultrasound scanning. Over the last decades, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved into one of the most powerful diagnostic tools for nearly the whole body and has therefore been increasingly considered for interventional guidance as well.The strength of MRI for MSK applications is a combination of well-known general advantages, such as multiplanar and functional imaging capabilities, wide choice of tissue contrasts, and absence of ionizing radiation, as well as a number of MSK-specific factors, for example, the excellent depiction of soft-tissue tumors, nonosteolytic bone changes, and bone marrow lesions. On the downside, the magnetic resonance-compatible equipment needed, restricted space in the magnet, longer imaging times, and the more complex workflow have so far limited the number of MSK procedures under MRI guidance.Navigation solutions are generally a natural extension of any interventional imaging system, in particular, because powerful hardware and software for image processing have become routinely available. They help to identify proper access paths, provide accurate feedback on the instrument positions, facilitate the workflow in an MRI environment, and ultimately contribute to procedural safety and success.The purposes of this work were to describe some basic concepts and devices for MRI guidance of MSK procedures and to discuss technical and clinical achievements and challenges for some selected implementations.

  17. Image guided versus palpation guided core needle biopsy of palpable breast masses: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smriti Hari

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in palpable breast masses, image guided biopsy was superior to palpation guided biopsy in terms of sensitivity, false negative rate and repeat biopsy rates.

  18. Endoscopic image-guided thermal therapy using targeted near infrared fluorescent gold nanorods (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, Daniel S.

    2016-09-01

    We present an in vivo study of endoscopic fluorescence image-guided photothermal therapy of human oesophageal adenocarcinoma in a murine xenograft model, using intratumoural or intravenous gold nanorods functionalised with Cy5.5 and EGFR.

  19. Health technology assessment of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT): A systematic review of current evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Arabloo, Jalal; Hamouzadeh, Pejman; Mousavinezhad, Seyedeh Maryam; Mobinizadeh, Mohammadreza; Olyaeemanesh, Alireza; Pooyandjoo, Morvarid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Image-guided radiotherapy used multiple imaging during the radiation therapy course to improve the precision and accuracy of health care provider's treatment. Objectives: This study aims to assess the safety, effectiveness and economic aspects of image-guided radiation therapy for decision-making about this technology in Iran. Methods: In this study, the most important medical databases such as PubMed and Cochrane Library were searched until November 2014. The systematic reviews, ...

  20. Radioterapia guiada por imagen: Impacto clínico Clinical impact of image guided radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Romero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La radioterapia guiada por imagen (RTGI es un concepto que engloba la manera más moderna de administrar el tratamiento radioterápico El objetivo es maximizar la dosis depositada en el volumen a tratar (target, minimizando la dosis en los órganos sanos. Esto no sería posible sin el continuo desarrollo tecnológico y de los software, sobre todo en las siguientes áreas: registrar imágenes deformables, replanificar nuevos tratamientos, imagen en tiempo real y cálculo de dosis acumulada. El impacto clínico es evidente, pero poco se habla del impacto en la reorganización de los servicios de Oncología Radioterápica. La RTGI supone un entrenamiento de todo el equipo involucrado, con un periodo de aprendizaje y puesta en marcha. Con la experiencia adquirida, el tiempo dedicado a cada paciente (en todas las etapas de su tratamiento: simulación, planificación, puesta en marcha, sistemas de verificación de posicionamiento, correcciones on-line, off-line, replanificación, controles clínicos periódicos, es muy superior al que se precisa en la radioterapia convencional, motivo por el que aparecen nuevas responsabilidades y roles.Image guided radiotherapy (IGR is a concept that encompasses the most modern way of administering radiotherapy treatment. The aim is to maximise the dose deposited in the target volume, minimising the dose in healthy organs. This would not be possible without the continuous development of technology and software, above all in the following areas: deformable image registration, replanning new treatments, real time image and calculation of accumulated dose. While the clinical impact is evident, little is said about the impact on the reorganisation of the Radiotherapy Oncology services. IGR supposes training all team members involved, with a training and a starting period. With the experience acquired, the time dedicated to each patient (in all stages of treatment: simulation, planning, starting out, systems for verifying

  1. Correction: Image guided dose escalated prostate radiotherapy: still room to improve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosevic Michael

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We regret to report that a proofreading error caused an incorrect legend and description of the contents of table 6 to appear in our original publication of this work. The correct description of table 6 is: Univariate analysis of prognostic factors for 5-year nadir + 2 biochemical outcome for men presenting with intermediate risk factors.

  2. Photoacoustic and Ultrasonic Image-Guided Needle Biopsy of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    the processes of optical absorption and thermoelastic expansion. These acoustic transmissions, which permit deeper (i.e., cm-order) interrogations...Source Reconstruction methods incorporate the spatial distribution of the absorption and scattering into the expected time dependent photo- acoustic ...techniques. PA imaging uses non-damaging, pulsed laser irradiation to transform chromophores (e.g., hemoglobin) in tissue into acoustic sources through

  3. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    extrafo al spot of an x-ray tube in one-beam omputed tomography, AAPM , Houston, TX,2008. 13 5. E. Pearson, S. Cho, X. Pan, and C. A. Pelizzari, Dose...redu tion in CBCT via intensity-weighted region-of-interest imaging, AAPM , Houston, TX, 2008.6. E. Pearson, S. Cho, X. Pan, and C. A. Pelizzari...Pelizzari, and X. Pan, Exa t image re onstru tion in reverseheli al one-beam CT for radiation therapy, AAPM , Minneapolis, MN, 2007.9. X. Han, S. Cho

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the prostate is enlarged, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any ... size with caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prostate is enlarged, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any ... with caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate ...

  6. Long-term decision regret after post-prostatectomy image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Thomas P; Chin, Stephen; Manuel, Lucy; Wen, Shelly; Hoffman, Matthew; Wilcox, Shea W; Aherne, Noel J

    2017-02-01

    Decision regret (DR) may occur when a patient believes their outcome would have been better if they had decided differently about their management. Although some studies investigate DR after treatment for localised prostate cancer, none report DR in patients undergoing surgery and post-prostatectomy radiotherapy. We evaluated DR in this group of patients overall, and for specific components of therapy. We surveyed 83 patients, with minimum 5 years follow-up, treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) and post-prostatectomy image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) to 64-66 Gy following www.EviQ.org.au protocols. A validated questionnaire identified DR if men either indicated that they would have been better off had they chosen another treatment, or they wished they could change their mind about treatment. There was an 85.5% response rate, with median follow-up post-IMRT 78 months. Adjuvant IG-IMRT was used in 28% of patients, salvage in 72% and ADT in 48%. A total of 70% of patients remained disease-free. Overall, 16.9% of patients expressed DR for treatment, with fourfold more regret for the RP component of treatment compared to radiotherapy (16.9% vs 4.2%, P = 0.01). DR for androgen deprivation was 14.3%. Patients were regretful of surgery due to toxicity, not being adequately informed about radiotherapy as an alternative, positive margins and surgery costs (83%, 33%, 25% and 8% of regretful patients respectively). Toxicity caused DR in the three radiotherapy-regretful and four ADT-regretful patients. Patients were twice as regretful overall, and of surgery, for salvage vs adjuvant approaches (both 19.6% vs 10.0%). Decision regret after RP and post-prostatectomy IG-IMRT is uncommon, although patients regret RP more than post-operative IG-IMRT. This should reassure urologists referring patients for post-prostatectomy IG-IMRT, particularly in the immediate adjuvant setting. Other implications include appropriate patient selection for RP (and

  7. Image-guided pain therapy. Sympathicolysis; Bildgestuetzte Schmerztherapie. Sympathikolyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbelko, M.; Wagner, H.J. [Vivantes Klinikum im Friedrichshain, Institut fuer Radiologie und Interventionelle Therapie, Berlin (Germany); Gutberlet, M.; Grothoff, M. [Universitaet Leipzig - Herzzentrum, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    In the autonomic nerve system most sympathetic neurons synapse peripherally in the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk. A reduction in sympathicotonia by partial elimination of these ganglia is a therapeutic approach that has been used for more than 100 years. In the early 1920s the first attempts at percutaneous sympathicolysis (SL) were carried out. Nowadays, minimally invasive image-guided SL has become an integral part of interventional radiology. Established indications for SL are hyperhidrosis, critical limb ischemia and the complex regional pain syndrome. The standard imaging guidance modality in SL is computed tomography (CT) which allows the exact placement of the puncture needle in the target area under visualization of the surrounding structures. Ethanol is normally used for chemical lysis, which predominantly eliminates the unmyelinated autonomic axons. In order to visualize the distribution of the ethanol during application, iodine-containing contrast medium is added. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) controls sweat secretion via the efferent neurons; therefore, effective therapy of idiopathic palmar, axillary and plantar hyperhidrosis can be achieved when SL is performed at the corresponding level of the sympathetic trunk. Furthermore, due to the vasomotor innervation of most blood vessels, by reduction of the sympathicotonus an atony of the smooth muscles and therefore vasodilatation occurs, which is used as a palliative therapeutic option in patients with critical limb ischemia. By elimination of the afferent sensory fibers this also results in pain relief. This principle is also used in the SL therapy of the complex regional pain syndrome. After the introduction of CT guidance, major complications have become rare events. In addition to the usual risks of percutaneous interventions there are, however, a number of specific complications, such as syncope caused by irritation of cardiac sympathetic nerves in thoracic SL and ureteral injury in lumbar

  8. Designing Tracking Software for Image-Guided Surgery Applications: IGSTK Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquobahrie, Andinet; Gobbi, David; Turek, Matt; Cheng, Patrick; Yaniv, Ziv; Lindseth, Frank; Cleary, Kevin

    2008-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many image-guided surgery applications require tracking devices as part of their core functionality. The Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK) was designed and developed to interface tracking devices with software applications incorporating medical images. METHODS: IGSTK was designed as an open source C++ library that provides the basic components needed for fast prototyping and development of image-guided surgery applications. This library follows a component-based architecture with several components designed for specific sets of image-guided surgery functions. At the core of the toolkit is the tracker component that handles communication between a control computer and navigation device to gather pose measurements of surgical instruments present in the surgical scene. The representations of the tracked instruments are superimposed on anatomical images to provide visual feedback to the clinician during surgical procedures. RESULTS: The initial version of the IGSTK toolkit has been released in the public domain and several trackers are supported. The toolkit and related information are available at www.igstk.org. CONCLUSION: With the increased popularity of minimally invasive procedures in health care, several tracking devices have been developed for medical applications. Designing and implementing high-quality and safe software to handle these different types of trackers in a common framework is a challenging task. It requires establishing key software design principles that emphasize abstraction, extensibility, reusability, fault-tolerance, and portability. IGSTK is an open source library that satisfies these needs for the image-guided surgery community.

  9. From image-guided radiotherapy to dose-guided radiotherapy; De la radiotherapie guidee par l'image a la radiotherapie guidee par la dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazoulat, G.; Lesaunier, M.; Simon, A.; Haigron, P.; Acosta, O. [Inserm, U642, 35000 Rennes (France); LTSI, universite de Rennes-1, 35000 Rennes (France); Louvel, G.; Chajon, E.; Leseur, J. [Centre Eugene-Marquis, rue de La-Bataille-Flandres-Dunkerque, CS 44229, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Lafond, C.; De Crevoisier, R. [Inserm, U642, 35000 Rennes (France); LTSI, universite de Rennes-1, 35000 Rennes (France); Centre Eugene-Marquis, rue de La-Bataille-Flandres-Dunkerque, CS 44229, 35042 Rennes cedex (France)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose. - In case of tumour displacement, image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) based on the use of cone beam CT (tomographie conique) allows replacing the tumour under the accelerator by rigid registration. Anatomical deformations require however re-planning, involving an estimation of the cumulative dose, session after session. This is the objective of this study. Patients and methods. - Two examples of arc-intensity modulated radiotherapy are presented: a case of prostate cancer (total dose = 80 Gy) with tomographie conique (daily prostate registration) and one head and neck cancer (70 Gy). For the head and neck cancer, the patient had a weekly scanner allowing a dose distribution calculation. The cumulative dose was calculated per voxel on the planning CT after deformation of the dose distribution (with trilinear interpolation) following the transformation given by a non-rigid registration step (Demons registration method) from: either the tomographie conique (prostate), or the weekly CT. The cumulative dose was eventually compared with the planned dose. Results. - In cases of prostate irradiation, the 'cumulative' dose corresponded to the planned dose to the prostate. At the last week of irradiation, it was above the planned dose for the rectum and bladder. The volume of rectal wall receiving more than 50 Gy (V50) was 20% at the planning and 26% at the end of treatment, increasing the risk of rectal toxicity (NTCP) of 14%. For the bladder wall, V50 were 73% and 82%, respectively. In head and neck, the 'cumulative' dose to the parotid exceeded the planned dose (mean dose increasing from 46 Gy to 54 Gy) from the 5. week of irradiation on, suggesting the need for re-planning within the first 5 weeks of radiotherapy. Conclusion. - The deformable registration estimates the cumulative dose delivered in the different anatomical structures. Validation on digital and physical phantoms is however required before clinical evaluation. (authors)

  10. Image-guided radiotherapy by in-room CT- linear accelerator combination; Radiotherapie guidee par tomodensitometrie associee a l'accelerateur lineaire dans la salle de traitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crevoisiera, R. de; Lefkopoulos, D. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 94 - Villejuif (France); Kuban, D. [Texas Univ., M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Target localization has become increasingly important in the advent of IMRT, as treatment margins are reduced and target doses are increased with high-dose gradients outside this target volume. The in-room CT on rails-LINAC system allows CT imaging while the patient remains immobilized in the treatment position just prior to treatment. The anatomic inter- and intra-fractional variations can be therefore quantified during a course of treatment. The position of the tumour can be checked and corrected before the fraction. In case of modification of tumour shape, a re-planning of the treatment is also feasible. However, several issues remain: the integration with routine clinical treatment due to a lack of software tools, the frequency of imaging, and the cost-efficiency ratio. The clinical experience is yet very limited but CT-image-guided radiotherapy appears promising for prostate, brain and spinal tumours. (authors)

  11. Braquiterapia guiada por imagen Image-guided brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Villafranca

    2009-01-01

    calculation possible. In recent years there have been changes affecting two aspects of brachytherapy. In the first place, the incorporation of imaging techniques such as echography, computerised tomography (CT and magnetic resonance (MR, indispensable for diagnosis and tumoural staging. Their use when the implant is being done helps in guiding and carrying out the operation with greater precision. In the second place, the use of CT, MR and echography makes better coverage of the tumour possible, or reduces the dose to healthy organs. They are used in inverse planning systems, which carry out dose calculation on the basis of the doses to be administered to the tumour and healthy organs. In these planning programs it is possible to make calculations more rapidly, taking account of the placement of the source at each moment in time. This technique, called real-time planning, is starting to show advantages in the treatment of prostate cancer. Incorporation of imaging techniques and improvements in calculation systems mean that brachytherapy is currently playing an important role in treating cancer of the prostate, cervix, breast, head and neck tumours, bronchial tubes or oesophagus.

  12. An event-driven distributed processing architecture for image-guided cardiac ablation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettmann, M E; Holmes, D R; Cameron, B M; Robb, R A

    2009-08-01

    Medical imaging data is becoming increasing valuable in interventional medicine, not only for preoperative planning, but also for real-time guidance during clinical procedures. Three key components necessary for image-guided intervention are real-time tracking of the surgical instrument, aligning the real-world patient space with image-space, and creating a meaningful display that integrates the tracked instrument and patient data. Issues to consider when developing image-guided intervention systems include the communication scheme, the ability to distribute CPU intensive tasks, and flexibility to allow for new technologies. In this work, we have designed a communication architecture for use in image-guided catheter ablation therapy. Communication between the system components is through a database which contains an event queue and auxiliary data tables. The communication scheme is unique in that each system component is responsible for querying and responding to relevant events from the centralized database queue. An advantage of the architecture is the flexibility to add new system components without affecting existing software code. In addition, the architecture is intrinsically distributed, in that components can run on different CPU boxes, and even different operating systems. We refer to this Framework for Image-Guided Navigation using a Distributed Event-Driven Database in Real-Time as the FINDER architecture. This architecture has been implemented for the specific application of image-guided cardiac ablation therapy. We describe our prototype image-guidance system and demonstrate its functionality by emulating a cardiac ablation procedure with a patient-specific phantom. The proposed architecture, designed to be modular, flexible, and intuitive, is a key step towards our goal of developing a complete system for visualization and targeting in image-guided cardiac ablation procedures.

  13. A Pulsatile Flow Phantom for Image-Guided HIFU Hemostasis of Blood Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaby, Robyn; Vaezy, Shahram

    2005-03-01

    A pulsatile flow phantom for studying ultrasound image-guided acoustic hemostasis in a controlled environment has been developed. An ex vivo porcine carotid artery was attached to the phantom and embedded in a visually and ultrasonically transparent gel. Heparinized porcine blood was pumped through the phantom. Power-Doppler and B-mode ultrasound were used to remotely target the HIFU focus to the site of a needle puncture. In nine trials, complete hemostasis was achieved after an average HIFU application of 55 +/- 34 seconds. The vessels remained patent after treatment. With this phantom, it will be possible to do controlled studies of ultrasound image-guided acoustic hemostasis.

  14. Image-Guided Endoscopic Endonasal Transmaxillary Transpterygoid Approach to Meckel's Cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejian; Zhang, Xiaobiao; Hu, Fan; Yu, Yong; Gu, Ye; Xie, Tao; Ge, Junqi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this report was to summarize our preliminary experience on the resection of tumors located in Meckel's cave via the endoscopic endonasal transmaxillary transpterygoid approach with image-guided system and to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of this approach. Two patients who had tumors in left Meckel's cave underwent surgical treatment using the image-guided endoscopic endonasal transmaxillary transpterygoid approach. This particular technique has advantages of no brain retraction, direct vision of tumor resection and protection of surrounding neurovascular structures. Neuronavigation increases the safety of the endoscopic approach.

  15. Characterization and evaluation of ionizing and non-ionizing imaging systems used in state of the art image-guided radiation therapy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Dennis Nichols

    With the growing incidence of cancer worldwide, the need for effective cancer treatment is paramount. Currently, radiation therapy exists as one of the few effective, non-invasive methods of reducing tumor size and has the capability for the elimination of localized tumors. Radiation therapy utilizes non-invasive external radiation to treat localized cancers but to be effective, physicians must be able to visualize and monitor the internal anatomy and target displacements. Image-Guided Radiation Therapy frequently utilizes planar and volumetric imaging during a course of radiation therapy to improve the precision and accuracy of the delivered treatment to the internal anatomy. Clinically, visualization of the internal anatomy allows physicians to refine the treatment to include as little healthy tissue as possible. This not only increases the effectiveness of treatment by damaging only the tumor but also increases the quality of life for the patient by decreasing the amount of healthy tissue damaged. Image-Guided Radiation Therapy is commonly used to treat tumors in areas of the body that are prone to movement, such as the lungs, liver, and prostate, as well as tumors located close to critical organs and tissues such as the tumors in the brain and spinal cord. Image-Guided Radiation Therapy can utilize both ionizing modalities, like x-ray based planar radiography and cone-beam CT, and nonionizing modalities like MRI, ultrasound and video-based optical scanning systems. Currently ionizing modalities are most commonly utilized for their ability to visualize and monitor internal anatomy but cause an increase to the total dose to the patient. Nonionizing imaging modalities allow frequent/continuous imaging without the increase in dose; however, they are just beginning to be clinically implemented in radiation oncology. With the growing prevalence and variety of Image-Guided Radiation Therapy imaging modalities the ability to evaluate the overall image quality, monitor

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as detailed as with the transrectal probe. An MRI of the pelvis may be obtained as an ... Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Images related ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves ... the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and ...

  19. Microencapsulation of indocyanine green for potential applications in image-guided drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Si, Ting; Xu, Ronald X

    2015-02-07

    We present a novel process to encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in liposomal droplets at high concentration for potential applications in image-guided drug delivery. The microencapsulation process follows two consecutive steps of droplet formation by liquid-driven coaxial flow focusing (LDCFF) and solvent removal by oil phase dewetting. These biocompatible lipid vesicles may have important applications in drug delivery and fluorescence imaging.

  20. Image fusion and navigation platforms for percutaneous image-guided interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Manoj; Venkatesan, Aradhana M

    2016-04-01

    Image-guided interventional procedures, particularly image guided biopsy and ablation, serve an important role in the care of the oncology patient. The need for tumor genomic and proteomic profiling, early tumor response assessment and confirmation of early recurrence are common scenarios that may necessitate successful biopsies of targets, including those that are small, anatomically unfavorable or inconspicuous. As image-guided ablation is increasingly incorporated into interventional oncology practice, similar obstacles are posed for the ablation of technically challenging tumor targets. Navigation tools, including image fusion and device tracking, can enable abdominal interventionalists to more accurately target challenging biopsy and ablation targets. Image fusion technologies enable multimodality fusion and real-time co-displays of US, CT, MRI, and PET/CT data, with navigational technologies including electromagnetic tracking, robotic, cone beam CT, optical, and laser guidance of interventional devices. Image fusion and navigational platform technology is reviewed in this article, including the results of studies implementing their use for interventional procedures. Pre-clinical and clinical experiences to date suggest these technologies have the potential to reduce procedure risk, time, and radiation dose to both the patient and the operator, with a valuable role to play for complex image-guided interventions.

  1. Image-Guided Techniques Improve the Short-Term Outcome of Autologous Osteochondral Cartilage Repair Surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Steven M.; Hurtig, Mark B.; Waldman, Stephen D.; Rudan, John F.; Bardana, Davide D.; Stewart, A. James

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Autologous osteochondral cartilage repair is a valuable reconstruction option for cartilage defects, but the accuracy to harvest and deliver osteochondral grafts remains problematic. We investigated whether image-guided methods (optically guided and template guided) can improve the outcome of these procedures. Design: Fifteen sheep were operated to create traumatic chondral injuries in each knee. After 4 months, the chondral defect in one knee was repaired using (a) conventional approach, (b) optically guided method, or (c) template-guided method. For both image-guided groups, harvest and delivery sites were preoperatively planned using custom-made software. During optically guided surgery, instrument position and orientation were tracked and superimposed onto the surgical plan. For the template-guided group, plastic templates were manufactured to allow an exact fit between template and the joint anatomy. Cylindrical holes within the template guided surgical tools according to the plan. Three months postsurgery, both knees were harvested and computed tomography scans were used to compare the reconstructed versus the native pre-injury joint surfaces. For each repaired defect, macroscopic (International Cartilage Repair Society [ICRS]) and histological repair (ICRS II) scores were assessed. Results: Three months after repair surgery, both image-guided surgical approaches resulted in significantly better histology scores compared with the conventional approach (improvement by 55%, P < 0.02). Interestingly, there were no significant differences found in cartilage surface reconstruction and macroscopic scores between the image-guided and the conventional surgeries. PMID:26069658

  2. Occipital condyle screw placement and occipitocervical instrumentation using three-dimensional image-guided navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tien V; Burkett, Clint; Ramos, Edwin; Uribe, Juan S

    2012-05-01

    Occipital condyle (OC) screws are an alternative cephalad fixation point in occipitocervical fusion. Safe placement of occipital, C1 lateral mass, and C2 pars screws have been described previously, but not OC screws. The craniocervical junction is complex, and a thorough understanding of the anatomy is needed. Three-dimensional (3D) image-guided navigation was used in six patients. There were no complications related to image-guided navigation during the placement of 12 OC screws and we found that this navigation can serve as a useful adjunct when placing an OC screw. Technical considerations of placing OC and C1 lateral mass screws are discussed with particular reference to patient positioning and the StealthStation® S7™ image-guided navigational platform (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA). The reference arc is attached to the head-clamp and faces forward. The optical camera and monitor are positioned at the head of the table for a direct, non-obstructed line-of-sight. To minimize intersegmental movement, the OC should not be drilled until all other screws have been placed. We conclude that 3D image-guided navigation is a useful adjunct that can be safely and effectively used for placement of instrumentation of the upper cervical spine including the OC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Injectable Colloidal Gold for Use in Intrafractional 2D Image-Guided Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Rydhog, Jonas S.; Christensen, Anders Nymark

    2015-01-01

    In the western world, approximately 50% of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy alone or in combination with surgery or chemotherapy. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) has in recent years been introduced to enhance precision of the delivery of radiation dose to tumor tissue. Fiducial markers a...

  4. Image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer: bladder volume variation and its relation to margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muren, Ludvig; Redpath, Anthony Thomas; Lord, Hannah

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To control and account for bladder motion is a major challenge in radiotherapy (RT) of bladder cancer. This study investigates the relation between bladder volume variation and margins in conformal and image-guided RT (IGRT) for this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cor...

  5. Versatility of the Novalis system to deliver image-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for various anatomical sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Bin S; Paulino, Arnold C; Lu, Hsin H; Chiu, J Kam; Richardson, Susan; Chiang, Stephen; Amato, Robert; Butler, E Brian; Bloch, Charles

    2007-08-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) programs to treat brain tumors were implemented when we first acquired the Brainlab Novalis system in 2003. Two years later, we started an extra-cranial stereotactic radio-ablation or more appropriately a stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) program using the Brainlab Novalis image-guided system at The Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas. We hereby summarize our initial experience with this system in delivering image-guided SBRT to a total of 80 patients during our first year of clinical implementation, from February 2005 to January 2006. Over 100 lesions in more than 20 distinct anatomical sites were treated. These include all levels of spine from cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral lesions. Spinal lesions encompass intramedullary, intradural, extradural, or osseous compartments. Also treated were lesions in other bony sites including orbit, clavicle, scapula, humerus, sternum, rib, femur, and pelvis (ilium, ischium, and pubis). Primary or metastatic lesions located in the head and neck, supraclavicular region, axilla, mediastinum, lung (both central and peripheral), abdominal wall, liver, kidney, para-aortic lymph nodes, prostate, and pelvis were also treated. In addition to primary radiotherapy, SBRT program using the Brainlab Novalis system allows re-irradiation for recurrence and "boost" after conventional treatment to various anatomical sites. Treating these sites safely and efficaciously requires knowledge in radiation tolerance, fraction size, total dose, biologically equivalent dose (BED), prior radiotherapy, detailed dose volume histograms (DVH) of normal tissues, and the radiosensitive/radioresistant nature of the tumor. Placement of radio-opaque markers (Visicoil, Radiomed) in anatomical sites not in close proximity to bony landmarks (e.g., kidney and liver) helps in measuring motion and providing image guidance during each treatment fraction. Tumor/organ motion

  6. Formación on line On line learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Grau-Perejoan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La formación on line es una modalidad de enseñanza a distancia basada en las nuevas tecnologías. En este artículo se pretende hacer una introducción a base de describir a grandes rasgos sus características principales: asincronía, no presencialidad, comunicación escrita, función del profesor on line, así como los retos, los riesgos, las ventajas y los inconvenientes que plantea. Se exponen las diferencias entre la formación on line y la formación presencial, de manera que los docentes puedan adaptar de la mejor manera posible sus propuestas formativas a la modalidad on line. Se introduce el importantísimo papel de la planificación y de la fase de diseño y, finalmente, se repasan conceptos útiles para comprender mejor el mundo de la formación on line como son los conceptos entorno virtual de aprendizaje (EVA o Blended Learning (B-Learning.On line learning is a type of distance education based on new technologies. This article's aim is to introduce its main characteristics -asynchrony, non-presentiality, written communication, e-teacher role- as well as its challenges, risks, advantages and limitations. Differences between on line learning and face-to-face learning are presented in order to enable educational professionals to adapt their courses to the on line methodology. Planning and designing are introduced as key phases and, finally, useful concepts such as Virtual Learning Environment (VLE or Blended Learning (B-Learning are reviewed in order to achieve a better understanding of the on line learning field.

  7. Image-based control of the magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound thermotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomir, Rares; Delemazure, Anne-Sophie; Palussière, Jean; Rouvière, Olivier; Cotton, François; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2006-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) is a full noninvasive approach for localized thermal ablation of deep tissues, coupling the following: (1) a versatile, nonionizing physical agent for therapy and (2) a state-of-the art diagnosis and on-line monitoring tool. A commercially available, Food and Drug Administration-approved device using the MRI-guided FUS exists since 2004 for the ablation of benign tumors (uterine fibroids); however, the ultimate goal of the technological, methodological, and medical research in this field is to provide a clinical-routine tool for fighting localized cancer. When addressing cancer applications, the accurate spatial control of the delivered thermal dose is mandatory. Contiguous destruction of the target volume must be achieved in a minimum time, whereas sparing as much as possible the neighboring healthy tissues and especially when some adjacent regions are critical. This paper reviews some significant developments reported in the literature related to the image-based control of the FUS therapy for kidney, breast, prostate, and brain, including the own experience of the authors on the active feedback control of the temperature during FUS ablation. In addition, preliminary results of an original study of MRI-guided FUS ablation of VX2 carcinoma in kidney, under active temperature control, are described here.

  8. Update on prostate brachytherapy: long-term outcomes and treatment-related morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Johnny; Cesaretti, Jamie A; Stone, Nelson N; Stock, Richard G

    2011-06-01

    Current research in prostate brachytherapy focuses on five key concepts covered in this review. Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy assisted by intraoperative treatment planning is the most advanced form of image-guided radiation delivery. Prostate brachytherapy alone for low-risk prostate cancer achieves lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadirs than intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or protons while maintaining durable biochemical control in about 90% of patients without late failures seen in surgically treated patients. As an organ-conserving treatment option, seed implant results in a lower rate of erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence than surgery that has been validated in several recent prospective studies. Combined IMRT and seed implant has emerged as a rational and highly effective approach to radiation-dose escalation for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer. Preliminary results suggest that seed implantation may play a role in improving outcomes for historically poor-prognosis locally advanced and recurrent prostate cancers.

  9. Prostate Radiotherapy in the Era of Advanced Imaging and Precision Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb R. Dulaney

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tremendous technological advancements in prostate radiotherapy have decreased treatment toxicity and improved clinical outcomes for men with prostate cancer. While these advances have allowed for significant treatment volume reduction and whole-organ dose escalation, further improvement in prostate radiotherapy has been limited by classic techniques for diagnosis and risk stratification. Developments in prostate imaging, image-guided targeted biopsy, next-generation gene expression profiling, and targeted molecular therapies now provide information to stratify patients and select treatments based on tumor biology. Image-guided targeted biopsy improves detection of clinically significant cases of prostate cancer and provides important information about the biological behavior of intraprostatic lesions which can further guide treatment decisions. We review the evolution of prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and MRI-ultrasound fusion-guided prostate biopsy. Recent advancements in radiation therapy including dose escalation, moderate and extreme hypofractionation, partial prostate radiation therapy, and finally dose escalation by simultaneous integrated boost are discussed. We also review next-generation sequencing and discuss developments in targeted molecular therapies. Last, we review ongoing clinical trials and future treatment paradigms that integrate targeted biopsy, molecular profiling and therapy, and prostate radiotherapy.

  10. Interrupting Rivaling Access-flow with Nonsurgical Image-guided ligation: the "IRANI" Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jie; Freed, Robert; Liu, Fengyong; Irani, Zubin

    2015-01-01

    The presence of collateral veins is one of the most common causes of fistula failure to mature. The traditional approach to eliminate collateral vessel flow is coil embolization under fluoroscopy or surgical cut down and branch vessel ligation. However, both approaches are expensive and time consuming. Here, we described an image-guided nonsurgical method to ligate collateral veins. The collateral veins were ligated using Hawkins-Akins needle under ultrasound guidance. The average time for one ligation procedure was 17 minutes. There was a significant increase of blood flow in the venous outflow postligation procedure. Four weeks postprocedure ultrasound demonstrated occlusion of the target vessels. This procedure was well tolerated without major complications. In summary, the novel procedure described here offers an image-guided nonsurgical approach for collateral vein occlusion.

  11. Hard and soft nanoparticles for image-guided surgery in nanomedicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, Erica; Monaco, Ilaria; Comes Franchini, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.comesfranchini@unibo.it [University of Bologn, Department of Industrial Chemistry, “Toso Montanari” (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    The use of hard and/or soft nanoparticles for therapy, collectively called nanomedicine, has great potential in the battle against cancer. Major research efforts are underway in this area leading to development of new drug delivery approaches and imaging techniques. Despite this progress, the vast majority of patients who are affected by cancer today sadly still need surgical intervention, especially in the case of solid tumors. An important perspective for researchers is therefore to provide even more powerful tools to the surgeon for pre- and post-operative approaches. In this context, image-guided surgery, in combination with nanotechnology, opens a new strategy to win this battle. In this perspective, we will analyze and discuss the recent progress with nanoparticles of both metallic and biomaterial composition, and their use to develop powerful systems to be applied in image-guided surgery.

  12. 6DOF optical tracking system using afocal optics for image guided surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae You Seong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Image guided surgery using medical robots is becoming popular these days. For image guided surgery, a tracking system is required to provide 6DOF information of patient coordinate, surgical instruments and medical robots used in surgery. To provide 6DOF information, a marker has to be attached to the target. However, it is hard to use many markers all together because the markers will take too much space in the surgical area. The tracking system proposed in this study utilizes down sized markers compared to traditional markers by using micro-engraved data-coded pattern with a lens instead of using geometrically specified marker spheres as a tracking target. A tracking system is developed that has a measurement area of 1m to 2.5m from the tracking system. Experiment has been done for surgical navigation using the proposed tracking system and a medical robot.

  13. The Image-Guided Surgery ToolKit IGSTK: an open source C++ software toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peng; Ibanez, Luis; Gobbi, David; Gary, Kevin; Aylward, Stephen; Jomier, Julien; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Zhang, Hui; Kim, Hee-su; Blake, M. Brian; Cleary, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    The Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK) is an open source C++ software library that provides the basic components needed to develop image-guided surgery applications. The focus of the toolkit is on robustness using a state machine architecture. This paper presents an overview of the project based on a recent book which can be downloaded from igstk.org. The paper includes an introduction to open source projects, a discussion of our software development process and the best practices that were developed, and an overview of requirements. The paper also presents the architecture framework and main components. This presentation is followed by a discussion of the state machine model that was incorporated and the associated rationale. The paper concludes with an example application.

  14. Optimizing MR imaging-guided navigation for focused ultrasound interventions in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, B.; Martin, E.; Bauer, R.; O'Gorman, R.

    2017-03-01

    MR imaging during transcranial MR imaging-guided Focused Ultrasound surgery (tcMRIgFUS) is challenging due to the complex ultrasound transducer setup and the water bolus used for acoustic coupling. Achievable image quality in the tcMRIgFUS setup using the standard body coil is significantly inferior to current neuroradiologic standards. As a consequence, MR image guidance for precise navigation in functional neurosurgical interventions using tcMRIgFUS is basically limited to the acquisition of MR coordinates of salient landmarks such as the anterior and posterior commissure for aligning a stereotactic atlas. Here, we show how improved MR image quality provided by a custom built MR coil and optimized MR imaging sequences can support imaging-guided navigation for functional tcMRIgFUS neurosurgery by visualizing anatomical landmarks that can be integrated into the navigation process to accommodate for patient specific anatomy.

  15. [Image guided and robotic treatment--the advance of cybernetics in clinical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, E; Elle, O J; Samset, E; Johansen, M; Røtnes, J S; Tønnessen, T I; Edwin, B

    2000-01-10

    The introduction of advanced technology in hospitals has changed the treatment practice towards more image guided and minimal invasive procedures. Modern computer and communication technology opens up for robot aided and pre-programmed intervention. Several robotic systems are in clinical use today both in microsurgery and in major cardiac and orthopedic operations. As this trend develops, professions which are new in this context such as physicists, mathematicians and cybernetic engineers will be increasingly important in the treatment of patients.

  16. A novel augmented reality system of image projection for image-guided neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahvash, Mehran; Besharati Tabrizi, Leila

    2013-05-01

    Augmented reality systems combine virtual images with a real environment. To design and develop an augmented reality system for image-guided surgery of brain tumors using image projection. A virtual image was created in two ways: (1) MRI-based 3D model of the head matched with the segmented lesion of a patient using MRIcro software (version 1.4, freeware, Chris Rorden) and (2) Digital photograph based model in which the tumor region was drawn using image-editing software. The real environment was simulated with a head phantom. For direct projection of the virtual image to the head phantom, a commercially available video projector (PicoPix 1020, Philips) was used. The position and size of the virtual image was adjusted manually for registration, which was performed using anatomical landmarks and fiducial markers position. An augmented reality system for image-guided neurosurgery using direct image projection has been designed successfully and implemented in first evaluation with promising results. The virtual image could be projected to the head phantom and was registered manually. Accurate registration (mean projection error: 0.3 mm) was performed using anatomical landmarks and fiducial markers position. The direct projection of a virtual image to the patients head, skull, or brain surface in real time is an augmented reality system that can be used for image-guided neurosurgery. In this paper, the first evaluation of the system is presented. The encouraging first visualization results indicate that the presented augmented reality system might be an important enhancement of image-guided neurosurgery.

  17. Image-guided therapies in the treatment of hepatocellularcarcinoma: A multidisciplinary perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonathon Willatt; Kevin K Hannawa; Julie A Ruma; Timothy L Frankel; Dawn Owen; Pranab M Barman

    2015-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach to the treatment ofpatients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) has led to improvements in screening, detection,and treatments. Interventional techniques includethermal ablation, transarterial chemoembolization, andradioembolization whilst stereotactic body radiationtherapy also uses imaging to target the radiation. Bothsurvival rates and cure rates have improved markedlysince the introduction of these techniques. This reviewarticle describes the image guided techniques used forthe treatment of HCC.

  18. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    OpenAIRE

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluo...

  19. Spatially varying Riemannian elasticity regularization: Application to thoracic CT registration in image-guided radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Troels; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Aznar, M.;

    2012-01-01

    For deformable registration of computed tomography (CT) scans in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) we apply Riemannian elasticity regularization. We explore the use of spatially varying elasticity parameters to encourage bone rigidity and local tissue volume change only in the gross tumor......-model we achieved a total mean target registration error (TRE) of 0.92 ± 0.49 mm. Using spatially varying regularization for the HL case, deformation was limited to the GTV and lungs....

  20. Image-guided therapies in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: A multidisciplinary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willatt, Jonathon; Hannawa, Kevin K; Ruma, Julie A; Frankel, Timothy L; Owen, Dawn; Barman, Pranab M

    2015-02-27

    A multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has led to improvements in screening, detection, and treatments. Interventional techniques include thermal ablation, transarterial chemoembolization, and radioembolization whilst stereotactic body radiation therapy also uses imaging to target the radiation. Both survival rates and cure rates have improved markedly since the introduction of these techniques. This review article describes the image guided techniques used for the treatment of HCC.

  1. Polydopamine Nanoparticles as a Versatile Molecular Loading Platform to Enable Imaging-guided Cancer Combination Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Ziliang; Gong, Hua; Gao, Min; Zhu, Wenwen; Sun, Xiaoqi; Feng, Liangzhu; Fu, Tingting; Li, Yonggang; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Cancer combination therapy to treat tumors with different therapeutic approaches can efficiently improve treatment efficacy and reduce side effects. Herein, we develop a theranostic nano-platform based on polydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles, which then are exploited as a versatile carrier to allow simultaneous loading of indocyanine green (ICG), doxorubicin (DOX) and manganese ions (PDA-ICG-PEG/DOX(Mn)), to enable imaging-guided chemo & photothermal cancer therapy. In this system, ICG acts as a ...

  2. Fabrication of multifaceted, micropatterned surfaces and image-guided patterning using laser scanning lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, John H; West, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes the implementation of laser scanning lithography (LSL) for the fabrication of multifaceted, patterned surfaces and for image-guided patterning. This photothermal-based patterning technique allows for selective removal of desired regions of an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer on a metal film through raster scanning a focused 532 nm laser using a commercially available laser scanning confocal microscope. Unlike traditional photolithography methods, this technique does not require the use of a physical master and instead utilizes digital "virtual masks" that can be modified "on the fly" allowing for quick pattern modifications. The process to create multifaceted, micropatterned surfaces, surfaces that display pattern arrays of multiple biomolecules with each molecule confined to its own array, is described in detail. The generation of pattern configurations from user-chosen images, image-guided LSL is also described. This protocol outlines LSL in four basic sections. The first section details substrate preparation and includes cleaning of glass coverslips, metal deposition, and alkanethiol functionalization. The second section describes two ways to define pattern configurations, the first through manual input of pattern coordinates and dimensions using Zeiss AIM software and the second via image-guided pattern generation using a custom-written MATLAB script. The third section describes the details of the patterning procedure and postpatterning functionalization with an alkanethiol, protein, and both, and the fourth section covers cell seeding and culture. We end with a general discussion concerning the pitfalls of LSL and present potential improvements that can be made to the technique.

  3. New real-time MR image-guided surgical robotic system for minimally invasive precision surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, M.; Yasunaga, T.; Konishi, K. [Kyushu University, Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Tanoue, K.; Ieiri, S. [Kyushu University Hospital, Department of Advanced Medicine and Innovative Technology, Fukuoka (Japan); Kishi, K. [Hitachi Ltd, Mechanical Engineering Research Laboratory, Hitachinaka-Shi, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakamoto, H. [Hitachi Medical Corporation, Application Development Office, Kashiwa-Shi, Chiba (Japan); Ikeda, D. [Mizuho Ikakogyo Co. Ltd, Tokyo (Japan); Sakuma, I. [The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Engineering, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan); Fujie, M. [Waseda University, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shinjuku-Ku, Tokyo (Japan); Dohi, T. [The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2008-04-15

    To investigate the usefulness of a newly developed magnetic resonance (MR) image-guided surgical robotic system for minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery. The system consists of MR image guidance [interactive scan control (ISC) imaging, three-dimensional (3-D) navigation, and preoperative planning], an MR-compatible operating table, and an MR-compatible master-slave surgical manipulator that can enter the MR gantry. Using this system, we performed in vivo experiments with MR image-guided laparoscopic puncture on three pigs. We used a mimic tumor made of agarose gel and with a diameter of approximately 2 cm. All procedures were successfully performed. The operator only advanced the probe along the guidance device of the manipulator, which was adjusted on the basis of the preoperative plan, and punctured the target while maintaining the operative field using robotic forceps. The position of the probe was monitored continuously with 3-D navigation and 2-D ISC images, as well as the MR-compatible laparoscope. The ISC image was updated every 4 s; no artifact was detected. A newly developed MR image-guided surgical robotic system is feasible for an operator to perform safe and precise minimally invasive procedures. (orig.)

  4. Advantages of using an image-guided system for transnasal endoscopic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩德民; 周兵; 葛文彤; 张罗; 张永杰

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the advantages of image-guided system in transnasal endoscopic surgery.Methods Transnasal endoscopic surgery was performed with the aid of an image-guided system in 28 patients, supported with histopathologic diagnoses of chronic sinusitis with/without nasal polyps (10 cases), juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (4 cases), pituitary adenoma (6 cases), ethmoidal ossifying fibroma (3 cases), nasopharyngeal mixed tumor (2 cases), nasal leiomyoma (1 case), fungal sinusitis (1 case) and inverted nasal papilloma (1 case).Results For all the patients, the time periods from initialization to surgery ranged from 15 to 30 minutes (a mean of 26 minutes). The calibration coefficient ranged from 1.3 to 2.0. Accuracy of localization fell within 1 mm. Compared with traditional endoscopic surgery, operation times were not noticeably different. No complications occurred.Conclusions The image-guided system was able to identify borders and critical anatomical structures in real-time, especially of those with distorted anatomical markers. It provided a powerful means for a safer and less invasive endoscopic sinus surgery.

  5. Effect of image-guided hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy on peripheral non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-wen; Ren, Juan; Yan, Yan-li; Xue, Chao-fan; Tan, Li; Ma, Xiao-wei

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of image-guided hypofractionated radiotherapy and conventional fractionated radiotherapy on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Fifty stage- and age-matched cases with NSCLC were randomly divided into two groups (A and B). There were 23 cases in group A and 27 cases in group B. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and stereotactic radiotherapy were conjugately applied to the patients in group A. Group A patients underwent hypofractionated radiotherapy (6–8 Gy/time) three times per week, with a total dose of 64–66 Gy; group B received conventional fractionated radiotherapy, with a total dose of 68–70 Gy five times per week. In group A, 1-year and 2-year local failure survival rate and 1-year local failure-free survival rate were significantly higher than in group B (P0.05) were lower in group A than in group B. The overall survival rate of group A was significantly higher than that of group B (P=0.03), and the survival rate at 1 year was 87% vs 63%, (P0.05). Compared with conventional fractionated radiation therapy, image-guided hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in NSCLC received better treatment efficacy and showed good tolerability. PMID:27574441

  6. Parameters Affecting Image-guided, Hydrodynamic Gene Delivery to Swine Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenya Kamimura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a safe and effective method for gene delivery to hepatocytes is a critical step toward gene therapy for liver diseases. Here, we assessed the parameters for gene delivery to the livers of large animals (pigs, 40–65 kg using an image-guided hydrodynamics-based procedure that involves image-guided catheter insertion into the lobular hepatic vein and hydrodynamic injection of reporter plasmids using a computer-controlled injector. We demonstrated that injection parameters (relative position of the catheter in the hepatic vasculature, intravascular pressure upon injection, and injection volume are directly related to the safety and efficiency of the procedure. By optimizing these parameters, we explored for the first time, the advantage of the procedure for sequential injections to multiple lobes in human-sized pigs. The optimized procedure resulted in sustained expression of the human α-1 antitrypsin gene in livers for more than 2 months after gene delivery. In addition, repeated hydrodynamic gene delivery was safely conducted and no adverse events were seen in the entire period of the study. Our results support the clinical applicability of the image-guided hydrodynamic gene delivery method for the treatment of liver diseases.

  7. Polydopamine Nanoparticles as a Versatile Molecular Loading Platform to Enable Imaging-guided Cancer Combination Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ziliang; Gong, Hua; Gao, Min; Zhu, Wenwen; Sun, Xiaoqi; Feng, Liangzhu; Fu, Tingting; Li, Yonggang; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Cancer combination therapy to treat tumors with different therapeutic approaches can efficiently improve treatment efficacy and reduce side effects. Herein, we develop a theranostic nano-platform based on polydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles, which then are exploited as a versatile carrier to allow simultaneous loading of indocyanine green (ICG), doxorubicin (DOX) and manganese ions (PDA-ICG-PEG/DOX(Mn)), to enable imaging-guided chemo & photothermal cancer therapy. In this system, ICG acts as a photothermal agent, which shows red-shifted near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and enhanced photostability compared with free ICG. DOX, a model chemotherapy drug, is then loaded onto the surface of PDA-ICG-PEG with high efficiency. With Mn(2+) ions intrinsically chelated, PDA-ICG-PEG/DOX(Mn) is able to offer contrast under T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In a mouse tumor model, the MR imaging-guided combined chemo- & photothermal therapy achieves a remarkable synergistic therapeutic effect compared with the respective single treatment modality. This work demonstrates that PDA nanoparticles could serve as a versatile molecular loading platform for MR imaging guided combined chemo- & photothermal therapy with minimal side effects, showing great potential for cancer theranostics.

  8. MR-compatible laparoscope with a distally mounted CCD for MR image-guided surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasunaga, Takefumi; Konishi, Kozo; Yamaguchi, Shohei; Okazaki, Ken; Hong, Jae-sung; Nakashima, Hideaki [Kyushu University, Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Ieiri, Satoshi; Tanoue, Kazuo [Kyushu University Hospital, Department of Advanced Medicine and Innovative Technology, Fukuoka (Japan); Fukuyo, Tsuneo [Shinko Optical Co. Ltd, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Hashizume, Makoto [Kyushu University, Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Kyushu University Hospital, Department of Advanced Medicine and Innovative Technology, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Objects We have developed a new MR-compatible laparoscope that incorporates a distally mounted charge-coupled device (CCD). The MR-compatibility and feasibility of laparoscopy using the new laparoscope were evaluated during MR image-guided laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation therapy (RFA). Materials and methods MR compatibility of the laparoscope was investigated in terms of MR image artifact caused by electromagnetic interference (EMI) and susceptibility. MR images were obtained using spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences with a 0.3 T open MRI unit. We performed an in vivo experiment with MR image-guided laparoscopic RFA on three pigs; near real-time MR images and 3-D navigation were possible using intraoperative MR images. Agarose gel was injected into the pigs' livers as puncture targets; the diameter of each target was approximately 20 mm. Results Artifacts resulting from EMI were not found in phantom experiments. MR image-guided laparoscopic RFA was successfully performed in all procedures. Both the laparoscopic vision and near real-time MR images were clear. No artifact was detected on the MR images and the surgeon was able to confirm the true position of the probe and target during treatment using the near real-time MR images. Conclusion Laparoscopic surgery is feasible under intraoperative MR image-guidance using a newly developed MR-compatible laparoscope with a distally mounted CCD. (orig.)

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe ... transducer into the body. top of page How is the procedure performed? In men, the prostate gland ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland ... of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland ...

  14. On-line Adaptive Radiation Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    optimization method using a Beowulf cluster with a Message Passing Interface. To prepare for clinical implementation, in the second year, we are...optimization. For plan re-optmization, Projection Onto Convex Set (POCS) optimization algorithm was implemented on a multi-node Beowulf cluster using...paralleled the algorithm using message passing interface (MPI) on a Beowulf cluster with 16 processing elements (PE). Speed improvement was benchmarked

  15. CERN Video News on line

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The latest CERN video news is on line. In this issue : an interview with the Director General and reports on the new home for the DELPHI barrel and the CERN firemen's spectacular training programme. There's also a vintage video news clip from 1954. See: www.cern.ch/video or Bulletin web page

  16. Biopsym : a learning environment for transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Janssoone; Vadcard, Lucile; Mozer, Pierre; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a learning environment for image-guided prostate biopsies in cancer diagnosis; it is based on an ultrasound probe simulator virtually exploring real datasets obtained from patients. The aim is to make the training of young physicians easier and faster with a tool that combines lectures, biopsy simulations and recommended exercises to master this medical gesture. It will particularly help acquiring the three-dimensional representation of the prostate needed for practicing biopsy sequences. The simulator uses a haptic feedback to compute the position of the virtual probe from three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound recorded data. This paper presents the current version of this learning environment.

  17. Clean Air OnLine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, D. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Air Pollution Prevention Directorate

    2004-04-07

    This presentation describes Clean Air OnLine, a multi-tiered website dedicated to providing Canadians with information on air quality. The website is under development to support action to reduce air emissions, demonstrate the links between air emissions and environmental impacts, and enhance the understanding of sustainable community development issues such as health, energy, and urban sprawl. Partners in the Clean Air OnLine (CAOL) initiative include Environment Canada and the Clean Air Partnership which includes the Greater Toronto Area pilot project. The audience for CAOL includes municipal decision makers, local decision makers, community leaders, and the general public. The project provides Canadians with air pollution contextual information on pollution sources, pollutants, and related issues. It also provides information on health, environmental and economic impacts and the interrelationships with climate change issues and energy use. tabs., figs.

  18. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  19. Optimization of an Image-Guided Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization Model in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Gong

    Full Text Available The mouse model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV has been used in studies of the exudative form of age-related macular degeneration using both the conventional slit lamp and a new image-guided laser system. A standardized protocol is needed for consistent results using this model, which has been lacking. We optimized details of laser-induced CNV using the image-guided laser photocoagulation system. Four lesions with similar size were consistently applied per eye at approximately double the disc diameter away from the optic nerve, using different laser power levels, and mice of various ages and genders. After 7 days, the mice were sacrificed and retinal pigment epithelium/choroid/sclera was flat-mounted, stained with Isolectin B4, and imaged. Quantification of the area of the laser-induced lesions was performed using an established and constant threshold. Exclusion criteria are described that were necessary for reliable data analysis of the laser-induced CNV lesions. The CNV lesion area was proportional to the laser power levels. Mice at 12-16 weeks of age developed more severe CNV than those at 6-8 weeks of age, and the gender difference was only significant in mice at 12-16 weeks of age, but not in those at 6-8 weeks of age. Dietary intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid reduced laser-induced CNV in mice. Taken together, laser-induced CNV lesions can be easily and consistently applied using the image-guided laser platform. Mice at 6-8 weeks of age are ideal for the laser-induced CNV model.

  20. An image-guided precision proton radiation platform for preclinical in vivo research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, E.; Emery, R.; Huff, D.; Narayanan, M.; Schwartz, J.; Cao, N.; Meyer, J.; Rengan, R.; Zeng, J.; Sandison, G.; Laramore, G.; Mayr, N.

    2017-01-01

    There are many unknowns in the radiobiology of proton beams and other particle beams. We describe the development and testing of an image-guided low-energy proton system optimized for radiobiological research applications. A 50 MeV proton beam from an existing cyclotron was modified to produce collimated beams (as small as 2 mm in diameter). Ionization chamber and radiochromic film measurements were performed and benchmarked with Monte Carlo simulations (TOPAS). The proton beam was aligned with a commercially-available CT image-guided x-ray irradiator device (SARRP, Xstrahl Inc.). To examine the alternative possibility of adapting a clinical proton therapy system, we performed Monte Carlo simulations of a range-shifted 100 MeV clinical beam. The proton beam exhibits a pristine Bragg Peak at a depth of 21 mm in water with a dose rate of 8.4 Gy min‑1 (3 mm depth). The energy of the incident beam can be modulated to lower energies while preserving the Bragg peak. The LET was: 2.0 keV µm‑1 (water surface), 16 keV µm‑1 (Bragg peak), 27 keV µm‑1 (10% peak dose). Alignment of the proton beam with the SARRP system isocenter was measured at 0.24 mm agreement. The width of the beam changes very little with depth. Monte Carlo-based calculations of dose using the CT image data set as input demonstrate in vivo use. Monte Carlo simulations of the modulated 100 MeV clinical proton beam show a significantly reduced Bragg peak. We demonstrate the feasibility of a proton beam integrated with a commercial x-ray image-guidance system for preclinical in vivo studies. To our knowledge this is the first description of an experimental image-guided proton beam for preclinical radiobiology research. It will enable in vivo investigations of radiobiological effects in proton beams.

  1. Safety of an intercostal approach for imaging-guided percutaneous drainage of subdiaphragmatic abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Stephen R; Nelson, Rendon C; Bashir, Mustafa R; Jaffe, Tracy A; Kim, Charles Y; Haystead, Clare M

    2014-06-01

    The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that an intercostal approach to imaging-guided percutaneous subdiaphragmatic abscess drainage is as safe as a subcostal approach. A cohort of 258 consecutive patients with one or more subdiaphragmatic abscesses referred for imaging-guided (CT or ultrasound) percutaneous drainage was identified. Demographic characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between patients who underwent drainage catheter placement via an intercostal approach versus those who underwent drainage catheter placement via a subcostal approach. Percutaneous drainage was performed for 441 abscesses in 258 patients in 409 separate procedures (214 via an intercostal approach, 186 by a subcostal approach, and nine by a combined approach). The total number of pleural complications was significantly higher in the intercostal group (56/214 [26.2%]) than the subcostal group (15/186 [8.1%]; p intercostal group than the subcostal group (15/214 [7.0%] vs 0/186 [0%], respectively; p intercostal vs subcostal, 3/214 [1.4%] vs 1/186 [0.5%]; p = 0.63). A few of the complications in the patients who underwent an intercostal-approach drainage were clinically significant. Four of the 15 pneumothoraces required thoracostomy tubes and eight of 38 (21.1%) pleural effusions required thoracentesis, none of which was considered infected. An intercostal approach for imaging-guided percutaneous drainage is associated with a higher risk of pleural complications; however, most of these complications are minor and should not preclude use of the intercostal approach.

  2. Five Fraction Image-Guided Radiosurgery for Primary and Recurrent Meningiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Karl Oermann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Benign tumors that arise from the meninges can be difficult to treat due to their potentially large size and proximity to critical structures such as cranial nerves and sinuses. Single fraction radiosurgery may increase the risk of symptomatic peritumoral edema. In this study, we report our results on the efficacy and safety of five fraction image-guided radiosurgery for benign meningiomas. Materials/Methods: Clinical and radiographic data from 38 patients treated with five fraction radiosurgery were reviewed retrospectively. Mean tumor volume was 3.83mm3 (range, 1.08-20.79 mm3. Radiation was delivered using the CyberKnife, a frameless robotic image-guided radiosurgery system with a median total dose of 25 Gy (range, 25 Gy-35 Gy. Results: The median follow-up was 20 months. Acute toxicity was minimal with eight patients (21% requiring a short course of steroids for headache at the end of treatment. Pre-treatment neurological symptoms were present in 24 patients (63.2%. Post treatment, neurological symptoms resolved completely in 14 patients (58.3%, and were persistent in eight patients (33.3%. There were no local failures, 24 tumors remained stable (64% and 14 regressed (36%. Pre-treatment peritumoral edema was observed in five patients (13.2%. Post-treatment asymptomatic peritumoral edema developed in five additional patients (13.2%. On multivariate analysis, pre-treatment peritumoral edema and location adjacent to a large vein were significant risk factors for radiographic post-treatment edema (p = 0.001 and p = 0.026 respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest that five fraction image-guided radiosurgery is well tolerated with a response rate for neurologic symptoms that is similar to other standard treatment options. Rates of peritumoral edema and new cranial nerve deficits following five fraction radiosurgery were low. Longer follow-up is required to validate the safety and long-term effectiveness of this treatment approach.

  3. Anaphylaxis at image-guided epidural pain block secondary to corticosteroid compound.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Deirdre E

    2012-09-01

    Anaphylaxis during image-guided interventional procedures is a rare but potentially fatal event. Anaphylaxis to iodinated contrast is an established and well-recognized adverse effect. However, anaphylaxis to some of the other frequently administered medications given during interventional procedures, such as corticosteroids, is not common knowledge. During caudal epidural injection, iodinated contrast is used to confirm needle placement in the epidural space at the level of the sacral hiatus. A combination of corticosteroid, local anesthetic, and saline is subsequently injected. We describe a very rare case of anaphylaxis to a component of the steroid medication instilled in the caudal epidural space.

  4. Image-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy in inoperable endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsuksiri, J; Chansilpa, Y; Hoskin, P J

    2014-01-01

    Inoperable endometrial cancer may be treated with curative aim using radical radiotherapy alone. The radiation techniques are external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) alone, EBRT plus brachytherapy and brachytherapy alone. Recently, high-dose-rate brachytherapy has been used instead of low-dose-rate brachytherapy. Image-guided brachytherapy enables sufficient coverage of tumour and reduction of dose to the organs at risk, thus increasing the therapeutic ratio of treatment. Local control rates with three-dimensional brachytherapy appear better than with conventional techniques (about 90–100% and 70–90%, respectively). PMID:24807067

  5. Image-Guided Hydrodynamic Gene Delivery: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenya Kamimura

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamics-based delivery has been used as an experimental tool to express transgene in small animals. This in vivo gene transfer method is useful for functional analysis of genetic elements, therapeutic effect of oligonucleotides, and cancer cells to establish the metastatic cancer animal model for experimental research. Recent progress in the development of image-guided procedure for hydrodynamics-based gene delivery in large animals directly supports the clinical applicability of this technique. This review summarizes the current status and recent progress in the development of hydrodynamics-based gene delivery and discusses the future directions for its clinical application.

  6. Extensive endoscopic image-guided sinus surgery decreases BPI-ANCA in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanaes, K; Rasmussen, N; Pressler, T

    2012-01-01

    of BPI-ANCA may be due to the costimulation of BPI when mounting an immune response against P. aeruginosa. The effect of surgery aiming to eradicate bacteria and infected tissue on BPI-ANCA levels is sparsely described. A cohort of patients with CF were included: 53 patients having extensive image......-guided sinus surgery (EIGSS) with topical postoperative antibiotic treatment, 131 non-operated controls and 36 who had double lung transplantation (LTX). In all 219 patients, serum samples before and after surgery or at similar intervals were analysed for IgG and IgA BPI-ANCA. The EIGSS group showed a highly...

  7. [The processing of point clouds for brain deformation existing in image guided neurosurgery system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xufeng; Lin, Yixun; Song, Zhijian

    2008-08-01

    The finite element method (FEM) plays an important role in solving the brain deformation problem in the image guided neurosurgery system. The position of the brain cortex during the surgery provides the boundary condition for the FEM model. In this paper, the information of brain cortex is represented by the unstructured points and the boundary condition is achieved by the processing of unstructured points. The processing includes the mapping of texture, segmentation, simplification and denoising. The method of k-nearest clustering based on local surface properties is used to simplify and denoise the unstructured point clouds. The results of experiment prove the efficiency of point clouds processing.

  8. Development of a Meso-Scale SMA-Based Torsion Actuator for Image-Guided Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jun; Gandhi, Dheeraj; Gullapalli, Rao; Simard, J Marc; Desai, Jaydev P

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling, and control of a meso-scale torsion actuator based on shape memory alloy (SMA) for image-guided surgical procedures. Developing a miniature torsion actuator is challenging, but it opens the possibility of significantly enhancing the robot agility and maneuverability. The proposed torsion actuator is bi-directionally actuated by a pair of antagonistic SMA torsion springs through alternate Joule heating and natural cooling. The torsion actuator is integrated into a surgical robot prototype to demonstrate its working performance in the humid environment under C-Arm CT image guidance.

  9. Image-guided endoscopic spine surgery: Part I. A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaker, R; Cinquin, P; Cotten, A; Lejeune, J P

    2001-08-01

    A feasibility study was performed to determine the efficacy of computer assistance in endoscopic spine surgery. To assess a new method for computer assistance based on image guidance during thoracoscopic or any endoscopic spine procedure. To evaluate the reproducibility, the sensitivity and the reliability of the technique first in vitro and second in clinical use. The computer-based, image-guided surgery is now a routine tool used in open spine surgery. Exposure of the anatomy of the vertebra is needed for registration. This methodology is inapplicable in endoscopic approach. Fluoroscopic-based navigation combines the technology of image-guided surgery and C-arm fluoroscopy. The navigation is based on the fluoroscopic images acquired before surgery. This technology is applicable to endoscopic surgery but the navigation is based on fluoroscopic image. The computed tomography images are not exploited. There are no published data on a technique that allows image-guided surgery based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. A laboratory study was performed on a thoracic human spine. One vertebra was marked on the right lateral side of the body with five titanium marks. A percutaneous reference frame was specifically designed to be placed in the pedicle of the same marked vertebrae. The reference frame acted as a 3D localizer and a registration tool. The spine model was scanned including the reference frame. A standard Stealth station treatment guidance platform (Medtronic, Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN) was used for simulation. The registration was obtained using the reference frame. Twenty navigation procedure trials were done and the error was recorded based on the distance between the anatomical point and the corresponding virtual one. Registration was always possible using the stealth station and a standard spine navigational software (spine 3, Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN). The mean error after registration given by the computer was 0.96 mm

  10. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  11. Precise image-guided irradiation of small animals: a flexible non-profit platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillner, Falk; Thute, Prasad; Löck, Steffen; Dietrich, Antje; Fursov, Andriy; Haase, Robert; Lukas, Mathias; Rimarzig, Bernd; Sobiella, Manfred; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael; Bütof, Rebecca; Enghardt, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Preclinical in vivo studies using small animals are essential to develop new therapeutic options in radiation oncology. Of particular interest are orthotopic tumour models, which better reflect the clinical situation in terms of growth patterns and microenvironmental parameters of the tumour as well as the interplay of tumours with the surrounding normal tissues. Such orthotopic models increase the technical demands and the complexity of preclinical studies as local irradiation with therapeutically relevant doses requires image-guided target localisation and accurate beam application. Moreover, advanced imaging techniques are needed for monitoring treatment outcome. We present a novel small animal image-guided radiation therapy (SAIGRT) system, which allows for precise and accurate, conformal irradiation and x-ray imaging of small animals. High accuracy is achieved by its robust construction, the precise movement of its components and a fast high-resolution flat-panel detector. Field forming and x-ray imaging is accomplished close to the animal resulting in a small penumbra and a high image quality. Feasibility for irradiating orthotopic models has been proven using lung tumour and glioblastoma models in mice. The SAIGRT system provides a flexible, non-profit academic research platform which can be adapted to specific experimental needs and therefore enables systematic preclinical trials in multicentre research networks.

  12. Clinical practice of image-guided spine radiosurgery - results from an international research consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guckenberger Matthias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal radiosurgery is a quickly evolving technique in the radiotherapy and neurosurgical communities. However, the methods of spine radiosurgery have not been standardized. This article describes the results of a survey about the methods of spine radiosurgery at five international institutions. Methods All institutions are members of the Elekta Spine Radiosurgery Research Consortium and have a dedicated research and clinical focus on image-guided radiosurgery. The questionnaire consisted of 75 items covering all major steps of spine radiosurgery. Results Strong agreement in the methods of spine radiosurgery was observed. In particular, similarities were observed with safety and quality assurance playing an important role in the methods of all institutions, cooperation between neurosurgeons and radiation oncologists in case selection, dedicated imaging for target- and organ-at-risk delineation, application of proper safety margins for the target volume and organs-at-risk, conformal planning and precise image-guided treatment delivery, and close clinical and radiological follow-up. In contrast, three major areas of uncertainty and disagreement were identified: 1 Indications and contra-indications for spine radiosurgery; 2 treatment dose and fractionation and 3 tolerance dose of the spinal cord. Conclusions Results of this study reflect the current practice of spine radiosurgery in large academic centers. Despite close agreement was observed in many steps of spine radiosurgery, further research in form of retrospective and especially prospective studies is required to refine the details of spinal radiosurgery in terms of safety and efficacy.

  13. Intracranial depth electrodes implantation in the era of image-guided surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Silva Centeno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The advent of modern image-guided surgery has revolutionized depth electrode implantation techniques. Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG, introduced by Talairach in the 1950s, is an invasive method for three-dimensional analysis on the epileptogenic zone based on the technique of intracranial implantation of depth electrodes. The aim of this article is to discuss the principles of SEEG and their evolution from the Talairach era to the image-guided surgery of today, along with future prospects. Although the general principles of SEEG have remained intact over the years, the implantation of depth electrodes, i.e. the surgical technique that enables this method, has undergone tremendous evolution over the last three decades, due the advent of modern imaging techniques, computer systems and new stereotactic techniques. The use of robotic systems, the constant evolution of imaging and computing techniques and the use of depth electrodes together with microdialysis probes will open up enormous prospects for applying depth electrodes and SEEG both for investigative use and for therapeutic use. Brain stimulation of deep targets and the construction of "smart" electrodes may, in the near future, increase the need to use this method.

  14. Clinical outcomes following 3D image-guided brachytherapy for vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Larissa J; Damato, Antonio L; Viswanathan, Akila N

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate clinical outcomes for women with recurrent endometrial cancer treated with 3D image-guided brachytherapy 44 women, of whom 13 had received prior RT, received salvage RT for vaginal recurrence from 9/03 to 8/11. HDR or LDR interstitial brachytherapy was performed under MR or CT guidance in 35 patients (80%); 9 (20%) had CT-guided HDR cylinder brachytherapy. The median cumulative dose in EQD2 was 75.5 Gy. Actuarial estimates of local failure (LF), disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated by Kaplan-Meier. Histologic subtypes were endometrioid (EAC, 33), papillary serous/clear cell (UPSC/CC, 5) and carcinosarcoma (CS, 6). The 2-year DFS/OS rates were 75%/89% for EAC and 11%/24% for UPSC/CC/CS (both pradiotherapy. 3D image-guided brachytherapy results in excellent local control for women with recurrent endometrial cancer, particularly with cumulative EQD2 doses greater than 70 Gy. Successful salvage of vaginal recurrence is related to tumor grade and histologic subtype. © 2013.

  15. Ultrasound triggered image-guided drug delivery to inhibit vascular reconstruction via paclitaxel-loaded microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xu; Guo, Jun; He, Cancan; Geng, Huaxiao; Yu, Gengsheng; Li, Jinqing; Zheng, Hairong; Ji, Xiaojuan; Yan, Fei

    2016-02-22

    Paclitaxel (PTX) has been recognized as a promising drug for intervention of vascular reconstructions. However, it is still difficult to achieve local drug delivery in a spatio-temporally controllable manner under real-time image guidance. Here, we introduce an ultrasound (US) triggered image-guided drug delivery approach to inhibit vascular reconstruction via paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded microbubbles (PLM) in a rabbit iliac balloon injury model. PLM was prepared through encapsulating PTX in the shell of lipid microbubbles via film hydration and mechanical vibration technique. Our results showed PLM could effectively deliver PTX when exposed to US irradiation and result in significantly lower viability of vascular smooth muscle cells. Ultrasonographic examinations revealed the US signals from PLM in the iliac artery were greatly increased after intravenous administration of PLM, making it possible to identify the restenosis regions of iliac artery. The in vivo anti-restenosis experiments with PLM and US greatly inhibited neointimal hyperplasia at the injured site, showing an increased lumen area and reduced the ratio of intima area and the media area (I/M ratio). No obvious functional damages to liver and kidney were observed for those animals. Our study provided a promising approach to realize US triggered image-guided PTX delivery for therapeutic applications against iliac restenosis.

  16. Quality Assurance of Multiport Image-Guided Minimally Invasive Surgery at the Lateral Skull Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nau-Hermes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For multiport image-guided minimally invasive surgery at the lateral skull base a quality management is necessary to avoid the damage of closely spaced critical neurovascular structures. So far there is no standardized method applicable independently from the surgery. Therefore, we adapt a quality management method, the quality gates (QG, which is well established in, for example, the automotive industry and apply it to multiport image-guided minimally invasive surgery. QG divide a process into different sections. Passing between sections can only be achieved if previously defined requirements are fulfilled which secures the process chain. An interdisciplinary team of otosurgeons, computer scientists, and engineers has worked together to define the quality gates and the corresponding criteria that need to be fulfilled before passing each quality gate. In order to evaluate the defined QG and their criteria, the new surgery method was applied with a first prototype at a human skull cadaver model. We show that the QG method can ensure a safe multiport minimally invasive surgical process at the lateral skull base. Therewith, we present an approach towards the standardization of quality assurance of surgical processes.

  17. Image-guided radiotherapy platform using single nodule conditional lung cancer mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter-Sprie, Grit S; Korideck, Houari; Christensen, Camilla L; Herter, Jan M; Rhee, Kevin; Berbeco, Ross I; Bennett, David G; Akbay, Esra A; Kozono, David; Mak, Raymond H; Mike Makrigiorgos, G; Kimmelman, Alec C; Wong, Kwok-Kin

    2014-12-18

    Close resemblance of murine and human trials is essential to achieve the best predictive value of animal-based translational cancer research. Kras-driven genetically engineered mouse models of non-small-cell lung cancer faithfully predict the response of human lung cancers to systemic chemotherapy. Owing to development of multifocal disease, however, these models have not been usable in studies of outcomes following focal radiotherapy (RT). We report the development of a preclinical platform to deliver state-of-the-art image-guided RT in these models. Presence of a single tumour as usually diagnosed in patients is modelled by confined injection of adenoviral Cre recombinase. Furthermore, three-dimensional conformal planning and state-of-the-art image-guided dose delivery are performed as in humans. We evaluate treatment efficacies of two different radiation regimens and find that Kras-driven tumours can temporarily be stabilized upon RT, whereas additional loss of either Lkb1 or p53 renders these lesions less responsive to RT.

  18. An integrated orthognathic surgery system for virtual planning and image-guided transfer without intermediate splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Seung; Woo, Sang-Yoon; Yang, Hoon Joo; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Lee, Sam-Sun; Heo, Min-Suk; Choi, Soon-Chul; Hwang, Soon Jung; Yi, Won-Jin

    2014-12-01

    Accurate surgical planning and transfer of the planning in orthognathic surgery are very important in achieving a successful surgical outcome with appropriate improvement. Conventionally, the paper surgery is performed based on a 2D cephalometric radiograph, and the results are expressed using cast models and an articulator. We developed an integrated orthognathic surgery system with 3D virtual planning and image-guided transfer. The maxillary surgery of orthognathic patients was planned virtually, and the planning results were transferred to the cast model by image guidance. During virtual planning, the displacement of the reference points was confirmed by the displacement from conventional paper surgery at each procedure. The results of virtual surgery were transferred to the physical cast models directly through image guidance. The root mean square (RMS) difference between virtual surgery and conventional model surgery was 0.75 ± 0.51 mm for 12 patients. The RMS difference between virtual surgery and image-guidance results was 0.78 ± 0.52 mm, which showed no significant difference from the difference of conventional model surgery. The image-guided orthognathic surgery system integrated with virtual planning will replace physical model surgical planning and enable transfer of the virtual planning directly without the need for an intermediate splint.

  19. An integrated multimodality image-guided robot system for small-animal imaging research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Wen-Lin [Department of Radiology, Tzu-Chi University and Radiation Oncology, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsin Wu, Tung [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Shih-Ming [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chia-Lin [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jason J.S., E-mail: jslee@ym.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yung-Hui, E-mail: yhhuang@isu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-01

    We design and construct an image-guided robot system for use in small-animal imaging research. This device allows the use of co-registered small-animal PET-MRI images to guide the movements of robotic controllers, which will accurately place a needle probe at any predetermined location inside, for example, a mouse tumor, for biological readouts without sacrificing the animal. This system is composed of three major components: an automated robot device, a CCD monitoring mechanism, and a multimodality registration implementation. Specifically, the CCD monitoring mechanism was used for correction and validation of the robot device. To demonstrate the value of the proposed system, we performed a tumor hypoxia study that involved FMISO small-animal PET imaging and the delivering of a pO{sub 2} probe into the mouse tumor using the image-guided robot system. During our evaluation, the needle positioning error was found to be within 0.153{+-}0.042 mm of desired placement; the phantom simulation errors were within 0.693{+-}0.128 mm. In small-animal studies, the pO{sub 2} probe measurements in the corresponding hypoxia areas showed good correlation with significant, low tissue oxygen tensions (less than 6 mmHg). We have confirmed the feasibility of the system and successfully applied it to small-animal investigations. The system could be easily adapted to extend to other biomedical investigations in the future.

  20. Anser EMT: the first open-source electromagnetic tracking platform for image-guided interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Herman Alexander; Franz, Alfred Michael; O'Donoghue, Kilian; Seitel, Alexander; Trauzettel, Fabian; Maier-Hein, Lena; Cantillon-Murphy, Pádraig

    2017-06-01

    Electromagnetic tracking is the gold standard for instrument tracking and navigation in the clinical setting without line of sight. Whilst clinical platforms exist for interventional bronchoscopy and neurosurgical navigation, the limited flexibility and high costs of electromagnetic tracking (EMT) systems for research investigations mitigate against a better understanding of the technology's characterisation and limitations. The Anser project provides an open-source implementation for EMT with particular application to image-guided interventions. This work provides implementation schematics for our previously reported EMT system which relies on low-cost acquisition and demodulation techniques using both National Instruments and Arduino hardware alongside MATLAB support code. The system performance is objectively compared to other commercial tracking platforms using the Hummel assessment protocol. Positional accuracy of 1.14 mm and angular rotation accuracy of [Formula: see text] are reported. Like other EMT platforms, Anser is susceptible to tracking errors due to eddy current and ferromagnetic distortion. The system is compatible with commercially available EMT sensors as well as the Open Network Interface for image-guided therapy (OpenIGTLink) for easy communication with visualisation and medical imaging toolkits such as MITK and 3D Slicer. By providing an open-source platform for research investigations, we believe that novel and collaborative approaches can overcome the limitations of current EMT technology.

  1. MoO3-x quantum dots for photoacoustic imaging guided photothermal/photodynamic cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dandan; Guo, Wei; Guo, Chongshen; Sun, Jianzhe; Zheng, Nannan; Wang, Fei; Yan, Mei; Liu, Shaoqin

    2017-02-02

    A theranostic system of image-guided phototherapy is considered as a potential technique for cancer treatment because of the ability to integrate diagnostics and therapies together, thus enhancing accuracy and visualization during the treatment. In this work, we realized photoacoustic (PA) imaging-guided photothermal (PT)/photodynamic (PD) combined cancer treatment just via a single material, MoO3-x quantum dots (QDs). Due to their strong NIR harvesting ability, MoO3-x QDs can convert incident light into hyperthermia and sensitize the formation of singlet oxygen synchronously as evidenced by in vitro assay, hence, they can behave as both PT and PD agents effectively and act as a "dual-punch" to cancer cells. In a further study, elimination of solid tumors from HeLa-tumor bearing mice could be achieved in a MoO3-x QD mediated phototherapeutic group without obvious lesions to the major organs. In addition, the desired PT effect also makes MoO3-x QDs an exogenous PA contrast agent for in vivo live-imaging to depict tumors. Compared with previously reported theranostic systems that put several components into one system, our multifunctional agent of MoO3-x QDs is exempt from unpredictable mutual interference between components and ease of leakage of virtual components from the composited system.

  2. Imaging guided interventional procedures in paediatric uroradiology--a case based overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, M. E-mail: michael.riccabona@kfunigraz.ac.at; Sorantin, E.; Hausegger, K

    2002-08-01

    Objective: To describe the potential and application of interventional image guided procedures in the paediatric urinary tract. Patients and methods: The different techniques are illustrated using case reports. The examples comprise established indications such as percutaneous nephrostomy for compromised kidneys in obstructive uropathy and infection, sonographic guided renal biopsy including monitoring or treatment of complications after biopsy, and evaluation and balloon dilatation of childhood renal artery stenosis. There are new applications such as treatment of stenosis in cutaneous ureterostomy or sonographically guided catheterism for deployment of therapeutic agents. Results: Generally, the procedures are safe and successful. However, complications may occur, and peri-/post-interventional monitoring is mandatory to insure early detection and adequate management. Sometimes additional treatment such as percutaneous embolisation of a symptomatic post biopsy arterio-venous fistula, or a second biopsy for recurrent disease may become necessary. Conclusion: Imaging guided interventional procedures are performed successfully in a variety of diseases of the paediatric urinary tract. They can be considered a valuable additional modality throughout infancy and childhood.

  3. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluorescence (QLF). In order for image-guided laser ablation to be feasible, chemical and physical modification of tooth surfaces due to laser irradiation cannot greatly reduce the contrast between sound and demineralized dental hard tissues. Sound and demineralized surfaces of 48 extracted human molar teeth with non-cavitated lesions were examined. Images were acquired before and after laser irradiation using visible and near-IR reflectance and QLF at several wavelengths. Polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography was used to confirm that lesions were present. The highest contrast was attained at 1460-nm and 1500-1700-nm, wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption. The reflectance did not decrease significantly after laser irradiation for those wavelengths.

  4. Image-guided Spine Stabilization for Traumatic or Osteoporotic Spine Injury: Radiological Accuracy and Neurological Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIMOKAWA, Nobuyuki; ABE, Junya; SATOH, Hidetoshi; ARIMA, Hironori; TAKAMI, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in image-guided surgery (IGS) over the last few decades. IGS can be effectively applied to spinal instrumentation surgery. In the present study, we focused our attention on the feasibility and safety of image-guided spine stabilization for traumatic or osteoporotic spine injury. The IGS spine fixation with or without minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques such as percutaneous screw placement, balloon kyphoplasty (BKP), or vertebroplasty (VP) were accomplished in 80 patients with traumatic or osteoprotic spine injury between 2007 and 2015. The injured vertebral levels included the following: cervical spine, 41; thoracic spine, 22; and lumbar spine, 17. Neurological condition before and after surgery was assessed using the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS). A total of 419 pedicle, lateral mass, or laminar screws were placed, and 399 screws (95.2%) were found to be placed correctly based on postoperative computed tomography scan. Although 20 screws (4.8%) were found to be unexpectedly placed incorrectly, no neural or vascular complications closely associated with screw placement were encountered. Neurological outcomes appeared to be acceptable or successful based on AIS. The IGS is a promising technique that can improve the accuracy of screw placement and reduce potential injury to critical neurovascular structures. The integration of MIS and IGS has proved feasible and safe in the treatment of traumatic or osteoporotic spine injury, although a thorough knowledge of surgical anatomy, spine biomechanics, and basic technique remain the most essential aspects for a successful surgery. PMID:27063144

  5. microMS: A Python Platform for Image-Guided Mass Spectrometry Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comi, Troy J.; Neumann, Elizabeth K.; Do, Thanh D.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2017-09-01

    Image-guided mass spectrometry (MS) profiling provides a facile framework for analyzing samples ranging from single cells to tissue sections. The fundamental workflow utilizes a whole-slide microscopy image to select targets of interest, determine their spatial locations, and subsequently perform MS analysis at those locations. Improving upon prior reported methodology, a software package was developed for working with microscopy images. microMS, for microscopy-guided mass spectrometry, allows the user to select and profile diverse samples using a variety of target patterns and mass analyzers. Written in Python, the program provides an intuitive graphical user interface to simplify image-guided MS for novice users. The class hierarchy of instrument interactions permits integration of new MS systems while retaining the feature-rich image analysis framework. microMS is a versatile platform for performing targeted profiling experiments using a series of mass spectrometers. The flexibility in mass analyzers greatly simplifies serial analyses of the same targets by different instruments. The current capabilities of microMS are presented, and its application for off-line analysis of single cells on three distinct instruments is demonstrated. The software has been made freely available for research purposes. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Endoscopic laser speckle contrast imaging system using a fibre image guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lipei; Elson, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    There are several challenges when fibre image guides (FIG) are used for endoscopic speckle acquisition: cross talk between fibre cores, FIG fixed pattern noise, the small probe diameter and low sensitivity and resolution due to the decreased number of speckles and their low transmission through the FIG. In this paper, an endoscopic laser speckle contrast analysis system (ELASCA) based on a leached fibre image guide (LFIG) is presented. Different methods of acquiring LASCA images through LFIGs were investigated including the effect of changing the number of speckles per fibre, defocusing the FIG image onto the CCD and processing speckle images with masks and Butterworth filters to deal with the LFIG fixed pattern and noise from the cladding. The experimental results based on a phantom consisting of intralipid suspension pumped at varying speed showed that this system could detect speed changes and that in the case of multiple speckles per fibre the Nyquist frequency criterion need not be applied since the speckle may be transferred through the fibres to some extent. In contrast to the previously reported ELASCA results, this system can both give a map of the observed area and the temporal change in flow. An additional benefit is the small size of the LFIG, which is compatible with current endoscopic instrument channels and may allow additional surgical applications.

  7. microMS: A Python Platform for Image-Guided Mass Spectrometry Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comi, Troy J.; Neumann, Elizabeth K.; Do, Thanh D.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2017-06-01

    Image-guided mass spectrometry (MS) profiling provides a facile framework for analyzing samples ranging from single cells to tissue sections. The fundamental workflow utilizes a whole-slide microscopy image to select targets of interest, determine their spatial locations, and subsequently perform MS analysis at those locations. Improving upon prior reported methodology, a software package was developed for working with microscopy images. microMS, for microscopy-guided mass spectrometry, allows the user to select and profile diverse samples using a variety of target patterns and mass analyzers. Written in Python, the program provides an intuitive graphical user interface to simplify image-guided MS for novice users. The class hierarchy of instrument interactions permits integration of new MS systems while retaining the feature-rich image analysis framework. microMS is a versatile platform for performing targeted profiling experiments using a series of mass spectrometers. The flexibility in mass analyzers greatly simplifies serial analyses of the same targets by different instruments. The current capabilities of microMS are presented, and its application for off-line analysis of single cells on three distinct instruments is demonstrated. The software has been made freely available for research purposes.

  8. Image guided surgery innovation with graduate students - a new lecture format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friebe Michael

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Image Guided Surgeries (IGS, incremental innovation is normally not a technology push (technology delivered but rather a pull (by learning and working with the clinical users from understanding how these surgeries are performed. Engineers need to understand that only through proper observation, procedure know-how and subsequent analysis and evaluation, clinically relevant innovation can be generated. And, it is also essential to understand the associated health economics that could potentially come with new technological approaches. We created a new lecture format (6 ECTS for graduate students that combined the basics of image guided procedures with innovation tools (Design Thinking, Lean Engineering, Value Proposition Canvas, Innovation Games and actual visits of a surgical procedure. The students had to attend these procedures in small groups and had to identify and work on one or more innovation projects based on their observations and based on a prioritisation of medical need, pains and gains of the stakeholders, and ease of implementation. Almost 200 graduate students completed this training in the past 5 years with excellent results for the participating clinicians, and for the future engineers. This paper presents the lecture content, the setup, some statistics and results with the hope that other institutions will follow to offer similar programs that not only help the engineering students identify what clinically relevant innovation is (invention x clinical implementation, but that also pave the path for future interdisciplinary teams that will lead to incremental and disruptive innovation.

  9. Comprehensive Evaluations of Cone-beam CT dose in Image-guided Radiation Therapy via GPU-based Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Montanari, Davide; Silvestri, Chiara; Graves, Yan J; Yan, Hao; Cervino, Laura; Rice, Roger; Jiang, Steve B; Jia, Xun

    2013-01-01

    Cone beam CT (CBCT) has been widely used for patient setup in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Radiation dose from CBCT scans has become a clinical concern. The purposes of this study are 1) to commission a GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation package gCTD for Varian On-Board Imaging (OBI) system and test the calculation accuracy, and 2) to quantitatively evaluate CBCT dose from the OBI system in typical IGRT scan protocols. We first conducted dose measurements in a water phantom. X-ray source model parameters used in gCTD are obtained through a commissioning process. gCTD accuracy is demonstrated by comparing calculations with measurements in water and in CTDI phantoms. 25 brain cancer patients are used to study dose in a standard-dose head protocol, and 25 prostate cancer patients are used to study dose in pelvis protocol and pelvis spotlight protocol. Mean dose to each organ is calculated. Mean dose to 2% voxels that have the highest dose is also computed to quantify the maximum dose. It is fo...

  10. PHENIX on-line systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, S.S.; Allen, M.; Alley, G.; Amirikas, R.; Arai, Y.; Awes, T.C.; Barish, K.N.; Barta, F.; Batsouli, S.; Belikov, S.; Bennett, M.J.; Bobrek, M.; Boissevain, J.G.; Boose, S.; Britton, C.; Britton, L.; Bryan, W.L.; Cafferty, M.M.; Carey, T.A.; Chang, W.C.; Chi, C.Y.; Chiu, M.; Cianciolo, V.; Cole, B.A.; Constantin, P.; Cook, K.C.; Cunitz, H.; Desmond, E.J.; Ebisu, K.; Efremenko, Y.V.; El Chenawi, K.; Emery, M.S.; Engo, D.; Ericson, N.; Fields, D.E.; Frank, S.; Frantz, J.E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A.D.; Fried, J.; Gannon, J.; Gee, T.F.; Gentry, R.; Giannotti, P.; Gustafsson, H.-A.; Haggerty, J.S.; Hahn, S.; Halliwell, J.; Hamagaki, H.; Hansen, A.G.; Hara, H.; Harder, J.; He, X.; Heistermann, F.; Hemmick, T.K.; Hibino, M.; Hill, J.C. E-mail: jhill@iastate.edu; Homma, K.; Jacak, B.V.; Jagadish, U.; Jia, J.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kandasamy, A.; Kang, J.H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Katou, K.; Kelley, M.A.; Kelly, S.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, S.Y.; Kim, Y.G.; Kistenev, E.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kurita, K.; Lajoie, J.G.; Lenz, M.; Lenz, W.; Li, X.H.; Lin, S.; Liu, M.X.; Markacs, S.; Matathias, F.; Matsumoto, T.; Mead, J.; Mischke, R.E.; Mishra, G.C.; Moore, A.; Muniruzzamann, M.; Musrock, M.; Nagle, J.L.; Nandi, B.K.; Newby, J.; Nystrand, J.; O' Brien, E.; O' Connor, P.; Ohnishi, H.; Oskarsson, A.; Osterman, L.; Oyama, K.; Paffrath, L.; Pancake, C.E.; Pantuev, V.S.; Petridis, A.N.; Pisani, R.P.; Plagge, T.; Plasil, F.; Purschke, M.L.; Rankowitz, S.; Rao, R.; Rau, M.; Read, K.F.; Ryu, S.S.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sato, H.D.; Seto, R.; Shiina, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Simon-Gillo, J.; Simpson, M.; Sippach, W.; Skank, H.D.; Skutnik, S.; Sleege, G.A.; Smith, G.D.; Smith, M.; Stankus, P.W.; Steinberg, P.; Sugitate, T.; Sullivan, J.P.; Taketani, A.; Tamai, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Thomas, W.D.; Todd, R.; Toldo, F.; Turner, G.; Ushiroda, T.; Velkovska, J.; Hecke, H.W. van; Lith, M. van; Villatte, L.; Achen, W. von; Walker, J.W.; Wang, H.Q.; White, S.N.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Witzig, C.; Wood, L.[and others

    2003-03-01

    The PHENIX On-Line system takes signals from the Front End Modules (FEM) on each detector subsystem for the purpose of generating events for physics analysis. Processing of event data begins when the Data Collection Modules (DCM) receive data via fiber-optic links from the FEMs. The DCMs format and zero suppress the data and generate data packets. These packets go to the Event Builders (EvB) that assemble the events in final form. The Level-1 trigger (LVL1) generates a decision for each beam crossing and eliminates uninteresting events. The FEMs carry out all detector processing of the data so that it is delivered to the DCMs using a standard format. The FEMs also provide buffering for LVL1 trigger processing and DCM data collection. This is carried out using an architecture that is pipelined and deadtimeless. All of this is controlled by the Master Timing System (MTS) that distributes the RHIC clocks. A Level-2 trigger (LVL2) gives additional discrimination. A description of the components and operation of the PHENIX On-Line system is given and the solution to a number of electronic infrastructure problems are discussed.

  11. Multi-institutional MicroCT image comparison of image-guided small animal irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Chris D.; Lindsay, Patricia; E Graves, Edward; Wong, Eugene; Perez, Jessica R.; Poirier, Yannick; Ben-Bouchta, Youssef; Kanesalingam, Thilakshan; Chen, Haijian; E Rubinstein, Ashley; Sheng, Ke; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    To recommend imaging protocols and establish tolerance levels for microCT image quality assurance (QA) performed on conformal image-guided small animal irradiators. A fully automated QA software SAPA (small animal phantom analyzer) for image analysis of the commercial Shelley micro-CT MCTP 610 phantom was developed, in which quantitative analyses of CT number linearity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), uniformity and noise, geometric accuracy, spatial resolution by means of modulation transfer function (MTF), and CT contrast were performed. Phantom microCT scans from eleven institutions acquired with four image-guided small animal irradiator units (including the commercial PXi X-RAD SmART and Xstrahl SARRP systems) with varying parameters used for routine small animal imaging were analyzed. Multi-institutional data sets were compared using SAPA, based on which tolerance levels for each QA test were established and imaging protocols for QA were recommended. By analyzing microCT data from 11 institutions, we established image QA tolerance levels for all image quality tests. CT number linearity set to R 2  >  0.990 was acceptable in microCT data acquired at all but three institutions. Acceptable SNR  >  36 and noise levels  1.5 lp mm-1 for MTF  =  0.2) was obtained at all but four institutions due to their large image voxel size used (>0.275 mm). Ten of the eleven institutions passed the set QA tolerance for geometric accuracy (2000 HU for 30 mgI ml-1). We recommend performing imaging QA with 70 kVp, 1.5 mA, 120 s imaging time, 0.20 mm voxel size, and a frame rate of 5 fps for the PXi X-RAD SmART. For the Xstrahl SARRP, we recommend using 60 kVp, 1.0 mA, 240 s imaging time, 0.20 mm voxel size, and 6 fps. These imaging protocols should result in high quality images that pass the set tolerance levels on all systems. Average SAPA computation time for complete QA analysis for a 0.20 mm voxel, 400 slice Shelley phantom microCT data set

  12. Fusion of Ultrasound Tissue-Typing Images with Multiparametric MRI for Image-guided Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    S, Curran W and Liu T. “Quantitative Assessment of Arm Lymphedema Using Ultrasound 2D Strain Estimate Based on Non-Rigid Registration: A Feasibility...Oral)* 16. Yang X, Torres M, Kirkpatrick S, Curran W and Liu T. “Quantitative Assessment of Arm Lymphedema Using Ultrasound 2D Strain Estimate Based...Furthermore, the clinical feasibility of our approach was demonstrated with the in vivo data from patients with arm lymphedema . Key words

  13. Uncertainties estimation in the ultrasound CMS-I beam image prostate localization; Estimacion de las incertidumbres en el sistema locadizador de prostata por ultrasonidos CMS I-Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz Freire, C. J.; Martin Rincon, C.; Marques Fraguela, E.; Prezado Alonso, Y.; Montes Fuentes, C.; Fernandez Bordes, M.

    2006-07-01

    Organ motion is an issue of major concern when dose escalation techniques in radiotherapy such as IMRT are considered. Patient and organ motion can be better account for by means of Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT), allowing for a reduction of margins to the CTV. Ultrasound images have been used for prostate localization. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the uncertainties of the newly developed ultrasound-based system CMS I-BEAM for daily prostate localization in radiotherapy. (Author)

  14. Guidelines for target volume definition in post-operative radiotherapy for prostate cancer, on behalf of the EORTC Radiation Oncology Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortmans, Philip; Bossi, Alberto; Vandeputte, Katia; Bosset, Mathieu; Miralbell, Raymond; Maingon, Philippe; Boehmer, Dirk; Budiharto, Tom; Symon, Zvi; van den Bergh, Alfons C. M.; Scrase, Christopher; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Bolla, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The appropriate application of 3-D conformal radiotherapy, intensity modulated radiotherapy or image guided radiotherapy for patients undergoing post-operative radiotherapy for prostate cancer requires a standardisation of the target volume definition and delineation as well as stanclardisation of t

  15. Image-guided percutaneous procedures in deep pelvic sites: review of the main approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Rodrigo Gobbo; Macedo Filho, Carlos Leite de; Maurano, Alexandre; Francisco Neto, Miguel Jose; Daniel, Mauro Miguel; Rosemberg, Laercio Alberto [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Radiologia Intervencionista Nao-Vascular]. E-mail: rogarcia@usp.br; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2008-09-15

    Image-guided percutaneous procedures have increasingly been established as safe and effective interventional tools in the diagnosis and management of masses and collections in several body segments. However, lesions in deep pelvic sites still pose a challenge for radiologists because of overlying anatomic structures. The success of a percutaneous biopsy depends on a safe access route planning based on a deep understanding of cross sectional anatomy of the pelvis. Anterior and lateral transabdominal, anterolateral extraperitoneal, transvaginal, transrectal and transgluteal approaches are described. The present study was aimed at reviewing the normal pelvic cross-sectional anatomy, demonstrating the different access routes for ultrasonography and computed tomography guided pelvic biopsies and drainages as well as discussing the main advantages and complications associated with these approaches. (author)

  16. Robust 3-D airway tree segmentation for image-guided peripheral bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Michael W; Gibbs, Jason D; Cornish, Duane C; Higgins, William E

    2010-04-01

    A vital task in the planning of peripheral bronchoscopy is the segmentation of the airway tree from a 3-D multidetector computed tomography chest scan. Unfortunately, existing methods typically do not sufficiently extract the necessary peripheral airways needed to plan a procedure. We present a robust method that draws upon both local and global information. The method begins with a conservative segmentation of the major airways. Follow-on stages then exhaustively search for additional candidate airway locations. Finally, a graph-based optimization method counterbalances both the benefit and cost of retaining candidate airway locations for the final segmentation. Results demonstrate that the proposed method typically extracts 2-3 more generations of airways than several other methods, and that the extracted airway trees enable image-guided bronchoscopy deeper into the human lung periphery than past studies.

  17. A 3-D visualization method for image-guided brain surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbakis, N G; Awad, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with a 3D methodology for brain tumor image-guided surgery. The methodology is based on development of a visualization process that mimics the human surgeon behavior and decision-making. In particular, it originally constructs a 3D representation of a tumor by using the segmented version of the 2D MRI images. Then it develops an optimal path for the tumor extraction based on minimizing the surgical effort and penetration area. A cost function, incorporated in this process, minimizes the damage surrounding healthy tissues taking into consideration the constraints of a new snake-like surgical tool proposed here. The tumor extraction method presented in this paper is compared with the ordinary method used on brain surgery, which is based on a straight-line based surgical tool. Illustrative examples based on real simulations present the advantages of the 3D methodology proposed here.

  18. Polypyrrole Hollow Microspheres as Echogenic Photothermal Agent for Ultrasound Imaging Guided Tumor Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Zhengbao; Wang, Jinrui; Qu, Enze; Zhang, Shuhai; Jin, Yushen; Wang, Shumin; Dai, Zhifei

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging provides a valuable opportunity to administer photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer with real-time guidance to ensure proper targeting, but only a few theranostic agents were developed by physically grafting near infrared (NIR)-absorbing inorganic nanomaterials to ready-made ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) for US imaging guided PTT. In this paper, NIR absorbing hollow microspheres were generated from polypyrrole merely using a facile one-step microemulsion method. It was found that the obtained polypyrrole hollow microspheres (PPyHMs) can act as an efficient theranostic agent not only to enhance US imaging greatly, but also exhibit excellent photohyperthermic effects. The contrast consistently sustained the echo signals for no less than 5 min and the NIR laser light ablated the tumor completely within two weeks in the presence of PPyHMs. More importantly, no use of additional NIR absorber substantially minimizes an onetime dose of the theranostic agent. PMID:23912977

  19. A novel thermal accelerant for augmentation of microwave energy during image-guided tumor ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, William K. C.; Maxwell, Aaron W. P.; Frank, Victoria E.; Primmer, Michael P.; Paul, Jarod B.; Susai, Cynthia; Collins, Scott A.; Borjeson, Tiffany M.; Baird, Greyson L.; Lombardo, Kara A.; Dupuy, Damian E.

    2017-02-01

    The greatest challenge in image-guided thermal ablation (IGTA) of liver tumors is a relatively high recurrence rate (ca. 30%) due to incomplete ablation. To meet this challenge, we have developed a novel Thermal Accelerator (TA) to demonstrate its capability to, 1) augment microwave (MW) energy from a distance unattainable by antenna alone; 2) turn into a gel at body temperature; 3) act as a CT or US contrast. We have examined the TA efficiency using in vitro and ex vivo models: microwave power, TA dose, frequencies and TA-to-tip distance were varied, and temperature readings compared with and without TA. Using the in vitro model, it was established that both the rate and magnitude of increase in ablation zone temperature were significantly greater with TA under all tested conditions (panimal model are consistent with the observations made in in vitro and en vivo studies.

  20. Image-guided surgery and medical robotics in the cranial area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, G

    2007-01-01

    Surgery in the cranial area includes complex anatomic situations with high-risk structures and high demands for functional and aesthetic results. Conventional surgery requires that the surgeon transfers complex anatomic and surgical planning information, using spatial sense and experience. The surgical procedure depends entirely on the manual skills of the operator. The development of image-guided surgery provides new revolutionary opportunities by integrating presurgical 3D imaging and intraoperative manipulation. Augmented reality, mechatronic surgical tools, and medical robotics may continue to progress in surgical instrumentation, and ultimately, surgical care. The aim of this article is to review and discuss state-of-the-art surgical navigation and medical robotics, image-to-patient registration, aspects of accuracy, and clinical applications for surgery in the cranial area.

  1. Single camera imaging system for color and near-infrared fluorescence image guided surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenyue; Zhu, Nan; Pacheco, Shaun; Wang, Xia; Liang, Rongguang

    2014-08-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging systems have been developed for image guided surgery in recent years. However, current systems are typically bulky and work only when surgical light in the operating room (OR) is off. We propose a single camera imaging system that is capable of capturing NIR fluorescence and color images under normal surgical lighting illumination. Using a new RGB-NIR sensor and synchronized NIR excitation illumination, we have demonstrated that the system can acquire both color information and fluorescence signal with high sensitivity under normal surgical lighting illumination. The experimental results show that ICG sample with concentration of 0.13 μM can be detected when the excitation irradiance is 3.92 mW/cm(2) at an exposure time of 10 ms.

  2. Surface-functionalized nanoparticles for biosensing and imaging-guided therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Win, Khin Yin; Liu, Shuhua; Teng, Choon Peng; Zheng, Yuangang; Han, Ming-Yong

    2013-04-21

    In this article, the very recent progress of various functional inorganic nanomaterials is reviewed including their unique properties, surface functionalization strategies, and applications in biosensing and imaging-guided therapeutics. The proper surface functionalization renders them with stability, biocompatibility and functionality in physiological environments, and further enables their targeted use in bioapplications after bioconjugation via selective and specific recognition. The surface-functionalized nanoprobes using the most actively studied nanoparticles (i.e., gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles, and magnetic nanoparticles) make them an excellent platform for a wide range of bioapplications. With more efforts in recent years, they have been widely developed as labeling probes to detect various biological species such as proteins, nucleic acids and ions, and extensively employed as imaging probes to guide therapeutics such as drug/gene delivery and photothermal/photodynamic therapy.

  3. Image-guided therapy system for interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy in a multimodality operating suite

    CERN Document Server

    Egger, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, an image-guided therapy system supporting gynecologic radiation therapy is introduced. The overall workflow of the presented system starts with the arrival of the patient and ends with follow-up examinations by imaging and a superimposed visualization of the modeled device from a PACS system. Thereby, the system covers all treatments stages (pre-, intra- and postoperative) and has been designed and constructed by a computer scientist with feedback from an interdisciplinary team of physicians and engineers. This integrated medical system enables dispatch of diagnostic images directly after acquisition to a processing workstation that has an on-board 3D Computer Aided Design model of a medical device. Thus, allowing precise identification of catheter location in the 3D imaging model which later provides rapid feedback to the clinician regarding device location. Moreover, the system enables the ability to perform patient-specific pre-implant evaluation by assessing the placement of intersti...

  4. A Porcine Liver Model for Validation of Registration Accuracy in Image-Guided Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterhans, Matthias; Dagon, Benoît; Berg, Anne Vom; Inderbitzin, Daniel; Baur, Charles; Weber, Stefan

    Correct registration between pre-operative high-resolution images and intra-operative data of lower detail is a fundamental requirement in image-guided liver surgery. We propose a multi modality liver model for measuring the accuracy of such registration methods. A freshly explanted porcine liver is artificially perfused by a peristaltic pump and liver motion is simulated by means of inflatable objects positioned around the liver. Co-registered ultrasound and CT data sets are acquired in different deformation scenarios and allow compar-ing registration outcomes with a CT data set serving as ground truth. The pre-sent work describes the experimental setup and summarizes the results from ultrasound and CT imaging.

  5. Surface-functionalized nanoparticles for biosensing and imaging-guided therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Win, Khin Yin; Liu, Shuhua; Teng, Choon Peng; Zheng, Yuangang; Han, Ming-Yong

    2013-03-01

    In this article, the very recent progress of various functional inorganic nanomaterials is reviewed including their unique properties, surface functionalization strategies, and applications in biosensing and imaging-guided therapeutics. The proper surface functionalization renders them with stability, biocompatibility and functionality in physiological environments, and further enables their targeted use in bioapplications after bioconjugation via selective and specific recognition. The surface-functionalized nanoprobes using the most actively studied nanoparticles (i.e., gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles, and magnetic nanoparticles) make them an excellent platform for a wide range of bioapplications. With more efforts in recent years, they have been widely developed as labeling probes to detect various biological species such as proteins, nucleic acids and ions, and extensively employed as imaging probes to guide therapeutics such as drug/gene delivery and photothermal/photodynamic therapy.

  6. Image-guided radiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Phong Nguyen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer remains a challenge because of the head and neck complex anatomy and the tumor invasion to the adjacent organs and/or metastases to the cervical nodes. Postoperative irradiation or concurrent chemoradiation may lead to damage of radiosensitive structures such as the salivary glands, mandible, cochlea, larynx, and pharyngeal muscles. Xerostomia, osteoradionecrosis, deafness, hoarseness of the voice, dysphagia, and aspiration remain serious complications of head and neck irradiation and impair patient quality of life. Intensity-modulated and image-guided radiotherapy by virtue of steep dose gradient and daily imaging may allow for decreased radiation of the organs at risk for complication while preserving loco-regional control.

  7. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such ... also called transrectal ultrasound, provides images of a man's prostate gland and surrounding tissue. The exam typically ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page How is the procedure performed? In men, the prostate gland is located directly in front ... What are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? Men who have had the tail end of their ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland is ... the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland is ... the transducer is pressed against the skin, it directs small pulses of inaudible, high-frequency sound waves ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page ...

  13. Prostatitis - nonbacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    NBP; Prostatodynia; Pelvic pain syndrome; CPPS; Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis; Chronic genitourinary pain ... Possible causes of nonbacterial prostatitis include: A past ... common types of bacteria Irritation caused by a backup of urine ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such ... also called transrectal ultrasound, provides images of a man's prostate gland and surrounding tissue. The exam typically ...

  15. The role of image-guided therapy in the management of colorectal cancer metastatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baere, Thierry; Tselikas, Lambros; Yevich, Steven; Boige, Valérie; Deschamps, Frederic; Ducreux, Michel; Goere, Diane; Nguyen, France; Malka, David

    2017-02-23

    The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) have stressed that the option for treating oligometastatic disease is a strategy of local ablative therapy, the goal of which is to improve disease control. The spectrum of the local ablative therapy toolbox described by the ESMO includes surgical R0 resection, percutaneous ablation and intra-arterial therapies, the choice of treatment being left to the multidisciplinary team. Interventional therapy involving image-guided treatment offers the possibility of less invasive treatments for colorectal cancer metastases in the liver, lung and bone by preserving from toxicity distant healthy organs or even parts of the diseased organs. Oligometastases can be targeted by image-guided puncture for percutaneous ablation by delivering locally, through inserted probes, heat (radiofrequency, microwaves), extreme cold (cryoablation) or electric pulses (electroporation). Radiofrequency (RFA) is the mainstay of percutaneous ablation and provides local control rates of around 90% when metastases are small (imaging guidance. The lung provides a specific environment with excellent visibility of the target tumour, and insulation of the tumour by the healthy lung improves thermal delivery. RFA of colorectal lung metastases provides a 5-year overall survival of 56.0%, with a 91.6% control rate for metastases with a diameter <3 cm. These results are comparable to results of surgical series. Non-resectable, non-ablatable liver metastases can be targeted through their preferential arterial vascularisation with hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) or selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with radioactive microspheres. HAIC with oxaliplatin has demonstrated an impressive response rate when patients who have previously failed intravenous oxaliplatin are rechallenged. The response rate in first-line therapy is around 90%, with conversion to surgery in roughly 40% of patients. SIRT has recently demonstrated a benefit for

  16. MO-E-BRD-01: Is Non-Invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Good?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiatt, J. [Rhode Island Hospital (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Is Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy Good? – Jess Hiatt, MS Non-invasive Image-Guided Breast Brachytherapy (NIBB) is an emerging therapy for breast boost treatments as well as Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) using HDR surface breast brachytherapy. NIBB allows for smaller treatment volumes while maintaining optimal target coverage. Considering the real-time image-guidance and immobilization provided by the NIBB modality, minimal margins around the target tissue are necessary. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in brachytherapy: is shorter better? - Dorin Todor, PhD VCU A review of balloon and strut devices will be provided together with the origins of APBI: the interstitial multi-catheter implant. A dosimetric and radiobiological perspective will help point out the evolution in breast brachytherapy, both in terms of devices and the protocols/clinical trials under which these devices are used. Improvements in imaging, delivery modalities and convenience are among the factors driving the ultrashort fractionation schedules but our understanding of both local control and toxicities associated with various treatments is lagging. A comparison between various schedules, from a radiobiological perspective, will be given together with a critical analysis of the issues. to review and understand the evolution and development of APBI using brachytherapy methods to understand the basis and limitations of radio-biological ‘equivalence’ between fractionation schedules to review commonly used and proposed fractionation schedules Intra-operative breast brachytherapy: Is one stop shopping best?- Bruce Libby, PhD. University of Virginia A review of intraoperative breast brachytherapy will be presented, including the Targit-A and other trials that have used electronic brachytherapy. More modern approaches, in which the lumpectomy procedure is integrated into an APBI workflow, will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: To review past and current

  17. MIND Demons for MR-to-CT deformable image registration in image-guided spine surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaungamornrat, S.; De Silva, T.; Uneri, A.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Khanna, A. J.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Prince, J. L.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Localization of target anatomy and critical structures defined in preoperative MR images can be achieved by means of multi-modality deformable registration to intraoperative CT. We propose a symmetric diffeomorphic deformable registration algorithm incorporating a modality independent neighborhood descriptor (MIND) and a robust Huber metric for MR-to-CT registration. Method: The method, called MIND Demons, solves for the deformation field between two images by optimizing an energy functional that incorporates both the forward and inverse deformations, smoothness on the velocity fields and the diffeomorphisms, a modality-insensitive similarity function suitable to multi-modality images, and constraints on geodesics in Lagrangian coordinates. Direct optimization (without relying on an exponential map of stationary velocity fields used in conventional diffeomorphic Demons) is carried out using a Gauss-Newton method for fast convergence. Registration performance and sensitivity to registration parameters were analyzed in simulation, in phantom experiments, and clinical studies emulating application in image-guided spine surgery, and results were compared to conventional mutual information (MI) free-form deformation (FFD), local MI (LMI) FFD, and normalized MI (NMI) Demons. Result: The method yielded sub-voxel invertibility (0.006 mm) and nonsingular spatial Jacobians with capability to preserve local orientation and topology. It demonstrated improved registration accuracy in comparison to the reference methods, with mean target registration error (TRE) of 1.5 mm compared to 10.9, 2.3, and 4.6 mm for MI FFD, LMI FFD, and NMI Demons methods, respectively. Validation in clinical studies demonstrated realistic deformation with sub-voxel TRE in cases of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. Conclusions: A modality-independent deformable registration method has been developed to estimate a viscoelastic diffeomorphic map between preoperative MR and intraoperative CT

  18. Image-guided chemoport insertion by interventional radiologists: A single-center experience on periprocedural complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmin Yaacob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report our early experience in image-guided chemoport insertions by interventional radiologists. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary center with 161 chemoport insertions done from June 2008 to June 2010. The chemoports were inserted either at the angiography suite or at the mobile operation theater unit. Ninety percent of the chemoports had right internal jugular vein (IJV as the entry site. Other entry sites included the left IJV, subclavian veins and the inferior vena cava. Immediate and early complications were recorded. All insertions were performed under image guidance with the aid of ultrasound and fluoroscopy. Results: The technical success rate was 99.4%. In terms of immediate complications, there were only two cases of arterial puncture that resolved with local compression. No pneumothorax or air embolism was documented. Twenty-six early complications were recorded. The most common early complication was catheter blockage (12/161; 7.4%, followed by catheter-related infection (9/161; 5.6%. Other complications were catheter malposition, venous thrombosis and catheter dislodgement or leak. A total of 11 (6.8% chemoports had to be removed within 30 days; most of them were due to infections that failed to respond to systemic antibiotic therapy. In terms of place of procedure, there were no significant differences in complication rates between the angiography suite and the mobile operation theater unit. Conclusion: Image-guided chemoport insertion by interventional radiologist gives low periprocedural complication rates. Using right IJV as the entry site, the image guidance gives good success rate with least complication.

  19. Lipiodol as a Fiducial Marker for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freilich, Jessica M.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Fernandez, Daniel C.; Shi, Ellen J.; Hunt, Dylan C.; Gupta, Shilpa; Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richard.wilder@moffitt.org [Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate Lipiodol as a liquid, radio-opaque fiducial marker for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for bladder cancer; Materials and Methods: Between 2011 and 2012, 5 clinical T2a-T3b N0 M0 stage II-III bladder cancer patients were treated with maximal transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURBT) and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) to 64.8 Gy in 36 fractions ± concurrent weekly cisplatin-based or gemcitabine chemotherapy. Ten to 15mL Lipiodol, using 0.5mL per injection, was injected into bladder submucosa circumferentially around the entire periphery of the tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. The authors looked at inter-observer variability regarding the size and location of the tumor bed (CTVboost) on computed tomography scans with versus without Lipiodol. Results: Median follow-up was 18 months. Lipiodol was visible on every orthogonal two-dimensional kV portal image throughout the entire, 7-week course of IGRT. There was a trend towards improved inter-observer agreement on the CTVboost with Lipiodol (p = 0.06). In 2 of 5 patients, the tumor bed based upon Lipiodol extended outside a planning target volume that would have been treated with a radiation boost based upon a cystoscopy report and an enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan for staging. There was no toxicity attributable to Lipiodol: Conclusions: Lipiodol constitutes a safe and effective fiducial marker that an urologist can use to demarcate a tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. Lipiodol decreases inter-observer variability in the definition of the extent and location of a tumor bed on a treatment planning CT scan for a radiation boost. (author)

  20. Image-guided cold atmosphere plasma (CAP) therapy for cutaneous wound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zelin; Ren, Wenqi; Gan, Qi; Li, Jiahong; Li, XiangXiang; Zhang, Shiwu; Jin, Fan; Cheng, Cheng; Ting, Yue; Xu, Ronald X.

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial infection is one of the major factors contributing to the compromised healing in chronic wounds. Sometimes bacteria biofilms formed on the wound are more resistant than adherent bacteria. Cold atmosphere plasma (CAP) has already shown its potential in contact-free disinfection, blood coagulation, and wound healing. In this study, we integrated a multimodal imaging system with a portable CAP device for image-guided treatment of infected wound in vivo and evaluated the antimicrobial effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa sample in vitro.15 ICR mice were divided into three groups for therapeutic experiments:(1) control group with no infection nor treatment (2) infection group without treatment (3) infection group with treatment. For each mouse, a three millimeters punch biopsy was created on the dorsal skin. Infection was induced by Staphylococcus aureus inoculation one day post-wounding. The treated group was subjected to CAP for 2 min daily till day 13. For each group, five fixed wounds' oxygenation and blood perfusion were evaluated daily till day 13 by a multimodal imaging system that integrates a multispectral imaging module and a laser speckle imaging module. In the research of relationship between therapeutic depth and sterilization effect on P.aeruginosa in agarose, we found that the CAP-generated reactive species reached the depth of 26.7μm at 30s and 41.6μm at 60s for anti-bacterial effects. Image-guided CAP therapy can be potentially used to control infection and facilitate the healing process of infected wounds.

  1. Visualization of risk structures for interactive planning of image guided radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Christian; Schwier, Michael; Weihusen, Andreas; Zidowitz, Stephan; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2009-02-01

    Image guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is becoming a standard procedure as a minimally invasive method for tumor treatment in the clinical routine. The visualization of pathological tissue and potential risk structures like vessels or important organs gives essential support in image guided pre-interventional RFA planning. In this work our aim is to present novel visualization techniques for interactive RFA planning to support the physician with spatial information of pathological structures as well as the finding of trajectories without harming vitally important tissue. Furthermore, we illustrate three-dimensional applicator models of different manufactures combined with corresponding ablation areas in homogenous tissue, as specified by the manufacturers, to enhance the estimated amount of cell destruction caused by ablation. The visualization techniques are embedded in a workflow oriented application, designed for the use in the clinical routine. To allow a high-quality volume rendering we integrated a visualization method using the fuzzy c-means algorithm. This method automatically defines a transfer function for volume visualization of vessels without the need of a segmentation mask. However, insufficient visualization results of the displayed vessels caused by low data quality can be improved using local vessel segmentation in the vicinity of the lesion. We also provide an interactive segmentation technique of liver tumors for the volumetric measurement and for the visualization of pathological tissue combined with anatomical structures. In order to support coagulation estimation with respect to the heat-sink effect of the cooling blood flow which decreases thermal ablation, a numerical simulation of the heat distribution is provided.

  2. Lipiodol as a Fiducial Marker for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Freilich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate Lipiodol as a liquid, radio-opaque fiducial marker for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT for bladder cancer.Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2012, 5 clinical T2a-T3b N0 M0 stage II-III bladder cancer patients were treated with maximal transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURBT and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT to 64.8 Gy in 36 fractions ± concurrent weekly cisplatin-based or gemcitabine chemotherapy. Ten to 15mL Lipiodol, using 0.5mL per injection, was injected into bladder submucosa circumferentially around the entire periphery of the tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. The authors looked at inter-observer variability regarding the size and location of the tumor bed (CTVboost on computed tomography scans with versus without Lipiodol.Results Median follow-up was 18 months. Lipiodol was visible on every orthogonal two-dimensional kV portal image throughout the entire, 7-week course of IGRT. There was a trend towards improved inter-observer agreement on the CTVboost with Lipiodol (p = 0.06. In 2 of 5 patients, the tumor bed based upon Lipiodol extended outside a planning target volume that would have been treated with a radiation boost based upon a cystoscopy report and an enhanced computed tomography (CT scan for staging. There was no toxicity attributable to Lipiodol.Conclusions Lipiodol constitutes a safe and effective fiducial marker that an urologist can use to demarcate a tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. Lipiodol decreases inter-observer variability in the definition of the extent and location of a tumor bed on a treatment planning CT scan for a radiation boost.

  3. A Low-Cost, Passive Navigation Training System for Image-Guided Spinal Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorias-Espinoza, Daniel; Carranza, Vicente González; de León, Fernando Chico-Ponce; Escamirosa, Fernando Pérez; Martinez, Arturo Minor

    2016-11-01

    Navigation technology is used for training in various medical specialties, not least image-guided spinal interventions. Navigation practice is an important educational component that allows residents to understand how surgical instruments interact with complex anatomy and to learn basic surgical skills such as the tridimensional mental interpretation of bidimensional data. Inexpensive surgical simulators for spinal surgery, however, are lacking. We therefore designed a low-cost spinal surgery simulator (Spine MovDigSys 01) to allow 3-dimensional navigation via 2-dimensional images without altering or limiting the surgeon's natural movement. A training system was developed with an anatomical lumbar model and 2 webcams to passively digitize surgical instruments under MATLAB software control. A proof-of-concept recognition task (vertebral body cannulation) and a pilot test of the system with 12 neuro- and orthopedic surgeons were performed to obtain feedback on the system. Position, orientation, and kinematic variables were determined and the lateral, posteroanterior, and anteroposterior views obtained. The system was tested with a proof-of-concept experimental task. Operator metrics including time of execution (t), intracorporeal length (d), insertion angle (α), average speed (v¯), and acceleration (a) were obtained accurately. These metrics were converted into assessment metrics such as smoothness of operation and linearity of insertion. Results from initial testing are shown and the system advantages and disadvantages described. This low-cost spinal surgery training system digitized the position and orientation of the instruments and allowed image-guided navigation, the generation of metrics, and graphic recording of the instrumental route. Spine MovDigSys 01 is useful for development of basic, noninnate skills and allows the novice apprentice to quickly and economically move beyond the basics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Brian; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome [CP/CPPS]). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  5. Chronic prostatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Le, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome, CP/CPPS). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown.

  6. Enlarged prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000381.htm Enlarged prostate To use the sharing ... sperm during ejaculation. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube ... hyperplasia (BPH). It is not cancer, and it does not raise your risk for ...

  7. Prostate cancer: state of the art imaging and focal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrum, D A; Kawashima, A; Gorny, K R; Mynderse, L A

    2017-04-03

    In 2016, it is estimated 180,890 men are newly diagnosed with prostate cancer and 3,306,760 men live with prostate cancer in the United States. The introduction of multiparametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate, standardised interpretation guidelines such as Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS version 2), and MRI-based targeted biopsy has improved detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. Accurate risk stratification (Gleason grade/score and tumour stage) using imaging and image-guided targeted biopsy has become critical for the management of patients with prostate cancer. Recent advances in MRI-guided minimally invasive ablative treatment (MIAT) utilising cryoablation, laser ablation, high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation, have allowed accurate focal or regional delivery of optimal thermal energy to the biopsy proven, MRI-detected tumour, under real-time or near simultaneous MRI monitoring of the ablation zone. A contemporary review on prostate mpMRI, MRI-based targeted biopsy, and MRI-guided ablation techniques is presented.

  8. Hounsfield unit recovery in clinical cone beam CT images of the thorax acquired for image guided radiation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thing, Rune Slot; Bernchou, Uffe; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive artefact correction method for clinical cone beam CT (CBCT) images acquired for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) on a commercial system is presented. The method is demonstrated to reduce artefacts and recover CT-like Hounsfield units (HU) in reconstructed CBCT images of five ...

  9. A review of treatment planning for precision image-guided photon beam pre-clinical animal radiation studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegen, Frank; van Hoof, Stefan; Granton, Patrick V; Trani, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Recently, precision irradiators integrated with a high-resolution CT imaging device became available for pre-clinical studies. These research platforms offer significant advantages over older generations of animal irradiators in terms of precision and accuracy of image-guided radiation targeting. Th

  10. The using of megavoltage computed tomography in image-guided brachytherapy for cervical cancer: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tharavichitkul, Ekkasit; Janla-or, Suwapim; Wanwilairat, Somsak; Chakrabandhu, Somvilai; Klunklin, Pitchayaponne; Onchan, Wimrak; Supawongwattana, Bongkot; Chitapanarux, Imjai [Division of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Galalae, Razvan M. [Faculty of Medicine, Christian-Albrecht University (Campus Kiel), Kiel (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    We present a case of cervical cancer treated by concurrent chemoradiation. In radiation therapy part, the combination of the whole pelvic helical tomotherapy plus image-guided brachytherapy with megavoltage computed tomography of helical tomotherapy was performed. We propose this therapeutic approach could be considered in a curative setting in some problematic situation as our institution.

  11. Theranostics based on Iron Oxide and Gold Nanoparticles for Imaging-Guided Photothermal and Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, S; Prabaharan, M

    2016-11-22

    With the progress of nanotechnology, the treatment of cancer by photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) using theranostic nanomaterials based on iron oxide (Fe3O4) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) has received much attention in recent years. The Fe3O4 NPs have been used as imaging-guided PTT of cancer due to their high relaxivity, excellent contrast enhancement, and less toxicity. The Au NPs have been widely employed as a contrast agent for CT imaging of different biological systems due to their enhanced X-ray attenuation property. Due to the strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption intensity in near-infrared (NIR) region, Au NPs have been considered for imaging-guided PTT of cancer. Since the photosensitizer, which plays an important role in PDT of cancer, can be efficiently conjugated with Fe3O4 and Au NPs, these NPs have also been considered for imaging-guided PDT of cancer. It has been found that both Fe3O4 and Au NPs allow passive targeting of tumors through enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect to improve the treatment efficacy in PTT and PDT. The present review focuses on the recent developments of Fe3O4 and Au-based NPs as theranostics for imaging-guided PTT and PDT of cancer.

  12. Image guided adaptive brachytherapy for cervical cancer: Dose contribution to involved pelvic nodes in two cancer centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van den Bos (Willemien); S. Beriwal (Sushil); L. Velema (Laura); A.A.C. de Leeuw (Astrid A.); C.N. Nomden (Christel); I.-M. Jürgenliemk-Schulz (Ina-M.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: The goal of this study was to determine the dose contributions from image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) to individual suspicious pelvic lymph nodes (pLNN) in cervical cancer patients. Data were collected in two cancer centers, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute

  13. In-beam PET imaging for on-line adaptive proton therapy: an initial phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lou, Kai; Zhu, Xiaorong R.; Mirkovic, Dragon; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David

    2014-07-01

    We developed and investigated a positron emission tomography (PET) system for use with on-line (both in-beam and intra-fraction) image-guided adaptive proton therapy applications. The PET has dual rotating depth-of-interaction measurable detector panels by using solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays and LYSO scintillators. It has a 44 mm diameter trans-axial and 30 mm axial field-of-view (FOV). A 38 mm diameter polymethyl methacrylate phantom was placed inside the FOV. Both PET and phantom axes were aligned with a collimated 179.2 MeV beam. Each beam delivered ˜50 spills (0.5 s spill and 1.5 s inter-spill time, 3.8 Gy at Bragg peak). Data from each beam were acquired with detectors at a given angle. Nine datasets for nine beams with detectors at nine different angles over 180° were acquired for full-tomographic imaging. Each dataset included data both during and 5 min after irradiations. The positron activity-range was measured from the PET image reconstructed from all nine datasets and compared to the results from simulated images. A 22Na disc-source was also imaged after each beam to monitor the PET system's performance. PET performed well except for slight shifts of energy photo-peak positions (PET with high sensitivity and uniform resolution. Sub-mm activity-ranges were achieved with minimal 6 s acquisition time and three spill irradiations. These results indicate the feasibility of PET for intra-fraction beam-range verification. Further studies are needed to develop and apply a novel clinical PET system for on-line image-guided adaptive proton therapy.

  14. Evolution of prostate biopsy techniques. Looking back on a meaningful journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, A; Sanchez-Salas, R; Castro-Marin, M; Barret, E; Guillot-Tantay, C; Prapotnich, D; Cathelineau, X

    2016-10-01

    The technique of prostate biopsy has evolved a long way since its inception to being a safe diagnostic procedure. The principles of the biopsy technique continue to improvise with the knowledge about prostate cancer and availability of newer treatment options like active surveillance and focal therapy. Currently, we depend on accurate cancer information from the biopsy more than ever for deciding the ideal treatment option. The aim of this review is to present the major milestones in prostate biopsy technique evolutions and its impact on the prostate cancer management. We performed a detailed non-systematic literature review to present the historical facts on the transformations in prostate biopsy techniques and also the direction of present research to improve accurate cancer detection. There is a clear change in trend in biopsy technique before and after the introduction of transrectal ultrasound and prostate specific antigen. In the earlier era, the biopsies were aimed at palpable nodules and obtaining adequate prostatic tissue for diagnosis while the later era has moved towards detection of non-palpable and early prostate cancer. Recently, there is an increasing trend towards image guided targeted biopsies to extract maximum cancer information from minimum biopsy cores. Prostate biopsy techniques have seen major changes since its inception and have a major impact on prostate cancer management. There is a great potential for research which can further support the newer treatment options like focal therapy. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. On-Line Adaptive Radiation Therapy: Feasibility and Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoran Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the feasibility and clinical dosimetric benefit of an on-line, that is, with the patient in the treatment position, Adaptive Radiation Therapy (ART system for prostate cancer treatment based on daily cone-beam CT imaging and fast volumetric reoptimization of treatment plans. A fast intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT plan reoptimization algorithm is implemented and evaluated with clinical cases. The quality of these adapted plans is compared to the corresponding new plans generated by an experienced planner using a commercial treatment planning system and also evaluated by an in-house developed tool estimating achievable dose-volume histograms (DVHs based on a database of existing treatment plans. In addition, a clinical implementation scheme for ART is designed and evaluated using clinical cases for its dosimetric qualities and efficiency.

  16. The Mobius AIRO mobile CT for image-guided proton therapy: Characterization & commissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jasmine A; Zeidan, Omar A; Meeks, Sanford L; Shah, Amish P; Pukala, Jason; Kelly, Patrick; Ramakrishna, Naren R; Willoughby, Twyla R

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the Mobius AIRO Mobile CT System for localization and image-guided proton therapy. This is the first known application of the AIRO for proton therapy. Five CT images of a Catphan(®) 504 phantom were acquired on the AIRO Mobile CT System, Varian EDGE radiosurgery system cone beam CT (CBCT), Philips Brilliance Big Bore 16 slice CT simulator, and Siemens SOMATOM Definition AS 20 slice CT simulator. DoseLAB software v.6.6 was utilized for image quality analysis. Modulation transfer function, scaling discrepancy, geometric distortion, spatial resolution, overall uniformity, minimum uniformity, contrast, high CNR, and maximum HU deviation were acquired. Low CNR was acquired manually using the CTP515 module. Localization accuracy and CT Dose Index were measured and compared to reported values on each imaging device. For treatment delivery systems (Edge and Mevion), the localization accuracy of the 3D imaging systems were compared to 2D imaging systems on each system. The AIRO spatial resolution was 0.21 lp mm(-1) compared with 0.40 lp mm(-1) for the Philips CT Simulator, 0.37 lp mm(-1) for the Edge CBCT, and 0.35 lp mm(-1) for the Siemens CT Simulator. AIRO/Siemens and AIRO/Philips differences exceeded 100% for scaling discrepancy (191.2% and 145.8%). The AIRO exhibited higher dose (>27 mGy) than the Philips CT Simulator. Localization accuracy (based on the MIMI phantom) was 0.6° and 0.5 mm. Localization accuracy (based on Stereophan) demonstrated maximum AIRO-kV/kV shift differences of 0.1 mm in the x-direction, 0.1 mm in the y-direction, and 0.2 mm in the z-direction. The localization accuracy of AIRO was determined to be within 0.6° and 0.5 mm despite its slightly lower image quality overall compared to other CT imaging systems at our institution. Based on our study, the Mobile AIRO CT system can be utilized accurately and reliably for image-guided proton therapy. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical

  17. Toward four-dimensional image-guided adaptive brachytherapy in locally recurrent endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokdal, Lars; Ørtoft, Gitte; Hansen, Estrid S; Røhl, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Erik Morre; Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate clinical outcome and feasibility of a four-dimensional image-guided adaptive brachytherapy concept in patients with locally recurrent endometrial cancer. Forty-three patients with locally recurrent endometrial cancer were included. Treatment consisted of conformal external beam radiotherapy followed by a boost using pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy (BT). Large tumors were treated with MRI-guided interstitial BT. Small tumors were treated with CT-guided intracavitary BT. The planning aim (total external beam radiotherapy and BT) for high-risk clinical target volume was D90 > 80 Gy, whereas constraints for organs at risk were D2cc ≤ 90 Gy for bladder and D2cc ≤ 70 Gy for rectum, sigmoid, and bowel in terms of equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions. Median high-risk clinical target volume was 18 cm(3) (range, 0-91). D90 was 82 Gy (range, 77-88). D2cc to bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were 67 Gy (range, 50-81), 67 Gy (range, 51-77), and 55 Gy (range, 44-68), respectively. Median followup was 30 months (6-88). Two-year local control rate was 92% (standard error [SE], 5). Disease-free survival rate and overall survival rate was 59% (SE, 8) and 78% (SE, 7), respectively. Patients with low- to intermediate-risk for recurrence had a 2-year disease-free survival rate of 72% (SE, 9) compared with 42% (SE, 12) in patients with high risk for recurrence (p = 0.04). Late morbidity Grade 3 was recorded in 5 (12%) patients. Four-dimensional image-guided adaptive brachytherapy is feasible in locally recurrent endometrial cancer. Local control rate is good. Systemic control remains a problem in patients with high risk for recurrence. Copyright © 2014 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Investigation Image-guided Radiation Therapy of Bladder Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Seong Soo; Bae, Sun Myung; Kim, Jin San; Kang, Tae Young; Back, Geum Mun; Kwon, Kyung Tae [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    In hospital image-guided radiation therapy in patients with bladder cancer to enhance the reproducibility of the appropriate amount, depending on the patient's condition, and image-guided injection of saline system (On-Board Imager system, OBI, VARIAN, USA) three of the Cone-Beam CT dimensional matching (3D-3D matching) to be the treatment. In this study, the treatment of patients with bladder cancer at Cone-Beam CT image obtained through the analysis of the bones based matching and matching based on the bladder to learn about the differences, the bladder's volume change injected saline solution by looking at the bladder for the treatment of patients with a more appropriate image matching is to assess how the discussion. At our hospital from January 2009 to April 2010 admitted for radiation therapy patients, 7 patients with bladder cancer using a Folly catheter of residual urine in the bladder after removing the amount determined according to individual patient enough to inject saline CT-Sim was designed after the treatment plan. After that, using OBI before treatment to confirm position with Cone-Beam CT scan was physician in charge of matching was performed in all patients. CBCT images using a total of 45 bones, bladder, based on image matching and image matching based on the difference were analyzed. In addition, changes in bladder volume of Eclipse (version 8.0, VARIAN, USA) persuaded through. Bones, one based image matching based on the bladder and re-matching the X axis is the difference between the average 3{+-}2 mm, Y axis, 1.8{+-}1.3 mm, Z-axis travel distance is 2.3{+-}1.7 mm and the overall 4.8{+-}2.0 mm, respectively. The volume of the bladder compared to the baseline showed a difference of 4.03{+-}3.97%. Anatomical location and nature of the bladder due to internal movement of the bones, even after matching with the image of the bladder occurred in different locations. In addition, the volume of saline-filled bladder showed up the difference

  19. Protein-based photothermal theranostics for imaging-guided cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Pengfei; Huang, Peng; Liu, Zhiguo; Lin, Jing; Jin, Albert; Ma, Ying; Niu, Gang; Yu, Lun; Zeng, Wenbin; Wang, Wei; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-10-01

    The development of imageable photothermal theranostics has attracted considerable attention for imaging guided photothermal therapy (PTT) with high tumor ablation accuracy. In this study, we strategically constructed a near-infrared (NIR) cyanine dye by introducing a rigid cyclohexenyl ring to the heptamethine chain to obtain a heptamethine dye CySCOOH with high fluorescence intensity and good stability. By covalent conjugation of CySCOOH onto human serum albumin (HSA), the as-prepared HSA@CySCOOH nanoplatform is highly efficient for NIR fluorescence/photoacoustic/thermal multimodality imaging and photothermal tumor ablation. The theranostic capability of HSA@CySCOOH was systematically evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Most intriguingly, complete tumor elimination was achieved by intravenous injection of HSA@CySCOOH (CySCOOH, 1 mg kg-1 808 nm, 1.0 W cm-2 for 5 min) into 4T1 tumor-bearing mice, with no weight loss, noticeable toxicity, or tumor recurrence being observed. This as-prepared protein-based nanotheranostics exhibits high water dispersibility, no off target cytotoxicity, and good biodegradability and biocompatibility, thus facilitating its clinical translation to cancer photothermal theranostics.The development of imageable photothermal theranostics has attracted considerable attention for imaging guided photothermal therapy (PTT) with high tumor ablation accuracy. In this study, we strategically constructed a near-infrared (NIR) cyanine dye by introducing a rigid cyclohexenyl ring to the heptamethine chain to obtain a heptamethine dye CySCOOH with high fluorescence intensity and good stability. By covalent conjugation of CySCOOH onto human serum albumin (HSA), the as-prepared HSA@CySCOOH nanoplatform is highly efficient for NIR fluorescence/photoacoustic/thermal multimodality imaging and photothermal tumor ablation. The theranostic capability of HSA@CySCOOH was systematically evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Most intriguingly, complete tumor

  20. Dual-mode ultrasound arrays for image-guided targeting of atheromatous plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, John R.; Casper, Andrew J.; Liu, Dalong; Haritonova, Alyona; Shehata, Islam A.; Troutman, Mitchell; Ebbini, Emad S.

    2012-11-01

    A feasibility study was undertaken in order to investigate alternative noninvasive treatment options for atherosclerosis. In particular, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Dual-Mode Ultrasound Arrays (DMUAs) for image guided treatment of atheromatous plaques. DMUAs offer a unique treatment paradigm for image-guided surgery allowing for robust image-based identification of tissue targets for localized application of HIFU. In this study we present imaging and therapeutic results form a 3.5 MHz, 64-element fenestrated prototype DMUA for targeting lesions in the femoral artery of familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine. Before treatment, diagnostic ultrasound was used to verify the presence of plaque in the femoral artery of the swine. Images obtained with the DMUA and a diagnostic (HST 15-8) transducer housed in the fenestration were analyzed and used for guidance in targeting of the plaque. Discrete therapeutic shots with an estimated focal intensity of 4000-5600 W/cm2 and 500-2000 msec duration were performed at several planes in the plaque. During therapy, pulsed HIFU was interleaved with single transmit focus imaging from the DMUA and M2D imaging from the diagnostic transducer for further analysis of lesion formation. After therapy, the swine's were recovered and later sacrificed after 4 and 7 days for histological analysis of lesion formation. At sacrifice, the lower half of the swine was perfused and the femoral artery with adjoining muscle was fixed and stained with H&E to characterize HIFU-induced lesions. Histology has confirmed that localized thermal lesion formation within the plaque was achieved according to the planned lesion maps. Furthermore, the damage was confined to the plaque tissue without damage to the intima. These results offer the promise of a new treatment potentially suited for vulnerable plaques. The results also provide the first real-time demonstration of DMUA technology in targeting fine tissue structures for

  1. Predictors of Toxicity After Image-guided High-dose-rate Interstitial Brachytherapy for Gynecologic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Larissa J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Viswanathan, Akila N., E-mail: aviswanathan@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To identify predictors of grade 3-4 complications and grade 2-4 rectal toxicity after three-dimensional image-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: Records were reviewed for 51 women (22 with primary disease and 29 with recurrence) treated with HDR interstitial brachytherapy. A single interstitial insertion was performed with image guidance by computed tomography (n = 43) or magnetic resonance imaging (n = 8). The median delivered dose in equivalent 2-Gy fractions was 72.0 Gy (45 Gy for external-beam radiation therapy and 24 Gy for brachytherapy). Toxicity was reported according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events. Actuarial toxicity estimates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: At diagnosis, the median patient age was 62 years and the median tumor size was 3.8 cm. The median D90 and V100 were 71.4 Gy and 89.5%; the median D2cc for the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were 64.6 Gy, 61.0 Gy, and 52.7 Gy, respectively. The actuarial rates of all grade 3-4 complications at 2 years were 20% gastrointestinal, 9% vaginal, 6% skin, 3% musculoskeletal, and 2% lymphatic. There were no grade 3-4 genitourinary complications and no grade 5 toxicities. Grade 2-4 rectal toxicity was observed in 10 patients, and grade 3-4 complications in 4; all cases were proctitis with the exception of 1 rectal fistula. D2cc for rectum was higher for patients with grade 2-4 (68 Gy vs 57 Gy for grade 0-1, P=.03) and grade 3-4 (73 Gy vs 58 Gy for grade 0-2, P=.02) rectal toxicity. The estimated dose that resulted in a 10% risk of grade 2-4 rectal toxicity was 61.8 Gy (95% confidence interval, 51.5-72.2 Gy). Discussion: Image-guided HDR interstitial brachytherapy results in acceptable toxicity for women with primary or recurrent gynecologic cancer. D2cc for the rectum is a reliable predictor of late rectal complications. Three-dimensional-based treatment planning should be performed to ensure

  2. Transition from Paris dosimetry system to 3D image-guided planning in interstitial breast brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiercińska, Judyta; Wronczewska, Anna; Kabacińska, Renata; Makarewicz, Roman

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate our first experience with 3D image-guided breast brachytherapy and to compare dose distribution parameters between Paris dosimetry system (PDS) and image-based plans. First 49 breast cancer patients treated with 3D high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy as a boost were selected for the study. Every patient underwent computed tomography, and the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR) were outlined. Two treatment plans were created for every patient. First, based on a Paris dosimetry system (PDS), and the second one, imaged-based plan with graphical optimization (OPT). The reference isodose in PDS implants was 85%, whereas in OPT plans the isodose was chosen to obtain proper target coverage. Dose and volume parameters (D90, D100, V90, V100), doses at OARs, total reference air kerma (TRAK), and quality assurance parameters: dose nonuniformity ratio (DNR), dose homogeneity index (DHI), and conformity index (COIN) were used for a comparison of both plans. The mean number of catheters was 7 but the mean for 20 first patients was 5 and almost 9 for the next 29 patients. The mean value of prescribed isodose for OPT plans was 73%. The mean D90 was 88.2% and 105.8%, the D100 was 59.8% and 75.7%, the VPTV90 was 88.6% and 98.1%, the VPTV100 was 79.9% and 98.9%, and the TRAK was 0.00375 Gym(-1) and 0.00439 Gym(-1) for the PDS and OPT plans, respectively. The mean DNR was 0.29 and 0.42, the DHI was 0.71 and 0.58, and the COIN was 0.68 and 0.76, respectively. The target coverage in image-guided plans (OPT) was significantly higher than in PDS plans but the dose homogeneity was worse. Also, the value of TRAK increased because of change of prescribing isodose. The learning curve slightly affected our results.

  3. SU-E-J-123: Targeting Accuracy of Image-Guided Radiosurgery for Intracranial Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y; Wen, N; Zhao, B; Kim, J; Gordon, J; Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the setup accuracies of image-guided intracranial radiosurgery across several different linear accelerator platforms. Methods: A CT scan with a slice thickness of 1.0 mm was acquired of a Rando head phantom (The Phantom Laboratory) in a U-frame mask (BrainLAB AG). The phantom had three embedded BBs, simulating a central, left, and anterior lesion. The phantom was setup with each BB placed at the radiation isocenter under image guidance. Four different setup procedures were investigated: (1) NTX-ExacTrac: 6 degree-of-freedom (6D) correction on a Novalis Tx (BrainLAB AG) with ExacTrac localization (BrainLAB AG); (2) NTX-CBCT: 4D correction on the Novalis Tx with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT); (3) TrueBeam-CBCT: 4D correction on a TrueBeam (Varian) with CBCT; (4) Edge-CBCT: 6D correction on an Edge (Varian) with CBCT. The experiment was repeated 5 times with different initial setup error at each BB location on each platform, and the mean (μ) and one standard deviation (σ) of the residual error was compared.The congruence between radiation and imaging isocenters on each platform was evaluated by acquiring Winston Lutz (WL) images of a WL jig followed by imaging using ExacTrac or CBCT. The difference in coordinates of the jig relative to radiation and imaging isocenters was then recorded. Results: Averaged over all three BB locations, the residual vector setup errors (μ±σ) of the phantom in mm were 0.6±0.2, 1.0±0.5, 0.2±0.1, and 0.3±0.1 on NTX-ExacTrac, NTX-CBCT, TrueBeam-CBCT, and Edge-CBCT, with their ranges in mm being 0.4∼1.1, 0.4∼1.9, 0.1∼0.5, and 0.2∼0.6, respectively. And imaging isocenter was found stable relative to radiation isocenter, with the congruence to radiation isocenter in mm being 0.6±0.1, 0.7±0.1, 0.3±0.1, 0.2±0.1, respectively, on the four systems in the same order. Conclusion: Millimeter accuracy can be achieved with image-guided radiosurgery for intracranial lesions based on this set of experiments.

  4. The future perspectives in transrectal prostate ultrasound guided biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Il Hwang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most common neoplasms in men. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS-guided systematic biopsy has a crucial role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, it shows limited value with gray-scale ultrasound alone because only a small number of malignancies are visible on TRUS. Recently, new emerging technologies in TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were introduced and showed high potential in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. High echogenicity of ultrasound contrast agent reflect the increased status of angiogenesis in tumor. Molecular imaging for targeting specific biomarker can be also used using ultrasound contrast agent for detecting angiogenesis or surface biomarker of prostate cancer. The combination of TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and ultrasound contrast agents can increase the accuracy of prostate cancer diagnosis. Elastography is an emerging ultrasound technique that can provide the information regarding tissue elasticity and stiffness. Tumors are usually stiffer than the surrounding soft tissue. In two types of elastography techniques, shearwave elastography has many potential in that it can provide quantitative information on tissue elasticity. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI from high resolution morphologic and functional magnetic resonance (MR technique enables to detect more prostate cancers. The combination of functional techniques including apparent diffusion coefficient map from diffusion weighted imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced MR and MR spectroscopy are helpful in the localization of the prostate cancer. MR-ultrasound (US fusion image can enhance the advantages of both two modalities. With MR-US fusion image, targeted biopsy of suspicious areas on MRI is possible and fusion image guided biopsy can provide improved detection rate. In conclusion, with recent advances in multiparametric-MRI, and introduction of new US techniques such as contrast-enhanced US and elastography, TRUS-guided biopsy

  5. The future perspectives in transrectal prostate ultrasound guided biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ii; Lee, Hak Jong

    2014-12-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common neoplasms in men. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided systematic biopsy has a crucial role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, it shows limited value with gray-scale ultrasound alone because only a small number of malignancies are visible on TRUS. Recently, new emerging technologies in TRUS-guided prostate biopsy were introduced and showed high potential in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. High echogenicity of ultrasound contrast agent reflect the increased status of angiogenesis in tumor. Molecular imaging for targeting specific biomarker can be also used using ultrasound contrast agent for detecting angiogenesis or surface biomarker of prostate cancer. The combination of TRUS-guided prostate biopsy and ultrasound contrast agents can increase the accuracy of prostate cancer diagnosis. Elastography is an emerging ultrasound technique that can provide the information regarding tissue elasticity and stiffness. Tumors are usually stiffer than the surrounding soft tissue. In two types of elastography techniques, shearwave elastography has many potential in that it can provide quantitative information on tissue elasticity. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from high resolution morphologic and functional magnetic resonance (MR) technique enables to detect more prostate cancers. The combination of functional techniques including apparent diffusion coefficient map from diffusion weighted imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced MR and MR spectroscopy are helpful in the localization of the prostate cancer. MR-ultrasound (US) fusion image can enhance the advantages of both two modalities. With MR-US fusion image, targeted biopsy of suspicious areas on MRI is possible and fusion image guided biopsy can provide improved detection rate. In conclusion, with recent advances in multiparametric-MRI, and introduction of new US techniques such as contrast-enhanced US and elastography, TRUS-guided biopsy may evolve toward

  6. Feasibility of patient dose reduction based on various noise suppression filters for cone-beam computed tomography in an image-guided patient positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamezawa, Hidemi; Arimura, Hidetaka; Shirieda, Katsutoshi; Kameda, Noboru; Ohki, Masafumi

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the feasibility of patient dose reduction based on six noise suppression filters for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in an image-guided patient positioning (IGPP) system. A midpoint dose was employed as a patient dose index. First, a reference dose (RD) and low-dose (LD)-CBCT images were acquired with a reference dose and various low doses. Second, an automated rigid registration was performed for three axis translations to estimate patient setup errors between a planning CT image and the LD-CBCT images processed by six noise suppression filters (averaging filter, median filter, Gaussian filter, edge-preserving smoothing filter, bilateral filter, and adaptive partial median filter (AMF)). Third, residual errors representing the patient positioning accuracy were calculated as Euclidean distances between the setup error vectors estimated using the LD-CBCT and RD-CBCT images. Finally, the residual errors as a function of the patient dose index were estimated for LD-CBCT images processed by six noise suppression filters, and then the patient dose indices for the filtered LD-CBCT images were obtained at the same residual error as the RD-CBCT image. This approach was applied to an anthropomorphic phantom and four cancer patients. The patient dose for the LD-CBCT images was reduced to 19% of that for the RD-CBCT image for the phantom by using AMF, while keeping a same residual error of 0.47 mm as the RD-CBCT image by applying the noise suppression filters to the LD-CBCT images. The average patient dose was reduced to 31.1% for prostate cancer patients, and it was reduced to 82.5% for a lung cancer patient by applying the AMF. These preliminary results suggested that the proposed approach based on noise suppression filters could decrease the patient dose in IGPP systems.

  7. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of osseous spine metastasis before and 1 hour after high-dose image-guided radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Eric; Saha, Atin; Peck, Kyung K; Zatcky, Joan; Zelefsky, Michael J; Yamada, Yoshiya; Holodny, Andrei I; Bilsky, Mark H; Karimi, Sasan

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE High-dose image-guided radiation therapy (HD IGRT) has been instrumental in mitigating some limitations of conventional RT. The recent emergence of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI to investigate tumor physiology can be used to verify the response of human tumors to HD IGRT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the near-immediate effects of HD IGRT on spine metastases through the use of DCE MRI perfusion studies. METHODS Six patients with spine metastases from prostate, thyroid, and renal cell carcinoma who underwent HD IGRT were studied using DCE MRI prior to and 1 hour after HD IGRT. The DCE perfusion parameters plasma volume (Vp) and vascular permeability (Ktrans) were measured to assess the near-immediate and long-term tumor response. A Mann-Whitney U-test was performed to compare significant changes (at p ≤ 0.05) in perfusion parameters before and after RT. RESULTS The authors observed a precipitous drop in Vp within 1 hour of HD IGRT, with a mean decrease of 65.2%. A significant difference was found between Vp values for before and 1 hour after RT (p ≤ 0.05). No significant change was seen in Vp (p = 0.31) and Ktrans (p = 0.1) from 1 hour after RT to the first follow-up. CONCLUSIONS The data suggest that there is an immediate effect of HD IGRT on the vascularity of spine metastases, as demonstrated by a precipitous decrease in Vp. The DCE MRI studies can detect such changes within 1 hour after RT, and findings are concordant with existing animal models.

  8. Are on-line currencies virtual banknotes?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen F. Quinn; William Roberds

    2003-01-01

    The history of money is marked by innovations that have expanded the role of "inside money"-money created by the private sector. For instance, the past few years have seen the development of several types of on-line payment arrangements, some of which have been dubbed "on-line currencies." ; This article examines the likely success or failure of on-line currencies by means of a historical analogy. The discussion compares the introduction of on-line currencies to the debut of the bearer bankno...

  9. Evaluation of 3 different registration techniques in image-guided bimaxillary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Luebbers, Heinz-Theo; Agbaje, Jimoh Olubanwo; Schepers, Serge; Vrielinck, Luc; Lambrichts, Ivo; Politis, Constantinus

    2013-07-01

    Perioperative navigation is an upcoming tool in orthognathic surgery. This study aimed to access the feasibility of the technique and to evaluate the success rate of 3 different registration methods--facial surface registration, anatomic landmark-based registration, and template-based registration. The BrainLab navigation system (BrainLab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) was used as an additional precision tool for 85 patients who underwent bimaxillary orthognathic surgery from February 2010 to June 2012. Eighteen cases of facial surface-based registration, 63 cases of anatomic landmark-based registration, and 8 cases of template-based registration were analyzed. The overall success rate of facial surface-based registration was 39%, which was significant lower than template-based (100%, P = 0.013) and anatomic landmark-based registration (95%, P bimaxillary orthognathic surgery has been proved to be feasible. The registration process is the critical point regarding success of intraoperative navigation. Anatomic landmark-based registration is a reliable technique for image-guided bimaxillary surgery. In contrast, facial surface-based registration is highly unreliable.

  10. The accuracy of image-guided navigation for maxillary positioning in bimaxillary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Luebbers, Heinz-Theo; Agbaje, Jimoh Olubanwo; Lambrichts, Ivo; Politis, Constantinus

    2014-05-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of image-guided maxillary positioning in sagittal, vertical, and mediolateral direction. Between May 2011 and July 2012, 17 patients (11 males, 6 females) underwent bimaxillary surgery with the use of intraoperative surgical navigation. During Le Fort I osteotomy, the Kolibri navigation system was used to measure movement of the maxilla at the edge of the upper central upper incisor in sagittal (buccal surface), vertical (incisor edge), and mediolateral (dental midline) direction. Six weeks after surgery, a postoperative CBCT scan was taken and registered to the preoperative cone-beam computed tomography scan to identify the actual surgical movement of the maxilla. Student 2-tailed paired t test was used to evaluate differences between the measured result from navigation system and actual surgical movement of the maxilla, which were 0.44 ± 0.35 mm (P = 0.82) in the sagittal, 0.50 ± 0.35 mm (P = 0.85) in the vertical, and 0.56 ± 0.36 mm (P = 0.81) in the mediolateral direction. Our finding demonstrates that intraoperative computer navigation is a promising tool for measuring the surgical change of the maxilla in bimaxillary surgery.

  11. Virtual Reality Aided Positioning of Mobile C-Arms for Image-Guided Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhou Shao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For the image-guided surgery, the positioning of mobile C-arms is a key technique to take X-ray images in a desired pose for the confirmation of current surgical outcome. Unfortunately, surgeons and patient often suffer the radiation exposure due to the repeated imaging when the X-ray image is of poor quality or not captured at a good projection view. In this paper, a virtual reality (VR aided positioning method for the mobile C-arm is proposed by the alignment of 3D surface model of region of interest and preoperative anatomy, so that a reference pose of the mobile C-arm with respect to the inside anatomy can be figured out from outside view. It allows a one-time imaging from the outside view to greatly reduce the additional radiation exposure. To control the mobile C-arm to the desired pose, the mobile C-arm is modeled as a robotic arm with a movable base. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of appearance model and precision of mobile C-arm positioning. The appearance model was reconstructed with the average error of 2.16 mm. One-time imaging of mobile C-arm was achieved, and new modeling of mobile C-arm with 8 DoFs enlarges the working space in the operating room.

  12. Microenvironment-Driven Bioelimination of Magnetoplasmonic Nanoassemblies and Their Multimodal Imaging-Guided Tumor Photothermal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Fu, Shiyan; Chen, Chuanfang; Wang, Xuandong; Fu, Changhui; Wang, Shu; Guo, Weibo; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Xiaodi; Liu, Zhirong; Qiu, Jichuan; Liu, Hong

    2016-07-26

    Biocompatibility and bioelimination are basic requirements for systematically administered nanomaterials for biomedical purposes. Gold-based plasmonic nanomaterials have shown potential applications in photothermal cancer therapy. However, their inability to biodegrade has impeded practical biomedical application. In this study, a kind of bioeliminable magnetoplasmonic nanoassembly (MPNA), assembled from an Fe3O4 nanocluster and gold nanoshell, was elaborately designed for computed tomography, photoacoustic tomography, and magnetic resonance trimodal imaging-guided tumor photothermal therapy. A single dose of photothermal therapy under near-infrared light induced a complete tumor regression in mice. Importantly, MPNAs could respond to the local microenvironment with acidic pH and enzymes where they accumulated including tumors, liver, spleen, etc., collapse into small molecules and discrete nanoparticles, and finally be cleared from the body. With the bioelimination ability from the body, a high dose of 400 mg kg(-1) MPNAs had good biocompatibility. The MPNAs for cancer theranostics pave a way toward biodegradable bio-nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

  13. Knowledge modeling in image-guided neurosurgery: application in understanding intraoperative brain shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Adad, Julien; Paul, Perrine; Morandi, Xavier; Jannin, Pierre

    2006-03-01

    During an image-guided neurosurgery procedure, the neuronavigation system is subject to inaccuracy because of anatomical deformations which induce a gap between the preoperative images and their anatomical reality. Thus, the objective of many research teams is to succeed in quantifying these deformations in order to update preoperative images. Anatomical intraoperative deformations correspond to a complex spatio-temporal phenomenon. Our objective is to identify the parameters implicated in these deformations and to use these parameters as constrains for systems dedicated to updating preoperative images. In order to identify these parameters of deformation we followed the iterative methodology used for cognitive system conception: identification, conceptualization, formalization, implementation and validation. A state of the art about cortical deformations has been established in order to identify relevant parameters probably involved in the deformations. As a first step, 30 parameters have been identified and described following an ontological approach. They were formalized into a Unified Modeling Language (UML) class diagram. We implemented that model into a web-based application in order to fill a database. Two surgical cases have been studied at this moment. After having entered enough surgical cases for data mining purposes, we expect to identify the most relevant and influential parameters and to gain a better ability to understand the deformation phenomenon. This original approach is part of a global system aiming at quantifying and correcting anatomical deformations.

  14. Development and application of stent-based image guided navigation system for oral and maxillofacial surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woo Jin; Kim, Dae Seung [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Dental Research Institute and BK21, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Heo, Min Suk; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Kim, Myung Jin; Lee, Jee Ho [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop a stent-based image guided surgery system and to apply it to oral and maxillofacial surgeries for anatomically complex sites. We devised a patient-specific stent for patient-to-image registration and navigation. Three dimensional positions of the reference probe and the tool probe were tracked by an optical camera system and the relative position of the handpiece drill tip to the reference probe was monitored continuously on the monitor of a PC. Using 8 landmarks for measuring accuracy, the spatial discrepancy between CT image coordinate and physical coordinate was calculated for testing the normality. The accuracy over 8 anatomical landmarks showed an overall mean of 0.56 {+-} 0.16 mm. The developed system was applied to a surgery for a vertical alveolar bone augmentation in right mandibular posterior area and possible interior alveolar nerve injury case of an impacted third molar. The developed system provided continuous monitoring of invisible anatomical structures during operation and 3D information for operation sites. The clinical challenge showed sufficient accuracy and availability of anatomically complex operation sites. The developed system showed sufficient accuracy and availability in oral and maxillofacial surgeries for anatomically complex sites.

  15. A small animal image guided irradiation system study using 3D dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xin; Admovics, John; Wuu, Cheng-Shie

    2015-01-01

    In a high resolution image-guided small animal irradiation platform, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is integrated with an irradiation unit for precise targeting. Precise quality assurance is essential for both imaging and irradiation components. The conventional commissioning techniques with films face major challenges due to alignment uncertainty and labour intensive film preparation and scanning. In addition, due to the novel design of this platform the mouse stage rotation for CBCT imaging is perpendicular to the gantry rotation for irradiation. Because these two rotations are associated with different mechanical systems, discrepancy between rotation isocenters exists. In order to deliver x-ray precisely, it is essential to verify coincidence of the imaging and the irradiation isocenters. A 3D PRESAGE dosimeter can provide an excellent tool for checking dosimetry and verifying coincidence of irradiation and imaging coordinates in one system. Dosimetric measurements were performed to obtain beam profiles and percent depth dose (PDD). Isocentricity and coincidence of the mouse stage and gantry rotations were evaluated with starshots acquired using PRESAGE dosimeters. A single PRESAGE dosimeter can provide 3 -D information in both geometric and dosimetric uncertainty, which is crucial for translational studies.

  16. Evaluation of visualization techniques for image-guided navigation in liver surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Marcus; Hassenpflug, Peter; Thorn, Matthias; Cárdenas, Carlos; Richter, Götz Martin; Lamadé, Wolfram; Herfarth, Christian; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2002-01-01

    A substantial component of an image-guided surgery system (IGSS) is the kind of three-dimensional (3D) presentation to the surgeon because the visual depth perception of the complex anatomy is of significant relevance for orientation. Therefore, we examined in this contribution four different visualization techniques, which were evaluated by eight surgeons. The IGSS developed by our group supports the intraoperative orientation of the surgeon by depicting a visualization of the spatially tracked surgical instruments with respect to intrahepatic vessels that have to be conserved vitally, the tumor, and preoperatively calculated resection planes. In the prelimenary trial presented here we examined the human ability to percept an intraoperative virtual scene and to solve given navigation tasks. The focus of the experiments was to measure the ability of eight surgeons to orientate intrahepaticaly and to transfer the percepted spatial relation to movements in real space. An autostereoscopic visualization with a prism-based display yielded that the navigation can be performed faster and more accurately than with the other visualization techniques.

  17. Imaging-guided two-photon excitation-emission-matrix measurements of human skin tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingqiu; Lee, Anthony M. D.; Wang, Hequn; Tang, Shuo; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2012-07-01

    There are increased interests on using multiphoton imaging and spectroscopy for skin tissue characterization and diagnosis. However, most studies have been done with just a few excitation wavelengths. Our objective is to perform a systematic study of the two-photon fluorescence (TPF) properties of skin fluorophores, normal skin, and diseased skin tissues. A nonlinear excitation-emission-matrix (EEM) spectroscopy system with multiphoton imaging guidance was constructed. A tunable femtosecond laser was used to vary excitation wavelengths from 730 to 920 nm for EEM data acquisition. EEM measurements were performed on excised fresh normal skin tissues, seborrheic keratosis tissue samples, and skin fluorophores including: NADH, FAD, keratin, melanin, collagen, and elastin. We found that in the stratum corneum and upper epidermis of normal skin, the cells have large sizes and the TPF originates from keratin. In the lower epidermis, cells are smaller and TPF is dominated by NADH contributions. In the dermis, TPF is dominated by elastin components. The depth resolved EEM measurements also demonstrated that keratin structure has intruded into the middle sublayers of the epidermal part of the seborrheic keratosis lesion. These results suggest that the imaging guided TPF EEM spectroscopy provides useful information for the development of multiphoton clinical devices for skin disease diagnosis.

  18. Intelligent multisensor concept for image-guided 3D object measurement with scanning laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Juergen

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents an intelligent multisensor concept for measuring 3D objects using an image guided laser radar scanner. The field of application are all kinds of industrial inspection and surveillance tasks where it is necessary to detect, measure and recognize 3D objects in distances up to 10 m with high flexibility. Such applications might be the surveillance of security areas or container storages as well as navigation and collision avoidance of autonomous guided vehicles. The multisensor system consists of a standard CCD matrix camera and a 1D laser radar ranger which is mounted to a 2D mirror scanner. With this sensor combination it is possible to acquire gray scale intensity data as well as absolute 3D information. To improve the system performance and flexibility, the intensity data of the scene captured by the camera can be used to focus the measurement of the 3D sensor to relevant areas. The camera guidance of the laser scanner is useful because the acquisition of spatial information is relatively slow compared to the image sensor's ability to snap an image frame in 40 ms. Relevant areas in a scene are located by detecting edges of objects utilizing various image processing algorithms. The complete sensor system is controlled by three microprocessors carrying out the 3D data acquisition, the image processing tasks and the multisensor integration. The paper deals with the details of the multisensor concept. It describes the process of sensor guidance and 3D measurement and presents some practical results of our research.

  19. Near-infrared image-guided laser ablation of dental decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, You-Chen; Fried, Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Image-guided laser ablation systems are now feasible for dentistry with the recent development of nondestructive high-contrast imaging modalities such as near-IR (NIR) imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) that are capable of discriminating between sound and demineralized dental enamel at the early stages of development. Our objective is to demonstrate that images of demineralized tooth surfaces have sufficient contrast to be used to guide a CO2 laser for the selective removal of natural and artificial caries lesions. NIR imaging and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) operating at 1310-nm are used to acquire images of natural lesions on extracted human teeth and highly patterned artificial lesions produced on bovine enamel. NIR and PS-OCT images are analyzed and converted to binary maps designating the areas on the samples to be removed by a CO2 laser to selectively remove the lesions. Postablation NIR and PS-OCT images confirmed preferential removal of demineralized areas with minimal damage to sound enamel areas. These promising results suggest that NIR and PS-OCT imaging systems can be integrated with a CO2 laser ablation system for the selective removal of dental caries.

  20. Wall suction-assisted image-guided thoracentesis: a safe alternative to evacuated bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Shyn, P B; Wu, L; Levesque, V M; Khorasani, R; Silverman, S G

    2017-10-01

    To compare the safety of evacuated bottle-assisted thoracentesis with wall suction-assisted thoracentesis. An institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study of 161 consecutive patients who underwent 191 evacuated bottle-assisted thoracenteses from 1 January 2012 to 30 September 2012, and 188 consecutive patients who underwent 230 wall suction-assisted thoracenteses from 1 January 2013 to 30 September 2013 was conducted. All procedures used imaging guidance. Primary diagnosis, age, gender, total fluid volume removed, and adverse events (AE) up to 30 days post-procedure were recorded and graded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 4.0 (CTCAE)(2). Overall AE rates were 42.9% (82/191) for the evacuated bottle group and 19.6% (45/230) for the wall suction group (psuction group, [41.9% (80/191) and 18.3% (42/230)], respectively (psuction groups, respectively. No grade 4 or 5 AE occurred. Excluding transient chest pain and cough, there was no statistical difference in overall AE rate between the evacuated bottle and wall suction groups [11% (21/191) and 8.3% (19/230), p=0.4]. Image-guided thoracentesis performed with wall suction is safe when compared to evacuated bottles. The use of wall suction, in comparison to evacuated bottles, may decrease the incidence of transient chest pain or cough. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 5-ALA Fluorescence Image Guided Resection of Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Eljamel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is one of the most deadly cancers in humans. Despite recent advances in anti-cancer therapies, most patients with GBM die from local disease progression. Fluorescence image guided surgical resection (FIGR was recently advocated to enhance local control of GBM. This is meta-analyses of 5-aminolevulinic (5-ALA induced FIGR. Materials: Review of the literature produced 503 potential publications; only 20 of these fulfilled the inclusion criteria of this analysis, including a total of 565 patients treated with 5-ALA-FIGR reporting on its outcomes and 800 histological samples reporting 5-ALA-FIGR sensitivity and specificity. Results: The mean gross total resection (GTR rate was 75.4% (95% CI: 67.4–83.5, p < 0.001. The mean time to tumor progression (TTP was 8.1 months (95% CI: 4.7–12, p < 0.001. The mean overall survival gain reported was 6.2 months (95% CI: −1–13, p < 0.001. The specificity was 88.9% (95% CI: 83.9–93.9, p < 0.001 and the sensitivity was 82.6% (95% CI: 73.9–91.9, p < 0.001. Conclusion: 5-ALA-FIGR in GBM is highly sensitive and specific, and imparts significant benefits to patients in terms of improved GTR and TTP.

  2. A microelectronic portal imaging device for image guided conformal microirradiation of murine cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Samantha G; Silvius, Alexander A; Izaguirre, Enrique W

    2014-01-01

    Image guided conformal small animal orthovoltage microirradiators are currently under development to perform radiobiological experiments with preclinical cancer models. An important component of these instruments is the treatment delivery image guidance system, a microelectronic portal imaging device (μEPID). Here, we present the design and implementation of a μEPID, specifically designed and constructed for small animal orthovoltage microirradiators. The μEPID can acquire images in the range of 60 kVp to 320 kVp x-ray photon energies and can endure high doses from orthovoltage beams without radiation damage. The μEPID can acquire 200 μm resolution images at a rate of 17 frames per second for online in vivo co-registration between irradiation beams and small animal anatomy. An exposure with less than 1% of a 2 Gy treatment field is required for imaging, which is an adequate ratio between imaging dose and treatment dose to avoid undesired irradiation of healthy tissue or alteration of the preclinical cancer model. The μEPID was calibrated for microdosimetry with a precision of 4.1% with respect to an ion chamber, used as a gold standard. To validate the in vivo device performance, irradiations of lung, brain, and xenograft breast cancer preclinical models were performed and analyzed.

  3. Image-guided multipolar radiofrequency ablation of liver tumours: initial clinical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terraz, Sylvain; Constantin, Christophe; Becker, Christoph D. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Majno, Pietro Edoardo; Mentha, Gilles [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Spahr, Laurent [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2007-09-15

    The local effectiveness and clinical usefulness of multipolar radiofrequency (RF) ablation of liver tumours was evaluated. Sixty-eight image-guided RF sessions were performed using a multipolar device with bipolar electrodes in 53 patients. There were 45 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and 42 metastases with a diameter {<=}3 cm (n = 55), 3.1-5 cm (n = 29) and >5 cm (n = 3); 26 nodules were within 5 mm from large vessels. Local effectiveness and complications were evaluated after RF procedures. Mean follow-up was 17 {+-} 10 months. Recurrence and survival rates were analysed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The primary and secondary technical effectiveness rate was 82% and 95%, respectively. The major and minor complication rate was 2.9%, respectively. The local tumour progression at 1- and 2-years was 5% and 9% for HCC nodules and 17% and 31% for metastases, respectively; four of 26 nodules (15%) close to vessels showed local progression. The survival at 1 year and 2 years was 97% and 90% for HCC and 84% and 68% for metastases, respectively. Multipolar RF technique creates ablation zones of adequate size and tailored shape and is effective to treat most liver tumours, including those close to major hepatic vessels. (orig.)

  4. An Ultrasound Imaging-Guided Robotic HIFU Ablation Experimental System and Accuracy Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih Yu An

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, noninvasive thermal treatment by using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU has high potential in tumor treatment. The goal of this research is to develop an ultrasound imaging-guided robotic HIFU ablation system for tumor treatment. The system integrates the technologies of ultrasound image-assisted guidance, robotic positioning control, and HIFU treatment planning. With the assistance of ultrasound image guidance technology, the tumor size and location can be determined from ultrasound images as well as the robotic arm can be controlled to position the HIFU transducer to focus on the target tumor. After the development of the system, several experiments were conducted to measure the positioning accuracy of this system. The results show that the average positioning error is 1.01 mm with a standard deviation 0.34, and HIFU ablation accuracy is 1.32 mm with a standard deviation 0.58, which means this system is confirmed with its possibility and accuracy.

  5. CustusX: an open-source research platform for image-guided therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askeland, Christian; Solberg, Ole Vegard; Bakeng, Janne Beate Lervik; Reinertsen, Ingerid; Tangen, Geir Arne; Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Iversen, Daniel Høyer; Våpenstad, Cecilie; Selbekk, Tormod; Langø, Thomas; Hernes, Toril A Nagelhus; Olav Leira, Håkon; Unsgård, Geirmund; Lindseth, Frank

    2016-04-01

    CustusX is an image-guided therapy (IGT) research platform dedicated to intraoperative navigation and ultrasound imaging. In this paper, we present CustusX as a robust, accurate, and extensible platform with full access to data and algorithms and show examples of application in technological and clinical IGT research. CustusX has been developed continuously for more than 15 years based on requirements from clinical and technological researchers within the framework of a well-defined software quality process. The platform was designed as a layered architecture with plugins based on the CTK/OSGi framework, a superbuild that manages dependencies and features supporting the IGT workflow. We describe the use of the system in several different clinical settings and characterize major aspects of the system such as accuracy, frame rate, and latency. The validation experiments show a navigation system accuracy of [Formula: see text]1.1 mm, a frame rate of 20 fps, and latency of 285 ms for a typical setup. The current platform is extensible, user-friendly and has a streamlined architecture and quality process. CustusX has successfully been used for IGT research in neurosurgery, laparoscopic surgery, vascular surgery, and bronchoscopy. CustusX is now a mature research platform for intraoperative navigation and ultrasound imaging and is ready for use by the IGT research community. CustusX is open-source and freely available at http://www.custusx.org.

  6. Superiority of autostereoscopic visualization for image-guided navigation in liver surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Marcus; Hassenpflug, Peter; Thorn, Matthias; Cardenas, Carlos; Grenacher, Lars; Richter, Goetz M.; Lamade, Wolfram; Herfarth, Christian; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2002-05-01

    A substantial component of an image-guided surgery system (IGSS) is the kind of three-dimensional (3D) presentation to the surgeon because the visual depth perception of the complex anatomy is of significant relevance for orientation. Therefore, we examined for this contribution four different visualization techniques, which were evaluated by eight surgeons. The IGSS developed by our group supports the intraoperative orientation of the surgeon by presenting a visualization of the spatially tracked surgical instruments with respect to vitally important intrahepatic vessels, the tumor, and preoperatively calculated resection planes. In the preliminary trial presented here, we examined the human ability to perceive an intraoperative virtual scene and to solve given navigation tasks. The focus of the experiments was to measure the ability of eight surgeons to orientate themselves intrahepatically and to transfer the perceived virtual spatial relations to movements in real space. With auto-stereoscopic visualization making use of a prism-based display the navigation can be performed faster and more accurate than with the other visualization techniques.

  7. Image-Guided Surgical Robotic System for Percutaneous Reduction of Joint Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Giulio; Georgilas, Ioannis; Morad, Samir; Gibbons, Peter; Tarassoli, Payam; Atkins, Roger; Dogramadzi, Sanja

    2017-08-16

    Complex joint fractures often require an open surgical procedure, which is associated with extensive soft tissue damages and longer hospitalization and rehabilitation time. Percutaneous techniques can potentially mitigate these risks but their application to joint fractures is limited by the current sub-optimal 2D intra-operative imaging (fluoroscopy) and by the high forces involved in the fragment manipulation (due to the presence of soft tissue, e.g., muscles) which might result in fracture malreduction. Integration of robotic assistance and 3D image guidance can potentially overcome these issues. The authors propose an image-guided surgical robotic system for the percutaneous treatment of knee joint fractures, i.e., the robot-assisted fracture surgery (RAFS) system. It allows simultaneous manipulation of two bone fragments, safer robot-bone fixation system, and a traction performing robotic manipulator. This system has led to a novel clinical workflow and has been tested both in laboratory and in clinically relevant cadaveric trials. The RAFS system was tested on 9 cadaver specimens and was able to reduce 7 out of 9 distal femur fractures (T- and Y-shape 33-C1) with acceptable accuracy (≈1 mm, ≈5°), demonstrating its applicability to fix knee joint fractures. This study paved the way to develop novel technologies for percutaneous treatment of complex fractures including hip, ankle, and shoulder, thus representing a step toward minimally-invasive fracture surgeries.

  8. [Practical method for six-dimensional online correction system with image guided radiation therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaguchi, Yuji; Araki, Fujio; Kouno, Tomohiro; Maruyama, Masato

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we developed a correction method for coordinate transformation errors that are produced in combination with the ExacTrac X-ray system (BrainLAB) and HexaPOD (Elekta) in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The positional accuracy of the correction method was compared between the ExacTrac Robotics (BrainLAB) and no correction. We tried to correct iBeam evo couch top (Elekta) by operating two steps drive like ExacTrac Robotics. No correction for HexaPOD showed a maximal error of 4.52 mm, and the couch did not move to the correct position. However, our correction method for HexaPOD showed the positional accuracy within 1 mm. Our method has no significant difference with ExacTrac Robotics (paired t-test, P>0.1). But, when the correction values for the rotatory directions were large, the positional accuracy tended to be poor. The smallest setup errors for the rotatory directions are important for IGRT.

  9. Designing a wearable navigation system for image-guided cancer resection surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Pengfei; Ding, Houzhu; Wang, Jinkun; Liu, Peng; Ling, Qiang; Chen, Jiayu; Xu, Junbin; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald

    2014-11-01

    A wearable surgical navigation system is developed for intraoperative imaging of surgical margin in cancer resection surgery. The system consists of an excitation light source, a monochromatic CCD camera, a host computer, and a wearable headset unit in either of the following two modes: head-mounted display (HMD) and Google glass. In the HMD mode, a CMOS camera is installed on a personal cinema system to capture the surgical scene in real-time and transmit the image to the host computer through a USB port. In the Google glass mode, a wireless connection is established between the glass and the host computer for image acquisition and data transport tasks. A software program is written in Python to call OpenCV functions for image calibration, co-registration, fusion, and display with augmented reality. The imaging performance of the surgical navigation system is characterized in a tumor simulating phantom. Image-guided surgical resection is demonstrated in an ex vivo tissue model. Surgical margins identified by the wearable navigation system are co-incident with those acquired by a standard small animal imaging system, indicating the technical feasibility for intraoperative surgical margin detection. The proposed surgical navigation system combines the sensitivity and specificity of a fluorescence imaging system and the mobility of a wearable goggle. It can be potentially used by a surgeon to identify the residual tumor foci and reduce the risk of recurrent diseases without interfering with the regular resection procedure.

  10. Fully automated image-guided needle insertion: application to small animal biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, A; Bour, G; Aprahamian, M; Bayle, B; Graebling, P; Gangloff, J; Soler, L; Egly, J M; Marescaux, J

    2007-01-01

    The study of biological process evolution in small animals requires time-consuming and expansive analyses of a large population of animals. Serial analyses of the same animal is potentially a great alternative. However non-invasive procedures must be set up, to retrieve valuable tissue samples from precisely defined areas in living animals. Taking advantage of the high resolution level of in vivo molecular imaging, we defined a procedure to perform image-guided needle insertion and automated biopsy using a micro CT-scan, a robot and a vision system. Workspace limitations in the scanner require the animal to be removed and laid in front of the robot. A vision system composed of a grid projector and a camera is used to register the designed animal-bed with to respect to the robot and to calibrate automatically the needle position and orientation. Automated biopsy is then synchronised with respiration and performed with a pneumatic translation device, at high velocity, to minimize organ deformation. We have experimentally tested our biopsy system with different needles.

  11. Image-guided therapy system for interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy in a multimodality operating suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, an image-guided therapy system supporting gynecologic radiation therapy is introduced. The overall workflow of the presented system starts with the arrival of the patient and ends with follow-up examinations by imaging and a superimposed visualization of the modeled device from a PACS system. Thereby, the system covers all treatments stages (pre-, intra- and postoperative) and has been designed and constructed by a computer scientist with feedback from an interdisciplinary team of physicians and engineers. This integrated medical system enables dispatch of diagnostic images directly after acquisition to a processing workstation that has an on-board 3D Computer Aided Design model of a medical device. Thus, allowing precise identification of catheter location in the 3D imaging model which later provides rapid feedback to the clinician regarding device location. Moreover, the system enables the ability to perform patient-specific pre-implant evaluation by assessing the placement of interstitial needles prior to an intervention via virtual template matching with a diagnostic scan.

  12. Image-Guided Transcranial Focused Ultrasound Stimulates Human Primary Somatosensory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhye; Kim, Hyungmin; Jung, Yujin; Song, In-Uk; Chung, Yong An; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2015-03-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) has recently been investigated as a new mode of non-invasive brain stimulation, which offers exquisite spatial resolution and depth control. We report on the elicitation of explicit somatosensory sensations as well as accompanying evoked electroencephalographic (EEG) potentials induced by FUS stimulation of the human somatosensory cortex. As guided by individual-specific neuroimage data, FUS was transcranially delivered to the hand somatosensory cortex among healthy volunteers. The sonication elicited transient tactile sensations on the hand area contralateral to the sonicated hemisphere, with anatomical specificity of up to a finger, while EEG recordings revealed the elicitation of sonication-specific evoked potentials. Retrospective numerical simulation of the acoustic propagation through the skull showed that a threshold of acoustic intensity may exist for successful cortical stimulation. The neurological and neuroradiological assessment before and after the sonication, along with strict safety considerations through the individual-specific estimation of effective acoustic intensity in situ and thermal effects, showed promising initial safety profile; however, equal/more rigorous precautionary procedures are advised for future studies. The transient and localized stimulation of the brain using image-guided transcranial FUS may serve as a novel tool for the non-invasive assessment and modification of region-specific brain function.

  13. 3D endobronchial ultrasound reconstruction and analysis for multimodal image-guided bronchoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaonan; Bascom, Rebecca; Gilbert, Christopher R.; Toth, Jennifer W.; Higgins, William E.

    2014-03-01

    State-of-the-art image-guided intervention (IGI) systems for lung-cancer management draw upon high-resolution three-dimensional multi-detector computed-tomography (MDCT) images and bronchoscopic video. An MDCT scan provides a high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) image of the chest that is used for preoperative procedure planning, while bronchoscopy gives live intraoperative video of the endobronchial airway tree structure. However, because neither source provides live extraluminal information on suspect nodules or lymph nodes, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is often introduced during a procedure. Unfortunately, existing IGI systems provide no direct synergistic linkage between the MDCT/video data and EBUS data. Hence, EBUS proves difficult to use and can lead to inaccurate interpretations. To address this drawback, we present a prototype of a multimodal IGI system that brings together the various image sources. The system enables 3D reconstruction and visualization of structures depicted in the 2D EBUS video stream. It also provides a set of graphical tools that link the EBUS data directly to the 3D MDCT and bronchoscopic video. Results using phantom and human data indicate that the new system could potentially enable smooth natural incorporation of EBUS into the system-level work flow of bronchoscopy.

  14. Designing a wearable navigation system for image-guided cancer resection surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Pengfei; Ding, Houzhu; Wang, Jinkun; Liu, Peng; Ling, Qiang; Chen, Jiayu; Xu, Junbin; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    A wearable surgical navigation system is developed for intraoperative imaging of surgical margin in cancer resection surgery. The system consists of an excitation light source, a monochromatic CCD camera, a host computer, and a wearable headset unit in either of the following two modes: head-mounted display (HMD) and Google glass. In the HMD mode, a CMOS camera is installed on a personal cinema system to capture the surgical scene in real-time and transmit the image to the host computer through a USB port. In the Google glass mode, a wireless connection is established between the glass and the host computer for image acquisition and data transport tasks. A software program is written in Python to call OpenCV functions for image calibration, co-registration, fusion, and display with augmented reality. The imaging performance of the surgical navigation system is characterized in a tumor simulating phantom. Image-guided surgical resection is demonstrated in an ex vivo tissue model. Surgical margins identified by the wearable navigation system are co-incident with those acquired by a standard small animal imaging system, indicating the technical feasibility for intraoperative surgical margin detection. The proposed surgical navigation system combines the sensitivity and specificity of a fluorescence imaging system and the mobility of a wearable goggle. It can be potentially used by a surgeon to identify the residual tumor foci and reduce the risk of recurrent diseases without interfering with the regular resection procedure. PMID:24980159

  15. Image-guided Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy for Squamous Cell Carcinomas: Preclinical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajisevi, Mirabelle; Rigual, Nestor R; Bellnier, David A.; Seshadri, Mukund

    2014-01-01

    Objective Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved minimally invasive treatment for cancer. In this preclinical study, using an imaging-guided approach, we examined the potential utility of PDT in the management of bulky squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Methods To mimic bulky oropharyngeal cancers seen in the clinical setting, intramuscular SCCs were established in six-to-eight week old female C3H mice. Animals were injected with the photosensitizer, 2-[hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH; 0.4 μmol/kg, i.v.) and tumors were illuminated 24 hours post injection with 665 nm light. PDT as a single treatment modality was administered by surface illumination or by interstitial placement of fibers (iPDT). Magnetic resonance imaging was used to guide treatment and assess tumor response to PDT along with correlative histopathologic assessment. Results Interstitial HPPH-PDT resulted in a marked change on T2 maps 24 hours post treatment compared to untreated controls or transcutaneous illumination. Corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient maps also showed hyperintense areas in tumors following iPDT suggestive of effective photodynamic cell kill. Histologic sections (H&E) confirmed presence of extensive tumor necrosis following iPDT. Conclusions These results highlight the potential utility of PDT in the treatment of bulky oropharyngeal cancers. The findings of our study also demonstrate the utility of MRI as a non-invasive tool for mapping of early tissue response to PDT. PMID:25750858

  16. Gold Nanocage-Photosensitizer Conjugates for Dual-Modal Image-Guided Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivatsan, Avinash; Jenkins, Samir V.; Jeon, Mansik; Wu, Zhijin; Kim, Chulhong; Chen, Jingyi; Pandey, Ravindra K.

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated that gold nanocage-photosensitizer conjugates can enable dual image-guided delivery of photosensitizer and significantly improve the efficacy of photodynamic therapy in a murine model. The photosensitizer, 3-devinyl-3-(1'-hexyloxyethyl)pyropheophorbide (HPPH), was noncovalently entrapped in the poly(ethylene glycol) monolayer coated on the surface of gold nanocages. The conjugate is stable in saline solutions, while incubation in protein rich solutions leads to gradual unloading of the HPPH, which can be monitored optically by fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging. The slow nature of the release in turn results in an increase in accumulation of the drug within implanted tumors due to the passive delivery of gold nanocages. Furthermore, the conjugate is found to generate more therapeutic singlet oxygen and have a lower IC50 value than the free drug alone. Thus the conjugate shows significant suppression of tumor growth as compared to the free drug in vivo. Short-term study showed neither toxicity nor phenotypical changes in mice at therapeutic dose of the conjugates or even at 100-fold higher than therapeutic dose of gold nanocages. PMID:24465274

  17. Image-Guided Non-Local Dense Matching with Three-Steps Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu; Zhang, Yongjun; Yue, Zhaoxi

    2016-06-01

    This paper introduces a new image-guided non-local dense matching algorithm that focuses on how to solve the following problems: 1) mitigating the influence of vertical parallax to the cost computation in stereo pairs; 2) guaranteeing the performance of dense matching in homogeneous intensity regions with significant disparity changes; 3) limiting the inaccurate cost propagated from depth discontinuity regions; 4) guaranteeing that the path between two pixels in the same region is connected; and 5) defining the cost propagation function between the reliable pixel and the unreliable pixel during disparity interpolation. This paper combines the Census histogram and an improved histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) feature together as the cost metrics, which are then aggregated based on a new iterative non-local matching method and the semi-global matching method. Finally, new rules of cost propagation between the valid pixels and the invalid pixels are defined to improve the disparity interpolation results. The results of our experiments using the benchmarks and the Toronto aerial images from the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) show that the proposed new method can outperform most of the current state-of-the-art stereo dense matching methods.

  18. Image-guided ultrasound phased arrays are a disruptive technology for non-invasive therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, Kullervo; Jones, Ryan M.

    2016-09-01

    Focused ultrasound offers a non-invasive way of depositing acoustic energy deep into the body, which can be harnessed for a broad spectrum of therapeutic purposes, including tissue ablation, the targeting of therapeutic agents, and stem cell delivery. Phased array transducers enable electronic control over the beam geometry and direction, and can be tailored to provide optimal energy deposition patterns for a given therapeutic application. Their use in combination with modern medical imaging for therapy guidance allows precise targeting, online monitoring, and post-treatment evaluation of the ultrasound-mediated bioeffects. In the past there have been some technical obstacles hindering the construction of large aperture, high-power, densely-populated phased arrays and, as a result, they have not been fully exploited for therapy delivery to date. However, recent research has made the construction of such arrays feasible, and it is expected that their continued development will both greatly improve the safety and efficacy of existing ultrasound therapies as well as enable treatments that are not currently possible with existing technology. This review will summarize the basic principles, current statures, and future potential of image-guided ultrasound phased arrays for therapy.

  19. Feasibility of Tomotherapy-based image-guided radiotherapy for small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Phong Nguyen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the tolerance of patients with small cell lung cancer undergoing chemoradiation with tomotherapy-based image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT.Materials and methods: A retrospective review of the toxicity profile for nine patients with small cell lung cancer of the limited stage who underwent chemoradiation delivered with helical tomotherapy (HT has been conducted.Results: Acute grade 3-4 hematologic and esophagitis toxicities developed in two and three patients respectively. One patient developed a pulmonary embolism during radiotherapy. Seven patients had weight loss ranging from 0 to 30 pounds (median: 4 pounds. Three patients had treatment breaks ranging from 2 to 12 days. At a median follow-up of 11 months (range: 2-24 months, no patients developed any radiation related toxicities such as grade 3-4 pneumonitis or other long-term complications. The median survival was estimated to be 15 months. There were 2 local recurrences, 3 mediastinal recurrences, and six distant metastases.Conclusion: Grade 3-4 toxicities remained significant during chemoradiation when radiation was delivered with tomotherapy-based IGRT. However, the absence of grade 3-4 pneumonitis is promising and the use of HT needs to be investigated in future prospective studies.

  20. Augmented reality with Microsoft HoloLens holograms for near infrared fluorescence based image guided surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Nan; Kharel, Pradosh; Gruev, Viktor

    2017-02-01

    Near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) based image guided surgery aims to provide vital information to the surgeon in the operating room, such as locations of cancerous tissue that should be resected and healthy tissue that should to be preserved. Targeted molecular markers, such as tumor or nerve specific probes, are used in conjunctions with NIRF imaging and display systems to provide key information to the operator in real-time. One of the major hurdles for the wide adaptation of these imaging systems is the high cost to operate the instruments, large footprint and complexity of operating the systems. The emergence of wearable NIRF systems has addressed these shortcomings by minimizing the imaging and display systems' footprint and reducing the operational cost. However, one of the major shortcomings for this technology is the replacement of the surgeon's natural vision with an augmented reality view of the operating room. In this paper, we have addressed this major shortcoming by exploiting hologram technology from Microsoft HoloLens to present NIR information on a color image captured by the surgeon's natural vision. NIR information is captured with a CMOS sensor with high quantum efficiency in the 800 nm wavelength together with a laser light illumination light source. The NIR image is converted to a hologram that is displayed on Microsoft HoloLens and is correctly co-registered with the operator's natural eyesight.

  1. Multifunctional gold nanorods for image-guided surgery and photothermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriere, Clement; Qi, Ji; Garcia-Allende, P. Beatriz; Newton, Richard; Elson, Daniel S.

    2012-03-01

    Nanoparticles are viewed as a promising tool for numerous medical applications, for instance imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) has been proposed using gold nanorods. We are developing multi-functional gold nanorods (m-GNRs) which have potential for image guided endoscopic surgery of tumour tissue with a modified laparoscope system. A new synthesis method potentially allows any useful acid functionalised molecules to be bonded at the surface. We have created fluorescent m-GNRs which can be used for therapy as they absorb light in the infrared, which may penetrate deep into the tissue and produce localised heating. We have performed a tissue based experiment to demonstrate the feasibility of fluorescence guided PTT using m- GNRs. Ex vivo tests were performed using sheep heart. This measurement, correlated with the fluorescence signal of the m-GNRs measured by the laparoscope allows the clear discrimination of the artery system containing m-GNRs. A laser diode was used to heat the m-GNRs and a thermal camera was able to record the heat distribution. These images were compared to the fluorescence images for validation.

  2. Segmenting the prostate and rectum in CT imagery using anatomical constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siqi; Lovelock, D Michael; Radke, Richard J

    2011-02-01

    The automatic segmentation of the prostate and rectum from 3D computed tomography (CT) images is still a challenging problem, and is critical for image-guided therapy applications. We present a new, automatic segmentation algorithm based on deformable organ models built from previously segmented training data. The major contributions of this work are a new segmentation cost function based on a Bayesian framework that incorporates anatomical constraints from surrounding bones and a new appearance model that learns a nonparametric distribution of the intensity histograms inside and outside organ contours. We report segmentation results on 185 datasets of the prostate site, demonstrating improved performance over previous models.

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, also called transrectal ultrasound, provides ...

  4. On line routing per mobile phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieding, Thomas; Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    On-line routing is concerned with building vehicle routes in an ongoing fashion in such a way that customer requests arriving dynamically in time are efficiently and effectively served. An indispensable prerequisite for applying on-line routing methods is mobile communication technology. Addition...

  5. Accuracy analysis of an image-guided system for vertebroplasty spinal therapy based on electromagnetic tracking of instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jienan; Khan, Noureen; Cheng, Patrick; Wilson, Emmanuel; Watson, Vance; Cleary, Kevin; Yaniv, Ziv

    2008-03-01

    Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure in which bone cement is pumped into a fractured vertebral body that has been weakened by osteoporosis, long-term steroid use, or cancer. In this therapy, a trocar (large bore hollow needle) is inserted through the pedicle of the vertebral body which is a narrow passage and requires great skill on the part of the physician to avoid going outside of the pathway. In clinical practice, this procedure is typically done using 2D X-ray fluoroscopy. To investigate the feasibility of providing 3D image guidance, we developed an image-guided system based on electromagnetic tracking and our open source software platform the Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK). The system includes path planning, interactive 3D navigation, and dynamic referencing. This paper will describe the system and our initial evaluation.

  6. A fully automatic image-to-world registration method for image-guided procedure with intraoperative imaging updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Senhu; Sarment, David

    2016-03-01

    Image-guided procedure with intraoperative imaging updates has made a big impact on minimally invasive surgery. Compact and mobile CT imaging device combining with current commercial available image guided navigation system is a legitimate and cost-efficient solution for a typical operating room setup. However, the process of manual fiducial-based registration between image and physical spaces (image-to-world) is troublesome for surgeons during the procedure, which results in much procedure interruptions and is the main source of registration errors. In this study, we developed a novel method to eliminate the manual registration process. Instead of using probe to manually localize the fiducials during the surgery, a tracking plate with known fiducial positions relative to the reference coordinates is designed and fabricated through 3D printing technique. The workflow and feasibility of this method has been studied through a phantom experiment.

  7. Effect of translational and rotational errors on complex dose distributions with off-line and on-line position verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Lips; U.A. van der Heide; A.N.T.J. Kotte; M. van Vulpen; A. Bel

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of translational and rotational errors on prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with an integrated boost to the tumor and to evaluate the effect of the use of an on-line correction protocol. METHODS AND MATERIALS: For 19 patients, who had been treated

  8. The role of MRI in image-guided needle biopsy of focal bone and soft tissue neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, M M Y; Saifuddin, A

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a critical role in the management pathway of both soft tissue and bone neoplasms, from diagnosis through to post-treatment follow-up. There are a wide range of surgical, oncological, and combined treatment regimes but these rely on accurate histopathological diagnosis. This article reviews the role of MRI in the planning of image-guided needle biopsy for suspected soft tissue and bone tumors.

  9. Theoretical aspects of implementation of kilovoltage cone-beam CT onboard linear accelerator for image-guided radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Cordón, Marta; Ferrer Albiach, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) equipment is to reduce and correct inherent errors in external radiotherapy processes. At the present time, there are different IGRT systems available, but here we will refer exclusively to the kilovoltage cone-beam CT onboard linear accelerator (CBkVCT) and the different aspects that, from a clinical point of view, should be taken into consideration before the implementation of this equipment.

  10. Imaging-Guided Core-Needle Breast Biopsy: Impact of Meditation and Music Interventions on Patient Anxiety, Pain, and Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Mary Scott; Jarosz, Jennifer A; Wren, Anava A; Soo, Adrianne E; Mowery, Yvonne M; Johnson, Karen S; Yoon, Sora C; Kim, Connie; Hwang, E Shelley; Keefe, Francis J; Shelby, Rebecca A

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of guided meditation and music interventions on patient anxiety, pain, and fatigue during imaging-guided breast biopsy. After giving informed consent, 121 women needing percutaneous imaging-guided breast biopsy were randomized into three groups: (1) guided meditation; (2) music; (3) standard-care control group. During biopsy, the meditation and music groups listened to an audio-recorded, guided, loving-kindness meditation and relaxing music, respectively; the standard-care control group received supportive dialogue from the biopsy team. Immediately before and after biopsy, participants completed questionnaires measuring anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Scale), biopsy pain (Brief Pain Inventory), and fatigue (modified Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue). After biopsy, participants completed questionnaires assessing radiologist-patient communication (modified Questionnaire on the Quality of Physician-Patient Interaction), demographics, and medical history. The meditation and music groups reported significantly greater anxiety reduction (P values pain during biopsy, compared with the music group (P = .03). No significant difference in patient-perceived quality of radiologist-patient communication was noted among groups. Listening to guided meditation significantly lowered biopsy pain during imaging-guided breast biopsy; meditation and music reduced patient anxiety and fatigue without compromising radiologist-patient communication. These simple, inexpensive interventions could improve women's experiences during core-needle breast biopsy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of a cone beam computed tomography geometry for image guided small animal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yidong; Armour, Michael; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Gandhi, Nishant; Iordachita, Iulian; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey; Wong, John

    2015-07-01

    The conventional imaging geometry for small animal cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is that a detector panel rotates around the head-to-tail axis of an imaged animal ('tubular' geometry). Another unusual but possible imaging geometry is that the detector panel rotates around the anterior-to-posterior axis of the animal ('pancake' geometry). The small animal radiation research platform developed at Johns Hopkins University employs the pancake geometry where a prone-positioned animal is rotated horizontally between an x-ray source and detector panel. This study is to assess the CBCT image quality in the pancake geometry and investigate potential methods for improvement. We compared CBCT images acquired in the pancake geometry with those acquired in the tubular geometry when the phantom/animal was placed upright simulating the conventional CBCT geometry. Results showed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the pancake geometry were reduced in comparison to the tubular geometry at the same dose level. But the overall spatial resolution within the transverse plane of the imaged cylinder/animal was better in the pancake geometry. A modest exposure increase to two folds in the pancake geometry can improve image quality to a level close to the tubular geometry. Image quality can also be improved by inclining the animal, which reduces streak artifacts caused by bony structures. The major factor resulting in the inferior image quality in the pancake geometry is the elevated beam attenuation along the long axis of the phantom/animal and consequently increased scatter-to-primary ratio in that orientation. Not withstanding, the image quality in the pancake-geometry CBCT is adequate to support image guided animal positioning, while providing unique advantages of non-coplanar and multiple mice irradiation. This study also provides useful knowledge about the image quality in the two very different imaging geometries, i.e. pancake and tubular geometry, respectively.

  12. SU-E-I-39: Molecular Image Guided Cancer Stem Cells Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdollahi, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer stem cells resistance to radiation is a problematic issue that has caused a big fail in cancer treatment. Methods: As a primary work, molecular imaging can indicate the main mechanisms of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. By developing and commissioning new probes and nanomolecules and biomarkers, radiation scientist will able to identify the essential pathways of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. As the second solution, molecular imaging is a best way to find biological target volume and delineate cancer stem cell tissues. In the other hand, by molecular imaging techniques one can image the treatment response in tumor and also in normal tissue. In this issue, the response of cancer stem cells to radiation during therapy course can be imaged, also the main mechanisms of radiation resistance and finding the best radiation modifiers (sensitizers) can be achieved by molecular imaging modalities. In adaptive radiotherapy the molecular imaging plays a vital role to have higher tumor control probability by delivering high radiation doses to cancer stem cells in any time of treatment. The outcome of a feasible treatment is dependent to high cancer stem cells response to radiation and removing all of which, so a good imaging modality can show this issue and preventing of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Results: Our results are dependent to use of molecular imaging as a new modality in the clinic. We propose molecular imaging as a new radiobiological technique to solve radiation therapy problems due to cancer stem cells. Conclusion: Molecular imaging guided cancer stem cell diagnosis and therapy is a new approach in the field of cancer treatment. This new radiobiological imaging technique should be developed in all clinics as a feasible tool that is more biological than physical imaging.

  13. Robotic image-guided reirradiation of lateral pelvic recurrences: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castelain Bernard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first-line treatment of a pelvic recurrence in a previously irradiated area is surgery. Unfortunately, few patients are deemed operable, often due to the location of the recurrence, usually too close to the iliac vessels, or the associated surgical morbidity. The objective of this study is to test the viability of robotic image-guided radiotherapy as an alternative treatment in inoperable cases. Methods Sixteen patients previously treated with radiotherapy were reirradiated with CyberKnife® for lateral pelvic lesions. Recurrences of primary rectal cancer (4 patients, anal canal (6, uterine cervix cancer (4, endometrial cancer (1, and bladder carcinoma (1 were treated. The median dose of the previous treatment was 45 Gy (EqD2 range: 20 to 96 Gy. A total dose of 36 Gy in six fractions was delivered with the CyberKnife over three weeks. The responses were evaluated according to RECIST criteria. Results Median follow-up was 10.6 months (1.9 to 20.5 months. The actuarial local control rate was 51.4% at one year. Median disease-free survival was 8.3 months after CyberKnife treatment. The actuarial one-year survival rate was 46%. Acute tolerance was limited to digestive grade 1 and 2 toxicities. Conclusions Robotic stereotactic radiotherapy can offer a short and well-tolerated treatment for lateral pelvic recurrences in previously irradiated areas in patients otherwise not treatable. Efficacy and toxicity need to be evaluated over the long term, but initial results are encouraging.

  14. Determination of effective doses in image-guided radiation therapy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyone, Y. Y.; Suriyapee, S.; Sanghangthum, T.; Oonsiri, S.; Tawonwong, T.

    2016-03-01

    The organ and effective doses in image-guided radiotherapy system are determined in this study. For 2D imaging, incident air kerma (Ki) was measured by 6cc ionization chamber with Accu-Pro dosimeter. The entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) was calculated by multiplying Ki with backscatter factor. The effective dose was calculated by multiplying ESAK with conversion coefficient. For 3D imaging, computed tomography/cone-beam dose index (CTDI/CBDI) measurements were performed by using 100mm pencil ionization chamber with Accu-Pro dosimeter. The dose index in air and in CTDI phantom from planning CT and cone- beam CT were measured. Then, effective dose was calculated by ImPACT software. The effective doses from 2D conventional simulator for anteroposterior and lateral projections were 01 and 0.02mSv for head, 0.15 and 0.16mSv for thorax, 0.22 and 0.21mSv for pelvis, respectively. The effective doses from 3D, planning CT and CBCT, were 3.3 and 0.1mSv for head, 13 and 2.4mSv for thorax and 7.2 and 4.9mSv for pelvis, respectively. Based on 30 fractions of treatment course, total effective dose (3D CT, 2D setup verification and 6 times CBCT) of head, thorax and pelvis were 3.93, 27.71 and 37.03mSv, respectively. Therefore, IGRT should be administered with significant parameters to reduce the dose.

  15. TU-A-304-01: Introduction and Workflow of Image-Guided SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salter, B. [University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Institute (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Increased use of SBRT and hypo fractionation in radiation oncology practice has posted a number of challenges to medical physicist, ranging from planning, image-guided patient setup and on-treatment monitoring, to quality assurance (QA) and dose delivery. This symposium is designed to provide updated knowledge necessary for the safe and efficient implementation of SBRT in various linac platforms, including the emerging digital linacs equipped with high dose rate FFF beams. Issues related to 4D CT, PET and MRI simulations, 3D/4D CBCT guided patient setup, real-time image guidance during SBRT dose delivery using gated/un-gated VMAT or IMRT, and technical advancements in QA of SBRT (in particular, strategies dealing with high dose rate FFF beams) will be addressed. The symposium will help the attendees to gain a comprehensive understanding of the SBRT workflow and facilitate their clinical implementation of the state-of-art imaging and planning techniques. Learning Objectives: Present background knowledge of SBRT, describe essential requirements for safe implementation of SBRT, and discuss issues specific to SBRT treatment planning and QA. Update on the use of multi-dimensional (3D and 4D) and multi-modality (CT, beam-level X-ray imaging, pre- and on-treatment 3D/4D MRI, PET, robotic ultrasound, etc.) for reliable guidance of SBRT. Provide a comprehensive overview of emerging digital linacs and summarize the key geometric and dosimetric features of the new generation of linacs for substantially improved SBRT. Discuss treatment planning and quality assurance issues specific to SBRT. Research grant from Varian Medical Systems.

  16. Diabetic mastopathy: Imaging features and the role of image-guided biopsy in its diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the imaging features of diabetic mastopathy (DMP) and the role of image-guided biopsy in its diagnosis. Two experienced radiologists retrospectively reviewed the mammographic and sonographic images of 19 pathologically confirmed DMP patients. The techniques and results of the biopsies performed in each patient were also reviewed. Mammograms showed negative findings in 78% of the patients. On ultrasonography (US), 13 lesions were seen as masses and six as non-mass lesions. The US features of the mass lesions were as follows: irregular shape (69%), oval shape (31%), indistinct margin (69%), angular margin (15%), microlobulated margin (8%), well-defined margin (8%), heterogeneous echogenicity (62%), hypoechoic echogenicity (38%), posterior shadowing (92%), parallel orientation (100%), the absence of calcifications (100%), and the absence of vascularity (100%). Based on the US findings, 17 lesions (89%) were classified as Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category 4 and two (11%) as category 3. US-guided core biopsy was performed in 18 patients, and 10 (56%) were diagnosed with DMP on that basis. An additional vacuum-assisted biopsy was performed in seven patients and all were diagnosed with DMP. The US features of DMP were generally suspicious for malignancy, whereas the mammographic findings were often negative or showed only focal asymmetry. Core biopsy is an adequate method for initial pathological diagnosis. However, since it yields non-diagnostic results in a considerable number of cases, the evaluation of correlations between imaging and pathology plays an important role in the diagnostic process.

  17. Image Guided Clinical Correlation of CDH and Calve-Legg-Perthes Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Herischi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Anatomic condition and"nvascularization of the femoral head leads to Calve-"nLegg-Perthes disease (avascular necrosis in children"nand primary condition of acetabulum and coverage"nof hip joint as a defect, cause CDH or congenital"ndislocation of the hip joint. Early diagnosis of these"ndiseases in clinic, confirmation by imaging (US, Xray,"nX-ray CT and MRI help better treatment and less"ncomplication or sequel."nPatients and Methods: By two decade evaluation and"ntreatment we used clinical assessments by pediatric"northopedic surgeons and radiologic examinations like"nfrog-leg, AP X-rays, ultrasound examinations, 2D"nand 3D X-ray CT and 1.5 tesla MR-machine images."nTreatments were with fixation (using cast and elizarov"nvariant fixators, surgery and controlling by imaging."nResults: Ultrasound and MRI were the best methods"nin diagnosis, image guided treatment (medical or"nsurgical and treatment controlling. Many patients"nare treated with minor complications. Complications"nare rare in CDH but some complications have been"nmentioned for CLP disease."nConclusion: Image guidance in diagnosis and treatment"nalso treatment control of pediatric CDH and CLP"ndisease give the pediatric orthopedic surgeon a good"noutcome of the disease and its treatment. Ultrasound"nand MRI using highly sophisticated probes, coils and"nprotocols with new machines gives us the best result"nin diagnosis, treatment and post-op controls.

  18. Swallowable capsule with air channel for improved image-guided cancer detection in the esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Eric J.; Melville, C. David; Lung, Jonathan K. C.; Babchanik, Alexander P.; Lee, Cameron M.; Johnston, Richard S.; Dominitz, Jason A.

    2009-02-01

    A new type of endoscope has been developed and tested in the human esophagus, a tethered-capsule endoscope (TCE) that requires no sedation for oral ingestion and esophageal inspection. The TCE uses scanned red, green, and blue laser light to image the upper digestive tract using a swallowable capsule of 6.4mm in diameter and 18mm in length on a 1.4mm diameter tether. The TCE has been modified for image-guided interventions in the lower esophagus, specifically for more effective detection and measurement of the extent of Barrett's esophagus, a precursor to esophageal cancer. Three modifications have been tested in vivo: (1) weighting the capsule so it is negatively buoyant in water, (2) increasing the frame rate of 500-line images to 30 Hz (video rate), and (3) adding a 1.0mm inner diameter working channel alongside the tether for distending the lower esophagus with air pressure during endoscopy. All three modifications proved effective for more clearly visualizing the lower esophagus in the first few human subjects. The air channel was especially useful because it did not change tolerability in the first subject for unsedated endoscopy and the air easily removed bubbles obscuring tissue from the field of view. The air provided a non-invasive intervention by stimulating the mechanosensor of the lower esophageal sphincter at the precise time that the TCE was positioned for most informative imaging. All three TCE modifications proved successful for improved visualization of esophageal pathology, such as suspected Barrett's esophagus, without the use of sedation.

  19. Localization and registration accuracy in image guided neurosurgery: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Reuben R; Joskowicz, Leo; Spektor, Sergey; Shoshan, Yigal

    2009-01-01

    To measure and compare the clinical localization and registration errors in image-guided neurosurgery, with the purpose of revising current assumptions. Twelve patients who underwent brain surgeries with a navigation system were randomly selected. A neurosurgeon localized and correlated the landmarks on preoperative MRI images and on the intraoperative physical anatomy with a tracked pointer. In the laboratory, we generated 612 scenarios in which one landmark pair was defined as the target and the remaining ones were used to compute the registration transformation. Four errors were measured: (1) fiducial localization error (FLE); (2) target registration error (TRE); (3) fiducial registration error (FRE); (4) Fitzpatrick's target registration error estimation (F-TRE). We compared the different errors and computed their correlation. The image and physical FLE ranges were 0.5-2.0 and 1.6-3.0 mm, respectively. The measured TRE, FRE and F-TRE were 4.1 +/- 1.6, 3.9 +/- 1.2, and 3.7 +/- 2.2 mm, respectively. Low correlations of 0.19 and 0.37 were observed between the FRE and TRE and between the F-TRE and the TRE, respectively. The differences of the FRE and F-TRE from the TRE were 1.3 +/- 1.0 mm (max = 5.5 mm) and 1.3 +/- 1.2 mm (max = 7.3 mm), respectively. Contrary to common belief, the FLE presents significant variations. Moreover, both the FRE and the F-TRE are poor indicators of the TRE in image-to-patient registration.

  20. Accuracy Considerations in Image-guided Cardiac Interventions: Experience and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linte, Cristian A.; Lang, Pencilla; Rettmann, Maryam E.; Cho, Daniel S.; Holmes, David R.; Robb, Richard A.; Peters, Terry M.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation Medical imaging and its application in interventional guidance has revolutionized the development of minimally invasive surgical procedures leading to reduced patient trauma, fewer risks, and shorter recovery times. However, a frequently posed question with regards to an image guidance system is “how accurate is it?” On one hand, the accuracy challenge can be posed in terms of the tolerable clinical error associated with the procedure; on the other hand, accuracy is bound by the limitations of the system’s components, including modeling, patient registration, and surgical instrument tracking, all of which ultimately impact the overall targeting capabilities of the system. Methods While these processes are not unique to any interventional specialty, this paper discusses them in the context of two different cardiac image-guidance platforms: a model-enhanced ultrasound platform for intracardiac interventions and a prototype system for advanced visualization in image-guided cardiac ablation therapy. Results Pre-operative modeling techniques involving manual, semi-automatic and registration-based segmentation are discussed. The performance and limitations of clinically feasible approaches for patient registration evaluated both in the laboratory and operating room are presented. Our experience with two different magnetic tracking systems for instrument and ultrasound transducer localization is reported. Ultimately, the overall accuracy of the systems is discussed based on both in vitro and preliminary in vivo experience. Conclusion While clinical accuracy is specific to a particular patient and procedure and vastly dependent on the surgeon’s experience, the system’s engineering limitations are critical to determine whether the clinical requirements can be met. PMID:21671097

  1. Dual source and dual detector arrays tetrahedron beam computed tomography for image guided radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joshua; Lu, Weiguo; Zhang, Tiezhi

    2014-02-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an important online imaging modality for image guided radiotherapy. But suboptimal image quality and the lack of a real-time stereoscopic imaging function limit its implementation in advanced treatment techniques, such as online adaptive and 4D radiotherapy. Tetrahedron beam computed tomography (TBCT) is a novel online imaging modality designed to improve on the image quality provided by CBCT. TBCT geometry is flexible, and multiple detector and source arrays can be used for different applications. In this paper, we describe a novel dual source-dual detector TBCT system that is specially designed for LINAC radiation treatment machines. The imaging system is positioned in-line with the MV beam and is composed of two linear array x-ray sources mounted aside the electrical portal imaging device and two linear arrays of x-ray detectors mounted below the machine head. The detector and x-ray source arrays are orthogonal to each other, and each pair of source and detector arrays forms a tetrahedral volume. Four planer images can be obtained from different view angles at each gantry position at a frame rate as high as 20 frames per second. The overlapped regions provide a stereoscopic field of view of approximately 10-15 cm. With a half gantry rotation, a volumetric CT image can be reconstructed having a 45 cm field of view. Due to the scatter rejecting design of the TBCT geometry, the system can potentially produce high quality 2D and 3D images with less radiation exposure. The design of the dual source-dual detector system is described, and preliminary results of studies performed on numerical phantoms and simulated patient data are presented.

  2. Development of a spherically focused phased array transducer for ultrasonic image-guided hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingfei; Foiret, Josquin; Stephens, Douglas N.; Le Baron, Olivier; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2016-07-01

    A 1.5 MHz prolate spheroidal therapeutic array with 128 circular elements was designed to accommodate standard imaging arrays for ultrasonic image-guided hyperthermia. The implementation of this dual-array system integrates real-time therapeutic and imaging functions with a single ultrasound system (Vantage 256, Verasonics). To facilitate applications involving small animal imaging and therapy the array was designed to have a beam depth of field smaller than 3.5 mm and to electronically steer over distances greater than 1 cm in both the axial and lateral directions. In order to achieve the required f number of 0.69, 1-3 piezocomposite modules were mated within the transducer housing. The performance of the prototype array was experimentally evaluated with excellent agreement with numerical simulation. A focal volume (2.70 mm (axial)  ×  0.65 mm (transverse)  ×  0.35 mm (transverse)) defined by the  -6 dB focal intensity was obtained to address the dimensions needed for small animal therapy. An electronic beam steering range defined by the  -3 dB focal peak intensity (17 mm (axial)  ×  14 mm (transverse)  ×  12 mm (transverse)) and  -8 dB lateral grating lobes (24 mm (axial)  ×  18 mm (transverse)  ×  16 mm (transverse)) was achieved. The combined testing of imaging and therapeutic functions confirmed well-controlled local heating generation and imaging in a tissue mimicking phantom. This dual-array implementation offers a practical means to achieve hyperthermia and ablation in small animal models and can be incorporated within protocols for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery.

  3. Fast CT-CT fluoroscopy registration with respiratory motion compensation for image-guided lung intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Po; Xue, Zhong; Lu, Kongkuo; Yang, Jianhua; Wong, Stephen T.

    2012-02-01

    CT-fluoroscopy (CTF) is an efficient imaging method for guiding percutaneous lung interventions such as biopsy. During CTF-guided biopsy procedure, four to ten axial sectional images are captured in a very short time period to provide nearly real-time feedback to physicians, so that they can adjust the needle as it is advanced toward the target lesion. Although popularly used in clinics, this traditional CTF-guided intervention procedure may require frequent scans and cause unnecessary radiation exposure to clinicians and patients. In addition, CTF only generates limited slices of images and provides limited anatomical information. It also has limited response to respiratory movements and has narrow local anatomical dynamics. To better utilize CTF guidance, we propose a fast CT-CTF registration algorithm with respiratory motion estimation for image-guided lung intervention using electromagnetic (EM) guidance. With the pre-procedural exhale and inhale CT scans, it would be possible to estimate a series of CT images of the same patient at different respiratory phases. Then, once a CTF image is captured during the intervention, our algorithm can pick the best respiratory phase-matched 3D CT image and performs a fast deformable registration to warp the 3D CT toward the CTF. The new 3D CT image can be used to guide the intervention by superimposing the EM-guided needle location on it. Compared to the traditional repetitive CTF guidance, the registered CT integrates both 3D volumetric patient data and nearly real-time local anatomy for more effective and efficient guidance. In this new system, CTF is used as a nearly real-time sensor to overcome the discrepancies between static pre-procedural CT and the patient's anatomy, so as to provide global guidance that may be supplemented with electromagnetic (EM) tracking and to reduce the number of CTF scans needed. In the experiments, the comparative results showed that our fast CT-CTF algorithm can achieve better registration

  4. Multiphoton microscopy and image guided light activated therapy using nanomaterials (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Paras N.

    2017-02-01

    This talk will focus on design and applications of nanomaterials exhibiting strong multiphoton upconversion for multiphoton microscopy as well as for image-guided and light activated therapy .1-3 Such processes can occur by truly nonlinear optical interactions proceeding through virtual intermediate states or by stepwise coupled linear excitations through real intermediate states. Multiphoton processes in biocompatible multifunctional nanoparticles allow for 3D deep tissue imaging. In addition, they can produce in-situ photon conversion of deep tissue penetrating near IR light into a needed shorter wavelength light for photo-activated therapy at a targeted site, thus overcoming the limited penetration of UV or visible light into biological media. We are using near IR emitters such as silicon quantum dots which also exhibit strong multiphoton excitation for multiphoton microscopy. Another approach involves nonlinear nanocrystals such as ZnO which can produce four wave mixing, sum frequency generation as well as second harmonic generation to convert a deep tissue penetrating Near IR light at the targeted biological site to a desired shorter wavelength light suitable for bio imaging or activation of a therapy. We have utilized this approach to activate a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy. Yet another type of upconversion materials is rare-earth ion doped optical nanotransformers which transform a Near IR (NIR) light from an external source by sequential single photon absorption, in situ and on demand, to a needed wavelength. Applications of these nanotransformers in multiphoton photoacoustic imaging will also be presented. An exciting direction pursued by us using these multiphoton nanoparticles, is functional imaging of brain. Simultaneously, they can effect optogenetics for regioselective stimulation of neurons for providing an effective intervention/augmentation strategy to enhance the cognitive state and lead to a foundation for futuristic vision of super

  5. Transarterial Fiducial Marker Placement for Image-guided Proton Therapy for Malignant Liver Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Kengo, E-mail: yesterday.is.yesterday@gmail.com; Shimohira, Masashi, E-mail: mshimohira@gmail.com [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology (Japan); Sasaki, Shigeru, E-mail: ssasaki916@yahoo.co.jp; Iwata, Hiromitsu, E-mail: h-iwa-ncu@nifty.com; Nishikawa, Hiroko, E-mail: piroko1018@gmail.com; Ogino, Hiroyuki, E-mail: oginogio@gmail.com; Hara, Masaki, E-mail: mhara@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Nagoya City West Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center (Japan); Hashizume, Takuya, E-mail: tky300@gmail.com; Shibamoto, Yuta, E-mail: yshiba@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe aim of this study is to analyze the technical and clinical success rates and safety of transarterial fiducial marker placement for image-guided proton therapy for malignant liver tumors.Methods and MaterialsFifty-five patients underwent this procedure as an interventional treatment. Five patients had 2 tumors, and 4 tumors required 2 markers each, so the total number of procedures was 64. The 60 tumors consisted of 46 hepatocellular carcinomas and 14 liver metastases. Five-mm-long straight microcoils of 0.018 inches in diameter were used as fiducial markers and placed in appropriate positions for each tumor. We assessed the technical and clinical success rates of transarterial fiducial marker placement, as well as the complications associated with it. Technical success was defined as the successful delivery and placement of the fiducial coil, and clinical success was defined as the completion of proton therapy.ResultsAll 64 fiducial coils were successfully installed, so the technical success rate was 100 % (64/64). Fifty-four patients underwent proton therapy without coil migration. In one patient, proton therapy was not performed because of obstructive jaundice due to bile duct invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, the clinical success rate was 98 % (54/55). Slight bleeding was observed in one case, but it was stopped immediately and then observed. None of the patients developed hepatic infarctions due to fiducial marker migration.ConclusionTransarterial fiducial marker placement appears to be a useful and safe procedure for proton therapy for malignant liver tumors.

  6. Technical note: rapid prototyping of 3D grid arrays for image guided therapy quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, David; Holshouser, Barbara; Slater, James M; Guenther, Bob D; Pitsianis, Nikos P; Pearlstein, Robert D

    2008-12-01

    Three dimensional grid phantoms offer a number of advantages for measuring imaging related spatial inaccuracies for image guided surgery and radiotherapy. The authors examined the use of rapid prototyping technology for directly fabricating 3D grid phantoms from CAD drawings. We tested three different fabrication process materials, photopolymer jet with acrylic resin (PJ/AR), selective laser sintering with polyamide (SLS/P), and fused deposition modeling with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (FDM/ABS). The test objects consisted of rectangular arrays of control points formed by the intersections of posts and struts (2 mm rectangular cross section) and spaced 8 mm apart in the x, y, and z directions. The PJ/AR phantom expanded after immersion in water which resulted in permanent warping of the structure. The surface of the FDM/ABS grid exhibited a regular pattern of depressions and ridges from the extrusion process. SLS/P showed the best combination of build accuracy, surface finish, and stability. Based on these findings, a grid phantom for assessing machine-dependent and frame-induced MR spatial distortions was fabricated to be used for quality assurance in stereotactic neurosurgical and radiotherapy procedures. The spatial uniformity of the SLS/P grid control point array was determined by CT imaging (0.6 x 0.6 x 0.625 mm3 resolution) and found suitable for the application, with over 97.5% of the control points located within 0.3 mm of the position specified in CAD drawing and none of the points off by more than 0.4 mm. Rapid prototyping is a flexible and cost effective alternative for development of customized grid phantoms for medical physics quality assurance.

  7. Accuracy of image-guided surgical navigation using near infrared (NIR) optical tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubovic, Raphael; Farooq, Hamza; Alarcon, Joseph; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2015-03-01

    Spinal surgery is particularly challenging for surgeons, requiring a high level of expertise and precision without being able to see beyond the surface of the bone. Accurate insertion of pedicle screws is critical considering perforation of the pedicle can result in profound clinical consequences including spinal cord, nerve root, arterial injury, neurological deficits, chronic pain, and/or failed back syndrome. Various navigation systems have been designed to guide pedicle screw fixation. Computed tomography (CT)-based image guided navigation systems increase the accuracy of screw placement allowing for 3- dimensional visualization of the spinal anatomy. Current localization techniques require extensive preparation and introduce spatial deviations. Use of near infrared (NIR) optical tracking allows for realtime navigation of the surgery by utilizing spectral domain multiplexing of light, greatly enhancing the surgeon's situation awareness in the operating room. While the incidence of pedicle screw perforation and complications have been significantly reduced with the introduction of modern navigational technologies, some error exists. Several parameters have been suggested including fiducial localization and registration error, target registration error, and angular deviation. However, many of these techniques quantify error using the pre-operative CT and an intra-operative screenshot without assessing the true screw trajectory. In this study we quantified in-vivo error by comparing the true screw trajectory to the intra-operative trajectory. Pre- and post- operative CT as well as intra-operative screenshots were obtained for a cohort of patients undergoing spinal surgery. We quantified entry point error and angular deviation in the axial and sagittal planes.

  8. Image-guided linear accelerator-based spinal radiosurgery for hemangioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selch, Michael T; Tenn, Steve; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Lee, Steve P; Gorgulho, Alessandra; De Salles, Antonio A F

    2012-01-01

    To retrospectively review the efficacy and safety of image-guided linear accelerator-based radiosurgery for spinal hemangioblastomas. Between August 2004 and September 2010, nine patients with 20 hemangioblastomas underwent spinal radiosurgery. Five patients had von Hipple-Lindau disease. Four patients had multiple tumors. Ten tumors were located in the thoracic spine, eight in the cervical spine, and two in the lumbar spine. Tumor volume varied from 0.08 to 14.4 cc (median 0.72 cc). Maximum tumor dimension varied from 2.5 to 24 mm (median 10.5 mm). Radiosurgery was performed with a dedicated 6 MV linear accelerator equipped with a micro-multileaf collimator. Median peripheral tumor dose and prescription isodose were 12 Gy and 90%, respectively. Image guidance was performed by optical tracking of infrared reflectors, fusion of oblique radiographs with dynamically reconstructed digital radiographs, and automatic patient positioning. Follow-up varied from 14 to 86 months (median 51 months). Kaplan-Meier estimated 4-year overall and solid tumor local control rates were 90% and 95%, respectively. One tumor progressed 12 months after treatment and a new cyst developed 10 months after treatment in another tumor. There has been no clinical or imaging evidence for spinal cord injury. Results of this limited experience indicate linear accelerator-based radiosurgery is safe and effective for spinal cord hemangioblastomas. Longer follow-up is necessary to confirm the durability of tumor control, but these initial results imply linear accelerator-based radiosurgery may represent a therapeutic alternative to surgery for selected patients with spinal hemangioblastomas.

  9. Virtual rigid body: a new optical tracking paradigm in image-guided interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alexis; Lee, David S.; Deshmukh, Nishikant; Boctor, Emad M.

    2015-03-01

    Tracking technology is often necessary for image-guided surgical interventions. Optical tracking is one the options, but it suffers from line of sight and workspace limitations. Optical tracking is accomplished by attaching a rigid body marker, having a pattern for pose detection, onto a tool or device. A larger rigid body results in more accurate tracking, but at the same time large size limits its usage in a crowded surgical workspace. This work presents a prototype of a novel optical tracking method using a virtual rigid body (VRB). We define the VRB as a 3D rigid body marker in the form of pattern on a surface generated from a light source. Its pose can be recovered by observing the projected pattern with a stereo-camera system. The rigid body's size is no longer physically limited as we can manufacture small size light sources. Conventional optical tracking also requires line of sight to the rigid body. VRB overcomes these limitations by detecting a pattern projected onto the surface. We can project the pattern onto a region of interest, allowing the pattern to always be in the view of the optical tracker. This helps to decrease the occurrence of occlusions. This manuscript describes the method and results compared with conventional optical tracking in an experiment setup using known motions. The experiments are done using an optical tracker and a linear-stage, resulting in targeting errors of 0.38mm+/-0.28mm with our method compared to 0.23mm+/-0.22mm with conventional optical markers. Another experiment that replaced the linear stage with a robot arm resulted in rotational errors of 0.50+/-0.31° and 2.68+/-2.20° and the translation errors of 0.18+/-0.10 mm and 0.03+/-0.02 mm respectively.

  10. Image-guided smart laser system for precision implantation of cells in cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katta, Nitesh; Rector, John A.; Gardner, Michael R.; McElroy, Austin B.; Choy, Kevin C.; Crosby, Cody; Zoldan, Janet; Milner, Thomas E.

    2017-03-01

    State-of-the-art treatment for joint diseases like osteoarthritis focus on articular cartilage repair/regeneration by stem cell implantation therapy. However, the technique is limited by a lack of precision in the physician's imaging and cell deposition toolkit. We describe a novel combination of high-resolution, rapid scan-rate optical coherence tomography (OCT) alongside a short-pulsed nanosecond thulium (Tm) laser for precise cell seeding in cartilage. The superior beam quality of thulium lasers and wavelength of operation 1940 nm offers high volumetric tissue removal rates and minimizes the residual thermal footprint. OCT imaging enables targeted micro-well placement, precise cell deposition, and feature contrast. A bench-top system is constructed using a 15 W, 1940 nm, nanosecond-pulsed Tm fiber laser (500 μJ pulse energy, 100 ns pulse duration, 30kHz repetition rate) for removing tissue, and a swept source laser (1310 ± 70 nm, 100 kHz sweep rate) for OCT imaging, forming a combined Tm/OCT system - a "smart laser knife". OCT assists the smart laser knife user in characterizing cartilage to inform micro-well placement. The Tm laser creates micro-wells (2.35 mm diameter length, 1.5 mm width, 300 μm deep) and micro-incisions (1 mm wide, 200 μm deep) while OCT image-guidance assists and demonstrates this precision cutting and cell deposition with real-time feedback. To test micro-well creation and cell deposition protocol, gelatin phantoms are constructed mimicking cartilage optical properties and physiological structure. Cell viability is then assessed to illustrate the efficacy of the hydrogel deposition. Automated OCT feedback is demonstrated for cutting procedures to avoid important surface/subsurface structures. This bench-top smart laser knife system described here offers a new image-guided approach to precise stem cell seeding that can enhance the efficacy of articular cartilage repair.

  11. Learning curve of 3D fluoroscopy image-guided pedicle screw placement in the thoracolumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryang, Yu-Mi; Villard, Jimmy; Obermüller, Thomas; Friedrich, Benjamin; Wolf, Petra; Gempt, Jens; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    During the past decade, a disproportionate increase of spinal fusion procedures has been observed. Along with this trend, image-guided spine surgery has been experiencing a renaissance in the recent years. A wide range of different navigation systems are available on the market today. However, only few published studies assess the learning curves concerning these new spinal navigation techniques. So far, a study on the learning curve for intraoperative three-dimensional fluoroscopy (3DFL)-navigated pedicle screw (PS) placement is still lacking. The purpose of the study was to analyze the learning curve for 3DFL-navigated thoracolumbar PS placement. The study design included a prospective case series. A cohort of 145 patients were recruited from January 2011 to June 2012. The outcome measures were duration of intraoperative 3D scans, PS placement, PS accuracy on postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans, and PS-related revisions and complications. From the introduction of spinal navigation to our department in January 2011 until June 2012, the learning curve for the duration of intraoperative 3D scan acquisition (navigation or control scan) and placement time per screw, intraoperative screw revisions, screw-related complications, revision surgeries, and PS accuracy on postoperative CT scans were assessed in 145 patients undergoing dorsal navigated instrumentation for 928 PS (736 lumbosacral and 192 thoracic). The observed time span was divided into four intervals. Results of the second, third, and last periods were compared with the first (reference) period, respectively. The mean navigation 3D scan time decreased (first and fourth periods) from 15.4±7.8 (range, 4-40) to 8.4±3.3 (3-15) minutes (plearning effect was found with respect to intraoperative screw revisions. There was one revision surgery. We could demonstrate significant learning effects for 3DFL-navigated PS placement with regard to intraoperative 3D scan acquisition, PS placement time, and PS

  12. Contribution of image-guided adaptive brachytherapy to pelvic nodes treatment in locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacorro, Warren; Dumas, Isabelle; Levy, Antonin; Rivin Del Campo, Eleonor; Canova, Charles-Henri; Felefly, Tony; Huertas, Andres; Marsolat, Fanny; Haie-Meder, Christine; Chargari, Cyrus; Mazeron, Renaud

    With the increasing use of simultaneous integrated boost in the treatment of cervical cancer, there is a need to anticipate the brachytherapy (BT) contribution at the level of the pathologic pelvic lymph nodes. This study aimed to report the dose delivered at their level during BT. Patients with pelvic nodal involvement and treated with a combination of chemoradiation followed by image-guided adaptive pulsed-dose-rate BT were selected. On per BT three-dimensional images, pelvic lymphadenopathies were delineated, without planning aim. For the purposes of the study, D100, D98, D90, and D50 were reviewed and converted in 2-Gy equivalent doses, using the linear quadratic model with an α/β of 10 Gy. Ninety-one patients were identified, allowing evaluation at the level of 226 lymphadenopathies. The majority of them were external iliac (48%), followed by common iliac (25%), and internal iliac (16%) regions. The 2-Gy equivalent doses D98 were 4.4 ± 1.9 Gy, 5.4 ± 3.1 Gy, and 4.3 ± 2.1 Gy for the obturator, internal iliac, and external iliac, respectively, and 2.8 ± 2.5 Gy for the common iliac. The contribution to the common iliac nodes was significantly lower than the one of external and internal iliac (p < 0.001). BT significantly contributes to the treatment of pelvic nodes at the level of approximately 5 Gy in the internal, external, and obturator areas and 2.5 Gy in the common iliac, allowing the anticipation of nodal boost with the simultaneous integrated boost technique. However, important individual variations have been observed, and evaluation of the genuine BT contribution should be recommended. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Integration of patient specific modeling and advanced image processing techniques for image-guided neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archip, Neculai; Fedorov, Andriy; Lloyd, Bryn; Chrisochoides, Nikos; Golby, Alexandra; Black, Peter M.; Warfield, Simon K.

    2006-03-01

    A major challenge in neurosurgery oncology is to achieve maximal tumor removal while avoiding postoperative neurological deficits. Therefore, estimation of the brain deformation during the image guided tumor resection process is necessary. While anatomic MRI is highly sensitive for intracranial pathology, its specificity is limited. Different pathologies may have a very similar appearance on anatomic MRI. Moreover, since fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging are not currently available during the surgery, non-rigid registration of preoperative MR with intra-operative MR is necessary. This article presents a translational research effort that aims to integrate a number of state-of-the-art technologies for MRI-guided neurosurgery at the Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH). Our ultimate goal is to routinely provide the neurosurgeons with accurate information about brain deformation during the surgery. The current system is tested during the weekly neurosurgeries in the open magnet at the BWH. The preoperative data is processed, prior to the surgery, while both rigid and non-rigid registration algorithms are run in the vicinity of the operating room. The system is tested on 9 image datasets from 3 neurosurgery cases. A method based on edge detection is used to quantitatively validate the results. 95% Hausdorff distance between points of the edges is used to estimate the accuracy of the registration. Overall, the minimum error is 1.4 mm, the mean error 2.23 mm, and the maximum error 3.1 mm. The mean ratio between brain deformation estimation and rigid alignment is 2.07. It demonstrates that our results can be 2.07 times more precise then the current technology. The major contribution of the presented work is the rigid and non-rigid alignment of the pre-operative fMRI with intra-operative 0.5T MRI achieved during the neurosurgery.

  14. Retractor-induced brain shift compensation in image-guided neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoyao; Ji, Songbai; Hartov, Alex; Roberts, David; Paulsen, Keith

    2013-03-01

    In image-guided neurosurgery, intraoperative brain shift significantly degrades the accuracy of neuronavigation that is solely based on preoperative magnetic resonance images (pMR). To compensate for brain deformation and to maintain the accuracy in image guidance achieved at the start of surgery, biomechanical models have been developed to simulate brain deformation and to produce model-updated MR images (uMR) to compensate for brain shift. To-date, most studies have focused on shift compensation at early stages of surgery (i.e., updated images are only produced after craniotomy and durotomy). Simulating surgical events at later stages such as retraction and tissue resection are, perhaps, clinically more relevant because of the typically much larger magnitudes of brain deformation. However, these surgical events are substantially more complex in nature, thereby posing significant challenges in model-based brain shift compensation strategies. In this study, we present results from an initial investigation to simulate retractor-induced brain deformation through a biomechanical finite element (FE) model where whole-brain deformation assimilated from intraoperative data was used produce uMR for improved accuracy in image guidance. Specifically, intensity-encoded 3D surface profiles at the exposed cortical area were reconstructed from intraoperative stereovision (iSV) images before and after tissue retraction. Retractor-induced surface displacements were then derived by coregistering the surfaces and served as sparse displacement data to drive the FE model. With one patient case, we show that our technique is able to produce uMR that agrees well with the reconstructed iSV surface after retraction. The computational cost to simulate retractor-induced brain deformation was approximately 10 min. In addition, our approach introduces minimal interruption to the surgical workflow, suggesting the potential for its clinical application.

  15. IBIS: an OR ready open-source platform for image-guided neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Simon; Kochanowska, Anna; Kersten-Oertel, Marta; Gerard, Ian J; Zelmann, Rina; De Nigris, Dante; Bériault, Silvain; Arbel, Tal; Sirhan, Denis; Sadikot, Abbas F; Hall, Jeffery A; Sinclair, David S; Petrecca, Kevin; DelMaestro, Rolando F; Collins, D Louis

    2017-03-01

    Navigation systems commonly used in neurosurgery suffer from two main drawbacks: (1) their accuracy degrades over the course of the operation and (2) they require the surgeon to mentally map images from the monitor to the patient. In this paper, we introduce the Intraoperative Brain Imaging System (IBIS), an open-source image-guided neurosurgery research platform that implements a novel workflow where navigation accuracy is improved using tracked intraoperative ultrasound (iUS) and the visualization of navigation information is facilitated through the use of augmented reality (AR). The IBIS platform allows a surgeon to capture tracked iUS images and use them to automatically update preoperative patient models and plans through fast GPU-based reconstruction and registration methods. Navigation, resection and iUS-based brain shift correction can all be performed using an AR view. IBIS has an intuitive graphical user interface for the calibration of a US probe, a surgical pointer as well as video devices used for AR (e.g., a surgical microscope). The components of IBIS have been validated in the laboratory and evaluated in the operating room. Image-to-patient registration accuracy is on the order of [Formula: see text] and can be improved with iUS to a median target registration error of 2.54 mm. The accuracy of the US probe calibration is between 0.49 and 0.82 mm. The average reprojection error of the AR system is [Formula: see text]. The system has been used in the operating room for various types of surgery, including brain tumor resection, vascular neurosurgery, spine surgery and DBS electrode implantation. The IBIS platform is a validated system that allows researchers to quickly bring the results of their work into the operating room for evaluation. It is the first open-source navigation system to provide a complete solution for AR visualization.

  16. Dual source and dual detector arrays tetrahedron beam computed tomography for image guided radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joshua; Lu, Weiguo; Zhang, Tiezhi

    2014-02-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an important online imaging modality for image guided radiotherapy. But suboptimal image quality and the lack of a real-time stereoscopic imaging function limit its implementation in advanced treatment techniques, such as online adaptive and 4D radiotherapy. Tetrahedron beam computed tomography (TBCT) is a novel online imaging modality designed to improve on the image quality provided by CBCT. TBCT geometry is flexible, and multiple detector and source arrays can be used for different applications. In this paper, we describe a novel dual source-dual detector TBCT system that is specially designed for LINAC radiation treatment machines. The imaging system is positioned in-line with the MV beam and is composed of two linear array x-ray sources mounted aside the electrical portal imaging device and two linear arrays of x-ray detectors mounted below the machine head. The detector and x-ray source arrays are orthogonal to each other, and each pair of source and detector arrays forms a tetrahedral volume. Four planer images can be obtained from different view angles at each gantry position at a frame rate as high as 20 frames per second. The overlapped regions provide a stereoscopic field of view of approximately 10-15 cm. With a half gantry rotation, a volumetric CT image can be reconstructed having a 45 cm field of view. Due to the scatter rejecting design of the TBCT geometry, the system can potentially produce high quality 2D and 3D images with less radiation exposure. The design of the dual source-dual detector system is described, and preliminary results of studies performed on numerical phantoms and simulated patient data are presented.

  17. Standardization of selection criteria for percutaneous image-guided cryoablation of recurrent soft-tissue sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, N; Sargos, P; Italiano, A; Kind, M; Dallaudière, B; Hauger, O; Cornelis, F

    2014-11-01

    Percutaneous image-guided cryoablation has not been validated for local management of recurrence of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) of the trunk or limbs. This study aims to identify selection criteria for cryoablation in order to standardize indications of this treatment. Between 2000 and 2010, 46 patients (57 tumors) presenting local recurrences of STS of the trunk or limbs and treated following standards of care were selected from our institutional database. Eligibility for cryoablation was assessed by two radiologists according to predefined criteria: maximal diameter size of the tumor ≤10cm, distance to skin >5mm, distance to neurovascular structures 3mm at least, absence of articular involvement and planned cryoablation covering the entire lesion volume. Characteristics and outcomes were compared. There was nearly perfect agreement for all criteria (k coefficient ranging from 0.83 to 0.98) between both readers. A subgroup of 13patients was identified as eligible for cryoablation. Locations to the trunk, pelvic girdle or shoulder were significantly more present in the cryoablation group (P=0.002). In this group, tumors were mainly located deeply (P=0.002) with great axes ≤5cm (P=0.044). High local tumor aggressiveness (P=0.016) and differentiated myxoid liposarcoma or myxofibrosarcoma (P=0.007) were more frequent in the eligible group. Based on these criteria, two groups of patients with local relapse of STS can be identified. These results may improve the standardization of selection of patients who could be candidates for cryoablation. Copyright © 2014 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate ... imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, also ...

  19. MRI of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Prostate Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate ... limitations of MRI of the Prostate? What is MRI of the Prostate? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  20. Automatic transperineal ultrasound probe positioning based on CT scan for image guided radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, S. M.; Verhaegen, F.; Paiva Fonesca, G.; de With, P. H. N.; Fontanarosa, D.

    2017-03-01

    Image interpretation is crucial during ultrasound image acquisition. A skilled operator is typically needed to verify if the correct anatomical structures are all visualized and with sufficient quality. The need for this operator is one of the major reasons why presently ultrasound is not widely used in radiotherapy workflows. To solve this issue, we introduce an algorithm that uses anatomical information derived from a CT scan to automatically provide the operator with a patient-specific ultrasound probe setup. The first application we investigated, for its relevance to radiotherapy, is 4D transperineal ultrasound image acquisition for prostate cancer patients. As initial test, the algorithm was applied on a CIRS multi-modality pelvic phantom. Probe setups were calculated in order to allow visualization of the prostate and adjacent edges of bladder and rectum, as clinically required. Five of the proposed setups were reproduced using a precision robotic arm and ultrasound volumes were acquired. A gel-filled probe cover was used to ensure proper acoustic coupling, while taking into account possible tilted positions of the probe with respect to the flat phantom surface. Visual inspection of the acquired volumes revealed that clinical requirements were fulfilled. Preliminary quantitative evaluation was also performed. The mean absolute distance (MAD) was calculated between actual anatomical structure positions and positions predicted by the CT-based algorithm. This resulted in a MAD of (2.8±0.4) mm for prostate, (2.5±0.6) mm for bladder and (2.8±0.6) mm for rectum. These results show that no significant systematic errors due to e.g. probe misplacement were introduced.

  1. Protocol of image guided off-line using cone beam CT megavoltage; Protocolo de imagen guiada off-line mediante Cone Beam CT de megavoltaje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Ruiz-Zorrilla, J.; Fernandez Leton, J. P.; Perez Moreno, J. M.; Zucca Aparicio, D.; Minambres Moro, A.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of image guided protocols offline is to reduce systematic errors in positioning of the patient in the treatment unit, being more important than the random errors, since the systematic have one contribution in the margin of the CTV to the PTV. This paper proposes a protocol for image guided offline with the different actions to take with their threshold values evaluated previously by anatomic location in a sample of 474 patients and 4821Cone beam Megavoltaje CT (CBCT). (Author)

  2. Image guided adaptive brachytherapy with combined intracavitary and interstitial technique improves the therapeutic ratio in locally advanced cervical cancer: Analysis from the retroEMBRACE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LU, Fokdal; Sturdza, Alina; Mazeron, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) using intracavitary applicators (IC) has led to a significant improvement of local control in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Further improvement has been obtained with combined intracavitary/interstitial (IC/IS) applicat......Background and purpose Image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) using intracavitary applicators (IC) has led to a significant improvement of local control in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Further improvement has been obtained with combined intracavitary/interstitial (IC...

  3. On-line generalized Steiner problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awerbuch, B.; Azar, Y.; Bartal, Y. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)

    1996-12-31

    The Generalized Steiner Problem (GSP) is defined as follows. We are given a graph with non-negative weights and a set of pairs of vertices. The algorithm has to construct minimum weight subgraph such that the two nodes of each pair are connected by a path. We consider the on-line generalized Steiner problem, in which pairs of vertices arrive on-line and are needed to be connected immediately. We give a simple O(log{sup 2} n) competitive deterministic on-line algorithm. The previous best online algorithm (by Westbrook and Yan) was O({radical}n log n) competitive. We also consider the network connectivity leasing problem which is a generalization of the GSP. Here edges of the graph can be either bought or leased for different costs. We provide simple randomized O(log{sup 2} n) competitive algorithm based on the on-line generalized Steiner problem result.

  4. The war against on-line piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Julian

    2011-01-01

    A summary by Julian Harris, Deputy General Editor Amicus Curiae, of US attempts to control what it identifies as rogue Internet sites engaged in on-line piracy and opposition to such legislative moves.

  5. On-Line Acquisitions by LOLITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances G. Spigai

    1970-12-01

    Full Text Available The on-line acquisition program (LOLITA in use at the Oregon State University Library is described in terms of development costs, equipment requirements, and overall design philosophy. In particular, the record format and content of records in the on-order file, and the on-line processing of these records (input, search, correction, output using a cathode ray tube display terminal are detailed.

  6. ACSEPP On-Line Electronic Payment Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-bin; ZHU Xian; HONG Fan

    2004-01-01

    With analyzing the existing on-line electronic payment protocols, this paper presents a new on-line electronic payment protocol named ACSEPP: Anonymous, Convenient and Secure Electronic Payment Protocol.Its aim is to design a practical electronic payment protocol which is both secure and convenient.Without using PKI_CA frame, it realized the anonymity of consumer and merchant, the convenient of handling, the low cost of maintenance and the security.

  7. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... The following organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ... Urology Care Foundation -- www. ...

  8. Present status and future of high-precision image guided adaptive brachytherapy for cervix carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poetter, Richard; Kirisits, Christian; Fidarova, Elena F.; Dimopoulos, Johannes C. A.; Berger, Daniel; Tanderup, Kari; Lindegaard, Jacob C. (Dept. of Radiotherapy Medical Univ. of Vienna, General Hospital Vienna, Wien (Austria))

    2008-08-15

    Introduction. Image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) for cervical cancer, using mainly MRI, is an evolving method, increasingly replacing the 2D approach based on conventional radiography. During the complex 4D chain of this procedure image-assistance is provided for disease assessment, provisional treatment planning ('pre-planning'), applicator placement and reconstruction, as well as for contouring, definitive treatment planning and quality control of dose delivery. With IGABT changes of topography adjacent to the applicator, caused by tumour regression, oedema, organ changes and dilation are identified. Thus, the CTV for IGABT is primarily based on the tumour volume at the time of BT and takes into account both time and spatial domains. IGABT requires systematic concepts for target, OAR, biological modelling, DVH analysis, and dose-volume-adaptation. Methods and Results. This report focuses on the advantages and uncertainties, dose-effect relations and clinical results of the IGABT procedure addressing the current status and future perspectives. Uncertainties during the 4D chain of IGABT are mainly related to target contouring, applicator reconstruction, as well as to inter-fraction, intra-fraction and inter-application variability, as caused by tumour response and organ changes. Different from EBRT where set-up uncertainties are compensated by adding a margin to the CTV, no margins to the lateral and anterior-posterior directions can be used for IGABT. Discussion. By 3D treatment planning for IGABT significant improvement of the DVH parameters is achieved compared to 2D library plans. In small tumours the benefit is primarily obtained by a decrease of dose to nearby OAR while in large tumours the use of supplementary interstitial techniques and optimization may double the target volume that can be treated at a therapeutic dose level. The clinical impact of IGABT could recently be demonstrated by the establishment of some correlations between

  9. Dosimetric consequences of translational and rotational errors in frame-less image-guided radiosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guckenberger Matthias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate geometric and dosimetric accuracy of frame-less image-guided radiosurgery (IG-RS for brain metastases. Methods and materials Single fraction IG-RS was practiced in 72 patients with 98 brain metastases. Patient positioning and immobilization used either double- (n = 71 or single-layer (n = 27 thermoplastic masks. Pre-treatment set-up errors (n = 98 were evaluated with cone-beam CT (CBCT based image-guidance (IG and were corrected in six degrees of freedom without an action level. CBCT imaging after treatment measured intra-fractional errors (n = 64. Pre- and post-treatment errors were simulated in the treatment planning system and target coverage and dose conformity were evaluated. Three scenarios of 0 mm, 1 mm and 2 mm GTV-to-PTV (gross tumor volume, planning target volume safety margins (SM were simulated. Results Errors prior to IG were 3.9 mm ± 1.7 mm (3D vector and the maximum rotational error was 1.7° ± 0.8° on average. The post-treatment 3D error was 0.9 mm ± 0.6 mm. No differences between double- and single-layer masks were observed. Intra-fractional errors were significantly correlated with the total treatment time with 0.7mm±0.5mm and 1.2mm±0.7mm for treatment times ≤23 minutes and >23 minutes (p5% in 14% of the patients. A 1 mm safety margin fully compensated intra-fractional patient motion. Conclusions IG-RS with online correction of translational errors achieves high geometric and dosimetric accuracy. Intra-fractional errors decrease target coverage and conformity unless compensated with appropriate safety margins.

  10. Comparing the Zeiss Callisto Eye and the Alcon Verion Image Guided System Toric Lens Alignment Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hura, Arjan S; Osher, Robert H

    2017-07-01

    To compare the alignment meridian generated by the Zeiss Callisto Eye (Carl Zeiss AG, Dublin, CA) and the Alcon Verion Image Guided System (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX). In this retrospective comparative evaluation of technology, intraoperative images were captured at different steps in the same surgery, allowing the comparison of the guidance lines generated by the Verion system to the parallel guidance lines generated by the Callisto Eye system. Measurements of each hemi-meridian were quantified using Adobe Photoshop 2015 CC software (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA). The numbers of degrees separating these alignment meridians were calculated, entered into a database, and analyzed. The authors found that of 98 captured images of 16 eyes, the two technologies were identical in 0 eyes (θ1 = θ2 = 0), similar by 3° in 52 (53%) captured images (θ1 ≠ θ2 ≠ 0), and different by at least 3° in 46 (47%) captured images (θ1 ≠ θ2 ≠ 0). The target meridians were superimposed, the target lines were minimally separated, and the target lines were dissimilar. It was noted that some intraoperative variation occurred from measurement to measurement. Within the small group of 16 cases of routine toric lens implantation in this study, the absolute average number of degrees of misalignment between the Verion and Callisto Eye systems was 3.355 for θ1 and 3.838 for θ2. On average, the intraoperative variation termed "drift" was noted to be 3.963° for θ1, and 4.557° for θ2. The authors found that small deviations were frequent when comparing two sophisticated technologies. Although deviations greater than 3° occurred in less than 47% of captured images from 16 eyes, smaller but significant variations of less than 3° occurred in 53% of captured images from 16 eyes. It was rare to identify a large deviation. However, the authors identified "drift" in the same eye when measurements were taken at different times. The results indicate that the two systems are

  11. C-arm positioning using virtual fluoroscopy for image-guided surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, T.; Punnoose, J.; Uneri, A.; Goerres, J.; Jacobson, M.; Ketcha, M. D.; Manbachi, A.; Vogt, S.; Kleinszig, G.; Khanna, A. J.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Osgood, G.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2017-03-01

    Introduction: Fluoroscopically guided procedures often involve repeated acquisitions for C-arm positioning at the cost of radiation exposure and time in the operating room. A virtual fluoroscopy system is reported with the potential of reducing dose and time spent in C-arm positioning, utilizing three key advances: robust 3D-2D registration to a preoperative CT; real-time forward projection on GPU; and a motorized mobile C-arm with encoder feedback on C-arm orientation. Method: Geometric calibration of the C-arm was performed offline in two rotational directions (orbit α, orbit β). Patient registration was performed using image-based 3D-2D registration with an initially acquired radiograph of the patient. This approach for patient registration eliminated the requirement for external tracking devices inside the operating room, allowing virtual fluoroscopy using commonly available systems in fluoroscopically guided procedures within standard surgical workflow. Geometric accuracy was evaluated in terms of projection distance error (PDE) in anatomical fiducials. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the utility of virtual fluoroscopy to aid C-arm positioning in image guided surgery, assessing potential improvements in time, dose, and agreement between the virtual and desired view. Results: The overall geometric accuracy of DRRs in comparison to the actual radiographs at various C-arm positions was PDE (mean ± std) = 1.6 ± 1.1 mm. The conventional approach required on average 8.0 ± 4.5 radiographs spent "fluoro hunting" to obtain the desired view. Positioning accuracy improved from 2.6o ± 2.3o (in α) and 4.1o ± 5.1o (in β) in the conventional approach to 1.5o ± 1.3o and 1.8o ± 1.7o, respectively, with the virtual fluoroscopy approach. Conclusion: Virtual fluoroscopy could improve accuracy of C-arm positioning and save time and radiation dose in the operating room. Such a system could be valuable to training of fluoroscopy technicians as well as

  12. Temporal regularization of ultrasound-based liver motion estimation for image-guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Shea, Tuathan P., E-mail: tuathan.oshea@icr.ac.uk; Bamber, Jeffrey C.; Harris, Emma J. [Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS foundation Trust, Sutton, London SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Ultrasound-based motion estimation is an expanding subfield of image-guided radiation therapy. Although ultrasound can detect tissue motion that is a fraction of a millimeter, its accuracy is variable. For controlling linear accelerator tracking and gating, ultrasound motion estimates must remain highly accurate throughout the imaging sequence. This study presents a temporal regularization method for correlation-based template matching which aims to improve the accuracy of motion estimates. Methods: Liver ultrasound sequences (15–23 Hz imaging rate, 2.5–5.5 min length) from ten healthy volunteers under free breathing were used. Anatomical features (blood vessels) in each sequence were manually annotated for comparison with normalized cross-correlation based template matching. Five sequences from a Siemens Acuson™ scanner were used for algorithm development (training set). Results from incremental tracking (IT) were compared with a temporal regularization method, which included a highly specific similarity metric and state observer, known as the α–β filter/similarity threshold (ABST). A further five sequences from an Elekta Clarity™ system were used for validation, without alteration of the tracking algorithm (validation set). Results: Overall, the ABST method produced marked improvements in vessel tracking accuracy. For the training set, the mean and 95th percentile (95%) errors (defined as the difference from manual annotations) were 1.6 and 1.4 mm, respectively (compared to 6.2 and 9.1 mm, respectively, for IT). For each sequence, the use of the state observer leads to improvement in the 95% error. For the validation set, the mean and 95% errors for the ABST method were 0.8 and 1.5 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Ultrasound-based motion estimation has potential to monitor liver translation over long time periods with high accuracy. Nonrigid motion (strain) and the quality of the ultrasound data are likely to have an impact on tracking

  13. Multi-institutional dosimetric and geometric commissioning of image-guided small animal irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, P. E., E-mail: Patricia.Lindsay@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1 (Canada); Granton, P. V.; Hoof, S. van; Hermans, J. [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Gasparini, A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jelveh, S. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Clarkson, R. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1 (Canada); Mid-South Radiation Physics, Inc., 1801 South 54th Street, Paragould, Arkansas 72450 (United States); Kaas, J.; Wittkamper, F.; Sonke, J.-J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verhaegen, F. [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Medical Physics Unit, Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Québec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Jaffray, D. A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1 (Canada); The TECHNA Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric and geometric properties of a commercial x-ray based image-guided small animal irradiation system, installed at three institutions and to establish a complete and broadly accessible commissioning procedure. Methods: The system consists of a 225 kVp x-ray tube with fixed field size collimators ranging from 1 to 44 mm equivalent diameter. The x-ray tube is mounted opposite a flat-panel imaging detector, on a C-arm gantry with 360° coplanar rotation. Each institution performed a full commissioning of their system, including half-value layer, absolute dosimetry, relative dosimetry (profiles, percent depth dose, and relative output factors), and characterization of the system geometry and mechanical flex of the x-ray tube and detector. Dosimetric measurements were made using Farmer-type ionization chambers, small volume air and liquid ionization chambers, and radiochromic film. The results between the three institutions were compared. Results: At 225 kVp, with 0.3 mm Cu added filtration, the first half value layer ranged from 0.9 to 1.0 mm Cu. The dose-rate in-air for a 40 × 40 mm{sup 2} field size, at a source-to-axis distance of 30 cm, ranged from 3.5 to 3.9 Gy/min between the three institutions. For field sizes between 2.5 mm diameter and 40 × 40 mm{sup 2}, the differences between percent depth dose curves up to depths of 3.5 cm were between 1% and 4% on average, with the maximum difference being 7%. The profiles agreed very well for fields >5 mm diameter. The relative output factors differed by up to 6% for fields larger than 10 mm diameter, but differed by up to 49% for fields ≤5 mm diameter. The mechanical characteristics of the system (source-to-axis and source-to-detector distances) were consistent between all three institutions. There were substantial differences in the flex of each system. Conclusions: With the exception of the half-value layer, and mechanical properties, there were significant differences between the

  14. 3D image-guided robotic needle positioning system for small animal interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Jeffrey S; Waring, Christopher S R; Sherebrin, Shi; Stapleton, Shawn; Hudson, Thomas J; Jaffray, David A; Lacefield, James C; Fenster, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    of the targeting experiments were combined with the known calibration and needle deflection errors to provide a more meaningful measure of the needle positioning accuracy of the system. The combined targeting errors of the system were 149 ± 41 μm and 218 ± 38 μm using the primary and combined registrations, respectively. Finally, pilot in vivo experiments were successfully completed to demonstrate the performance of the system in a biomedical application. The device was able to achieve the desired performance with an error of <200 μm and improved repeatability when compared to other designs. The device expands the capabilities of image-guided interventions for preclinical biomedical applications.

  15. Calibration of three-dimensional ultrasound images for image-guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchet, Lionel G. [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). E-mail: bouchet at neurosurgery.ufl.edu; Bova, Francis J.; Friedman, William A. [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Meeks, Sanford L.; Buatti, John M. [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Goodchild, Gordon [Medtronic Surgical Navigation Technologies, Broomfield, CO (United States)

    2001-02-01

    overall tracking accuracy of our 3D ultrasound image-guided positioning system was measured to be on average 0.2 mm, 0.9 mm and 0.6 mm for the AP, lateral and axial directions respectively. (author)

  16. Surface-based registration accuracy of CT-based image-guided spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yuichi; Sugano, Nobuhiko; Sasama, Toshihiko; Sato, Yoshinobu; Tamura, Shinichi; Yonenobu, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Ochi, Takahiro

    2005-04-01

    Registration is a critical and important process in maintaining the accuracy of CT-based image-guided surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the area of intraoperative data sampling and number of sampling points on the accuracy of surface-based registration in a CT-based spinal-navigation system, using an optical three-dimensional localizer. A cadaveric dry-bone phantom of the lumbar spine was used. To evaluate registration accuracy, three alumina ceramic balls were attached to the anterior and lateral aspects of the vertebral body. CT images of the phantom were obtained (1-mm slice thickness, at1-mm intervals) using a helical CT scanner. Twenty surface points were digitized from five zones defined on the basis of anatomical classification on the posterior aspects of the target vertebra. A total of 20 sets of sampling data were obtained. Evaluation of registration accuracy accounted for positional and rotational errors. Of the five zones, the area that was the largest and easiest to expose surgically and to digitize surface points was the lamina. The lamina was defined as standard zone. On this zone, the effect of the number of sampling points on the positional and rotational accuracy of registration was evaluated. And the effects of the additional area selected for intraoperative data sampling on the registration accuracy were evaluated. Using 20 surface points on the posterior side of the lamina, positional error was 0.96 mm +/- 0.24 mm root-mean-square (RMS) and rotational error was 0.91 degrees +/- 0.38 degrees RMS. The use of 20 surface points on the lamina usually allows surgeons to carry out sufficiently accurate registration to conduct computer-aided spine surgery. In the case of severe spondylosis, however, it might be difficult to digitize the surface points from the lamina, due to a hypertrophic facet joint or the deformity of the lamina and noisy sampling data. In such cases, registration accuracy can be improved by combining use

  17. Simultaneous deblurring and iterative reconstruction of CBCT for image guided brain radiosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, SayedMasoud; Song, William Y.; Sahgal, Arjun; Lee, Young; Huynh, Christopher; Grouza, Vladimir; Nordström, Håkan; Eriksson, Markus; Dorenlot, Antoine; Régis, Jean Marie; Mainprize, James G.; Ruschin, Mark

    2017-04-01

    One of the limiting factors in cone-beam CT (CBCT) image quality is system blur, caused by detector response, x-ray source focal spot size, azimuthal blurring, and reconstruction algorithm. In this work, we develop a novel iterative reconstruction algorithm that improves spatial resolution by explicitly accounting for image unsharpness caused by different factors in the reconstruction formulation. While the model-based iterative reconstruction techniques use prior information about the detector response and x-ray source, our proposed technique uses a simple measurable blurring model. In our reconstruction algorithm, denoted as simultaneous deblurring and iterative reconstruction (SDIR), the blur kernel can be estimated using the modulation transfer function (MTF) slice of the CatPhan phantom or any other MTF phantom, such as wire phantoms. The proposed image reconstruction formulation includes two regularization terms: (1) total variation (TV) and (2) nonlocal regularization, solved with a split Bregman augmented Lagrangian iterative method. The SDIR formulation preserves edges, eases the parameter adjustments to achieve both high spatial resolution and low noise variances, and reduces the staircase effect caused by regular TV-penalized iterative algorithms. The proposed algorithm is optimized for a point-of-care head CBCT unit for image-guided radiosurgery and is tested with CatPhan phantom, an anthropomorphic head phantom, and 6 clinical brain stereotactic radiosurgery cases. Our experiments indicate that SDIR outperforms the conventional filtered back projection and TV penalized simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique methods (represented by adaptive steepest-descent POCS algorithm, ASD-POCS) in terms of MTF and line pair resolution, and retains the favorable properties of the standard TV-based iterative reconstruction algorithms in improving the contrast and reducing the reconstruction artifacts. It improves the visibility of the high contrast details

  18. Continuous Monitoring and Intrafraction Target Position Correction During Treatment Improves Target Coverage for Patients Undergoing SBRT Prostate Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovelock, D. Michael, E-mail: lovelocm@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Messineo, Alessandra P. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Cox, Brett W. [North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, New Hyde Park, New York (United States); Kollmeier, Marisa A.; Zelefsky, Michael J. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To compare the potential benefits of continuous monitoring of prostate position and intervention (CMI) using 2-mm displacement thresholds during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment to those of a conventional image-guided procedure involving single localization prior to treatment. Methods and Materials: Eighty-nine patients accrued to a prostate SBRT dose escalation protocol were implanted with radiofrequency transponder beacons. The planning target volume (PTV) margin was 5 mm in all directions, except for 3 mm in the posterior direction. The prostate was kept within 2 mm of its planned position by the therapists halting dose delivery and, if necessary, correcting the couch position. We computed the number, type, and time required for interventions and where the prostate would have been during dose delivery had there been, instead, a single image-guided setup procedure prior to each treatment. Distributions of prostate displacements were computed as a function of time. Results: After the initial setup, 1.7 interventions per fraction were required, with a concomitant increase in time for dose delivery of approximately 65 seconds. Small systematic drifts in prostate position in the posterior and inferior directions were observed in the study patients. Without CMI, intrafractional motion would have resulted in approximately 10% of patients having a delivered dose that did not meet our clinical coverage requirement, that is, a PTV D95 of >90%. The posterior PTV margin required for 95% of the dose to be delivered with the target positioned within the PTV was computed as a function of time. The margin necessary was found to increase by 2 mm every 5 minutes, starting from the time of the imaging procedure. Conclusions: CMI using a tight 2-mm displacement threshold was not only feasible but was found to deliver superior PTV coverage compared with the conventional image-guided procedure in the SBRT setting.

  19. Prostatic melanosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal DENİZ

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic melanosis is a rare lesion that is characterized by melanin-containing spindle cells mainly located in the stroma of the prostate gland. This lesion is certainly benign and not a precursor of malignant melanoma. However, differential diagnosis of melanosis with primary and metastatic malignant melanoma is extremely important because of the different biological nature and clinical behavior of these two entities. Recognition of the spectrum of pigmented lesions in the prostate gland is essential to take into consideration of the diagnosis of melanocytic lesions.In this paper, a case of melanosis

  20. Three-dimensional visualization and analysis in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Richard A

    2002-03-01

    Current and emerging three- and four-dimensional medical imaging modalities, along with development of efficient 3-D computer rendering and modeling of multidimensional volume image data and image-guided navigation, are significantly advancing our capabilities for improved and minimally invasive diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer, obviating the need for exploratory surgery, physical dissection, blind biopsies and mental reconstruction of anatomy and pathology. Currently, both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures require x-ray fluoroscopy, transrectal ultrasound, CT and/or MRI for assessing the condition of the prostate and/or the outcome of any therapeutic procedure. New imaging approaches based on three-dimensional ultrasound transducers placed on catheters for easy insertion into the urethra are demonstrating significant promise for improved diagnosis and treatment of prostate disease. Microwave thermal ablation shows promise for reduction of prostate size and tumor volume, and preliminary data from cryosurgery suggests improvements in tumor reduction and/or management while minimizing the risk of serious complications. Prostate brachytherapy is becoming a more popular and effective alternative to surgery. All of these methods, either independently or combined through image fusion, are providing an exciting and rapid evolution in capabilities for visualizing the prostate and its anatomic environment, extending from physical to functional forms and from macro to micro orders of scale. Traversing the scale distances between these imaged objects within the prostate and its environs will be made automatic and instantaneous in the near future with the expected advances in miniaturization of powerful computing and electronic sensing elements. Imaging devices will continue to improve in resolution, speed and affordability and will be deployed harmlessly within the body, as well as outside of it. Diagnosis and therapy of prostate disease will become fully

  1. [Radiation therapy for prostate cancer in modern era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide overview of the latest research trend on technique of radiation therapy of prostate cancer. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy(3D -CRT) has achieved better outcome of treatment for prostate cancer than 2-dimensional radiation therapy. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy(IMRT) is considered to be superior to 3D-CRT at certain points. Image-guided (IG) radiation therapy (IGRT), mainly IG-IMRT, is investigated what kind of influence it has on an outcome, both tumor control rate and adverse events. Particle therapy is a most ideal therapy theoretically. There is, however, few evidence which revealed that the therapy is superior to any other modalities.

  2. Xanthogranulomatous Prostatitis, a Rare Prostatic Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Noyola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several benign prostatic pathologies that can clinically mimic a prostate adenocarcinoma. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is a benign inflammatory condition of the prostate and a rare entity. A 47-year old male, with 3 years of lower urinary tract symptoms, with a palpable hypogastric tumor, digital rectal examination: solid prostate, of approximately 60 g. Initial PSA was 0.90 ng/mL. He underwent surgical excision of the lower abdominal nodule and prostatectomy. Histopathology showed xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, without malignancy. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is an extremely rare entity that can simulate prostate adenocarcinoma, therefore having a correct histopathological diagnosis is essential.

  3. Xanthogranulomatous Prostatitis, a Rare Prostatic Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyola, Alejandro; Gil, José Fernando; Lujano, Heriberto; Piñon, Omar; Muñoz, Gabriel; Michel, José Manuel; Garcia, Jorge; Valdez, Jorge; Morales, Omar

    2017-01-01

    There are several benign prostatic pathologies that can clinically mimic a prostate adenocarcinoma. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is a benign inflammatory condition of the prostate and a rare entity. A 47-year old male, with 3 years of lower urinary tract symptoms, with a palpable hypogastric tumor, digital rectal examination: solid prostate, of approximately 60 g. Initial PSA was 0.90 ng/mL. He underwent surgical excision of the lower abdominal nodule and prostatectomy. Histopathology showed xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, without malignancy. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is an extremely rare entity that can simulate prostate adenocarcinoma, therefore having a correct histopathological diagnosis is essential.

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... if a patient is at high risk for cancer. In this case, a biopsy is performed and ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... if a patient is at high risk for cancer. In this case, a biopsy is performed and ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... vessels or to detect abnormal masses, such as tumors. In an ultrasound examination, a transducer both sends ...

  7. Prostate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do to help diagnose your prostate problem. Physical Exam A physical exam may help diagnose the cause ... sleep avoid or drink fewer liquids that have caffeine or alcohol in them avoid medicines that may ...

  8. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may help you cope with your distress, including: Art therapy Dance or movement therapy Exercise Meditation Music ... www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/prostate-cancer/basics/definition/CON-20029597 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  9. Prostate brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the prostate. The doctor may use a computerized robot to do this. The radioactive material is removed ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rectum into the prostate gland which is situated right in front of the rectum. top of page ... prescribed procedure with your doctor, the medical facility staff and/or your insurance provider to get a ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal area in the prostate gland for later laboratory testing. top of page How should I prepare? ... the returning sound waves), as well as the type of body structure and composition of body tissue ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are obtained from different angles to get the best view of the prostate gland. If a suspicious ... over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or ...

  13. Prostatitis - bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection in or around the testicles ( epididymitis or orchitis ), you may also have symptoms of that condition. ... In: Wein AJ, ed. Prostatitis and related conditions, orchitis, and epididymitis. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information you were looking for? Yes No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: ... Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... area in the prostate gland for later laboratory testing. top of page How should I prepare? You ... computer or television monitor. The image is created based on the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal area in the prostate gland for later laboratory testing. top of page How should I prepare? ... The transducer sends out inaudible, high—frequency sound waves into the body and then listens for the ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect ... Rarely, a small amount of blood may be present in the sperm or urine following the procedure. ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  20. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  1. A cognitive engineering framework for the specification of information requirements in medical imaging: application in image-guided neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morineau, T; Morandi, X; Le Moëllic, N; Jannin, P

    2013-03-01

    This study proposes a framework coming from cognitive engineering, which makes it possible to define what information content has to be displayed or emphasised from medical imaging, for assisting clinicians according to their level of expertise in the domain. We designed a rating scale to assess visualisation systems in image-guided neurosurgery with respect to the depiction of the neurosurgical work domain. This rating scale was based on a neurosurgical work domain analysis. This scale has been used to evaluate visualisation modes among neurosurgeons, residents and engineers. We asked five neurosurgeons, ten medical residents and ten engineers to rate two visualisation modes from the same data (2D MR image vs. 3D computerised image). With this method, the amount of abstract and concrete work domain information displayed by each visualisation mode can be measured. A global difference in quantities of perceived information between both images was observed. Surgeons and medical residents perceived significantly more information than engineers for both images. Unlike surgeons, however, the amount of information perceived by residents and engineers significantly decreased as information abstraction increased. We demonstrated the possibility of measuring the amount of work domain information displayed by different visualisation modes of medical imaging according to different user profiles. Engineers in charge of the design of medical image-guided surgical systems did not perceive the same set of information as surgeons or even medical residents. This framework can constitute a user-oriented approach to evaluate the amount of perceived information from image-guided surgical systems and support their design from a cognitive engineering point of view.

  2. Implementation of Remote 3-Dimensional Image Guided Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Clinical Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Yunfeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Galvin, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Parker, William [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC (Canada); Breen, Stephen [Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Yin Fangfang; Cai Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Papiez, Lech S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Bednarz, Greg [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Chen Wenzhou [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Xiao Ying, E-mail: ying.xiao@jefferson.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report the process and initial experience of remote credentialing of three-dimensional (3D) image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) as part of the quality assurance (QA) of submitted data for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trials; and to identify major issues resulting from this process and analyze the review results on patient positioning shifts. Methods and Materials: Image guided radiation therapy datasets including in-room positioning CT scans and daily shifts applied were submitted through the Image Guided Therapy QA Center from institutions for the IGRT credentialing process, as required by various RTOG trials. A centralized virtual environment is established at the RTOG Core Laboratory, containing analysis tools and database infrastructure for remote review by the Physics Principal Investigators of each protocol. The appropriateness of IGRT technique and volumetric image registration accuracy were evaluated. Registration accuracy was verified by repeat registration with a third-party registration software system. With the accumulated review results, registration differences between those obtained by the Physics Principal Investigators and from the institutions were analyzed for different imaging sites, shift directions, and imaging modalities. Results: The remote review process was successfully carried out for 87 3D cases (out of 137 total cases, including 2-dimensional and 3D) during 2010. Frequent errors in submitted IGRT data and challenges in the review of image registration for some special cases were identified. Workarounds for these issues were developed. The average differences of registration results between reviewers and institutions ranged between 2 mm and 3 mm. Large discrepancies in the superior-inferior direction were found for megavoltage CT cases, owing to low spatial resolution in this direction for most megavoltage CT cases. Conclusion: This first experience indicated that remote review for 3D IGRT as part of QA

  3. Implementation of remote 3-dimensional image guided radiation therapy quality assurance for radiation therapy oncology group clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yunfeng; Galvin, James M; Parker, William; Breen, Stephen; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cai, Jing; Papiez, Lech S; Li, X Allen; Bednarz, Greg; Chen, Wenzhou; Xiao, Ying

    2013-01-01

    To report the process and initial experience of remote credentialing of three-dimensional (3D) image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) as part of the quality assurance (QA) of submitted data for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trials; and to identify major issues resulting from this process and analyze the review results on patient positioning shifts. Image guided radiation therapy datasets including in-room positioning CT scans and daily shifts applied were submitted through the Image Guided Therapy QA Center from institutions for the IGRT credentialing process, as required by various RTOG trials. A centralized virtual environment is established at the RTOG Core Laboratory, containing analysis tools and database infrastructure for remote review by the Physics Principal Investigators of each protocol. The appropriateness of IGRT technique and volumetric image registration accuracy were evaluated. Registration accuracy was verified by repeat registration with a third-party registration software system. With the accumulated review results, registration differences between those obtained by the Physics Principal Investigators and from the institutions were analyzed for different imaging sites, shift directions, and imaging modalities. The remote review process was successfully carried out for 87 3D cases (out of 137 total cases, including 2-dimensional and 3D) during 2010. Frequent errors in submitted IGRT data and challenges in the review of image registration for some special cases were identified. Workarounds for these issues were developed. The average differences of registration results between reviewers and institutions ranged between 2 mm and 3 mm. Large discrepancies in the superior-inferior direction were found for megavoltage CT cases, owing to low spatial resolution in this direction for most megavoltage CT cases. This first experience indicated that remote review for 3D IGRT as part of QA for RTOG clinical trials is feasible and effective

  4. Sacro-Iliac Joint Sensory Block and Radiofrequency Ablation: Assessment of Bony Landmarks Relevant for Image-Guided Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Shannon L.; Burnham, Robert S.; Loh, Eldon; Agur, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided sensory block and radiofrequency ablation of the nerves innervating the sacro-iliac joint require readily identifiable bony landmarks for accurate needle/electrode placement. Understanding the relative locations of the transverse sacral tubercles along the lateral sacral crest is important for ultrasound guidance, as they demarcate the position of the posterior sacral network (S1–S3 ± L5/S4) innervating the posterior sacro-iliac joint. No studies were found that investigated the spatial relationships of these bony landmarks. The purpose of this study was to visualize and quantify the interrelationships of the transverse sacral tubercles and posterior sacral foramina to inform image-guided block and radiofrequency ablation of the sacro-iliac joint. The posterior and lateral surfaces of 30 dry sacra (15 M/15 F) were digitized and modeled in 3D and the distances between bony landmarks quantified. The relationships of bony landmarks (S1–S4) were not uniform. The mean intertubercular and interforaminal distances decreased from S1 to S4, whereas the distance from the lateral margin of the posterior sacral foramina to the transverse sacral tubercles increased from S1 to S3. The mean intertubercular distance from S1 to S3 was significantly (p < 0.05) larger in males. The interrelationships of the sacral bony landmarks should be taken into consideration when estimating the site and length of an image-guided strip lesion targeting the posterior sacral network. PMID:27747222

  5. Formación on line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Grau-Perejoan

    Full Text Available La formación on line es una modalidad de enseñanza a distancia basada en las nuevas tecnologías. En este artículo se pretende hacer una introducción a base de describir a grandes rasgos sus características principales: asincronía, no presencialidad, comunicación escrita, función del profesor on line, así como los retos, los riesgos, las ventajas y los inconvenientes que plantea. Se exponen las diferencias entre la formación on line y la formación presencial, de manera que los docentes puedan adaptar de la mejor manera posible sus propuestas formativas a la modalidad on line. Se introduce el importantísimo papel de la planificación y de la fase de diseño y, finalmente, se repasan conceptos útiles para comprender mejor el mundo de la formación on line como son los conceptos entorno virtual de aprendizaje (EVA o Blended Learning (B-Learning.

  6. Analysis of movements recorded in 104 patients with prostate and estimation of the margins by positioning our patient population; Analisis de los desplazamientos registrados en 104 pacientes de prostata y estimacion de los margenes por poscionamiento para nuestra poblacion de pacientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejar Navarro, M. J.; Gomez Martin, C.; Maravilla Limorte, M.; Alonso Iracheta, L.; Rot Sanjuan, M. J.; Colmenares Fernandez, R.; Capuz Suarez, B.; Moris Pablos, R.

    2011-07-01

    Analysis of movements recorded in 104 patients with prostate and estimation of the margins by positioning our patient population The image guided (IGRT) allows to know the magnitude of uncertainty in the position for a given patient population. The objectives of this work are the statistical analysis of the movements recorded by a volumetric imaging in 104 patients with prostate and estimation of margins due to uncertainty in the positioning for this patient population.

  7. Photothermal Therapy: Metabolizable Ultrathin Bi2 Se3 Nanosheets in Imaging-Guided Photothermal Therapy (Small 30/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hanhan; Li, Zhibin; Sun, Zhengbo; Shao, Jundong; Yu, Xue-Feng; Guo, Zhinan; Wang, Jiahong; Xiao, Quanlan; Wang, Huaiyu; Wang, Qu-Quan; Zhang, Han; Chu, Paul K

    2016-08-01

    Ultrathin Bi2 Se3 nanosheets are prepared by a solution method. As described on page 4136 by X.-F. Yu, Q.-Q. Wang, P. K. Chu, and co-workers, such ultrathin Bi2 Se3 nanosheets exhibit strong near infrared (NIR) light absorption, excellent photothermal and photoacoustic performance, enabling efficient imaging-guided photothermal therapy. Furthermore, these Bi2 Se3 nanosheets are well metabolized. These attractive properties render the Bi2 Se3 nanosheets promising as a NIR-triggered theranostic agents in cancer therapies.

  8. On line routing per mobile phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieding, Thomas; Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    . Additionally it is of utmost importance that the employed communication system is suitable integrated with the firm’s enterprise application system and business processes. On basis of a case study, we describe in this paper a system that is cheap and easy to implement due to the use of simple mobile phones......On-line routing is concerned with building vehicle routes in an ongoing fashion in such a way that customer requests arriving dynamically in time are efficiently and effectively served. An indispensable prerequisite for applying on-line routing methods is mobile communication technology...

  9. Educational On-Line Gaming Propensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Educational on-line games are promising for new generations of students who are grown up digital. Th e new generations of students are technology savvy and spend lots of time on the web and on social networks. Based on an exploratory study, this article investigates the factors that infl uence...... students’ willingness to participate in serious games for teaching/learning. Th is study investigates the relationship between students’ behavior on Facebook, Facebook games, and their attitude toward educational on-line games. Th e results of the study reveal that the early adopters of educational games...

  10. Evaluation of image guided motion management methods in lung cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Ling [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 4100 John R, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States); Yan, Di; Liang, Jian; Ionascu, Dan; Mangona, Victor; Yang, Kai; Zhou, Jun, E-mail: jun.zhou@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, 3601 West Thirteen Mile Road, Royal Oak, Michigan 48073 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy and reliability of three target localization methods for image guided motion management in lung cancer radiotherapy. Methods: Three online image localization methods, including (1) 2D method based on 2D cone beam (CB) projection images, (2) 3D method using 3D cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging, and (3) 4D method using 4D CBCT imaging, have been evaluated using a moving phantom controlled by (a) 1D theoretical breathing motion curves and (b) 3D target motion patterns obtained from daily treatment of 3 lung cancer patients. While all methods are able to provide target mean position (MP), the 2D and 4D methods can also provide target motion standard deviation (SD) and excursion (EX). For each method, the detected MP/SD/EX values are compared to the analytically calculated actual values to calculate the errors. The MP errors are compared among three methods and the SD/EX errors are compared between the 2D and 4D methods. In the theoretical motion study (a), the dependency of MP/SD/EX error on EX is investigated with EX varying from 2.0 cm to 3.0 cm with an increment step of 0.2 cm. In the patient motion study (b), the dependency of MP error on target sizes (2.0 cm and 3.0 cm), motion patterns (four motions per patient) and EX variations is investigated using multivariant linear regression analysis. Results: In the theoretical motion study (a), the MP detection errors are −0.2 ± 0.2, −1.5 ± 1.1, and −0.2 ± 0.2 mm for 2D, 3D, and 4D methods, respectively. Both the 2D and 4D methods could accurately detect motion pattern EX (error < 1.2 mm) and SD (error < 1.0 mm). In the patient motion study (b), MP detection error vector (mm) with the 2D method (0.7 ± 0.4) is found to be significantly less than with the 3D method (1.7 ± 0.8,p < 0.001) and the 4D method (1.4 ± 1.0, p < 0.001) using paired t-test. However, no significant difference is found between the 4D method and the 3D method. Based on multivariant linear regression analysis, the

  11. Image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy for patients with vestibular schwannoma. A clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badakhshi, H.; Muellner, S.; Budach, V. [Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital of Berlin, Departments for Radiation Oncology, Berlin (Germany); Wiener, E. [School of Medicine and University Hospital of Berlin, Institute for Neuroradiology, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Local tumor control and functional outcome after linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for vestibular schwannoma (VS) were assessed. In all, 250 patients with VS were treated: 190 patients with tumors < 2 cm diameter underwent SRS and 60 patients with tumors >2 to 3.5 cm underwent FSRT. Dose prescription for all cases with SRS (n = 190, 76 %) was 13.5 Gy. For FSRT, mainly two hypofractionated schedules (n = 60, 24 %) with either 7 fractions of 5 Gy (total dose: 35 Gy; n = 35) or 11 fractions of 3.8 Gy (total dose: 41.8 Gy; n = 16) were used. The primary endpoint was local tumor control. Secondary endpoints were symptomatic control and morbidity. The median follow-up was 33.8 months. The 3-year local tumor control was 88.9 %. Local control for SRS and FSRT was 88 and 92 %, respectively. For FSRT with 35 and 41.8 Gy, local control was 90 and 100 %, respectively. There were no acute reactions exceeding grade I. In 61 cases (24.4 % of the entire cohort), trigeminal neuralgia was reported prior to treatment. At last follow-up, 16.3 % (10/61) of those patients reported relief of pain. Regarding facial nerve dysfunction, 45 patients (18 %) presented with symptoms prior to RT. At the last follow-up, 13.3% (6/45) of those patients reported a relief of dysesthesia. Using SRS to treat small VS results in good local control rates. FSRT for larger lesions also seems effective. Severe treatment-related complications are not frequent. Therefore, image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy is an appropriate alternative to microsurgery for patients with VS. (orig.) [German] Wir analysierten die lokale Kontrolle und die funktionellen Verlaeufe bei Patienten mit einem Vestibularisschwannom (VS), die sich einer linacbasierten stereotaktischen Radiochirurgie (SRS) oder einer fraktionierten stereotaktischen Radiotherapie (FSRT) unterzogen. Zwischen 1998 und 2008 wurden 250 Patienten mit einem VS behandelt. In dieser Kohorte wurden 190

  12. Integration between in vivo dosimetry and image guided radiotherapy for lung tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattei, Angelo; Cilla, Savino; Grimaldi, Luca; Sabatino, Domenico; Fidanzio, Andrea; Greco, Francesca; Mameli, Alessandra; Balducci, Mario; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Frascino, Vincenzo; Stimato, Gerardina; Gaudino, Diego; Ramella, Sara; Trodella, Lucio; D'Onofrio, Guido; Zini, Giampaolo; Macchia, Gabriella; Digesu', Cinzia; Morganti, Alessio G; Clemente, Stefania; Cozzolino, Mariella; Pedicini, Piernicola; Fusco, Vincenzo

    2009-06-01

    The article reports a feasibility study about the potentiality of an in vivo dosimetry method for the adaptive radiotherapy of the lung tumors treated by 3D conformal radiotherapy techniques (3D CRTs). At the moment image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) has been used for this aim, but it requires taking many periodic radiological images during the treatment that increase workload and patient dose. In vivo dosimetry reported here can reduce the above efforts, alerting the medical staff for the commissioning of new radiological images for an eventual adaptive plan. The in vivo dosimetry method applied on 20 patients makes use of the transit signal St on the beam central axis measured by a small ion chamber positioned on an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) or by the EPID itself. The reconstructed in vivo dosimetry at the isocenter point Diso requires a convolution between the transit signal St and a dose reconstruction factor C that essentially depends on (i) tissue inhomogeneities along the beam central axis and (ii) the in-patient isocenter depth. The C factors, one for every gantry angle, are obtained by processing the patient's computed tomography scan. The method has been recently applied in some Italian centers to check the radiotherapy of pelvis, breast, head, and thorax treatments. In this work the dose reconstruction was carried out in five centers to check the Diso in the lung tumor during the 3D CRT, and the results have been used to detect the interfraction tumor anatomy variations that can require new CT imaging and an adaptive plan. In particular, in three centers a small ion chamber was positioned below the patient and used for the St measurement. In two centers, the St signal was obtained directly by 25 central pixels of an a-Si EPID, equipped with commercial software that enabled its use as a stable detector. A tolerance action level of +/- 6% for every checked beam was assumed. This means that when a difference greater than 6% between the predicted

  13. SU-F-BRA-04: Prostate HDR Brachytherapy with Multichannel Robotic System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, F Maria; Podder, T [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Yu, Y [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is gradually becoming popular in treating patients with prostate cancers. However, placement of the HDR needles at desired locations into the patient is challenging. Application of robotic system may improve the accuracy of the clinical procedure. This experimental study is to evaluate the feasibility of using a multichannel robotic system for prostate HDR brachytherapy. Methods: In this experimental study, the robotic system employed was a 6-DOF Multichannel Image-guided Robotic Assistant for Brachytherapy (MIRAB), which was designed and fabricated for prostate seed implantation. The MIRAB has the provision of rotating 16 needles while inserting them. Ten prostate HDR brachytherapy needles were simultaneously inserted using MIRAB into a commercially available prostate phantom. After inserting the needles into the prostate phantom at desired locations, 2mm thick CT slices were obtained for dosimetric planning. HDR plan was generated using Oncetra planning system with a total prescription dose of 34Gy in 4 fractions. Plan quality was evaluated considering dose coverage to prostate and planning target volume (PTV), with 3mm margin around prostate, as well as the dose limit to the organs at risk (OARs) following the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) guidelines. Results: From the CT scan, it is observed that the needles were inserted straight into the desired locations and they were adequately spaced and distributed for a clinically acceptable HDR plan. Coverage to PTV and prostate were about 91% (V100= 91%) and 96% (V100=96%), respectively. Dose to 1cc of urethra, rectum, and bladder were within the ABS specified limits. Conclusion: The MIRAB was able to insert multiple needles simultaneously into the prostate precisely. By controlling the MIRAB to insert all the ten utilized needles into the prostate phantom, we could achieve the robotic HDR brachytherapy successfully. Further study for assessing the system

  14. Prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis: differential diagnosis of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lima Lopes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a very rare condition; however, it may express as a typical benign prostatic hyperplasia or a simulating prostatic adenocarcinoma. This case report presents PCM mimicking prostatic adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this paper is to call the general physician's attention to this important differential diagnosis.

  15. An efficient nano-based theranostic system for multi-modal imaging-guided photothermal sterilization in gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Rui; Du, Yingda; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2015-07-01

    Since understanding the healthy status of gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) is of vital importance, clinical implementation for GI tract-related disease have attracted much more attention along with the rapid development of modern medicine. Here, a multifunctional theranostic system combining X-rays/CT/photothermal/photoacoustic mapping of GI tract and imaging-guided photothermal anti-bacterial treatment is designed and constructed. PEGylated W18O49 nanosheets (PEG-W18O49) are created via a facile solvothermal method and an in situ probe-sonication approach. In terms of excellent colloidal stability, low cytotoxicity, and neglectable hemolysis of PEG-W18O49, we demonstrate the first example of high-performance four-modal imaging of GI tract by using these nanosheets as contrast agents. More importantly, due to their intrinsic absorption of NIR light, glutaraldehyde-modified PEG-W18O49 are successfully applied as fault-free targeted photothermal agents for imaging-guided killing of bacteria on a mouse infection model. Critical to pre-clinical and clinical prospects, long-term toxicity is further investigated after oral administration of these theranostic agents. These kinds of tungsten-based nanomaterials exhibit great potential as multi-modal contrast agents for directed visualization of GI tract and anti-bacterial agents for phothothermal sterilization.

  16. Multifunctional biocompatible chitosan-polypyrrole nanocomposites as novel agents for photoacoustic imaging-guided photothermal ablation of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Quang Bui, Nhat; Bharathiraja, Subramaniyan; Santha Moorthy, Madhappan; Oh, Yun-Ok; Song, Kyeongeun; Seo, Hansu; Yoon, Min; Oh, Junghwan

    2017-01-01

    Cancer nanotechnology is emerging as one of the promising strategies combining photothermal therapy (PTT) and photoacoustic imaging (PAI) for the treatment of breast cancer and it has received considerable attention in the recent years because it is minimally invasive, prevents damage to non-targeted regions, permits fast recovery, and involves breast cancer imaging. The present study demonstrates multifunctional biocompatible chitosan-polypyrrole nanocomposites (CS-PPy NCs) as novel agents for photoacoustic imaging-guided photothermal ablation of cancer because of their biocompatibility, conductivity, stability, and strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance. The CS-PPy NCs are spherical in shape and range 26–94 nm in size with a mean value of 50.54 ± 2.56 nm. The in vitro results demonstrated good biocompatibility of CS-PPy NCs, which can be used in PTT for cancer cells under 808-nm NIR laser irradiation. Tumor-bearing mice fully recovered after treatment with CS-PPy NCs and NIR 808-nm laser irradiation compared to the corresponding control groups. Our research highlights the promising potential of using CS-PPy NCs for photoacoustic imaging-guided photothermal ablation of cancer in preclinical animals, which should be verified in future clinical trials. PMID:28252638

  17. Design and development of C-arm based cone-beam CT for image-guided interventions: initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Hong; Zambelli, Joseph; Nett, Brian E.; Supanich, Mark; Riddell, Cyril; Belanger, Barry; Mistretta, Charles A.

    2006-03-01

    X-ray cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is of importance in image-guided intervention (IGI) and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this paper, we present a cone-beam CT data acquisition system using a GE INNOVA 4100 (GE Healthcare Technologies, Waukesha, Wisconsin) clinical system. This new cone-beam data acquisition mode was developed for research purposes without interfering with any clinical function of the system. It provides us a basic imaging pipeline for more advanced cone-beam data acquisition methods. It also provides us a platform to study and overcome the limiting factors such as cone-beam artifacts and limiting low contrast resolution in current C-arm based cone-beam CT systems. A geometrical calibration method was developed to experimentally determine parameters of the scanning geometry to correct the image reconstruction for geometric non-idealities. Extensive phantom studies and some small animal studies have been conducted to evaluate the performance of our cone-beam CT data acquisition system.

  18. Image-guided radiofrequency ablation of Bosniak category III or IV cystic renal tumors: initial clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Kwan; Kim, Chan Kyo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Hyun Moo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of image-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation of cystic renal tumors. Between November 2005 and August 2007, computed tomography (CT) or ultrasound-guided RF ablation was performed in nine patients with 14 Bosniak category III (n = 5) or IV (n = 9) cystic renal tumors using an internally cooled RF ablation system. We evaluated the number of sessions, cycles and duration of energy application, treatment results, lesion size change, and complications. Together the cystic renal tumors required 15 sessions and 23 cycles of energy application. The duration of energy application per one tumor ablation ranged from 1 to 12 min (mean 6 min). The last follow-up CT indicated complete coagulation of 14/14 (100%) lesions. None of these tumors had recurred within 1-19 months (mean 8 months). The maximum diameter of the cystic renal tumors was significantly reduced from 2.5 {+-} 0.6 cm before ablation to 1.7 {+-} 0.7 cm at the last follow-up CT (P < 0.01). Complications were pneumothorax (n = 2), inguinal paresthesia (n = 1), and arteriovenous fistula (n = 1). Image-guided RF ablation is an effective treatment for Bosniak category III or IV cystic renal tumors, which might need relatively shorter duration of energy application than purely solid renal tumors of the same size. (orig.)

  19. Automated tru-cut imaging-guided core needle biopsy of canine orbital neoplasia. A prospective feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirla, A; Rondena, M; Bertolini, G

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of imaging-guided core needle biopsy for canine orbital mass diagnosis. A second excisional biopsy obtained during surgery or necropsy was used as the reference standard. A prospective feasibility study was conducted in 23 canine orbital masses at a single centre. A complete ophthalmic examination was always followed by orbital ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) examination of the head. All masses were sampled with the patient still on the CT table using ultrasound (US) guided automatic tru-cut device. The most suitable sampling approach to the orbit was chosen each time based on the CT image analysis. One of the following different approaches was used: trans-orbital, trans-conjunctival or trans-masseteric. In all cases, the imaging-guided biopsy provided a sufficient amount of tissue for the histopathological diagnosis, which concurred with the biopsies obtained using the excisional technique. CT examination was essential for morphological diagnosis and provided detailed topographic information that allowed us to choose the safest orbital approach for the biopsy. US guided automatic tru-cut biopsy based on CT images, performed with patient still on the CT table, resulted in a minimally invasive, relatively easy, and accurate diagnostic procedure in dogs with orbital masses.

  20. Activatable Multifunctional Persistent Luminescence Nanoparticle/Copper Sulfide Nanoprobe for in Vivo Luminescence Imaging-Guided Photothermal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jian; Sun, Shao-Kai; Wang, Yong; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Wu, Shu-Qi; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2016-12-07

    Multifunctional nanoprobes that provide diagnosis and treatment features have attracted great interest in precision medicine. Near-infrared (NIR) persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNPs) are optimal materials due to no in situ excitation needed, deep tissue penetration, and high signal-to-noise ratio, while activatable optical probes can further enhance signal-to-noise ratio for the signal turn-on nature. Here, we show the design of an activatable multifunctional PLNP/copper sulfide (CuS)-based nanoprobe for luminescence imaging-guided photothermal therapy in vivo. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-specific peptide substrate (H2N-GPLGVRGC-SH) was used to connect PLNP and CuS to build a MMP activatable system. The nanoprobe not only possesses ultralow-background for in vivo luminescence imaging due to the absence of autofluorescence and optical activatable nature but also offers effective photothermal therapy from CuS nanoparticles. Further bioconjugation of c(RGDyK) enables the nanoprobe for cancer-targeted luminescence imaging-guided photothermal therapy. The good biocompatibility and the multiple functions of highly sensitive tumor-targeting luminescence imaging and effective photothermal therapy make the nanoprobe promising for theranostic application.

  1. Automated tru-cut imaging-guided core needle biopsy of canine orbital neoplasia. A prospective feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirla, A.; Rondena, M.; Bertolini, G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of imaging-guided core needle biopsy for canine orbital mass diagnosis. A second excisional biopsy obtained during surgery or necropsy was used as the reference standard. A prospective feasibility study was conducted in 23 canine orbital masses at a single centre. A complete ophthalmic examination was always followed by orbital ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) examination of the head. All masses were sampled with the patient still on the CT table using ultrasound (US) guided automatic tru-cut device. The most suitable sampling approach to the orbit was chosen each time based on the CT image analysis. One of the following different approaches was used: trans-orbital, trans-conjunctival or trans-masseteric. In all cases, the imaging-guided biopsy provided a sufficient amount of tissue for the histopathological diagnosis, which concurred with the biopsies obtained using the excisional technique. CT examination was essential for morphological diagnosis and provided detailed topographic information that allowed us to choose the safest orbital approach for the biopsy. US guided automatic tru-cut biopsy based on CT images, performed with patient still on the CT table, resulted in a minimally invasive, relatively easy, and accurate diagnostic procedure in dogs with orbital masses. PMID:27540512

  2. Automated tru-cut imaging-guided core needle biopsy of canine orbital neoplasia. A prospective feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cirla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of imaging-guided core needle biopsy for canine orbital mass diagnosis. A second excisional biopsy obtained during surgery or necropsy was used as the reference standard. A prospective feasibility study was conducted in 23 canine orbital masses at a single centre. A complete ophthalmic examination was always followed by orbital ultrasound and computed tomography (CT examination of the head. All masses were sampled with the patient still on the CT table using ultrasound (US guided automatic tru-cut device. The most suitable sampling approach to the orbit was chosen each time based on the CT image analysis. One of the following different approaches was used: trans-orbital, trans-conjunctival or trans-masseteric. In all cases, the imaging-guided biopsy provided a sufficient amount of tissue for the histopathological diagnosis, which concurred with the biopsies obtained using the excisional technique. CT examination was essential for morphological diagnosis and provided detailed topographic information that allowed us to choose the safest orbital approach for the biopsy. US guided automatic tru-cut biopsy based on CT images, performed with patient still on the CT table, resulted in a minimally invasive, relatively easy, and accurate diagnostic procedure in dogs with orbital masses.

  3. ON-LINE DOCUMENTS CONTENT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILESCU RAMONA VIOLETA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the steps and technologies used in developing an on-line application server with many desktop clients, and with high power processing for a wide range of input documents to obtain searchable documents on the highest portability standards, PDF and PDF /A.

  4. Clinical results from first use of prostate stent as fiducial for radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl, Jesper; Nielsen, Jane (Dept. of Medical Physics, Dept. of Oncology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)), e-mail: jhc@rn.dk; Holmberg, Mats (Dept. of Oncology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)); Larsen, Erik Hoejkjaer; Fabrin, Knud (Dept. of Urology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)); Fisker, Rune V. (Dept. of Radiology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark))

    2011-05-15

    Purpose. A clinical feasibility study using a removable prostate stent as fiducial for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of localized prostate cancer (PC). Material and methods. The study included patients with local or locally advanced PC. The clinical target volume (CTV) was outlined on magnetic resonance (MR) images co-registered to planning computer tomography (CT) images. Daily online IGRT was delivered using the stent as fiducial. Risk of migration was estimated using multiple MR. Acute urinary toxicity was scored using the international prostate symptom score (IPSS). Late gastro-intestinal (GI) and genito-urinary (GU) toxicity was scored using the Radio Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score, biochemical failure (BF) was defined as an elevation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) above nadir plus 2 ng/ml after radiotherapy. Results. One hundred men were enrolled in the study. Ninety completed radiotherapy with the stent as fiducial. No migration of the stent was seen, but three cases of dislocation of the stent to the bladder were observed. Acute urinary toxicity based on IPSS was comparable to toxicity in patients who had gold markers (GM) as fiducials. Removal of the stent was associated with a high frequency of urinary retention. Late GI and GU toxicity and BF were comparable to those of other studies, but longer observation time is needed. Conclusions. This study reports the first clinical results of using a prostate stent as fiducial. No migration of the stent observed. Dislocation of the stent to the urinary bladder was observed in three cases, requiring removal of the stent and insertion of a new fiducial. Acute toxicity during radiotherapy evaluated from IPSS was comparable to toxicity in patients with GM. Removal of the stent was associated with a high frequency of post procedural urinary retention. Late toxicity and BF were comparable to those of other studies, though longer observation time is needed

  5. WE-EF-210-07: Development of a Minimally Invasive Photo Acoustic Imaging System for Early Prostate Cancer Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, M; Yousefi, S; Xing, L [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to design, implement and characterize a catheter-based ultrasound/photoacoustic imaging probe for early-diagnosis of prostate cancer and to aid in image-guided radiation therapy. Methods: The need to image across 6–10cm of tissue to image the whole prostate gland limits the resolution achievable with a transrectal ultrasound approach. In contrast, the urethra bisects the prostate gland, providing a minimally invasive pathway for deploying a high resolution ultrasound transducer. Utilizing a high-frequency (20MHz) ultrasound/photoacoustic probe, high-resolution structural and molecular imaging of the prostate tissue is possible. A custom 3D printed probe containing a high-frequency single-element ultrasound transducer is utilized. The diameter of the probe is designed to fit inside a Foley catheter and the probe is rotated around the central axis to achieve a circular B-scan. A custom ultrasound amplifier and receiver was set up to trigger the ultrasound pulse transmission and record the reflected signal. The reconstructed images were compared to images generated by traditional 5 MHz ultrasound transducers. Results: The preliminary results using the high-frequency ultrasound probe show that it is possible to resolve finely detailed information in a prostate tissue phantom that was not achievable with previous low-frequency ultrasound systems. Preliminary ultrasound imaging was performed on tissue mimicking phantom and sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio of the catheter was measured. Conclusion: In order to achieve non-invasive, high-resolution, structural and molecular imaging for early-diagnosis and image-guided radiation therapy of the prostate tissue, a transurethral catheter was designed. Structural/molecular imaging using ultrasound/photoacoustic of the prostate tissue will allow for localization of hyper vascularized areas for early-stage prostate cancer diagnosis.

  6. Role of the Technical Aspects of Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Treatment of Prostate Cancer: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, Stefania, E-mail: clemente_stefania@libero.it [Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Centro di Riferimento Oncologico della Basilicata Rionero in Vulture, Potenza (Italy); Nigro, Roberta [Azienda Sanitaria Locale Rieti, Roma (Italy); Oliviero, Caterina [Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Centro di Riferimento Oncologico della Basilicata Rionero in Vulture, Potenza (Italy); Marchioni, Chiara [Azienda Sanitaria Locale Rieti, Roma (Italy); Esposito, Marco [Azienda Sanitaria, Firenze (Italy); Giglioli, Francesca Romana [Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Torino (Italy); Mancosu, Pietro [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Rozzano, Milano (Italy); Marino, Carmelo [Humanitas Centro Catanese di Oncologia, Catania (Italy); Russo, Serenella [Azienda Sanitaria, Firenze (Italy); Stasi, Michele [Azienda Ospedaliera Ordine Mauriziano di Torino, Torino (Italy); Strigari, Lidia [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Regina Elena, Roma (Italy); Veronese, Ivan [Universita' degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Landoni, Valeria [Istituto Nazionale Tumori Regina Elena, Roma (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of moderate (<35 fractions) and extreme (<5 fractions) hypofractionated radiation therapy in prostate cancer is yielding favorable results, both in terms of maintained biochemical response and toxicity. Several hypofractionation (HF) schemes for the treatment of prostate cancer are available, although there is considerable variability in the techniques used to manage intra-/interfraction motion and deliver radiation doses. We performed a review of the published studies on HF regimens as a topic of interest for the Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy working group, which is part of the Italian Association of Medical Physics. Aspects of organ motion management (imaging for contouring, target volume definition, and rectum/bladder preparation) and treatment delivery (prostate localization, image guided radiation therapy strategy and frequency) were evaluated and categorized to assess outcome relative to disease control and toxicity. Despite the heterogeneity of the data, some interesting trends that emerged from the review might be useful in identifying an optimum HF strategy.

  7. Long-term follow-up after modern radical prostate cancer radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lotte

    A significant increase in the prostate cancer incidence has made prostate cancer a major health problem in recent years. Because of the often but unfortunately not always indolent nature of the disease, over-diagnosis and over-treatment are relevant clinical and ethic dilemmas. External beam...... radiotherapy is a well established treatment modality for prostate cancer. Accuracy and precision are key words with regard to optimal survival and minimal toxicity in modern radiotherapy and are fundamentals in modern radiotherapy. Modern imaging has improved the ability to define radiotherapy target volumes....... Especially treatment margins have been reduced through the use of more accurate treatment planning and image-guided technology. Increasing doses have lead to increased disease control. Aiming for minimal toxicity after radiotherapy, magnetic resonance imaging delineation could be a possible tool, knowing...

  8. A completely calcified prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Priyadarshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic calcification and prostatic calculus formation is commonly seen in adult population with chronic prostatitis, however, gross prostatic calcification which involves more than 3 cm2 of the gland is quite rare. We are presenting here one such case in which almost whole glandular prostate was converted into stone which is never reported so far.

  9. DeepInfer: open-source deep learning deployment toolkit for image-guided therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrtash, Alireza; Pesteie, Mehran; Hetherington, Jorden; Behringer, Peter A.; Kapur, Tina; Wells, William M.; Rohling, Robert; Fedorov, Andriy; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2017-03-01

    Deep learning models have outperformed some of the previous state-of-the-art approaches in medical image analysis. Instead of using hand-engineered features, deep models attempt to automatically extract hierarchical representations at multiple levels of abstraction from the data. Therefore, deep models are usually considered to be more flexible and robust solutions for image analysis problems compared to conventional computer vision models. They have demonstrated significant improvements in computer-aided diagnosis and automatic medical image analysis applied to such tasks as image segmentation, classification and registration. However, deploying deep learning models often has a steep learning curve and requires detailed knowledge of various software packages. Thus, many deep models have not been integrated into the clinical research work ows causing a gap between the state-of-the-art machine learning in medical applications and evaluation in clinical research procedures. In this paper, we propose "DeepInfer" - an open-source toolkit for developing and deploying deep learning models within the 3D Slicer medical image analysis platform. Utilizing a repository of task-specific models, DeepInfer allows clinical researchers and biomedical engineers to deploy a trained model selected from the public registry, and apply it to new data without the need for software development or configuration. As two practical use cases, we demonstrate the application of DeepInfer in prostate segmentation for targeted MRI-guided biopsy and identification of the target plane in 3D ultrasound for spinal injections.

  10. DeepInfer: Open-Source Deep Learning Deployment Toolkit for Image-Guided Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrtash, Alireza; Pesteie, Mehran; Hetherington, Jorden; Behringer, Peter A; Kapur, Tina; Wells, William M; Rohling, Robert; Fedorov, Andriy; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2017-02-11

    Deep learning models have outperformed some of the previous state-of-the-art approaches in medical image analysis. Instead of using hand-engineered features, deep models attempt to automatically extract hierarchical representations at multiple levels of abstraction from the data. Therefore, deep models are usually considered to be more flexible and robust solutions for image analysis problems compared to conventional computer vision models. They have demonstrated significant improvements in computer-aided diagnosis and automatic medical image analysis applied to such tasks as image segmentation, classification and registration. However, deploying deep learning models often has a steep learning curve and requires detailed knowledge of various software packages. Thus, many deep models have not been integrated into the clinical research workflows causing a gap between the state-of-the-art machine learning in medical applications and evaluation in clinical research procedures. In this paper, we propose "DeepInfer" - an open-source toolkit for developing and deploying deep learning models within the 3D Slicer medical image analysis platform. Utilizing a repository of task-specific models, DeepInfer allows clinical researchers and biomedical engineers to deploy a trained model selected from the public registry, and apply it to new data without the need for software development or configuration. As two practical use cases, we demonstrate the application of DeepInfer in prostate segmentation for targeted MRI-guided biopsy and identification of the target plane in 3D ultrasound for spinal injections.

  11. Image-guided and passively tumour-targeted polymeric nanomedicines for radiochemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, T; Subr, V; Peschke, P; Kühnlein, R; Hennink, W E; Ulbrich, K; Kiessling, F; Heilmann, M; Debus, J; Huber, P E; Storm, G

    2008-09-16

    Drug targeting systems are nanometer-sized carrier materials designed for improving the biodistribution of systemically applied (chemo-) therapeutics. Reasoning that (I) the temporal and spatial interaction between systemically applied chemotherapy and clinically relevant fractionated radiotherapy is suboptimal, and that (II) drug targeting systems are able to improve the temporal and spatial parameters of this interaction, we have here set out to evaluate the potential of 'carrier-based radiochemotherapy'. N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers were used as a model drug targeting system, doxorubicin and gemcitabine as model drugs, and the syngeneic and radio- and chemoresistant Dunning AT1 rat prostate carcinoma as a model tumour model. Using magnetic resonance imaging and gamma-scintigraphy, the polymeric drug carriers were first shown to circulate for prolonged periods of time, to localise to tumours both effectively and selectively, and to improve the tumour-directed delivery of low molecular weight agents. Subsequently, they were then shown to interact synergistically with radiotherapy, with radiotherapy increasing the tumour accumulation of the copolymers, and with the copolymers increasing the therapeutic index of radiochemotherapy (both for doxorubicin and for gemcitabine). Based on these findings, and on the fact that its principles are likely broadly applicable, we propose carrier-based radiochemotherapy as a novel concept for treating advanced solid malignancies.

  12. Educational On-Line Gaming Propensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Educational on-line games are promising for new generations of students who are grown up digital. Th e new generations of students are technology savvy and spend lots of time on the web and on social networks. Based on an exploratory study, this article investigates the factors that infl uence...... students’ willingness to participate in serious games for teaching/learning. Th is study investigates the relationship between students’ behavior on Facebook, Facebook games, and their attitude toward educational on-line games. Th e results of the study reveal that the early adopters of educational games...... are likely to be students, who are young, have only a few Facebook connections, who currently play Facebook game(s). Furthermore, the study emphasizes that there may be differences between students coming from various countries....

  13. Digital reconstructed radiography with multiple color image overlay for image-guided radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Shinichi; Miki, Kentaro; Sakata, Kozo; Nakayama, Yuko; Shibayama, Kouichi; Mori, Shinichiro

    2015-05-01

    Registration of patient anatomical structures to the reference position is a basic part of the patient set-up procedure. Registration of anatomical structures between the site of beam entrance on the patient surface and the distal target position is particularly important. Here, to improve patient positional accuracy during set-up for particle beam treatment, we propose a new visualization methodology using digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs), overlaid DRRs, and evaluation of overlaid DRR images in clinical cases. The overlaid method overlays two DRR images in different colors by dividing the CT image into two CT sections at the distal edge of the target along the treatment beam direction. Since our hospital uses fixed beam ports, the treatment beam angles for this study were set at 0 and 90 degrees. The DRR calculation direction was from the X-ray tube to the imaging device, and set to 180/270 degrees and 135/225 degrees, based on the installation of our X-ray imaging system. Original and overlaid DRRs were calculated using CT data for two patients, one with a parotid gland tumor and the other with prostate cancer. The original and overlaid DRR images were compared. Since the overlaid DRR image was completely separated into two regions when the DRR calculation angle was the same as the treatment beam angle, the overlaid DRR visualization technique was able to provide rich information for aiding recognition of the relationship between anatomical structures and the target position. This method will also be useful in patient set-up procedures for fixed irradiation ports.

  14. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated July 31, ...

  15. Prostate Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... P 2 rovocative Questions PCCTC Scientific Retreat Coffey-Holden Research News Faces of Prostate Cancer [4] Survivors ... Foundation News The Prostate Cancer Foundation’s 2016 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting accelerates advances in the ...

  16. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Support Guides Why no symptoms? Because prostate cancer hardly ever starts in the most convenient part of the prostate for symptoms to occur, near the urethra (the tube that carries urine through the prostate ...

  17. New Trends in on-line Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Palkovič, Lukáš

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with new trend of internet marketing, it focuses especially on viral marketing. The theoretical part charasterizes the process of viral campaigns, furthermore deals with the components and aspects of on-line environment. Another separated chapter presents social networks, their place in viral marketing and at last but not least the viral video making process. The practical part contains different analyses of specific viral campaigns. The next and equally the last pa...

  18. Initial Results of Image-Guided Percutaneous Ablation as Second-Line Treatment for Symptomatic Vascular Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Scott M., E-mail: Thompson.scott@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Medical School and the Mayo Clinic Medical Scientist Training Program, College of Medicine (United States); Callstrom, Matthew R., E-mail: callstrom.matthew@mayo.edu; McKusick, Michael A., E-mail: mckusick.michael@mayo.edu; Woodrum, David A., E-mail: woodrum.david@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine (United States)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility, safety, and early effectiveness of percutaneous image-guided ablation as second-line treatment for symptomatic soft-tissue vascular anomalies (VA).Materials and MethodsAn IRB-approved retrospective review was undertaken of all patients who underwent percutaneous image-guided ablation as second-line therapy for treatment of symptomatic soft-tissue VA during the period from 1/1/2008 to 5/20/2014. US/CT- or MRI-guided and monitored cryoablation or MRI-guided and monitored laser ablation was performed. Clinical follow-up began at one-month post-ablation.ResultsEight patients with nine torso or lower extremity VA were treated with US/CT (N = 4) or MRI-guided (N = 2) cryoablation or MRI-guided laser ablation (N = 5) for moderate to severe pain (N = 7) or diffuse bleeding secondary to hemangioma–thrombocytopenia syndrome (N = 1). The median maximal diameter was 9.0 cm (6.5–11.1 cm) and 2.5 cm (2.3–5.3 cm) for VA undergoing cryoablation and laser ablation, respectively. Seven VA were ablated in one session, one VA initially treated with MRI-guided cryoablation for severe pain was re-treated with MRI-guided laser ablation due to persistent moderate pain, and one VA was treated in a planned two-stage session due to large VA size. At an average follow-up of 19.8 months (range 2–62 months), 7 of 7 patients with painful VA reported symptomatic pain relief. There was no recurrence of bleeding at five-year post-ablation in the patient with hemangioma–thrombocytopenia syndrome. There were two minor complications and no major complications.ConclusionImage-guided percutaneous ablation is a feasible, safe, and effective second-line treatment option for symptomatic VA.

  19. Connecting to On-line Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.; Astrophysics Datacenter Executive Committee (ADEC)

    2004-05-01

    The Astrophysics Datacenter Executive Committee (ADEC) is coordinating the development of a system to facilitate the linking to on-line data. This system has three components: 1. Unique dataset identifiers. 2. A verification system for identifiers. 3. Permanent links to on-line data sets. 1. The ADEC has agreed on a naming scheme for data sets that allows for the unique identification of any data set. The ADEC data centers will clearly mark their data with these identifiers to allow the generation of links to these data. 2. Each data center has a utility that can check whether a data set identifier is a valid identifier at that center. A central verifier allows third parties access to these individual verifiers through a single portal. 3. The central verifier also provides permanent links to data sets through a central link forwarding system. This makes it possible to move data sets between data centers while maintaining the permanent links. The ADEC plans to first use this system to implement the linking from the literature to on-line data in a collaboration with the AAS and the University of Chicago Press for the AAS journals.

  20. An investigation into the use of CMOS active pixel technology in image-guided radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmond, J P F; Holland, A D [School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Harris, E J; Ott, R J; Evans, P M [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey, SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Clark, A T [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: john.osmond@brunel.ac.uk

    2008-06-21

    The increased intelligence, read-out speed, radiation hardness and potential large size of CMOS active pixel sensors (APS) gives them a potential advantage over systems currently used for verification of complex treatments such as IMRT and the tracking of moving tumours. The aim of this work is to investigate the feasibility of using an APS-based system to image the megavoltage treatment beam produced by a linear accelerator (Linac), and to demonstrate the logic which may ultimately be incorporated into future sensor and FPGA design to evaluate treatment and track motion. A CMOS APS was developed by the MI{sup 3} consortium and incorporated into a megavoltage imaging system using the standard lens and mirror configuration employed in camera-based EPIDs. The ability to resolve anatomical structure was evaluated using an Alderson RANDO head phantom, resolution evaluated using a quality control (QC3) phantom and contrast using an in-house developed phantom. A complex intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment was imaged and two algorithms were used to determine the field-area and delivered dose, and the position of multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaves off-line. Results were compared with prediction from the prescription and found to agree within a single image frame time for dose delivery and 0.02-0.03 cm for the position of collimator leaves. Such a system therefore shows potential as the basis for an on-line verification system capable of treatment verification and monitoring patient motion.

  1. Application of real-time single camera SLAM technology for image-guided targeting in neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Hou, Jung-Fu; Tsao, Yi Hsiang; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose an application of augmented reality technology for targeting tumors or anatomical structures inside the skull. The application is a combination of the technologies of MonoSLAM (Single Camera Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) and computer graphics. A stereo vision system is developed to construct geometric data of human face for registration with CT images. Reliability and accuracy of the application is enhanced by the use of fiduciary markers fixed to the skull. The MonoSLAM keeps track of the current location of the camera with respect to an augmented reality (AR) marker using the extended Kalman filter. The fiduciary markers provide reference when the AR marker is invisible to the camera. Relationship between the markers on the face and the augmented reality marker is obtained by a registration procedure by the stereo vision system and is updated on-line. A commercially available Android based tablet PC equipped with a 320×240 front-facing camera was used for implementation. The system is able to provide a live view of the patient overlaid by the solid models of tumors or anatomical structures, as well as the missing part of the tool inside the skull.

  2. Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Eggener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer continues to be a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly in countries where men have life expectancies long enough to clinically manifest the disease. In many countries, it remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality.

  3. The positioning application of CTVision and MV-CBCT in image-guided radiation ther-a py%CTVision和MV-CBCT两种IGRT技术在放疗摆位中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丹; 李兆斌; 龚蔷; 臧冰冰; 周美玲

    2014-01-01

    目的:对大孔径CT和MV-CBCT图像引导的放射治疗流程的介绍以及利用两种方法获得的摆位误差进行分析,比较两种图像引导方式在放疗摆位应用中的不同之处。方法:15例患者(鼻咽癌5例,前列腺癌4例,宫颈癌6例)治疗前分别进行CT和MV-CBCT图像采集,并与计划CT进行图像融合,MV-CBCT采用自动配准方式,CT采用自动+手动配准方式,分析两组数据,探讨CTVision和MV-CBCT两种IGRT的应用。结果:CTVision和MV-CBCT对15例病人图像引导的方式在X、Y、Z方向的摆位误差均没有统计学意义,但Y方向的误差有一定差异。结论:CTVision图像更为清晰,采集时需要剂量更少,但所需时间较长,技术员需进出机房两次。%Objective:Introducing the image -guided radiation therapy process of large aperture CT and MV -CBCT and analyzing obtained deviations,to discuss the differences between the two methods of positioning applica-tion.Methods:Fifteen patients(5 nasopharyngeal carcinoma,4 prostate cancer and 6 cervical cancer)were performed CT and MV-CBCT before radiation therapy.All images were compared with the planning CT by image fusion.The MV-CBCT used automatic registration method and the CT used automatic and/or manual method.To analyze two sets of data to discuss the positioning application of CTVision and MV-CBCT.Results:Both image-guided methods for the patients'positioning error had no statistical significance in X,Y,Z directions,but there were some differences in Y direction.Conclusion:Compared to MV-CBCT,the images of CT are clearer and dose requires fewer,but need more time and technicians must enter LINAC room twice.

  4. Quality assurance in MR image guided adaptive brachytherapy for cervical cancer: Final results of the EMBRACE study dummy run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirisits, Christian; Federico, Mario; Nkiwane, Karen;

    2015-01-01

    aspects of image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: EMBRACE is a prospective multicenter trial aiming to assess the impact of (MRI)-based IGABT in locally advanced cervical cancer. An EMBRACE dummy run was designed to identify sources and magnitude of uncertainties and errors...... considered important for the evaluation of clinical, and dosimetric parameters and their relation to outcome. Contouring, treatment planning and dose reporting was evaluated and scored with a categorical scale of 1-10. Active feedback to centers was provided to improve protocol compliance and reporting...... and BT. Centers with experience in IGABT (>30 cases) had better performance as compared to centers with limited experience. CONCLUSION: The comprehensive dummy run designed for the EMBRACE trial has been a feasible tool for QA in IGABT of cervix cancer. It should be considered for future IGABT trials...

  5. Manganese (II) Chelate Functionalized Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles for Efficient Magnetic Resonance/Photoacoustic Dual-Modal Imaging Guided Photothermal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renfa; Jing, Lijia; Peng, Dong; Li, Yong; Tian, Jie; Dai, Zhifei

    2015-01-01

    The integration of diagnostic and therapeutic functionalities into one nanoplatform shows great promise in cancer therapy. In this research, manganese (II) chelate functionalized copper sulfide nanoparticles were successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained ultrasmall nanoparticles exhibit excellent photothermal effect and photoaoustic activity. Besides, the high loading content of Mn(II) chelates makes the nanoparticles attractive T1 contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In vivo photoacoustic imaging (PAI) results showed that the nanoparticles could be efficiently accumulated in tumor site in 24 h after systematic administration, which was further validated by MRI tests. The subsequent photothermal therapy of cancer in vivo was achieved without inducing any observed side effects. Therefore, the copper sulfide nanoparticles functionalized with Mn(II) chelate hold great promise as a theranostic nanomedicine for MR/PA dual-modal imaging guided photothermal therapy of cancer.

  6. Imaging-guided photoacoustic drug release and synergistic chemo-photoacoustic therapy with paclitaxel-containing nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Junping; Yang, Sihua; Wen, Liewei; Xing, Da

    2016-03-28

    Here, a novel triggered drug release modality was developed for oncotherapy. Paclitaxel (PTX), perfluorohexane (PFH) and gold nanorods (AuNRs) loaded nanoparticles (PTX-PAnP) were synthesized. Folic acid (FA) conjugated PTX-PAnP (PTX-PAnP-FA) could be selectively taken into folate receptor-overexpressed tumor cells. Upon pulsed laser irradiation, the PTX-PAnP-FA could be rapidly destructed because of the PFH vaporization, resulting in fast drug release, which induced apoptosis of cancer cells efficiently. Stimulated fragmentation of the PTX-PAnP-FA nanoparticles can facilitate multiple mechanisms such as bubble implosion, shockwave generation, and sonoporation that further enhance the therapeutic efficiency. The in vivo therapy study further confirmed this new approach resulted in efficient tumor suppression. The results demonstrate a unique drug release mechanism based on photoacoustic effect. It provides an all-in-one platform for photoacoustic image-guided drug release and synergistic chemo-photoacoustic therapy.

  7. Image-guided optical spectroscopy in diagnosis of osteoarthritis by combining spectral and spatial a-priori information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhen; Zhang, Qizhi; Jiang, Huizhu; Sobel, Eric S.; Jiang, Huabei

    2009-02-01

    A multi-modality imaging approach and instrument that integrate optical imaging system and near-infrared spectroscopy into an x-ray tomosynthesis setup have been employed to perform a clinical study of image-guided spectroscopy on osteoarthritis (OA) in the finger joints. The multiwavelength spectroscopy of the joints using x-ray-guided spatial constraints provides 3D images of oxygen saturation and water content with high resolution and improved quantitative capability. Based on the recovered quantitative results from 18 healthy volunteers and 22 patients, we observed that oxygen saturation and water content were significant discriminators for differentiation of healthy joints from diseased ones. The recovered images appear to show that the OA joints have high water values and decreased oxygen saturation.

  8. Just-in-time tomography (JiTT): a new concept for image-guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, G; Rowlands, J A [Toronto-Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto M4N 3M5 (Canada); Imaging Research, Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2005-11-07

    Soft-tissue target motion is one of the main concerns in high-precision radiation therapy. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been developed recently to image soft-tissue targets in the treatment room and guide the radiation therapy treatment. However, due to its relatively long image acquisition time the CBCT approach cannot provide images of the target at the instant of the treatment and thus it is not adequate for imaging targets with intrafraction motion. In this note, a new approach for image-guided radiation therapy-just-in-time tomography (JiTT)-is proposed. Differing from CBCT, JiTT takes much less time to generate the needed tomographical, beam's-eye-view images of the treatment target at the right moment to guide the radiation therapy treatment. (note)

  9. Serial removal of caries lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces using near-IR image-guided IR laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Tom, Henry; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have established that caries lesions can be imaged with high contrast without the interference of stains at near-IR wavelengths greater than 1300-nm. It has been demonstrated that computer controlled laser scanning systems utilizing IR lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates can be used for serial imaging and selective removal of caries lesions. In this study, we report our progress towards the development of algorithms for generating rasterized ablation maps from near-IR reflectance images for the removal of natural lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces. An InGaAs camera and a filtered tungsten-halogen lamp producing near-IR light in the range of 1500-1700-nm were used to collect crosspolarization reflectance images of tooth occlusal surfaces. A CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3- μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs was used for image-guided ablation.

  10. Image-guided frontal trephination: a minimally invasive approach for hard-to-reach frontal sinus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharek, Mark A; Fong, Karen J; Hwang, Peter H

    2006-10-01

    Peripherally located frontal sinus pathology may be unreachable with standard endoscopic techniques. Patients with superiorly or laterally based lesions often undergo osteoplastic flap with or without obliteration. Image-guided frontal trephination (IGFT) can localize pathology and provide excellent exposure. We present 13 patients in whom this technique was applied. Medical records of 13 patients undergoing IGFT were retrospectively reviewed. The patients' mean age was 49.2 years, (range 14-79); follow-up time was 29.9 months (range 12-39). Indications for IGFT were superiorly or laterally based mucoceles (3), fibrous dysplasia or osteoma (3), type 4 frontal cells (3), and frontal recess stenosis or ossification (4). In five patients, IGFT was combined with endoscopic transethmoid frontal sinusotomy; eight patients were treated through a trephination approach, and three patients underwent trephination with unilateral frontal sinus obliteration. One patient required revision; all others remain symptom free. IGFT offers an attractive alternative to osteoplastic flap.

  11. Automated detection of fiducial screws from CT/DVT volume data for image-guided ENT surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guoyan; Gerber, Nicolas; Widmer, Daniel; Stieger, Christof; Caversaccio, Marco; Nolte, Lutz-Peter; Weber, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an automated solution for precise detection of fiducial screws from three-dimensional (3D) Computerized Tomography (CT)/Digital Volume Tomography (DVT) data for image-guided ENT surgery. Unlike previously published solutions, we regard the detection of the fiducial screws from the CT/DVT volume data as a pose estimation problem. We thus developed a model-based solution. Starting from a user-supplied initialization, our solution detects the fiducial screws by iteratively matching a computer aided design (CAD) model of the fiducial screw to features extracted from the CT/DVT data. We validated our solution on one conventional CT dataset and on five DVT volume datasets, resulting in a total detection of 24 fiducial screws. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed solution achieves much higher reproducibility and precision than the manual detection. Further comparison shows that the proposed solution produces better results on the DVT dataset than on the conventional CT dataset.

  12. Dose measurements on cone beam computed tomography for trilogy and truebeam STx for image-guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kwon; Ye, Sung Joon [Dept. of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyuck Jun; Sung, Won Mo [Interdisciplinary program in Radiation applied Life Science, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Min [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital,Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    The number of use of the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with the kV cone beam CT for the image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) has increased. With the increased frequency in use of IGRT, the patient absorbed radiation dose during the treatment procedure has increased and become the major concern that there have been studies about these issue. The purpose of this study is to confirm the patient dose from the daily CBCT scan during the IGRT using the On-Board Imager(OBI) of Trilogy and Truebeam STx (Varian Medical Systems, CA, USA). These two linear accelerators are newly set up in SNUH that the patient dose from CBCT scan is needed to be verified before the start of IGRT. Daily CBCT scans can provide better patient localizing but increase the patient absorbed dose slightly. Considering the beneficial advantage on the localizing patient, CT dose during IGRT would be a reasonable cost.

  13. Evaluation of Imaging Dose From Different Image Guided Systems During Head and Neck Radiotherapy: A Phantom Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chun Shing; Jong, Wei Loong; Ung, Ngie Min; Wong, Jeannie Hsiu Ding

    2016-12-09

    This work evaluated and compared the absorbed doses to selected organs in the head and neck region from the three image guided radiotherapy systems: cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and kilovoltage (kV) planar imaging using the On-board Imager(®) (OBI) as well as the ExacTrac(®) X-ray system, all available on the Varian Novalis TX linear accelerator. The head and neck region of an anthropomorphic phantom was used to simulate patients' head within the imaging field. Nanodots optically stimulated luminescent dosemeters were positioned at selected sites to measure the absorbed doses. CBCT was found to be delivering the highest dose to internal organs while OBI-2D gave the highest doses to the eye lenses. The setting of half-rotation in CBCT effectively reduces the dose to the eye lenses. Daily high-quality CBCT verification was found to increase the secondary cancer risk by 0.79%.

  14. Framework for a low-cost intra-operative image-guided neuronavigator including brain shift compensation

    CERN Document Server

    Bucki, Marek; Payan, Yohan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology to address the problem of brain tissue deformation referred to as 'brain-shift'. This deformation occurs throughout a neurosurgery intervention and strongly alters the accuracy of the neuronavigation systems used to date in clinical routine which rely solely on pre-operative patient imaging to locate the surgical target, such as a tumour or a functional area. After a general description of the framework of our intra-operative image-guided system, we describe a procedure to generate patient specific finite element meshes of the brain and propose a biomechanical model which can take into account tissue deformations and surgical procedures that modify the brain structure, like tumour or tissue resection.

  15. FEASIBILITY OF IMAGE-GUIDED RADIOTHERAPY FOR CARDIAC SPARING IN PATIENTS WITH LEFT-SIDED BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eLEMANSKI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with left-sided breast cancer are at risk of cardiac toxicity because of cardiac irradiation during radiotherapy with the conventional 3-dimensional conformal technique (3D-CRT. In addition, many patients may receive chemotherapy prior to radiation which may damage the myocardium and may increase the potential for late cardiac complications. New radiotherapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT may decrease the risk of cardiac toxicity because of the steep dose gradient limiting the volume of the heart irradiated to a high dose. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT is a new technique of IMRT delivery with daily imaging which may further reduce excessive cardiac irradiation. Preliminary results of IGRT for cardiac sparing in patients with left-sided breast cancer are promising and need to be investigated in future prospective clinical studies.

  16. A novel virtual reality environment for preoperative planning and simulation of image guided intracardiac surgeries with robotic manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeniaras, Erol; Deng, Zhigang; Syed, Mushabbar A; Davies, Mark G; Tsekos, Nikolaos V

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of image-guided and robot-assisted procedures can be beneficial to intracardiac interventions. This paper proposes a novel approach and a virtual reality system for preoperative planning and intraoperative guidance of cardiac procedures, and for investigating the kinematics and control of a virtual robotic manipulator, based on MRI CINE images. The system incorporates dedicated software modules for processing MR images, generating dynamic trajectories in the continuously changing environment of a beating heart, controlling a specific generic virtual manipulator along those trajectories, and a virtual reality interface that fuses all those information. The proposed system is applied for the simulation of accessing the aortic valve annulus via a small incision on the apex by maneuvering a robotic manipulator through an access corridor that safely transverses the left ventricle (LV) of the beating heart.

  17. Image-guided ablation of painful metastatic bone tumors: a new and effective approach to a difficult problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callstrom, Matthew R.; Charboneau, J. William; Atwell, Thomas D.; Farrell, Michael A.; Welch, Timothy J.; Maus, Timothy P. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Goetz, Matthew P.; Rubin, Joseph [Mayo Clinic, Department of Oncology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Painful skeletal metastases are a common problem in cancer patients. Although external beam radiation therapy is the current standard of care for cancer patients who present with localized bone pain, 20-30% of patients treated with this modality do not experience pain relief, and few further options exist for these patients. For many patients with painful metastatic skeletal disease, analgesics remain the only alternative treatment option. Recently, image-guided percutaneous methods of tumor destruction have proven effective for treatment of this difficult problem. This review describes the application, limitations, and effectiveness of percutaneous ablative methods including ethanol, methyl methacrylate, laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT), cryoablation, and percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for palliation of painful skeletal metastases. (orig.)

  18. Tissue feature-based intra-fractional motion tracking for stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yaoqin; Xing, Lei; Gu, Jia; Liu, Wu

    2013-06-07

    Real-time knowledge of tumor position during radiation therapy is essential to overcome the adverse effect of intra-fractional organ motion. The goal of this work is to develop a tumor tracking strategy by effectively utilizing the inherent image features of stereoscopic x-ray images acquired during dose delivery. In stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiation delivery, two orthogonal x-ray images are acquired either simultaneously or sequentially. The essence of markerless tumor tracking is the reliable identification of inherent points with distinct tissue features on each projection image and their association between two images. The identification of the feature points on a planar x-ray image is realized by searching for points with high intensity gradient. The feature points are associated by using the scale invariance features transform descriptor. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by using images of a motion phantom and four archived clinical cases acquired using either a CyberKnife equipped with a stereoscopic x-ray imaging system, or a LINAC equipped with an onboard kV imager and an electronic portal imaging device. In the phantom study, the results obtained using the proposed method agree with the measurements to within 2 mm in all three directions. In the clinical study, the mean error is 0.48 ± 0.46 mm for four patient data with 144 sequential images. In this work, a tissue feature-based tracking method for stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiation therapy is developed. The technique avoids the invasive procedure of fiducial implantation and may greatly facilitate the clinical workflow.

  19. Are Modic changes related to outcomes in lumbar disc herniation patients treated with imaging-guided lumbar nerve root blocks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Cynthia K., E-mail: cynthia.peterson@balgrist.ch [Department of Radiology, Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist, University of Zürich (Switzerland); Pfirrmann, Christian W.A. [Department of Radiology, Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist, University of Zürich (Switzerland); Hodler, Jürg [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, University of Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-15

    Objective: To compare outcomes after imaging-guided transforaminal lumbar nerve root blocks in MRI confirmed symptomatic disc herniation patients with and without Modic changes (MC). Methods: Consecutive adult patients with MRI confirmed symptomatic lumbar disc herniations and an imaging-guided lumbar nerve root block injection who returned an outcomes questionnaire are included. Numerical rating scale (NRS) pain data was collected prior to injection and 20–30 min after injection. NRS and overall improvement were assessed using the patient's global impression of change (PGIC) scale at 1 day, 1 week and 1 month post injection. The proportion of patients with and without MC on MRI as well as Modic I and Modic II was calculated. These groups were compared for clinically relevant ‘improvement’ using the Chi-squared test. Baseline and follow-up NRS scores were compared for the groups using the unpaired t-test. Results: 346 patients are included with MC present in 57%. A higher percentage of patients without MC reported ‘improvement’ and a higher percentage of patients with MC reported ‘worsening’ but this did not reach statistical significance. The numerical scores on the PGIC and NRS scales showed that patients with MC had significantly higher pain and worse overall improvement scores at 1 month (p = 0.048 and p = 0.03) and a significantly lower 1 month NRS change score (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Patients with MRI confirmed symptomatic lumbar disc herniations and MC report significantly lower levels of pain reduction after a lumbar nerve root block compared to patients without MC.

  20. Image-guided cryoablation for the treatment of painful musculoskeletal metastatic disease: a single-center experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prologo, J.D. [Emory University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Division of Interventional Radiology and Image-Guided Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Passalacqua, Matthew; Patel, Indravadan; Bohnert, Nathan [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Corn, David J. [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The role of image-guided thermal ablation techniques for the nonoperative local management of painful osseous metastatic disease has expanded during recent years, and several advantages of cryoablation in this setting have emerged. The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate and report a single-center experience of CT-guided percutaneous cryoablation in the setting of painful musculoskeletal metastatic disease. This study was approved by the institutional review board and is compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Electronic medical records of all patients who underwent percutaneous image-guided palliative cryoablation at our institution were reviewed (n = 61). An intent-to-treat analysis was performed. Records were reviewed for demographic data and anatomical data, primary tumor type, procedure details, and outcome - including change in analgesic requirements (expressed as morphine equivalent dosages), pain scores (utilizing the clinically implemented visual analog scale), subsequent therapies (including radiation and/or surgery), and complications during the 24 h following the procedure and at 3 months. Patients were excluded (n = 7) if data were not retrospectively identifiable at the defined time points. Fifty-four tumors were ablated in 50 patients. There were statistically significant decreases in the median VAS score and narcotic usage at both 24 h and 3 months (p < 0.000). Six patients (11 %) incurred complications related to their therapy. Two patients had no relief at 24 h, of which both reported worsened pain at 3 months. One patient had initial relief but symptom recurrence at 3 months. Four patients went on to have radiation therapy of the ablation site at some point following the procedure. CT-guided cryoablation is a safe, effective, reproducible procedural option for the nonoperative local treatment of painful musculoskeletal metastatic disease. (orig.)

  1. In vivo, real-time, transnasal, image-guided Raman endoscopy: defining spectral properties in the nasopharynx and larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Lin, Kan; Zheng, Wei; Lau, David Pang Cheng; Huang, Zhiwei

    2012-07-01

    We report for the first time the implementation of transnasal, image-guided Raman endoscopy to directly assess Raman spectral properties of nasopharyngeal and laryngeal tissue in vivo during clinical endoscopic examinations. A rapid 785-nm excitation Raman endoscopy system, coupled with a miniaturized fiber-optic Raman probe, was utilized for real-time, in vivo Raman measurements of different anatomical locations in the head and neck. A total of 874 high-quality in vivo Raman spectra were successfully acquired from different anatomic locations of the nasopharynx and larynx [i.e., posterior nasopharynx (PN) (n=521), the fossa of Rosenmüller (FOR) (n=157), and true laryngeal vocal chords (LVC) (n=196)] in 23 normal subjects at transnasal endoscopy. Difference spectra and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed for tissue characterization, uncovering the tissue variability at the biomolecular level. The PCA-linear discriminant analysis (LDA) provides sensitivity of 77.0% and specificity of 89.2% for differentiation between PN and FOR, and sensitivity of 68.8% and specificity of 76.0% for distinguishing LVC and PN using the leave-one-subject-out, cross-validation method. This work demonstrates that transnasal, image-guided Raman endoscopy can be used to acquire in vivo Raman spectra from the nasopharynx and larynx in real time. Significant Raman spectral differences (p<0.05) identified as reflecting the distinct composition and morphology in the nasopharynx and larynx should be considered to be important parameters in the interpretation and rendering of diagnostic decision algorithms for in vivo tissue diagnosis and characterization in the head and neck.

  2. Near-infrared dye bound albumin with separated imaging and therapy wavelength channels for imaging-guided photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Wang, Chao; Zhan, Zhixiong; He, Weiwei; Cheng, Zhenping; Li, Youyong; Liu, Zhuang

    2014-09-01

    Development of theranostic agent for imaging-guided photothermal therapy has been of great interest in the field of nanomedicine. However, if fluorescent imaging and photothermal ablation are conducted with the same wavelength of light, the requirements of the agent's quantum yield (QY) for imaging and therapy are controversial. In this work, our synthesized near-infrared dye, IR825, is bound with human serum albumin (HSA), forming a HSA-IR825 complex with greatly enhanced fluorescence under 600 nm excitation by as much as 100 folds compared to that of free IR825, together with a rather high absorbance but low fluorescence QY at 808 nm. Since high QY that is required for fluorescence imaging would result in reduced photothermal conversion efficiency, the unique optical behavior of HSA-IR825 enables imaging and photothermal therapy at separated wavelengths both with optimized performances. We thus use HSA-IR825 for imaging-guided photothermal therapy in an animal tumor model. As revealed by in vivo fluorescence imaging, HSA-IR825 upon intravenous injection shows high tumor uptake likely owing to the enhanced permeability and retention effect, together with low levels of retentions in other organs. While HSA is an abundant protein in human serum, IR825 is able to be excreted by renal excretion as evidenced by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vivo tumor treatment experiment is finally carried out with HSA-IR825, achieving 100% of tumor ablation in mice using a rather low dose of IR825. Our work presents a safe, simple, yet imageable photothermal nanoprobe, promising for future clinical translation in cancer treatment.

  3. Vaginal dose assessment in image-guided brachytherapy for cervical cancer: Can we really rely on dose-point evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limkin, Elaine Johanna; Dumas, Isabelle; Rivin Del Campo, Eleonor; Chargari, Cyrus; Maroun, Pierre; Annède, Pierre; Petit, Claire; Seisen, Thomas; Doyeux, Kaya; Tailleur, Anne; Martinetti, Florent; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Haie-Meder, Christine; Mazeron, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Although dose-volume parameters in image-guided brachytherapy have become a standard, the use of posterior-inferior border of the pubic symphysis (PIBS) points has been recently proposed in the reporting of vaginal doses. The aim was to evaluate their pertinence. Nineteen patients who received image-guided brachytherapy after concurrent radiochemotherapy were included. Per treatment, CT scans were performed at Days 2 and 3, with reporting of the initial dwell positions and times. Doses delivered to the PIBS points were evaluated on each plan, considering that they were representative of one-third of the treatment. The movements of the applicator according to the PIBS point were analysed. Mean prescribed doses at PIBS -2, PIBS, PIBS +2 were, respectively, 2.23 ± 1.4, 6.39 ± 6.6, and 31.85 ± 36.06 Gy. Significant differences were observed between the 5 patients with vaginal involvement and the remaining 14 at the level of PIBS +2 and PIBS: +47.60 Gy and +7.46 Gy, respectively (p = 0.023 and 0.03). The variations between delivered and prescribed doses at PIBS points were not significant. However, at International commission on radiation units and measurements rectovaginal point, the delivered dose was decreased by 1.43 ± 2.49 Gy from the planned dose (p = 0.019). The delivered doses at the four points were strongly correlated with the prescribed doses with R(2) ranging from 0.93 to 0.95. The movements of the applicator in regard of the PIBS point assessed with the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine coordinates were insignificant. The doses evaluated at PIBS points are not impacted by intrafractional movements. PIBS and PIBS +2 dose points allow distinguishing the plans of patients with vaginal infiltration. Further studies are needed to correlate these parameters with vaginal morbidity. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Combining transrectal ultrasound and CT for image-guided adaptive brachytherapy of cervical cancer: Proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvacil, Nicole; Schmid, Maximilian P; Pötter, Richard; Kronreif, Gernot; Kirisits, Christian

    To investigate the feasibility of a treatment planning workflow for three-dimensional image-guided cervix cancer brachytherapy, combining volumetric transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for target definition with CT for dose optimization to organs at risk (OARs), for settings with no access to MRI. A workflow for TRUS/CT-based volumetric treatment planning was developed, based on a customized system including ultrasound probe, stepper unit, and software for image volume acquisition. A full TRUS/CT-based workflow was simulated in a clinical case and compared with MR- or CT-only delineation. High-risk clinical target volume was delineated on TRUS, and OARs were delineated on CT. Manually defined tandem/ring applicator positions on TRUS and CT were used as a reference for rigid registration of the image volumes. Treatment plan optimization for TRUS target and CT organ volumes was performed and compared to MRI and CT target contours. TRUS/CT-based contouring, applicator reconstruction, image fusion, and treatment planning were feasible, and the full workflow could be successfully demonstrated. The TRUS/CT plan fulfilled all clinical planning aims. Dose-volume histogram evaluation of the TRUS/CT-optimized plan (high-risk clinical target volume D90, OARs D2cm³ for) on different image modalities showed good agreement between dose values reported for TRUS/CT and MRI-only reference contours and large deviations for CT-only target parameters. A TRUS/CT-based workflow for full three-dimensional image-guided cervix brachytherapy treatment planning seems feasible and may be clinically comparable to MRI-based treatment planning. Further development to solve challenges with applicator definition in the TRUS volume is required before systematic applicability of this workflow. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Image guided respiratory gated hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (H-SBRT) for liver and lung tumors: Initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, R.E.; Gum, F.; Erbel, S. [Charite Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2006-09-15

    To evaluate our initial experience with image guided respiratory gated H-SBRT for liver and lung tumors. The system combines a stereoscopic x-ray imaging system (ExacTrac{sup R} X-Ray 6D) with a dedicated conformal stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy linear accelerator (Novalis) and ExacTrac{sup R} Adaptive Gating for dynamic adaptive treatment. Moving targets are located and tracked by x-ray imaging of implanted fiducial markers defined in the treatment planning computed tomography (CT). The marker position is compared with the position in verification stereoscopic x-ray images, using fully automated marker detection software. The required shift for a correct, gated set-up is calculated and automatically applied. We present our acceptance testing and initial experience in patients with liver and lung tumors. For treatment planning CT and Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) taken at free breathing and expiration breath hold with internal and external fiducials present were used. Patients were treated with 8-11 consecutive fractions to a dose of 74.8-79.2 Gy. Phantom tests demonstrated targeting accuracy with a moving target to within {+-}1 mm. Inter- and intrafractional patient set-up displacements, as corrected by the gated set-up and not detectable by a conventional set-up, were up to 30 mm. Verification imaging to determine target location during treatment showed an average marker position deviation from the expected position of up to 4 mm on real patients. This initial evaluation shows the accuracy of the system and feasibility of image guided real-time respiratory gated H-SBRT for liver and lung tumors.

  6. A study of image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer based on lipiodol injection in the bladder wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard, Jimmi; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Elstroem, Ulrik Vindelev; Grau, Cai; Hoeyer, Morten (Dept. of Onc