WorldWideScience

Sample records for on-line elemental analysis

  1. Automatic data acquisition and on-line analysis of trace element concentration in serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.

    1978-01-01

    A completely automated system has been developed to determine the trace element concentration in biological samples by measuring charged particle induced X-rays. A CDC-3100 computer with ADC and CAMAC interface is employed to control the data collection apparatus, acquire data and perform simultaneously the analysis. The experimental set-up consists of a large square plexiglass chamber in which a commercially available 750H Kodak Carousel is suitably arranged as a computer controlled sample changer. A method of extracting trace element concentrations using reference spectra is presented and an on-line program has been developed to easily and conveniently obtain final results at the end of each run. (Auth.)

  2. On-line moisture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Mijak, D.G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk material. Nuclear-based analysers measure the total hydrogen content in the sample and do not differentiate between free and combined moisture. Such analysers may also be sensitive to material presentation and elemental composition. Very low frequency electromagnetic probes, such as capacitance or conductance probes, operate in the frequency region where the DC conductivity dominates much of the response, which is a function not only of moisture content but also of ionic composition and chemistry. These problems are overcome using microwave transmission techniques, which also have the following advantages, as a true bulk moisture analysis is obtained, because a high percentage of the bulk material is analysed; the moisture estimate is mostly insensitive to any biased presentation of moisture, for example due to stratification of bulk material with different moisture content and because no physical contact is made between the sensor and the bulk material. This is

  3. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  4. Automation in trace-element chemistry - Development of a fully automated on-line preconcentration device for trace analysis of heavy metals with atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, M.R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Scope of this work was the development of an automated system for trace element preconcentration to be used and integrated to analytic atomic spectroscopic methods like flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) or atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Based on the newly developed cellulose-based chelating cation exchangers ethylene-diamin-triacetic acid cellulose (EDTrA-Cellulose) and sulfonated-oxine cellulose a flexible, computer-controlled instrument for automation of preconcentration and/or of matrix separation of heavy metals is described. The most important properties of these materials are fast exchange kinetics, good selectivity against alkaline and alkaline earth elements, good flow characteristics and good stability of the material and the chelating functions against changes in pH-values of reagents necessary in the process. The combination of the preconcentration device for on-line determinations of Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Fe, Co, Mn, V, Cu, La, U, Th is described for FAAS and for ICP-AES with a simultaneous spectrometer. Signal enhancement factors of 70 are achieved from preconcentration of 10 ml and on-line determination with FAAS due to signal quantification in peak-height mode. For GFAAS and for sequential ICP methods for off-line preconcentration are given. The optimization and adaption of the interface to the different characteristics of the analytical instrumentation is emphasized. For evaluation and future developments with respect to determination and/or preconcentration of anionic species like As, Se, Sb etc. instrument modifications are proposed and a development software is described. (Author)

  5. On-line gas chemistry experiments with trans actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turler, A.; Gaguller, B.; Jost, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    The latest achievements in the gas phase chemistry studies of elements 104 and 105 and their lighter homologs are reviewed. Experimental techniques employed in the studies are described. Experimental data on chlorides and bromides of the groups 4, 5 elements and elements 104, 105 are compared with their theoretically predicted chemical properties. 45 refs

  6. Analysis of biogenic carbonates by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Flow injection on-line solid-phase preconcentration for trace element determination in fish otoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Z; Paulson, A J

    2002-04-01

    The aragonite deposits within the ear bones (otoliths) of teleost fish retain a chemical signal reflecting the life history of fish (similar to rings of trees) and the nature of fish habitats. Otoliths dissolved in acid solutions contain high concentrations of calcium and a variety of proteins. Elimination of matrix salts and organic interferences during preconcentration is essential for accurate determination of trace elements in otolith solutions by inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry. An iminodiacetate-based chelating resin (Toyopearl AF-Chelate 650 M) has been used for on-line preconcentration and matrix separation for the determination of 31 transition and rare elements. Successful preconcentration of the elements was achieved at pH 5 by on-line buffering, except Mn which required pH 8.8. Sample solutions were loaded on to the column for 1 min at 3.2 mL min(-1), and then eluted directly into the mass spectrometer with 4% v/v nitric acid. This procedure enabled up to 25-fold preconcentration with successful removal of the calcium matrix. The effect of heat-assisted oxidation with concentrated nitric acid was investigated to eliminate the organic matrix. It was found that heating to dryness after dissolution and further mineralization with the acid significantly improved the retention of the transition elements. The method was validated by analysis of a certified reference material produced from saggittal otoliths of emperor snapper ( Lutjanus sebae), and then applied to the determination of trace metal concentrations in juvenile bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus) from the Western Pacific Ocean.

  7. On Line-Elements and Radii: A Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crothers S. J.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Using a manifold with boundary various line-elements have been proposed as solutions to Einstein’s gravitational field. It is from such line-elements that black holes, expansion of the Universe, and big bang cosmology have been alleged. However, it has been proved that black holes, expansion of the Universe, and big bang cosmology are not consistent with General Relativity. In a previous paper disproving the black hole theory, the writer made an error which, although minor and having no effect on the conclusion that black holes are inconsistent with General Relativity, is corrected herein for the record.

  8. On-line and bulk analysis for the resource industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.S.; Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.; Madsen, I.C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are the basis of many CSIRO on-line and bulk analysis systems that are now widely used in the mineral and energy industries. The continuous analysis and rapid response of these systems have led to improved control of mining, processing and blending operations. This paper reviews recent developments in neutron, gamma-ray and X-ray techniques for on-line and bulk analysis by CSIRO Minerals including neutron techniques for the on-conveyor belt determination of the composition of cement raw meal, the on-line analysis of composition in pyrometallurgical applications, the on-conveyor belt determination of ash in coal, and the rapid and accurate determination of gold in bulk laboratory samples. The paper also discusses a new gamma-ray technique for the on-line determination of ash in coal and the application of X-ray diffraction techniques for the on-line determination of mineralogy in the cement industry

  9. On-line Vibration Diagnostics of the Optical Elements at BL-28 of the Photon Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, T.; Kashiwagi, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Toyoshima, A.; Kubota, M.; Ono, K.

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed the data of encoders attached to optical elements and developed an on-line vibration diagnostics system of the monochromator. After eliminating the vibration source we have been able to improve the performance of the monochromator

  10. On-line nuclear analysis of coal (Nucoalyzer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.R.; Gozani, T.; Bozorgmanesh, H.

    1980-01-01

    Control of quality in the coal process stream is increasingly important in both coal preparation facilities and coal fire power plants. Traditional wet chemistry methods of monitoring coal composition are incapable of providing anything approaching real-time analysis of coal. Typically, small samples of the coal stream are laboratory analyzed and the results made available between a day to a week later. By this time the coal is through the process stream, often already burned and no control is possible. The need of real-time analysis of bulk quantities of the coal has long been recognized and this need motivated Science Applications, Inc. to develop, since 1975, a continuous on-line nuclear analyzer of coal (or CONAC). Over the last three years a prototype of this instrument has undergone extensive testing using 200 pound bulk samples of a wide variety of US coal types. The Nucoalyzer has proven capable of measuring the abundances of all the important elemental constituents of coal along with the ash and calorific value. In the past year the first instrument has been installed and undergone testing at Detroit Edison's Monroe Coal blending facility, where it will control the blending of high and low sulfur coal to meet EPA emission regulations

  11. A system for on-line monitoring of light element concentration distributions in thin samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brands, P.J.M. E-mail: p.j.m.brands@tue.nl; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; Voigt, M.J.A. de

    1999-09-02

    At the Cyclotron Laboratory, a scanning proton microprobe is used to determine concentration distributions in biomedical samples. The data acquired in these measurements used to be analysed in a time consuming off-line analysis. To avoid the loss of valuable measurement and analysis time, DYANA was developed. DYANA is an on-line method for the analysis of data from biomedical measurements. By using a database of background shapes, light elements such as Na and Mg, can be fitted even more precisely than in conventional fitting procedures. The entire analysis takes only several seconds and is performed while the acquisition system is gathering a new subset of data. Data acquisition must be guaranteed and may not be interfered by other parallel processes. Therefore, the analysis, the data acquisition and the experiment control is performed on a PCI-based Pentium personal computer (PC), running a real-time operating system. A second PC is added to run a graphical user interface for interaction with the experimenter and the monitoring of the analysed results. The system is here illustrated using atherosclerotic tissue but is applicable to all kinds of thin samples.

  12. Project development and commercialization of on-line analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    A project team first in the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) and since 1982 in CSIRO has developed many on-line analysis systems for the mineral and energy industries. The development of these projects has followed a common pattern of laboratory R and D, field trials, commercialisation and technology transfer. This successful pattern is illustrated using examples of the development of systems for the on-line analysis of mineral slurries, for determination of the ash content of coal on conveyors, and for determination of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in pipelines. The first two systems are licensed to Australian companies, Amdel Ltd and Mineral Control Instrumentation Ltd. Both systems are used by industry worldwide, and are the market leaders for radioisotope gauges in their application field. The third system, the multiphase flow meter, was licensed in 1997 to Kvaerner FSSL Ltd of Aberdeen. This meter has even greater potential than the other two systems for economic benefit from its used and for numbers of installations. The on-line analysis systems have been developed to increase the productivity of the Australian mineral and energy industries, and to provide economic benefit to Australia. The economic benefit sought is predominantly improved process control based on use of the instrument, rather than from its sale. Sales of instruments are significant, however, with about A$80 million from the analysis systems and their derivatives since the 1970s. Some of the issues associated with the development of the on-line analysis system are outlined

  13. The rationalization of desulfurization by on-line analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Y; Kohmura, S; Taketomi, H; Matsumura, S; Sasaki, Y

    1986-01-01

    Nippon Kokan uses the Takahax and Sulfiban processes for the desulfurization of coke oven gas. The authors outline the Sulfiban Process and describe a recently developed system for the on-line determination of H/sub 2/S in coke oven gas, and of CO/sub 2/ and monoethanolamine (MEA) in the wash oil. This new on-line analysis system has proved effective in rationalizing the Sulfiban Process via lower MEA production costs and decreased power consumption. The introduction of a computerized control system is now being studied. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. On-Line Synthesis and Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Ryan M.; Pulliam, Christopher J.; Raab, Shannon A.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students learn how to use ESI to accelerate chemical synthesis and to couple it with on-line mass spectrometry for structural analysis. The Hantzsch synthesis of symmetric 1,4-dihydropyridines is a classic example of a one-pot reaction in which multiple intermediates can serve to indicate the progress of the reaction…

  15. On-line gas chromatographic studies of rutherfordium (Element 104), hahnium (Element 105), and homologs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadkhodayan, B.

    1993-05-01

    Gas-phase isothermal chromatogaphy is a method by which volatile compounds of different chemical elements can be separated according to their volatilities. The technique, coupled with theoretical modeling of the processes occurring in the chromatogaphy column, provides accurate determination of thermodynamic properties (e.g., adsorption enthalpies) for compounds of elements, such as the transactinides, which can only be produced on an atom-at-a-time basis. In addition, the chemical selectivity of the isothermal chromatogaphy technique provides the decontamination from interfering activities necessary for the determination of the nuclear decay properties of isotopes of the transactinide elements. Volatility measurements were performed on chloride species of Rf and its group 4 homologs, Zr and Hf, as well as Ha and its group 5 homologs, Nb and Ta. Adsorption enthalpies were calculated for all species using a Monte Carlo code simulation based on a microscopic model for gas thermochromatography in open columns with laminar flow of the carrier gas. Preliminary results are presented for Zr- and Nb-bromides

  16. Project development and commercialisation of on-line analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    A project team first in the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) and since 1982 in CSIRO has developed many on-line analysis systems for the mineral and energy industries. The development of these projects, usually lasting 7-10 years, has followed a common pattern of laboratory R and D, field trials, commercialisation and technology transfer. This successful pattern is illustrated using examples of the development of systems for the on-line analysis of mineral slurries, for determination of the ash content of coal on conveyors, and for determination of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in pipelines. The first two systems, licensed to Australian companies, are used world-wide. They are now the market leaders for radioisotope gauges in their application field. The third, the multiphase flow meter, was licensed in 1997 to an international company. This meter has even greater potential than the other two systems for economic benefit from its use and for numbers of installations. (author)

  17. AKORT-1 on-line system for technological control of the mixed fuel distribution in fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baklanov, V.S.; Besednov, G.Yu.; Gadzhiev, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    An on-line system for technological control of experimental fuel elements with vibrocompacted UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel rods fabricated for the BOR-60 reactor is described. Equipment and performance specific features of the system mechanical part and electronic circuits are considered. The results of the system performance testing are given. The fuel element quality sorting is made on the base of the analysis of Pu and fuel density distributions in the rod length. Gamma-absorption method for density measuring and the method of Pu content determination by its own gamma radiation are used in the system simultaneously. The system has the following main characteristics: tested fuel element diameter is 6 mm; the range of fuel rod mean densities is 7-10 g/cm 3 ; Pu content in the fuel is more than 20%; gamma detectors are the NaI(Tl) detectors with dimensions 40x40 and 25x25 mm; energy resolution is 137 Cs gamma line. Electronic circuits of the system operating on-line with the D3-28 microcomputer are made using the VECTOR standard. The system testing has shown that the error in the fuel density determination is less than 1%, that for Pu content measuring is 4%, the system capacity is 6 fuel elements per hour

  18. NOASYS, a system for on-line noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massier, H.

    1978-07-01

    This report describes NOASYS, a versatile NOise Analysis SYStem for digital on-line signal processing. The system based on a minicomputer, was originally developed for the analysis of noise signals from nuclear reactors. NOASYS computes various statistical functions e.g. cross- und auto-correlation functions and power spectral densities resp., which may be used for reactor diagnosis and malfunction detection. The system processes up to 16 analog signals with a maximum sampling frequency of 100 kcps (1 channel). The processing of the sampled data is done by a number of software tasks, which may be called from a teletype or linked together for specific measuring programs. The standard configuration contains the often used processing routines e.g. Fast Fourier Transform, complex multiplication, summation etc. In addition NOASYS may be extended by users own tasks (in Assembler or Fortran) to fit for specific applications. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  19. On-line analysis of water contamination by organic compounds; On-line-Analytik der Wasserverschmutzung durch organische Substanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagt, R. van der; Vos, F. de [Skalar Analytical (Netherlands); Babichenko, S.; Poryvkina, L. [Institute of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1999-08-01

    In many environmental applications decomposing the mixture of substances in the water into its various chemical ingredients, for subsequent analysis, is a very complicated task. The most productive approach to on-line diagnosis is to treat the object as an integral spectroscopic sample, characterized by certain specific Spectral Fluorescent Signatures (SFS). The SFS are recorded as a matrix of fluorescent intensity of organic compounds in water, in co-ordinates of excitation and emission spectra, providing a three-dimensional spectrum. Spectral windows of SFS are defined by fluorescent characteristics of basic groups of organic substances in the water sample. The novel Skalar Fluo Imager, based on this principle, is intended for the analysis of organic compounds in natural, domestic, and technological waters in an on-line mode. (orig.) [German] In vielen Umweltschutzanwendungen stellt die Auftrennung eines Substanzgemisches zum Zweck der Analyse eine sehr komplizierte Aufgabe dar. Ein erfolgversprechender Ansatz fuer eine on-line-Diagnostik besteht darin, das Objekt als integrale Spektroskopieprobe zu betrachten, die durch bestimmte spezifische Spektral-Fluoreszenz-Signaturen (SFS) charakterisiert wird. Diese werden als Fluoreszenz-Intensitaets-Matrix organischer Verbindungen in Wasser dargestellt, mit Anregungs- und Emissionsspektren als weiteren Koordinaten, wodurch ein dreidimensionales Spektrum entsteht. Spektrale Fenster der SFS sind definiert als Fluoreszenzcharakteristika von Funktionsgruppen organischer Substanzen in der Wasserprobe. Der auf diesem Prinzip basierende Skalar Fluo Imager ist fuer die on-line-Analyse organischer Bestandteile in natuerlichen, Haus- und technischen Waessern gedacht. (orig.)

  20. LOOM-P: a finite element mesh generation program with on-line graphic display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, Takeharu; Yamazaki, Toshio.

    1977-06-01

    A description of the two-dimensional mesh generation program, LOOM-P, is given in detail. The program is developed newly to produce a mesh network for a reactor core geometry with the help of an automatic mesh generation routine built in it, under the control of the refresh-type graphic display. It is therefore similar to the edit program of the self-organizing mesh generator, QMESH-RENUM. Additional techniques are incorporated to improve the pattern of mesh elements by means of on-line conversational mode. The obtained mesh network is edited out as input data to the three-dimensional neutron diffusion theory code, FEM-BABEL. (auth.)

  1. Qualification of the on-line power determination of fuel elements in irradiation devices in the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeeren, L.; Dekeyser, J.; Gouat, P.; Kalcheva, S.; Koonen, E.; Kuzminov, V.; Verwimp, A.; Weber, M.

    2005-01-01

    Fuel irradiation tests require an on-line monitoring of the fuel power. In the BR2 reactor, this is performed by continuously measuring the enthalpy change in the coolant of the irradiation device and complementing this information with data on power losses, heating of structure parts and spatial power profiles from mock-up test experiments and from calculations. Since a few years Monte Carlo codes (MCNP) are used, describing the BR2 core in great detail for every reactor cycle with its specific core load, yielding not only reliable relative values, but also calculated absolute local power values in agreement with data from PIE analyses. Several methods were conceived to combine the experimental and calculated data for the on-line calculation of the local linear power in the fuel elements; their internal consistency and the consistency with gamma spectroscopy data and data from radiochemical fission product analysis was checked. The data show that fuel irradiations in BR2 can be performed in a well-controlled way, with an accurate and reliable on-line follow-up of the fuel power. (author)

  2. On-line milk spectrometry: analysis of bovine milk composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Kyle; Kuennemeyer, Rainer; Woolford, Murray; Claycomb, Rod

    2005-04-01

    We present partial least squares (PLS) regressions to predict the composition of raw, unhomogenised milk using visible to near infrared spectroscopy. A total of 370 milk samples from individual quarters were collected and analysed on-line by two low cost spectrometers in the wavelength ranges 380-1100 nm and 900-1700 nm. Samples were collected from 22 Friesian, 17 Jersey, 2 Ayrshire and 3 Friesian-Jersey crossbred cows over a period of 7 consecutive days. Transmission spectra were recorded in an inline flowcell through a 0.5 mm thick milk sample. PLS models, where wavelength selection was performed using iterative PLS, were developed for fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell content. The root mean square error of prediction (and correlation coefficient) for the nir and visible spectrometers respectively were 0.70%(0.93) and 0.91%(0.91) for fat, 0.65%(0.5) and 0.47%(0.79) for protein, 0.36%(0.49) and 0.45%(0.43) for lactose, and 0.50(0.54) and 0.48(0.51) for log10 somatic cells.

  3. Perspectives for on-line analysis of bauxite by neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurton, Gabriel; Ledru, Bertrand; Letourneur, Philippe

    1995-03-01

    The interest in bauxite as a major source of alumina results in a strong demand for on-line instrumentation suitable for sorting, blending, and processing operations at the bauxite mine and for monitoring instrumentation in the Bayer process. The results of laboratory experiments based on neutron interactions with bauxite are described. The technique was chosen in order to overcome the problem of spatial heterogeneity in bulk mineral analysis. The evaluated elements contributed to approximately 99.5% of the sample weight. In addition, the measurements provide valuable information on physical parameters such as density, hygrometry, and material flow. Using a pulsed generator, the analysis system offers potential for on-line measurements (borehole logging or conveyor belt). An overall description of the experimental set-up is given. The experimental data include measurements of natural radioactivity, delayed radioactivity induced by activation, and prompt gamma rays following neutron reaction. In situ applications of neutron interactions provide continuous analysis and produce results which are more statistically significant. The key factors contributing to advances in industrial applications are the development of high count rate gamma spectroscopy and computational tools to design measurement systems and interpret their results.

  4. Application status of on-line nuclear techniques in analysis of coal quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Shaohui

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are favourable for continuous on-line analysis, because they are fast, non-intrusive. They can be used in the adverse circumstances in coal industry. The paper reviews the application status of on-line nuclear techniques in analysis of coal quality and economic benefits derived from such techniques in developed countries

  5. Semi-on-line analysis for fast and precise monitoring of bioreaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.H.; Marcher, J.; Schulze, Ulrik

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring of substrates and products during fermentation processes can be achieved either by on-line, in situ sensors or by semi-on-line analysis consisting of an automatic sampling step followed by an ex situ analysis of the retrieved sample. The potential risk of introducing time delays...

  6. On-line analysis of hydrogen and other parameters in the mineral and energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the project is the development and industrial application of nuclear and microwave techniques for the on-line determination of hydrogen, moisture and other parameters. This document presents progress with respect to the stated objectives. A laboratory feasibility study has been carried out on new and advanced neutron and gamma ray analysis systems for the direct on-conveyor belt analysis of ash in coal. Neutron inelastic scattering and thermal neutron capture gamma ray technique were used in development of an on-belt elemental analyser for cement industry. Microwave based technology has been developed for on-conveyor belt determination of moisture in coal. A fast neutron and gamma-ray transmission technique has been applied for on-belt determination of moisture in lump coke

  7. Gender-Based Analysis On-Line Dialogue. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    An online dialogue on gender-based analysis (GBA) was held from February 15 to March 7, 2001. Invitations and a background paper titled "Why Gender-Based Analysis?" were sent to 350 women's organizations and individuals throughout Canada. Efforts were made to ensure that aboriginal and Metis women, visible minority women, and women with…

  8. On-Line Booking Policies and Competitive Analysis of Medical Examination in Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From the on-line point, we consider the hospital’s medical examination appointment problem with hierarchical machines. This approach eliminates the need for both demand forecasts and a risk-neutrality assumption. Due to different unit revenue, uncertain demand, and arrival of patients, we design on-line booking policies for two kinds of different situations from the perspective of on-line policy and competitive analysis. After that, we prove the optimal competitive ratios. Through numerical examples, we compare advantages and disadvantages between on-line policies and traditional policies, finding that there is different superiority for these two policies under different arrival sequences.

  9. On-line gas chromatographic analysis of airborne particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Susanne V [Berkeley, CA; Goldstein, Allen H [Orinda, CA

    2012-01-03

    A method and apparatus for the in-situ, chemical analysis of an aerosol. The method may include the steps of: collecting an aerosol; thermally desorbing the aerosol into a carrier gas to provide desorbed aerosol material; transporting the desorbed aerosol material onto the head of a gas chromatography column; analyzing the aerosol material using a gas chromatograph, and quantizing the aerosol material as it evolves from the gas chromatography column. The apparatus includes a collection and thermal desorption cell, a gas chromatograph including a gas chromatography column, heated transport lines coupling the cell and the column; and a quantization detector for aerosol material evolving from the gas chromatography column.

  10. Analysis of Worldwide Regulatory Framework for On-Line Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang Kyu; Oh, Kyu Myung; Lee, Chang Ju

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing economic pressures being faced and the potential for shortening outage times under the conditions of deregulated electricity markets in the world, licensees are motivated to get an increasing amount of online maintenance (OLM). OLM means a kind of planned maintenance of nuclear reactor facilities, including structure, systems, and components (SSCs), during power operation. In Korea, a similar situation is made up, so it needs to establish a regulatory framework for OLM. A few years ago, foreign countries' practices related to OLM were surveyed by the Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) of OECD/NEA/CNRA. The survey results and additional new information of countries' status will be helpful to establish our own regulatory framework for OLM, which are analyzed in this paper. From the analysis, some considerable points to be addressed for establishing a regulatory framework for OLM are suggested

  11. Intelligent simulations for on-line transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassberger, J.A.; Lee, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A unique combination of simulation, parameter estimation and expert systems technology is applied to the problem of diagnosing nuclear power plant transients. Knowledge-based reasoning is ued to monitor plant data and hypothesize about the status of the plant. Fuzzy logic is employed as the inferencing mechanism and an implication scheme based on observations is developed and employed to handle scenarios involving competing failures. Hypothesis testing is performed by simulating the behavior of faulted components using numerical models. A filter has been developed for systematically adjusting key model parameters to force agreement between simulations and actual plant data. Pattern recognition is employed as a decision analysis technique for choosing among several hypotheses based on simulation results. An artificial Intelligence framework based on a critical functions approach is used to deal with the complexity of a nuclear plant system. Detailed simulation results of various nuclear power plant accident scenarios are presented to demonstrate the performance and robustness properties of the diagnostic algorithm developed. The system is shown to be successful in diagnosing and identifying fault parameters for a normal reactor scram, loss-of-feedwater (LOFW) and small loss-of-coolant (LOCA) transients occurring together in a scenario similar to the accident at Three Mile Island

  12. On-line analysis of reactor noise using time-series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGevna, V.G.

    1981-10-01

    A method to allow use of time series analysis for on-line noise analysis has been developed. On-line analysis of noise in nuclear power reactors has been limited primarily to spectral analysis and related frequency domain techniques. Time series analysis has many distinct advantages over spectral analysis in the automated processing of reactor noise. However, fitting an autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) model to time series data involves non-linear least squares estimation. Unless a high speed, general purpose computer is available, the calculations become too time consuming for on-line applications. To eliminate this problem, a special purpose algorithm was developed for fitting ARMA models. While it is based on a combination of steepest descent and Taylor series linearization, properties of the ARMA model are used so that the auto- and cross-correlation functions can be used to eliminate the need for estimating derivatives. The number of calculations, per iteration varies lineegardless of the mee 0.2% yield strength displayed anisotropy, with axial and circumferential values being greater than radial. For CF8-CPF8 and CF8M-CPF8M castings to meet current ASME Code S acid fuel cells

  13. On-line data analysis and monitoring for H1 drift chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düllmann, Dirk

    1992-05-01

    The on-line monitoring, slow control and calibration of the H1 central jet chamber uses a VME multiprocessor system to perform the analysis and a connected Macintosh computer as graphical interface to the operator on shift. Task of this system are: - analysis of event data including on-line track search, - on-line calibration from normal events and testpulse events, - control of the high voltage and monitoring of settings and currents, - monitoring of temperature, pressure and mixture of the chambergas. A program package is described which controls the dataflow between data aquisition, differnt VME CPUs and Macintosh. It allows to run off-line style programs for the different tasks.

  14. Multiparametric amplitude analysis with on-line compression using adaptive orthogonal transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morhac, M; Matousek, V; Turzo, I

    1996-12-31

    The new method of multiparameter amplitude analysis with on-line compression is developed. The proposed method decreases the memory needed to store multidimensional histograms. Examples of employing the algorithms for three-dimensional spectra are presented. 5 refs.

  15. On-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples using elemental chromium: An extension for high temperature elemental-analyzer techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Meijer, Harro A.J.; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method may produce inaccurate δ2H results, with values deviating by more than 20 mUr (milliurey = 0.001 = 1‰) from the true value for some materials. We show that a single-oven, chromium-filled elemental analyzer coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability for hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic substances (Cr-EA method). Hot chromium maximizes the yield of molecular hydrogen in a helium carrier gas by irreversibly and quantitatively scavenging all reactive elements except hydrogen. In contrast, under TC/EA conditions, heteroelements like nitrogen or chlorine (and other halogens) can form hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) and this can cause isotopic fractionation. The Cr-EA technique thus expands the analytical possibilities for on-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples significantly. This method yielded reproducibility values (1-sigma) for δ2H measurements on water and caffeine samples of better than 1.0 and 0.5 mUr, respectively. To overcome handling problems with water as the principal calibration anchor for hydrogen isotopic measurements, we have employed an effective and simple strategy using reference waters or other liquids sealed in silver-tube segments. These crimped silver tubes can be employed in both the Cr-EA and TC/EA techniques. They simplify considerably the normalization of hydrogen-isotope measurement data to the VSMOW-SLAP (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, and their use improves accuracy of the data by eliminating evaporative loss and associated isotopic fractionation while

  16. On-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples using elemental chromium: an extension for high temperature elemental-analyzer techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Gilevska, Tetyana; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Meijer, Harro A J; Brand, Willi A; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature conversion (HTC) technique using an elemental analyzer with a glassy carbon tube and filling (temperature conversion/elemental analysis, TC/EA) is a widely used method for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water and many solid and liquid organic samples with analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). However, the TC/EA IRMS method may produce inaccurate δ(2)H results, with values deviating by more than 20 mUr (milliurey = 0.001 = 1‰) from the true value for some materials. We show that a single-oven, chromium-filled elemental analyzer coupled to an IRMS substantially improves the measurement quality and reliability for hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic substances (Cr-EA method). Hot chromium maximizes the yield of molecular hydrogen in a helium carrier gas by irreversibly and quantitatively scavenging all reactive elements except hydrogen. In contrast, under TC/EA conditions, heteroelements like nitrogen or chlorine (and other halogens) can form hydrogen cyanide (HCN) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) and this can cause isotopic fractionation. The Cr-EA technique thus expands the analytical possibilities for on-line hydrogen-isotope measurements of organic samples significantly. This method yielded reproducibility values (1-sigma) for δ(2)H measurements on water and caffeine samples of better than 1.0 and 0.5 mUr, respectively. To overcome handling problems with water as the principal calibration anchor for hydrogen isotopic measurements, we have employed an effective and simple strategy using reference waters or other liquids sealed in silver-tube segments. These crimped silver tubes can be employed in both the Cr-EA and TC/EA techniques. They simplify considerably the normalization of hydrogen-isotope measurement data to the VSMOW-SLAP (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water-Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation) scale, and their use improves accuracy of the data by eliminating evaporative loss and associated isotopic fractionation while

  17. A system for on-line monitoring of light element concentration distributions in thin samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, P.J.M.; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; Voigt, de M.J.A.

    1999-01-01

    At the Cyclotron Laboratory, a scanning proton microprobe is used to determine concentration distributions in biomedical samples. The data acquired in these measurements used to be analysed in a time consuming off-line analysis. To avoid the loss of valuable measurement and analysis time, DYANA was

  18. On-line coupling of the MAT 251 with a Carlo Erba elemental analyzer for carbon isotope ratio measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.

    1986-06-01

    For carbon isotope investigations with a moderate precision demand of about 0.2 per mil in the isotope ratio fast and reliable results are attained by on line combination of the ANA 1500 Elemental Analyzer and the MAT 251 Isotope Mass Spectrometer. The crucial point hereof is the gas splitting device. By proper design and adjustment of the analytical parameters, good sample efficiency and a sharp CO 2 bulk within the He stream is reached. The main characteristics of this combined equipment are described and some isotopic results of organic and anorganic carbon in lake sediment-samples are given as well as deltasup1 3 C-analyses of spiritous liquors. (Author)

  19. On-line data analysis and monitoring for H1 drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duellmann, D.

    1992-01-01

    The on-line monitoring, slow control and calibration of the H1 central jet chamber uses a VME multiprocessor system to perform the analysis and a connected Macintosh computer as graphical interface to the operator on shift. Tasks of this system are: Analysis of event data including on-line track search; on-line calibration from normal events and testpulse events; control of the high voltage and monitoring of settings and currents; monitoring of temperature, pressure and mixture of the chambergas. A program package is described which controls the dataflow between data aquisition, different VME CPUs and Macintosh. It allows to run off-line style programs for the different tasks. (orig.)

  20. Quantitative on-line analysis of sulfur compounds in complex hydrocarbon matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djokic, Marko R; Ristic, Nenad D; Olahova, Natalia; Marin, Guy B; Van Geem, Kevin M

    2017-08-04

    An improved method for on-line measurement of sulfur containing compounds in complex matrices is presented. The on-line system consists of a specifically designed sampling system connected to a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograph (GC×GC) equipped with two capillary columns (Rtx ® -1 PONA×SGE BPX50), a flame ionization detector (FID) and a sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD). The result is an unprecedented sensitivity down to ppm level (1 ppm-w) for various sulfur containing compounds in very complex hydrocarbon matrices. In addition to the GC×GC-SCD, the low molecular weight sulfur containing compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) can be analyzed using a thermal conductivity detector of a so-called refinery gas analyzer (RGA). The methodology was extensively tested on a continuous flow pilot plant for steam cracking, in which quantification of sulfur containing compounds in the reactor effluent was carried out using 3-chlorothiophene as internal standard. The GC×GC-FID/-SCD settings were optimized for ppm analysis of sulfur compounds in olefin-rich (ethylene- and propylene-rich) hydrocarbon matrices produced by steam cracking of petroleum feedstocks. Besides that is primarily used for analysis of the hydrocarbon matrix, FID of the GC×GC-FID/-SCD set-up serves to double check the amount of added sulfur internal standard which is crucial for a proper quantification of sulfur compounds. When vacuum gas oil containing 780 ppm-w of elemental sulfur in the form of benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes is subjected to steam cracking, the sulfur balance was closed, with 75% of the sulfur contained in the feed is converted to hydrogen sulfide, 13% to alkyl homologues of thiophene while the remaining 12% is present in the form of alkyl homologues of benzothiophenes. The methodology can be applied for many other conversion processes which use sulfur containing feeds such as hydrocracking, catalytic cracking, kerogen

  1. Nuclear techniques for on-line analysis in the mineral and energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.D.; Watt, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are the basis of many on-line analysis systems which are now widely used in the mineral and energy industries. Some of the systems developed by the CSIRO depend entirely on nuclear techniques; others use a combination of nuclear techniques and microwave, capacitance, or ultrasonic techniques. The continuous analysis and rapid response of these CSIRO systems has led to improved control of mining, processing and blending operations, with increased productivity valued at A$50 million per year to Australia, and $90 million per year world wide. This paper reviews developments in nuclear on-line analysis systems by the On-Line Analysis Group in CSIRO at Lucas Heights. Commercialised systems based on this work analyse mineral and coal slurries and determine the ash and moisture contents of coal and coke on conveyors. This paper also reviews two on-line nuclear analysis systems recently developed and licensed to industry, firstly for the determination of the mass flow rates of oil/water/gas mixtures in pipelines, and secondly for determination of the moisture, specific energy, ash and fouling index in low rank coals. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Experience gained upon industrial application of on-line activation analysis in flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.; Riffel, F.

    1979-01-01

    At the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center an anlyzer was developed which allows continuous evaluation of the valuable minerals content in process streams. Experience is reported which has been gathered in several weeks of industrial application in a fluorspar flotation plant, the first industrial scale application of on-line activation analysis in Europe. The use has shown that with the equipment presented on-line monitoring with the desired accuracy is possible of all the strategically important points. This is of considerable importance for the economy of the process. (orig.) [de

  3. Ecodriver. D23.2: Simulation and analysis document for on-line vehicle algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seewald, P.; Orfila, O.; Saintpierre, G.

    2014-01-01

    This deliverable reports on the simulations and analysis of the on-line vehicle algorithms as well as the ecoDriver Android application. The simulation and field test results give an impression of how the algorithms will perform in the real world trials in SP3. Thus, it is possible to apply

  4. Neutron induced gamma spectrometry for on-line compositional analysis in coal conversion and fluidized-bed combustion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzenberg, C.L.; O'Fallon, N.M.; Yarlagadda, B.S.; Doering, R.W.; Cohn, C.E.; Porges, K.G.; Duffey, D.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear techniques involving relatively penetrating radiation may offer the possibility of non-invasive, continuous on-line instrumental monitoring which is representative of the full process stream. Prompt gamma rays following neutron capture are particularly attractive because the penetrating power of the neutrons and the, typically several MeV, capture gammas makes possible interrogation of material within a pipe. We are evaluating neutron capture gamma techniques for this application, both for elemental composition monitoring and for mass-flow measurement purposes, and this paper will present some recent work on composition analysis by neutron induced gamma spectrometry

  5. On-line and bulk analysis of iron ore and bauxite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.J.; Roczniok, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    A number of analysis techniques based on neutron and gamma radiation have been developed for the mining industry. Current projects include the measurement of annihilation radiation arising from pair production for the on-line determination of the iron content of iron ores, and the construction of a demonstration bauxite analyser based on fast-neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of aluminium and silicon content

  6. A dedicated on-line system for the preparation and validation of standard beads in XRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Ogasawara, Noriko; Nakata, Akio; Shoji, Shizuko.

    1995-01-01

    A dedicated on-line system in X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis with glass-bead method was developed in which preparation of standard beads was automated including proper choice of reagents, assignment of bead compositions and validation of the prepared beads. This system features: a. Fundamental Parameter (FP) Method for validation of standard beads. b. An original database of high purity reagents for standards. c. Automatic calculation of suitable composition for each standard bead, by giving a range for each element and the number of standard beads. 1) The calculation is based on random numbers, and makes a random assignment of composition for each bead. 2) The calculation results are automatically stored in a computer as a condition file for quantitative analysis. 3) An amount of a material for a standard mixture is corrected if a valence or a chemical compound for an analysis element is different from that of the standard material in the database. In order to realize these features, many high purity reagents were examined for their purities and other characteristics to test a suitability to use for a standard material, and a software for on-line processings was originally developed. (author)

  7. On-line analysis of bulk materials using pulsed neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, P.; Tourneur, P. Le; Poumarede, B.; Bach, P.; Moeller, H.

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of our joint experience in neutronics for SODERN and in cement plant engineering for KRUPP POLYSIUS, we have developed a new on-line bulk materials analyser for the cement industry. This equipment includes a pulsed neutron generator GENIE 16, some gamma ray and neutron detectors, specially designed electronics with high counting rate, software delivering the mean elemental composition of raw material, and adequate shielding. This material is transported through the equipment on a conveyor belt, the size of which is adapted to the requirements. This paper briefly describes the equipment and some results, as obtained in dynamic test from a demonstrator installed in Germany

  8. On-line analysis of bulk materials using pulsed neutron interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, P.; Tourneur, P. Le; Poumarede, B.; Möller, H.; Bach, P.

    1999-06-01

    On the basis of our joint experience in neutronics for SODERN and in cement plant engineering for KRUPP POLYSIUS, we have developed a new on-line bulk materials analyser for the cement industry. This equipment includes a pulsed neutron generator GENIE 16, some gamma ray and neutron detectors, specially designed electronics with high counting rate, software delivering the mean elemental composition of raw material, and adequate shielding. This material is transported through the equipment on a conveyor belt, the size of which is adapted to the requirements. This paper briefly describes the equipment and some results, as obtained in dynamic test from a demonstrator installed in Germany.

  9. Elements of real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sprecher, David A

    2010-01-01

    This classic text in introductory analysis delineates and explores the intermediate steps between the basics of calculus and the ultimate stage of mathematics: abstraction and generalization.Since many abstractions and generalizations originate with the real line, the author has made it the unifying theme of the text, constructing the real number system from the point of view of a Cauchy sequence (a step which Dr. Sprecher feels is essential to learn what the real number system is).The material covered in Elements of Real Analysis should be accessible to those who have completed a course in

  10. On-line monitoring of Glucose and penicillin by sequential injection analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, R.W.; Nielsen, Jens Bredal; Villadsen, John

    1996-01-01

    and a detector. The glucose analyzer is based on an enzymatic reaction using glucose oxidase, which converts glucose to glucono-lactone with formation of hydrogen peroxide and subsequent detection of H2O2 by a chemiluminescence reaction involving luminol. The penicillin analysis is based on formation......A sequential injection analysis (SIA) system has been developed for on-line monitoring of glucose and penicillin during cultivations of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. The SIA system consists of a peristaltic pump, an injection valve, two piston pumps, two multi-position valves...

  11. Transputer networks for the on-line analysis of fine-grained electromagnetic calorimeter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girotto, G.L.; Lanceri, L.; Scuri, F.; Zoppolato, E.

    1994-01-01

    Transputer networks, designed to perform parallel computations, are well suited for data acquisition, on-line analysis and second level trigger tasks in high energy physics experiments. Some simple algorithms for the analysis of fine-grained electromagnetic calorimeter data were implemented on two types of transputer networks and tested on real and simulated data from a silicon-tungsten calorimeter. Results are presented on the processing speed, measured in a test setup, and extrapolations to a full size detector and data acquisition system are discussed. ((orig.))

  12. Computer-controlled on-line gamma analysis for krypton-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuette, R.P.

    1980-03-01

    85 Kr will be evolved from spent nuclear fuel during both the voloxidation and dissolution processes, so a reliable method for on-line analysis of 85 Kr in the off-gas system is needed. Tritium, 14 C, and 129 I were trapped, and the activity of 85 Kr was then measured using a Li-drifted Ge detector. Equipment used to carry out this analysis is described; the PET computer is used. The 85 Kr evolution rate was correlated with the fuel dissolution rate; the close correlation permits one to monitor the fuel dissolution process. 11 figures

  13. On-line double isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the quantitative analysis of solid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Beatriz; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio; Malherbe, Julien; García-Fonseca, Sergio; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2014-12-03

    We report on the determination of trace elements in solid samples by the combination of on-line double isotope dilution and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The proposed method requires the sequential analysis of the sample and a certified natural abundance standard by on-line IDMS using the same isotopically-enriched spike solution. In this way, the mass fraction of the analyte in the sample can be directly referred to the certified standard so the previous characterization of the spike solution is not required. To validate the procedure, Sr, Rb and Pb were determined in certified reference materials with different matrices, including silicate glasses (SRM 610, 612 and 614) and powdered samples (PACS-2, SRM 2710a, SRM 1944, SRM 2702 and SRM 2780). The analysis of powdered samples was carried out both by the preparation of pressed pellets and by lithium borate fusion. Experimental results for the analysis of powdered samples were in agreement with the certified values for all materials. Relative standard deviations in the range of 6-21% for pressed pellets and 3-21% for fused solids were obtained from n=3 independent measurements. Minimal sample preparation, data treatment and consumption of the isotopically-enriched isotopes are the main advantages of the method over previously reported approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. On-line and off-line data analysis for the EUSO-TA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, Lech Wiktor; Casolino, Marco; Conti, Livio; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Fornaro, Claudio; Kawasaki, Yoshiya; Hachisu, Yusuke; Ohmori, Hitoshi; De Santis, Cristian; Shinozaki, Kenji; Takizawa, Yoshiyuki; Uehara, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We show the principles of the communication protocol, on-line calibration, off-line data format as well as basic visualisation and data analysis software implemented for the EUSO-TA on-ground experiment, being the first step towards implementation in a future space based mission. EUSO-TA is an on-ground detector for measuring UV (290–430 nm) light from extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays. It is a prototype experiment for the JEM-EUSO space-borne mission, built according to the same constraints of low mass, low power consumption and thus low computing power. Nevertheless, it needs to process a huge amount of data in short time, taking 2.5μs exposures for 2304 channels. The low processing power and high time resolution require an efficient communication protocol and simple yet powerful algorithms for on-line analysis. The off-line data format is designed for storing a huge amount of data, at the same time allowing easy access, analysis and sharing. Its structure is scalable and adjustable to different experimental designs. It is independent of the data origin, whether it is hardware or a Monte-Carlo simulator. Use of object-oriented techniques and the ROOT framework allows rapid development of dedicated analysis software, such as a Python based quick-view program described herein. Basic capabilities of the software, such as display of the focal surface, light curves and calibration data are shown in this paper

  15. On-line and off-line data analysis for the EUSO-TA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, Lech Wiktor, E-mail: lech.piotrowski@riken.jp [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Casolino, Marco [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); INFN and Univ. Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Conti, Livio [International Telematic University UNINETTUNO, Rome (Italy); Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Fornaro, Claudio [International Telematic University UNINETTUNO, Rome (Italy); Kawasaki, Yoshiya; Hachisu, Yusuke; Ohmori, Hitoshi [RIKEN, Wako (Japan); De Santis, Cristian [INFN and Univ. Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Shinozaki, Kenji [Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Kepler Center, University of Tübingen, Sand 6, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Takizawa, Yoshiyuki; Uehara, Yoshihiro [RIKEN, Wako (Japan)

    2015-02-11

    We show the principles of the communication protocol, on-line calibration, off-line data format as well as basic visualisation and data analysis software implemented for the EUSO-TA on-ground experiment, being the first step towards implementation in a future space based mission. EUSO-TA is an on-ground detector for measuring UV (290–430 nm) light from extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays. It is a prototype experiment for the JEM-EUSO space-borne mission, built according to the same constraints of low mass, low power consumption and thus low computing power. Nevertheless, it needs to process a huge amount of data in short time, taking 2.5μs exposures for 2304 channels. The low processing power and high time resolution require an efficient communication protocol and simple yet powerful algorithms for on-line analysis. The off-line data format is designed for storing a huge amount of data, at the same time allowing easy access, analysis and sharing. Its structure is scalable and adjustable to different experimental designs. It is independent of the data origin, whether it is hardware or a Monte-Carlo simulator. Use of object-oriented techniques and the ROOT framework allows rapid development of dedicated analysis software, such as a Python based quick-view program described herein. Basic capabilities of the software, such as display of the focal surface, light curves and calibration data are shown in this paper.

  16. Development of on-line electrochemical sample pretreatment methods for the analysis of thallium and uranium by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, F.; Van Berkel, G.J.; Morton, S.J.; Duckworth, D.C.; Adeniyi, W.K.; Keller, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Anodic and adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AWV and AdSV, respectively) were performed on-line with a mercury thin-film electrode (MTFE) to effect the selective accumulation and detection of thallium and uranium, respectively. ASV-ICP-MS experiments using thallium as the test element were performed to characterize the behavior of the on-line system for low level and quantitative determinations. Excellent linearity in response was demonstrated for thallium standards ranging from 0.25 ng/L to 50 microg/L. The 1.0 pg/L detection limit calculated from this data for thallium (3σ/sensitivity) was 400 times lower than that of conventional ICP-MS. The ability to overcome sample matrix effects in quantitative determinations was demonstrated by the analysis of an undiluted synthetic urine sample. AdSV-ICP-MS experiments were performed using uranium as the test element to demonstrate the utility of this method for the determination of radiologically important elements. A uranium(VI)-cupferron complex was used to effect adsorptive accumulation of uranium from a 10 microg/L standard solution onto the MTFE. The uranium was chemically stripped from the electrode for subsequent downstream detection by the ICP-MS. The quantitative nature of this method and a modest enhancement of signal levels (∼X10) over those levels obtained with conventional ICP-MS for samples in the microgram/liter concentration range were demonstrated. Modifications to the current system to provide low flow rate operation will allow further optimization of the ASV-ICP-MS and AdSV-ICP-MS combinations

  17. Ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials. Fermentation and on-line analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, L.

    1994-04-01

    The fermentation performance of bacteria, yeast and fungi was investigated in lignocellulosic hydrolysates with the aim of finding microorganisms which both withstand the inhibitors and that have the ability to ferment pentoses. Firstly, the performance of Saccharomyces cidri, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis, Escherichia coli and Zymomonas mobilis was investigated in spent sulphite liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate of steam-pretreated willow. Secondly, the performance of natural and recombinant E. coli, Pichia stipitis, recombinant S. cerevisiae, S. cerevisiae in combination with xylose isomerase and Fusarium oxysporum was investigated in a xylose-rich acid hydrolysate of corn cob. Recombinant E. coli was the best alternative for fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, giving both high yields and productivities. The main drawback was that detoxification was necessary. The kinetics of the fermentation with recombinant E. coli KO11 was investigated in the condensate of steam-pretreated willow. A cost analysis of the ethanol production from willow was made, which predicted an ethanol production cost of 3.9 SEK/l for the pentose fermentation. The detoxification cost constituted 22% of this cost. The monitoring of three monosaccharides and ethanol in lignocellulosic hydro lysates is described. The monosaccharides were determined using immobilized pyranose oxidase in an on-line amperometric analyser. Immobilization and characterization of pyranose oxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium is also described. The ethanol was monitored on-line using a micro dialysis probe as an in situ sampling device. The dialysate components were then separated in a column liquid chromatographic system and the ethanol was selectively detected by an amperometric alcohol bio sensor. The determinations with on-line analysis methods agreed well with off-line methods. 248 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

  18. Recent advances in on-line coupling of capillary electrophoresis to atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrometry for speciation analysis and studies of metal-biomolecule interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yan; Yin Xuebo; Yan Xiuping

    2008-01-01

    Speciation information is vital for the understanding of the toxicity, mobility and bioavailability of elements in environmental or biological samples. Hyphenating high resolving power of separation techniques and element-selective detectors provides powerful tools for studying speciation of trace elements in environmental and biological systems. During the last five years several novel hybrid techniques based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) and atomic spectrometry have been developed for speciation analysis and metal-biomolecule interaction study in our laboratory. These techniques include CE on-line coupled with atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), chip-CE on-line coupled with AFS, CE on-line coupled with flame heated quartz furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (FHF-AAS), and CE on-line coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The necessity for the development of these techniques, their interface design, and applications in speciation analysis and metal-biomolecule interaction study are reviewed. The advantages and limitations of the developed hybrid techniques are critically discussed, and further development is also prospected

  19. Development and Integration of on-line Data Analysis for the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE detector setup is a dedicated experiment in Heavy Ion Physics, located at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)/ Geneva. Its various sub-detectors are electronically read out by a few millions of channels and are expected to provide a huge sample of data for the investigation of strongly interacting matter. A data rate of up to 25 GByte/s imposes a challenge to both storage facilities and subsequent data analysis. On-line data processing is applied in order to reduce the data volume and selection of interesting events is suggested to increase the valuable information in the recorded data. In general, trigger systems cover the task of event selection. As the first signal needs to be available immediately after the collision, often a multi-level triggering scheme is applied. Fast detectors are deployed to generate different levels of hardware triggers. Subsequent software triggers accomplish event selection on the basis of on-line analysis. A High-Lev...

  20. On-line diagnostic techniques for air-operated control valves based on time series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kenji; Matsuoka, Yoshinori; Minamikawa, Shigeru; Komatsu, Yasuki; Satoh, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the feasibility of applying on-line diagnostic techniques based on time series analysis to air-operated control valves - numerous valves of the type which are used in PWR plants. Generally the techniques can detect anomalies by failures in the initial stages for which detection is difficult by conventional surveillance of process parameters measured directly. However, the effectiveness of these techniques depends on the system being diagnosed. The difficulties in applying diagnostic techniques to air-operated control valves seem to come from the reduced sensitivity of their response as compared with hydraulic control systems, as well as the need to identify anomalies in low level signals that fluctuate only slightly but continuously. In this research, simulation tests were performed by setting various kinds of failure modes for a test valve with the same specifications as of a valve actually used in the plants. Actual control signals recorded from an operating plant were then used as input signals for simulation. The results of the tests confirmed the feasibility of applying on-line diagnostic techniques based on time series analysis to air-operated control valves. (author)

  1. On-line/on-site analysis of heavy metals in water and soils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Deshuo; Zhao, Nanjing; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Mingjun; Fang, Li; Gu, Yanhong; Jia, Yao; Liu, Jianguo

    2017-11-01

    The enrichment method of heavy metal in water with graphite and aluminum electrode was studied, and combined with plasma restraint device for improving the sensitivity of detection and reducing the limit of detection (LOD) of elements. For aluminum electrode enrichment, the LODs of Cd, Pb and Ni can be as low as several ppb. For graphite enrichment, the measurement time can be less than 3 min. The results showed that the graphite enrichment and aluminum electrode enrichment method can effectively improve the LIBS detection ability. The graphite enrichment method combined with plasma spatial confinement is more suitable for on-line monitoring of industrial waste water, the aluminum electrode enrichment method can be used for trace heavy metal detection in water. A LIBS method and device for soil heavy metals analysis was also developed, and a mobile LIBS system was tested in outfield. The measurement results deduced from LIBS and ICP-MS had a good consistency. The results provided an important application support for rapid and on-site monitoring of heavy metals in soil. (Left: the mobile LIBS system for analysis of heavy metals in soils. Top right: the spatial confinement device. Bottom right: automatic graphite enrichment device for on0line analysis of heavy metals in water).

  2. Modeling and Analysis Methods for an On-line Enrichment Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Leon E.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Wittman, Richard S.; Zalavadia, Mital A.; March-Leuba, Jose A.

    2016-05-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has developed an On-Line Enrichment Monitor (OLEM) as one possible component in a new generation of safeguards measures for uranium enrichment plants. The OLEM measures 235U emissions from the UF6 gas flowing through a unit header pipe using NaI(Tl) spectrometers, and corrects for gas density changes using pressure and temperature sensors in order to determine the enrichment of the gas as a function of time. In parallel with the OLEM instrument development, a Virtual OLEM (VOLEM) software tool has been developed that is capable of producing synthetic gamma-ray, pressure, and temperature data representative of a wide range of enrichment plant operating conditions. VOLEM complements instrument development activities and allows the study of OLEM for scenarios that will be difficult or impossible to evaluate empirically. Uses of VOLEM include: investigation of hardware design options; inter-comparison of candidate gamma-ray spectral analysis and enrichment estimation algorithms; uncertainty budget analysis and performance prediction for typical and atypical operational scenarios; and testing of the OLEM data acquisition, analysis and reporting software. This paper describes the technical foundations of VOLEM and illustrates how it can be used. An overview of the nominal instrument design and deployment scenario for OLEM is provided, with emphasis on the key online-assay measurement challenge: accurately determining the portion of the total 235U signal that comes from a background that includes solid uranium deposits on the piping walls. Monte Carlo modeling tools, data analysis algorithms and uncertainty quantification methods are described. VOLEM is then used to quantitatively explore the uncertainty budgets and predicted instrument performance for a plausible range of typical plant operating parameters, and one set of candidate analysis algorithms. Additionally, a series of VOLEM case studies illustrates how an online

  3. Research on on-line monitoring technology for steel ball's forming process based on load signal analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-jun; Ai, Chang-sheng; Men, Xiu-hua; Zhang, Cheng-liang; Zhang, Qi

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a novel on-line monitoring technology to obtain forming quality in steel ball's forming process based on load signal analysis method, in order to reveal the bottom die's load characteristic in initial cold heading forging process of steel balls. A mechanical model of the cold header producing process is established and analyzed by using finite element method. The maximum cold heading force is calculated. The results prove that the monitoring on the cold heading process with upsetting force is reasonable and feasible. The forming defects are inflected on the three feature points of the bottom die signals, which are the initial point, infection point, and peak point. A novel PVDF piezoelectric force sensor which is simple on construction and convenient on installation is designed. The sensitivity of the PVDF force sensor is calculated. The characteristics of PVDF force sensor are analyzed by FEM. The PVDF piezoelectric force sensor is fabricated to acquire the actual load signals in the cold heading process, and calibrated by a special device. The measuring system of on-line monitoring is built. The characteristics of the actual signals recognized by learning and identification algorithm are in consistence with simulation results. Identification of actual signals shows that the timing difference values of all feature points for qualified products are not exceed ±6 ms, and amplitude difference values are less than ±3%. The calibration and application experiments show that PVDF force sensor has good static and dynamic performances, and is competent at dynamic measuring on upsetting force. It greatly improves automatic level and machining precision. Equipment capacity factor with damages identification method depends on grade of steel has been improved to 90%.

  4. Predictions of On-Line Banks' Fraudulent: A Study on Discriminant Analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Joseph Mukungu; Gwangyong Gim

    2014-01-01

    The information and communication technology (ICT) is growing fast in the community along with some risks. The on-line banks' fraudulent are increasing dramatically resulting in the loss of money and retardate the growth on economic development. Some law enforcers like Tanzanian police yet use the traditional prevention technologies to investigate these on-line banks' fraudulent cases mainly known as cyber crimes. For the purpose of this study, 150 data were collected as cyber...

  5. Analysis of flavonoids from propolis by on-line HPLC-electrospray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Nicola; Bergonzini, Gianluca

    2006-09-26

    , Ethiopia and Kenya. The HPLC-ESI/MS under the experimental conditions illustrated represents a valuable method for the qualitative and quantitative assay of the most relevant components of propolis. On-line HPLC-ESI/MS analysis constitutes an alternative to obtain typical fingerprints of propolis and a reliable identification of a large number of propolis polyphenolic components.

  6. On-line analysis of algae in water by discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nanjing; Zhang, Xiaoling; Yin, Gaofang; Yang, Ruifang; Hu, Li; Chen, Shuang; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Wenqing

    2018-03-19

    In view of the problem of the on-line measurement of algae classification, a method of algae classification and concentration determination based on the discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra was studied in this work. The discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of twelve common species of algae belonging to five categories were analyzed, the discrete three-dimensional standard spectra of five categories were built, and the recognition, classification and concentration prediction of algae categories were realized by the discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra coupled with non-negative weighted least squares linear regression analysis. The results show that similarities between discrete three-dimensional standard spectra of different categories were reduced and the accuracies of recognition, classification and concentration prediction of the algae categories were significantly improved. By comparing with that of the chlorophyll a fluorescence excitation spectra method, the recognition accuracy rate in pure samples by discrete three-dimensional fluorescence spectra is improved 1.38%, and the recovery rate and classification accuracy in pure diatom samples 34.1% and 46.8%, respectively; the recognition accuracy rate of mixed samples by discrete-three dimensional fluorescence spectra is enhanced by 26.1%, the recovery rate of mixed samples with Chlorophyta 37.8%, and the classification accuracy of mixed samples with diatoms 54.6%.

  7. Elemental ratios for characterization of quantum-dots populations in complex mixtures by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation on-line coupled to fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menendez-Miranda, Mario; Fernandez-Arguelles, Maria T.; Costa-Fernandez, Jose M.; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The hyphenated system allows unequivocal identification of nanoparticle populations. • AF4 separation permitted detection of unexpected nanosized species in a sample. • ICP-QQQ provides elemental ratios with adequate accuracy in every nanoparticle. • Purity and chemical composition of different quantum dot samples were assessed. - Abstract: Separation and identification of nanoparticles of different composition, with similar particle diameter, coexisting in heterogeneous suspensions of polymer-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been thoroughly assessed by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled on-line to fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) detectors. Chemical characterization of any previously on-line separated nanosized species was achieved by the measurement of the elemental molar ratios of every element involved in the synthesis of the QDs, using inorganic standards and external calibration by flow injection analysis (FIA). Such elemental molar ratios, strongly limited so far to pure single nanoparticles suspensions, have been achieved with adequate accuracy by coupling for the first time an ICP-QQQ instrument to an AF4 system. This hyphenation turned out to be instrumental to assess the chemical composition of the different populations of nanoparticles coexisting in the relatively complex mixtures, due to its capabilities to detect the hardly detectable elements involved in the synthesis. Interestingly such information, complementary to that obtained by fluorescence, was very valuable to detect and identify unexpected nanosized species, present at significant level, produced during QDs synthesis and hardly detectable by standard approaches

  8. Broadband network on-line data acquisition system with web based interface for control and basic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Passive seismic experiment "13BB Star" is operated since mid 2013 in northern Poland and consists of 13 broadband seismic stations. One of the elements of this experiment is dedicated on-line data acquisition system comprised of both client (station) side and server side modules with web based interface that allows monitoring of network status and provides tools for preliminary data analysis. Station side is controlled by ARM Linux board that is programmed to maintain 3G/EDGE internet connection, receive data from digitizer, send data do central server among with additional auxiliary parameters like temperatures, voltages and electric current measurements. Station side is controlled by set of easy to install PHP scripts. Data is transmitted securely over SSH protocol to central server. Central server is a dedicated Linux based machine. Its duty is receiving and processing all data from all stations including auxiliary parameters. Server side software is written in PHP and Python. Additionally, it allows remote station configuration and provides web based interface for user friendly interaction. All collected data can be displayed for each day and station. It also allows manual creation of event oriented plots with different filtering abilities and provides numerous status and statistic information. Our solution is very flexible and easy to modify. In this presentation we would like to share our solution and experience. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work via NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  9. Heat Treatment of a Casting Element of a Through Clamp to Suspension of Electric Cables on Line Post Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezda J.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment of a casting elements poured from silumins belongs to technological processes aimed mainly at change of their mechanical properties in solid state, inducing predetermined structural changes, which are based on precipitation processes (structural strengthening of the material, being a derivative of temperature and duration of solutioning and ageing operations. The subject-matter of this paper is the issue concerning implementation of a heat treatment process, basing on selection of dispersion hardening parameters to assure improvement of technological quality in terms of mechanical properties of a clamping element of energy network suspension, poured from hypoeutectic silumin of the LM25 brand; performed on the basis of experimental research program with use of the ATD method, serving to determination of temperature range of solutioning and ageing treatments. The heat treatment performed in laboratory conditions on a component of energy network suspension has enabled increase of the tensile strength Rm and the hardness HB with about 60-70% comparing to the casting without the heat treatment, when the casting was solutioned at temperature 520 °C for 1 hour and aged at temperature 165 °C during 3 hours.

  10. Advanced mathematical on-line analysis in nuclear experiments. Usage of parallel computing CUDA routines in standard root analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeszczuk, A.; Kowalski, S.

    2015-04-01

    Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) is a parallel computing platform developed by Nvidia for increase speed of graphics by usage of parallel mode for processes calculation. The success of this solution has opened technology General-Purpose Graphic Processor Units (GPGPUs) for applications not coupled with graphics. The GPGPUs system can be applying as effective tool for reducing huge number of data for pulse shape analysis measures, by on-line recalculation or by very quick system of compression. The simplified structure of CUDA system and model of programming based on example Nvidia GForce GTX580 card are presented by our poster contribution in stand-alone version and as ROOT application.

  11. Elemental ratios for characterization of quantum-dots populations in complex mixtures by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation on-line coupled to fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Miranda, Mario; Fernandez-Arguelles, Maria T; Costa-Fernandez, Jose M; Encinar, Jorge Ruiz; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2014-08-11

    Separation and identification of nanoparticles of different composition, with similar particle diameter, coexisting in heterogeneous suspensions of polymer-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been thoroughly assessed by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled on-line to fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) detectors. Chemical characterization of any previously on-line separated nanosized species was achieved by the measurement of the elemental molar ratios of every element involved in the synthesis of the QDs, using inorganic standards and external calibration by flow injection analysis (FIA). Such elemental molar ratios, strongly limited so far to pure single nanoparticles suspensions, have been achieved with adequate accuracy by coupling for the first time an ICP-QQQ instrument to an AF4 system. This hyphenation turned out to be instrumental to assess the chemical composition of the different populations of nanoparticles coexisting in the relatively complex mixtures, due to its capabilities to detect the hardly detectable elements involved in the synthesis. Interestingly such information, complementary to that obtained by fluorescence, was very valuable to detect and identify unexpected nanosized species, present at significant level, produced during QDs synthesis and hardly detectable by standard approaches. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Antioxidants in Raspberry: On-line analysis links antioxidant activity to a diversity of individual metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Jonker, H.H.; Hall, R.D.; Meer, van der I.M.; Vos, de C.H.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of antioxidant compounds can be considered as a quality parameter for edible fruit. In this paper, we studied the antioxidant compounds in raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to an on-line postcolumn antioxidant detection system. Both

  13. On-line structural response analysis: using the extended Kalman estimator/identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.V.

    1979-01-01

    This report disucsses the development of on-line state and parameter estimators used to analyze the structural response of buildings. The estimator/identifier is an extended Kalman filter (EKF), which has been applied with great success in other technological areas. It is shown that the EKF can perform quite well on simulated noisy structural response data

  14. Face-to-Face vs On-Line: An Analysis of Profile, Learning, Performance and Satisfaction among Post Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Maldonado, Alberto; Llorens, Susana; Acosta, Hedy; Coo, Cristián

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the differences between face-to-face and on-line students in a post graduate education program. The variables considered are Post Graduate Student's profile, competences and learning outcomes, academic performance and satisfaction. The sample was composed by 47 students (64% face-to-face). Analysis of variance…

  15. Feasibility study of applying a multi-channel analysis model to on-line core monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, W. K.; Yoo, Y. J.; Hwang, D. H.; Jun, T. H.

    1998-01-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the effect of implementing a multi-channel analysis model in on-line core monitoring system. A simplified thermal-hydraulic model has been used in the on-line core monitoring system of digital PWR. The design procedure, core thermal margin and computation time were investigated in case of replacing the simplified model with the multi-channel analysis model. For the given ranges of limiting conditions for operation in Yonggwang Unit 3 Cycle 1, the minimum DNBR of the simplified thermal-hydraulic code CETOP-D was compared to that of the multi-channel analysis code MATRA. A CETOP-D tuning is additionally required to ensure the accurate and conservative DNBR calculation but the MATRA tuning is not necessary. MATRA appeared to increase the DNBR overpower margin from 2.5% to 6% over the CETOP-D margin. MATRA took approximately 1 second to compute DNBR on the HP9000 workstation system, which is longer than the DNBR computation time of CETOP-D. It is, however, fast enough to perform the on-line monitoring of DNBR. It can be therefore concluded that the application of the multi-channel analysis model MATRA in the on-line core monitoring system is feasible

  16. Verification test for on-line diagnosis algorithm based on noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaoki, T.; Naito, N.; Tsunoda, T.; Sato, M.; Kameda, A.

    1980-01-01

    An on-line diagnosis algorithm was developed and its verification test was performed using a minicomputer. This algorithm identifies the plant state by analyzing various system noise patterns, such as power spectral densities, coherence functions etc., in three procedure steps. Each obtained noise pattern is examined by using the distances from its reference patterns prepared for various plant states. Then, the plant state is identified by synthesizing each result with an evaluation weight. This weight is determined automatically from the reference noise patterns prior to on-line diagnosis. The test was performed with 50 MW (th) Steam Generator noise data recorded under various controller parameter values. The algorithm performance was evaluated based on a newly devised index. The results obtained with one kind of weight showed the algorithm efficiency under the proper selection of noise patterns. Results for another kind of weight showed the robustness of the algorithm to this selection. (orig.)

  17. Analysis of on-line learning when a moving teacher goes around a true teacher

    OpenAIRE

    Miyoshi, Seiji; Okada, Masato

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of on-line learning, a learning machine might move around a teacher due to the differences in structures or output functions between the teacher and the learning machine or due to noises. The generalization performance of a new student supervised by a moving machine has been analyzed. A model composed of a true teacher, a moving teacher and a student that are all linear perceptrons with noises has been treated analytically using statistical mechanics. It has been proven that ...

  18. An investigation of the parameters affecting continuous on-line neutron activation analysis and its application to process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, C.

    1977-03-01

    A system analysis was made and a description was given of on-line continuous activation analysis. The suitability of the various languages available on the Burroughs B6700 computer for simulation of such systems was assessed. A programme was written in the selected languages to incorporate facilities for specifying the geometry of both activation and detector cells and of the delay line linking the two

  19. A CDC 1700 on-line system for the analysis, data logging and monitoring of big bubble chamber pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyonnet, J.-L.

    1975-01-01

    This work presents the analysis system of large bubble chamber such as Gargamelle, BEBC pictures realized in the heavy liquid bubble chamber group with scanning and measurement stations on-line with a CDC 1700 computer. This work deals with the general characteristics of these stations and of the computer, and puts emphasis on the conception and functions of the analysis programmes: scanning, measurement and data processing. The data acquisition system runs in a context of real time multiprogrammation [fr

  20. On-line digestion in a focused microwave-assisted oven for elements determination in orange juice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fili Sabrina P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A flow injection system coupled to focused microwave-assisted oven was used for on-line orange juice sample digestion for determination of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The reactor coil was a PTFE tube (4.0 m long and 1.6 mm i.d. positioned into the commercial glass tube of the focused microwave oven. Aliquots of 500 muL of sample and 1000 muL of reagent (80% v/v HNO3 were mixed in a confluence and carried out to the reactor coil by air carrier. The relative standard deviation for five replicates of sample was lower than 5.0%. Good recoveries varying from 91 to 111% were obtained for added concentrations of the interest elements. The results obtained using the proposed digestion system are in agreement with those obtained for total digestion at the 95% confidence level. With this on-line digestion system was possible to carry out 12 samples h-1, minimizing contamination, saving consumption of samples and reagent and low residue generation.

  1. Diffractive optical element-based glossmeter for the on-line measurement of normal reflectance on a printed porous coated paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksman, Antti; Kuivalainen, Kalle; Ta˚G, Carl-Mikael; Juuti, Mikko; Mattila, Rauno; Hietala, Eero; Gane, Patrick A. C.; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2011-04-01

    Gloss of a product, such as print gloss, is mainly inspected with conventional white light glossmeters both at laboratory or production facilities. However, problems occur in conventional gloss measurement when the inspected surface is vertically moved in the plane of incidence and reflection or when the measurement area is small or curved. For a partial solution to these problems, we have previously introduced diffractive optical element-based glossmeters (DOGs) for the gloss inspection in laboratories and off-line use. We present a new construction of DOG, termed μDOG 1D, for the one-dimensional on-line print gloss measurement, in the form of the reflectance determination normal to the surface. The function of the glossmeter is demonstrated by laboratory tests and on-line measurements at a heat-set web offset printing machine. It is shown that gloss (i.e., normal reflectance) and minute gloss variation of papers and prints can be measured at the printing line using the glossmeter. This glossmeter is expected to be useful in real-time monitoring of the gloss and surface-specific absorption not only in the printing industry but also in inspection of products in other industrial sectors, such as metal finishing, laminating, paper, and construction materials manufacturing.

  2. On-line analysis of ETA and organic acids in secondary systems of PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurashina, Masahiko; Uzawa, Hideo; Utagawa, Koya; Takaku, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    To reduce the iron concentration in the secondary water of plants with pressurized water reactors (PWRs), ethanolamine (ETA) is used as an alkalizing agent in the secondary cycle. An on-line ion chromatography (IC) monitoring system for monitoring concentrations of ETA and anions of organic acids was developed, its performance was evaluated, and verification tests were conducted at an actual PWR plant. It was demonstrated that the concentration of both ETA and anions of organic acids may be successfully monitored by IC in PWR secondary cycle streams alkalized by ETA. (orig.)

  3. Advanced mathematical on-line analysis in nuclear experiments. Usage of parallel computing CUDA routines in standard root analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzeszczuk A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA is a parallel computing platform developed by Nvidia for increase speed of graphics by usage of parallel mode for processes calculation. The success of this solution has opened technology General-Purpose Graphic Processor Units (GPGPUs for applications not coupled with graphics. The GPGPUs system can be applying as effective tool for reducing huge number of data for pulse shape analysis measures, by on-line recalculation or by very quick system of compression. The simplified structure of CUDA system and model of programming based on example Nvidia GForce GTX580 card are presented by our poster contribution in stand-alone version and as ROOT application.

  4. On line system monitoring and analysis for efficient maintenance management [Paper No.: I-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, R.M.P.

    1981-01-01

    Continuously operating chemical plants and nuclear reactors with huge investments cannot afford unscheduled shut down, costly down time, undesired exposure of people to radiation and high cost of inventory. To obtain cost effectiveness in terms of increased plant availability with increased quality, safety and reliability of plant operations a good maintenance system is required. A preventive maintenance programme, though successful to a greater extent, has got the limitations of being based upon elapsed time, subjective approach or statistical data. Hence, maintenance action is mistimed. Preventive maintenance can become very effective if rational and scientific data on equipment under working conditions are available. It can be achieved through on-line predictive instruments like sound level and vibration analyzers, probologs, corrosmeters, strain gages, thermographic infrared sensors, on-line ferrographs, chromatographs, acoustic emission, eddy current ultrasonic and wireless sensors etc. Instruments help maintenance engineer to diagnose, inspect, monitor, and help in forecasting failures and scheduling the frequencies optimally for overhauls, replacements, lubrication etc. They are also helpful in establishing work load, manpower, resource planning and inventory control. This paper discusses real time computer based system as well as conventional instruments and techniques. (author)

  5. On-line, proximate analysis of ground beef directly at a meat grinder outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, T; Nilsen, B N; Tøgersen, G; Hammond, R P; Hildrum, K I

    1996-07-01

    The fat, moisture and protein contents of ground beef were determined on-line by a diffuse reflectance near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy instrument at the outlet of a meat grinder. Beef samples in the range of 6.2-21.7% fat, 59.6-72.9% moisture and 18.1-20.7% protein were studied. Calibrations from samples ground with hole diameters of 4, 8, 13 or 19 mm in the grinder plate were validated. In addition, calibrations of combinations of these samples from the different hole diameters were validated. Prediction errors, expressed as root mean square error of cross validation of the beef samples, were 0.73-1.50% for fat, 0.75-1.33% for moisture and 0.23-0.32% for protein, depending on the hole diameter of the grinder plate. Calibrations from samples ground with the smallest hole diameters gave lowest prediction errors. The present prediction error results are only slightly higher compared to reported prediction error results using conventional at- and off-line NIR instruments. It is concluded that the on-line NIR prediction results were acceptable for samples ground with grinder plates of 4, 8 or 13 mm hole diameter.

  6. Surface inspection of flat products by means of texture analysis: on-line implementation using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Carlos; Platero, Carlos; Campoy, Pascual; Aracil, Rafael

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes some texture-based techniques that can be applied to quality assessment of flat products continuously produced (metal strips, wooden surfaces, cork, textile products, ...). Since the most difficult task is that of inspecting for product appearance, human-like inspection ability is required. A common feature to all these products is the presence of non- deterministic texture on their surfaces. Two main subjects are discussed: statistical techniques for both surface finishing determination and surface defect analysis as well as real-time implementation for on-line inspection in high-speed applications. For surface finishing determination a Gray Level Difference technique is presented to perform over low resolution images, that is, no-zoomed images. Defect analysis is performed by means of statistical texture analysis over defective portions of the surface. On-line implementation is accomplished by means of neural networks. When a defect arises, textural analysis is applied which result in a data-vector, acting as input of a neural net, previously trained in a supervised way. This approach tries to reach on-line performance in automated visual inspection applications when texture is presented in flat product surfaces.

  7. Development of on-line heavy water analysis by vibrating probe density meter and multiple internal reflectance infrared spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, V.D.; Nora, B.

    1984-01-01

    Achieving high productivity in the Savannah River Plant nuclear reactors requires that the heavy water (D 2 O) moderator be maintained at a high purity level. Since the D 2 O purity will degrade with time, a fraction of the moderator must be continually reprocessed to remove H 2 O. This rework process uses a series of fractional distillation columns. The process control is based on laboratory analyses of process samples every four hours. The sample streams, which can range from 0.10 to 99.80 mol % D 2 O, are analyzed using infrared spectrophotometry. An automatic on-line analysis would provide tighter process control and reduce personnel exposure to the tritiated moderator. Two instruments are being evaluated for on-line control; an Anton/Parr DPR 2000 density measuring system and a General Analysis Corporation LAN-I infrared liquid stream monitor

  8. Feasibility analysis of marine ecological on-line integrated monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, D. Z.; Cao, X.; Zhang, S. W.; Wu, N.; Ma, R.; Zhang, L.; Cao, L.

    2017-08-01

    The in-situ water quality sensors were susceptible to biological attachment. Moreover, sea water corrosion and wave impact damage, and many sensors scattered distribution would cause maintenance inconvenience. The paper proposed a highly integrated marine ecological on-line integrated monitoring system, which can be used inside monitoring station. All sensors were reasonably classified, the similar in series, the overall in parallel. The system composition and workflow were described. In addition, the paper proposed attention issues of the system design and corresponding solutions. Water quality multi-parameters and 5 nutrient salts as the verification index, in-situ and systematic data comparison experiment were carried out. The results showed that the data consistency of nutrient salt, PH and salinity was better. Temperature and dissolved oxygen data trend was consistent, but the data had deviation. Turbidity fluctuated greatly; the chlorophyll trend was similar with it. Aiming at the above phenomena, three points system optimization direction were proposed.

  9. METHODOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana KOVALCHUK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of theoretical and methodological principles of situational analysis. The necessity of situational analysis is proved in modern conditions. The notion “situational analysis” is determined. We have concluded that situational analysis is a continuous system study which purpose is to identify dangerous situation signs, to evaluate comprehensively such signs influenced by a system of objective and subjective factors, to search for motivated targeted actions used to eliminate adverse effects of the exposure of the system to the situation now and in the future and to develop the managerial actions needed to bring the system back to norm. It is developed a methodological approach to the situational analysis, its goal is substantiated, proved the expediency of diagnostic, evaluative and searching functions in the process of situational analysis. The basic methodological elements of the situational analysis are grounded. The substantiation of the principal methodological elements of system analysis will enable the analyst to develop adaptive methods able to take into account the peculiar features of a unique object which is a situation that has emerged in a complex system, to diagnose such situation and subject it to system and in-depth analysis, to identify risks opportunities, to make timely management decisions as required by a particular period.

  10. Monitoring the metering performance of an electronic voltage transformer on-line based on cyber-physics correlation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhu; Li, Hongbin; Hu, Chen; Jiao, Yang; Tang, Dengping

    2017-01-01

    Metering performance is the key parameter of an electronic voltage transformer (EVT), and it requires high accuracy. The conventional off-line calibration method using a standard voltage transformer is not suitable for the key equipment in a smart substation, which needs on-line monitoring. In this article, we propose a method for monitoring the metering performance of an EVT on-line based on cyber-physics correlation analysis. By the electrical and physical properties of a substation running in three-phase symmetry, the principal component analysis method is used to separate the metering deviation caused by the primary fluctuation and the EVT anomaly. The characteristic statistics of the measured data during operation are extracted, and the metering performance of the EVT is evaluated by analyzing the change in statistics. The experimental results show that the method successfully monitors the metering deviation of a Class 0.2 EVT accurately. The method demonstrates the accurate evaluation of on-line monitoring of the metering performance on an EVT without a standard voltage transformer. (paper)

  11. Monitoring the metering performance of an electronic voltage transformer on-line based on cyber-physics correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhu; Li, Hongbin; Tang, Dengping; Hu, Chen; Jiao, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Metering performance is the key parameter of an electronic voltage transformer (EVT), and it requires high accuracy. The conventional off-line calibration method using a standard voltage transformer is not suitable for the key equipment in a smart substation, which needs on-line monitoring. In this article, we propose a method for monitoring the metering performance of an EVT on-line based on cyber-physics correlation analysis. By the electrical and physical properties of a substation running in three-phase symmetry, the principal component analysis method is used to separate the metering deviation caused by the primary fluctuation and the EVT anomaly. The characteristic statistics of the measured data during operation are extracted, and the metering performance of the EVT is evaluated by analyzing the change in statistics. The experimental results show that the method successfully monitors the metering deviation of a Class 0.2 EVT accurately. The method demonstrates the accurate evaluation of on-line monitoring of the metering performance on an EVT without a standard voltage transformer.

  12. On-line NIR analysis of fat, water and protein in industrial scale ground meat batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøgersen, G; Isaksson, T; Nilsen, B N; Bakker, E A; Hildrum, K I

    1999-01-01

    Fat, water and protein contents in industrial scale meat batches were determined on-line by near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. The NIR instrument was mounted at the outlet of a large meat grinder, and the measurements were performed in an industrial environment. Beef and pork samples, with chemical compositions of 7-26% fat, 58-75% water and 15-21% protein, were processed with hole diameters of 13mm in the grinder plate. Calibrations were made both for a combined set of beef and pork samples, and for separate sets of beef and pork samples. Validations were either done by full cross validation of the calibration set, or by bias corrected prediction of a test set. Prediction errors for the two sample sets, expressed as root mean square errors of cross validation or standard error of prediction, were in the ranges 0.82-1.49% fat, 0.94-1.33% water and 0.35-0.70% protein, depending of sample set and species of animal. The presented application is an improvement to the existing manual meat standardisation procedure, and has been implemented for regular use in a Norwegian meat manufacturing plant.

  13. Elements of abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, George

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Abstract Harmonic Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts and basic theorems of abstract harmonic analysis. In order to give a reasonably complete and self-contained introduction to the subject, most of the proofs have been presented in great detail thereby making the development understandable to a very wide audience. Exercises have been supplied at the end of each chapter. Some of these are meant to extend the theory slightly while others should serve to test the reader's understanding of the material presented. The first chapter and part of the second give

  14. Finding You on the Internet: an approach for finding on-line presences of people for fraud risk analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Been, Henry; van Keulen, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Fraud risk analysis on data from formal information sources, being a ‘paper reality', suffers from blindness to false information. Moreover, the very act of providing false information is a strong indicator for fraud. The technology presented in this paper provides one step towards the vision of harnessing real-world data from social media and internet for fraud risk analysis. We introduce a novel iterative search, monitor, and match approach for finding on-line presences of people. A real-wo...

  15. Speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic by magnetic solid phase extraction on-line with inductively coupled mass spectrometry determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro Leal, P; Vereda Alonso, E; López Guerrero, M M; Cordero, M T Siles; Cano Pavón, J M; García de Torres, A

    2018-07-01

    Arsenic, one of the main environmental pollutants and potent natural poison, is a chemical element that is spread throughout the Earth's crust. It is well known that the toxicity of arsenic is highly dependent on its chemical forms. Generally, the inorganic species are more toxic than its organics forms, and As(III) is 60 times more toxic than As(V). In environmental waters, arsenic exists predominantly in two chemical forms: As(III) and As(V). In view of these facts, fast, sensitive, accurate and simple analytical methods for the speciation of inorganic arsenic in environmental waters are required. In this work, a new magnetic solid phase extraction with a hydride generation system was coupled on line with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MSPE-HG-ICP-MS). The new system was based on the retention of As(III) and As(V) in two knotted reactors filled with (Fe 3 O 4 ) magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with [1,5-bis (2-pyridyl) 3-sulfophenylmethylene] thiocarbonohydrazide (PSTH-MNPs). As(III) and total inorganic As were sequentially eluted in different reduction conditions. The concentration of As(V) was obtained by subtracting As(III) from total As. The system runs in a fully automated way and the method has proved to have a wide linear range and to be precise, sensitive and fast. The detection limits found were 2.7 and 3.2 ng/L for As(III) and total As, respectively; with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.5% and 2.7% and a sample throughput of 14.4 h -1 . In order to validate the developed method, several certified reference samples of environmental waters including sea water, were analyzed and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method was successfully applied to the speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic in well-water and sea water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulation and System Analysis of Flow Pulsation at Normal and Emergency for Advanced On-line Monitoring and Control of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskouriakov, K.N.; Moukhine, V.S.

    2002-01-01

    In addition to investigation of thermal-hydraulic processes on NPP with use of computer codes the new system analysis of flow pulsation is worked out. System analysis shows that properties of heat rejection circuits of NPP as oscillatory system are not equal the sum of properties of its separate elements but gives the new properties which must be taken into account. Methods have been worked out for calculating and identifying the sources of thermal-hydraulic disturbances are intended to improve the means of early diagnostics of anomalies in the technological process, to forecast their development, to improve the efficiency of overhauling operations and safety in operation, and also to create advanced on-line monitoring and control of NPP. Conception of the control system development presents. Proposal for main topics R and D areas for advanced NPP monitoring, diagnostic and control are identified. (authors)

  17. Automated analysis of heterogeneous carbon nanostructures by high-resolution electron microscopy and on-line image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, P.; Farrer, J.K.; Palotas, A.B.; Lighty, J.S.; Eddings, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution electron microscopy is an efficient tool for characterizing heterogeneous nanostructures; however, currently the analysis is a laborious and time-consuming manual process. In order to be able to accurately and robustly quantify heterostructures, one must obtain a statistically high number of micrographs showing images of the appropriate sub-structures. The second step of analysis is usually the application of digital image processing techniques in order to extract meaningful structural descriptors from the acquired images. In this paper it will be shown that by applying on-line image processing and basic machine vision algorithms, it is possible to fully automate the image acquisition step; therefore, the number of acquired images in a given time can be increased drastically without the need for additional human labor. The proposed automation technique works by computing fields of structural descriptors in situ and thus outputs sets of the desired structural descriptors in real-time. The merits of the method are demonstrated by using combustion-generated black carbon samples. - Highlights: ► The HRTEM analysis of heterogeneous nanostructures is a tedious manual process. ► Automatic HRTEM image acquisition and analysis can improve data quantity and quality. ► We propose a method based on on-line image analysis for the automation of HRTEM image acquisition. ► The proposed method is demonstrated using HRTEM images of soot particles

  18. Nuclear analytical techniques for on-line elemental analysis in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report is the result of an advisory group meeting held in Espoo, Finland, 1-5 June, 1987. The purpose of the meeting was to assess the present status and development of nuclear analytical techniques used for industrial process control. The report gives an overview of the different nuclear techniques used for process control and the most important applications. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 7 papers presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. A recent source modification for noble gases at the Los Alamos on-line mass analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Forman, L.

    1976-01-01

    The Los Alamos on-line mass analysis experiment at the Godiva-IV burst reactor facility has been modified to determine independent fission yields of noble gases. The gases are released from a stearate target and ionization by electron bombardment. The distance traveled by the gases from the target to the ionization chamber is 20 cm. The efficiency of the electron bombardment source is lower than that of the surface ionization source that was employed to measure the yields of Rb and Cs. But this effect is compensated by the larger quantity of target metal that is possible when using a stearate target. (Auth.)

  20. On-line Analysis of Catalytic Reaction Products Using a High-Pressure Tandem Micro-reactor GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Kim, Young-Min; Hosaka, Akihiko; Watanabe, Chuichi; Teramae, Norio; Ohtani, Hajime; Kim, Seungdo; Park, Young-Kwon; Wang, Kaige; Freeman, Robert R

    2017-01-01

    When a GC/MS system is coupled with a pressurized reactor, the separation efficiency and the retention time are directly affected by the reactor pressure. To keep the GC column flow rate constant irrespective of the reaction pressure, a restrictor capillary tube and an open split interface are attached between the GC injection port and the head of a GC separation column. The capability of the attached modules is demonstrated for the on-line GC/MS analysis of catalytic reaction products of a bio-oil model sample (guaiacol), produced under a pressure of 1 to 3 MPa.

  1. On-Line Investment Analysis and Portfolio Management: Using Learning Outcome Statements To Design Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, James B.; Ragan, Gay A.; Ragan, Kent P.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an Internet-based project to familiarize students with online investment analysis and stock portfolio management. Outlines a process for writing learning outcomes that address three levels of cognition: knowledge/comprehension, application/analysis, and synthesis/evaluation. (SK)

  2. Automated mass spectrometric analysis of urinary free catecholamines using on-line solid phase extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Wilhelmina H. A.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Kema, I. P.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine) in plasma and urine is used for diagnosis and treatment of catecholamine-producing tumors Current analytical techniques for catecholamine quantification are laborious, time-consuming and technically demanding Our aim was to

  3. A program-compiling method of nuclear data on-line fast analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shangbai

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how to perform assembly float point operation by using some subroutine of applesoft system, and a program compiling method of nuclear data fast analysis in apple microcomputer is introduced

  4. Fault Detection Algorithm based on Null-Space Analysis for On-Line Structural Health Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Ai-Min; Golinval, Jean-Claude; Marin, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    Early diagnosis of structural damages or machinery malfunctions allows to reduce the maintenance cost of systems and to increase their reliability and safety. This paper addresses the damage detection problem by statistical analysis on output-only measurements of structures. The developed method is based on subspace analysis of the Hankel matrices constructed by vibration measurement data. The column active subspace of the Hankel matrix defined by the first principal components is orthonormal...

  5. On-Line GIS Analysis and Image Processing for Geoportal Kielce/poland Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejmanowska, B.; Głowienka, E.; Florek-Paszkowski, R.

    2016-06-01

    GIS databases are widely available on the Internet, but mainly for visualization with limited functionality; very simple queries are possible i.e. attribute query, coordinate readout, line and area measurements or pathfinder. A little more complex analysis (i.e. buffering or intersection) are rare offered. Paper aims at the concept of Geoportal functionality development in the field of GIS analysis. Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) is planned to be implemented in web application. OGC Service is used for data acquisition from the server and results visualization. Advanced GIS analysis is planned in PostGIS and Python programming. In the paper an example of MCE analysis basing on Geoportal Kielce is presented. Other field where Geoportal can be developed is implementation of processing new available satellite images free of charge (Sentinel-2, Landsat 8, ASTER, WV-2). Now we are witnessing a revolution in access to the satellite imagery without charge. This should result in an increase of interest in the use of these data in various fields by a larger number of users, not necessarily specialists in remote sensing. Therefore, it seems reasonable to expand the functionality of Internet's tools for data processing by non-specialists, by automating data collection and prepared predefined analysis.

  6. ON-LINE GIS ANALYSIS AND IMAGE PROCESSING FOR GEOPORTAL KIELCE/POLAND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hejmanowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available GIS databases are widely available on the Internet, but mainly for visualization with limited functionality; very simple queries are possible i.e. attribute query, coordinate readout, line and area measurements or pathfinder. A little more complex analysis (i.e. buffering or intersection are rare offered. Paper aims at the concept of Geoportal functionality development in the field of GIS analysis. Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE is planned to be implemented in web application. OGC Service is used for data acquisition from the server and results visualization. Advanced GIS analysis is planned in PostGIS and Python programming. In the paper an example of MCE analysis basing on Geoportal Kielce is presented. Other field where Geoportal can be developed is implementation of processing new available satellite images free of charge (Sentinel-2, Landsat 8, ASTER, WV-2. Now we are witnessing a revolution in access to the satellite imagery without charge. This should result in an increase of interest in the use of these data in various fields by a larger number of users, not necessarily specialists in remote sensing. Therefore, it seems reasonable to expand the functionality of Internet's tools for data processing by non-specialists, by automating data collection and prepared predefined analysis.

  7. A new type on line fast analysis instrument of uranium ore grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Maojin.

    1992-01-01

    The instrument is used to analyse the average grade of uranium ore on the belt. Its average analysis speed is about 300 t/h. The physical mechanism of measurement, characteristics, principle of operation and applications in several years are described. The CMOS LSI IC are adopted. The stability, reliability and anti-interference ability are very good

  8. On-line Analysis of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gases by Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Dabill, D.; Cocker, J.; Rajan, B.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2004), s. 2830-2838 ISSN 0951-4198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : diesel exhaust analysis * NOx compounds * SIFT-MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.750, year: 2004

  9. Downhole Elemental Analysis with LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreschini, Paolo; Zacny, Kris; Rickman, Doug

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a novel instrument, currently under development at Honeybee Robotics with SBIR funding from NASA. The device is designed to characterize elemental composition as a function of depth in non-terrestrial geological formations. The instrument consists of a miniaturized laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) analyzer integrated in a 2" diameter drill string. While the drill provides subsurface access, the LIBS analyzer provides information on the elemental composition of the borehole wall. This instrument has a variety of space applications ranging from exploration of the Moon for which it was originally designed, to Mars, as well as a variety of terrestrial applications. Subsurface analysis is usually performed by sample acquisition through a drill or excavator, followed by sample preparation and subsequent sample presentation to an instrument or suite of instruments. An alternative approach consisting in bringing a miniaturized version of the instrument to the sample has many advantages over the traditional methodology, as it allows faster response, reduced probability of cross-contamination and a simplification in the sampling mechanisms. LIBS functions by focusing a high energy laser on a material inducing a plasma consisting of a small fraction of the material under analysis. Optical emission from the plasma, analyzed by a spectrometer, can be used to determine elemental composition. A triangulation sensor located in the sensor head determines the distance of the sensor from the borehole wall. An actuator modifies the position of the sensor accordingly, in order to compensate for changes due to the profile of the borehole walls. This is necessary because LIBS measurements are negatively affected by changes in the relative position of the focus of the laser with respect to the position of the sample (commonly referred to as the "lens to sample distance"). Profiling the borehole is done by adjusting the position of the sensor with a

  10. On-line vibration and analysis system at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herricks, D.M.; Strunk, W.D.

    1987-11-01

    The enrichment facility in Paducah, KY uses a unique hard-wired vibration monitoring and analysis system for gaseous diffusion equipment. The axial flow and centrifugal flow compressors used in uranium enrichment range in size from 6 feet in diameter to less than one foot in diameter. These compressors must operate smoothly and safely, without breech of containment, since the working fluid of gaseous diffusion is gaseous UF 6 . The condition of 1925 compressors is monitored by use of the 2500 point vibration analysis system. Since the failure mechanisms of the compressors are well known and documented, only one accelerometer per machine is needed for most machines. The system is completely automated and can generate spectra or broadband levels in either acceleration or velocity units. Levels are stored for historical review. The analyst can, via a custom telecommunications link, view and analyze data from all monitored points with an office PC. 4 figs

  11. On-line condition monitoring of nuclear systems via symbolic time series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopalan, V.; Ray, A.; Garcia, H. E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a symbolic time series analysis approach to fault diagnostics and condition monitoring. The proposed technique is built upon concepts from wavelet theory, symbolic dynamics and pattern recognition. Various aspects of the methodology such as wavelet selection, choice of alphabet and determination of depth of D-Markov Machine are explained in the paper. The technique is validated with experiments performed in a Machine Condition Monitoring (MCM) test bed at the Idaho National Laboratory. (authors)

  12. A new method of on-line multiparameter amplitude analysis with compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morhac, M.; matousek, V.

    1996-01-01

    An algorithm of one-line multidimensional amplitude analysis with compression using fast adaptive orthogonal transform is presented in the paper. The method is based on a direct modification of multiplication coefficients of the signal flow graph of the fast Cooley-Tukey's algorithm. The coefficients are modified according to a reference vector representing the processed data. The method has been tested to compress three parameter experimental nuclear data. The efficiency of the derived adaptive transform is compared with classical orthogonal transforms. (orig.)

  13. Trace Element Analysis of Selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, M.S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis divided into four chapters as follows:Chapter (1):This chapter contains an introduction on different oxidation states of organic and inorganic species for selenium in environmental and biological samples, the process for separation of selenium from these samples and the importance of selenium as a component for these samples. Also gives notes about the techniques which are used in the elemental analysis for selenium species and the detection limits for selenium in these techniques, selenium species in human body and the importance of these species in protecting the body from the different types of cancer and the sources of selenium in environmental samples (soil and water) and distribution levels of selenium in these samples.Chapter (2):This chapter is divided into two parts :The first part deals with the sample collection process for environmental samples (underground water, soil) and the wet digestion ( microwave digestion ) process of soil samples. It also contains the theory of work of the closed microwave digestion system.The second part contains detailed information concerning the theoretical considerations of the used analytical techniques. These techniques include Hydride generation - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (HG-AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA).Chapter (3): This chapter includes the methods of sampling, sample preparation, and sample digesition. The measures of quality assurance are disscused in this chapter. It describes in details the closed microwave digestion technique and the analytical methods used in this study which are present in Central Laboratory for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis (CLEIA) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). The described techniques are Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS 6 vario, Analytical Jena GmbH, Germany), JMS-PLASMAX2 Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (NAA).

  14. Distributive On-line Processing, Visualization and Analysis System for Gridded Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptoukh, G.; Berrick, S.; Liu, Z.; Pham, L.; Rui, H.; Shen, S.; Teng, W.; Zhu, T.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to use data stored in the current Earth Observing System (EOS) archives for studying regional or global phenomena is highly dependent on having a detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation. Gaining this understanding and applying it to data reduction is a time- consuming task that must be undertaken before the core investigation can begin. This is an especially difficult challenge when science objectives require users to deal with large multi-sensor data sets that are usually of different formats, structures, and resolutions, for example, when preparing data for input into modeling systems. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) has taken a major step towards meeting this challenge by developing an infrastructure with a Web interface that allows users to perform interactive analysis online without downloading any data, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure or "Giovanni." Giovanni provides interactive, online, analysis tools for data users to facilitate their research. There have been several instances of this interface created to serve TRMM users, Aerosol scientists, Ocean Color and Agriculture applications users. The first generation of these tools support gridded data only. The user selects geophysical parameters, area of interest, time period; and the system generates an output on screen in a matter of seconds. The currently available output options are: Area plot averaged or accumulated over any available data period for any rectangular area; Time plot time series averaged over any rectangular area; Time plots image view of any longitude-time and latitude-time cross sections; ASCII output for all plot types; Image animation for area plot. In the future, we will add correlation plots, GIS-compatible outputs, etc. This allow user to focus on data content (i.e. science parameters) and eliminate the need for expensive learning

  15. Characterization of the Mucor circinelloides life cycle by on-line image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübbehüsen, Tina Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2003-01-01

    in and between the different morphological forms of the organism.Methods and Results: Mycelial growth and the transformation of hyphae into chains of arthrospores were characterized by image analysis techniques and described quantitatively. The influence of the nature (glucose and xylose) and concentration......-through cell, and combined with fluorescent microscopy which allowed new insights to bud formation. Additionally, numbers and distribution of nuclei in arthrospores, hyphae and yeasts were studied.Conclusions: The results give essential information on the morphological development of the organism...

  16. Trace metals analysis in estuarine and seawater by ICP-MS using on line preconcentration and matrix elimination with chelating resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaı, M; Rosin, C; Tousset, N; Nicolai, Y

    1999-09-13

    The main difficulties of trace metals analysis in estuarine and seawater stem from their very low concentration (mug/l to sub-mug/l), and, by contrast, the high salt content (up to 38 g/l in the Mediterranean Sea). ICP-MS allows multi-elemental analysis and offers great sensitivity, but may be strongly affected by matrix effects induced by high salt contents (> 1 g/l). To perform trace metals analysis both in riverine, estuarine and seawater, we have developed a hyphenated method: ion chelation chromatography coupled on-line with ICP-MS. Iminodiacetate resin, Metpac CC-1 (Dionex), was used to concentrate most of the trace metals, and to separate them from alkaline and alkaline-earth metals. Behaviour of 17 elements (Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni, U, Cr, Mn, Al, Co, Ga, In, Zn, V, Tl, Bi, Ag and Sn) towards the resin was qualitatively investigated. A method validation, partly derived from AFNOR standard XPT 90-210, was carried out on 12 elements (Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni, U, Cr, Mn, Al, Co, Ga, Bi and In). Replicate measurements of multi-elemental standard solutions were used to check linearity, and to determine repeatability and detection limits. Method accuracy was then assessed by analysing two certified materials: a synthetic freshwater (SRM 1643d), and a natural filtered coastal seawater (NRCC CASS-3). An application assay of natural samples from the Rhône river (France) was eventually carried out, and the analytical results were found to be consistent with previous works.

  17. Thomson Parabola Spectrometer: a powerful tool for on-line plasma analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altana, C. [LNS - INFN and Dip.di Fisica e Astronomia - Catania (Italy); Muoio, A. [LNS - INFN and Dip.di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra - Messina (Italy); Schillaci, F. [LNS - INFN, Cirrone G.A.P. LNS - INFN, Lanzalone G. LNS - INFN and Univ. Kore di Enna (Italy); Tudisco, S. [LNS - INFN (Italy); Brandi, F. [ILIL - INO-CNR and IIT Genova (Italy); Cristoforetti, G.; Koester, P.; Fulgentini, L. [ILIL - INO-CNR (Italy); Labate, L.; Gizzi, L.A. [ILIL - INO-CNR and INFN-Pisa (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we report on a new powerful and self-consistent analysis technique aimed in order to get information online on laser generated plasmas. Performance of the method has been carried out during two set of measurement by using two different lasers. The first set of data has been collected at LENS Laboratory of INFN-LNS in Catania by using a laser which produces pulses having energies of 2 J and temporal duration of 6 ns, while the second set of data has been collected at ILIL of INO-CNR in Pisa with a laser system capable of delivering pulses of up to 10 mJ in 40 fs. (authors)

  18. New method of analysis wave processes in pulse generators based on lines with distributed parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleptsov, S N; Sleptsov, A N [NSC ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2001-07-01

    Structure and superconductivity of thick polycrystalline niobium-carbon coatings (Nb{sub 1-x}C{sub x}, O {<=} x < 0.3) deposited from low-energy self-ion-atomic Nb- and C- fluxes onto substrates with the temperature range 500...650 K were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, TEM of oxidic replicas and resistivity measurement method at low temperature. It is founded, that Nb{sub 1-x}C{sub x} coatings with carbon concentration range 9...15 at.% have an unusual high superconducting transition temperature T{sub C} approx 12 K. Dependency of critical current density of these coatings on temperature is not monotonous and have a sharp bend near T{sub C} approx approx 9.5 K Structural analysis of these coatings has revealed they have a quasi-ternary phase composition consisting of Nb(b.c.c.), sub-carbide Nb{sub 2}C(c.p.h.) and metastable carbide 'Nbc{sub x}' with f.c.c. structure. The results obtained are discussed from a point of view of 'NbC{sub x}' phase forming at Nb and Nb{sub 2}C phases interface. It is also shown, that Nb{sub 1-x}C{sub x} coatings with carbon concentration less than 5 at.% revealed supersaturated solid solution and have T{sub C} approx approx 9.5 K. Kinetics of diffusive decomposition of niobium-carbon coatings during isothermal annealing was also investigated.

  19. Baseline correction combined partial least squares algorithm and its application in on-line Fourier transform infrared quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiangtao; Peng, Silong; Xie, Qiong; Wei, Jiping

    2011-04-01

    In order to eliminate the lower order polynomial interferences, a new quantitative calibration algorithm "Baseline Correction Combined Partial Least Squares (BCC-PLS)", which combines baseline correction and conventional PLS, is proposed. By embedding baseline correction constraints into PLS weights selection, the proposed calibration algorithm overcomes the uncertainty in baseline correction and can meet the requirement of on-line attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) quantitative analysis. The effectiveness of the algorithm is evaluated by the analysis of glucose and marzipan ATR-FTIR spectra. BCC-PLS algorithm shows improved prediction performance over PLS. The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) on marzipan spectra for the prediction of the moisture is found to be 0.53%, w/w (range 7-19%). The sugar content is predicted with a RMSECV of 2.04%, w/w (range 33-68%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Position-specific isotope analysis by on-line pyrolysis coupled to IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, A.; Suda, K.; Yamada, K.; Ueno, Y.; Yoshida, N.

    2016-12-01

    Position-specific isotopic analyses (PSIA) provide unique information regarding the sources, sinks and processes related to natural molecules. For instance, PSIA of short-chain hydrocarbons could lead to temperature of formation and maturity of natural gas reservoirs [1][2]. In the last decade, quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) specrometry has been used for PSIA of organic molecules such as glucose or n-alkanes [3][4]. However, due to its low sensitivity, application to low amount geochemical samples remains challenging. In 1997, Corso & Brenna proposed to adapt a pyrolysis furnace to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer, making it possible the thermal degradation of the target molecule and the subsequent analysis of the d13C values of the fragments formed [5]. Starting from fatty acid methyl esters they demonstrated the absence of rearrangement during pyrolytic degradation and could determine the d13C value of carboxyl C-atom position. We adapted the system for the full characterization of position-specific isotope composition of small molecules (ethanol, acetic acid, alanine, propane). Nanomole amount of sample can be analyzed with a precision on intramolecular d13C values of 1‰ or lower [2]. We recently analyzed abiotic and thermogenic propane samples both from the field and from lab simulations. PSIA of propane shows systematic differences of position-specific isotope composition between thermogenic and abiotic samples. While the former show 13C-depletion on the terminal C-atom position - consistent with thermal cracking kinetic models [6] - abiotic samples show little or no preference for terminal or central 13C-isotopomer. These results emphasize the potential of PSIA to trace the the processes associated with organic molecules production. [1] Piasecki et al. 2016 GCA 188, 58 [2] Gilbert et al. 2016 GCA 177, 205 [3] Gilbert et al. 2012 PNAS, 109, 18204 [4] Gilbert et al. 2013 Org. Geochem, 62, 56 [5] Corso & Brenna 1997 PNAS, 94, 1049 [6] Tang et

  1. On-line measurement with automatic emulsion analysis system and off-line data processing (E531 neutrino experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanishi, Motoaki

    1984-01-01

    The automatic emulsion analysis system developed by Nagoya cosmic ray observation group was practically used for the experiment (FNAL-E531) on determining the lifetime of charm particles for the first time in the world, and achieved a great successful result. The system consists of four large precise coordinate-measuring stages capable of conducting simultaneous measurement and multiple (currently four) DOMS (digitized on-line microscope), supported with one mini-computer (ECLIPS S/130). The purpose of E531 experiment was the determination of charm particle lifetime. The experiment was carried out at FNAL, USA, and by the irradiation of wide band ν sub(μ) beam equivalent to 7 x 10 18 of 350 GeV/c protons. The detector was a hybrid system of emulsions and a counter spectrometer. The scan of neutrino reaction, the scan of charm particles, and charm event measurement were analyzed in emulsions, and the on-line programs for-respective analyses were created. Nagoya group has found 726 neutrino reactions in the first run, obtained 37 charm particle candidates, and found 1442 neutrino reactions in the second run, and obtained 56 charm particle candidates. The capability of the automatic emulsion analysis system in terms of the time equired for analysis is in total 3.5 hours per event; 15 minutes for C.S. scan, 15 minutes for coupling to module, 20 minutes for tracing to vertex, 1 hour for neutrino reaction measurement, 10 minutes for offline data processing and 1.5 hours for charm particle scanning. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. On-line immunoaffinity column-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for trace analysis of diuron in wastewater treatment plant effluent sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuli; Martens, Dieter; Krämer, Petra M; Kettrup, Antonius A; Liang, Xinmiao

    2006-11-10

    An on-line immunoaffinity column with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (IAC-LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of diuron in water matrices was described. This method used a sol-gel immunoaffinity column (20 mm x 4 mm I.D.) for on-line sample cleanup and enrichment, a monolithic analytical column (100 mm x 4.6 mm I.D.) for separation, and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for quantitation. The major challenges for the on-line set-up were discussed. The optimized on-line protocol was emphasized by the fact that low limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 1.0 ng/L was achieved with only 2.5-mL sample. In addition, a satisfactory accuracy ( approximately 90% of recovery) and precision (effect, the on-line IAC-LC-MS/MS analysis method can reliably determine diuron in wastewater treatment plant effluent sample.

  3. Quantitative analysis of higher hydrocarbons in natural gas using coupled solid-phase extraction / supercritiacal fluid extraction with on-line GC analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.G.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Meulen-Kuijk, van der L.; Smit, A.L.C.; Sandra, P.; Devos, G.

    1993-01-01

    Characterisation of natural gas with respect to the hydrocarbon content is a challenging analytical problem due to the extremely low concentrations and the complexity of the matrix. In this publication a method is described for fully on-line preconcentration and analysis of n-nonane and higher

  4. Optimization of on-line hydrogen stable isotope ratio measurements of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organic compounds using elemental analyzer-chromium/high-temperature conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Geilmann, Heike; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Kümmel, Steffen; Ivdra, Natalija; Brand, Willi A; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2017-03-30

    Accurate hydrogen isotopic analysis of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organics has not been possible with traditional high-temperature conversion (HTC) because the formation of hydrogen-bearing reaction products other than molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) is responsible for non-quantitative H 2 yields and possible hydrogen isotopic fractionation. Our previously introduced, new chromium-based EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS (Elemental Analyzer-Chromium/High-Temperature Conversion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) technique focused primarily on nitrogen-bearing compounds. Several technical and analytical issues concerning halogen- and sulfur-bearing samples, however, remained unresolved and required further refinement of the reactor systems. The EA-Cr/HTC reactor was substantially modified for the conversion of halogen- and sulfur-bearing samples. The performance of the novel conversion setup for solid and liquid samples was monitored and optimized using a simultaneously operating dual-detection system of IRMS and ion trap MS. The method with several variants in the reactor, including the addition of manganese metal chips, was evaluated in three laboratories using EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS (on-line method) and compared with traditional uranium-reduction-based conversion combined with manual dual-inlet IRMS analysis (off-line method) in one laboratory. The modified EA-Cr/HTC reactor setup showed an overall H 2 -recovery of more than 96% for all halogen- and sulfur-bearing organic compounds. All results were successfully normalized via two-point calibration with VSMOW-SLAP reference waters. Precise and accurate hydrogen isotopic analysis was achieved for a variety of organics containing F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, and S-bearing heteroelements. The robust nature of the on-line EA-Cr/HTC technique was demonstrated by a series of 196 consecutive measurements with a single reactor filling. The optimized EA-Cr/HTC reactor design can be implemented in existing analytical equipment using commercially available material and

  5. Stability of arsenic peptides in plant extracts: off-line versus on-line parallel elemental and molecular mass spectrometric detection for liquid chromatographic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemlein, Katharina; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The instability of metal and metalloid complexes during analytical processes has always been an issue of an uncertainty regarding their speciation in plant extracts. Two different speciation protocols were compared regarding the analysis of arsenic phytochelatin (As(III)PC) complexes in fresh plant material. As the final step for separation/detection both methods used RP-HPLC simultaneously coupled to ICP-MS and ES-MS. However, one method was the often used off-line approach using two-dimensional separation, i.e. a pre-cleaning step using size-exclusion chromatography with subsequent fraction collection and freeze-drying prior to the analysis using RP-HPLC-ICP-MS and/or ES-MS. This approach revealed that less than 2% of the total arsenic was bound to peptides such as phytochelatins in the root extract of an arsenate exposed Thunbergia alata, whereas the direct on-line method showed that 83% of arsenic was bound to peptides, mainly as As(III)PC(3) and (GS)As(III)PC(2). Key analytical factors were identified which destabilise the As(III)PCs. The low pH of the mobile phase (0.1% formic acid) using RP-HPLC-ICP-MS/ES-MS stabilises the arsenic peptide complexes in the plant extract as well as the free peptide concentration, as shown by the kinetic disintegration study of the model compound As(III)(GS)(3) at pH 2.2 and 3.8. But only short half-lives of only a few hours were determined for the arsenic glutathione complex. Although As(III)PC(3) showed a ten times higher half-life (23 h) in a plant extract, the pre-cleaning step with subsequent fractionation in a mobile phase of pH 5.6 contributes to the destabilisation of the arsenic peptides in the off-line method. Furthermore, it was found that during a freeze-drying process more than 90% of an As(III)PC(3) complex and smaller free peptides such as PC(2) and PC(3) can be lost. Although the two-dimensional off-line method has been used successfully for other metal complexes, it is concluded here that the fractionation and

  6. Analysis of plant hormones by microemulsion electrokinetic capillary chromatography coupled with on-line large volume sample stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zongbao; Lin, Zian; Zhang, Lin; Cai, Yan; Zhang, Lan

    2012-04-07

    A novel method of microemulsion electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEEKC) coupled with on-line large volume sample stacking was developed for the analysis of six plant hormones including indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, indole-3-propionic acid, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, abscisic acid and salicylic acid. Baseline separation of six plant hormones was achieved within 10 min by using the microemulsion background electrolyte containing a 97.2% (w/w) 10 mM borate buffer at pH 9.2, 1.0% (w/w) ethyl acetate as oil droplets, 0.6% (w/w) sodium dodecyl sulphate as surfactant and 1.2% (w/w) 1-butanol as cosurfactant. In addition, an on-line concentration method based on a large volume sample stacking technique and multiple wavelength detection was adopted for improving the detection sensitivity in order to determine trace level hormones in a real sample. The optimal method provided about 50-100 fold increase in detection sensitivity compared with a single MEEKC method, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) were between 0.005 and 0.02 μg mL(-1). The proposed method was simple, rapid and sensitive and could be applied to the determination of six plant hormones in spiked water samples, tobacco leaves and 1-naphthylacetic acid in leaf fertilizer. The recoveries ranged from 76.0% to 119.1%, and good reproducibilities were obtained with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6.6%.

  7. Flow injection on-line dilution for multi-element determination in human urine with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2001-01-01

    A simple flow injection on-line dilution procedure with detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for the determination of copper, zinc, arsenic, lead, selenium, nickel and molybdenum in human urine. Matrix effects were minimized by employing a dilution factor...

  8. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF A FREE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    the stairs and to compare the finite element ana ... tual three dimensional behavior of the stair slab system. ..... due to its close relation of output with the propo .... flights. It is best not to consider any open well when .... thermodynamics of solids.

  9. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  10. Real-time on-line space research laboratory environment monitoring with off-line trend and prediction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2007-06-01

    With the International Space Station currently operational, a significant amount of acceleration data is being down-linked, processed and analyzed daily on the ground on a continuous basis for the space station reduced gravity environment characterization, the vehicle design requirements verification and science data collection. To help understand the impact of the unique spacecraft environment on the science data, an artificial intelligence monitoring system was developed, which detects in near real time any change in the reduced gravity environment susceptible to affect the on-going experiments. Using a dynamic graphical display, the monitoring system allows science teams, at any time and any location, to see the active vibration disturbances, such as pumps, fans, compressor, crew exercise, re-boost and extra-vehicular activities that might impact the reduced gravity environment the experiments are exposed to. The monitoring system can detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance activities. It can also perform trend analysis and prediction by analyzing past data over many increments (an increment usually lasts 6 months) collected onboard the station for selected disturbances. This feature can be used to monitor the health of onboard mechanical systems to detect and prevent potential systems failures. The monitoring system has two operating modes: online and offline. Both near real-time on-line vibratory disturbance detection and off-line detection and trend analysis are discussed in this paper.

  11. On-line analysis of biosignals for the automation of total and specific sleep deprivation in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENNIO A VIVALDI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer-based system that automates sleep studies, including sleep deprivation paradigms, is described. The system allows for total or REM-specific sleep deprivation and is based on a reliable, fast-responding, on-line state detection algorithm linked to a dependable intervention device. Behavioral state detection is achieved by dimensión reduction of short-term EEG power spectrum. Interventions are made by serial outputs to servomotors that move a cage with different patterns and variable intensity. The system can adapt itself to individual characteristics and to changes in recording conditions. Customized protocols can be designed by defining the states or stages to be deprived, including scheduling temporal patterns. A detailed analysis of the relevant signáis during and after deprivation is readily available. Data is presented from two experimental designs in rats. One consisted of specific REM-sleep short-term deprivation and the other of 10-hour total sleep deprivation. An outline of conceptual and practical considerations involved in the automation of laboratory set-ups oriented to biosignal analysis is provided. Careful monitoring of sleep EEG variables during sleep deprivation suggests peculiarities of brain functioning in that condition. A corollary is that sleep deprivation should not be considered to be merely a forced prolonged wakefulness.

  12. The new on-line marketing medium: viral marketing. Analysis of the field through two case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sasigain Salvador, Miren

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper synthesizes the emerging literature on viral marketing through the analysis of two case studies and identifies and evaluates important factors that need to be considered when organizing a viral marketing campaign nowadays; the elements used the implemented strategy, the impact and results. The companies to be studied have been successful developing viral marketing strategies even they differ in size, sector and product offered. Literature Review: Definition of tradition...

  13. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PECINGINA OLIMPIA-MIOARA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of finite element method is analytical when solutions can not be applied for deeper study analyzes static, dynamic or other types of requirements in different points of the structures .In practice it is necessary to know the behavior of the structure or certain parts components of the machine under the influence of certain factors static and dynamic . The application of finite element in the optimization of components leads to economic growth , to increase reliability and durability organs studied, thus the machine itself.

  14. A novel fiber-packed column for on-line preconcentration and speciation analysis of chromium in drinking water with flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monasterio, Romina P; Altamirano, Jorgelina C; Martínez, Luis D; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2009-02-15

    A novel on-line preconcentration and determination system based on a fiber-packed column was developed for speciation analysis of Cr in drinking water samples prior to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). All variables involved in the development of the preconcentration method including, pH, eluent type, sample and eluent flow rates, interfering effects, etc., were studied in order to achieve the best analytical performance. A preconcentration factor of 32 was obtained for Cr(VI) and Cr(III). The levels of Cr(III) species were calculated by difference of total Cr and Cr(VI) levels. Total Cr was determined after oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) with hydrogen peroxide. The calibration graph was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 at levels near the detection limit and up to at least 50 microg L(-1). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 4.3% (C=5 microg L(-1) Cr(VI), n=10, sample volume=25 mL). The limit of detection (LOD) for both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species was 0.3 microg L(-1). Verification of the accuracy was carried out by the analysis of a standard reference material (NIST SRM 1643e "Trace elements in natural water"). The method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species in drinking water samples.

  15. Surface quality monitoring for process control by on-line vibration analysis using an adaptive spline wavelet algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, G. Y.; Osypiw, D.; Irle, M.

    2003-05-01

    The dynamic behaviour of wood machining processes affects the surface finish quality of machined workpieces. In order to meet the requirements of increased production efficiency and improved product quality, surface quality information is needed for enhanced process control. However, current methods using high price devices or sophisticated designs, may not be suitable for industrial real-time application. This paper presents a novel approach of surface quality evaluation by on-line vibration analysis using an adaptive spline wavelet algorithm, which is based on the excellent time-frequency localization of B-spline wavelets. A series of experiments have been performed to extract the feature, which is the correlation between the relevant frequency band(s) of vibration with the change of the amplitude and the surface quality. The graphs of the experimental results demonstrate that the change of the amplitude in the selective frequency bands with variable resolution (linear and non-linear) reflects the quality of surface finish, and the root sum square of wavelet power spectrum is a good indication of surface quality. Thus, surface quality can be estimated and quantified at an average level in real time. The results can be used to regulate and optimize the machine's feed speed, maintaining a constant spindle motor speed during cutting. This will lead to higher level control and machining rates while keeping dimensional integrity and surface finish within specification.

  16. Why do probabilistic finite element analysis ?

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, Ben H

    2008-01-01

    The intention of this book is to provide an introduction to performing probabilistic finite element analysis. As a short guideline, the objective is to inform the reader of the use, benefits and issues associated with performing probabilistic finite element analysis without excessive theory or mathematical detail.

  17. Developments in Dynamic Analysis for quantitative PIXE true elemental imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Dynamic Analysis (DA) is a method for projecting quantitative major and trace element images from PIXE event data-streams (off-line or on-line) obtained using the Nuclear Microprobe. The method separates full elemental spectral signatures to produce images that strongly reject artifacts due to overlapping elements, detector effects (such as escape peaks and tailing) and background. The images are also quantitative, stored in ppm-charge units, enabling images to be directly interrogated for the concentrations of all elements in areas of the images. Recent advances in the method include the correction for changing X-ray yields due to varying sample compositions across the image area and the construction of statistical variance images. The resulting accuracy of major element concentrations extracted directly from these images is better than 3% relative as determined from comparisons with electron microprobe point analysis. These results are complemented by error estimates derived from the variance images together with detection limits. This paper provides an update of research on these issues, introduces new software designed to make DA more accessible, and illustrates the application of the method to selected geological problems.

  18. Elements of stock market analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a starting point in the presentation of the two types of stock/market analysis: the fundamental analysis and the technical analysis. The fundamental analysis consist in the assessment of the financial and economic status of the company together with the context and macroeconomic environment where it activates. The technical analysis deals with the demand and supply of securities and the evolution of their trend on the market, using a range of graphics and charts to illustrate the market tendencies for the quick identification of the best moments to buy or sell.

  19. On-line I{sup −}/Te{sup −} separation for the AMS analysis of {sup 125}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, C.R.J., E-mail: christopher.charles@uottawa.ca [Andre E. Lalonde Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Advanced Research Complex, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Cornett, R.J.; Zhao, X.-L. [Andre E. Lalonde Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Advanced Research Complex, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Litherland, A.E. [IsoTrace Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada); Kieser, W.E. [Andre E. Lalonde Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Advanced Research Complex, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    The isobar separator for anions (ISA) was used together with a 3 MV tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) to demonstrate the real time (on-line) separation of Te{sup −} from I{sup −}. Following the ion source mass spectrometry and major retardation to tens of eV, the ISA uses a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) ion guide to confine and direct I{sup −} and associated Te{sup −} isobar anions through a gas-reaction cell, where chemical reactions occur at eV energies with the electronegative gas NO{sub 2}. Anions are subsequently reaccelerated out of the ISA to near original ion source extraction energies for AMS analysis. At 5 mTorr NO{sub 2} in the ISA gas-reaction cell, {sup 125}Te{sup −} was observed to be attenuated by a factor of ∼10{sup 7} as compared to {sup 127}I{sup −} that did not experience significant (<50%) losses. A comparative test using {sup 37}Cl{sup −} and {sup 32}S{sup −} (having similar chemical properties to iodine and tellurium) showed a {sup 32}S{sup −} attenuation of >10{sup 7} relative to {sup 37}Cl{sup −} under the same ISA–AMS conditions. The preferential destruction of Te{sup −} (and S{sup −}) at eV energies in the ISA is likely due to a larger favorable destruction cross-section with NO{sub 2}. This study is the first demonstration of I–Te anion separation for AMS, and makes possible the use of {sup 125}I, free of the contaminant {sup 125}Te isobar after suitable sample purification, for future {sup 129}I/{sup 125}I carrier-free analyses of natural samples at ultra-low trace levels.

  20. Finite element application to global reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.A.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Finite Element Method is described as a Coarse Mesh Method with general basis and trial functions. Various consequences concerning programming and application of Finite Element Methods in reactor physics are drawn. One of the conclusions is that the Finite Element Method is a valuable tool in solving global reactor analysis problems. However, problems which can be described by rectangular boxes still can be solved with special coarse mesh programs more efficiently. (orig.) [de

  1. On-line ion chemistry for the AMS analysis of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 135,137}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliades, J. [IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Zhao, X.-L. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Litherland, A.E. [IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Kieser, W.E., E-mail: liam.kieser@utoronto.ca [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    The analysis of {sup 90}Sr by AMS has so far required the use of very large tandem accelerators in order to separate the isobar {sup 90}Zr by the rate-of-energy-loss method. The analysis of {sup 135,137}Cs by AMS has never been attempted as the separation of the isobars {sup 135,137}Ba by the traditional method requires even higher energies, so that this approach would become prohibitively expensive for routine analysis. Following the successful demonstration of Cl{sup -}-S{sup -} separation by the Isobar Separator, the same apparatus was used to test the separation of other pairs of isobars. Surprisingly effective results were obtained with NO{sub 2} gas in the cases of SrF{sub 3}{sup -}-ZrF{sub 3}{sup -} and CsF{sub 2}{sup -}-BaF{sub 2}{sup -} separations. Reduction factors of {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} for ZrF{sub 3}{sup -}/SrF{sub 3}{sup -} and {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} for BaF{sub 2}{sup -}/CsF{sub 2}{sup -} were measured. SrF{sub 3}{sup -} and CsF{sub 2}{sup -} are both super-halogen anions and are preferentially produced in the ion source rather than ZrF{sub 3}{sup -} and BaF{sub 2}{sup -} when using the PbF{sub 2} matrix-assisted method. Reduction factors for ion source production with such targets of {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} for ZrF{sub 3}{sup -}-SrF{sub 3}{sup -} and {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} for BaF{sub 2}{sup -}-CsF{sub 2}{sup -} were found. The combined methods would suggest a theoretical detection sensitivity for {sup 90}Sr/Sr {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -16}, {sup 135}Cs/Cs {approx}7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} and {sup 137}Cs/Cs {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14}, assuming 10 ppm Zr and Ba contamination in the AMS targets. In addition to the earlier Cl{sup -}-S{sup -} separation work, these measurements further illustrate the potential of on-line ion chemical methods for broadening the analytical scope of small AMS systems.

  2. Finite element analysis of tibial fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Christian Nai En; Mikkelsen, Mikkel Peter W; Hansen, Leif Berner

    2010-01-01

    Project. The data consisted of 21,219 3D elements with a cortical shell and a trabecular core. Three types of load of torsion, a direct lateral load and axial compression were applied. RESULTS: The finite element linear static analysis resulted in relevant fracture localizations and indicated relevant...

  3. On-line HPLC Analysis System for Metabolism and Inhibition Studies in Precision-Cut Liver Slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Midwoud, Paul M.; Janssen, Joost; Merema, M.T.; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for on-line monitoring of drug metabolism in continuously perifused, precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) in a microfluidic system has been developed using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). In this approach, PCLS are incubated in a microfluidic device

  4. On-line combination of liquid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography : preconcentration and analysis of organic compounds in aqueous samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noij, T.H.M.; Weiss, E.; Herps, T.; Cruchten, van H.; Rijks, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a new, versatile, and low-cost on-line LC-GC interface that allows the fast and reliable introduction of large sample volumes onto a capillary GC column. The sample introduction procedure consists successively of: evaporation of the entire sample (LC fraction),

  5. A CAREM type fuel element dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magoia, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A first analysis on the dynamic behaviour of a fuel element designed for the CAREM nuclear reactor (Central Argentina de Elementos Modulares) was performed. The model used to represent this dynamic behaviour was satisfactorily evaluated. Using primary estimations for some of its numerical parameters, a first approximation to its natural vibrational modes was obtained. Results obtained from fuel elements frequently used in nuclear power plants of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactors) type, are compared with values resulting from similar analysis. (Author) [es

  6. Analysis of microcontaminants in aqueous samples by fully automated on-line solid-phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass selective detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, A.J.H.; van Beekvelt, C.A.; Cid Montanes, P.; Slobodník, J.; Vreuls, J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1996-01-01

    The trace-level analysis of unknown organic pollutants in water requires the use of fast and sensitive methods which also provide structural information. In the present study, an on-line technique was used which combines sample preparation by means of solid-phase extraction (SPE) on a small

  7. On-line Speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) by Flow Injection Analysis With Spectrophotometric Detection and Chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diacu, Elena; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2003-01-01

    A flow injection system has been developed, for on-line speciation. of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) by the Diphenylcarbazide (DPC) method with H2O2 oxidation followed by spectrophotometric detection at the 550 nm wavelength. The data thus obtained were subjected to a chemometric analysis (PLS), which showe...

  8. Finite element analysis of piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrie, F.; Stewart, M.; Cain, M.; Gee, M.

    1999-01-01

    This guide is intended to help people wanting to do finite element analysis of piezoelectric materials by answering some of the questions that are peculiar to piezoelectric materials. The document is not intended as a complete beginners guide for finite element analysis in general as this is better dealt with by the individual software producers. The guide is based around the commercial package ANSYS as this is a popular package amongst piezoelectric material users, however much of the information will still be useful to users of other finite element codes. (author)

  9. On-line filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day electronic detectors used in high energy physics make it possible to obtain high event rates and it is likely that future experiments will face even higher data rates than at present. The complexity of the apparatus increases very rapidly with time and also the criteria for selecting desired events become more and more complex. So complex in fact that the fast trigger system cannot be designed to fully cope with it. The interesting events become thus contaminated with multitudes of uninteresting ones. To distinguish the 'good' events from the often overwhelming background of other events one has to resort to computing techniques. Normally this selection is made in the first part of the analysis of the events, analysis normally performed on a powerful scientific computer. This implies however that many uninteresting or background events have to be recorded during the experiment for subsequent analysis. A number of undesired consequences result; and these constitute a sufficient reason for trying to perform the selection at an earlier stage, in fact ideally before the events are recorded on magnetic tape. This early selection is called 'on-line filtering' and it is the topic of the present lectures. (Auth.)

  10. New on-line method for water isotope analysis of speleothem fluid inclusions using laser absorption spectroscopy (WS-CRDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, S.; Fleitmann, D.; Leuenberger, M.

    2014-01-01

    A new online method to analyse water isotopes of speleothem fluid inclusions using a wavelength scanned cavity ring down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) instrument is presented. This novel technique allows us to simultaneously measure hydrogen and oxygen isotopes for a released aliquot of water. To do so, we designed a new simple line that allows the on-line water extraction and isotope analysis of speleothem samples. The specificity of the method lies in the fact that fluid inclusions release is made on a standard water background, which mainly improves the δD reliability. To saturate the line, a peristaltic pump continuously injects standard water into the line that is permanently heated to 140 °C and flushed with dry nitrogen gas. This permits instantaneous and complete vaporisation of the standard water resulting in an artificial water background with well-known δD and δ18O values. The speleothem sample is placed into a copper tube, attached to the line and after system stabilisation is crushed using a simple hydraulic device to liberate speleothem fluid inclusions water. The released water is carried by the nitrogen/standard water gas stream directly to a Picarro L1102-i for isotope determination. To test the accuracy and reproducibility of the line and to measure standard water during speleothem measurements a syringe injection unit was added to the line. Peak evaluation is done similarly as in gas chromatography to obtain δD and δ18O isotopic composition of measured water aliquots. Precision is better than 1.5‰ for δD and 0.4‰ for δ18O for water measurement for an extended range (-210 to 0‰ for δD and -27 to 0‰ for δ18O) primarily dependent on the amount of water released from speleothem fluid inclusions and secondarily on the isotopic composition of the sample. The results show that WS-CRDS technology is suitable for speleothem fluid inclusion measurements and gives results that are comparable to Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) technique.

  11. Peculiarities of Communicative Style in The Advertisement Genre in English and Russian University On-line Communication Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Милана Евгеньевна Куприянова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural communicative competence is one of the integral parts of translators’ skills. The article analyses national and cultural peculiarities of English and Russian communicative styles in the advertisement speech genre in university on-line communication to address the problem of translatability of lexical units. Furthermore, the study explains the use of particular linguistic means and communication strategies as related to the specific features of Anglo-Saxon and Russian linguistic cultures.

  12. Pressurized capillary electrochromatographic analysis of water-soluble vitamins by combining with on-line concentration technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Li; Liu, Yaling; Du, Yanyan; Xing, Da

    2007-06-22

    A pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC) system was developed for the separation of water-soluble vitamins, in which UV absorbance was used as the detection method and a monolithic silica-ODS column as the separation column. The parameters (type and content of organic solvent in the mobile phase, type and concentration of electrolyte, pH of the electrolyte buffer, applied voltage and flow rate) affecting the separation resolution were evaluated. The combination of two on-line concentration techniques, namely, solvent gradient zone sharpening effect and field-enhanced sample stacking, was utilized to improve detection sensitivity, which proved to be beneficial to enhance the detection sensitivity by enabling the injection of large volumes of samples. Coupling electrokinetic injection with the on-line concentration techniques was much more beneficial for the concentration of positively charged vitamins. Comparing with the conventional injection mode, the enhancement in the detection sensitivities of water-soluble vitamins using the on-line concentration technique is in the range of 3 to 35-fold. The developed pCEC method was applied to evaluate water-soluble vitamins in corns.

  13. On-line liquid chromatography-gas chromatography: A novel approach for the analysis of phytosterol oxidation products in enriched foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Birgit; Wocheslander, Stefan; Lander, Vera; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2015-05-29

    A novel methodology for the automated qualitative and quantitative determination of phytosterol oxidation products in enriched foods via on-line liquid chromatography-gas chromatography (LC-GC) was established. The approach is based on the LC pre-separation of acetylated phytosterols and their corresponding oxides using silica as stationary phase and a mixture of n-hexane/methyl tert-butyl ether/isopropanol as eluent. Two LC-fractions containing (i) 5,6-epoxy- and 7-hydroxyphytosterols, and (ii) 7-ketophytosterols are transferred on-line to the GC for the analysis of their individual compositions on a medium polar trifluoropropylmethyl polysiloxane capillary column. Thus, conventionally employed laborious off-line purification and enrichment steps can be avoided. Validation data, including recovery, repeatability, and reproducibility of the method, were elaborated using an enriched margarine as example. The margarine was subjected to a heating procedure in order to exemplarily monitor the formation of phytosterol oxidation products. Quantification was performed using on-line LC-GC-FID, identification of the analytes was based on on-line LC-GC-MS. The developed approach offers a new possibility for the reliable and fast analysis of phytosterol oxidation products in enriched foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. ANSYS mechanical APDL for finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    ANSYS Mechanical APDL for Finite Element Analysis provides a hands-on introduction to engineering analysis using one of the most powerful commercial general purposes finite element programs on the market. Students will find a practical and integrated approach that combines finite element theory with best practices for developing, verifying, validating and interpreting the results of finite element models, while engineering professionals will appreciate the deep insight presented on the program's structure and behavior. Additional topics covered include an introduction to commands, input files, batch processing, and other advanced features in ANSYS. The book is written in a lecture/lab style, and each topic is supported by examples, exercises and suggestions for additional readings in the program documentation. Exercises gradually increase in difficulty and complexity, helping readers quickly gain confidence to independently use the program. This provides a solid foundation on which to build, preparing readers...

  15. Elemental analysis with external-beam PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, E. K.; Wang, C. W.; Teng, P. K.; Huang, Y. M.; Chen, C. Y.

    1992-05-01

    A beamline system and experimental setup has been established for elemental analysis using PIXE with an external beam. Experiments for the study of the elemental composition of ancient Chinese potsherds (the Min and Ching ages) were performed. Continuum X-ray spectra from the samples bombarded by 3 MeV protons have been measured with a Si(Li) detector. From the analysis of PIXE data, the concentration of the main elements (Al, Si, K, and Ca) and of more than ten trace elements in the matrices and glazed surfaces were determined. Results for two different potsherds are presented, and those obtained from the glaze colorants are compared with the results of measurements on a Ching blue-and-white porcelain vase.

  16. Finite elements for analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Akin, J E; Davenport, J H

    1994-01-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is an analysis tool for problem-solving used throughout applied mathematics, engineering, and scientific computing. Finite Elements for Analysis and Design provides a thoroughlyrevised and up-to-date account of this important tool and its numerous applications, with added emphasis on basic theory. Numerous worked examples are included to illustrate the material.Key Features* Akin clearly explains the FEM, a numerical analysis tool for problem-solving throughout applied mathematics, engineering and scientific computing* Basic theory has bee

  17. Electrical machine analysis using finite elements

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDSVector AnalysisElectromagnetic FieldsFundamental Equations SummaryReferencesBASIC PRINCIPLES OF FINITE ELEMENT METHODSIntroductionField Problems with Boundary ConditionsClassical Method for the Field Problem SolutionThe Classical Residual Method (Galerkin's Method)The Classical Variational Method (Rayleigh-Ritz's Method)The Finite Element MethodReferencesAPPLICATIONS OF THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD TO TWO-DIMENSIONAL FIELDSIntroductionLinear Interpolation of the Function fApplication of the Variational MethodSimple Descriptions of Electromagnetic FieldsAppendix: I

  18. Elemental analysis techniques using proton microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuro; Oikawa, Masakazu; Sato, Takahiro

    2005-01-01

    Proton microbeam is a powerful tool for two-dimensional elemental analysis. The analysis is based on Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) techniques. The paper outlines the principles and instruments, and describes the dental application has been done in JAERI Takasaki. (author)

  19. Trace element analysis of nail polishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, G.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was used to measure the concentrations of various trace elements in nail polishes of popular Indian and foreign brands. The aim of the present experiment was to see whether trace elements could distinguish nail polishes of different Indian and foreign brands from forensic point of view. It was found that cesium can act as a marker to differentiate foreign and Indian brands. (author)

  20. Chemical analysis of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Ryoichi; Sakoh, Takefumi; Nagai, Iwao

    1994-01-01

    Recently attention has been paid to ICP-AES or ICP-MS, and the reports on the analysis of rare earth elements by utilizing these methods continue to increase. These reports have become to take about 30% of the reports on rare earth analysis, and this is because these methods are highly sensitive to rare earth elements, and also these methods have spread widely. In ICP-AES and ICP-MS, mostly solution samples are measured, therefore, solids must be made into solution. At the time of quantitatively determining the rare earth elements of low concentration, separation and concentration are necessary. Referring to the literatures reported partially in 1990 and from 1991 to 1993, the progress of ICP-AES and ICP-MS is reported. Rare earth oxides and the alloys containing rare earth elements are easily decomposed with acids, but the decomposition of rocks is difficult, and its method is discussed. The separation of the rare earth elements from others in geochemical samples, cation exchange process is frequently utilized. Also solvent extraction process has been studied. For the separation of rare earth elements mutually, chromatography is used. The spectral interference in spectral analysis was studied. The comparison of these methods with other methods is reported. (K.I)

  1. Recent developments in automated determinations of trace level concentrations of elements and on-line fractionations schemes exploiting the micro-sequential injection - lab-on-valve approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Miró, Manuel; Long, Xiangbao

    2006-01-01

    The determination of trace level concentrations of elements, such as metal species, in complex matrices by atomic absorption or emission spectrometric methods often require appropriate pretreatments comprising separation of the analyte from interfering constituents and analyte preconcentration...... are presented as based on the exploitation of micro-sequential injection (μSI-LOV) using hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic bead materials. The examples given comprise the presentation of a universal approach for SPE-assays, front-end speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in a fully automated and enclosed set...

  2. STRATEGIES OF MARKETING OF A COMPANY SUPPLIER OF GRATUITOUS SERVICES ON-LINE ANALYSIS OF THEIMPORTÂNCIA-DESEMPENHO MATRIX

    OpenAIRE

    PAULA CASTRO PIRES DE SOUZA CHIMENTI

    2001-01-01

    O trabalho busca analisar uma empresa provedora de serviços gratuitos on-line, Elefante Internet, à luz da matriz Importância-Desempenho. Através de revisão bibliográfica e pesquisa com grupo de foco, chegou-se a um conjunto preliminar de 44 atributos. Uma pesquisa com 700 respostas posicionou estes atributos na matriz, gerando 4 conjuntos de atributos, baseados em desempenho e importância. Com base na matriz, foi possível tecer análises sobre o posicionamento e...

  3. Nuclear techniques for the on-line bulk analysis of carbon in coal-fired power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowerby, B D

    2009-09-01

    Carbon trading schemes usually require large emitters of CO(2), such as coal-fired power stations, to monitor, report and be audited on their CO(2) emissions. The emission price provides a significant additional incentive for power stations to improve efficiency. In the present paper, previous work on the bulk determination of carbon in coal is reviewed and assessed. The most favourable method is that based on neutron inelastic scattering. The potential role of on-line carbon analysers in improving boiler efficiency and in carbon accounting is discussed.

  4. Tandem on-line continuous separations for atomic spectroscopic indirect analysis: iodide determination by ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.M.; Sanchez Uria, J.E.; Sanz-Medel, A.; Quintero Ortega, M.C.; Bautista, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    A sensitive and selective indirect determination of iodide by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) based on the principle of tandem on-line continuous separations as an alternative means of introducing samples into plasmas is proposed. Iodide is continuously extracted as an ion-pair into xylene by mixing the sample with Hg(II) and dipyridil solutions. The organic phase (containing the analyte in [Hg(Dipy) 2 ]I 2 form) is on-line continuously mixed with NaBH 4 (in DMF) and acetic acid solutions. Mercury vapour continuously generated from this organic phase is separated in a classical U-type gas-liquid separation device. The system has been optimized for the continuous extraction of KI, for the direct generation of cold mercury vapour from xylene and for the final ICP-AES determination of mercury. The optimised method has been applied to the determination of iodide (detection limit 20 ng/ml of iodide) in table salt and in synthetic samples. Very good agreement between found and certified results was observed. The usefulness and convenience of such alternative sample chemical pretreatment/presentation to the ICP is thus demonstrated for indirect determinations to be carried out by atomic spectroscopy methods. (authors)

  5. PIXE - a new method for elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, S.A.E.

    1983-01-01

    With elemental analysis we mean the determination of which chemical elements are present in a sample and of their concentration. This is an old and important problem in chemistry. The earliest methods were purely chemical and many such methods are still used. However, various methods based on physical principles have gradually become more and more important. One such method is neutron activation. When the sample is bombarded with neutrons it becomes radioactive and the various radioactive isotopes produced can be identified by the radiation they emit. From the measured intensity of the radiation one can calculate how much of a certain element that is present in the sample. Another possibility is to study the light emitted when the sample is excited in various ways. A spectroscopic investigation of the light can identify the chemical elements and allows also a determination of their concentration in the sample. In the same way, if a sample can be brought to emit X-rays, this radiation is also characteristic for the elements present and can be used to determine the elemental concentration. One such X-ray method which has been developed recently is PIXE. The name is an acronym for Particle Induced X-ray Emission and indicates the principle of the method. Particles in this context means heavy, charged particles such as protons and a-particles of rather high energy. Hence, in PIXE-analysis the sample is irradiated in the beam of an accelerator and the emitted X-rays are studied. (author)

  6. Analysis of light elements by PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, D. K.; Woo, H. J.; Kim, N. B.; Park, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    The PIGE (Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission) method was applied for the measurement of light elements Li - K. A test measurement has been performed for geological, biological, environmental and material samples by using a standard sample for each element. The measurement was performed for the two proton energies of 2.4 and 3.4 MeV, and 3.4MeV was found to yield better result for multielemental analysis. The result shows a fair agreement within 15% for all elements with standard values. The detection limits of Li, B, F and Na are less than 100 ppm, while those of the other elements are from a few hundred ppm to a few percents. (author)

  7. Building a Community Infrastructure for Scalable On-Line Performance Analysis Tools around Open|SpeedShop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galarowicz, James E. [Krell Institute, Ames, IA (United States); Miller, Barton P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Computer Sciences Dept.; Hollingsworth, Jeffrey K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Computer Sciences Dept.; Roth, Philip [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Future Technologies Group, Computer Science and Math Division; Schulz, Martin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC)

    2013-12-19

    In this project we created a community tool infrastructure for program development tools targeting Petascale class machines and beyond. This includes tools for performance analysis, debugging, and correctness tools, as well as tuning and optimization frameworks. The developed infrastructure provides a comprehensive and extensible set of individual tool building components. We started with the basic elements necessary across all tools in such an infrastructure followed by a set of generic core modules that allow a comprehensive performance analysis at scale. Further, we developed a methodology and workflow that allows others to add or replace modules, to integrate parts into their own tools, or to customize existing solutions. In order to form the core modules, we built on the existing Open|SpeedShop infrastructure and decomposed it into individual modules that match the necessary tool components. At the same time, we addressed the challenges found in performance tools for petascale systems in each module. When assembled, this instantiation of community tool infrastructure provides an enhanced version of Open|SpeedShop, which, while completely different in its architecture, provides scalable performance analysis for petascale applications through a familiar interface. This project also built upon and enhances capabilities and reusability of project partner components as specified in the original project proposal. The overall project team’s work over the project funding cycle was focused on several areas of research, which are described in the following sections. The reminder of this report also highlights related work as well as preliminary work that supported the project. In addition to the project partners funded by the Office of Science under this grant, the project team included several collaborators who contribute to the overall design of the envisioned tool infrastructure. In particular, the project team worked closely with the other two DOE NNSA

  8. Distributed Finite Element Analysis Using a Transputer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James; Favenesi, James; Danial, Albert; Tombrello, Joseph; Yang, Dabby; Reynolds, Brian; Turrentine, Ronald; Shephard, Mark; Baehmann, Peggy

    1989-01-01

    The principal objective of this research effort was to demonstrate the extraordinarily cost effective acceleration of finite element structural analysis problems using a transputer-based parallel processing network. This objective was accomplished in the form of a commercially viable parallel processing workstation. The workstation is a desktop size, low-maintenance computing unit capable of supercomputer performance yet costs two orders of magnitude less. To achieve the principal research objective, a transputer based structural analysis workstation termed XPFEM was implemented with linear static structural analysis capabilities resembling commercially available NASTRAN. Finite element model files, generated using the on-line preprocessing module or external preprocessing packages, are downloaded to a network of 32 transputers for accelerated solution. The system currently executes at about one third Cray X-MP24 speed but additional acceleration appears likely. For the NASA selected demonstration problem of a Space Shuttle main engine turbine blade model with about 1500 nodes and 4500 independent degrees of freedom, the Cray X-MP24 required 23.9 seconds to obtain a solution while the transputer network, operated from an IBM PC-AT compatible host computer, required 71.7 seconds. Consequently, the $80,000 transputer network demonstrated a cost-performance ratio about 60 times better than the $15,000,000 Cray X-MP24 system.

  9. A Framework for the Comparative Assessment of Neuronal Spike Sorting Algorithms towards More Accurate Off-Line and On-Line Microelectrode Arrays Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalia, Giulia; Coelli, Stefania; Biffi, Emilia; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal spike sorting algorithms are designed to retrieve neuronal network activity on a single-cell level from extracellular multiunit recordings with Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs). In typical analysis of MEA data, one spike sorting algorithm is applied indiscriminately to all electrode signals. However, this approach neglects the dependency of algorithms' performances on the neuronal signals properties at each channel, which require data-centric methods. Moreover, sorting is commonly performed off-line, which is time and memory consuming and prevents researchers from having an immediate glance at ongoing experiments. The aim of this work is to provide a versatile framework to support the evaluation and comparison of different spike classification algorithms suitable for both off-line and on-line analysis. We incorporated different spike sorting "building blocks" into a Matlab-based software, including 4 feature extraction methods, 3 feature clustering methods, and 1 template matching classifier. The framework was validated by applying different algorithms on simulated and real signals from neuronal cultures coupled to MEAs. Moreover, the system has been proven effective in running on-line analysis on a standard desktop computer, after the selection of the most suitable sorting methods. This work provides a useful and versatile instrument for a supported comparison of different options for spike sorting towards more accurate off-line and on-line MEA data analysis.

  10. Single cell elemental analysis using nuclear microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, M.Q.; Thong, P.S.P.; Kara, U.; Watt, F.

    1999-01-01

    The use of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) to provide quantitative elemental analysis of single cells is an area which has high potential, particularly when the trace elements such as Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu can be monitored. We describe the methodology of sample preparation for two cell types, the procedures of cell imaging using STIM, and the quantitative elemental analysis of single cells using RBS and PIXE. Recent work on single cells at the Nuclear Microscopy Research Centre,National University of Singapore has centred around two research areas: (a) Apoptosis (programmed cell death), which has been recently implicated in a wide range of pathological conditions such as cancer, Parkinson's disease etc, and (b) Malaria (infection of red blood cells by the malaria parasite). Firstly we present results on the elemental analysis of human Chang liver cells (ATTCC CCL 13) where vanadium ions were used to trigger apoptosis, and demonstrate that nuclear microscopy has the capability of monitoring vanadium loading within individual cells. Secondly we present the results of elemental changes taking place in individual mouse red blood cells which have been infected with the malaria parasite and treated with the anti-malaria drug Qinghaosu (QHS)

  11. On-line transmission electron microscopic image analysis of chromatin texture for differentiation of thyroid gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriete, A; Schäffer, R; Harms, H; Aus, H M

    1987-06-01

    Nuclei of the cells from the thyroid gland were analyzed in a transmission electron microscope by direct TV scanning and on-line image processing. The method uses the advantages of a visual-perception model to detect structures in noisy and low-contrast images. The features analyzed include area, a form factor and texture parameters from the second derivative stage. Three tumor-free thyroid tissues, three follicular adenomas, three follicular carcinomas and three papillary carcinomas were studied. The computer-aided cytophotometric method showed that the most significant differences were the statistics of the chromatin texture features of homogeneity and regularity. These findings document the possibility of an automated differentiation of tumors at the ultrastructural level.

  12. Analysis of a Kalman filter based method for on-line estimation of atmospheric dispersion parameters using radiation monitoring data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Martin; Lauritzen, Bent; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    A Kalman filter method is discussed for on-line estimation of radioactive release and atmospheric dispersion from a time series of off-site radiation monitoring data. The method is based on a state space approach, where a stochastic system equation describes the dynamics of the plume model...... parameters, and the observables are linked to the state variables through a static measurement equation. The method is analysed for three simple state space models using experimental data obtained at a nuclear research reactor. Compared to direct measurements of the atmospheric dispersion, the Kalman filter...... estimates are found to agree well with the measured parameters, provided that the radiation measurements are spread out in the cross-wind direction. For less optimal detector placement it proves difficult to distinguish variations in the source term and plume height; yet the Kalman filter yields consistent...

  13. Orthodontic treatment: Introducing finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Leeuwen, E.J. van

    1998-01-01

    The aim of orthodontic treatment is the displacement of teeth by means ofspecial appliances, like braces and brackets. Through these appliances the orthodontist can apply a set of forces to the teeth which wilt result in its displacement through the jawbone. Finite Element analysis of this process

  14. Uncertainties in elemental quantitative analysis by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, E.C.; Baptista, G.B.; Paschoa, A.S.; Barros Leite, C.V.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the degree of non-uniformity of the particle beam, matrix composition and matrix thickness in a quantitative elemental analysis by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are discussed and a criterion to evaluate the resulting degree of uncertainty in the mass determination by this method is established. (Auth.)

  15. Isogeometric finite element analysis of poroelasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irzal, F.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Verhoosel, C.V.; Borst, de R.

    2013-01-01

    We present an alternative numerical approach for predicting the behaviour of a deformable fluid-saturated porous medium. The conventional finite element technology is replaced by isogeometric analysis that uses non-uniform rational B-splines. The ability of these functions to provide higher-order

  16. Upstand Finite Element Analysis of Slab Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Eugene J.; Keogh, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    For slab bridge decks with wide transverse edge cantilevers, the plane grillage analogy is shown to be an inaccurate method of linear elastic analysis due to variations in the vertical position of the neutral axis. The upstand grillage analogy is also shown to give inaccurate results, this time due to inappropriate modelling of in-plane distortions. An alternative method, known as upstand finite element analysis, is proposed which is sufficiently simple to be used on an everyday basis in the ...

  17. X-ray trace element analysis with positive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.H.

    1973-01-01

    A new trace element analysis having the advantage that many elements may be detected in a single measurement, based on positive charged particle induced X-ray florescence and on the production of X-rays by heavy ions, is described. Because of the large cross-sections for the production of discrete X-ray and the low yield of continuum radiation, positive charged particle X-ray florescence is a competitive, fast, analytic tool. In the experiment a beam of positive charged particles from an accelerator was directed toward a target. X-rays induced by the bombardment were detected by a Si(Li) detector the ouput from which was amplified and sorted in a multichannel analyzer. For rapid data handling and analysis, the multichannel analyzer or ADC unit was connected to an on-line computer. A large variety of targets prepared in collaboration with the oceanographers have been studied and spectra obtained for different particles having the same velocity are presented to show that the yield of discrete X-rays increases at least as rapidly as Z 2 . While protons of several MeV appear to be already competitive further advantage may be gained by heavy ions at lower energies since the continuum is reduced while the peak ''signals'' retain strength due to the Z 2 dependence. (S.B.)

  18. High-Efficiency On-Line Solid-Phase Extraction Coupling to 15-150 um I.D. Column Liquid Chromatography for Proteomic Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yufeng; Moore, Ronald J.; Zhao, Rui; Blonder, Josip; Auberry, Deanna L.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana; Hixson, Kim K.; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    Flexible manipulation of various properties of proteomic samples is important for proteomic analyses, but it has been little explored for newly developed approaches based on liquid chromatography (LC) in combination with mass spectrometry (MS). With miniaturization of the LC column inner diameter dimensions (required for improving the analysis sensitivity), this issue becomes more challenging due to the small flow rates and the increasing effects of extra column volume on the separation quality and its use for resolving complex proteomic mixtures. In this study, we used commercial switching valves (150-mm channels) to implement the on-line coupling of capillary LC columns with relatively large solid phase extraction (SPE) columns operated at 10,000 psi. With optimized column connections, switching modes, and SPE column dimensions, high-efficiency on-line SPE-capillary and nanoscale LC separations were obtained with peak capacities of ∼1000 for capillaries having inner diameters between 15 to 150 mm. The on-line coupled SPE columns increased the sample processing capabilities by ∼400-fold for sample solution volume and ∼10-fold for sample mass. The proteomic applications of this on-line SPE-capillary LC system were evaluated for analysis of both soluble and membrane protein tryptic digests. Used with an ion trap tandem MS we could typically identify 1100-1500 peptides for analyses in a single 5-hour run. Peptides extracted on the SPE column and eluted from the LC column covered a hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity range that include an estimated ∼98% of all the tryptic peptides. The present implementation also facilitates automation and enables use of both disposable SPE columns and electrospray emitters, providing a robust basis for routine proteomic analyses.

  19. DianaHealth.com, an On-Line Database Containing Appraisals of the Clinical Value and Appropriateness of Healthcare Interventions: Database Development and Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfill, Xavier; Osorio, Dimelza; Solà, Ivan; Pijoan, Jose Ignacio; Balasso, Valentina; Quintana, Maria Jesús; Puig, Teresa; Bolibar, Ignasi; Urrútia, Gerard; Zamora, Javier; Emparanza, José Ignacio; Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; Ferreira-González, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    To describe the development of a novel on-line database aimed to serve as a source of information concerning healthcare interventions appraised for their clinical value and appropriateness by several initiatives worldwide, and to present a retrospective analysis of the appraisals already included in the database. Database development and a retrospective analysis. The database DianaHealth.com is already on-line and it is regularly updated, independent, open access and available in English and Spanish. Initiatives are identified in medical news, in article references, and by contacting experts in the field. We include appraisals in the form of clinical recommendations, expert analyses, conclusions from systematic reviews, and original research that label any health care intervention as low-value or inappropriate. We obtain the information necessary to classify the appraisals according to type of intervention, specialties involved, publication year, authoring initiative, and key words. The database is accessible through a search engine which retrieves a list of appraisals and a link to the website where they were published. DianaHealth.com also provides a brief description of the initiatives and a section where users can report new appraisals or suggest new initiatives. From January 2014 to July 2015, the on-line database included 2940 appraisals from 22 initiatives: eleven campaigns gathering clinical recommendations from scientific societies, five sets of conclusions from literature review, three sets of recommendations from guidelines, two collections of articles on low clinical value in medical journals, and an initiative of our own. We have developed an open access on-line database of appraisals about healthcare interventions considered of low clinical value or inappropriate. DianaHealth.com could help physicians and other stakeholders make better decisions concerning patient care and healthcare systems sustainability. Future efforts should be focused on

  20. DianaHealth.com, an On-Line Database Containing Appraisals of the Clinical Value and Appropriateness of Healthcare Interventions: Database Development and Retrospective Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Bonfill

    Full Text Available To describe the development of a novel on-line database aimed to serve as a source of information concerning healthcare interventions appraised for their clinical value and appropriateness by several initiatives worldwide, and to present a retrospective analysis of the appraisals already included in the database.Database development and a retrospective analysis. The database DianaHealth.com is already on-line and it is regularly updated, independent, open access and available in English and Spanish. Initiatives are identified in medical news, in article references, and by contacting experts in the field. We include appraisals in the form of clinical recommendations, expert analyses, conclusions from systematic reviews, and original research that label any health care intervention as low-value or inappropriate. We obtain the information necessary to classify the appraisals according to type of intervention, specialties involved, publication year, authoring initiative, and key words. The database is accessible through a search engine which retrieves a list of appraisals and a link to the website where they were published. DianaHealth.com also provides a brief description of the initiatives and a section where users can report new appraisals or suggest new initiatives. From January 2014 to July 2015, the on-line database included 2940 appraisals from 22 initiatives: eleven campaigns gathering clinical recommendations from scientific societies, five sets of conclusions from literature review, three sets of recommendations from guidelines, two collections of articles on low clinical value in medical journals, and an initiative of our own.We have developed an open access on-line database of appraisals about healthcare interventions considered of low clinical value or inappropriate. DianaHealth.com could help physicians and other stakeholders make better decisions concerning patient care and healthcare systems sustainability. Future efforts should be

  1. [Analysis of phthalate esters in plastic-packaging bags on-line sample stacking-microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jia; Huang, Ying; Wang, Minyi; Chen, Guonan

    2012-09-01

    Two convenient, effective, and reproducible methods using microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC)-normal stacking mode (NSM) and reversed electrode polarity stacking mode (REPSM) were developed for the on-line sample stacking of phthalate esters (PAEs). REPSM coupled with MEEKC increased the sensitivity of 937.5 to 7,143 times for four PAEs compared to the conventional MEEKC. The separating conditions in the MEEKC method were studied, and many factors influencing the two sample stacking processes were investigated in detail. The optimum sample matrices for the two stacking methods were as follows: 30 mmol/L sodium cholate (SC) and 30.0 mmol/L borate (pH 8.5). Additionally, sample injections as large as 3.45 kPa x 40 s and 3.45 kPa x 90 s were applied for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The linear relationship and reproducibility were also examined. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits (S/N = 3) of the PAEs were in the ranges of 0.021 - 0.33 mg/L and 0.7 - 4 microg/L for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The proposed REPSM-MEEKC has been successfully applied to determine PAEs in plastic-packaging bags, and the spiked recoveries were in the range of 89.1% - 105.6% with satisfactory results.

  2. On-line neutron activation analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flahaut, V.; Colmon, A.

    1999-01-01

    A neutronic analyser has been designed to determine the composition of the flow of raw materials entering a cement factory on the conveyor belt. This new system gives a reliable analysis of the whole cargo that outdates the sampling or the usual surface analysis based on fluorescence spectrometry. The accuracy is about 1%.The neutrons interact with the materials on an average depth of 25 cm and are absorbed by nuclei, these nuclei produce photons whose energy is characteristic of the chemical element itself. The composition can be deduced by measuring the number of photons emitted and their energy. The analysis is made on-line and can concern the search for about 10 compounds. In the case of cement the list of compounds is: SiO 2 , CaO, Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , MgO, Na 2 O, TiO 2 , S, Mn 2 O 3 , K 2 O, and H 2 O. The neutron generator involves a deuterium ion source whose deuterium ions are accelerated by means of an electrical field and impinge on a tritiated target, the nuclear reactions between deuterium and tritium produce 14 MeV neutrons. This neutron analysing technique can be adapted to any need of on-line composition determination. (A.C.)

  3. On-line determination of glucose and lactate concentrations in animal cell culture based on fibre optic detection of oxygen in flow-injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremel, B A; Li, S Y; Schmid, R D

    1992-01-01

    A flow-injection analysis (FIA) system based on fibre optic detection of oxygen consumption using immobilized glucose oxidase (GOD) and lactate oxidase (LOD) is described for the on-line monitoring of glucose and lactate concentrations in animal cell cultures. The consumption of oxygen was determined via dynamic quenching by molecular oxygen of the fluorescence of an indicator. GOD and LOD were immobilized on controlled pore glass (CPG) in enzyme reactors which were directly linked to a specially designed fibre optic flow-through cell covering the oxygen optrode. The system is linear for 0-30 mM glucose, with an r.s.d. of 5% at 30 mM (five measurements) and for 0-30 mM lactate, with an r.s.d. of 5% at 30 mM (five measurements). The enzyme reactors used were stable for more than 4 weeks in continuous operation, and it was possible to analyse up to 20 samples per hour. The system has been successfully applied to the on-line monitoring of glucose and lactate concentrations of an animal cell culture designed for the production of recombinant human antithrombine III (AT-III). Results of the on-line measurement obtained by the FIA system were compared with the off-line results obtained by a glucose and lactate analyser from Yellow Springs Instrument Company (YSI).

  4. On-line and in-situ x-ray diffraction analysis of the crystallisation of important pharmaceutical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, S.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The crystallisation process is an important unit operation for the separation and purification of many chemical products, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry. Variations in the conditions of crystallisation can lead to the formation of different polymorphic forms which are often meta-stable phases which results in phase conversion at different rates to the stable form. Our group, in collaboration with many industrial sponsors, have developed a number of online techniques which help to optimise the processing conditions of many of these specialty materials. In particular, on-line and in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been used to monitor the crystallisation of pharmaceutical materials. Several novel in-situ X-ray cells have been developed, in particular; a solution cell, which allows us to control and hence optimise crystallographic conditions such as temperature and pH whilst monitoring the crystal structure of the sample as it crystallises from solution. In conjunction with XRD data information on turbidity (% light transmittance) is taken to analyse solvent-mediated crystallisation. This technique gives information on the temperatures at which the system crystallises and dissolves. From this the meta-stable zone width (MSZW) can be calculated and then directly related to the crystal structure of the particles formed. The current system being studied is the crystallisation of stearic acid, a common pharmaceutical excipient, in various polar and non-polar solvents in order to ascertain the effect that the polarity of the solvent has on the polymorphic form crystallised. By combining such kinetic assessment with measurements of resulting particle structure the potential to optimise the process to produce optimal particle properties is obtainable. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  5. Modelling optimization involving different types of elements in finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, C M; Rivai, Ahmad; Bapokutty, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Finite elements are used to express the mechanical behaviour of a structure in finite element analysis. Therefore, the selection of the elements determines the quality of the analysis. The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast 1D element, 2D element, and 3D element used in finite element analysis. A simple case study was carried out on a standard W460x74 I-beam. The I-beam was modelled and analyzed statically with 1D elements, 2D elements and 3D elements. The results for the three separate finite element models were compared in terms of stresses, deformation and displacement of the I-beam. All three finite element models yield satisfactory results with acceptable errors. The advantages and limitations of these elements are discussed. 1D elements offer simplicity although lacking in their ability to model complicated geometry. 2D elements and 3D elements provide more detail yet sophisticated results which require more time and computer memory in the modelling process. It is also found that the choice of element in finite element analysis is influence by a few factors such as the geometry of the structure, desired analysis results, and the capability of the computer

  6. Structural analysis of reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of fuel-element modeling is presented that traces the development of codes for the prediction of light-water-reactor and fast-breeder-reactor fuel-element performance. It is concluded that although the mathematical analysis is now far advanced, the development and incorporation of mechanistic constitutive equations has not kept pace. The resultant reliance on empirical correlations severely limits the physical insight that can be gained from code extrapolations. Current efforts include modeling of alternate fuel systems, analysis of local fuel-cladding interactions, and development of a predictive capability for off-normal behavior. Future work should help remedy the current constitutive deficiencies and should include the development of deterministic failure criteria for use in design

  7. Introduction to nonlinear finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Nam-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the key concepts of nonlinear finite element analysis procedures. The book explains the fundamental theories of the field and provides instructions on how to apply the concepts to solving practical engineering problems. Instead of covering many nonlinear problems, the book focuses on three representative problems: nonlinear elasticity, elastoplasticity, and contact problems. The book is written independent of any particular software, but tutorials and examples using four commercial programs are included as appendices: ANSYS, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, and MATLAB. In particular, the MATLAB program includes all source codes so that students can develop their own material models, or different algorithms. This book also: ·         Presents clear explanations of nonlinear finite element analysis for elasticity, elastoplasticity, and contact problems ·         Includes many informative examples of nonlinear analyses so that students can clearly understand the nonlinear theory ·    ...

  8. Finite element analysis of nonlinear creeping flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loula, A.F.D.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.

    1988-12-01

    Steady-state creep problems with monotone constitutive laws are studied. Finite element approximations are constructed based on mixed Petrov-Galerkin formulations for constrained problems. Stability, convergence and a priori error estimates are proved for equal-order discontinuous stress and continuous velocity interpolations. Numerical results are presented confirming the rates of convergence predicted in the analysis and the good performance of this formulation. (author) [pt

  9. Trace-element analysis in environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.; Moschini, G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of charged-particle accelerators in trace-element analysis in the field of environmental sciences is described in this article. Nuclear reactions, charged-particle-induced X-ray emission as well as other nuclear and atomic processes can be used individually, or combined, in developing adequate analytical systems. In addition to concentration levels, concentration levels, concentration profiles can be measured, resulting in unique information. Some examples of experiments performed are described together with the suggestions for future measurements [pt

  10. Epoxidized soy bean oil migrating from the gaskets of lids into food packed in glass jars. Analysis by on-line liquid chromatography-gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser-Noti, Anja; Fiselier, Katell; Biedermann-Brem, Sandra; Grob, Koni

    2005-08-05

    The migration of epoxidized soy bean oil (ESBO) from the gasket in the lids of glass jars into foods, particularly those rich in edible oil, often far exceeds the legal limit (60 mg/kg). ESBO was determined through a methyl ester isomer of diepoxy linoleic acid. Transesterification occurred directly in the homogenized food. From the extracted methyl esters, the diepoxy components were isolated by normal-phase LC and transferred on-line to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection using the on-column interface in the concurrent solvent evaporation mode. The method involves verification elements to ensure the reliability of the results for every sample analyzed. The detection limit is 2-5 mg/kg, depending on the food. Uncertainty of the procedure is below 10%.

  11. Finite element analysis of inelastic structural behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes recent achievements in the finite element analysis of inelastic material behavior. The main purpose is to examine the interaction of three disciplines; (i) the finite element formulation of large deformation problems in the light of a systematic linearization, (ii) the constitutive modelling of inelastic processes in the rate-dependent and rate-independent response regime and (iii) the numerical solution of nonlinear rate problems via incremental iteration techniques. In the first part, alternative finite element models are developed for the idealization of large deformation problems. A systematic approach is presented to linearize the field equations locally by an incremental procedure. The finite element formulation is then examined for the description of inelastic material processes. In the second part, nonlinear and inelastic material phenomena are classified and illustrated with representative examples of concrete and metal components. In particular, rate-dependent and rate-independent material behavior is examined and representative constitutive models are assessed for their mathematical characterization. Hypoelastic, elastoplastic and endochronic models are compared for the description rate-independent material phenomena. In the third part, the numerial solution of inelastic structural behavior is discussed. In this context, several incremental techniques are developed and compared for tracing the evolution of the inelastic process. The numerical procedures are examined with regard to stability and accuracy to assess the overall efficiency. The 'optimal' incremental technique is then contrasted with the computer storage requirements to retain the data for the 'memory-characteristics' of the constitutive model

  12. Application of synchrotron radiation to elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Hastings, J.B.; Howells, M.R.; Kraner, H.W.; Chen, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The use of a synchrotron storage ring as a high brightness source for production of monoergic, variable energy, and highly polarized x-ray beams promises to revolutionize the field of elemental analysis. The results of exploratory work using the Cornell synchrotron facility, CHESS, will be described. Design considerations and features of the new X-Ray Microprobe Facility now under construction at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source will be presented. This facility will be used for bulk analysis and for microanalysis with an initial spatial resolution of the order of 30 μm

  13. Network application of PIXE trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizeki, T.; Kawasaki, K.; Hattori, T.

    2003-01-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is a very sensitive analytical technique for determinations of trace elements. But the number of users is limited because there are not so much accelerators which can be used easily. On the other hand, PIXE is a typical machine analysis which can easily analyze automatically and make online data acquisition system. If there is useful online data handling system then PIXE analysis should be more useful for many persons. Therefore we develop to online PIXE facility at Tokyo Institute of Technology VdG laboratory and use it for environmental educations. (author)

  14. Optical selection of trace elements for discriminant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, S.E.; Erasmus, C.S.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    This report describes different methods of element selection; a combination of stepwise multivariate analysis of variance for primary element selection, and principle component analysis regression for the element interrelationship analysis. These offer a satisfactory solution to the problem of element selection

  15. Elements of healthy death: a thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estebsari, Fatemeh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Mostafaei, Davood; Rahimi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Death is a natural and frightening phenomenon, which is inevitable. Previous studies on death, which presented a negative and tedious image of this process, are now being revised and directed towards acceptable death and good death. One of the proposed terms about death and dying is "healthy death", which encourages dealing with death positively and leading a lively and happy life until the last moment. This study aimed to explain the views of Iranians about the elements of healthy death. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted for 12 months in two general hospitals in Tehran (capital of Iran), using the thematic analysis method. After conducting 23 in-depth interviews with 21 participants, transcription of content, and data immersion and analysis, themes, as the smallest meaningful units were extracted, encoded and classified. Results: One main category of healthy death with 10 subthemes, including dying at the right time, dying without hassle, dying without cost, dying without dependency and control, peaceful death, not having difficulty at dying, not dying alone and dying at home, inspired death, preplanned death, and presence of a clergyman or a priest, were extracted as the elements of healthy death from the perspective of the participants in this study. Conclusion: The study findings well explained the elements of healthy death. Paying attention to the conditions and factors causing healthy death by professionals and providing and facilitating quality services for patients in the end stage of life make it possible for patients to experience a healthy death.

  16. Dissipation element analysis of turbulent scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lipo; Peters, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Dissipation element analysis is a new approach for studying turbulent scalar fields. Gradient trajectories starting from each material point in a scalar field Φ'(x-vector,t) in ascending directions will inevitably reach a maximal and a minimal point. The ensemble of material points sharing the same pair ending points is named a dissipation element. Dissipation elements can be parameterized by the length scale l and the scalar difference Δφ ', which are defined as the straight line connecting the two extremal points and the scalar difference at these points, respectively. The decomposition of a turbulent field into dissipation elements is space-filling. This allows us to reconstruct certain statistical quantities of fine scale turbulence which cannot be obtained otherwise. The marginal probability density function (PDF) of the length scale distribution based on a Poisson random cutting-reconnection process shows satisfactory agreement with the direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. In order to obtain the further information that is needed for the modeling of scalar mixing in turbulence, such as the marginal PDF of the length of elements and all conditional moments as well as their scaling exponents, there is a need to model the joint PDF of l and Δφ ' as well. A compensation-defect model is put forward in this work to show the dependence of Δφ ' on l. The agreement between the model prediction and DNS results is satisfactory, which may provide another explanation of the Kolmogorov scaling and help to improve turbulent mixing models. Furthermore, intermittency and cliff structure can also be related to and explained from the joint PDF.

  17. Finite element analysis of ARPS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhkamp, J.D.; McDougal, J.R.; Kramer, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    Algor finite element software was used to determine the stresses and deflections in the metallic walls of Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPS) designs. The preliminary design review of these systems often neglects the structural integrity of the design which can effect fabrication and the end use of the design. Before finite element analysis (FEA) was run on the canister walls of the thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generator, hand calculations were used to approximate the stresses and deflections in a flat plate. These results compared favorably to the FEA results of a similar size flat plate. The AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Conversion) cells were analyzed by FEA and the results compared to two cells that were mechanically tested. The mechanically tested cells buckled in the thin sections, one at the top and one in the lower section. The FEA predicted similar stress and shape results but the critical buckling load was found to be very shape dependent

  18. Reliability analysis of dispersion nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shurong; Jiang, Xin; Huo, Yongzhong; Li, Lin an

    2008-03-01

    Taking a dispersion fuel element as a special particle composite, the representative volume element is chosen to act as the research object. The fuel swelling is simulated through temperature increase. The large strain elastoplastic analysis is carried out for the mechanical behaviors using FEM. The results indicate that the fission swelling is simulated successfully; the thickness increments grow linearly with burnup; with increasing of burnup: (1) the first principal stresses at fuel particles change from tensile ones to compression ones, (2) the maximum Mises stresses at the particles transfer from the centers of fuel particles to the location close to the interfaces between the matrix and the particles, their values increase with burnup; the maximum Mises stresses at the matrix exist in the middle location between the two particles near the mid-plane along the length (or width) direction, and the maximum plastic strains are also at the above region.

  19. Reliability analysis of dispersion nuclear fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Shurong [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: dsr1971@163.com; Jiang Xin [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huo Yongzhong [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: yzhuo@fudan.edu.cn; Li Linan [Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2008-03-15

    Taking a dispersion fuel element as a special particle composite, the representative volume element is chosen to act as the research object. The fuel swelling is simulated through temperature increase. The large strain elastoplastic analysis is carried out for the mechanical behaviors using FEM. The results indicate that the fission swelling is simulated successfully; the thickness increments grow linearly with burnup; with increasing of burnup: (1) the first principal stresses at fuel particles change from tensile ones to compression ones, (2) the maximum Mises stresses at the particles transfer from the centers of fuel particles to the location close to the interfaces between the matrix and the particles, their values increase with burnup; the maximum Mises stresses at the matrix exist in the middle location between the two particles near the mid-plane along the length (or width) direction, and the maximum plastic strains are also at the above region.

  20. Development of the determination method of rare earth elements in seawater by ICP-MS with an on-line preconcentration column of improved iminodiacetate resin and its application to Tokyo Bay seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuneto, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yoshinari; Furuta, Naoki; Furusho, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-01

    In order to determine rare earth elements (REEs) in seawater by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with an on-line preconcentration column, we used the improved iminodiacetate chelate resin (MetaSEP ME-2) that had a cation-type alkyl group. Its operating conditions were optimized, and the recoveries of REEs and the removal rates of matrix elements were compared with other resins. Ca and Mg were removed more efficiently under a buffer solution of pH 5.0. The removal efficiencies of Ca and Mg using MetaSEP ME-2 were better than those using other resins. We determined REEs in a seawater reference material (NASS-5) with MetaSEP ME-2. The obtained results were in good agreement with the reference values. We applied this method to the determination of REEs in seawater collected from Tokyo Bay, and evaluated the distribution patterns of REEs. Consequently, the positive anomaly of Gd in the small-molecule fraction was observed. The positive anomaly of Gd can be attributed to the outflow of Gd compounds, which are used for a magnetic resonance imaging contrast medium. (author)

  1. Automated on-line solid phase extraction coupled to HPLC-APCI-MS detection as a versatile tool for the analysis of phenols in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissiack, R.

    2001-05-01

    In this work a liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS) technique was developed for the determination of phenols and anilines in waste water samples. All relevant parameters were optimized for liquid chromatographic (LC) separation and mass spectrometric (MS) detection. Mass spectrometric detection was used in either negative ionization (NI) or positive ionization (PI) mode, which was depending on the physicochemical properties of the analyte. For screening analysis, full scan mode (SCAN) was used, while selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode of acquisition was used for maximum sensitivity. The optimal interface parameters and solvent compositions were evaluated, which mainly determined the ionization of analytes thus strongly influencing the sensitivity. The quasi-molecular ions were the most abundant signals both for phenols ([M-H]- in NI) and for anilines ([M+H]+ in PI). In general, fragmentation was hardly observed for one-ring phenols. Only fragmentation due to neutral losses of NO, HCl, NH3, CO2, CHO or CO from the functional groups were obtained via collision induced dissociation (CID) in a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. A further source of structural information was the relative intensity of positive and negative ions for one analyte: Only in the case of para-methyl substituted phenols, detection was also possible in positive ionization mode with reasonable sensitivity. In contrast to the phenols, anilines offered somewhat higher structural information due to increased fragmentation through CID, when detected in the positive ionization mode. The main goal of this work was the development of a method for the determination of US EPA priority phenols in different environmental matrices. As highest sensitivity and selectivity was required for this task, a preconcentrating step was necessary, and consequently solid phase extraction (SPE) was coupled on-line to HPLC-APCI-MS. The optimized method allowed the

  2. Finding You on the Internet: an approach for finding on-line presences of people for fraud risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, Henry; van Keulen, Maurice

    Fraud risk analysis on data from formal information sources, being a ‘paper reality', suffers from blindness to false information. Moreover, the very act of providing false information is a strong indicator for fraud. The technology presented in this paper provides one step towards the vision of

  3. Failure analysis for WWER-fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmert, J.; Huettig, W.

    1986-10-01

    If the fuel defect rate proves significantly high, failure analysis has to be performed in order to trace down the defect causes, to implement corrective actions, and to take measures of failure prevention. Such analyses are work-consuming and very skill-demanding technical tasks, which require examination methods and devices excellently developed and a rich stock of experience in evaluation of features of damage. For that this work specifies the procedure of failure analyses in detail. Moreover prerequisites and experimental equipment for the investigation of WWER-type fuel elements are described. (author)

  4. Finite element analysis of permanent magnet motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boglietti, A.; Chiampi, M.; Tartaglia, M.; Chiarabaglio, D.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of permanent magnet D.C. brushless motors, supplied by current control inverters, is developed employing a finite element package tailored for such devices. The study is devoted to predicting the performance of a set of four poles machines, under different operating conditions (no-load, rated load). The over-load conditions are also considered including the saturation effect. Moreover the influence of such design parameters, as the tooth shape and the number of magnet segments, is investigated. Computed results are found in satisfactory agreement with experimental ones

  5. Actinides analysis in emergency situation by on-line coupling between a calix[6]arene-based chromatography column and an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghdadi, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear crisis, involving actinides (U, Pu, Am) it is important to have fast analysis methods available in order to identify people that could be contaminated. Usually, they are performed in urine or faeces. Even though, analytical methods used with alpha detection are reliable they are lengthy and tedious to set up. This work consisted in developing an on-line coupling method between a calix[6]arene-based chromatography column and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). To do so, a speciation study of actinides in mineralised urine was developed to understand the chemical equilibria happening during the actinides extraction. A protocol was elaborated to extract simultaneously all three actinides at pH = 5, then co-elute them with 0.25 mol.L -1 H 3 PO 4 . Recovery was 56 %, 74 % and 85 % for U, Pu and Am respectively. The column was then coupled to the ICP-MS. A parameter study helped defining mineralisation duration, extraction and elution flow-rates. It was then possible to propose an on-line coupling system allowing reaching detection limits lower than 0.5 mBq.L-1 for 238 U and 243 Am and lower than 5 mBq.L -1 for 239 Pu and 241 Am, for analysis duration lower than 6 hours. These analytical performances show the interest of this technique for a use in a nuclear crisis situation. (author)

  6. Analysis of Patterns of Interaction and Knowledge Construction in On-Line Learning Environments: A Methodological Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benilde García Cabrero

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A model of analysis of interaction and construction of knowledge in educational environments based on computer-mediated communication (CMC is proposed. This proposal considers: 1 the contextual factors that constitute the input and the scenario of interaction, 2 the interaction processes: types of interaction and its contents (Garrison, Anderson and Archer, 2000 as well as the discursive strategies (Lemke, 1997, and 3 learning results that involve the quality of the knowledge constructed by the participants (Gunawardena, Lowe and Anderson, 1997. This model was applied to the analysis of the interaction among a group of participants in two web forums (with or without the presence of a teacher, during the teaching of a PhD in Psychology program. The results show evidence of the model’s viability to describe the patterns of interaction and the levels of construction of knowledge in web forums.

  7. Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry for on-line trace gas analysis in biology and medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2007), s. 77-82 ISSN 1469-0667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0776 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : selected ion flow tube mass spectroscopy (SIFT-MS) * breath analysis * breath metabolities * flowing afterglow mass spectrometry (FA-MS) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.198, year: 2007

  8. Automated on-line liquid–liquid extraction system for temporal mass spectrometric analysis of dynamic samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Kai-Ta; Liu, Pei-Han [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Rd, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Urban, Pawel L. [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Rd, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Rd, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-24

    Most real samples cannot directly be infused to mass spectrometers because they could contaminate delicate parts of ion source and guides, or cause ion suppression. Conventional sample preparation procedures limit temporal resolution of analysis. We have developed an automated liquid–liquid extraction system that enables unsupervised repetitive treatment of dynamic samples and instantaneous analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). It incorporates inexpensive open-source microcontroller boards (Arduino and Netduino) to guide the extraction and analysis process. Duration of every extraction cycle is 17 min. The system enables monitoring of dynamic processes over many hours. The extracts are automatically transferred to the ion source incorporating a Venturi pump. Operation of the device has been characterized (repeatability, RSD = 15%, n = 20; concentration range for ibuprofen, 0.053–2.000 mM; LOD for ibuprofen, ∼0.005 mM; including extraction and detection). To exemplify its usefulness in real-world applications, we implemented this device in chemical profiling of pharmaceutical formulation dissolution process. Temporal dissolution profiles of commercial ibuprofen and acetaminophen tablets were recorded during 10 h. The extraction-MS datasets were fitted with exponential functions to characterize the rates of release of the main and auxiliary ingredients (e.g. ibuprofen, k = 0.43 ± 0.01 h{sup −1}). The electronic control unit of this system interacts with the operator via touch screen, internet, voice, and short text messages sent to the mobile phone, which is helpful when launching long-term (e.g. overnight) measurements. Due to these interactive features, the platform brings the concept of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) to the chemistry laboratory environment. - Highlights: • Mass spectrometric analysis normally requires sample preparation. • Liquid–liquid extraction can isolate analytes from complex matrices. • The proposed system automates

  9. Automated on-line liquid–liquid extraction system for temporal mass spectrometric analysis of dynamic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Kai-Ta; Liu, Pei-Han; Urban, Pawel L.

    2015-01-01

    Most real samples cannot directly be infused to mass spectrometers because they could contaminate delicate parts of ion source and guides, or cause ion suppression. Conventional sample preparation procedures limit temporal resolution of analysis. We have developed an automated liquid–liquid extraction system that enables unsupervised repetitive treatment of dynamic samples and instantaneous analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). It incorporates inexpensive open-source microcontroller boards (Arduino and Netduino) to guide the extraction and analysis process. Duration of every extraction cycle is 17 min. The system enables monitoring of dynamic processes over many hours. The extracts are automatically transferred to the ion source incorporating a Venturi pump. Operation of the device has been characterized (repeatability, RSD = 15%, n = 20; concentration range for ibuprofen, 0.053–2.000 mM; LOD for ibuprofen, ∼0.005 mM; including extraction and detection). To exemplify its usefulness in real-world applications, we implemented this device in chemical profiling of pharmaceutical formulation dissolution process. Temporal dissolution profiles of commercial ibuprofen and acetaminophen tablets were recorded during 10 h. The extraction-MS datasets were fitted with exponential functions to characterize the rates of release of the main and auxiliary ingredients (e.g. ibuprofen, k = 0.43 ± 0.01 h"−"1). The electronic control unit of this system interacts with the operator via touch screen, internet, voice, and short text messages sent to the mobile phone, which is helpful when launching long-term (e.g. overnight) measurements. Due to these interactive features, the platform brings the concept of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) to the chemistry laboratory environment. - Highlights: • Mass spectrometric analysis normally requires sample preparation. • Liquid–liquid extraction can isolate analytes from complex matrices. • The proposed system automates the

  10. Implementation of a neural network for digital pulse shape analysis on a FPGA for on-line identification of heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, R., E-mail: naharro@uhu.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Eletronica, Sistemas Informaticos y Automatica, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sanchez-Raya, M.; Gomez-Galan, J.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Eletronica, Sistemas Informaticos y Automatica, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Flores, J.L. [Departamento Ingenieria Electrica y Termica, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Duenas, J.A.; Martel, I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2012-05-11

    Pulse shape analysis techniques for the identification of heavy ions produced in nuclear reactions have been recently proposed as an alternative to energy loss and time of flight methods. However this technique requires a large amount of memory for storing the shapes of charge and current signals. We have implemented a hardware solution for fast on-line processing of the signals producing the relevant information needed for particle identification. Since the pulse shape analysis can be formulated in terms of a pattern recognition problem, a neural network has been implemented in a FPGA device. The design concept has been tested using {sup 12,13}C ions produced in heavy ion reactions. The actual latency of the system is about 20 {mu}s when using a clock frequency of 50 MHz.

  11. Trace element analysis: a diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Cheema, M.N.

    1976-09-01

    The human mody continuously assimilates a variety of elements from the environment, and the concentration of these elements in the blood is regulated by means of various homeostatic mechanisms. Some of the elements, though present in very small amounts, have highly specialized functions in initiating many biochemical reactions. These elements, known as essential trace elements, are closely related to human diseases since their deficiency or excess induces physiological changes. Many diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, etc., are related to an imbalance in trace element. The measurement of trace elements in body fluids and tissues can, therefore, be effectively employed for diagnostic tests

  12. Simultaneous on-line size and chemical analysis of gas phase and particulate phase of mainstream tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAughey, J; McGrath, C; Adam, T; Mocker, C; Zimmermann, R

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is a complex and dynamic physical and chemical matrix in which about 4800 components have been identified. It is known that deposition efficiencies of smoke particles in the lung in the lung (60-80%) are greater than expected for smoke particles of 150-- 250 nm count median diameter (CMD). Various mechanisms have been put forward to explain this enhanced deposition pattern, including coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, changes in composition, or changes in inhalation behaviour. This paper represents one of three studies seeking to better quantify smoke chemistry, inhalation behaviour and cumulative particle growth. This information will improve dosimetry estimates in quantitative risk assessment tools as part of a harm reduction process. In this study smoke particle size and chemistry were measured simultaneously in real-time using electrical mobility spectrometry and soft-ionisation, time-of-flight mass spectrometry respectively. Qualitative puff-by-puff resolved yields of three selected compounds (acetaldehyde, phenol, and styrene) are shown and compared with particle number and count median diameter from different smoking intensities and filter ventilation. Yields of chemical analysis, particle diameter and concentration are in good agreement with the intensity of the smoking regime and the dilution of smoke by filter ventilation.

  13. Analysis, design, and implementation of PHENIX on-line computing systems software using Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, T.; Desmond, E.; Haggerty, J.

    1997-01-01

    An early prototype of the core software for on-line computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC has been developed using the Shlaer-Mellor OOA/RD method, including the automatic generation of C++ source code using a commercial translation engine and open-quotes architectureclose quotes

  14. Finite element analysis of multilayer coextrusion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Schunk, Peter Randall; Baer, Thomas A. (Proctor & Gamble Company, West Chester, OH); Mrozek, Randy A. (Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD); Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD); Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Collins, Robert (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Mondy, Lisa Ann

    2011-09-01

    Multilayer coextrusion has become a popular commercial process for producing complex polymeric products from soda bottles to reflective coatings. A numerical model of a multilayer coextrusion process is developed based on a finite element discretization and two different free-surface methods, an arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) moving mesh implementation and an Eulerian level set method, to understand the moving boundary problem associated with the polymer-polymer interface. The goal of this work is to have a numerical capability suitable for optimizing and troubleshooting the coextrusion process, circumventing flow instabilities such as ribbing and barring, and reducing variability in layer thickness. Though these instabilities can be both viscous and elastic in nature, for this work a generalized Newtonian description of the fluid is used. Models of varying degrees of complexity are investigated including stability analysis and direct three-dimensional finite element free surface approaches. The results of this work show how critical modeling can be to reduce build test cycles, improve material choices, and guide mold design.

  15. Managing Electrochemical Noise Data by Exception Application of an On Line EN Data Analysis Technique to Data From a High Level Nuclear Waste Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDGEMON, G.L.

    2003-01-01

    Electrochemical noise has been used a t the Hanford Site for a number of years to monitor in real time for pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms in high level nuclear waste tanks. Currently the monitoring technique has only been implemented on three of the 177 underground storage tanks on the site. Widespread implementation of the technique has been held back for of a number of reasons, including issues around managing the large volume of data associated with electrochemical noise and the complexity of data analysis. Expert review of raw current and potential measurements is the primary form of data analysis currently used at the Hanford site. This paper demonstrates the application of an on-line data filtering and analysis technique that could allow data from field applications of electrochemical noise to be managed by exception, transforming electrochemical noise data into a process parameter and focusing data analysis efforts on the important data. Results of the analysis demonstrate a data compression rate of 95%; that is, only 5% of the data would require expert analysis if such a technique were implemented. It is also demonstrated that this technique is capable of identifying key periods where localized corrosion activity is apparent

  16. Trace element analysis of common salt using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, K.

    1993-01-01

    Instrumental Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (IFNAA) technique has been used in the qualitative and quantitative determination of the impurity elements in common salt. Samples of the different types of common salt processed in Nigeria and some of those imported into the country were used. The type A711 KAMAN neutron generator and a high-purity Germanium (HpGe) gamma spectrometer available at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria has been used. The ORTEC ADCAM 100 Emulation Software (Maestro) was used in the qualitative measurement of the detected elements. The G.R.G Activation Analysis System by G. R. Gilmore, 1987, was used in the quantitative determination of the elements detected by relative method. Aluminium and arsenic were detected and measured

  17. Analysis and Design of Rolling Stock Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Chugunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work solves the problem of equal-strength design of the rolling stock elements in option of discrete equal-strength. For this purpose, has been developed the software built in SolidWorks and SolidWorks Simulation as an AddIn-application using necessary basic functionality and extending it in the specified part on the basis of API SolidWorks and COM technology.The SolidWorks software is used to develop a 3D-model for general force frame of the wagon as an assembly. As this assembly is quite complicated and includes many elements both standard, and non-standard type, 3D - specification is developed by 3Dvia Composer software, which is included in the article in the form of the gif-animation and via-roller. This means is very useful for the evident analysis of topology and geometrical properties of a design as a whole, facilitates a procedure of adequate formation of the FE model providing accuracy and profitability of computing. From the point of view of profitability and opportunities of definition of concentrators of stresses with a sufficient accuracy for practice the combined model including volume and shell FEM is optimum.In the work the analysis results of stress-strain state of a design are given in two options of static loading in the form of stress diagrams, the main areas of stress concentration are revealed.Results of equal-strength design in the form of thickness distribution on thin-walled elements of a design, considered within FEM as shells, are received. It is shown that the developed software doesn't allow optimum design results, however it is economically viable, simple in use and can be applied to the solution of problems of rational design in design practice.SolidWorks, as well as the majority of similar CADs, possess an open architecture and allow users to apply its functionality. This work continues a series of publications of the author of this paper and other authors concerning the API-based CAD/CAE adaptation and

  18. On-line solid-phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of cyanotoxins in algal blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Paul B; Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Duy, Sung Vo; Prévost, Michèle; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2015-12-15

    An analytical method based on on-line SPE-LC-HESI-MS/MS has been developed for the detection and quantification of eight selected cyanotoxins in algal bloom waters that include mycrocystins, anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin. The injection volume was 2 mL according to the expected concentration of cyanotoxins in matrix. The method provides an analysis time of 7 min per sample, acceptable recovery values (91-101%), good precision (RSD cyanotoxins. All of the targeted cyanotoxins were detected with the exception of cylindrospermopsin. In addition, it was found that total microcystin concentrations in several surface water samples exceeded the proposed guidelines established by the province of Québec in Canada of 1.5 μg L(-1) as well as the World Health Organization of 1 μg L(-1) for both free and cell-bound microcystin-LR equivalent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of imidaclopride removal from aqueous solution by adsorption onto granular activated carbon using an on-line spectrophotometric analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneshvar, N.; Aber, S.; Khani, A.; Khataee, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    The removal of imidaclopride as a pesticide by granular activated carbon (GAC) and its adsorption kinetics were studied at different pH values and temperatures. In all experiments, the amount of GAC and initial concentration of imidaclopride were 2 g and 25 ppm, respectively. The adsorption process was followed by an on-line spectrophotometric analysis system, which consisted of UV-spectrophotometer, a designed absorption cell, peristaltic pump and special glassy reactor. The effect of pH and temperature on adsorption was studied over 90 min adsorption periods. The obtained data were treated according to various kinetic models. The results showed that second order model was the most suitable one on the overall. The our results also showed that the adsorption rate constants for first order, second order and intraparticle diffusion models followed decreasing order: pH = 7 > 4 > 10 > 1, T = 25 > 35 > 45 > 55 deg. C

  20. Study of imidaclopride removal from aqueous solution by adsorption onto granular activated carbon using an on-line spectrophotometric analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daneshvar, N. [Water and Wastewater Treatment Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: nezam_daneshvar@yahoo.com; Aber, S. [Water and Wastewater Treatment Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: soheil_aber@yahoo.com; Khani, A. [Water and Wastewater Treatment Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: alikhani_chemwt@yahoo.com; Khataee, A.R. [Water and Wastewater Treatment Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: ar_khataee@yahoo.com

    2007-06-01

    The removal of imidaclopride as a pesticide by granular activated carbon (GAC) and its adsorption kinetics were studied at different pH values and temperatures. In all experiments, the amount of GAC and initial concentration of imidaclopride were 2 g and 25 ppm, respectively. The adsorption process was followed by an on-line spectrophotometric analysis system, which consisted of UV-spectrophotometer, a designed absorption cell, peristaltic pump and special glassy reactor. The effect of pH and temperature on adsorption was studied over 90 min adsorption periods. The obtained data were treated according to various kinetic models. The results showed that second order model was the most suitable one on the overall. The our results also showed that the adsorption rate constants for first order, second order and intraparticle diffusion models followed decreasing order: pH = 7 > 4 > 10 > 1, T = 25 > 35 > 45 > 55 deg. C.

  1. Looking into individual coffee beans during the roasting process: direct micro-probe sampling on-line photo-ionisation mass spectrometric analysis of coffee roasting gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Schünemann, Romy; Streibel, Thorsten; Ehlert, Sven; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    A micro-probe (μ-probe) gas sampling device for on-line analysis of gases evolving in confined, small objects by single-photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) was developed. The technique is applied for the first time in a feasibility study to record the formation of volatile and flavour compounds during the roasting process within (inside) or in the direct vicinity (outside) of individual coffee beans. A real-time on-line analysis of evolving volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC and SVOC) as they are formed under the mild pyrolytic conditions of the roasting process was performed. The soft-ionisation mass spectra depict a molecular ion signature, which is well corresponding with the existing knowledge of coffee roasting and evolving compounds. Additionally, thereby it is possible to discriminate between Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora (Robusta). The recognized differences in the roasting gas profiles reflect the differences in the precursor composition of the coffee cultivars very well. Furthermore, a well-known set of marker compounds for Arabica and Robusta, namely the lipids kahweol and cafestol (detected in their dehydrated form at m/z 296 and m/z 298, respectively) were observed. If the variation in time of different compounds is observed, distinctly different evolution behaviours were detected. Here, phenol (m/z 94) and caffeine (m/z 194) are exemplary chosen, whereas phenol shows very sharp emission peaks, caffeine do not have this highly transient behaviour. Finally, the changes of the chemical signature as a function of the roasting time, the influence of sampling position (inside, outside) and cultivar (Arabica, Robusta) is investigated by multivariate statistics (PCA). In summary, this pilot study demonstrates the high potential of the measurement technique to enhance the fundamental knowledge of the formation processes of volatile and semi-volatile flavour compounds inside the individual coffee bean.

  2. On line portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to examine the various imaging devices that have been developed for portal imaging, describe some of the image registration methods that have been developed to determine geometric errors quantitatively, and discuss how portal imaging has been incorporated into clinical practice. Discussion: Verification of patient positioning has always been an important aspect of external beam radiation therapy. Over the past decade many portal imaging devices have been developed by individual investigators and most accelerator manufacturers now offer 'on-line' portal imaging systems. The commercial devices include T.V. camera-based systems, liquid ionisation chamber systems, and shortly, flat panel systems. The characteristics of these imaging systems will be discussed. In addition, other approaches such as the use of kilovoltage x-ray sources, video monitoring, and ultrasound have been proposed for improving patient positioning. Some of the advantages of these approaches will be discussed. One of the major advantages of on-line portal imaging is that many quantitative techniques have been developed to detect errors in patient positioning. The general approach is to register anatomic structures on a portal image with the same structures on a digitized simulator film. Once the anatomic structures have been registered, any discrepancies in the position of the patient can be identified. One problem is finding a common frame of reference for the simulator and portal images, since the location of the radiation field within the pixel matrix may differ for the two images. As a result, a common frame of reference has to be established before the anatomic structures in the images can be registered - generally by registering radiation field edges identified in the simulator and portal images. In addition, distortions in patient geometry or rotations out of the image plane can confound the image registration techniques. Despite the

  3. On line portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to examine the various imaging devices that have been developed for portal imaging; describe some of the image registration methods that have been developed to determine geometric errors quantitatively; discuss some of the ways that portal imaging has been incorporated into routine clinical practice; describe quality assurance procedures for these devices, and discuss the use of portal imaging devices for dosimetry applications. Discussion: Verification of patient positioning has always been an important aspect of external beam radiation therapy. Over the past decade many portal imaging devices have been developed by individual investigators and most accelerator manufacturers now offer 'on-line' portal imaging systems. The commercial devices can be classified into three categories: T.V. camera-based systems, liquid ionisation chamber systems, and amorphous silicon systems. Many factors influence the quality of images generated by these portal imaging systems. These include factors which are unavoidable (e.g., low subject contrast), factors which depend upon the individual imaging device forming the image (e.g., dose utilisation, spatial resolution) as well as factors which depend upon the characteristics of the linear accelerator irradiating the imaging system (x-ray source size, image magnification). The characteristics of individual imaging systems, such as spatial resolution, temporal response, and quantum utilisation will be discussed. One of the major advantages of on-line portal imaging is that many quantitative techniques have been developed to detect errors in patient positioning. The general approach is to register anatomic structures on a portal image with the same structures on a digitized simulator film. Once the anatomic structures have been registered, any discrepancies in the position of the patient can be identified. However, the task is not nearly as straight-forward as it sounds. One problem

  4. An integrated sample pretreatment platform for quantitative N-glycoproteome analysis with combination of on-line glycopeptide enrichment, deglycosylation and dimethyl labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Yejing; Qu, Yanyan; Jiang, Hao; Wu, Qi [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Lihua, E-mail: lihuazhang@dicp.ac.cn [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Yuan, Huiming [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Zhou, Yuan [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Yukui [National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2014-06-23

    Highlights: • An integrated platform for quantitative N-glycoproteome analysis was established. • On-line enrichment, deglycosylation and labeling could be achieved within 160 min. • A N{sub 2}-assisted interface was applied to improve the compatibility of the platform. • The platform exhibited improved quantification accuracy, precision and throughput. - Abstract: Relative quantification of N-glycoproteomes shows great promise for the discovery of candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The traditional protocol for quantitative analysis of glycoproteomes is usually off-line performed, and suffers from long sample preparation time, and the risk of sample loss or contamination due to manual manipulation. In this study, a novel integrated sample preparation platform for quantitative N-glycoproteome analysis was established, with combination of online N-glycopeptide capture by a HILIC column, sample buffer exchange by a N{sub 2}-assisted HILIC–RPLC interface, deglycosylation by a hydrophilic PNGase F immobilized enzymatic reactor (hIMER) and solid dimethyl labeling on a C18 precolumn. To evaluate the performance of such a platform, two equal aliquots of immunoglobulin G (IgG) digests were sequentially pretreated, followed by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The signal intensity ratio of heavy/light (H/L) labeled deglycosylated peptides with the equal aliquots was 1.00 (RSD = 6.2%, n = 3), much better than those obtained by the offline protocol, with H/L ratio as 0.76 (RSD = 11.6%, n = 3). Additionally, the total on-line sample preparation time was greatly shortened to 160 min, much faster than that of offline approach (24 h). Furthermore, such an integrated pretreatment platform was successfully applied to analyze the two kinds of hepatocarcinoma ascites syngeneic cell lines with high (Hca-F) and low (Hca-P) lymph node metastasis rates. For H/L labeled Hca-P lysates with the equal aliquots, 99.6% of log 2 ratios (H/L) of quantified glycopeptides ranged from −1

  5. Nonlinear finite element analysis of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosen, N.S.

    1980-05-01

    This report deals with nonlinear finite element analysis of concrete structures loaded in the short-term up until failure. A profound discussion of constitutive modelling on concrete is performed; a model, applicable for general stress states, is described and its predictions are compared with experimental data. This model is implemented in the AXIPLANE-program applicable for axisymmetrick and plane structures. The theoretical basis for this program is given. Using the AXIPLANE-program various concrete structures are analysed up until failure and compared with experimental evidence. These analyses include panels pressure vessel, beams failing in shear and finally a specific pull-out test, the Lok-Test, is considered. In these analyses, the influence of different failure criteria, aggregate interlock, dowel action, secondary cracking, magnitude of compressive strenght, magnitude of tensile strenght and of different post-failure behaviours of the concrete are evaluated. Moreover, it is shown that a suitable analysis of the theoretical data results in a clear insight into the physical behaviour of the considered structures. Finally, it is demonstrated that the AXISPLANE-program for widely different structures exhibiting very delicate structural aspects gives predictions that are in close agreement with experimental evidence. (author)

  6. Prediction and phylogenetic analysis of mammalian short interspersed elements (SINEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozin, I B; Mayorov, V I; Lavrentieva, M V; Milanesi, L; Adkison, L R

    2000-09-01

    The presence of repetitive elements can create serious problems for sequence analysis, especially in the case of homology searches in nucleotide sequence databases. Repetitive elements should be treated carefully by using special programs and databases. In this paper, various aspects of SINE (short interspersed repetitive element) identification, analysis and evolution are discussed.

  7. IOOS Data Portals and Uniform On-line Browse Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M.; Currier, R. D.; Kobara, S.; Gayanilo, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System Regional Association (GCOOS-RA) is one of eleven Regional Associations organized under the NOAA-led U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) Program Office. Each of the RAs operate standards-based regional data portals designed to aggregate near real-time and historical observed data and modeled outputs from distributed providers and to offer these and derived products in standardized ways to a diverse set of users. The RA's portals are based on the IOOS Data and Communications Plan which describes the functional elements needed for an interoperable system. One of these elements is called "Uniform On-line Browse" which is an informational service designed primarily to visualize the inventory of a portal. An on-line browse service supports the end user's need to discover what parameters are available, to learn the spatial and temporal extend of the holdings, and to examine the character of the data (e.g, variability, gappiness, etc). These pieces of information help the end user decide if the data are fit for his/her purpose and to construct valid data requests. Note that on-line browse is a distinctly different activity than data analysis because it seeks to yield knowledge about the inventory and not about what the data mean. "Uniform" on-line browse is a service that takes advantage of the standardization of the data portal's data access points. Most portals represent station locations on a map. This is a view of the data inventory but these plots are rarely generated by pulling data through the standards-based services offered to the end users but through methods only available to the portal programmers. This work will present results of Uniform On-line browse tools developed within GCOOS-RA and their applicability to other RA portals.

  8. Non-chromatographic speciation analysis of mercury by flow injection on-line preconcentration in combination with chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Hong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Chemistry, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Jin Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Han Weiying [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Miao, Qiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Bi Shuping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: bisp@nju.edu.cn

    2006-07-15

    A novel non-chromatographic approach for direct speciation of mercury, based on the selective retention inorganic mercury and methylmercury on the inner wall of a knotted reactor by using ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate and dithizone as complexing agents respectively, was developed for flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration coupled with chemical vapor generation non-dispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. With the sample pH kept at 2.0, the preconcentration of inorganic mercury on the inner walls of the knotted reactor was carried out based on the exclusive retention of Hg-DDP complex in the presence of methylmercury via on-line merging the sample solution with ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate solution, and selective preconcentration methylmercury was achieved with dithizone instead of ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate. A 15% (v/v) HCl was introduced to elute the retained mercury species and merge with KBH{sub 4} solution for atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the sample throughputs of inorganic mercury and methylmercury were 30 and 20 h{sup -1} with the enhancement factors of 13 and 24. The detection limits were found to be 3.6 ng l{sup -1} for Hg{sup 2+} and 2.0 ng l{sup -1} for CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}. The precisions (RSD) for the 11 replicate measurements of each 0.2 {mu}g l{sup -1} of Hg{sup 2+} and CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} were 2.2% and 2.8%, respectively. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (simulated natural water, rice flour and pork) and by recovery measurements on spiked samples, and was applied to the determination of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in biological and environmental water samples.

  9. Analysis of drug-protein binding using on-line immunoextraction and high-performance affinity microcolumns: Studies with normal and glycated human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ryan; Jobe, Donald; Beyersdorf, Jared; Hage, David S

    2015-10-16

    A method combining on-line immunoextraction microcolumns with high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) was developed and tested for use in examining drug-protein interactions with normal or modified proteins. Normal human serum albumin (HSA) and glycated HSA were used as model proteins for this work. High-performance immunoextraction microcolumns with sizes of 1.0-2.0 cm × 2.1mm i.d. and containing anti-HSA polyclonal antibodies were developed and tested for their ability to bind normal HSA or glycated HSA. These microcolumns were able to extract up to 82-93% for either type of protein at 0.05-0.10 mL/min and had a binding capacity of 0.34-0.42 nmol HSA for a 1.0 cm × 2.1mm i.d. microcolumn. The immunoextraction microcolumns and their adsorbed proteins were tested for use in various approaches for drug binding studies. Frontal analysis was used with the adsorbed HSA/glycated HSA to measure the overall affinities of these proteins for the drugs warfarin and gliclazide, giving comparable values to those obtained previously using similar protein preparations that had been covalently immobilized within HPAC columns. Zonal elution competition studies with gliclazide were next performed to examine the specific interactions of this drug at Sudlow sites I and II of the adsorbed proteins. These results were also comparable to those noted in prior work with covalently immobilized samples of normal HSA or glycated HSA. These experiments indicated that drug-protein binding studies can be carried out by using on-line immunoextraction microcolumns with HPAC. The same method could be used in the future with clinical samples and other drugs or proteins of interest in pharmaceutical studies or biomedical research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-chromatographic speciation analysis of mercury by flow injection on-line preconcentration in combination with chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hong; Jin Yan; Han Weiying; Miao, Qiang; Bi Shuping

    2006-01-01

    A novel non-chromatographic approach for direct speciation of mercury, based on the selective retention inorganic mercury and methylmercury on the inner wall of a knotted reactor by using ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate and dithizone as complexing agents respectively, was developed for flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration coupled with chemical vapor generation non-dispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. With the sample pH kept at 2.0, the preconcentration of inorganic mercury on the inner walls of the knotted reactor was carried out based on the exclusive retention of Hg-DDP complex in the presence of methylmercury via on-line merging the sample solution with ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate solution, and selective preconcentration methylmercury was achieved with dithizone instead of ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate. A 15% (v/v) HCl was introduced to elute the retained mercury species and merge with KBH 4 solution for atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the sample throughputs of inorganic mercury and methylmercury were 30 and 20 h -1 with the enhancement factors of 13 and 24. The detection limits were found to be 3.6 ng l -1 for Hg 2+ and 2.0 ng l -1 for CH 3 Hg + . The precisions (RSD) for the 11 replicate measurements of each 0.2 μg l -1 of Hg 2+ and CH 3 Hg + were 2.2% and 2.8%, respectively. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (simulated natural water, rice flour and pork) and by recovery measurements on spiked samples, and was applied to the determination of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in biological and environmental water samples

  11. On line portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to review the physics of imaging with high energy x-ray beams; examine the various imaging devices that have been developed for portal imaging; describe some of the image registration methods that have been developed to determine errors in patient positioning quantitatively; and discuss some of the ways that portal imaging has been incorporated into routine clinical practice. Verification of patient positioning has always been an important aspect of external beam radiation therapy. Checks of patient positioning have generally been done with film, however, film suffers from a number of drawbacks, such as poor image display and delays due to film development. Over the past decade many portal imaging devices have been developed by individual investigators and most accelerator manufacturers now offer 'on-line' portal imaging systems, which are intended to overcome the limitations of portal films. The commercial devices can be classified into three categories: T.V. camera-based systems, liquid ionisation chamber systems, and amorphous silicon systems. Many factors influence the quality of images generated by these portal imaging systems. These include factors which are unavoidable (e.g., low subject contrast), factors which depend upon the individual imaging device forming the image (e.g., dose utilisation, spatial resolution) as well as factors which depend upon the characteristics of the linear accelerator irradiating the imaging system (x-ray source size, image magnification). The fundamental factors which limit image quality and the characteristics of individual imaging systems, such as spatial resolution, temporal response, and quantum utilisation will be discussed. One of the major advantages of on-line portal imaging is that many quantitative techniques have been developed to detect errors in patient positioning. The general approach is to register anatomic structures on a portal image with the same

  12. Finite element analysis of plastic recycling machine designed for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... design was evaluated using finite element analysis (FEA) tool in Solid Works Computer ... Also, a minimum factor of safety value of 5.3 was obtained for shredder shaft ... Machine; Design; Recycling; Sustainability; Finite Element; Simulation ...

  13. Stability analysis of artificial synthetic overweight elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jian

    1990-01-01

    Stability of artificial synthetic overweight elements has been analysed theoretically using a diagram of nuclear stability. It is indicated that overweight nucleus can be synthesized only when a certain amount of neutrons participate simultaneously in the synthesis. The maximum number of protons in overweight elements is 1002. The proton number of 'extreme overweight' elements of which the neutron star is possibly composed is in the range from 326 to 1002. It is expected that the mass number of the stable overweight elements with proton number 114 is in the range from 299 to 315

  14. Chromatographic Techniques for Rare Earth Elements Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Zhang, Huashan; Jiang, Zucheng; Hu, Bin

    2017-04-01

    The present capability of rare earth element (REE) analysis has been achieved by the development of two instrumental techniques. The efficiency of spectroscopic methods was extraordinarily improved for the detection and determination of REE traces in various materials. On the other hand, the determination of REEs very often depends on the preconcentration and separation of REEs, and chromatographic techniques are very powerful tools for the separation of REEs. By coupling with sensitive detectors, many ambitious analytical tasks can be fulfilled. Liquid chromatography is the most widely used technique. Different combinations of stationary phases and mobile phases could be used in ion exchange chromatography, ion chromatography, ion-pair reverse-phase chromatography and some other techniques. The application of gas chromatography is limited because only volatile compounds of REEs can be separated. Thin-layer and paper chromatography are techniques that cannot be directly coupled with suitable detectors, which limit their applications. For special demands, separations can be performed by capillary electrophoresis, which has very high separation efficiency.

  15. Trace element analysis of soy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Michio; Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu

    1994-01-01

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mu, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of bromine about 160 ppm. (author)

  16. Analysis of hydroxamate siderophores in soil solution using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry with on-line sample preconcentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Madelen A; Bylund, Dan

    2015-10-01

    A liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method was developed to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze 13 hydroxamate siderophores (ferrichrome, ferrirubin, ferrirhodin, ferrichrysin, ferricrocin, ferrioxamine B, D1 , E and G, neocoprogen I and II, coprogen and triacetylfusarinine C). Samples were preconcentrated on-line by a switch-valve setup prior to analyte separation on a Kinetex C18 column. Gradient elution was performed using a mixture of an ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile. Total analysis time including column conditioning was 20.5 min. Analytes were fragmented by applying collision-induced dissociation, enabling structural identification by tandem mass spectrometry. Limit of detection values for the selected ion monitoring method ranged from 71 pM to 1.5 nM with corresponding values of two to nine times higher for the multiple reaction monitoring method. The liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry method resulted in a robust and sensitive quantification of hydroxamate siderophores as indicated by retention time stability, linearity, sensitivity, precision and recovery. The analytical error of the methods, assessed through random-order, duplicate analysis of soil samples extracted with a mixture of 10 mM phosphate buffer and methanol, appears negligible in relation to between-sample variations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Analysis of multivariate stochastic signals sampled by on-line particle analyzers: Application to the quantitative assessment of occupational exposure to NOAA in multisource industrial scenarios (MSIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ipiña, J M López; Vaquero, C; Gutierrez-Cañas, C; Pui, D Y H

    2015-01-01

    In multisource industrial scenarios (MSIS) coexist NOAA generating activities with other productive sources of airborne particles, such as parallel processes of manufacturing or electrical and diesel machinery. A distinctive characteristic of MSIS is the spatially complex distribution of aerosol sources, as well as their potential differences in dynamics, due to the feasibility of multi-task configuration at a given time. Thus, the background signal is expected to challenge the aerosol analyzers at a probably wide range of concentrations and size distributions, depending of the multisource configuration at a given time. Monitoring and prediction by using statistical analysis of time series captured by on-line particle analyzersin industrial scenarios, have been proven to be feasible in predicting PNC evolution provided a given quality of net signals (difference between signal at source and background). However the analysis and modelling of non-consistent time series, influenced by low levels of SNR (Signal-Noise Ratio) could build a misleading basis for decision making. In this context, this work explores the use of stochastic models based on ARIMA methodology to monitor and predict exposure values (PNC). The study was carried out in a MSIS where an case study focused on the manufacture of perforated tablets of nano-TiO 2 by cold pressing was performed. (paper)

  18. Trace element analysis in soy sauce. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomita, Michio; Yoshida, Koji.

    1994-01-01

    Trace elements in four kinds of soybean and three kinds of salt have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. In soybeans, which were made in Japan, America, Canada and China, six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Br. The concentration of these elements varied depending on the place they were made. American soybean showed characteristic feature compared with other soybeans. As to the bromine concentration, American soybean contains ten times as much as Japanese one. In salts Br and Sr were detected. (author)

  19. Elemental Analysis and Biological Activities of Chrysophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sapotaceae) Leaves. ... The plant material could be used as a source of important elements required for the body. In suitable form, the plant could be used in the prevention and treatment of dental caries, oxidative damage, obesity and cancer.

  20. Multi-Sensor Distributive On-line Processing, Visualization, and Analysis Infrastructure for an Agricultural Information System at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, W.; Berrick, S.; Leptoukh, G.; Liu, Z.; Rui, H.; Pham, L.; Shen, S.; Zhu, T.

    2004-12-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is developing an Agricultural Information System (AIS), evolved from an existing TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS), which will operationally provide precipitation and other satellite data products and services. AIS outputs will be integrated into existing operational decision support systems for global crop monitoring, such as that of the U.N. World Food Program. The ability to use the raw data stored in the GES DAAC archives is highly dependent on having a detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation. To gain this understanding is a time-consuming process and not a productive investment of the user's time. This is an especially difficult challenge when users need to deal with multi-sensor data that usually are of different structures and resolutions. The AIS has taken a major step towards meeting this challenge by incorporating an underlying infrastructure, called the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure or "Giovanni," that integrates various components to support web interfaces that allow users to perform interactive analysis on-line without downloading any data. Several instances of the Giovanni-based interface have been or are being created to serve users of TRMM precipitation, MODIS aerosol, and SeaWiFS ocean color data, as well as agricultural applications users. Giovanni-based interfaces are simple to use but powerful. The user selects geophysical parameters, area of interest, and time period; and the system generates an output on screen in a matter of seconds. The currently available output options are (1) area plot - averaged or accumulated over any available data period for any rectangular area; (2) time plot - time series averaged over any rectangular area; (3) Hovmoller plots - longitude-time and latitude-time plots; (4) ASCII

  1. An Analysis of Electronic Commerce Acquisition Systems: Comparison of a New Pure Electronic Purchasing and Exchange System (Electronic Storefront) and Other Legacy On-line Purchasing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rowe, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    ... as they relate to contracting and purchasing of supplies and services, The issues and concerns with legacy on-line procurement systems will be compared to a newly developed Pure Electronic Ordering System...

  2. Analysis of recombinant Schistosoma mansoni antigen rSmp28 by on-line liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klarskov, K.; Roecklin, D.; Bouchon, B.; Sabatie, J.; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Bischoff, Rainer

    1994-01-01

    A recombinant Schistosoma mansoni antigen produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and purified by glutathione-Sepharose affinity chromatography was analyzed by tryptic peptide mapping using on-line reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography pneumatically assisted electrospray mass

  3. Instrumental trace element analysis of California market milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.; Langhorst, A.L.; Ralston, H.R.; Heft, R.

    1975-01-01

    Trace element analysis for 15 elements (Zn, Na, Br, Rb, Sr, Mg, Al, Ca, Cl, I, K, Fe, Co, Se, Cs) was carried out on 32 samples of California market milk and 6 samples of Colorado milk in a pilot study of toxic and nutrient trace elements in the soil-forage-cow-milk food chain. The techniques of instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence analysis are described. Sample collection, preparation, analysis, and data reduction procedures are discussed. The mean values and variations of trace element concentrations in milk are compared to data from other studies. (U.S.)

  4. Analysis of phenolic compounds from different morphological parts of Helichrysum devium by liquid chromatography with on-line UV and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Sandra C; Castilho, Paula C

    2009-12-01

    A simple and rapid method has been used for the screening and identification of the main phenolic compounds from Helichrysum devium using high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line UV and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (LC-DAD/ESI-MS(n)). The total aerial parts and different morphological parts of the plant, namely leaves, flowers and stems, were analyzed separately. A total of 34 compounds present in the methanolic extract from Helichrysum devium were identified or tentatively characterized based on their UV and mass spectra and retention times. Three of these compounds were positively identified by comparison with reference standards. The phenolic compounds included derivatives of quinic acid, O-glycosylated flavonoids, a caffeic acid derivative and a protocatechuic acid derivative. The characteristic loss of 206 Da from malonylcaffeoyl quinic acid was used to confirm the malonyl linkage to the caffeoyl group. This contribution presents one of the first reports on the analysis of phenolic compounds from Helichrysum devium using LC-DAD/ESI-MS(n) and highlights the prominence of quinic acid derivatives as the main group of phenolic compounds present in these extracts. We also provide evidence that the methanolic extract from the flowers was significantly more complex when compared to that of other morphological parts. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Finite element analysis theory and application with ANSYS

    CERN Document Server

    Moaveni, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    For courses in Finite Element Analysis, offered in departments of Mechanical or Civil and Environmental Engineering. While many good textbooks cover the theory of finite element modeling, Finite Element Analysis: Theory and Application with ANSYS is the only text available that incorporates ANSYS as an integral part of its content. Moaveni presents the theory of finite element analysis, explores its application as a design/modeling tool, and explains in detail how to use ANSYS intelligently and effectively. Teaching and Learning Experience This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience-for you and your students. It will help: *Present the Theory of Finite Element Analysis: The presentation of theoretical aspects of finite element analysis is carefully designed not to overwhelm students. *Explain How to Use ANSYS Effectively: ANSYS is incorporated as an integral part of the content throughout the book. *Explore How to Use FEA as a Design/Modeling Tool: Open-ended design problems help stude...

  6. On-line immunoaffinity solid-phase extraction capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry using Fab´antibody fragments for the analysis of serum transthyretin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Laura; Benavente, Fernando; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes an on-line immunoaffinity solid-phase extraction capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (IA-SPE-CE-MS) method using an immunoaffinity sorbent with Fab' antibody fragments (Fab'-IA) for the analysis of serum transthyretin (TTR), a homotetrameric protein (M r ~56,000) involved in different types of amyloidosis. The IA sorbent was prepared by covalent attachment of Fab' fragments obtained from a polyclonal IgG antibody against TTR to succinimidyl silica particles. The Fab'-IA-SPE-CE-MS methodology was first established analyzing TTR standard solutions. Under optimized conditions, repeatability and reproducibility were acceptable, the method was linear between 1 and 25µgmL -1 , limits of detection (LODs) were around 0.5µgmL -1 (50-fold lower than by CE-MS, ~25µgmL -1 ) and different TTR conformations were observed (folded and unfolded). The applicability of the developed method to screen for familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy type I (FAP-I), which is the most common hereditary systemic amyloidosis, was evaluated analyzing serum samples from healthy controls and FAP-I patients. For the analysis of sera, the most abundant proteins were precipitated with 5% (v/v) of phenol before Fab'-IA-SPE-CE-MS. The current method enhanced our previous results for the analysis of TTR using intact antibodies immobilized on magnetic beads. It allowed a slight improvement on LODs (2-fold), the detection of proteoforms found at lower concentrations and the preparation of microcartridges with extended durability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Analysis of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by on-line coupled supercritical fluid extraction-liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmo, Masahiko; Adler, Heidi; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Hartonen, Kari; Kulmala, Markku; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    An on-line supercritical fluid extraction-liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SFE-LC-GC-MS) method was developed for the analysis of the particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The limits of detection of the system for the quantification standards were in the range of 0.25-0.57 ng, while the limits of determinations for filter samples varied from 0.02 to 0.04 ng m -3 (24 h sampling). The linearity was excellent from 5 to 300 ng ( R2>0.967). The analysis could be carried out in a closed system without tedious manual sample pretreatment and with no risk of errors by contamination or loss of the analytes. The results of the SFE-LC-GC-MS method were comparable with those for Soxhlet and shake-flask extractions with GC-MS. The new method was applied to the analysis of PAHs collected by high-volume filter in the Helsinki area to study the seasonal trend of the concentrations. The individual PAH concentrations varied from 0.015 to more than 1 ng m -3, while total PAH concentrations varied from 0.81 to 5.68 ng m -3. The concentrations were generally higher in winter than in summer. The mass percentage of the total PAHs in total suspended particulates ranged from 2.85×10 -3% in July to 15.0×10 -3% in December. Increased emissions in winter, meteorological conditions, and more serious artefacts during the sampling in summer season may explain the concentration profiles.

  8. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T. E-mail: tsuyoshi@termite.kuwri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 {mu}g/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 {mu}g/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 {mu}g/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 {mu}g/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  9. Optimization of on-line hydrogen stable isotope ratio measurements of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organic compounds using elemental analyzer–chromium/high-temperature conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehre, Matthias; Renpenning, Julian; Geilmann, Heike; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Kümmel, Steffen; Ivdra, Natalija; Brand, Willi A.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Accurate hydrogen isotopic analysis of halogen- and sulfur-bearing organics has not been possible with traditional high-temperature conversion (HTC) because the formation of hydrogen-bearing reaction products other than molecular hydrogen (H2) is responsible for non-quantitative H2 yields and possible hydrogen isotopic fractionation. Our previously introduced, new chromium-based EA-Cr/HTC-IRMS (Elemental Analyzer–Chromium/High-Temperature Conversion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) technique focused primarily on nitrogen-bearing compounds. Several technical and analytical issues concerning halogen- and sulfur-bearing samples, however, remained unresolved and required further refinement of the reactor systems.

  10. Elemental PIXE analysis of oolong tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, M.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.

    2008-01-01

    The contamination of heavy metals in food becomes a serious problem. We analyzed oolong tea from different production areas by PIXE using very simple sample preparation and examined trace elements contained in these samples. From the results of this experiment, we could know oolong tea which analyzed in this experiment contains various minerals such as K, Ca, P, S, Cl, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cr but not toxic element of As which detection limit of PIXE was lower than the standard values given by the food hygiene law in Japan. (author)

  11. Trace element analysis in soy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomiya, Michio

    1993-01-01

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of Br about 160 ppm. Comparison of Br content of the imported raw materials with those of the domestic ones suggested that the large amount of Br was the residual fumigation chemicals in the imported raw materials. (author)

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of light-actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosh, Eli; Makov, Guy; Shneck, Roni Z.

    2005-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of the alpha phases of the light actinide elements Th, U, Np and Pu were analysed. For each of the analysed elements, the Gibbs free-energy was modelled by an explicit function of temperature T and pressure P over the whole relevant T-P range, in a manner compatible with the CALPHAD (Calculation of Alloy Phase Diagrams) method. Several adjustable model-parameters were fitted to available experimental results. The model is based on a new semi-empirical equation of state, which interpolates with Thomas-Fermi type models for the volume and with the Dulong-Petit value for the heat capacity, at extreme pressures

  13. Finite-element analysis of dynamic fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberson, J. A.; Anderson, J. M.; King, W. W.

    1976-01-01

    Applications of the finite element method to the two dimensional elastodynamics of cracked structures are presented. Stress intensity factors are computed for two problems involving stationary cracks. The first serves as a vehicle for discussing lumped-mass and consistent-mass characterizations of inertia. In the second problem, the behavior of a photoelastic dynamic tear test specimen is determined for the time prior to crack propagation. Some results of a finite element simulation of rapid crack propagation in an infinite body are discussed.

  14. Elemental analysis of samples of rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J.J.; Sandoval J, R.A.; Aspiazu F, J.; Villasenor S, P.; Lugo L, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Applying the PIXE technique (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission) it was analyzed the purity of the samples that will be used to measure the production section of X rays with Li and B beams. It is not necessary to determine the concentrations of the pollutant elements. (Author)

  15. Elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosols in Gaborone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELO

    amount more than 90% were copper, lead, nickel and gold. Key words: Atmospheric particles, elements, ... Selebi-Phikwe area, gold and nickel in Francis town and soda ash in Sowa. Gaborone is the capital of ... a stub three times a week with an exposure time of four hours. The exposed stubs were collected and kept ...

  16. Analysis on the Three Elements in Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞

    2014-01-01

    In public communication,people may have no troubles to epress themselves grammatically correctly,but sometimes the sentences just sound not pragmatically proper. Through analyzing and comprehending those Elements in English to avoid the misunderstanding and misusing in the communication is significant.

  17. Analysis on 9 Elements in English Pragmatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞

    2014-01-01

    College Students may have no troubles to compose grammatically correct sentences to express themselves,but sometimes the sentences just seem not pragmatically proper.Through analyzing and comprehending the 9 Elements in English Pragmatics to avoid the misunderstanding and misusing in the communication is significant for English learners,special to one who intends to use English as a communicating medium.

  18. Analysis on the Three Elements in Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞

    2014-01-01

    In public communication,people may have no troubles to epress themselves grammatically correctly,but sometimes the sentences just sound not pragmatically proper.Through analyzing and comprehending those Elements in English to avoid the misunderstanding and misusing in the communication is significant.

  19. Finite Element Analysis of Pipe T-Joint

    OpenAIRE

    P.M.Gedkar; Dr. D.V. Bhope

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports stress analysis of two pressurized cylindrical intersection using finite element method. The different combinations of dimensions of run pipe and the branch pipe are used to investigate thestresses in pipe at the intersection. In this study the stress analysis is accomplished by finite element package ANSYS.

  20. VIRTUAL EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS ON CLEANING ELEMENT OF SUGARCANE HARVESTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Fanglan; Li Shangping; He Yulin; Meng Yanmei; Chen Weixu

    2005-01-01

    The laws of influence of different factors have been analyzed in order to enhance the working efficiency and fatigue life of the cleaning element in brush shape of the sugarcane harvester.Based on the principle of orthogonal experiment design, the virtual-orthogonal-experimental analysis for the cleaning element is carried out on the finite element analysis (FEA) software-ANSYS after analyzing the nonlinear structural behavior in the working procedure. The results are analyzed with the overall balancing method, and then the optimal combination is got, which is made up of different levels of different factors. Also the optimal combination of design parameters of the cleaning element received from the virtual experimental analysis is conducted an experiment to confirm that the virtual analysis model and results are right, and the effect of factors on the function of the cleaning element is obtained by more analysis and further optimizing.

  1. Finite element reliability analysis of fatigue life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, H.H.; Belytschko, T.; Liu, W.K.

    1992-01-01

    Fatigue reliability is addressed by the first-order reliability method combined with a finite element method. Two-dimensional finite element models of components with cracks in mode I are considered with crack growth treated by the Paris law. Probability density functions of the variables affecting fatigue are proposed to reflect a setting where nondestructive evaluation is used, and the Rosenblatt transformation is employed to treat non-Gaussian random variables. Comparisons of the first-order reliability results and Monte Carlo simulations suggest that the accuracy of the first-order reliability method is quite good in this setting. Results show that the upper portion of the initial crack length probability density function is crucial to reliability, which suggests that if nondestructive evaluation is used, the probability of detection curve plays a key role in reliability. (orig.)

  2. Finite element analysis of human joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, P.L.; Hollerbach, K.

    1996-09-01

    Our work focuses on the development of finite element models (FEMs) that describe the biomechanics of human joints. Finite element modeling is becoming a standard tool in industrial applications. In highly complex problems such as those found in biomechanics research, however, the full potential of FEMs is just beginning to be explored, due to the absence of precise, high resolution medical data and the difficulties encountered in converting these enormous datasets into a form that is usable in FEMs. With increasing computing speed and memory available, it is now feasible to address these challenges. We address the first by acquiring data with a high resolution C-ray CT scanner and the latter by developing semi-automated method for generating the volumetric meshes used in the FEM. Issues related to tomographic reconstruction, volume segmentation, the use of extracted surfaces to generate volumetric hexahedral meshes, and applications of the FEM are described.

  3. Finite element analysis of human joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, P.L.; Hollerbach, K.

    1996-09-01

    Our work focuses on the development of finite element models (FEMs) that describe the biomechanics of human joints. Finite element modeling is becoming a standard tool in industrial applications. In highly complex problems such as those found in biomechanics research, however, the full potential of FEMs is just beginning to be explored, due to the absence of precise, high resolution medical data and the difficulties encountered in converting these enormous datasets into a form that is usable in FEMs. With increasing computing speed and memory available, it is now feasible to address these challenges. We address the first by acquiring data with a high resolution C-ray CT scanner and the latter by developing semi-automated method for generating the volumetric meshes used in the FEM. Issues related to tomographic reconstruction, volume segmentation, the use of extracted surfaces to generate volumetric hexahedral meshes, and applications of the FEM are described

  4. Elemental analysis: Reduction to SI units; Rueckfuehrung in der Elementanalytik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienitz, O.; Jaehrling, R.; Schiel, D. [PTB-Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Anorganische Analytik' ' , Braunschweig (Germany); Matschat, R.; Kipphardt, H. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Gernand, W.; Oeter, D. [MercK KGaA (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    In a joint project, PTB, BAM and Merck KGaA worked on a metrological reduction system for all elements relevant to analysis. The BAM certified primary pure substances with a relative error of U{sub rel} {<=} 0.01% for the mass of the main element. This was achieved by measuring the mass components of all potential impurities, i.e. practically all elements of the periodic system except the main element. These pure substances are the national reference standards of elemental analysis. From them, PTB produces primary elementa solutions and transfer solutions which are passed on as reference standards. The industrial partner constructed the DKD calibration laboratory, which certifies commercial secondary calibration solutions on the basis of the reference standard solutions produced by PTB. With this final product, measurements in elemental analysis can be reduced to the SI units system as a routine procedure. (orig.)

  5. A Dual Super-Element Domain Decomposition Approach for Parallel Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhio, G. A.; Izzuddin, B. A.

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a new domain decomposition method for nonlinear finite element analysis introducing the concept of dual partition super-elements. The method extends ideas from the displacement frame method and is ideally suited for parallel nonlinear static/dynamic analysis of structural systems. In the new method, domain decomposition is realized by replacing one or more subdomains in a "parent system," each with a placeholder super-element, where the subdomains are processed separately as "child partitions," each wrapped by a dual super-element along the partition boundary. The analysis of the overall system, including the satisfaction of equilibrium and compatibility at all partition boundaries, is realized through direct communication between all pairs of placeholder and dual super-elements. The proposed method has particular advantages for matrix solution methods based on the frontal scheme, and can be readily implemented for existing finite element analysis programs to achieve parallelization on distributed memory systems with minimal intervention, thus overcoming memory bottlenecks typically faced in the analysis of large-scale problems. Several examples are presented in this article which demonstrate the computational benefits of the proposed parallel domain decomposition approach and its applicability to the nonlinear structural analysis of realistic structural systems.

  6. Elemental hair analysis: A review of procedures and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozebon, D.; Scheffler, G.L.; Dressler, V.L.

    2017-01-01

    Although exogenous contamination and unreliable reference values have limited the utility of scalp hair as a biomarker of chemical elements exposure, its use in toxicological, clinical, environmental and forensic investigations is growing and becoming more extensive. Therefore, hair elemental analysis is reviewed in the current manuscript which spans articles published in the last 10 years. It starts with a general discussion of history, morphology and possible techniques for elemental analysis, where inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is clearly highlighted since this technique is leading quantitative ultra-trace elemental analysis. Emphasis over sampling, quality assurance, washing procedures and sample decomposition is given with detailed protocols compiled in tables as well as the utility of hair to identify human gender, age, diseases, healthy conditions, nutrition status and contamination sites. Isotope ratio information, chemical speciation analysis and analyte preconcentration are also considered for hair. Finally, the potential of laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) to provide spatial resolution and time-track the monitoring of elements in hair strands instead of conventional bulk analysis is spotlighted as a real future trend in the field. - Highlights: • Elemental analysis of hair is critically reviewed, with focus on ICP-MS employment. • Standards protocols of hair washing and sample decomposition are compiled. • The usefulness of elemental and/or isotopic analysis of hair is demonstrated. • The potential of LA-ICP-MS for elemental time tracking in hair is highlighted.

  7. Neutron-activation analysis of trace elements in thyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Petri, H.; Kanash, N.V.; Malenchenko, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used for routine measurement of trace elements in thyroids of inhabitants of Belarus as well as in thyroids of people operated for thyroid cancer. The method chosen allowed the analysis of 28 elements, among them essential and toxic ones, with a good accuracy. The results obtained showed significant differences in the elemental composition of thyroid from the different regions. The changes of elemental composition of thyroids of inhabitants of the Gomel region, where goiter is endemic, seem to be identical to those in the tumor tissue. (author)

  8. On constitutive modelling in finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathe, K.J.; Snyder, M.D.; Cleary, M.P.

    1979-01-01

    This compact contains a brief introduction to the problems involved in constitutive modeling as well as an outline of the final paper to be submitted. Attention is focussed on three important areas: (1) the need for using theoretically sound material models and the importance of recognizing the limitations of the models, (2) the problem of developing stable and effective numerical representations of the models, and (3) the necessity for selection of an appropriate finite element mesh that can capture the actual physical response of the complete structure. In the final paper, we will be presenting our recent research results pertaining to each of these problem areas. (orig.)

  9. SEM and elemental analysis of composite resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, H.; Yamada, T.; Inokoshi, S.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four chemically cured, 21 light-cured anterior, three light-cured anterior/posterior, and 18 light-cured posterior composite resins were examined using scanning electron microscopy, and the elemental composition of their filler particles was analyzed with an energy dispersive electron probe microanalyzer. According to the results obtained, the composite resins were divided into five groups (traditional, microfilled type, submicrofilled type, hybrid type, and semihybrid), with two additional hypothetical categories (microfilled and hybrid). Characteristics of each type were described with clinical indications for selective guidance of respective composite resins for clinical use

  10. The study of the dynamic behaviour and safety of nuclear power plants by means of on-line, real time noise signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1973-01-01

    This paper describes an on-line data acquisition system designed to carry out the above funtions. Preliminary results obtained during the monitoring of the HIFAR reactor of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission are reported and discussed. The relationships between experimental measurements and basic stochastic models are explored. (author)

  11. Validation of a high performance liquid chromatography analysis for the determination of noradrenaline and adrenaline in human urine with an on-line sample purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, J; Nielsen, J L

    1999-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection including an on-line purification was established for determination of catecholamines in human urine. The method was evaluated using samples of pooled urine spiked with catecholamines and validated for measurements...

  12. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelenz, R.; Fischer, E.

    1976-05-01

    A neutron activation method for multielement determination in biological material was developed. The individual steps of the method include radiochemical processing as well as nondestructive techniques. In order to develop a high resolution gamma spectrometric method the indispensable assumptions were the application of Ge(Li)-semiconductor detectors, multi-channel pulse height analyzers and the use of electronic data evaluation with mini-computers for the automatic evaluation of complex gamma spectra. After radiochemical separation (RNAA) 33 elements can be determined in biological materials and by application of nondestructive, purely instrumental techniques (INAA) 25 elements. The time required for the analysis of 33 elements can be determined in biological materials and by application of nondestructive, purely instrumental techniques (INAA) 25 elements. The time required for the analysis of 33 elements is 4 days. The neutron activation method is used routinely for the determination of trace elements in foodstuffs and in the field of nutrition research. (orig.) [de

  13. Alphavirus replicon approach to promoterless analysis of IRES elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrud, K I; Custer, M; Dudek, J M; Owens, G; Alterson, K D; Lee, J S; Groebner, J L; Smith, J F

    2007-04-10

    Here we describe a system for promoterless analysis of putative internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements using an alphavirus (family Togaviridae) replicon vector. The system uses the alphavirus subgenomic promoter to produce transcripts that, when modified to contain a spacer region upstream of an IRES element, allow analysis of cap-independent translation of genes of interest (GOI). If the IRES element is removed, translation of the subgenomic transcript can be reduced >95% compared to the same transcript containing a functional IRES element. Alphavirus replicons, used in this manner, offer an alternative to standard dicistronic DNA vectors or in vitro translation systems currently used to analyze putative IRES elements. In addition, protein expression levels varied depending on the spacer element located upstream of each IRES. The ability to modulate the level of expression from alphavirus vectors should extend the utility of these vectors in vaccine development.

  14. Elemental analysis of biological materials. Current problems and techniques with special reference to trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Selected techniques were reviewed for the assay of trace and minor elements in biological materials. Other relevant information is also presented on the need for such analyses, sampling, sample preparation and analytical quality control. In order to evaluate and compare the applicability of the various analytical techniques on a meaningful and objective basis, the materials chosen for consideration were intended to be typical of a wide range of biological matrics of different elemental compositions, namely Bowen's kale, representing a plant material, and NBS bovine liver, IAEA animal muscle, and blood serum, representing animal tissues. The subject is reviewed under the following headings: on the need for trace element analyses in the life sciences (4 papers); sampling and sample preparation for trace element analysis (2 papers); analytical techniques for trace and minor elements in biological materials (7 papers); analytical quality control (2 papers)

  15. Finite element analysis of inclined nozzle-plate junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, K.B.; Seth, V.K.; Krishnan, A.; Ramamurthy, T.S.; Dattaguru, B.; Rao, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    Estimation of stress concentration at nozzle to plate or shell junctions is a significant problem in the stress analysis of nuclear reactors. The topic is a subject matter of extensive investigations and earlier considerable success has been reported on analysis for the cases when the nozzle is perpendicular to the plate or is radial to the shell. Analytical methods for the estimation of stress concentrations for the practical situations when the intersecting nozzle is inclined to the plate or is non-radial to the shell is rather scanty. Specific complications arise in dealing with the junction region when the nozzle with circular cross-section meets the non-circular cut-out on the plate or shell. In this paper a finite element analysis is developed for inclined nozzles and results are presented for nozzle-plate junctions. A method of analysis is developed with a view to achieving simultaneously accuracy of results and simplicity in the choice of elements and their connectivity. The circular nozzle is treated by axisymmetric conical shell elements. The nozzle portion in the region around the junction and the flat plate is dealt with by triangular flat shell elements. Special transition elements are developed for joining the flat shell elements with the axisymmetric elements under non-axisymmetric loading. A substructure method of analysis is adopted which achieves considerable economy in handling the structure and also conveniently combines the different types of elements in the structure. (orig.)

  16. PIXE methodology of rare earth element analysis and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinpei

    1992-01-01

    The Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) methodology of rare earth element (REEs) analysis is discussed, including the significance of REE analysis, the principle of PIXE applied to REE, selection of characteristic X-ray for Lanthanide series elements, deconvolution of highly over lapped PIXE spectrum and minimum detection limit (MDL) of REEs. Some practical applications are presented. And the specialities of PIXE analysis to the high pure REE chemicals are discussed. (author)

  17. A computer program for structural analysis of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, I.M.V.; Perrotta, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    It's presented the code ELCOM for the matrix analysis of tubular structures coupled by rigid spacers, typical of PWR's fuel elements. The code ELCOM makes a static structural analysis, where the displacements and internal forces are obtained for each structure at the joints with the spacers, and also, the natural frequencies and vibrational modes of an equivalent integrated structure are obtained. The ELCOM result is compared to a PWR fuel element structural analysis obtained in published paper. (author) [pt

  18. 2. Methods of elemental analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.

    1992-01-01

    The principles of activation analysis are outlined including the preparation of samples and reference materials, the choice of suitable activation sources, interfering effects, detection of radiation emitted and analysis of mixtures of emitters, and the potential of activation analysis in various fields of science and technology. The principles of X-ray fluorescence analysis and the associated instrumentation are also dealt with, and examples of applications are given. Described are also the physical nature of the Moessbauer effect, Moessbauer sources and spectrometers, and the applicability of this effect in physical research and in the investigation of iron-containing materials. (Z.S.). 1 tab., 20 figs., 90 refs

  19. Multi-element analysis of small biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokita, E.; Cafmeyer, J.; Maenhaut, W.

    1983-01-01

    A method combining PIXE and INAA was developed to determine the elemental composition of small biological samples. The method needs virtually no sample preparation and less than 1 mg is sufficient for the analysis. The method was used for determining up to 18 elements in leaves taken from Cracow Herbaceous. The factors which influence the elemental composition of leaves and the possible use of leaves as an environmental pollution indicator are discussed

  20. High accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis will also be discussed

  1. X-ray fluorescent elemental analysis. Ch. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshev, V.; Kulipanov, G.; Skrinsky, A.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis (XFA) is used worldwide to define a quantitative content of the elements as well as to visualize the distribution of elements in different regions (element mapping). Utilization of synchrotron radiation (SR) to excite X-ray fluorescence enables the XFA method to be qualitatively improved. This chapter reviews the experimental work in especially the last decade (author). 71 refs.; 24 figs.; 3 tabs

  2. High accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Eric M.

    1997-01-01

    A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis will also be discussed

  3. An automated method for the analysis of phenolic acids in plasma based on ion-pairing micro-extraction coupled on-line to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with in-liner derivatisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.; Kaal, E.; Horsting, I.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2012-01-01

    A new method is presented for the analysis of phenolic acids in plasma based on ion-pairing ‘Micro-extraction in packed sorbent’ (MEPS) coupled on-line to in-liner derivatisation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The ion-pairing reagent served a dual purpose. It was used both to improve

  4. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Shells with Large Aspect Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T. Y.; Sawamiphakdi, K.

    1984-01-01

    A higher order degenerated shell element with nine nodes was selected for large deformation and post-buckling analysis of thick or thin shells. Elastic-plastic material properties are also included. The post-buckling analysis algorithm is given. Using a square plate, it was demonstrated that the none-node element does not have shear locking effect even if its aspect ratio was increased to the order 10 to the 8th power. Two sample problems are given to illustrate the analysis capability of the shell element.

  5. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in IAEA reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheema, M.N.; Hasany, S.M.; Hanif, I.; Chaudhry, M.S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1978-09-01

    Analytical Chemistry Group of Nuclear Chemistry Division at PINSTECH has been participating in IAEA Intercomparison programme of analytical quality control since 1972. So far fifteen samples of a variety of materials received from the Agency have been analyzed for different minor and trace elements. Mostly destructive and non-destructive neutron activation analysis techniques have been used for elemental analysis. In this report the description of the samples and the experimental procedures employed have been mentioned. The results of elemental analysis have been reported and compared with IAEA values which are based on the average computed from the results of different participating laboratories. (authors)

  6. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperek, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis such as, e.g., neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilisators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicium in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalysators. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection. (orig./AK) [de

  7. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperek, K; Feinendegen, L E

    1976-01-01

    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis, such as neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilizators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicon in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalyzers. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection.

  8. Finite element stress analysis of brick-mortar masonry under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress analysis of a brick-mortar couplet as a substitute for brick wall structure has been performed by finite element method, and algorithm for determining the element stiffness matrix for a plane stress problem using the displacement approach was developed. The nodal displacements were derived for the stress in each ...

  9. Trace elements in Australian opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Fardy, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 42 samples of black, grey and white opals taken from a number of recognised Australian field. The results were evaluated to determine if a relationship exited between trace element content and opal colour. (author) 12 refs.; 12 figs.; 3 tabs

  10. Probing Trace-elements in Bitumen by Neutron Activation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    Trace elements and their concentrations play an important role in both chemical and physical properties of bitumen. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to determine the concentration of trace elements in bitumen. This method requires irradiation of the material with

  11. Analysis of electrophoretic soil humic acids fractions by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with on-line absorbance and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoj, Oleg A; Richard, Claire; Guyot, Ghislain; Voyard, Guillaume; Trubetskaya, Olga E

    2012-06-22

    A combination of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP HPLC) with on-line absorbance and fluorescence detection was used for analysis of chernozem soil humic acids (HAs) and their fractions A, B and C+D with different electrophoretic mobility (EM) and molecular size (MS). Samples were injected onto the column at the identical volume and absorbance. All chromatograms exhibit the resolution of seven peaks. The estimation of relative recovery of HAs and fractions from the reverse-phase column has been done. High MS fraction A, which possesses the low EM, is essentially more hydrophobic (73% of the fraction amount remained adsorbed on the column) and aliphatic than medium MS and EM fraction B (33% of the fraction amount remained adsorbed on the column). The most hydrophilic and aromatic properties belong to low MS fraction C+D, which possess the highest EM and practically was not adsorbed on the column. The hydrophobicity of the bulk HAs lies within the range of fractions hydrophobicity. The absorption spectra of bulk HAs, electrophoretic fractions A, B, C+D and corresponding RP HPLC peaks were featureless but had differences in the values of absorbance ratio at 300 and 400 nm (A3/A4). For fractions A and B this ratio gradually decreased from peak 1 to 7 (from 3.05 to 2.80 and 3.00 to 2.40, respectively). This trend was less pronounced in HAs and practically absent in fraction C+D, where ratio A3/A4 varied within a small range. The strong relationship between fluorescence properties, EM, MS, polarity and aliphaticity/aromaticity of HAs fractions was found. Humic and protein-like fluorescence had different polarity nature. The protein-like fluorescence is located in humic material which irreversibly adsorbed on the reverse-phase column and not subjected to RP HPLC characterization. The humic-like fluorescence at Ex/Em 270/450 nm is mostly located in the hydrophilic peak of low MS fraction C+D. Taking into account that high MS fraction A consisted

  12. On-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for insect repellent residue analysis in surface waters using atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins-Delgado, Daniel; García-Sillero, Daniel; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2018-04-06

    Insect repellents (IRs) are a group of organic chemicals whose function is to prevent the ability of insects of landing in a surface. These compounds have been found in the environment and may pose a risk to non-target organisms. In this study, an on-line solid phase extraction - high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry multiresidue method was developed using an atmospheric photoionization source (SPE-HPLC-(APPI)-MS/MS). The use of the APPI as an alternative ionization technique to electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) allowed expanding the range of analytical techniques suitable for the analysis of IRs, so far relied in gas chromatography. High sensitivity and precision was reached with method limits of quantification between 0.2 and 4.6 ng l -1 and interday and intraday precision equal or below 15%. The validated method was applied to the study of surface water samples from three European river basins with different flow regime (Adige River in Italy, Sava River in the Balkans, and Evrotas River in Greece). The results showed that two IRs (DEET and Bayrepel) were ubiquitous in the Sava and Evrotas basins, reaching concentrations as high as 105 μg l -1 of Bayrepel in the Sava River, and 5 μg l -1 of DEET in the Evrotas River. Densely populated areas and effluent waste waters are pointed out as the responsible for this pollution. In the alpine river Adige, only three samples showed low levels of IRs (6.01-37.8 ng l -1 ). The concentrations measured were used to perform an environmental risk assessment based on the hazard quotients (HQs) estimation approach by using the chronic and acute eco-toxicity data available. The results revealed that despite the high frequency and eventually high concentrations of these IRs determined in the three basins, only few sites were at risk, with 1 < HQs < 3.3. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Return on Investment Analysis of Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth: A 2-Year Review of the Navy's Newest Teleconsultation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Andrew H; Welstead, Bethany L; Morey, Brittany L; Mahnke, C Becket; Cole, Jacob H; Johnston, Michael G

    2017-05-01

    Health Experts onLine at Portsmouth (HELP) is a web-based teleconsultation system launched in June 2014 to facilitate communication between specialists at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth and providers assigned to both the fleet forces and primary care clinics across the eastern United States, Europe, and the Middle East. Specialist consultations through the HELP system purport to improve access to care for patients who otherwise might be referred to the civilian network or medically evacuated (MEDEVACed) to Naval Medical Center Portsmouth for specialized care. If HELP-facilitated communications help avoid civilian referrals or MEDEVACs, the associated costs of that care should be reduced. We evaluated cost savings associated with prevented MEDEVACs by analyzing both tangible savings (prevented costs of flights, per diems, and consults) and intangible savings (reduced lost productivity time). We compared these savings to the costs of maintaining and utilizing the HELP system: startup costs, administrative costs, and provider time costs. We used patient and provider data from the HELP database to evaluate clinical consult cases. Before this analysis, a panel of 3 physicians associated with HELP reviewed each consult to determine whether a case qualified as a prevented MEDEVAC. Data from the Military Health System (MHS) Management and Analysis Reporting Tool and the MHS Data Repository were used to estimate costs associated with provider time, patient time, and direct care medical encounters. The HELP program delivered measurable, positive returns on investment (ROIs) between June 2014 and December 2015. In that time frame, 559 consult cases occurred in the HELP system. Of the 559 total consult cases, 50 consults prevented MEDEVACs. Incorporating only tangible savings, HELP produced an 80% ROI on the basis of prevented medical evacuations; the addition of intangible savings such as reduced lost productivity increased the ROI to 250%. The dollar values of these savings

  14. Introduction to finite element analysis using MATLAB and Abaqus

    CERN Document Server

    Khennane, Amar

    2013-01-01

    There are some books that target the theory of the finite element, while others focus on the programming side of things. Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Using MATLAB(R) and Abaqus accomplishes both. This book teaches the first principles of the finite element method. It presents the theory of the finite element method while maintaining a balance between its mathematical formulation, programming implementation, and application using commercial software. The computer implementation is carried out using MATLAB, while the practical applications are carried out in both MATLAB and Abaqus. MA

  15. Shakedown analysis by finite element incremental procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, A.; Kleiber, M.

    1979-01-01

    It is a common occurence in many practical problems that external loads are variable and the exact time-dependent history of loading is unknown. Instead of it load is characterized by a given loading domain: a convex polyhedron in the n-dimensional space of load parameters. The problem is then to check whether a structure shakes down, i.e. responds elastically after a few elasto-plastic cycles, or not to a variable loading as defined above. Such check can be performed by an incremental procedure. One should reproduce incrementally a simple cyclic process which consists of proportional load paths that connect the origin of the load space with the corners of the loading domain. It was proved that if a structure shakes down to such loading history then it is able to adopt itself to an arbitrary load path contained in the loading domain. The main advantage of such approach is the possibility to use existing incremental finite-element computer codes. (orig.)

  16. On-line pre-reduction of pentavalent arsenicals by thioglycolic acid for speciation analysis by selective hydride generation-cryotrapping-atomic absorption spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musil, Stanislav; Matoušek, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 6 (2008), s. 685-691 ISSN 0584-8547 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400310507 Grant - others:NIH-FIRCA(US) 1 R03 TW007057-01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : HG-AAS * methylated arsenic species * on-line pre-reduction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.853, year: 2008

  17. Optical strain measurements and its finite element analysis of cold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... Online video images of square grid were recorded during the deformation ... Finite element software ANSYS has been applied for the analysis of the upset forming process.

  18. Elemental analysis of combustion products by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heft, R.E.; Koszykowski, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the neutron activation analysis method, which is being used to determine the elemental profile of combustion products from coal-fired power plants, oil shale retorting, and underground coal gasification

  19. Finite element analysis of thermal stress distribution in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Jan-Feb 2016 • Vol 19 • Issue 1. Abstract ... Key words: Amalgam, finite element method, glass ionomer cement, resin composite, thermal stress ... applications for force analysis and assessment of different.

  20. A study on the nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete structures: shell finite element formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2000-08-01

    The main goal of this research is to establish a methodology of finite element analysis of containment building predicting not only global behaviour but also local failure mode. In this report, we summerize some existing numerical analysis techniques to be improved for containment building. In other words, a complete description of the standard degenerated shell finite element formulation is provided for nonlinear stress analysis of nuclear containment structure. A shell finite element is derived using the degenerated solid concept which does not rely on a specific shell theory. Reissner-Mindlin assumptions are adopted to consider the transverse shear deformation effect. In order to minimize the sensitivity of the constitutive equation to structural types, microscopic material model is adopted. The four solution algorithms based on the standard Newton-Raphson method are discussed. Finally, two numerical examples are carried out to test the performance of the adopted shell medel.

  1. A study on the nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete structures: shell finite element formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2000-08-01

    The main goal of this research is to establish a methodology of finite element analysis of containment building predicting not only global behaviour but also local failure mode. In this report, we summerize some existing numerical analysis techniques to be improved for containment building. In other words, a complete description of the standard degenerated shell finite element formulation is provided for nonlinear stress analysis of nuclear containment structure. A shell finite element is derived using the degenerated solid concept which does not rely on a specific shell theory. Reissner-Mindlin assumptions are adopted to consider the transverse shear deformation effect. In order to minimize the sensitivity of the constitutive equation to structural types, microscopic material model is adopted. The four solution algorithms based on the standard Newton-Raphson method are discussed. Finally, two numerical examples are carried out to test the performance of the adopted shell medel

  2. Trace and ultratrace level elemental and speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate determination of elements present at parts per million and billion levels in various matrices is a growing requirement in different fields. In environmental sciences various trace elements need to be analyzed so as establish the dispersal models of pollutants or the adequacy of effluent treatment prior to discharge into water bodies. The issues of bioaccumulation and magnification are important in aquatic systems. In nutrition and biochemistry one has to establish the bio-availability of essential and toxic elemental species as toxic elements prevent assimilation of essential elements. Fission and fusion technologies use a variety of structural materials requiring many trace elements to be present at levels strictly below the specified levels. Ultra-pure bulk semiconductor materials are required for fabrication devices. In metallurgy and materials sciences too, various trace elements are known to influence the properties. In the emerging fields like nanotechnology, it is necessary to understand the passage and accumulation of nano-particles inside the cells, through trace analysis. Many analytical techniques exist which can provide the concentration information in the bulk materials with good accuracy. They include ICP-AES, FAAS, and ICP-MS, which are solution based techniques. Direct solid state analytical techniques are Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) and XRF. Accelerator based ion-beam analysis techniques can provide information on concentration and depth profiles of different elements in layered structures. Hyphenated techniques such as HPLC/lC-ICPMS, are helpful in identifying various chemical oxidation states in which a given element might be present in a matrix, which is termed as speciation analysis. This presentation will include the existing analytical competencies and the laboratory requirements for trace and ultra trace element elemental and speciation analyses and their applications. (author)

  3. On-line monitoring for calibration reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Mario; Gran, Frauke Schmitt; Thunem, Harald P-J.

    2004-04-01

    On-Line Monitoring (OLM) of a channel's calibration state evaluates instrument channel performance by assessing its consistency with other plant indications. Industry and experience at several plants has shown this overall approach to be very effective in identifying instrument channels that are exhibiting degrading or inconsistent performance characteristics. The Halden Reactor Project has developed the signal validation system PEANO, which can be used to assist with the tasks of OLM. To further enhance the PEANO System for use as a calibration reduction tool, the following two additional modules have been developed; HRP Prox, which performs pre-processing and statistical analysis of signal data, Batch Monitoring Module (BMM), which is an off-line batch monitoring and reporting suite. The purpose and functionality of the HRP Prox and BMM modules are discussed in this report, as well as the improvements made to the PEANO Server to support these new modules. The Halden Reactor Project has established a Halden On-Line Monitoring User Group (HOLMUG), devoted to the discussion and implementation of on-line monitoring techniques in power plants. It is formed by utilities, vendors, regulatory bodies and research institutes that meet regularly to discuss implementation aspects of on-line monitoring, technical specification changes, cost-benefit analysis and regulatory issues. (Author)

  4. Analysis and design of lumped element Marchand baluns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a novel design procedure for lumped element Marchand baluns is proposed. An analysis is performed on the balun structure in order to determine the conditions for ideal balun performance in terms of the lumped element values. The analysis is verified by two broadband designs centered...... around 22.75 GHz and differing only in terms of their impedance transformation ratio. EM simulation results on our proposed lumped element Marchand balun structure predicts an insertion loss of 4 dB and return loss of 40 dB at the design frequency of 22.75 GHz. The amplitude and phase imbalance...

  5. Finite element analysis of tubular joints in offshore structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... representing a 2-D model of the joint between the brace and the chord walls. This was subsequently followed but finite element analysis of six tubular joints. A global analysis was initially undertaken, then the submodel analysis carried in the areas of stress concentration. Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT (2001) Vol 6, ...

  6. ANALYSIS OF DESIGN ELEMENTS IN SKI SUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsen Çileroğlu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Popularity of Ski Sport in 19th century necessitated a new perspective on protective skiing clothing ag ainst the mountain climates and excessive cold. Winter clothing were the basis of ski attire during this period. By the beginning of 20th century lining cloth were used to minimize the wind effect. The difference between the men and women’s ski attire of the time consisted of a knee - length skirts worn over the golf trousers. Subsequent to the First World War, skiing suit models were influenced by the period uniforms and the producers reflected the fashion trends to the ski clothing. In conformance with th e prevailing trends, ski trousers were designed and produced for the women thus leading to reduction in gender differences. Increases in the ski tourism and holding of the first winter olympics in 1924 resulted in variations in ski attires, development of design characteristics, growth in user numbers, and enlargement of production capacities. Designers emphasized in their collections combined presence of elegance and practicality in the skiing attire. In 1930s, the ski suits influenced by pilots’ uniforms included characteristics permitting freedom of motion, and the design elements exhibited changes in terms of style, material and aerodynamics. In time, the ski attires showed varying design features distinguishing professionals from the amateurs. While protective functionality was primary consideration for the amateurs, for professionals the aerodynamic design was also a leading factor. Eventually, the increased differences in design characteristics were exhibited in ski suit collections, World reknown brands were formed, production and sales volumes showed significant rise. During 20th century the ski suits influenced by fashion trends to acquire unique styles reached a position of dominance to impact current fashion trends, and apart from sports attir es they became a style determinant in the clothing of cold climates. Ski suits

  7. Finite Element Analysis of Circular Plate using SolidWorks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yeo Jin; Jhung, Myung Jo

    2011-01-01

    Circular plates are used extensively in mechanical engineering for nuclear reactor internal components. The examples in the reactor vessel internals are upper guide structure support plate, fuel alignment plate, lower support plate etc. To verify the structural integrity of these plates, the finite element analyses are performed, which require the development of the finite element model. Sometimes it is very costly and time consuming to make the model especially for the beginners who start their engineering job for the structural analysis, necessitating a simple method to develop the finite element model for the pursuing structural analysis. Therefore in this study, the input decks are generated for the finite element analysis of a circular plate as shown in Fig. 1, which can be used for the structural analysis such as modal analysis, response spectrum analysis, stress analysis, etc using the commercial program Solid Works. The example problems are solved and the results are included for analysts to perform easily the finite element analysis of the mechanical plate components due to various loadings. The various results presented in this study would be helpful not only for the benchmark calculations and results comparisons but also as a part of the knowledge management for the future generation of young designers, scientists and computer analysts

  8. Analysis of concrete beams using applied element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a displacement based method of structural analysis. Some of its features are similar to that of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, the structure is analysed by dividing it into several elements similar to FEM. But, in AEM, elements are connected by springs instead of nodes as in the case of FEM. In this paper, background to AEM is discussed and necessary equations are derived. For illustrating the application of AEM, it has been used to analyse plain concrete beam of fixed support condition. The analysis is limited to the analysis of 2-dimensional structures. It was found that the number of springs has no much influence on the results. AEM could predict deflection and reactions with reasonable degree of accuracy.

  9. Dynamic relaxation method in analysis of reinforced concrete bent elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szcześniak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for the analysis of nonlinear behaviour of reinforced concrete bent elements subjected to short-term static load. The considerations in the range of modelling of deformation processes of reinforced concrete element were carried out. The method of structure effort analysis was developed using the finite difference method. The Dynamic Relaxation Method, which — after introduction of critical damping — allows for description of the static behaviour of a structural element, was used to solve the system of nonlinear equilibrium equations. In order to increase the method effectiveness in the range of the post-critical analysis, the Arc Length Parameter on the equilibrium path was introduced into the computational procedure.[b]Keywords[/b]: reinforced concrete elements, physical nonlinearity, geometrical nonlinearity, dynamic relaxation method, arc-length method

  10. Analysis of trace elements in opal using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Ruth, E-mail: ruth.hinrichs@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Geociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bertol, A.P.L. [Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vasconcellos, M.A.Z. [Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is particularly important for the analysis of trace elements of precious samples, being one of the few methods to determine elements with ppm concentration that does not affect sample integrity. A PIXE methodology for trace element analysis in opal was developed. To avoid detector count saturation due to the high number of Si-Kα X-rays generated in the sample, several filters were employed to optimize the reduction of the Si-Kα signal, while maintaining acceptable intensities of the other relevant X-ray lines. Two proton beam energies were tested, to establish the signal to noise ratio in different X-ray energies. Spectra were fitted with the software GUPIX, using a matrix composition determined with electron beam excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Above the energy of the silicon X-ray, several trace elements were quantified.

  11. Correct use of Membrane Elements in Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothman Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural analysis of consumer electronic devices such as phones and tablets involves Finite Element Analysis (FEA. Dynamic loading conditions such as device dropping and bending dictate accurate FEA models to reduce design risk in many areas. The solid elements typically used in structural analysis do not have integration points on the surface. The outer surface is of most interest because that is where the cracks start. Analysts employ a post processing trick through using membranes to bring accurate stress/strain results to the surface. This paper explains numerical issues with implementation of membranes and recommends a methodology for accurate structural analysis.

  12. CERN Video News on line

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The latest CERN video news is on line. In this issue : an interview with the Director General and reports on the new home for the DELPHI barrel and the CERN firemen's spectacular training programme. There's also a vintage video news clip from 1954. See: www.cern.ch/video or Bulletin web page

  13. Using the ion microprobe mass analyser for trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Most techniques for the analysis of trace elements are capable of determining the concentrations in a bulk sample or solution, but without reflecting their distribution. In a bulk analysis therefore elements which occur in high concentration in a few precipitates would still be considered trace elements even though their local concentration greatly exceed the normally accepted trace elements concentration limit. Anomalous distribution is also shown by an oxide layer, a few hundred Angstrom thick, on an aluminium sample. A low oxide concentration would be reported if it were included in the bulk analysis, which contradicts the high surface concentration. The importance of a knowledge of the trace element distribution is therefore demonstrated. Distributional trace element analysis can be carried out using the ion microprobe mass analyser (IMMA). Since the analytical technique used in this instrument, namely secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), is not universally appreciated, the instrument and its features will be described briefly followed by a discussion of quantitative analysis and the related subjects of detection limit and sample consumption. Finally, a few examples of the use of the instrument are given

  14. Elements of stochastic calculus and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stroock, Daniel W

    2018-01-01

    This book gives a somewhat unconventional introduction to stochastic analysis. Although most of the material covered here has appeared in other places, this book attempts to explain the core ideas on which that material is based. As a consequence, the presentation is more an extended mathematical essay than a ``definition, lemma, theorem'' text. In addition, it includes several topics that are not usually treated elsewhere. For example, Wiener's theory of homogeneous chaos is discussed, Stratovich integration is given a novel development and applied to derive Wong and Zakai's approximation theorem, and examples are given of the application of Malliavin's calculus to partial differential equations. Each chapter concludes with several exercises, some of which are quite challenging. The book is intended for use by advanced graduate students and research mathematicians who may be familiar with many of the topics but want to broaden their understanding of them.

  15. The potential of dielectric analysis as an on-line cure monitoring technique in the manufacture of advanced fibre reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlhagger, A.T.

    2002-02-01

    Composite manufacturing processes such as RTM, are being developed in the aerospace industry in order to promote and reduce the cost of advanced fibre reinforced composites. The aerospace industry has identified the need for a cure monitoring system to be utilised in this production, to improve the efficiency and reliability of processing. The system must be able to determine through-thickness properties of the composite, on-line and without affecting the integrity of the finished component. Literature has shown that a number of techniques are available but these do not address all of the requirements of industry. The most important process parameters in RTM are the resin flow, point of minimum viscosity, gelation and subsequent completion of cure. These 'key cure parameters' are often difficult to control accurately in the manufacturing environment. Although dielectric analysis has been around for many years, literature identified an urgent requirement for research on the interpretation of dielectric sensor data relating to these main process parameters. A dielectric laboratory instrument, operated in the parallel plate sensor configuration was utilised to simulate a standard RTM cure cycle. The important transitions in the resin, namely minimum viscosity, gelation, vitrification and completion of cure, were identified. The parallel plate dielectric technique was applied to composites containing conductive and non-conductive reinforcement fibres. The appropriate dielectric signals and frequency were determined based on the sensor configuration, insulating layer and resin/fabric type. Correlations have been demonstrated between dielectric results and other established thermal (DSC and. DMA) and mechanical test techniques (tensile, flexural and interlaminar shear). Test methods were designed and investigated to provide information to compare with dielectric data. The parallel plate configuration was used to investigate the effect of composite thickness variation on

  16. High sensitivity analysis of atmospheric gas elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Shiro; Nomachi, Ichiro; Kitajima, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the detection limit of H, C and O in Si, GaAs and InP using a Cameca IMS-4f instrument equipped with a modified vacuum system to improve the detection limit with a lower sputtering rate We found that the detection limits for H, O and C are improved by employing a primary ion bombardment before the analysis. Background levels of 1 x 10 17 atoms/cm 3 for H, of 3 x 10 16 atoms/cm 3 for C and of 2 x 10 16 atoms/cm 3 for O could be achieved in silicon with a sputtering rate of 2 nm/s after a primary ion bombardment for 160 h. We also found that the use of a 20 K He cryo-panel near the sample holder was effective for obtaining better detection limits in a shorter time, although the final detection limits using the panel are identical to those achieved without it

  17. High sensitivity analysis of atmospheric gas elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, Shiro [Materials Analysis Lab., Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata, Atsugi 243-0021 (Japan)]. E-mail: Shiro.Miwa@jp.sony.com; Nomachi, Ichiro [Materials Analysis Lab., Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata, Atsugi 243-0021 (Japan); Kitajima, Hideo [Nanotechnos Corp., 5-4-30 Nishihashimoto, Sagamihara 229-1131 (Japan)

    2006-07-30

    We have investigated the detection limit of H, C and O in Si, GaAs and InP using a Cameca IMS-4f instrument equipped with a modified vacuum system to improve the detection limit with a lower sputtering rate We found that the detection limits for H, O and C are improved by employing a primary ion bombardment before the analysis. Background levels of 1 x 10{sup 17} atoms/cm{sup 3} for H, of 3 x 10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3} for C and of 2 x 10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3} for O could be achieved in silicon with a sputtering rate of 2 nm/s after a primary ion bombardment for 160 h. We also found that the use of a 20 K He cryo-panel near the sample holder was effective for obtaining better detection limits in a shorter time, although the final detection limits using the panel are identical to those achieved without it.

  18. Thermomechanical analysis of nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez L, H.

    1997-01-01

    This work presents development of a code to obtain the thermomechanical analysis of fuel rods in the fuel assemblies inserted in the core of BWR reactors. The code uses experimental correlations developed in several laboratories. The development of the code is divided in two parts: a) the thermal part and b) the mechanical part, extending both the fuel and the cladding materials. The thermal part consists of finding the radial distribution of temperatures in the pellet, from the fuel centerline up to the coolant, along the total active length, considering one and two phase flow in the coolant, as a result of the pressure drop in the system. The mechanical part analyzes the effects of temperature gradients, pressure and irradiation, to which the fuel rod is subjected. The strains produced by swelling, creep and thermal stress in the fuel material are analyzed. In the same way the strains in the cladding are analyzed, considering the effects produced by the pressure exerted on the cladding by pellet swelling, by the pressure caused by fission gas release toward the cavities, and by the strain produced on the cladding by the pressure changes of the system. (Author)

  19. Perspectives on clinical possibility: elements of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiffi, Daniele; Zanotti, Renzo

    2016-08-01

    Possibility is one of the most common modalities in reasoning and argumentation. Various kinds of modal concepts have been identified in philosophical and logical discussion of the metaphysics of modality. We focus here on the concept of clinical possibility. A critical analysis of what is intended as clinical possibility has not yet received sufficient examination, although the concept is extensively used in clinical reasoning. We present arguments to emphasize some desirable features associated with the concept of clinical possibility. We argue that almost all clinical possibilities are potentialities, that is, possibilities that may be actualized by effective, appropriate and feasible interventions. However, in some limited cases, even mere possibilities - which may or may not be actualized, since we do not have the required knowledge - may be involved in clinical reasoning, and we present some examples in this paper. We then introduce some basic views on the nature of possibility showing their validity and limitations when applied to the concept of clinical possibility. Lastly, we conjecture that clinical possibility is a normative modality that can be formalized in a multimodal system with epistemic and deontic logical operators. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Finite element analysis of an inflatable torus considering air mass structural element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajbhiye, S. C.; Upadhyay, S. H.; Harsha, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Inflatable structures, also known as gossamer structures, are at high boom in the current space technology due to their low mass and compact size comparing to the traditional spacecraft designing. Internal pressure becomes the major source of strength and rigidity, essentially stiffen the structure. However, inflatable space based membrane structure are at high risk to the vibration disturbance due to their low structural stiffness and material damping. Hence, the vibration modes of the structure should be known to a high degree of accuracy in order to provide better control authority. In the past, most of the studies conducted on the vibration analysis of gossamer structures used inaccurate or approximate theories in modeling the internal pressure. The toroidal shaped structure is one of the important key element in space application, helps to support the reflector in space application. This paper discusses the finite-element analysis of an inflated torus. The eigen-frequencies are obtained via three-dimensional small-strain elasticity theory, based on extremum energy principle. The two finite-element model (model-1 and model-2) have cases have been generated using a commercial finite-element package. The structure model-1 with shell element and model-2 with the combination of the mass of enclosed fluid (air) added to the shell elements have been taken for the study. The model-1 is computed with present analytical approach to understand the convergence rate and the accuracy. The convergence study is made available for the symmetric modes and anti-symmetric modes about the centroidal-axis plane, meeting the eigen-frequencies of an inflatable torus with the circular cross section. The structural model-2 is introduced with air mass element and analyzed its eigen-frequency with different aspect ratio and mode shape response using in-plane and out-plane loading condition are studied.

  1. A refined element-based Lagrangian shell element for geometrically nonlinear analysis of shell structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Young Jung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For the solution of geometrically nonlinear analysis of plates and shells, the formulation of a nonlinear nine-node refined first-order shear deformable element-based Lagrangian shell element is presented. Natural co-ordinate-based higher order transverse shear strains are used in present shell element. Using the assumed natural strain method with proper interpolation functions, the present shell element generates neither membrane nor shear locking behavior even when full integration is used in the formulation. Furthermore, a refined first-order shear deformation theory for thin and thick shells, which results in parabolic through-thickness distribution of the transverse shear strains from the formulation based on the third-order shear deformation theory, is proposed. This formulation eliminates the need for shear correction factors in the first-order theory. To avoid difficulties resulting from large increments of the rotations, a scheme of attached reference system is used for the expression of rotations of shell normal. Numerical examples demonstrate that the present element behaves reasonably satisfactorily either for the linear or for geometrically nonlinear analysis of thin and thick plates and shells with large displacement but small strain. Especially, the nonlinear results of slit annular plates with various loads provided the benchmark to test the accuracy of related numerical solutions.

  2. Complex finite element sensitivity method for creep analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Farias, Armando; Montoya, Arturo; Millwater, Harry

    2015-01-01

    The complex finite element method (ZFEM) has been extended to perform sensitivity analysis for mechanical and structural systems undergoing creep deformation. ZFEM uses a complex finite element formulation to provide shape, material, and loading derivatives of the system response, providing an insight into the essential factors which control the behavior of the system as a function of time. A complex variable-based quadrilateral user element (UEL) subroutine implementing the power law creep constitutive formulation was incorporated within the Abaqus commercial finite element software. The results of the complex finite element computations were verified by comparing them to the reference solution for the steady-state creep problem of a thick-walled cylinder in the power law creep range. A practical application of the ZFEM implementation to creep deformation analysis is the calculation of the skeletal point of a notched bar test from a single ZFEM run. In contrast, the standard finite element procedure requires multiple runs. The value of the skeletal point is that it identifies the location where the stress state is accurate, regardless of the certainty of the creep material properties. - Highlights: • A novel finite element sensitivity method (ZFEM) for creep was introduced. • ZFEM has the capability to calculate accurate partial derivatives. • ZFEM can be used for identification of the skeletal point of creep structures. • ZFEM can be easily implemented in a commercial software, e.g. Abaqus. • ZFEM results were shown to be in excellent agreement with analytical solutions

  3. Elemental content of Vietnamese rice. Part 2. Multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokot, S; Phuong, T D

    1999-04-01

    Rice samples were obtained from the Red River region and some other parts of Vietnam as well as from Yanco, Australia. These samples were analysed for 14 elements (P, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Al, Na, Ni, As, Mo and Cd) by ICP-AES, ICP-MS and FAAS as described in Part 1. This data matrix was then submitted to multivariate data analysis by principal component analysis to investigate the influences of environmental and crop cultivation variables on the elemental content of rice. Results revealed that geographical location, grain variety, seasons and soil conditions are the most likely significant factors causing changes in the elemental content between the rice samples. To assess rice quality according to its elemental content and physio-biological properties, a multicriteria decision making method (PROMETHEE) was applied. With the Vietnamese rice, the sticky rice appeared to contain somewhat higher levels of nutritionally significant elements such as P, K and Mg than the non-sticky rice. Also, rice samples grown during the wet season have better levels of nutritionally significant mineral elements than those of the dry season, but in general, the wet season seemed to provide better overall elemental and physio-biological rice quality.

  4. A finite-element for the analysis of shell intersections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koves, W.J.; Nair, S.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of discontinuity stresses at shell intersections is a problem of great importance in several major industries. Some of the major areas of interest are pressure-containing equipment, such as reactors and piping, in the nuclear and fossil power industry; pressure vessels and heat exchangers in the petrochemical industry; bracing in offshore oil platforms; and aerospace structures. A specialized shell-intersection finite element, which is compatible with adjoining shell elements, has been developed that has the capability of physically representing the complex three-dimensional geometry and stress state at shell intersections. The element geometry is a contoured shape that matches a wide variety of practical nozzle configurations used in ASME Code pressure vessel construction, and allows computational rigor. A closed-form theory of elasticity solution was used to compute the stress state and strain energy in the element. The concept of an energy-equivalent nodal displacement and force vector set was then developed to allow complete compatibility with adjoining shell elements and retain the analytical rigor within the element. This methodology provides a powerful and robust computation scheme that maintains the computational efficiency of shell element solutions. The shell-intersection element was then applied to the cylinder-sphere and cylinder-cylinder intersection problems

  5. Hydrothermal analysis in engineering using control volume finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Sheikholeslami, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Control volume finite element methods (CVFEM) bridge the gap between finite difference and finite element methods, using the advantages of both methods for simulation of multi-physics problems in complex geometries. In Hydrothermal Analysis in Engineering Using Control Volume Finite Element Method, CVFEM is covered in detail and applied to key areas of thermal engineering. Examples, exercises, and extensive references are used to show the use of the technique to model key engineering problems such as heat transfer in nanofluids (to enhance performance and compactness of energy systems),

  6. Element analysis of Japanese traditional papers by PIXE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsuya; Yasuda, Keisuke; Tani, Teruhiro

    2000-01-01

    The Japanese papers, 'washi', are made from the bast fibers of the plants. Since washi have the informations of the raw material plants, there is potentiality of the identification of the production place by the element analysis of the washi. Three kinds of washi made of kozo, which have different habitats, were prepared. The elements in their washi were measured by the PIXE. It was confirmed that the amount of elements included in the washi depend on the habitats of their raw material plants. (author)

  7. High accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis will also be discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. On-line preconcentration using a resin functionalized with 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid for the determination of trace elements in biological samples by thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Valfredo A.; Bezerra, Marcos A.; Amorim, Fabio A.C.

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper, an on-line preconcentration procedure for determination of cadmium, copper and zinc by thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS) is proposed. Amberlite XAD-4 functionalized with 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (XAD4-DHB) packed in a minicolumn was used as sorbent material. The metals were retained on the XAD-DHB resin, from which it could be eluted directly to the thermospray flame furnace system. The detection limits were 28 (Cd), 100 (Cu) and 77 ng L -1 (Zn) for 60 s preconcentration time, at a sample flow rate of 7.0 mL min -1 . Enrichment factors were 102, 91 and 62, for cadmium, copper and zinc, respectively. The procedure has been applied successfully to metal determination in biological standard reference materials

  9. Nonlinear nonstationary analysis with the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, after some introductory remarks on numerical methods for the integration of initial value problems, the applicability of the finite element method for transient diffusion analysis as well as dynamic and inelastic analysis is discussed, and some examples are presented. (RW) [de

  10. a finite element model for the analysis of bridge decks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR THE ANALYSIS OF BRIDGE DECKS. NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 27 NO.1, MARCH 2008. 59. (a) Beam-plate system. (b) T-beam structural model. Fig. 1 Beam-plate structure idealisations. The matrix displacement method of analysis is used. The continuum structure is.

  11. PIXE analysis of trace elements in cetacean teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Yoko; Arai, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yoshida, Koji

    1997-01-01

    PIXE was adopted for analysis of trace elements in teeth of two species of cetaceans, sperm whale (Physeter microcephalus) and pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The analyses were performed along with the growth layer of the teeth, which is formed annually, suitable for age determination. Mn, Fe, Cu, Zu and Sr were detected in the teeth of sperm whale and pantropical spotted dolphin. Among these trace elements, gradual increase was observed for Zn/Ca ratio in the sperm whale's teeth. (author)

  12. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, honey, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were evaluated to determine the relationship between trace elements content and opal colour. (author). 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Integral finite element analysis of turntable bearing with flexible rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Biao; Liu, Yunfei; Guo, Yuan; Tang, Shengjin; Su, Wenbin; Lei, Zhufeng; Wang, Pengcheng

    2018-03-01

    This paper suggests a method to calculate the internal load distribution and contact stress of the thrust angular contact ball turntable bearing by FEA. The influence of the stiffness of the bearing structure and the plastic deformation of contact area on the internal load distribution and contact stress of the bearing is considered. In this method, the load-deformation relationship of the rolling elements is determined by the finite element contact analysis of a single rolling element and the raceway. Based on this, the nonlinear contact between the rolling elements and the inner and outer ring raceways is same as a nonlinear compression spring and bearing integral finite element analysis model including support structure was established. The effects of structural deformation and plastic deformation on the built-in stress distribution of slewing bearing are investigated on basis of comparing the consequences of load distribution, inner and outer ring stress, contact stress and other finite element analysis results with the traditional bearing theory, which has guiding function for improving the design of slewing bearing.

  14. Applications of mass spectrometry in the trace element analysis of biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moens, L.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of mass spectrometry for the analysis of biological material is illustrated by reviewing the different mass spectrometric methods applied and describing some typical applications published recently. Though atomic absorption spectrometry is used in the majority of analyses of biological material, most mass spectrometric methods have been used to some extent for trace element determination in biomedical research. The relative importance of the different methods is estimated by reviewing recent research papers. It is striking that especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is increasingly being applied, partly because the method can be used on-line after chromatographic separation, in speciation studies. Mass spectrometric methods prove to offer unique possibilities in stable isotope tracer studies and for this purpose also experimentally demanding methods such as thermal ionization mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry are frequently used. (orig.)

  15. Using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy on vacuum alloys-production process for elements concentration analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianzhuo; Fan, Zhongwei; Lian, Fuqiang; Liu, Yang; Lin, Weiran; Mo, Zeqiang; Nie, Shuzhen; Wang, Pu; Xiao, Hong; Li, Xin; Zhong, Qixiu; Zhang, Hongbo

    2017-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) utilizing an echelle spectrograph-ICCD system is employed for on-line analysis of elements concentration in a vacuum induction melting workshop. Active temperature stabilization of echelle spectrometer is implemented specially for industrial environment applications. The measurement precision is further improved by monitoring laser parameters, such as pulse energy, spatial and temporal profiles, in real time, and post-selecting laser pulses with specific pulse energies. Experimental results show that major components of nickel-based alloys are stable, and can be well detected. By using internal standard method, calibration curves for chromium and aluminum are obtained for quantitative determination, with determination coefficient (relative standard deviation) to be 0.9559 (< 2.2%) and 0.9723 (< 2.8%), respectively.

  16. Amdel on-line analyser at Rooiberg Tin Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, T.V.

    1987-01-01

    An Amdel on line analysis system was installed on the 'A' mine tin flotation plant at Rooiberg in April 1984. The motivation for the installation was made on account of the large variations in the feed grade to the plant and the resulting need for rapid operational adjustments to control concentrate grades thereby maximising the financial returns. An 'on-line' analyser system presented itself as a suitable alternative to the existing control method of smaller laboratory x-ray fluorescence analysers. On the system as installed at Rooiberg, two probes were fitted in each analysis zone, viz a density probe using high energy gamma radiation from a Cesium 127 source and a specific element absorption probe using low energy gamma radiation from a Americium 241 source. The signals as received from the probes are fed to a line receiver unit in the control room where a micro computer is doing the processing and prints out the information as required. Several advantages of this type of installation were gained at Rooiberg Tin Limited

  17. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of products from on-line pyrolysis/silylation of plant gums used as binding media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiantore, Oscar; Riedo, Chiara; Scalarone, Dominique

    2009-07-01

    Plant gums are complex polysaccharides used in the field of cultural heritage especially as binding media. Classification of polysaccharides may be achieved on the basis of monosaccharides composition after cleavage of glycosidic bond. Characterization of plant gums in works of art is complicated by the necessity of to use a method minimally invasive and requiring a small mount of sample. Pyrolisys is an useful method to obtain polysaccharides decomposition and generally pyrolysis products can be identified by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This paper describes a method where two plant gums, arabic and tragacanth, were pyrolized in presence of silylating agents (HMDS e BSTFA alone and with TMCS as catalyst) using an on-line Py-GC/MS apparatus. Some characteristic trimethylsilyl derivatives of monosaccharides were identified on the basis of mass spectra. The presence of characteristic pyrolysis products of sugars allows to distinguish the two gums.

  18. Software development for on-line computation with PDP 15/76 computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viyogi, Y P; Bhattacharjee, T K; De, S K; Basu, A K; Ganguly, N K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Variable Energy Cyclotron Project

    1979-01-01

    Two important capabilities have been incorporated in the on-line data processing system for the pulse height analysis at VEC, for the processing of data by using codes PHA1 and PHA2, the single parameter and dual parameter data acquisition programs. (1) RDMA is written in assembly language for randomly accessing any element of data from data filing devices. This increases the availability of core so that capability of processing programs can be enhanced. (2) PHARAD, also written in assembly language, converts data files created by acquisition programs into FORTRAN compatible files. These are very essential for on-line processing of data. The on-line data acqujsition and processing by PDP 15/76 using these facilities are discussed.

  19. Elemental Study in Soybean and Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorapot, Permnamtip; Arporn Busamongkol; Sirinart, Laoharojanaphand

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Elements were analyzed in soybean and products by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Pseudo-Cyclic Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (PCINAA) and Epithermal Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (EINAA). Elements detected in sample were include Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn Na, Se and Zn. The result showed that the nutritional contents changed after food processing. From experiments (n = 2), it was found that after food processing, the concentration of Cl and Na in soy bean curd increased from 0.0045 and 0.0011% to found 0.91 and 0.39 %, respectively. Other elements did not differ from soybean. Limits of detection for Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn Na, Se and Zn were 0.05, 0.2, 50, 6, 10, 15, 0.05, 30, 40, 5, 5, 0.05 and 1 mg.kg - 1, respectively

  20. Probabilistic finite elements for transient analysis in nonlinear continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Mani, A.

    1985-01-01

    The probabilistic finite element method (PFEM), which is a combination of finite element methods and second-moment analysis, is formulated for linear and nonlinear continua with inhomogeneous random fields. Analogous to the discretization of the displacement field in finite element methods, the random field is also discretized. The formulation is simplified by transforming the correlated variables to a set of uncorrelated variables through an eigenvalue orthogonalization. Furthermore, it is shown that a reduced set of the uncorrelated variables is sufficient for the second-moment analysis. Based on the linear formulation of the PFEM, the method is then extended to transient analysis in nonlinear continua. The accuracy and efficiency of the method is demonstrated by application to a one-dimensional, elastic/plastic wave propagation problem. The moments calculated compare favorably with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. Also, the procedure is amenable to implementation in deterministic FEM based computer programs.

  1. Analysis of Brick Masonry Wall using Applied Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a versatile tool for structural analysis. Analysis is done by discretising the structure as in the case of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, elements are connected by a set of normal and shear springs instead of nodes. AEM is extensively used for the analysis of brittle materials. Brick masonry wall can be effectively analyzed in the frame of AEM. The composite nature of masonry wall can be easily modelled using springs. The brick springs and mortar springs are assumed to be connected in series. The brick masonry wall is analyzed and failure load is determined for different loading cases. The results were used to find the best aspect ratio of brick to strengthen brick masonry wall.

  2. Ring-element analysis of layered orthotropic bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, O.

    1993-01-01

    For the analysis of arbitrarily laminated circular bodies, a displacement-based ring-element is presented. The analysis is performed in a cylindrical coordinate system. The method of analysis requires the boundary conditions as well as the external forces to be pi-periodic. The element formulation...... accounts for a desired degree of approximation of the displacement field in the direction of the circumference. This is done by a truncated Fourier expansion of the angular dependence of the displacements in terms of trigonometric functions. Thus the Fourier expansion coefficients are the unknowns...... to that of solutions obtained by traditional 3D elements. A scheme for analytical integration of the angular dependence of the stiffness matrix is given....

  3. Finite Element Analysis and Design of Experiments in Engineering Design

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Projects with the objective of introducing Finite Element Analysis (FEA) into the early phases of the design process have previously been carried out at the Department of Machine Design, see e.g. the Doctoral thesis by Burman [13]. These works clearly highlight the usefulness of introducing design analysis early in the design process. According to Bjärnemo and Burman [10] the most significant advantage of applying design analysis early in the design process was the shift from verification to ...

  4. Determination of mutually interfering elements in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of the elements present in the groups scandium-zinc, mercury-selenium and arsenic-antimony-bromine represents a classical problem in thermal neutron activation analysis because the gamma-ray peaks of the radioisotopes produced from these elements by activation appear very close in the spectrum. A study is made of the possibility of simultaneous instrumental determination of these elements by means of the spectrum stripping technique, using a 400-channel analyser coupled to a Nal(Tl) detector and a 4096-channel analyser coupled to a Ge(Li) detector. Artificial mixtures of the interfering elements in varying proportions are prepared, so as to reproduce possible real samples, where the elements may be present at several concentrations. Radiochemical separation techniques for the cited elements are studied with the use of tracers. For the separation of scadium and zinc, the technique of extraction chromatography is applied. The separation of mercury and selenium is accomplished by means of ion exchange. The technique of coprecipitation is used to separate bromine from arsenic and antimony followed by ion exchange to isolate these two elements from each other. The precision and the accuracy of the results are discussed. (Author) [pt

  5. Chemical analysis of useful trace elements in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Shunsaku; Fujii, Ayako; Miyai, Yoshitaka; Sakane, Kohji; Ogata, Noboru.

    1983-01-01

    The methods for the analysis of useful trace elements in sea water which have been tried so far are reviewed, and these methods are described briefly from the standpoint of studying the collection of resources. Ag and Au can be determined by concentrating sea water by ion-exchange method, solvent extraction method and electrodeposition method, then the elements are measured quantitatively by activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrochemical analysis. Sr, B and Li, which exist in relatively high concentration in sea water, are determined easily by atomic absorption spectrochemical analysis and absorption spectrometry. U, Mo and V are measured suitably by concentrating the elements by coprecipitation or solvent extraction method, and measuring by fluorescence analysis and arsenazo-3 method for U and through graphite-atomic absorption analysis for Mo and V. It has been revealed that the concentration of Ag and Au in sea water is extremely low, accordingly the recovery study is not conducted recently. On the other hand, the adsorption method using hydrated titanium oxide and amidoxim adsorbents for U, Mo and V, the adsorption method using aluminum adsorbent for Li, and the adsorption method using magnesium oxide and zirconium hydroxide and the solvent extraction method for B are hopeful to recover these elements. (Yoshitake, I.)

  6. Analysis of trace elements in human hair by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, G.B.; Montenegro, E.C.; Paschoa, A.S.; Barros Leite, C.V. de.

    1980-10-01

    The PIXE method was applied to the analysis of trace elements in scalp hair using two methods for target preparation. In the first method eigth hair strands each with nearly cylindrical geommetry and approximately the same diameter were selected and placed on an aluminum frame. In the second method a given mass of hair was dissolved with nitric acid and a known amount of strontium was added to the solution and dripped on a membrane filter using a micropipet. The results for the concentrations of trace elements in hair obtained by the two methods are compared and several aspects of the analysis is discussed. (Author) [pt

  7. PIXE trace element analysis of a selection of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.; Martin, J.P.; Belhadfa, A.

    1987-01-01

    The University of Montreal EN Tandem accelerator and a Si (Li) X-ray detector were used for a PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray emission) trace element analysis of a selection of wines. Quantitative measurements of the concentrations of the sixteen trace elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Br were made. To optimize the sensitivity, spectra were recorded at 1.0 MeV proton energy for elements with Z 19. The absolute concentrations of the trace elements were determined by doping the samples of wine with 1000 ppm of vanadium for the 1.0 MeV bombardments, and 1000 ppm of yttrium for the 3.0 MeV irradiations. The targets were prepared by depositing a few microliters of the wine onto a Nuclepore filter

  8. Finite element analysis of rotating beams physics based interpolation

    CERN Document Server

    Ganguli, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the solution of rotating beam free-vibration problems using the finite element method. It provides an introduction to the governing equation of a rotating beam, before outlining the solution procedures using Rayleigh-Ritz, Galerkin and finite element methods. The possibility of improving the convergence of finite element methods through a judicious selection of interpolation functions, which are closer to the problem physics, is also addressed. The book offers a valuable guide for students and researchers working on rotating beam problems – important engineering structures used in helicopter rotors, wind turbines, gas turbines, steam turbines and propellers – and their applications. It can also be used as a textbook for specialized graduate and professional courses on advanced applications of finite element analysis.

  9. TAPIR, Thermal Analysis of HTGR with Graphite Sleeve Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weicht, U.; Mueller, W.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Nature of the physical problem solved: Thermal analysis of a reactor core containing internally and/or externally gas cooled prismatic fuel elements of various geometries, rating, power distribution, and material properties. 2 - Method of solution: A fuel element in this programme is regarded as a sector of a fuelled annulus with graphite sleeves of any shape on either side and optional annular gaps between fuel and graphite and/or within the graphite. It may have any centre angle and the fuelled annulus may become a solid cylindrical rod. Heat generation in the fuel is assumed to be uniform over the cross section and peripheral heat flux into adjacent sectors is ignored. Fuel elements and coolant channels are treated separately, then linked together to fit a specified pattern. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of: 50 fuel elements; 50 cooled channels; 25 fuel geometries; 25 coolant channel geometries; 10 axial power distributions; 10 graphite conductivities

  10. Investigations on the direct introduction of cigarette smoke for trace elements analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Michael J.; Naworal, John D.; Walker, Kathleen; Connell, Chris T.

    2003-01-01

    Direct introduction of mainstream cigarette smoke into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been investigated with respect to its feasibility for on-line analysis of trace elements. An automated apparatus was designed and built interfacing a smoking machine with an ICP-MS for smoke generation, collection, injection and analysis. Major and minor elements present in the particulate phase and the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke of 2R4F reference cigarettes have been qualitatively identified by examination of their full mass spectra. This method provides a rapid-screening analysis of the transfer of trace elements into mainstream smoke during cigarette combustion. A full suite of elements present in the whole cigarette smoke has been identified, including As, B, Ba, Br, Cd, Cl, Cs, Cu, Hg, I, K, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sn, Tl and Zn. Of these elements, the major portions of B, Ba, Cs, Cu, K, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, Rb, Sn, Tl and Zn are present in the particulate phase, whereas the major portion of Hg is present in the gas phase. As, Br, Cd, Cl, I and Sb exist in a distribution between the gas phase and the particulate phase. Depending on the element, the precision of measurement ranges from 5 to 25% in terms of relative standard deviation of peak height and peak area, based on the fourth puff of 2R4F mainstream cigarette smoke analyzed in five smoking replicates

  11. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, S.A.; Osae, E.K.; Aboh, I.J.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.; Odamtten, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard and certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done beating in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

  12. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, S.A.; Osae, E.K.; Aboh, I. J.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.; Ofosu, F.; Odamtten, G.T.

    1999-04-01

    Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done bearing in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

  13. Elemental analysis of hair using PIXE-tomography and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, D.; Gomez-Morilla, I.; Spyrou, N.

    2008-01-01

    3D quantitative elemental maps of a section of a strand of hair were produced using a combination of PIXE-Tomography and simultaneous On/Off Axis STIM-Tomography at the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The distributions of S, K, Cl, Ca, Fe and Zn were determined using the PIXE-T reconstruction package DISRA. The results were compared with conventional bulk PIXE analysis of tomographic data as determined using Dan32. The overall concentrations determined by PIXE were compared with elemental concentrations held in the University of Surrey Hair Database. All the entries currently in the database were produced using INAA. The merits and possible contributions of tomographic PIXE analysis to analysis of hair are discussed. The conclusions drawn from the PIXE-Tomography analysis can be used to argue for more stringent procedures for hair analysis at the University of Surrey. (author)

  14. Elemental analysis of cotton by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, Emily R.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the elemental characterization of unprocessed cotton. This research is important in forensic and fraud detection applications to establish an elemental fingerprint of U.S. cotton by region, which can be used to determine the source of the cotton. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a LIBS method for the elemental analysis of cotton. The experimental setup consists of a Nd:YAG laser that operates at the fundamental wavelength as the LIBS excitation source and an echelle spectrometer equipped with an intensified CCD camera. The relative concentrations of elements Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, and Sr from both nutrients and environmental contributions were determined by LIBS. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the differences between cotton samples based on the elemental composition by region in the U.S. Linear discriminant analysis of the LIBS data resulted in the correct classification of >97% of the cotton samples by U.S. region and >81% correct classification by state of origin.

  15. Finite element analysis of FRP-strengthened RC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeraphot Supaviriyakit

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete beam strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates. The finite element modeling of FRP-strengthened beams is demonstrated. Concrete and reinforcing bars are modeled together as 8-node isoparametric 2D RC element. The FRP plate is modeled as 8-node isoparametric 2D elastic element. The glue is modeled as perfect compatibility by directly connecting the nodes of FRP with those of concrete since there is no failure at the glue layer. The key to the analysis is the correct material models of concrete, steel and FRP. Cracks and steel bars are modeled as smeared over the entire element. Stress-strain properties of cracked concrete consist of tensile stress model normal to crack, compressive stress model parallel to crack and shear stress model tangential to crack. Stressstrain property of reinforcement is assumed to be elastic-hardening to account for the bond between concrete and steel bars. FRP is modeled as elastic-brittle material. From the analysis, it is found that FEM can predict the load-displacement relation, ultimate load and failure mode of the beam correctly. It can also capture the cracking process for both shear-flexural peeling and end peeling modes similar to the experiment.

  16. Three dimensional finite element linear analysis of reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inbasakaran, M.; Pandarinathan, V.G.; Krishnamoorthy, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    A twenty noded isoparametric reinforced concrete solid element for the three dimensional linear elastic stress analysis of reinforced concrete structures is presented. The reinforcement is directly included as an integral part of the element thus facilitating discretization of the structure independent of the orientation of reinforcement. Concrete stiffness is evaluated by taking 3 x 3 x 3 Gauss integration rule and steel stiffness is evaluated numerically by considering three Gaussian points along the length of reinforcement. The numerical integration for steel stiffness necessiates the conversion of global coordiantes of the Gaussian points to nondimensional local coordinates and this is done by Newton Raphson iterative method. Subroutines for the above formulation have been developed and added to SAP and STAP routines for solving the examples. The validity of the reinforced concrete element is verified by comparison of results from finite element analysis and analytical results. It is concluded that this finite element model provides a valuable analytical tool for the three dimensional elastic stress analysis of concrete structures like beams curved in plan and nuclear containment vessels. (orig.)

  17. Qualitative PIXE analysis of mineral elements in some phytopharmaceutic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E.A.; Harangus, Livia; Gugiu, M; Iordan, Andreea; Ciortea, C.

    2002-01-01

    A large number of phytopharmaceutic drugs are being developed, due to positive effects in various diseases and to high tolerance by the organism. While their medicinally active compounds have been identified, little attention has been paid to their mineral micro- and trace elements. The mineral elements in the drug may have therapeutic or toxic effects which should be properly assessed. Nuclear and atomic methods allow sensitive multielement detection and we previously performed nuclear activation analysis of some Romanian drugs made by plants. Despite this method's high sensitivity, its use is limited by the availability of a nuclear reactor. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) provides an alternative, and here we examined its potential for the analysis of mineral elements in three commercial phytopharmaceutical preparations, namely, Liv52, Mentat, and Geriforte. The PIXE measurements were performed with 3 MeV protons at the 8.5 MV NIPNE-HH tandem accelerator, using a hyper pure Ge detector, normally oriented and connected to a multichannel analyzer and to a computer; the drug pills were fixed at 45 angle with respect to the beam. In all drugs PIXE detected mineral elements with Z > 16 down to trace levels. Major elements included K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn, and minor/trace amounts of S, Cl, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ga, Br, Rb, Sr, Hg, and As/Pb were detected. Some differences were seen between the three drugs. Although at trace levels Ga, As, Hg and Pb are not toxic, one should consider that their accumulation might be harmful and caution seems recommendable on long-term cure. Most of the other elements are known to exert a positive biological role, and both in major and trace levels they may contribute to the therapeutic action. Thus PIXE analysis of mineral elements in phytopharmaceutic drugs, even qualitative, is useful for evaluating the benefits and risks in the therapy. (authors)

  18. Finite element analysis of degraded concrete structures - Workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    This workshop is related to the finite element analysis of degraded concrete structures. It is composed of three sessions. The first session (which title is: the use of finite element analysis in safety assessments) comprises six papers which titles are: Historical Development of Concrete Finite Element Modeling for Safety Evaluation of Accident-Challenged and Aging Concrete Structures; Experience with Finite Element Methods for Safety Assessments in Switzerland; Stress State Analysis of the Ignalina NPP Confinement System; Prestressed Containment: Behaviour when Concrete Cracking is Modelled; Application of FEA for Design and Support of NPP Containment in Russia; Verification Problems of Nuclear Installations Safety Software of Strength Analysis (NISS SA). The second session (title: concrete containment structures under accident loads) comprises seven papers which titles are: Two Application Examples of Concrete Containment Structures under Accident Load Conditions Using Finite Element Analysis; What Kind of Prediction for Leak rates for Nuclear Power Plant Containments in Accidental Conditions; Influence of Different Hypotheses Used in Numerical Models for Concrete At Elevated Temperatures on the Predicted Behaviour of NPP Core Catchers Under Severe Accident Conditions; Observations on the Constitutive Modeling of Concrete Under Multi-Axial States at Elevated Temperatures; Analyses of a Reinforced Concrete Containment with Liner Corrosion Damage; Program of Containment Concrete Control During Operation for the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant; Static Limit Load of a Deteriorated Hyperbolic Cooling Tower. The third session (concrete structures under extreme environmental load) comprised five papers which titles are: Shear Transfer Mechanism of RC Plates After Cracking; Seismic Back Calculation of an Auxiliary Building of the Nuclear Power Plant Muehleberg, Switzerland; Seismic Behaviour of Slightly Reinforced Shear Wall Structures; FE Analysis of Degraded Concrete

  19. A simple method using on-line continuous leaching and ion exchange chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the speciation analysis of bio-accessible arsenic in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nolan S; Beauchemin, Diane

    2012-03-02

    A simple method for the speciation analysis of bio-accessible arsenic (As) in rice was developed using a continuous on-line leaching method to release the bio-accessible fraction. The continuous on-line leaching method has several advantages over commonly used batch methods including quicker and easier sample preparation, reduced risk of contamination and access to real time leaching data. The bio-accessibility of As in the samples was monitored using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results from a certified reference material as well as cooked and uncooked white rice showed that the majority of As was leached by saliva. Results obtained using the continuous on-line leaching method were comparable to those obtained using a batch method. Speciation analysis of the saliva leachate was performed using ion exchange chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. The four most toxic forms of As (As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and As(V)) were clearly separated within 5 min in a single chromatographic run. Over 92% of bio-accessible As in the certified reference material and uncooked white rice sample was in the form of DMA and As(V), whereas it was present as DMA and As(III) in the cooked white rice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. On line ultrasonic integrated backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landini, L.; Picano, E.; Mazzarisi, A.; Santarelli, F.; Benassi, A.; De Pieri, G.

    1988-01-01

    A new equipment for on-line evaluation of index based on two-dimensional integrated backscatter from ultrasonic images is described. The new equipment is fully integrated into a B-mode ultrasonic apparatus which provides a simultaneous display of conventional information together with parameters of tissue characterization. The system has been tested with a backscattering model of microbubbles in polysaccharide solution, characterized by a physiological exponential time decay. An exponential fitting to the experimental data was performed which yielded r=0.95

  1. On-line nuclear orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    This grant has as its overall goal the pursuit of on-line nuclear orientation experiments for the purpose of eliciting details of nuclear structure from the decays of neutron-deficient nuclei, such as those produced by the Holifield Heavy-Ion Research Facility at Oak Ridge and extracted by the UNISOR Isotope Separator. This paper discusses: refrigerator development; the decay of 184 Au; the decay of 191 Hg to 191 Au; the decay of 189 Pt to 189 Ir; the decays of 109,111 Pd; the decay of 172 Er; and solid angle corrections

  2. On-Line Voltage Stability Assessment based on PMU Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; P. Da Silva, Luiz C.; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for on-line monitoring of risk voltage collapse based on synchronised phasor measurement. As there is no room for intensive computation and analysis in real-time, the method is based on the combination of off-line computation and on-line monitoring, which are correlat...

  3. Analysis of heterocyclic amines in hair by on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography−tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Tsutomu; Saito, Keita; Kato, Hisato; Masuda, Kazufumi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines are accumulated in the hair of smoker. -- Highlights: •On-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction of heterocyclic amines was optimized. •Fourteen heterocyclic amines were simultaneously determined by LC–MS/MS. •Pico gram levels of heterocyclic amines could be easily analyzed within 15 min. •Heterocyclic amines could be quantitatively analyzed from several milligrams of hair. •The method is useful for the assessment of long-term exposure to heterocyclic amines. -- Abstract: Mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are formed during heating of various proteinaceous foods, but human exposure to HCAs has not yet been elucidated in detail. To assess long-term exposure to HCAs, we developed a simple and sensitive method for measuring HCAs in hair by automated on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 column, 16 HCAs were analyzed within 15 min. The optimum in-tube SPME conditions were 20 draw/eject cycles of 40 μL sample at a flow rate of 200 μL min −1 using a Supel-Q PLOT capillary column as an extraction device. The extracted HCAs were easily desorbed from the column by passage of the mobile phase, with no carryover observed. This in-tube SPME LC–MS/MS method showed good linearity for HCAs in the range of 10–2000 pg mL −1 , with correlation coefficients above 0.9989 (n = 18), using stable isotope-labeled HCA internal standards. The detection limits (S/N = 3) of 14 HCAs except for MeAαC and Glu-P-1 were 0.10–0.79 pg mL −1 . This method was successfully utilized to analyze 14 HCAs in hair samples without any interference peaks, with quantitative limits (S/N = 10) of about 0.17–1.32 pg mg −1 hair. Using this method, we evaluated the exposure to HCAs in cigarette smoke and the suitability of using hair HCAs as exposure biomarkers

  4. Neutron activation analysis for bulk and trace elements in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, R.; Speecke, A.; Hoste, J.

    1975-01-01

    Problems in sampling urine for trace element analysis by neutron activation are systematically examined. Collection, storage, sample preparation and contamination hazards during irradiation are studied in detail. Three different sizes of urine samples are prepared for analysis, depending on the concentration and nuclear properties of the elements, and suitable multielement doped urine standards are used. As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn are determined. The extreme care given to sample collection, use of ''ultra-clean'' vials, and work in a dust-free room allows consistent values to be obtained over long periods of time. A literature review of the amounts of forty elements present in urine per day is also given

  5. Adaptive finite-element ballooning analysis of bipolar ionized fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamouz, Z.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive finite-element iterative method for the analysis of the ionized field around high-voltage bipolar direct-current (HVDC) transmission line conductors without resort to Deutsch's assumption. A new iterative finite-element ballooning technique is proposed to solve Poisson's equation wherein the commonly used artificial boundary around the transmission line conductors is simulated at infinity. Unlike all attempts reported in the literature for the solution of ionized field, the constancy of the conductors' surface field at the corona onset value is directly implemented in the finite-element formulation. In order to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a laboratory model was built. It has been found that the calculated V-I characteristics and the ground-plane current density agreed well with those measured experimentally. The simplicity in computer programming in addition to the low number of iterations required to achieve convergence characterize this method of analysis

  6. Contribution to the analysis of light elements using x fluorescence excited by radio-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, A.

    1964-01-01

    In order to study the possibilities of using radioactive sources for the X-fluorescence analysis of light elements, the principle is given, after a brief description of X-fluorescence, of the excitation of this phenomenon by X, β and α emission from radio-elements. The operation and use of the proportional gas counter for X-ray detection is described. A device has been studied for analysing the elements of the 2. and 3. periods of the Mendeleev table. It makes it possible to excite the fluorescence with a radioactive source emitting X-rays or a particles; the X-ray fluorescence penetrates into a window-less proportional counter, this being made possible by the use of an auxiliary electric field in the neighbourhood of the sample. The gas detection pressure leading to the maximum detection yield is given. The spectra are given for the K α lines of 3. period elements excited by 55 Fe, 3 H/Zr and 210 Po sources; for the 2. period the K α spectra of carbon and of fluorine excited by the α particles of 210 Po. (author) [fr

  7. Homogenate-assisted Vacuum-powered Bubble Extraction of Moso Bamboo Flavonoids for On-line Scavenging Free Radical Capacity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yinnan; Yang, Kui; Cao, Qin; Sun, Jinde; Xia, Yu; Wang, Yinhang; Li, Wei; Ma, Chunhui; Liu, Shouxin

    2017-07-11

    A homogenate-assisted vacuum-powered bubble extraction (HVBE) method using ethanol was applied for extraction of flavonoids from Phyllostachys pubescens (P. pubescens) leaves. The mechanisms of homogenate-assisted extraction and vacuum-powered bubble generation were discussed in detail. Furthermore, a method for the rapid determination of flavonoids by HPLC was established. HVBE followed by HPLC was successfully applied for the extraction and quantification of four flavonoids in P. pubescens , including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. This method provides a fast and effective means for the preparation and determination of plant active components. Moreover, the on-line antioxidant capacity, including scavenging positive ion and negative ion free radical capacity of different fractions from the bamboo flavonoid extract was evaluated. Results showed that the scavenging DPPH ˙ free radical capacity of vitexin and isovitexin was larger than that of isoorientin and orientin. On the contrary, the scavenging ABTS⁺ ˙ free radical capacity of isoorientin and orientin was larger than that of vitexin and isovitexin.

  8. On-line dynamic fractionation and automatic determination of inorganic phosphorous in environmental solid substrates exploiting sequential injection microcolumn extraction and flow injection analysi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buanuam, Janya; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2006-01-01

    Sequential injection microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) based on the implementation of a soil containing microcartridge as external reactor in a sequential injection network is, for the first time, proposed for dynamic fractionation of macronutrients in environmental solids, as exemplified by the pa......Sequential injection microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) based on the implementation of a soil containing microcartridge as external reactor in a sequential injection network is, for the first time, proposed for dynamic fractionation of macronutrients in environmental solids, as exemplified...... by the partitioning of inorganic phosphorous in agricultural soils. The on-line fractionation method capitalises on the accurate metering and sequential exposure of the various extractants to the solid sample by application of programmable flow as precisely coordinated by a syringe pump. Three different soil phase...... associations for phosphorus, that is, exchangeable, Al- and Fe-bound and Ca-bound fractions, were elucidated by accommodation in the flow manifold of the 3 steps of the Hietjles-Litjkema (HL) scheme involving the use of 1.0 M NH4Cl, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.5 M HCl, respectively, as sequential leaching reagents...

  9. Accelerated solvent extraction followed by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ion trap LC/MS/MS for analysis of benzalkonium chlorides in sediment samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.

    2002-01-01

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) were successfully extracted from sediment samples using a new methodology based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by an on-line cleanup step. The BACs were detected by liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an electrospray interface operated in the positive ion mode. This methodology combines the high efficiency of extraction provided by a pressurized fluid and the high sensitivity offered by the ion trap MS/MS. The effects of solvent type and ASE operational variables, such as temperature and pressure, were evaluated. After optimization, a mixture of acetonitrile/water (6:4 or 7:3) was found to be most efficient for extracting BACs from the sediment samples. Extraction recoveries ranged from 95 to 105% for C12 and C14 homologues, respectively. Total method recoveries from fortified sediment samples, using a cleanup step followed by ASE, were 85% for C12BAC and 79% for C14-BAC. The methodology developed in this work provides detection limits in the subnanogram per gram range. Concentrations of BAC homologues ranged from 22 to 206 ??g/kg in sediment samples from different river sites downstream from wastewater treatment plants. The high affinity of BACs for soil suggests that BACs preferentially concentrate in sediment rather than in water.

  10. High efficiency cell-recycle continuous sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger using on-line physiological parameters association analysis to regulate feed rate rationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Li, Chao; Wang, Zejian; Zhao, Wei; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a system of cell-recycle continuous fermentation for sodium gluconate (SG) production by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) was established. Based on initial continuous fermentation result (100.0h) with constant feed rate, an automatic feedback strategy to regulate feed rate using on-line physiological parameters (OUR and DO) was proposed and applied successfully for the first time in the improved continuous fermentation (240.5h). Due to less auxiliary time, highest SG production rate (31.05±0.29gL(-1)h(-1)) and highest yield (0.984±0.067molmol(-1)), overall SG production capacity (975.8±5.8gh(-1)) in 50-L fermentor of improved continuous fermentation increased more than 300.0% compared to that of batch fermentation. Improvement of mass transfer and dispersed mycelia morphology were the two major reasons responsible for the high SG production rate. This system had been successfully applied to industrial fermentation and SG production was greatly improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  12. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs

  13. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G D; Smallwood, A [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  14. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Pull-Out Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saabye Ottesen, N

    1981-01-01

    A specific pull-out test used to determine in-situ concrete compressive strength is analyzed. This test consists of a steel disc that is extracted from the structure. The finite element analysis considers cracking as well as strain hardening and softening in the pre- and post-failure region...

  15. Trace element analysis of archaeological artefacts from Pella, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.

    1985-01-01

    A brief history of the site at Pella, Jordan is presented, as a prelude to an analysis of the element composition of 82 pottery sherds. Statistical results from this data support the archaeological evidence for occupation during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age

  16. Neutron activation analysis as an element of sculpture provenance establishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panczyk, E.; Rowinska, L.; Walis, L.; Ligeza, M.; Nalepa, B.

    1998-01-01

    Investigation was carried out on the subject named ''Madonna Jackowa'' (XV cent.). The investigation object was to answer whether ''Madonna Jackowa'' was made of a native alabaster. Alabaster derived from five carious mines situated at the Cracow - Lvov line and ''Madonna Jackowa'' were analysed and the trace elements contents were compared. Instrumental neutron activation method was used for analysis of the trace. (author)

  17. Multivariate statistical analysis of major and trace element data for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multivariate statistical analysis of major and trace element data for niobium exploration in the peralkaline granites of the anorogenic ring-complex province of Nigeria. PO Ogunleye, EC Ike, I Garba. Abstract. No Abstract Available Journal of Mining and Geology Vol.40(2) 2004: 107-117. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  18. Microlocal methods in the analysis of the boundary element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The application of the boundary element method in numerical analysis is based upon the use of boundary integral operators stemming from multiple layer potentials. The regularity properties of these operators are vital in the development of boundary integral equations and error estimates. We show...

  19. Three-dimensional wake field analysis by boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, K.

    1987-01-01

    A computer code HERTPIA was developed for the calculation of electromagnetic wake fields excited by charged particles travelling through arbitrarily shaped accelerating cavities. This code solves transient wave problems for a Hertz vector. The numerical analysis is based on the boundary element method. This program is validated by comparing its results with analytical solutions in a pill-box cavity

  20. Analysis of Trace Elements in South African Clinkers using Latent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trace element content of clinkers (and possibly of cements) can be used to identify the manufacturing factory. The Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn and V content of clinkers give detailed information for the determination of the origin of clinkers produced in different factories. However, for the analysis of such complex data there ...

  1. GRIZ: Visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovey, D.; Loomis, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    GRIZ is a general-purpose post-processing application that supports interactive visualization of finite element analysis results on three-dimensional unstructured grids. GRIZ includes direct-to-videodisc animation capabilities and is being used as a production tool for creating engineering animations

  2. Advanced chemical analysis service for elements, radionuclides and phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, B.

    1986-01-01

    A review is given on the structure, organisation and performance of the chemical analysis service of the Central Department for Chemical Analysis at the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH. The research and development programs together with the infrastructure of the Centre afford to analyse almost all stable elements of the periodical table in almost any material. The corresponding chemical analysis service has been organized according to a new modular system of analytical steps. According to this, the most complicated and, therefore, most general case of an analytical scheme for element and radionuclide analysis in any type of material can be differentiated into about 14 different steps, the modules. They are more or less independent of the special problem. The laboratory is designed and organized according to these steps. (orig./PW) [de

  3. Biological reference materials and analysis of toxic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, R; Sukumar, A

    1988-12-01

    Biological monitoring of toxic metal pollution in the environment requires quality control analysis with use of standard reference materials. A variety of biological tissues are increasingly used for analysis of element bioaccumulation, but the available Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) are insufficient. An attempt is made to review the studies made using biological reference materials for animal and human tissues. The need to have inter-laboratory studies and CRM in the field of biological monitoring of toxic metals is also discussed.

  4. Piezoelectric Analysis of Saw Sensor Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír KUTIŠ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution modeling and simulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW sensor using finite element method will be presented. SAW sensor is made from piezoelectric GaN layer and SiC substrate. Two different analysis types are investigated - modal and transient. Both analyses are only 2D. The goal of modal analysis, is to determine the eigenfrequency of SAW, which is used in following transient analysis. In transient analysis, wave propagation in SAW sensor is investigated. Both analyses were performed using FEM code ANSYS.

  5. Analysis of Tire Tractive Performance on Deformable Terrain by Finite Element-Discrete Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takatsu, Yuzuru

    The goal of this study is to develop a practical and fast simulation tool for soil-tire interaction analysis, where finite element method (FEM) and discrete element method (DEM) are coupled together, and which can be realized on a desktop PC. We have extended our formerly proposed dynamic FE-DE method (FE-DEM) to include practical soil-tire system interaction, where not only the vertical sinkage of a tire, but also the travel of a driven tire was considered. Numerical simulation by FE-DEM is stable, and the relationships between variables, such as load-sinkage and sinkage-travel distance, and the gross tractive effort and running resistance characteristics, are obtained. Moreover, the simulation result is accurate enough to predict the maximum drawbar pull for a given tire, once the appropriate parameter values are provided. Therefore, the developed FE-DEM program can be applied with sufficient accuracy to interaction problems in soil-tire systems.

  6. Elemental characterization of Brazilian beans using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilian Seiko Kato; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. De; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Gabriel Adrian Sarries; Andres Enrique Lai Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Beans are important for many developing countries as a source of protein and mineral nutrients. Here, ten commercial types of Brazilian beans, from the species Phaseolus vulgaris (common beans) and Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas), were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. There were statistical differences (p/0.05) amongst the commercial types, except for Br, Rb and Sc. In general, non-essential elements showed high variability, indicating that the origin of beans had a strong influence on the mass fraction of such elements. (author)

  7. Fast XRF analysis of mineral elements in dental composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E. A.; Constantinescu, B.; Preoteasa, E.

    2001-01-01

    Dental composites, made of particles of glass, ceramics or quartz embedded in an organic polymer matrix, extensively replaced silver amalgam in tooth fillings and enabled new applications for restorative dentistry. Long-term alteration of dental fillings together with market pressure motivates the development of composites at a high rate, largely by progress of materials forming their mineral phase. Therefore, dental composites constantly bring at the interface with enamel and dentine new elements foreign to the organism, whose biological action has not been studied. Atomic and nuclear methods for surface multielemental analysis have been used in dental research but not for composites. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is suited for the fast microanalytical screening of the elements and of their changes at the biomaterial's surface. The potential of radioisotope-excited XRF for the analysis of dental composites has been examined. Flat disk-shaped samples of composites have been prepared and polymerized chemically or by irradiation with intense 420-500 nm light. The measurements were performed with a spectrometric chain containing a 30 mCi source of 241 Am, a Si(Li) detector, and a multichannel analyzer. The spectra were built up for 2000-6000 sec. The characteristic X lines were integrated and normalized to source lines. The following Z ≥ 20 elements were detected in the studied composites: Ba only in Charisma (Kulzer) and Pekafill (Bayer); Zr, Ba, Yb in Tetric Ceram, and Ca, Ba, Yb together with traces of possibly Ti and Fe in Ariston (both from Vivadent); Zr, Hf in Valux Plus (3M Dental); and Sr, Ba together with some trace element, seemingly Cu, in F2000 Compomer (3M Dental) and with other trace elements like Ca, Fe in Surefil (Dentsply). Among older materials, Concise (3M Dental) contained only light (Z 3 that releases F for protection of enamel and dentine. Yb, Zr, Ba, Hf improve the radiological opacity of the materials. Some elements may accompany others as

  8. Analytical and statistical analysis of elemental composition of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvelo, S.; Baccala, N.; Bubach, D.; Arribere, M.A.; Riberio Guevara, S.

    1997-01-01

    The elemental composition of lichens from remote southern South America regions has been studied with analytical and statistical techniques to determine if the values obtained reflect species, growth forms or habitat characteristics. The enrichment factors are calculated discriminated by species and collection site and compared with data available in the literature. The elemental concentrations are standardized and compared for different species. The information was statistically processed, a cluster analysis was performed using the three first principal axes of the PCA; the three groups formed are presented. Their relationship with the species, collection sites and the lichen growth forms are interpreted. (author)

  9. Finite elements for non-linear analysis of pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamim, A.C.; Ebecken, N.F.F.

    1982-01-01

    The application of a three-dimensional lagrangian formulation for the great dislocations analysis and great rotation of pipelines systems is studied. This formulation is derived from the soil mechanics and take into account the shear stress effects. Two finite element models are implemented. The first, of right axis, uses as interpolation functions the conventional gantry functions, defined in relation to mobile coordinates. The second, of curve axis and variable cross sections, is obtained from the degeneration of the three-dimensional isoparametric element, and uses as interpolation functions third degree polynomials. (E.G.) [pt

  10. Trace element analysis in rheumatoid arthritis under chrysotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.; Barrette, M.; Lamoureux, G.; Menard, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is used to measure trace element concentrations in blood serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Initially trace element contaminations in blood-collecting and storing devices are determined. Then mean values and nyctemeral cycles are measured both in normal subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other similar pathologies. Abnormal concentrations of Cu and Zn and anomalies in the nyctemeral cycle are found in the patients. In the second phase of the project, the special case of chrysotherapeutically treated (gold salt treatment) rheumatoid arthritis patients is studied for extended periods of time (up to 53 weeks). (orig.)

  11. Analysis of Piezoelectric Solids using Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Mohammed; Nagarajan, Praveen; Remanan, Mini

    2018-03-01

    Piezoelectric materials are extensively used in smart structures as sensors and actuators. In this paper, static analysis of three piezoelectric solids is done using general-purpose finite element software, Abaqus. The simulation results from Abaqus are compared with the results obtained using numerical methods like Boundary Element Method (BEM) and meshless point collocation method (PCM). The BEM and PCM are cumbersome for complex shape and complicated boundary conditions. This paper shows that the software Abaqus can be used to solve the governing equations of piezoelectric solids in a much simpler and faster way than the BEM and PCM.

  12. Stress analysis of heated concrete using finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, P.; Gupta, A.; Marchertas, A.

    1994-01-01

    Described is a finite element analysis of concrete, which is subjected to rapid heating. Using thermal mass transport calculation, the moisture content, temperature and pore pressure distribution over space and time is obtained first. From these effects, stress at various points of the concrete are computed using the finite element method. Contribution to the stress formulation comes from three components, namely the thermal expansion, pore pressure, and the shrinkage of concrete due to moisture loss (from dehydration). The material properties of concrete are assumed to be homogeneous, elastic, and cracking is not taken into consideration. (orig.)

  13. Fourier analysis of finite element preconditioned collocation schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Michel O.; Mund, Ernest H.

    1990-01-01

    The spectrum of the iteration operator of some finite element preconditioned Fourier collocation schemes is investigated. The first part of the paper analyses one-dimensional elliptic and hyperbolic model problems and the advection-diffusion equation. Analytical expressions of the eigenvalues are obtained with use of symbolic computation. The second part of the paper considers the set of one-dimensional differential equations resulting from Fourier analysis (in the tranverse direction) of the 2-D Stokes problem. All results agree with previous conclusions on the numerical efficiency of finite element preconditioning schemes.

  14. Finite element analysis of structures through unified formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, Erasmo; Petrolo, Marco; Zappino, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is a computational tool widely used to design and analyse  complex structures. Currently, there are a number of different approaches to analysis using the FEM that vary according to the type of structure being analysed: beams and plates may use 1D or 2D approaches, shells and solids 2D or 3D approaches, and methods that work for one structure are typically not optimized to work for another. Finite Element Analysis of Structures Through Unified Formulation deals with the FEM used for the analysis of the mechanics of structures in the case of linear elasticity. The novelty of this book is that the finite elements (FEs) are formulated on the basis of a class of theories of structures known as the Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF). It formulates 1D, 2D and 3D FEs on the basis of the same ''fundamental nucleus'' that comes from geometrical relations and Hooke''s law, and presents both 1D and 2D refined FEs that only have displacement variables as in 3D elements. It also covers 1D...

  15. Sample preparation procedure for PIXE elemental analysis on soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubica, B.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Lekka, M.

    1997-01-01

    Trace element analysis is one of the most important field in analytical chemistry. There are several instrumental techniques which are applied for determinations of microscopic elemental content. The PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) technique is one of the nuclear techniques that is commonly applied for such purpose due to its multielemental analysis possibilities. The aim of this study was to establish the optimal conditions for target preparation procedure. In this paper two different approaches to the topic are presented and widely discussed. The first approach was the traditional pellet technique and the second one was mineralization procedure. For the analysis soft tissue such as liver was used. Some results are also presented on water samples. (author)

  16. OXYGEN PRESSURE REGULATOR DESIGN AND ANALYSIS THROUGH FINITE ELEMENT MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asterios KOSMARAS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen production centers produce oxygen in high pressure that needs to be defused. A regulator is designed and analyzed in the current paper for medical use in oxygen production centers. This study aims to design a new oxygen pressure regulator and perform an analysis using Finite Element Modeling in order to evaluate its working principle. In the design procedure,the main elements and the operating principles of a pressure regulator are taking into account. The regulator is designed and simulations take place in order to assessthe proposed design. Stress analysis results are presented for the main body of the regulator, as well as, flow analysis to determine some important flow characteristics in the inlet and outlet of the regulator.

  17. Finite Element Residual Stress Analysis of Planetary Gear Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to simulate residual stress field of planetary gear is proposed. In this method, the finite element model of planetary gear is established and divided to tooth zone and profile zone, whose different temperature field is set. The gear's residual stress simulation is realized by the thermal compression stress generated by the temperature difference. Based on the simulation, the finite element model of planetary gear train is established, the dynamic meshing process is simulated, and influence of residual stress on equivalent stress of addendum, pitch circle, and dedendum of internal and external meshing planetary gear tooth profile is analyzed, according to non-linear contact theory, thermodynamic theory, and finite element theory. The results show that the equivalent stresses of planetary gear at both meshing and nonmeshing surface are significantly and differently reduced by residual stress. The study benefits fatigue cracking analysis and dynamic optimization design of planetary gear train.

  18. Probabilistic finite elements for fracture and fatigue analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Lawrence, M.; Besterfield, G. H.

    1989-01-01

    The fusion of the probabilistic finite element method (PFEM) and reliability analysis for probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) is presented. A comprehensive method for determining the probability of fatigue failure for curved crack growth was developed. The criterion for failure or performance function is stated as: the fatigue life of a component must exceed the service life of the component; otherwise failure will occur. An enriched element that has the near-crack-tip singular strain field embedded in the element is used to formulate the equilibrium equation and solve for the stress intensity factors at the crack-tip. Performance and accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a classical mode 1 fatigue problem.

  19. Trace elemental analysis of the aerosol particulates in northern Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.Z.

    2002-01-01

    Trace elemental analysis of the aerosol particulates was studied in the atmosphere of Lahore, Faisalabad, Islamabad, Sheikhupura, Wah Cantt. And Khanispur. The amount of the aerosol particulates in the above mentioned areas was compared to the U.S. EPA maximum permissible limits. Scavenging mechanism of the aerosol particulates through precipitation was studied in the atmosphere of Lahore and Sheikhupura by using HPLC and ICP-AES techniques. The site distribution and morphological structure of the aerosol particulates was studied by using Scanning Electron Microscope model JSM-35CF. Trace elemental composition of the aerosol particulates in the atmosphere of the selected areas of Pakistan was carried out by using NAA. The elements thus studied were Ce, Yb, Se, Cr, Hf, Cs, Sc, Fe, Co, Eu, Sb, Mo, Ba, Zn, Hg, Br, Na, Gd, Sm, Nd and In while Pb and Cd were estimated by using ASS technique. (author)

  20. Elemental misinterpretation in automated analysis of LIBS spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübert, Waldemar; Ankerhold, Georg

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the Stark effect is shown to be mainly responsible for wrong elemental allocation by automated laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) software solutions. Due to broadening and shift of an elemental emission line affected by the Stark effect, its measured spectral position might interfere with the line position of several other elements. The micro-plasma is generated by focusing a frequency-doubled 200 mJ pulsed Nd/YAG laser on an aluminum target and furthermore on a brass sample in air at atmospheric pressure. After laser pulse excitation, we have measured the temporal evolution of the Al(II) ion line at 281.6 nm (4s(1)S-3p(1)P) during the decay of the laser-induced plasma. Depending on laser pulse power, the center of the measured line is red-shifted by 130 pm (490 GHz) with respect to the exact line position. In this case, the well-known spectral line positions of two moderate and strong lines of other elements coincide with the actual shifted position of the Al(II) line. Consequently, a time-resolving software analysis can lead to an elemental misinterpretation. To avoid a wrong interpretation of LIBS spectra in automated analysis software for a given LIBS system, we recommend using larger gate delays incorporating Stark broadening parameters and using a range of tolerance, which is non-symmetric around the measured line center. These suggestions may help to improve time-resolving LIBS software promising a smaller probability of wrong elemental identification and making LIBS more attractive for industrial applications.

  1. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa K. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is to develop a numerical model suitable for nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete shells. A nine-node Lagrangian element Figure (1 with enhanced shear interpolation will be used in this study. Table (1 describes shape functions and their derivatives of this element.An assumed transverse shear strain is used in the formulation of this element to overcome shear locking. Degenerated quadratic thick plate elements employing a layered discrelization through the thickness will be adopted. Different numbers of layers for different thickness can be used per element. A number of layers between (6 and 10 have proved to be appropriate to represent the nonlinear material behavior in structures. In this research 8 layers will be adequate. Material nonlinearities due to cracking of concrete, plastic flow or crushing of concrete in compression and yield condition of reinforcing steel are considered. The maximum tensile strength is used as a criterion for crack initiation. Attention is given to the tension stiffening phenomenon and the degrading effect of cracking on the compressive and shear strength of concrete. Perfect bond between concrete and steel is assumed. Attention is given also to geometric nonlinearities. An example have been chosen in order to demonstrate the suitability of the models by comparing the predicted behaviour with the experimental results for shell exhibiting various modes of failure.

  2. Finite element elastic-plastic analysis of LMFBR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, A.; Pifko, A.; Armen, H. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The present effort involves the development of computationally efficient finite element methods for accurately predicting the isothermal elastic-plastic three-dimensional response of thick and thin shell structures subjected to mechanical and thermal loads. This work will be used as the basis for further development of analytical tools to be used to verify the structural integrity of liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) components. The methods presented here have been implemented into the three-dimensional solid element module (HEX) of the Grumman PLANS finite element program. These methods include the use of optimal stress points as well as a variable number of stress points within an element. This allows monitoring the stress history at many points within an element and hence provides an accurate representation of the elastic-plastic boundary using a minimum number of degrees of freedom. Also included is an improved thermal stress analysis capability in which the temperature variation and corresponding thermal strain variation are represented by the same functional form as the displacement variation. Various problems are used to demonstrate these improved capabilities. (Auth.)

  3. Towards optical spectroscopy of the element nobelium (Z = 102) in a buffer gas cell. First on-line experiments on {sup 155}Yb at the velocity filter SHIP with a novel ion collection and atom re-evaporation method of high efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backe, H.; Kunz, P.; Lauth, W.; Dretzke, A.; Horn, R.; Kolb, T. [Mainz Univ., Institut fur Kernphysik (Germany); Laatiaoui, M.; Sewtz, M. [Munchen Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Dept. fur Physik, Garching (Germany); Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Herfurth, F.; Hebberger, F.P.; Hofmann, S.; Mann, R. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    For the investigation of the atomic level structure of heavy elements which can only be produced at on-line facilities such as GSI (Darmstadt, Germany), a novel experimental procedure has been developed. It is based on Radiation Detected Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RADRIS) and can be applied to elements like nobelium produced at rates of a few ions per second. Fusion reaction products are separated from the primary beam by the velocity filter SHIP at GSI, stopped in a buffer gas cell, collected on a tantalum filament and then re-evaporated as atoms. The ions produced by resonance ionization with tunable laser beams are detected via their characteristic alpha decay. First on-line experiments on alpha-active {sup 155}Yb, which is supposed to have an atomic level structure similar to nobelium, were performed. These test experiments focused on the optimization of the collection and re-evaporation process of the radioactive ions, the laser ionization efficiency and the detection via alpha decay. An overall efficiency for RADRIS of 0.8% with respect to the target production rate was measured. While further improvements of this efficiency are in progress it should already be sufficient for the search for atomic levels in nobelium. (authors)

  4. Towards optical spectroscopy of the element nobelium (Z = 102) in a buffer gas cell. First on-line experiments on 155Yb at the velocity filter SHIP with a novel ion collection and atom re-evaporation method of high efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, H.; Kunz, P.; Lauth, W.; Dretzke, A.; Horn, R.; Kolb, T.; Laatiaoui, M.; Sewtz, M.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Herfurth, F.; Hebberger, F.P.; Hofmann, S.; Mann, R.

    2007-01-01

    For the investigation of the atomic level structure of heavy elements which can only be produced at on-line facilities such as GSI (Darmstadt, Germany), a novel experimental procedure has been developed. It is based on Radiation Detected Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RADRIS) and can be applied to elements like nobelium produced at rates of a few ions per second. Fusion reaction products are separated from the primary beam by the velocity filter SHIP at GSI, stopped in a buffer gas cell, collected on a tantalum filament and then re-evaporated as atoms. The ions produced by resonance ionization with tunable laser beams are detected via their characteristic alpha decay. First on-line experiments on alpha-active 155 Yb, which is supposed to have an atomic level structure similar to nobelium, were performed. These test experiments focused on the optimization of the collection and re-evaporation process of the radioactive ions, the laser ionization efficiency and the detection via alpha decay. An overall efficiency for RADRIS of 0.8% with respect to the target production rate was measured. While further improvements of this efficiency are in progress it should already be sufficient for the search for atomic levels in nobelium. (authors)

  5. Medical and health-related trace element analysis by TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, E.D.

    2000-01-01

    The advantages offered with TXRF analysis by direct irradiation with monochromatic X-rays of tissue homogenates and body fluids make the technique appropriate for a number of medical and health related applications. The ability to detect low levels of toxic heavy elements is being used as an aid in accidental poisoning diagnosis and treatment, in treatment-induced toxicity control and as an accessory in medical and health research. Thus lead-in-whole-blood analysis is used in confirmation of diagnosis of victims of poisoning, or monitoring the evolution and efficiency of the clinical treatment. Measurement and control of plasma platinum levels of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy with Pt-containing drugs includes: establishment of the drug level-tumor remission response, measurement of Pt plasma level curves and establishment of optimum dosage to minimize the nephrotoxicity of platinum, and bioequivalence comparisons of different commercially available platinum containing anticancer drugs. Analysis as an aid in clinical research applications includes: trace element determination of amniotic fluid in fetus malformation studies; analysis of brain specimens and cerebrospinal fluid in diagnosis of central nervous system disorders; the influence of trace elements in cataract genesis and the influence of heavy elements in semen quality in human reproduction studies. Human body samples require the use of monochromatized beams of x-rays in order to derive the special advantage of its use: i) The reduction in the spectrum background allowing direct irradiation of organic matter specimens. Hence human tissue and body fluids are prepared by simple procedures involving dilution, homogenization and standard addition avoiding the need for specimen digestion. This results in faster, cheaper methods that decrease sample contamination problems. ii) The presence of a large Compton scattered signal in the spectrum and its use as an internal standard reference allows further

  6. PHARMACOPOEIA METHODS FOR ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MEDICINES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana M. Derkach

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of quality assurance of medicinal products, namely the determination of elemental impurity concentration compared to permitted daily exposures for and the correct choice analytical methods that are adequate to the formulated tasks. The paper goal is to compare characteristics of four analytical methods recommended by the Pharmacopoeia of various countries to control the content of elemental impurities in medicines, including medicinal plant raw materials and herbal medicines. Both advantages and disadvantages were described for atomic absorption spectroscopy with various atomising techniques, as well as atomic emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The choice of the most rational analysis method depends on a research task and is reasoned from the viewpoint of analytical objectives, possible complications, performance attributes, and economic considerations. The methods of ICP-MS and GFAAS were shown to provide the greatest potential for determining the low and ultra-low concentrations of chemical elements in medicinal plants and herbal medicinal products. The other two methods, FAAS and ICP-AES, are limited to the analysis of the main essential elements and the largest impurities. The ICP-MS is the most efficient method for determining ultra-low concentrations. However, the interference of mass peaks is typical for ICP-MS. It is formed not only by impurities but also by polyatomic ions with the participation of argon, as well as atoms of gases from the air (C, N and O or matrices (O, N, H, P, S and Cl. Therefore, a correct sample preparation, which guarantees minimisation of impurity contamination and loss of analytes becomes the most crucial stage of analytical applications of ICP-MS. The detections limits for some chemical elements, which content is regulated in modern Pharmacopoeia, were estimated for each method and analysis conditions of medicinal plant raw

  7. Qualitative PIXE analysis of mineral elements in some dental composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E.A.; Iordan, Andreea; Harangus, Livia; Ciortea, C.; Gugiu, M.; Moldovan, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Dental composites, made by particles of glass, ceramics and quartz embedded in an organic polymer, develop at a high rate. However, commercial composites are expensive and recently the 'Restacril' biomaterials company became prepared to offer a low-cost alternative. The durability of dental fillings depends not only on biomaterial's gross chemical composition, but also on impurities. These may influence the chemical, mechanical and surface properties of the inorganic particles and modify the composites' clinical behavior. Thus elemental analysis is necessary to improve the biomaterials' quality. Nuclear and atomic methods allow sensitive multielement detection, and we previously analyzed some commercial composites by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Here we applied PIXE in the qualitative analysis of six new Romanian biomaterials, aiming to compare their nominal and detected composition and paying attention to the impurities. The PIXE measurements were performed with 3 MeV protons at the 8.5 MV NIPNE-HH tandem accelerator, using a hyper pure Ge detector, normal to the beam and connected to a multichannel analyzer and to a computer. Solid samples of composites with a flat surface were fixed at 45 angle, absorber foil of Al 30 mm thick was used, and integration of beam current was done. In all composites PIXE detected mineral elements with Z > 19 down to trace levels. All major nominal elements with Z > 20 - Ca, Sr, Zr, Ba, and Yb - were detected by PIXE. In addition, many minor and trace elements absent from the nominal formulations were seen, including K, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ag, Cd, Hf, and As/Pb. Such impurities may come from rough materials and preparative technologies. The impurities in Romanian composites are comparable to those in some commercial biomaterials but higher than in other ones. Thus PIXE analysis of mineral elements in Romanian composites, even qualitative, appears useful for quality control and improvement. (authors)

  8. XRF analysis of portland cement for major and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdunnabi, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    Libyan portland cement produced in several factories around the country, in Lip tis, Zoltan, Souq-Elkamis, Dernah and El-Fatach, were analyzed for quantitative major and trace elements and mineral content, which were compered with those imported from Spain, Romania, Cyprus, and Egypt. X-ray fluorescence spectro X lab 2000 spectrometer equipped with Rh-and X-ray tube was used for the analysis of various samples. The detector Si(Li) with a resolution of 148 eV at Mn K-a=5.9 keV facilitates the determination of a wide range of elements from sodium to uranium, with a detection limit at sub levels. Cement samples in the powder form were analyzed using the pellet-technique. The pellets were prepared by mixing 4g of the cement powder with 0.9 g of binder (HWC) and pressed at high pressure. A ful analysis including, background counting, matrix correction and all relevant corrections were achieved automatically by XLAB 2000 software package. For major and trace elements X RF results were higher for most of the elements than those analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometry. The mineral content showed that Libyan cement is comparable to the imported ones, also the Libyan cement meets the requirements of the international specifications of the portland cement. (Author)

  9. Electromagnetic analysis of control element drive mechanism for KSNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. M.; Kim, I. G.; Kim, I. Y.

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic jack type Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) for Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) is an electromechanical device which provides controlled linear motion to the Control Element Assembly (CEA) through the Extension Shaft Assembly (ESA) in response to operational signals received from the Control Element Drive Mechanism Control System (CEDMCS). The CEDM is operated by applying localized magnetic flux fields to movable latch and lift magnets, which are in the coolant pressure boundary. The CEDM design had been developed through electromechanical testing of the system including the magnetic force lifting the ESA. But it will be inefficient if parametric studies should be performed to improve the CEDM by test due to the consumption of high cost and long duration. So it becomes necessary to develop a computational model to simulate the electromagnetic characteristics of the CEDM to improve the CEDM design efficiently. In this paper, the electromagnetic analysis using a 2D finite element model has been carried out to simulate magnetic force of the lift magnet of the CEDM, to provide effective evaluation between leakage flux and lift force and to compare with test results. Analysis results show the lift force satisfied the test results and design requirement and the lift force depend on the shape of the components, leakage flux and B-H curve

  10. Characteristic and analysis of structural elements of corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Bilonog

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article attention is focused on social responsibility of business and on necessity to estimate its condition in Ukraine. Materials regarding elements and the principles of corporate social responsibility are structured. On this basis unification of quantitative elements of business social responsibility is offered according to which it is possible to carry out the analysis of the non­financial reporting. It is proposed to use not only quantitative techniques of data analysis but also refer to the qualitative ones. As a result of this, the analysis of social reports will be more productive and would minimize subjectivity of the researcher or representatives of the company which are responsible for presenting the information to the general public. The basic principles by which the companies can realize the strategy of corporate social responsibility are considered. Due to the empirical analysis of corporate reports expediency to use specified elements is proved. Reports of the companies in producing and non­productive sector are analyzed in more detail; features of displaying information on corporate social responsibility are defined. The attention to need of carrying out monitoring researches in the sphere of the corporate social reporting is updated.

  11. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annegarn, H.J.; Jodaikin, A.; Cleaton-Jones, P.E.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Madiba, C.C.P.; Bibby, D.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

    1981-01-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas suceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surface), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the carious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples require for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis. (orig.)

  12. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annegarn, H J; Jodaikin, A; Cleaton-Jones, P E; Sellschop, J P.F.; Madiba, C C.P.; Bibby, D [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Nuclear Physics Research Unit; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dental Research Unit)

    1981-03-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas suceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surface), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the carious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples require for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis.

  13. Proposal for element size and time increment selection guideline by 3-D finite element method for elastic waves propagation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hitoshi; Meshii, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a guideline for selection of element size and time increment by 3-D finite element method, which is applied to elastic wave propagation analysis for a long distance of a large structure. An element size and a time increment are determined by quantitative evaluation of strain, which must be 0 on the analysis model with a uniform motion, caused by spatial and time discretization. (author)

  14. Accurate determination of light elements by charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikano, K.; Shigematsu, T.

    1989-01-01

    To develop accurate determination of light elements by CPAA, accurate and practical standardization methods and uniform chemical etching are studied based on determination of carbon in gallium arsenide using the 12 C(d,n) 13 N reaction and the following results are obtained: (1)Average stopping power method with thick target yield is useful as an accurate and practical standardization method. (2)Front surface of sample has to be etched for accurate estimate of incident energy. (3)CPAA is utilized for calibration of light element analysis by physical method. (4)Calibration factor of carbon analysis in gallium arsenide using the IR method is determined to be (9.2±0.3) x 10 15 cm -1 . (author)

  15. Sensitivity analysis overlaps of friction elements in cartridge seals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žmindák Milan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartridge seals are self-contained units consisting of a shaft sleeve, seals, and gland plate. The applications of mechanical seals are numerous. The most common example of application is in bearing production for automobile industry. This paper deals with the sensitivity analysis of overlaps friction elements in cartridge seal and their influence on the friction torque sealing and compressive force. Furthermore, it describes materials for the manufacture of sealings, approaches usually used to solution of hyperelastic materials by FEM and short introduction into the topic wheel bearings. The practical part contains one of the approach for measurement friction torque, which results were used to specifying the methodology and precision of FEM calculation realized by software ANSYS WORKBENCH. This part also contains the sensitivity analysis of overlaps friction elements.

  16. Forensic Comparison of Soil Samples Using Nondestructive Elemental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitdehaag, Stefan; Wiarda, Wim; Donders, Timme; Kuiper, Irene

    2017-07-01

    Soil can play an important role in forensic cases in linking suspects or objects to a crime scene by comparing samples from the crime scene with samples derived from items. This study uses an adapted ED-XRF analysis (sieving instead of grinding to prevent destruction of microfossils) to produce elemental composition data of 20 elements. Different data processing techniques and statistical distances were evaluated using data from 50 samples and the log-LR cost (C llr ). The best performing combination, Canberra distance, relative data, and square root values, is used to construct a discriminative model. Examples of the spatial resolution of the method in crime scenes are shown for three locations, and sampling strategy is discussed. Twelve test cases were analyzed, and results showed that the method is applicable. The study shows how the combination of an analysis technique, a database, and a discriminative model can be used to compare multiple soil samples quickly. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Twenty years of analysis of light elements at the LARN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demortier, G.

    1992-01-01

    We review the applications of ion beam analysis of light elements performed in the LARN during the last twenty years. The works mainly concern: helium bubbles in aluminum foils, Li in aluminum alloys, carbon in high purity MgO crystals and in olivines, nitrogen bubbles in glass and implanted nitrogen in iron and aluminum, oxygen in YBaCuO superconductors, fluorine in tooth enamel and implanted fluorine in metals. (orig.)

  18. Instrumental neutron activation analysis in environmental studies of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, L.

    1975-06-01

    The application of a routine instrumental nuclear method is described in relation to environmental surveys and studies. A working rather than formal review is made of the techniques applied with particular reference to the data processing methods involved. The elements measured by instrumental activation analysis were: Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, In, La, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Zn. (author)

  19. Three dimensional mathematical model of tooth for finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškar Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The mathematical model of the abutment tooth is the starting point of the finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. The simplest and easiest way is to form a model according to the literature data of dimensions and morphological characteristics of teeth. Our method is based on forming 3D models using standard geometrical forms (objects in programmes for solid modeling. Objective. Forming the mathematical model of abutment of the second upper premolar for finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. Methods. The abutment tooth has a form of a complex geometric object. It is suitable for modeling in programs for solid modeling SolidWorks. After analyzing the literature data about the morphological characteristics of teeth, we started the modeling dividing the tooth (complex geometric body into simple geometric bodies (cylinder, cone, pyramid,.... Connecting simple geometric bodies together or substricting bodies from the basic body, we formed complex geometric body, tooth. The model is then transferred into Abaqus, a computational programme for finite element analysis. Transferring the data was done by standard file format for transferring 3D models ACIS SAT. Results. Using the programme for solid modeling SolidWorks, we developed three models of abutment of the second maxillary premolar: the model of the intact abutment, the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining cavity walls and the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining walls and inserted post. Conclusion Mathematical models of the abutment made according to the literature data are very similar with the real abutment and the simplifications are minimal. These models enable calculations of stress and deformation of the dental structures. The finite element analysis provides useful information in understanding biomechanical problems and gives guidance for clinical research.

  20. Preparation of hair and nail samples for trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoble, H.A.; Litman, R.

    1978-01-01

    The method of washing of human hair and nail samples is examined by neutron activation and γ-ray analysis. The amounts of Na, K, Br, Au, Zn, and La that are removed by successive washings determine the optimum number of washing for removing these trace elements as surface contaminants. A total solution contact time with the nails is 5 minutes, and leaching effcts are observed after 6 washings

  1. 1-D and 2-D processing for on-line control and data analysis assistance for the multidetector 4π INDRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkirane, A.

    1994-02-01

    The first part of the thesis is concerned with the quality control of the detection modules and three analysis methods are studied and compared: spectral analysis, distribution function method and correlation form measurement; implementation of the spectral analysis technique is then described. The second part is concerned with the non controlled identification of the Z lines; an image processing approach is adopted which handles the peak line recognition problem as an edge detection problem. A contextual edge detection system with a-priori knowledge is presented. Examples of implementation and integration are given. 44 figs., 59 refs

  2. Elemental analysis of sub-hourly ambient aerosol collections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, C.B.; Ondov, J.M. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (USA). Dept. of Chemical & Biochemistry

    2004-03-01

    Simultaneous multielement graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn in ambient air sampled at 170 L.min{sup -1} for 30 min and collected as a slurry after dynamic preconcentration. Analyses of slurries of NIST SRM 1648, Urban Particulate Matter, were typically within 10% of expected values for all elements except Al, Cr, and Fe, elements for which deviations were mostly due to difficulties in transferring large particles. This problem will be reduced for urban fine particulate matter samples (PM2.5). Trends in the concentrations of elemental source markers were readily correlated with wind direction and other meteorological factors to identify the influences of local industrial emissions, including motor vehicle traffic, coal- and oil-fired power plants, and municipal incinerators. Factor analysis was applied to the 88-sample data set to extract 7 factors: urban dust, meteorological factors, incinerators, coal- fired power plants, Tour Bus emission, unknown As source, and oil-fired power plants. Factor analysis was also applied to an 18-sample data set representing 2.5 h averages of the 30 min data to simulate the effect of longer sample collection times. Only 6 factors were extracted from this data set, which shows that increased temporal resolution enhances the power of factor analysis to resolve sources. These results indicate that a wealth of detailed information is revealed at this level of temporal resolution.

  3. Finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of bilayer enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Yunfei; Xuan, Fu-zhen; Chen, Xiaoping; Yang, Fuqian

    2014-01-01

    Tooth enamel is often subjected to repeated contact and often experiences contact deformation in daily life. The mechanical strength of the enamel determines the biofunctionality of the tooth. Considering the variation of the rod arrangement in outer and inner enamel, we approximate enamel as a bilayer structure and perform finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of the bilayer structure, to mimic the repeated contact of enamel during mastication. The dynamic deformation behaviour of both the inner enamel and the bilayer enamel is examined. The material parameters of the inner and outer enamel used in the analysis are obtained by fitting the finite element results with the experimental nanoindentation results. The penetration depth per cycle at the quasi-steady state is used to describe the depth propagation speed, which exhibits a two-stage power-law dependence on the maximum indentation load and the amplitude of the cyclic load, respectively. The continuous penetration of the indenter reflects the propagation of the plastic zone during cyclic indentation, which is related to the energy dissipation. The outer enamel serves as a protective layer due to its great resistance to contact deformation in comparison to the inner enamel. The larger equivalent plastic strain and lower stresses in the inner enamel during cyclic indentation, as calculated from the finite element analysis, indicate better crack/fracture resistance of the inner enamel. (paper)

  4. Finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of bilayer enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yunfei; Xuan, Fu-zhen; Chen, Xiaoping; Yang, Fuqian

    2014-04-01

    Tooth enamel is often subjected to repeated contact and often experiences contact deformation in daily life. The mechanical strength of the enamel determines the biofunctionality of the tooth. Considering the variation of the rod arrangement in outer and inner enamel, we approximate enamel as a bilayer structure and perform finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of the bilayer structure, to mimic the repeated contact of enamel during mastication. The dynamic deformation behaviour of both the inner enamel and the bilayer enamel is examined. The material parameters of the inner and outer enamel used in the analysis are obtained by fitting the finite element results with the experimental nanoindentation results. The penetration depth per cycle at the quasi-steady state is used to describe the depth propagation speed, which exhibits a two-stage power-law dependence on the maximum indentation load and the amplitude of the cyclic load, respectively. The continuous penetration of the indenter reflects the propagation of the plastic zone during cyclic indentation, which is related to the energy dissipation. The outer enamel serves as a protective layer due to its great resistance to contact deformation in comparison to the inner enamel. The larger equivalent plastic strain and lower stresses in the inner enamel during cyclic indentation, as calculated from the finite element analysis, indicate better crack/fracture resistance of the inner enamel.

  5. Complex of the equipment for instrumental element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, G.I.; Komkov, M.M.; Kuz'michev, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Complex of the equipment for instrumental element analysis at the IR-8 reactor is designed, fabricated and taken into operation. The complex is provided with a multichannel system of vacuum pneumatic transport with radiation positions in the reactor horizontal tangential channel for neutron-activation analysis by short-lived isotopes; specialized dry vertical channels in a beryllium reflector of the reactor and remote system of radioactive sample replacement for neutron-activation analysis by long-lived isotopes; a specialized horizontal tangential channel for neutron beam extraction by means of a beryllium converter and remote device for studied sample replacement under radiation and measurement of prompt γ-radiation for neutron-radiation analysis; a measuring center using minicomputers for experimental data accumulation and processing and analysis control

  6. A proposal for a determination method of element division on an analytical model for finite element elastic waves propagation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hitoshi; Meshii, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes an element size selection method named the 'Impact-Meshing (IM) method' for a finite element waves propagation analysis model, which is characterized by (1) determination of element division of the model with strain energy in the whole model, (2) static analysis (dynamic analysis in a single time step) with boundary conditions which gives a maximum change of displacement in the time increment and inertial (impact) force caused by the displacement change. In this paper, an example of application of the IM method to 3D ultrasonic wave propagation problem in an elastic solid is described. These examples showed an analysis result with a model determined by the IM method was convergence and calculation time for determination of element subdivision was reduced to about 1/6 by the IM Method which did not need determination of element subdivision by a dynamic transient analysis with 100 time steps. (author)

  7. On-line data display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sherman Y. T.; Brooks, Martin; Gauthier, Marc; Wein, Marceli

    1993-05-01

    A data display system for embedded realtime systems has been developed for use as an operator's user interface and debugging tool. The motivation for development of the On-Line Data Display (ODD) have come from several sources. In particular the design reflects the needs of researchers developing an experimental mobile robot within our laboratory. A proliferation of specialized user interfaces revealed a need for a flexible communications and graphical data display system. At the same time the system had to be readily extensible for arbitrary graphical display formats which would be required for data visualization needs of the researchers. The system defines a communication protocol transmitting 'datagrams' between tasks executing on the realtime system and virtual devices displaying the data in a meaningful way on a graphical workstation. The communication protocol multiplexes logical channels on a single data stream. The current implementation consists of a server for the Harmony realtime operating system and an application written for the Macintosh computer. Flexibility requirements resulted in a highly modular server design, and a layered modular object- oriented design for the Macintosh part of the system. Users assign data types to specific channels at run time. Then devices are instantiated by the user and connected to channels to receive datagrams. The current suite of device types do not provide enough functionality for most users' specialized needs. Instead the system design allows the creation of new device types with modest programming effort. The protocol, design and use of the system are discussed.

  8. Multidimensional elemental analysis with the Sandia nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    It is well known that many of the ion beam analysis techniques such as Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, elastic recoil detection, resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction analysis can be used to nondestructively obtain concentration depth profiles of elements in solids. When these techniques are combined with the small beam spot capabilities of a scanned nuclear microprobe, sample composition can be determined in up to three dimensions. This paper will review the various procedures used to collect and analyze multidimensional data using the Sandia nuclear microprobe. In addition, examples of how these data are being used in the study of materials will be shown. (author)

  9. Design and development of a highly sensitive, field portable plasma source instrument for on-line liquid stream monitoring and real-time sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Yixiang; Su, Yongxuan; Jin, Zhe; Abeln, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    The development of a highly sensitive, field portable, low-powered instrument for on-site, real-time liquid waste stream monitoring is described in this article. A series of factors such as system sensitivity and portability, plasma source, sample introduction, desolvation system, power supply, and the instrument configuration, were carefully considered in the design of the portable instrument. A newly designed, miniature, modified microwave plasma source was selected as the emission source for spectroscopy measurement, and an integrated small spectrometer with a charge-coupled device detector was installed for signal processing and detection. An innovative beam collection system with optical fibers was designed and used for emission signal collection. Microwave plasma can be sustained with various gases at relatively low power, and it possesses high detection capabilities for both metal and nonmetal pollutants, making it desirable to use for on-site, real-time, liquid waste stream monitoring. An effective in situ sampling system was coupled with a high efficiency desolvation device for direct-sampling liquid samples into the plasma. A portable computer control system is used for data processing. The new, integrated instrument can be easily used for on-site, real-time monitoring in the field. The system possesses a series of advantages, including high sensitivity for metal and nonmetal elements; in situ sampling; compact structure; low cost; and ease of operation and handling. These advantages will significantly overcome the limitations of previous monitoring techniques and make great contributions to environmental restoration and monitoring. (c)

  10. 2DCOS and PCMW2D analysis of FT-IR/ATR spectra measured at variable temperatures on-line to a polyurethane polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Patrick; Unger, Miriam; Siesler, Heinz W.

    2018-01-01

    In the present communication the potential of 2DCOS analysis and the spin-off technique perturbation-correlation moving window 2D (PCMW2D) analysis is illustrated with reference to spectroscopic changes observed in a data set recorded by in-line fiber-coupled FT-IR spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode during a polyurethane solution polymerization at different temperatures. In view of the chemical functionalities involved, hydrogen bonding plays an important role in this polymerization reaction. Based on the 2DCOS and PCMW2D analysis, the sequence of hydrogen bonding changes accompanying the progress of polymerization and precipitation of solid polymer can be determined. Complementary to the kinetic data derived from the original variable-temperature spectra in a previous publication the results provide a more detailed picture of the investigated solution polymerization.

  11. Macro elemental analysis of food samples by nuclear analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Kurniawati, S.; Adventini, N.; Damastuti, E.; Lestiani, D. D.

    2017-06-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is a non-destructive, rapid, multi elemental, accurate, and environment friendly analysis compared with other detection methods. Thus, EDXRF spectrometry is applicable for food inspection. The macro elements calcium and potassium constitute important nutrients required by the human body for optimal physiological functions. Therefore, the determination of Ca and K content in various foods needs to be done. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of EDXRF for food analysis. The analytical performance of non-destructive EDXRF was compared with other analytical techniques; neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of methods performed as cross checking results of the analysis and to overcome the limitations of the three methods. Analysis results showed that Ca found in food using EDXRF and AAS were not significantly different with p-value 0.9687, whereas p-value of K between EDXRF and NAA is 0.6575. The correlation between those results was also examined. The Pearson correlations for Ca and K were 0.9871 and 0.9558, respectively. Method validation using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet was also applied. The results showed good agreement between methods; therefore EDXRF method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of Ca and K in food samples.

  12. On-line LC-GC and comprehensive two-dimensional LCxGC-ToF MS for the analysis of complex samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Hans-Gerd [Central Analytical Science, Unilever Research and Development, P.O. Box 114, 3130 AC, Vlaardingen (Netherlands); Koning, Sjaak de [Separation Science Group, LECO Instrumente GmbH, Marie-Bernays-Ring 31, 41199, Moenchengladbach (Germany); Brinkman, Udo A.Th. [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Free University, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-04-01

    LC x GC is a logical extension of LC-GC. Unlike LC-GC, which only allows detailed analysis of one group of analytes from a complex sample, LC x GC enables detailed mapping of the entire sample. Due to the high degree of orthogonality and the complementary nature of the two dimensions, the method has a very high resolving power. Comprehensive LC x GC chromatograms often show ordered structures which allow group-wise integration as well as detailed target compound analysis. Hyphenation with mass spectrometry is straightforward, which further widens the application range of the technique. (orig.)

  13. A Study on the Effect of Cohesive Laws on Finite Element Analysis of Crack Propagation Using Cohesive Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyeongseok; Baek, Hyungchan; Kim, Hyungyu [Seoul Nat' l Univ. of Sci. and Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, the effect of cohesive laws on the finite element analysis of crack propagation using cohesive elements is investigated through three-point bending and double cantilever beam problems. The cohesive elements are implemented into ABAQUS/Standard user subroutines(UEL), and the shape of cohesive law is varied by changing parameters in polynomial functions of cohesive traction-separation relations. In particular, crack propagation behaviors are studied by comparing load-displacement curves of the analysis models which have different shapes of cohesive laws with the same values of fracture energy and cohesive strength. Furthermore, the influence of the element size on crack propagation is discussed in this study.

  14. Analysis of glycoprotein-derived oligosaccharides in glycoproteins detected on two-dimensional gel by capillary electrophoresis using on-line concentration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoda, Satoru; Nakanishi, Yasuharu; Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Ishikawa, Rika; Kakehi, Kazuaki

    2006-02-17

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is an effective tool to analyze carbohydrate mixture derived from glycoproteins with high resolution. However, CE has a disadvantage that a few nanoliters of a sample solution are injected to a narrow capillary. Therefore, we have to prepare a sample solution of high concentration for CE analysis. In the present study, we applied head column field-amplified sample stacking method to the analysis of N-linked oligosaccharides derived from glycoprotein separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Model studies demonstrated that we achieved 60-360 times concentration effect on the analysis of carbohydrate chains labeled with 3-aminobenzoic acid (3-AA). The method was applied to the analysis of N-linked oligosaccharides from glycoproteins separated and detected on PAGE gel. Heterogeneity of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), i.e. glycoforms, was examined by 2D-PAGE and N-linked oligosaccharides were released by in-gel digestion with PNGase F. The released oligosaccharides were derivatized with 3-AA and analyzed by CE. The results showed that glycoforms having lower pI values contained a larger amount of tetra- and tri-antennary oligosaccharides. In contrast, glycoforms having higher pI values contained bi-antennary oligosaccharides abundantly. The result clearly indicated that the spot of a glycoprotein glycoform detected by Coomassie brilliant blue staining on 2D-PAGE gel is sufficient for quantitative profiling of oligosaccharides.

  15. Development of an automated on-line pepsin digestion-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry configuration for the rapid analysis of protein adducts of chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carol-Visser, J.; van der Schans, M.; Fidder, A.; Huist, A.G.; van Baar, B.L.M.; Irth, H.; Noort, D.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid monitoring and retrospective verification are key issues in protection against and non-proliferation of chemical warfare agents (CWA). Such monitoring and verification are adequately accomplished by the analysis of persistent protein adducts of these agents. Liquid chromatography-mass

  16. Thermal buckling comparative analysis using Different FE (Finite Element) tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banasiak, Waldemar; Labouriau, Pedro [INTECSEA do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Burnett, Christopher [INTECSEA UK, Surrey (United Kingdom); Falepin, Hendrik [Fugro Engineers SA/NV, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-12-19

    High operational temperature and pressure in offshore pipelines may lead to unexpected lateral movements, sometimes call lateral buckling, which can have serious consequences for the integrity of the pipeline. The phenomenon of lateral buckling in offshore pipelines needs to be analysed in the design phase using FEM. The analysis should take into account many parameters, including operational temperature and pressure, fluid characteristic, seabed profile, soil parameters, coatings of the pipe, free spans etc. The buckling initiation force is sensitive to small changes of any initial geometric out-of-straightness, thus the modeling of the as-laid state of the pipeline is an important part of the design process. Recently some dedicated finite elements programs have been created making modeling of the offshore environment more convenient that has been the case with the use of general purpose finite element software. The present paper aims to compare thermal buckling analysis of sub sea pipeline performed using different finite elements tools, i.e. general purpose programs (ANSYS, ABAQUS) and dedicated software (SAGE Profile 3D) for a single pipeline resting on an the seabed. The analyses considered the pipeline resting on a flat seabed with a small levels of out-of straightness initiating the lateral buckling. The results show the quite good agreement of results of buckling in elastic range and in the conclusions next comparative analyses with sensitivity cases are recommended. (author)

  17. In-vivo elemental analysis at Birmingham 1968-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chettle, D.R.; Scott, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques have been developed to measure a number of elements in-vivo. Some have been measured by producing a radioactive isotope in the body by neutron bombardment and subsequently counting γ-rays given off during its decay. Measurements of calcium and sodium have been those most frequently used; copper, iron and phosphorus have also been measured in this way. Gamma-rays emitted 10 -18 s-10 -12 s following neutron capture have also been used for elemental analysis. This method, which involved detectors being in position by the subject during the neutron irradiation, has been widely applied to measurements of both nitrogen and cadmium. Preliminary studies of nuclear resonance scattering have suggested that this could be used for in-vivo elemental analysis, provided technical difficulties in source preparation could be overcome. Recently the use of X-ray fluorescence has been investigated for in-vivo analyses of lead in bone; the extension of this technique to measure mercury in the kidney is under consideration. (author)

  18. Optimization of deformation monitoring networks using finite element strain analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Khameneh, M. Amin; Eshagh, Mehdi; Jensen, Anna B. O.

    2018-04-01

    An optimal design of a geodetic network can fulfill the requested precision and reliability of the network, and decrease the expenses of its execution by removing unnecessary observations. The role of an optimal design is highlighted in deformation monitoring network due to the repeatability of these networks. The core design problem is how to define precision and reliability criteria. This paper proposes a solution, where the precision criterion is defined based on the precision of deformation parameters, i. e. precision of strain and differential rotations. A strain analysis can be performed to obtain some information about the possible deformation of a deformable object. In this study, we split an area into a number of three-dimensional finite elements with the help of the Delaunay triangulation and performed the strain analysis on each element. According to the obtained precision of deformation parameters in each element, the precision criterion of displacement detection at each network point is then determined. The developed criterion is implemented to optimize the observations from the Global Positioning System (GPS) in Skåne monitoring network in Sweden. The network was established in 1989 and straddled the Tornquist zone, which is one of the most active faults in southern Sweden. The numerical results show that 17 out of all 21 possible GPS baseline observations are sufficient to detect minimum 3 mm displacement at each network point.

  19. Simultaneous speciation neutron activation analysis for trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.; Kiceniuk, J.W.; Menendez Sanchez, W.; Bottaro, C.

    2006-01-01

    Among the various forms of neutron activation technique being developed in our laboratory, much emphasis has been placed over the last ten years or so on the development of simultaneous speciation neutron activation analysis (SSNAA). This technique can now be used for the simultaneous determination of various species of a number of elements. Almost all speciation techniques consist of two steps. The first step involves the separation of species from the sample followed by the second step of element-specific detection. A number of characteristic features of NAA, which other techniques normally do not possess, can be advantageously exploited in SSNAA. For example, SSNAA can be used for: (i) multielement speciation with high specificity, (ii) speciation of chemically dissimilar elements such as Cd, Mn and Se, (iii) speciation of elements such as Cl, Br and I which are rather difficult to determine by most other techniques, etc. We have developed SSNAA methods for assaying various arsenic species, namely As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsonic acid (DMA), monomethylarsinic acid (MMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), organically bound arsenic (OBAs), and lipid-soluble arsenic (LSAs) in marine fish samples. We have extended these methods to include simultaneous determination of various species of As, Sb and Se in water. We have also developed SSNAA methods employing biochemical techniques for the simultaneous separation, preconcentration and characterization of metalloproteins and protein-bound trace element species of As, Br, Cd, Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn. We have developed methods for the simultaneous separation and characterization of organohalogen compounds in fish. An overview of the SSNAA methods being developed in our laboratory will be presented. (author)

  20. Structural optimisation of cage induction motors using finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palko, S.

    The current trend in motor design is to have highly efficient, low noise, low cost, and modular motors with a high power factor. High torque motors are useful in applications like servo motors, lifts, cranes, and rolling mills. This report contains a detailed review of different optimization methods applicable in various design problems. Special attention is given to the performance of different methods, when they are used with finite element analysis (FEA) as an objective function, and accuracy problems arising from the numerical simulations. Also an effective method for designing high starting torque and high efficiency motors is presented. The method described in this work utilizes FEA combined with algorithms for the optimization of the slot geometry. The optimization algorithm modifies the position of the nodal points in the element mesh. The number of independent variables ranges from 14 to 140 in this work.

  1. Grouping and analysis of chair quality and their basic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skakić Dušan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the scientific experience and the engineering practice indicate that the decision making processes in the course of solving complex designing problems require an analysis of a great number of different construction variants. These types of decision-making processes are time consuming and do not always result in the selection of an optimal solution. That is why the methods of numerical optimization are applied in a wide range of technical sciences to assist in the selection of the best solution. The first step in solving the problem by using the Finite element method is to determine the type of chair earmarked for modeling, and to determine the dimensions of the chair elements.

  2. Elemental analysis of Kuwaiti petroleum and combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, J.S.; Cahill, T.A.; Gearhart, E.A.; Flocchini, R.G. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Crocker Nuclear Lab.); Schweitzer, J.S.; Peterson, C.A. (Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, Ridgefield, CT (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Crude oil from eight Kuwaiti fields and aerosols generated by their combustion in the laboratory have been analyzed by composition and particulate size. Liquid petroleum and petroleum combustion products were subjected to elemental analysis by proton induced x-ray techniques and by x-ray fluorescence techniques. The mean sulfur content of the burning wells was weighted by their production rates to obtain the mean sulfur content of the burning oil, 2.66%. The liquid samples were also analyzed by neutron activation analyses. Results show that Kuwaiti oil and smoke aerosols from laboratory combustion generally contain very low amounts of chlorine, contrary to what is found in airborne samples above Kuwait. Trace element signatures were developed to aid in tracing smoke from the oil fires. (Author).

  3. Study on Tourist Carrying Capacity Based on Matter Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYunguo; FanTing; LiXin; ZhouMing; WangXianhai

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes that it is necessary to implement the concept of tourist carrying capacity to facilitate the tourism planning, and presents a method to evaluate the carrying capacity. The method called matter element analysis can solve the uncertain and incompatible problem of the evaluated factors in assessing carrying capacity.The current state of a destination's carrying capacity can be determined by establishing the standard indexes and the matter element model. Through the evaluating of the travel industry zones of the Autonomous Prefecture of Western Hunan, the method is proved to be simple and feasible, and it is improved to be significant for the tourism planning and determination as well as the sustainable development of the regional tourism.

  4. Probabilistic finite elements for fatigue and fracture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belytschko, Ted; Liu, Wing Kam

    1993-04-01

    An overview of the probabilistic finite element method (PFEM) developed by the authors and their colleagues in recent years is presented. The primary focus is placed on the development of PFEM for both structural mechanics problems and fracture mechanics problems. The perturbation techniques are used as major tools for the analytical derivation. The following topics are covered: (1) representation and discretization of random fields; (2) development of PFEM for the general linear transient problem and nonlinear elasticity using Hu-Washizu variational principle; (3) computational aspects; (4) discussions of the application of PFEM to the reliability analysis of both brittle fracture and fatigue; and (5) a stochastic computational tool based on stochastic boundary element (SBEM). Results are obtained for the reliability index and corresponding probability of failure for: (1) fatigue crack growth; (2) defect geometry; (3) fatigue parameters; and (4) applied loads. These results show that initial defect is a critical parameter.

  5. Nonlinear dynamic analysis using Petrov-Galerkin natural element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hong Woo; Cho, Jin Rae

    2004-01-01

    According to our previous study, it is confirmed that the Petrov-Galerkin Natural Element Method (PG-NEM) completely resolves the numerical integration inaccuracy in the conventional Bubnov-Galerkin Natural Element Method (BG-NEM). This paper is an extension of PG-NEM to two-dimensional nonlinear dynamic problem. For the analysis, a constant average acceleration method and a linearized total Lagrangian formulation is introduced with the PG-NEM. At every time step, the grid points are updated and the shape functions are reproduced from the relocated nodal distribution. This process enables the PG-NEM to provide more accurate and robust approximations. The representative numerical experiments performed by the test Fortran program, and the numerical results confirmed that the PG-NEM effectively and accurately approximates the nonlinear dynamic problem

  6. Fingerprint elements scatter analysis on ancient chinese Ru porcelains samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengyao; Wang Jie; Chen Xiande

    1997-01-01

    Altogether 28 samples, mainly including glazes and bodies of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain, were analyzed by NAA technique and the contents of 36 elements were compared. The scatter analysis for nine fingerprint-elements indicates that almost all ancient Chinese Ru porcelain samples had nearly identical and long-term stable source of raw materials although they were fired in different kilns, at varying time and with distinct colors, and moreover, the source of raw materials for modern Ru porcelain seems to approach that for ancient one. The close provenance relation between ancient Jun porcelain and ancient Ru porcelain is also preliminarily verified. The glaze material of Jingdezhen white porcelain is totally different from all other samples. It shows that the former came from a separate source

  7. Study and development of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the realization of field measurements: application to analysis on-line of metals in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosado, J.C.D.

    2013-01-01

    Metal contamination of water is a major public health issue. Controls and treatments are more drastic and performed on them for human consumption. It is essential for this to possess reliable and sensitive analytical tools adapted to the existing regulations and flexible enough to use. The technique of 'Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy' (LIBS), proven for the analysis of solids, including exo-terrestrial explorations, this very interesting advantages for liquids including, for example, are multi-character elementary and the possibility of in-situ measurements of water contamination by metals. A first part of this study thesis allowed to explore the potential (LIBS) for the analysis of dissolved metals or suspensions in water. Study has found an important effect related to the particle size in the analysis of suspensions. A second prong is to look at the effects of organic matrix represented by humic acid and those natural minerals represented by the bentonite and alumina particles. The matrix effect observed was corrected by normalization by internal standard. (author) [fr

  8. Analysis of Dietary Pattern Impact on Weight Status for Personalised Nutrition through On-Line Advice: The Food4Me Spanish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne; Lovegrove, Julie A; Daniel, Hannelore; Saris, Wim H M; Traczyk, Iwonna; Manios, Yannis; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J; Mathers, John C; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2015-11-17

    Obesity prevalence is increasing. The management of this condition requires a detailed analysis of the global risk factors in order to develop personalised advice. This study is aimed to identify current dietary patterns and habits in Spanish population interested in personalised nutrition and investigate associations with weight status. Self-reported dietary and anthropometrical data from the Spanish participants in the Food4Me study, were used in a multidimensional exploratory analysis to define specific dietary profiles. Two opposing factors were obtained according to food groups' intake: Factor 1 characterised by a more frequent consumption of traditionally considered unhealthy foods; and Factor 2, where the consumption of "Mediterranean diet" foods was prevalent. Factor 1 showed a direct relationship with BMI (β = 0.226; r² = 0.259; p dietary patterns, which were characterized by high-density foods consumption, showed positive associations with overweight prevalence. Further analysis showed that prevention of overweight must focus on limiting the intake of known deleterious foods rather than exclusively enhance healthy products.

  9. Analysis of Dietary Pattern Impact on Weight Status for Personalised Nutrition through On-Line Advice: The Food4Me Spanish Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo San-Cristobal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity prevalence is increasing. The management of this condition requires a detailed analysis of the global risk factors in order to develop personalised advice. This study is aimed to identify current dietary patterns and habits in Spanish population interested in personalised nutrition and investigate associations with weight status. Self-reported dietary and anthropometrical data from the Spanish participants in the Food4Me study, were used in a multidimensional exploratory analysis to define specific dietary profiles. Two opposing factors were obtained according to food groups’ intake: Factor 1 characterised by a more frequent consumption of traditionally considered unhealthy foods; and Factor 2, where the consumption of “Mediterranean diet” foods was prevalent. Factor 1 showed a direct relationship with BMI (β = 0.226; r2 = 0.259; p < 0.001, while the association with Factor 2 was inverse (β = −0.037; r2 = 0.230; p = 0.348. A total of four categories were defined (Prudent, Healthy, Western, and Compensatory through classification of the sample in higher or lower adherence to each factor and combining the possibilities. Western and Compensatory dietary patterns, which were characterized by high-density foods consumption, showed positive associations with overweight prevalence. Further analysis showed that prevention of overweight must focus on limiting the intake of known deleterious foods rather than exclusively enhance healthy products.

  10. Simultaneous multi-element analysis of some edible pulses using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sweify, F.H.; Metwally, E.; Abdel-Khalik, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper comprises the application of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for multi-element determination in some edible pulse samples. These edible pulses are usually daily used in the Egyptian kitchen. These were: anise, cumin, coriander, caraway, black cumin, white kidney bean, lupine, lentil, chickpea, broad bean, peanut, almond, and fenugreek. The pulses have been analyzed as dehulled pulses, in the case of legume and oil pulses with simultaneous analysis of their respective skins. The determined elements were: Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th and Zn. The element content in the dehulled pulses and their respective skins has been compared. Some elements were major or minor elements where others were trace elements. Standard reference materials were used to assure quality control, accuracy and precision of the technique. (author)

  11. On-Line Organic Solvent Field Enhanced Sample Injection in Capillary Zone Electrophoresis for Analysis of Quetiapine in Beagle Dog Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE method with field enhanced sample injection (FESI was developed and validated for the determination of quetiapine fumarate in beagle dog plasma, with a sample pretreatment by LLE in 96-well deep format plate. The optimum separation was carried out in an uncoated 31.2 cm × 75 μm fused-silica capillary with an applied voltage of 13 kV. The electrophoretic analysis was performed by 50 mM phosphate at pH 2.5. The detection wavelength was 210 nm. Under these optimized conditions, FESI with acetonitrile enhanced the sensitivity of quetiapine about 40–50 folds in total. The method was suitably validated with respect to stability, specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision and extraction recovery. Using mirtazapine as an internal standard (100 ng/mL, the response of quetiapine was linear over the range of 1–1000 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions for the assay were within 4.8% and 12.7%, respectively. The method represents the first application of FESI-CZE to the analysis of quetiapine fumarate in beagle dog plasma after oral administration.

  12. The AutoAssociative Neural Network in signal analysis: II. Application to on-line monitoring of a simulated BWR component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marseguerra, M.; Zoia, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, Robust AutoAssociative Neural Networks (RAANN) are applied to a series of signals produced by the Halden simulator of the 1200MWe BWR Forsmark-3 plant in Sweden. The applications concern: - correction of drifts and gross errors in sensors, for diagnostic and control purposes, - cluster analysis, to individuate a failed component and the intensity of the failure, - forecasting system signals, for safety or economic purposes, - reconstruction of unmeasured signals (virtual sensors). In the attainment of the above results, the geometric interpretation of the mapping performed by the network, propounded in Part I of this work, has provided a reasoned choice of the most critical free parameter, i.e., the number f of nodes of the bottleneck layer, thus allowing a deep understanding of the network functioning and also avoiding the traditional and troubling procedure of selection by trial-and-error. The theoretical basis of this analysis, discussed in details in the companion paper, is founded on the idea of dimension and in particular of fractal dimension, which has been used as a numerical estimator of f

  13. Quantitative analysis of light elements in aerosol samples by PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, R.; Reis, M.A.; Jesus, A.P.; Ribeiro, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative PIGE analysis of aerosol samples collected on nuclepore polycarbonate filters was performed by a method that avoids the use of comparative standards. Nuclear cross sections and calibration parameters established before in an extensive work on thick and intermediate samples were employed. For these samples, the excitation functions of nuclear reactions, induced by the incident protons on target's light elements, were used as input for a code that evaluates the gamma-ray yield integrating along the depth of the sample. In the present work we apply the same code to validate the use of an effective energy for thin sample analysis. Results pertaining to boron, fluorine and sodium concentrations are presented. In order to establish a correlation with sodium values, PIXE results related to chlorine are also presented, giving support to the reliability of this PIGE method for thin film analysis

  14. Use of an Open Port Sampling Interface Coupled to Electrospray Ionization for the On-Line Analysis of Organic Aerosol Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kenneth D.; Worth, Anne L.; Glish, Gary L.

    2018-02-01

    A simple design for an open port sampling interface coupled to electrospray ionization (OPSI-ESI) is presented for the analysis of organic aerosols. The design uses minimal modifications to a Bruker electrospray (ESI) emitter to create a continuous flow, self-aspirating open port sampling interface. Considerations are presented for introducing aerosol to the open port sampling interface including aerosol gas flow and solvent flow rates. The device has been demonstrated for use with an aerosol of nicotine as well as aerosol formed in the pyrolysis of biomass. Upon comparison with extractive electrospray ionization (EESI), this device has similar sensitivity with increased reproducibility by nearly a factor of three. The device has the form factor of a standard Bruker/Agilent ESI emitter and can be used without any further instrument modifications.

  15. Storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for trace-element analysis in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The problems regarding storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for the elements aluminum, calcium, vanadium, selenium, copper, iodine, zinc, manganese, and magnesium in a urine matrix are reviewed. The type of collection and storage procedure and pre-neutron activation analysis treatment of urine depend on the specific trace element; that is, its inherent physical and chemical properties. Specifically polyethylene in teflon containers are the most suitable for general determinations. Whether any preservative is added would depend upon the stability of the trace element and its tendency for surface adsorption. Preferably, preservatives should contain no radioactivatable elements for maximum efficacy. Freeze drying or packing urine shipments under dry ice needs to be explored on an individual basis. Each pre- or post-neutron activation analysis treatment is specific and optimized for the trace element analyzed

  16. Strength Analysis on Ship Ladder Using Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto; Wahyudi, M. T.; Dinata, U.; Ruddianto; Eko P., M. M.

    2018-01-01

    In designing the ship’s structure, it should refer to the rules in accordance with applicable classification standards. In this case, designing Ladder (Staircase) on a Ferry Ship which is set up, it must be reviewed based on the loads during ship operations, either during sailing or at port operations. The classification rules in ship design refer to the calculation of the structure components described in Classification calculation method and can be analysed using the Finite Element Method. Classification Regulations used in the design of Ferry Ships used BKI (Bureau of Classification Indonesia). So the rules for the provision of material composition in the mechanical properties of the material should refer to the classification of the used vessel. The analysis in this structure used program structure packages based on Finite Element Method. By using structural analysis on Ladder (Ladder), it obtained strength and simulation structure that can withstand load 140 kg both in static condition, dynamic, and impact. Therefore, the result of the analysis included values of safety factors in the ship is to keep the structure safe but the strength of the structure is not excessive.

  17. Tube Bulge Process : Theoretical Analysis and Finite Element Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, Raphael; Boudeau, Nathalie

    2007-01-01

    This paper is focused on the determination of mechanics characteristics for tubular materials, using tube bulge process. A comparative study is made between two different models: theoretical model and finite element analysis. The theoretical model is completely developed, based first on a geometrical analysis of the tube profile during bulging, which is assumed to strain in arc of circles. Strain and stress analysis complete the theoretical model, which allows to evaluate tube thickness and state of stress, at any point of the free bulge region. Free bulging of a 304L stainless steel is simulated using Ls-Dyna 970. To validate FE simulations approach, a comparison between theoretical and finite elements models is led on several parameters such as: thickness variation at the free bulge region pole with bulge height, tube thickness variation with z axial coordinate, and von Mises stress variation with plastic strain. Finally, the influence of geometrical parameters deviations on flow stress curve is observed using analytical model: deviations of the tube outer diameter, its initial thickness and the bulge height measurement are taken into account to obtain a resulting error on plastic strain and von Mises stress

  18. Optimized elemental analysis of fluorescence lamp shredder waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobohm, Julia; Kuchta, Kerstin; Krüger, Oliver; van Wasen, Sebastian; Adam, Christian

    2016-01-15

    Fluorescence lamps contain considerable amounts of rare earth elements (REE). Several recycling procedures for REE recovery from spent lamps have been established. However, despite their economic importance, the respective recycling is scarce so far, with an REE recovery rate of less than 1%. A reliable analysis of REE and other relevant metals like Yttrium is crucial for a thorough and complete recovery process. This applies both to the solid matter and aqueous phase, since most of the recycling processes include wet-chemical steps. We tested seven different reagent mixtures for microwave-assisted digestion of fluorescent lamp shredder, including hydrofluoric acid, perchloric acid, and hydrogen peroxide. We determined the concentrations of 25 of the most relevant rare earth and other trace elements (Al, P, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Ga, Ge, As, Y, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, La, Ce, Eu, Gd, Tb, W, Au, Hg, and Pb) in the respective dilutions. Two independent digestions, one a mixture of perchlorid/nitric/hydrofluoric acid and the other aqua regia, showed the highest concentrations of 23 of these elements, excluding only Sn and Tb. The REE concentrations in the tested lamp shredder sample (stated in g/kg) were 10.2 (Y), 12.1 (La), 7.77 (Ce), 6.91 (Eu), 1.90 (Gd), and 4.11 (Tb). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Head of detector for multi-element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frynta, Z.

    1983-01-01

    The detector head mounted on the scintillation counter consists of a hollow hexagonal rotary support axially arranged with the photomultiplier of the scintillation counter. In the walls of the hexagonal rotary support there are openings in which are inserted absorption filters. The mounting of the absorption filters on the rotary support allows the analysis of a greater number of elements without the dismantling of the head and the replacement of filters. The suitable geometry of the head is retained so that it is possible to insert the head into the hollows similarly as the scintillation counter. (J.P.)

  20. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luten, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    In this thesis the principles and practical aspects of activation analysis which are of direct importance in the analysis of rain water, are presented together with recent literature data on other techniques. Problems due to the storage of rain water samples are discussed. A multi-element method for the determination of trace elements in rain water by instrumental neutron activation analysis is described. Gamma ray spectrometry using Ge(Li) detectors offers the possibility to determine Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Co, Cu, Br and I in rain water samples of 2.5 ml after a 4-min irradiation in a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 . In residues of rain water samples of 100 ml, irradiated during 2 days in a thermal neutron flux of >5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 Cr, Fe, Co, Zn and Sb can be determined after a cooling period of approximately 21 days. The detection limits are lower than those reported in previous investigations except for Cu. The precision is about 10% or better, except for Co, Cu and I. A routine method for the determination of bromine and iodine in rain water by n.a.a. is presented. The elements are isolated by isotope exchange between the irradiated sample and a solution of Br 2 or I 2 in CCl 4 . The method is not sensitive to the chemical species in which the halogen is present. Irradiation of solutions of iodine compounds in a high thermal neutron flux gives rise to the formation of iodate. Results of a further investigation of this phenomenon are given, as well as the determination of iodate in rain water by n.a.a. Iodate is separated by anion exchange. The combination of n.a.a. and solvent extraction is used for the determination of five trace elements (V, Co, Cu, Zn and In) in 10-ml rain water samples. For V, Co and Cu this method is more sensitive and reproducible than instrumental n.a.a. The results of the analysis of eleven sequential 30-ml samples from the beginning of the shower are presented as an illustration of possible applications of the

  1. Applications of finite-element scaling analysis in primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtsmeier, J T

    1989-01-01

    The study of biological shape in three dimensions using landmark data can now be accomplished using several alternative methods. This report focuses on the use of finite-element scaling analysis in primate craniofacial morphology. The method is particularly useful in its ability to localize the differences between forms, thereby indicating those loci that differ most between specimens. Several examples of this feature are provided from primatological research. Particulars of the methods are also discussed in an attempt to provide the reader with cautionary knowledge for prudent application of the method in future research.

  2. Finite element analysis of reticulated ceramics under compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Angelo, Claudio; Ortona, Alberto; Colombo, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: This paper shows how finite element analysis can be used to study the effect of the morphological features of reticulated ceramics on their mechanical properties under compression. Quantitative morphological data, obtained by X-ray computed tomography (XCT) for a commercially available Si–SiC foam produced by the replica method, have been linked to a set of computer generated cells in which one morphological parameter was varied at a time. The findings indicate how the modification of some morphological features, which depend on the careful selection of appropriate and specific processing parameters, would enable the production of ceramic foams possessing higher strength for a given total porosity value.

  3. Eddy current analysis by the finite element circuit method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameari, A.; Suzuki, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The analysis of the transient eddy current in the conductors by ''Finite Element Circuit Method'' is developed. This method can be easily applied to various geometrical shapes of thin conductors. The eddy currents on the vacuum vessel and the upper and lower support plates of JT-60 machine (which is now being constructed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) are calculated by this method. The magnetic field induced by the eddy current is estimated in the domain occupied by the plasma. And the force exerted to the vacuum vessel is also estimated

  4. Facile green synthesis of graphene-Au nanorod nanoassembly for on-line extraction and sensitive stripping analysis of methyl parathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenxin; Liu, Wei; Li, Tianbao; Yue, Xiaoyue; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Wentao; Yu, Shaoxuan; Zhang, Daohong; Wang, Jianlong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration for the facile green fabrication of GN-AuNRs/GCE and its application for the extraction and electroanalysis of MP. - Highlights: • This paper described a facile green electrochemical approach to synthesize graphene-AuNRs nanocomposite. • The as-synthesized sensor shows low LOD and wide linear concentration range towards MP. • The sensor can be well used for the determination of MP in water and kiwi fruits samples. • This paper further enlarges the scope of facile green synthetic methods of GN-based hybrids. - Abstract: This paper described a facile green electrochemical approach to synthesize graphene-AuNRs nanocomposite (GN-AuNRs) onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for electrocatalytic analysis of methyl parathion (MP). This electrochemical synthesis of GN-AuNRs hybrid is environmentally friendly for not involving the chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and facile for just on the basis of electrostatic interaction between GO and AuNRs, as well as electrochemical reduction of GO-AuNRs to GN-AuNRs. Combined the high conductivity, large surface area, good adsorption capacity towards aromatic rings and high catalytic ability of graphene with the excellent electronic properties and adsorption capacity of AuNRs, the high sensitive methyl parathion sensor was fabricated with the GN-AuNRs nanocomposite. The limit of detection (LOD) of the proposed sensor was calculated to be 0.82 ng/mL, which was lower than many previously reported enzyme or nonenzyme-based sensors. In the meantime, the linear detection range of this sensor was from 10 to 500 ng/mL and 750 to 4000 ng/mL, which was also wider than many other enzyme or enzymeless sensors. Furthermore, the facile and green electrochemical reduction strategy provided here could also be used to construct more GN-based hybrids. And the GN-based hybrid might be a new and highly efficient SPE factor, which opens new opportunities for green, facile and sensitive analysis of

  5. Molecularly imprinted polymer cartridges coupled on-line with high performance liquid chromatography for simple and rapid analysis of dextromethorphan in human plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Javanbakht, Mehran; Akbari-Adergani, Behrouz

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, a novel method is described for automated determination of dextromethorphan in biological fluids using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) as a sample clean-up technique combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The water-compatible molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared using methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker, chloroform as porogen and dextromethorphan as template molecule. These imprinted polymers were used as solid-phase extraction sorbent for the extraction of dextromethorphan from human plasma samples. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the MIP cartridges were evaluated. The high selectivity of the sorbent coupled to the high performance liquid chromatographic system permitted a simple and rapid analysis of this drug in plasma samples with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 0.12 ng/mL and 0.35 ng/mL, respectively. The MIP selectivity was evaluated by analyzing of the dextromethorphan in presence of several substances with similar molecular structures and properties. Results from the HPLC analyses showed that the recoveries of dextromethorphan using MIP cartridges from human plasma samples in the range of 1-50 ng/mL were higher than 87%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sorption of redox-sensitive elements: critical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickert, R.G.

    1980-12-01

    The redox-sensitive elements (Tc, U, Np, Pu) discussed in this report are of interest to nuclear waste management due to their long-lived isotopes which have a potential radiotoxic effect on man. In their lower oxidation states these elements have been shown to be highly adsorbed by geologic materials occurring under reducing conditions. Experimental research conducted in recent years, especially through the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) and Waste/Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) program, has provided extensive information on the mechanisms of retardation. In general, ion-exchange probably plays a minor role in the sorption behavior of cations of the above three actinide elements. Formation of anionic complexes of the oxidized states with common ligands (OH - , CO -- 3 ) is expected to reduce adsorption by ion exchange further. Pertechnetate also exhibits little ion-exchange sorption by geologic media. In the reduced (IV) state, all of the elements are highly charged and it appears that they form a very insoluble compound (oxide, hydroxide, etc.) or undergo coprecipitation or are incorporated into minerals. The exact nature of the insoluble compounds and the effect of temperature, pH, pe, other chemical species, and other parameters are currently being investigated. Oxidation states other than Tc (IV,VII), U(IV,VI), Np(IV,V), and Pu(IV,V) are probably not important for the geologic repository environment expected, but should be considered especially when extreme conditions exist (radiation, temperature, etc.). Various experimental techniques such as oxidation-state analysis of tracer-level isotopes, redox potential measurement and control, pH measurement, and solid phase identification have been used to categorize the behavior of the various valence states

  7. Sorption of redox-sensitive elements: critical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickert, R.G.

    1980-12-01

    The redox-sensitive elements (Tc, U, Np, Pu) discussed in this report are of interest to nuclear waste management due to their long-lived isotopes which have a potential radiotoxic effect on man. In their lower oxidation states these elements have been shown to be highly adsorbed by geologic materials occurring under reducing conditions. Experimental research conducted in recent years, especially through the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) and Waste/Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) program, has provided extensive information on the mechanisms of retardation. In general, ion-exchange probably plays a minor role in the sorption behavior of cations of the above three actinide elements. Formation of anionic complexes of the oxidized states with common ligands (OH/sup -/, CO/sup - -//sub 3/) is expected to reduce adsorption by ion exchange further. Pertechnetate also exhibits little ion-exchange sorption by geologic media. In the reduced (IV) state, all of the elements are highly charged and it appears that they form a very insoluble compound (oxide, hydroxide, etc.) or undergo coprecipitation or are incorporated into minerals. The exact nature of the insoluble compounds and the effect of temperature, pH, pe, other chemical species, and other parameters are currently being investigated. Oxidation states other than Tc (IV,VII), U(IV,VI), Np(IV,V), and Pu(IV,V) are probably not important for the geologic repository environment expected, but should be considered especially when extreme conditions exist (radiation, temperature, etc.). Various experimental techniques such as oxidation-state analysis of tracer-level isotopes, redox potential measurement and control, pH measurement, and solid phase identification have been used to categorize the behavior of the various valence states.

  8. Multi-element analysis of unidentified fallen objects from Tatale in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multi-element analysis has been carried out on two fallen objects, # 01 and # 02, using instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. A total of 17 elements were identified in object # 01 while 21 elements were found in object # 02. The two major elements in object # 01 were Fe and Mg, which together constitute ...

  9. Potential of capillary-column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the quantitative trace analysis of small molecules. Application to the on-line screening of drugs in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarch, Elena; Hernandez, Felix; ten Hove, Jan; Meiring, Hugo; Niesing, Willem; Dijkman, Ellen; Stolker, Linda; Hogendoorn, Elbert

    2004-03-26

    We have investigated the potential of capillary-column-switching liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (cLC-MS-MS) for the quantitative on-line trace analysis of target compounds in aqueous solutions. The technical design of the nano-scale cLC system developed at our Institute for peptide and protein identification has been tested and evaluated for the direct trace analysis of drugs in water samples. Sulphametoxazole, bezafibrate, metoprolol, carbamazepine and bisoprolol occurring frequently in Dutch waters, were selected as test compounds. Adequate conditions for trapping, elution and MS-MS detection were investigated by employing laboratory made 200 microm i.d. capillary columns packed with 5 microm aqua C18 material. In the final cLC-MS-MS conditions, a 1 cm length trapping column and a 4 cm length analytical column were selected. Under these conditions, the target compounds could be directly determined in water down to a level of around 50 ng/l employing only 25 microl of water sample. Validation was done by recovery experiments in ground-, surface- and drinking-water matrices as well as by the analysis of water samples with incurred residues and previously analyzed with a conventional procedure involving off-line solid-phase extraction and narrow-bore LC with MS-MS detection. The new methodology provided recoveries (50-500 ng/l level) between 50 and 114% with RSDs (n = 3, each level) below 20% for most of the compounds. Despite the somewhat less analytical performance in comparison to the conventional procedure, the on-line approach of the new methodology is very suitable for screening of drugs in aqueous samples.

  10. Construction of prototype of on-line analyzer detection system for coal on belt conveyor using neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rony Djokorayono; Agus Cahyono; MP Indarzah; SG Usep; Sukandar

    2015-01-01

    The use of on-line neutron activation technique for coal analysis is proposed as an alternative method for analysis based on sampling technique. Compared to this conventional technique, the on-line neutron activation technique has much shorter time of analysis and more accurate results. The construction of detection system prototype for the on-line analyzer is described in this paper. This on-line analyzer consists of detection system, data acquisition system, and computer console. This detection system comprises several modules, i.e. NaI(Tl) scintillation detector completed with a photomultiplier tube (PMT), pre-amplifier, single channel analyzer (SCA), and analog signal transmitter and pulse counter processor. The construction processes of these four modules include the development of configuration block, lay out, and selection of electronic components. The modules have been integrated and tested. This detection system was tested using radioactive element Zn-65 having energy of 1115.5 keV and activity of 1 μCi. The test results show that the prototype of the on-line analyzer detection system has functioned as expected. (author)

  11. Analysis of TRU waste for RCRA-listed elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, C.; Gerth, D.; Yoshida, T.

    1996-01-01

    Analytical methods for RCRA listed elements on Portland cement type waste have been employed using both microwave and open hot plate digestions with subsequent analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAA) and cold vapor atomic absorption and fluorescence (CVAA/CVAFS). Four different digestion procedures were evaluated including an open hot plate nitric acid digestion, EPA SW-846 Method 3051, and 2 methods using modifications to Method 3051. The open hot plate and the modified Method 3051, which used aqua regia for dissolution, were the only methods which resulted in acceptable data quality for all 14 RCRA-listed elements. Results for the nitric acid open hot plate digestion were used to qualify the analytical methods for TRU waste characterization, and resulted in a 99% passing score. Direct chemical analysis of TRU waste is being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in an attempt to circumvent the problems associated with strong acid digestion methods. Technology development includes laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), dc arc CID atomic emission spectroscopy (DC-AES), and glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS). Analytical methods using the Portland cement matrix are currently being developed for each of the listed techniques. Upon completion of the development stage, blind samples will be distributed to each of the technology developers for RCRA metals characterization

  12. Thermomechanical finite element analysis of hot water boiler structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragoljub S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of the Finite Elements Method for stress and strain analysis of the hot water boiler structure. The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of the boiler scale on the thermal stresses and strains of the structure of hot water boilers. Results show that maximum thermal stresses appear in the zone of the pipe carrying wall of the first reversing chamber. This indicates that the most critical part of the boiler are weld spots of the smoke pipes and pipe carrying plate, which in the case of significant scale deposits can lead to cracks in the welds and water leakage from the boiler. The nonlinear effects were taken into account by defining the bilinear isotropic hardening model for all boiler elements. Temperature dependency was defined for all relevant material properties, i. e. isotropic coefficient of thermal expansion, Young’s modulus, and isotropic thermal conductivity. The verification of the FEA model was performed by comparing the measured deformations of the hot water boiler with the simulation results. As a reference object, a Viessmann - Vitomax 200 HW boiler was used, with the installed power of 18.2 MW. CAD modeling was done within the Autodesk Inventor, and stress and strain analysis was performed in the ANSYS Software.

  13. Investigation of Apple Vibration Characteristics Using Finite Element Modal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mirzaei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The most important quality indicator of fruits is the flesh firmness which is well correlated to their young’s modulus. In this research variation of vibration characteristics (shape modes, natural frequency of apple due to change of material characteristics (density, young's models, Poisson ratio and apple volume was investigated using Finite Element simulation. An image processing technique was used to obtain an unsymmetrical and non-spherical geometric model of apple. The exact three-dimensional shape of the fruit was created by determining the coordinates of apple surface and forming uneven rotational curvatures. Modal analysis with no boundary constraints has been applied. The first 20 Eigen frequencies and the corresponding mode shape were determined. Six rigid body modes possess zero resonant frequency which is related to the degree of freedom of a rigid body in space indicated the validity of finite element model. The modal analysis results showed that resonant frequency increased by increasing young's modulus of the fruit, while it decreased by increasing apple density. First mode torsion has a mean resonant frequency of 584 Hz. Variations of natural frequency due to change in young's modulus, density, and Poisson ratio were 80%, 11% and 4%, respectively. Coefficient of variation of resonant frequency in response to changing young's modulus was 2-3 times of that of density which shows the greatest effect of young modulus changes on natural frequency of fruits. Consequently with determination of fruits' natural frequency, their young modulus and firmness can be estimated.

  14. Multi-element neutron activation analysis of Brazilian coal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalla, L.T.; Requejo, C.S.

    1982-09-01

    The elements U, Th, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Tb, Yb, Lu, Sc, Ta, Hf, Co, Ni, Cr, Mo, Ti, V, W, In, Ga, Mn, Ba, Sr, Mg, Rb, Cs, K, Cl, Br, As, Sb, Au, Ca, Al and Fe were determined in coal samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis, by using both thermal and epithermal neutron irradiations. The irradiation times were 10 minutes and 8 or 16 hours in a position where the thermal neutron flux was about 10 12 n.cm - 2 .s - 1 and 72 non-consecutive hours for epithermal irradiation at a flux of about 10 11 n.Cm - 2 .s - 1 . After the instrumental analysis of the above mentioned elements, Zn and Se were determined with chemical separation. The relative standard deviation of, at least, 4 determinations was about + - 10% for the majority of the results. The coal samples analysed were supplied by: Cia. Estadual da Tecnologia e Saneamento Basico (CETESB-SP), Cia. de Pesquisas e Lavras Minerais (COPELMI-RS), Cia. Carbonifera Urussunga (SC), Cia. Carbonifera Prospera (SC), Cia. Carbonifera Treviso (SC), Cia. Nacional de Mineracao de Carvao do Barro Branco (SC) and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ). (Author) [pt

  15. Elemental analysis by IBA and NAA — A critical comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, J. I. W.

    1988-12-01

    In this review neutron activation analysis (NAA) and ion beam analysis (IBA) have been compared in the context of the entire field of analytical science using the discipline of scientometrics, as developed by Braun and Lyon. This perspective on the relative achievements of the two methods is modified by considering and comparing their particular attributes and characteristics, particularly in relation to their differing degree of maturity. This assessment shows that NAA, as the more mature method, is the most widely applied nuclear technique, but the special capabilities of IBA give it the ability to provide information about surface composition and elemental distribution that is unique, while it is still relatively immature and it is not yet possible to define its ultimate role with any confidence.

  16. Finite element analysis of elasto-plastic tee joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, G.H.

    1974-09-01

    The theory and computational procedures used in the computer program B169TJ/EP for the analysis of elasto-plastic tee joints are described, and detailed user's guide is presented. The program is particularly applicable to joints conforming to the ANSI B16.9 Manufacturing Standard, but can also be applied to other joint geometries. The joint may be loaded by internal pressure and by arbitrary combinations of applied forces and moments at the ends of the branch and run pipes, and the loading sequence may be arbitrary. The joint material is assumed to yield according to the von Mises criterion, and to exhibit either linear kinematic hardening or nonlinear isotropic hardening after yield. The program makes use of the finite element and mesh generation procedures previously applied in the elastic stress analysis program B16.9TJ/ SA, with minor modifications. (U.S.)

  17. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akoto Bamford, Samuel; Osae, E.K.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.; Ofosu, F.; Aboh, I.J.; Odamtten, G.T.

    2001-01-01

    Research work is currently going on to determine the suitability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The study areas being investigated are the gold-mining areas situated in the Moist Evergreen and Semi-Deciduous forests in Ghana. The nuclear analytical techniques being used in this work are instrumental neutron activation analysis and tube-excited x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The present report covers results of quality control exercise carried out to validate the quantitative methods being used. This includes our participation in an intercomparison exercise carried out among participants of the IAEA coordinated research project. The samples analyzed were two lichen samples from two completely different areas using neutron activation analysis. Only short- and medium-lived irradiations were carried out. Satisfactory results were obtained for most of the elements identified and quantified. (author)

  18. Development of environmental education system using online element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizeki, T.; Yoshihara, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Kawasaki, K.; Komiya, K.

    2007-01-01

    We have constructed a network system which enables one to access and analyze environmental data obtained at different and distant laboratories. As a preliminary feasibility test of the system, we studied the elements in the water of the Tesio River using PIXE and ion chromatography. Students used the data online to carry out analysis via internet. We found two factors with different features in calcium from the factor analysis. The comparison of the specific result and relevant geology information has revealed a remarkable presence of Ca 2+ which might come from dissolution of limestone in the upper Tesio River. PIXE data gave crucial information to draw such a conclusion. The present system has been found useful in environmental education in universities, online sharing of PIXE data in particular. (author)

  19. Automatic measurement system for light element isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Kouichi.

    1990-01-01

    The automatic measurement system for the light element isotope analysis was developed by installing the specially designed inlet system which was controlled by a computer. The microcomputer system contains specific interface boards for the inlet system and the mass spectrometer, Micromass 602 E. All the components of the inlet and the computer system installed are easily available in Japan. Ten samples can be automatically measured as a maximum of. About 160 minutes are required for 10 measurements of δ 18 O values of CO 2 . Thus four samples can be measured per an hour using this system, while usually three samples for an hour using the manual operation. The automatized analysis system clearly has an advantage over the conventional method. This paper describes the details of this automated system, such as apparatuses used, the control procedure and the correction for reliable measurement. (author)

  20. Software for on-line experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanchenko, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    A review of nowadays development state of software of on-line electron experiments is presented. The principles of organization of real time systems on second generation computer base are considered. The following methods for projections search are considered: combinator methods, global methods, methods of tracking, methods of a supporting band. The following methods for determining parameter estimates based on the Lorentz equation are analysed: analytical simulation of trajectories, determination of parameters by the iterative method using the technique of calculation of recycled integrals, multidimensional statistical analysis. For the purpose of successful usage and development of software the technique of selfdocumented programs is created and the computer is applied for preparing, revising and circulation of external descriptions which as program complexes are constructed according to the hierarchical principle [ru

  1. Seismic Analysis of Concrete Dam by Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozaina Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a brief study on linear seismic analysis of Sg. Kinta Concrete Dam. The analysis was conducted in order to determine the performance and behaviour of the dam under seismic excitation. The dam was modelled as two-dimensional and developed based on the design drawing that is obtained from Angkasa Consulting Services Sdn. Bhd. The seismic analysis of the dam is conducted using finite element analysis software package LUSAS 14.3 and the dam has been analyse as a plain stress problem with a linear consideration. A set of historic data, with E1 Centro earthquake acceleration of about 0.50g is used as an earthquake excitation. The natural frequency and mode shape up to fifth mode of the dam has been obtained from the analysis to show the differences of the stress and deformation between each mode. The maximum horizontal and vertical stress of Sg. Kinta dam was found and the distribution of them was discussed in form of contours. The deformation of the dam were also been discussed by comparing the maximum displacement for each mode shaped.

  2. Optimization of XRFS for the analysis of toxic elements and heavy metals in coffee products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlic, I.; Makjanic, J.; Valkovic, V.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy can be successfully used for routine on-line analysis of different agricultural products, e.g. for food quality control. The optimization of the system for such purposes and the results obtained are shown on the example of the analysis of coffee. (author)

  3. Toenail elemental analysis of Korean young adults by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, O.

    2016-01-01

    The element contents in toenail clippings of healthy Korean young adults were measured using an instrumental neutron activation analysis. The average contents of elements such as Na, K, Cl, Ca, Fe, Se, and Zn are 449, 474, 1024, 1677, 66, 0.7 and 94 mg/kg in men, whereas those contents in women respectively 332, 476, 836, 1097, 66, 0.8 and 104 mg/kg. The correlation analysis of toenail elements with chronic disease risks showed positive associations between Na and serum HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and negative associations between Se and Hs-CRP, between Zn and hemoglobin level. (author)

  4. Multi-element analysis of emeralds and associated rocks by k0 neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.N.; Mondal, R.K.; Burte, P.P.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, N.B.Y.; Reddy, L.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Manohar, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    Multi-element analysis was carried out in natural emeralds, their associated rocks and one sample of beryl obtained from Rajasthan, India. The concentrations of 21 elements were assayed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using the k 0 method (k 0 INAA method) and high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The data reveal the segregation of some elements from associated (trapped and host) rocks to the mineral beryl forming the gemstones. A reference rock standard of the US Geological Survey (USGS BCR-1) was also analysed as a control of the method

  5. Designing on-line analyzer for coal on belt conveyor using neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rony Djokorayono; Agus Cahyono

    2014-01-01

    Basic design of on-line analyzer for coal on belt conveyor using neutron activation technique has been carried out. Compared with sampling technique, this neutron activation technique has some advantages in term of analysis accuracy and time. The design activities performed include the establishment of design requirements, functional requirements, technical requirements, technical specification, detection sub-system design, data acquisition subsystem design, and operator computer console design. This program will use Nal(Tl) scintillation detector to detect gamma-rays emitted by elements in coal due to neutron activation of a neutron source, "2"5"2Cf (Californium-252). This basic design of on-line analyzer for coal on belt conveyor using neutron activation technique should be followed up with the development of detailed design, prototype construction, and field testing. (author)

  6. On-line control system for the LIYaF AN SSSR synchrocyclotron beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrosimov, N.K.; Gerasimov, A.M.; Korovina, L.A.; Kryshen', L.M.; Mikheev, G.F.; Ryabov, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    During a number of years works on proton beamline reconstruction are conducted at the LIYaF synchrocyclotron. The reconstruction is aimed at on-line beam transport to the target. Resulting from the presented peculiarity analysis a traditional (for the system development period) structure of an on-line control system with a two-level hierarchy-the SM computer at the higher level and the ''Elektronika-60'' type computer-at the lower one, and the star-like configuration of the lower level computer connection to the higher one was accepted. Currently the following lower level subsystems are realized: a control subsystem for current stabilization in magnetic elements, beam shape measurement subsystem, collimator control subsystem, target device control subsystem. Radiation monitoring and magnetic measurement subsystems are being commissioned. Main trends in the further developing and increasing the system efficiency are enumerated

  7. Isotopic abundance analysis of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur with a combined elemental analyzer-mass spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.; Blochberger, K.

    1988-01-01

    Stable isotope ratio measurements of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur are of growing interest as analytical tool in many fields of research, but applications were somewhat hindered in the past by the fact that cumbersome sample preparation was necessary. A method has therefore been developed, consisting in essential of coupling an elemental analyzer with an isotope mass spectrometer, enabling fast and reliable conversion of C-, N- and S-compounds in any solid or liquid sample into the measuring gases carbon dioxide, nitrogen and sulfur dioxide for on-line isotopic analysis. The experimental set-up and the main characteristics are described in short and examples of application in environmental research, food analysis and clinical diagnosis are given. (orig.)

  8. Tensions and contraditions of polydocent work in teacher training in the on line education: an analysis of the programa nacional escola de gestores at the Federal University Of Ouro Preto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breynner Ricardo de Oliveira

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the tensions and contradictions that permeate the work performed by the training team of the Programa Escola de Gestores, at the Federal University of Ouro Preto (PNEG / UFOP, one of the programs that conform the National Teaching Training Policy in Brazil, dismantled by the budget contingency since 2016. Based on the tasks, routines and perceptions of the polyteaching team responsible for the training, 26 structured interviews were conducted with the professionals that took part of this team between 2013 and 2016. The content analysis was assisted by NVivo,® a software used in qualitative research. The interviews show that, regarding the policy of continuous training of teachers via education on line, the working conditions and budgetary issues reveal the fragility and precariousness with which this type of policy has been implemented in Brazil.

  9. Finite element analysis of car hood for impact test by using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finite element analysis of car hood for impact test by using solidworks software ... high safety and at the same time can be built according to market demands. ... Keywords: finite element analysis; impact test; Solidworks; automation, car hood.

  10. Trace analysis of three antihistamines in human urine by on-line single drop liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenhua; Chen, Yunsheng; Chen, Gaopan; Xi, Jing; Chen, Yaowen; Yang, Jianying; Xu, Ning

    2012-09-01

    A rapid and efficient dual preconcentration method of on-line single drop liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (SD-LLLME) coupled to sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) was developed for trace analysis of three antihistamines (mizolastine, chlorpheniramine and pheniramine) in human urine. Three analytes were firstly extracted from donor phase (4 mL urine sample) adjusted to alkaline condition (0.5 M NaOH). The unionized analytes were subsequently extracted into a drop of n-octanol layered over the urine sample, and then into a microdrop of acceptor phase (100 mM H(3)PO(4)) suspended from a capillary inlet. The enriched acceptor phase was on-line injected into capillary with a height difference and then analyzed directly by sweeping MEKC. Good linear relationships were obtained for all analytes in a range of 6.25 × 10(-6) to 2.5 × 10(-4)g/L with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.987. The proposed method achieved limits of detections (LOD) varied from 1.2 × 10(-7) to 9.5 × 10(-7)g/L based on a signal-to-noise of 3 (S/N=3) with 751- to 1372-fold increases in detection sensitivity for analytes, and it was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of three antihistamines in human urine after an oral administration. The results demonstrated that this method was a promising combination for the rapid trace analysis of antihistamines in human urine with the advantages of operation simplicity, high enrichment factor and little solvent consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. On-Line Coolant Chemistry Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LM Bachman

    2006-01-01

    Impurities in the gas coolant of the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) can provide valuable indications of problems in the reactor and an overall view of system health. By monitoring the types and amounts of these impurities, much can be implied regarding the status of the reactor plant. However, a preliminary understanding of the expected impurities is important before evaluating prospective detection and monitoring systems. Currently, a spectroscopy system is judged to hold the greatest promise for monitoring the impurities of interest in the coolant because it minimizes the number of entry and exit points to the plant and provides the ability to detect impurities down to the 1 ppm level

  12. Trace element analysis of silicate rocks by XRF. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orihashi, Yuji; Yuhara, Masaki; Kagami, Hiroo; Honma, Hiroji

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of six trace elements (Ce, Ba, Ga, Co, Cr, V) in silicate rocks has been investigated, using pressed powder pellets. Ga analysis was performed using a Cr tube, whereas a Au tube was used for the remaining five elements. Corrections were made for the interference of BaKα on CeKα, FeKβ on CoKα, CrKα on VKβ and VKα on TiKβ. Mass absorption functions were estimated from background intensities at 2θ=35.5deg and that of FeKα at wavelengths longer than the iron absorption edge for a Au tube, and from the value of net intensity/background one for a Cr tube. Calibration lines were constructed using twenty-four U.S. Geological Survey and Geological Survey of Japan igneous rock reference samples. For each line, the correction coefficient is greater than 0.993 except for Ga and Ce (>0.985), indicating that the correction and calibration procedures are appropriate for accurate analysis over a wide compositional range. Analytical results for igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic reference samples (U. S. Geological Survey, Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, South-African Bureau of Standards) accord well with recommended or proposed values, respectively. The results of this study and those of Orihashi et al. (1993) show Ce, Ba, Nb, Zr, Y, Sr, Rb, Th, Ga, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr and V in silicate rocks can be quantitatively determined by XRF at ISEI. (author)

  13. Quantitative analysis of light elements in thick samples by PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, R.; Jesus, A.P.; Ribeiro, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    PIGE analysis of thick and intermediate samples is usually performed with the help of standards, but this method gives only good results when the standard is very similar to the sample to be analysed. In this work, we present an alternative method for PIGE analysis of light elements in thick samples. This method is based on a code that integrates the nuclear reaction excitation function along the depth of the sample. For the integration procedure the sample is divided in sublayers, defined by the energy steps that were used to measure accurately the excitation function. This function is used as input. Within each sublayer the stopping power cross-sections may be assumed as constant. With these two conditions the calculus of the contribution of each sublayer for the total yield becomes an easy task. This work presents results for the analysis of lithium, boron, fluorine and sodium in thick samples. For this purpose, excitation functions of the reactions 7 Li(p,p ' γ) 7 Li, 19 F(p,p ' γ) 19 F, 10 B(p,αγ) 7 Be and 23 Na(p,p ' γ) 23 Na were employed. Calculated γ-ray yields were compared, at several proton energy values, with experimental yields for thick samples made of inorganic compounds of the referred elements. The agreement is better than 7.5%. Taking into consideration the experimental uncertainty of the measured yields and the errors related to the stopping power values used, this agreement shows that effects as the beam energy straggling, ignored in the calculation, seem to play a minor role

  14. Finite element analysis of prestressed concrete reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.D.; Cook, W.A.; Anderson, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a finite element code suitable for the safety analysis of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The project has involved modification of a general purpose computer code to handle reinforced concrete structures as well as comparison of results obtained with the code against published experimental data. The NONSAP nonlinear structural analysis program was selected for the ease with which it can be modified to encompass problems peculiar to nuclear reactors. Pre- and post-processors have been developed for mesh generation and for graphical display of response variables. An out-of-core assembler and solver have been developed for the analysis of large three dimensional problems. The constitutive model for short term loads forms an orthotropic stress-strain relationship in which the concrete and the reinforcing steel are treated as a composite. The variation of stiffness and strength of concrete under multiaxial stress states is accounted for. Cracks are allowed to form at element integration points based on a three dimensional failure envelope in stress space. Composite tensile and shear properties across a crack are modified to account for bond degradation and for dowel action of the reinforcement. The constitutive law for creep is base on the expansion of the usual creep compliance function in the form of a Dirichlet exponential series. Empirical creep data are then fit to the Dirichlet series approximation by means of a least squares procedure. The incremental deformation process is subsequently reduced to a series of variable stiffness elasticity problems in which the past stress history is represented by a finite number of hidden material variables

  15. Neutron activation analysis for uranium and associated elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, W.W.

    1977-01-01

    The samples obtained by the Savannah River Laboratory as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program are activated in the intense neutron flux from a Savannah River Plant production reactor. A pilot-scale facility was installed at the reactor site to provide analyses of samples through the initial phase of the program and to develop design data for a full-scale facility. Sediments are analyzed by direct activation of 0.5-g samples. However, to analyze ground or surface water samples, mineral elements from 1-liter samples are concentrated on ion exchange resin and then approximately 5-g samples of resin are activated. Uranium concentration is determined by counting neutrons emitted from specific short-lived products of fission induced in 235 U by the primary neutron flux. Repetitive short cycles of irradiation and counting permit detection and determination of <0.1 μg of uranium. Elements associated with uranium are determined by spectral analysis of the gamma ray activities induced by the cyclic and subsequent longer irradiations. The pilot facility consists of four irradiation positions (plus 2 spare positions), a sample loader and unloader, and counting stations with neutron and gamma ray detectors, all interconnected with a pneumatic sample transport system. A computer controls both the transport system and the data acquisition devices. Gamma ray counting data are stored on magnetic tape for further processing by a large central computer. Facility hardware and software are described. Repetitive analyses of standards have shown an accuracy within +-10% for uranium values and within +-25% for associated elements. A quality assurance program has been developed to maintain these levels of reliability

  16. PIXE-quantified AXSIA: Elemental mapping by multivariate spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, B.L.; Provencio, P.P.; Kotula, P.G.; Antolak, A.J.; Ryan, C.G.; Campbell, J.L.; Barrett, K.

    2006-01-01

    Automated, nonbiased, multivariate statistical analysis techniques are useful for converting very large amounts of data into a smaller, more manageable number of chemical components (spectra and images) that are needed to describe the measurement. We report the first use of the multivariate spectral analysis program AXSIA (Automated eXpert Spectral Image Analysis) developed at Sandia National Laboratories to quantitatively analyze micro-PIXE data maps. AXSIA implements a multivariate curve resolution technique that reduces the spectral image data sets into a limited number of physically realizable and easily interpretable components (including both spectra and images). We show that the principal component spectra can be further analyzed using conventional PIXE programs to convert the weighting images into quantitative concentration maps. A common elemental data set has been analyzed using three different PIXE analysis codes and the results compared to the cases when each of these codes is used to separately analyze the associated AXSIA principal component spectral data. We find that these comparisons are in good quantitative agreement with each other

  17. Finite element analysis of 2-Station hip himulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazli, M. I. M.; Yahya, A.; Shahrom, A.; Nawawi, S. W.; Zainudin, M. R.; Nazarudin, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presented the analysis of materials and design architecture of 2-station hip simulator. Hip simulator is a machine used to conduct the joint and wear test of hip prosthetic. In earlier work, the hip simulator was modified and some improvement were made by using SolidWorks software. The simulator consists of 3DOF which controlled by separate stepper motor and a static load that set up by manual method in each station. In this work, finite element analysis (FEA) of hip simulator was implemented to analyse the structure of the design and selected materials used for simulator component. The analysis is completed based on two categories which are safety factor and stress tests. Both design drawing and FEA was done using SolidWorks software. The study of the two categories is performed by applying the peak load up to 4000N on the main frame that is embedded with metal-on-metal hip prosthesis. From FEA, the value of safety factor and degree of stress formation are successfully obtained. All the components exceed the value of 2 for safety factor analysis while the degree of stress formation shows higher value compare to the yield strength of the material. With this results, it provides information regarding part of simulator which are susceptible to destruct. Besides, the results could be used for design improvement and certify the stability of the hip simulator in real application.

  18. Storage element performance optimization for CMS analysis jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrmann, G; Dahlblom, J; Guldmyr, J; Happonen, K; Lindén, T

    2012-01-01

    Tier-2 computing sites in the Worldwide Large Hadron Collider Computing Grid (WLCG) host CPU-resources (Compute Element, CE) and storage resources (Storage Element, SE). The vast amount of data that needs to processed from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments requires good and efficient use of the available resources. Having a good CPU efficiency for the end users analysis jobs requires that the performance of the storage system is able to scale with I/O requests from hundreds or even thousands of simultaneous jobs. In this presentation we report on the work on improving the SE performance at the Helsinki Institute of Physics (HIP) Tier-2 used for the Compact Muon Experiment (CMS) at the LHC. Statistics from CMS grid jobs are collected and stored in the CMS Dashboard for further analysis, which allows for easy performance monitoring by the sites and by the CMS collaboration. As part of the monitoring framework CMS uses the JobRobot which sends every four hours 100 analysis jobs to each site. CMS also uses the HammerCloud tool for site monitoring and stress testing and it has replaced the JobRobot. The performance of the analysis workflow submitted with JobRobot or HammerCloud can be used to track the performance due to site configuration changes, since the analysis workflow is kept the same for all sites and for months in time. The CPU efficiency of the JobRobot jobs at HIP was increased approximately by 50 % to more than 90 %, by tuning the SE and by improvements in the CMSSW and dCache software. The performance of the CMS analysis jobs improved significantly too. Similar work has been done on other CMS Tier-sites, since on average the CPU efficiency for CMSSW jobs has increased during 2011. Better monitoring of the SE allows faster detection of problems, so that the performance level can be kept high. The next storage upgrade at HIP consists of SAS disk enclosures which can be stress tested on demand with HammerCloud workflows, to make sure that the I

  19. In-situ elemental analysis of coal by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikesell, J.L.; Senftle, F.E.; Tanner, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has worked to develop neutron techniques for the borehole measurement of the elemental composition of ores since 1969, and first demonstrated a borehole ultimate analysis of coal in 1977. Borehole measurements such as these permit real-time evaluation of coal quality without the expense of coring or the delays associated with laboratory analyses. Two technological innovations make such measurements possible: the availability, from Savannah River Operations Office, DOE, of small californium-252 (/sup 252/Cf) fission neutron sources, and the development, by USGS and Princeton Gamma-Techn, of the melting-cryogen-cooled high-purity germanium borehole gamma-ray detector. A technique of relating mass fractions to measured gamma-ray intensities, which eliminates the need for detailed knowledge of the geometry of the neutron distribution, is used to calculate elemental compositions without resorting to the test pits or computer borehole modeling. In coal, all of the major constituents (C, H, N, S, Si, Al, Fe, Ti) except oxygen can be determined quantitatively by thermal neutron capture gamma-ray spectroscopy

  20. Essential trace elements in edible mushrooms by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Patricia L.C.; Maihara, Vera A.; Castro, Lilian P. de [Instituto de Pesquisa e Energetica e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: patricialandim@ig.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; lilian.Pavanelli@terra.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Mushrooms are excellent nutritional sources since they provide proteins, fibers and mineral, such as K, P, Fe. They have also been the focus of medical research. In Brazil mushrooms are not consumed in large quantities by the general population since people know little about the nutritional and medicinal benefits that mushrooms offer. Hence, this study intends to contribute to a better understanding of the essential element content in edible mushrooms, which are currently commercialized in Sao Paulo state. Br Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in the following mushroom species: Shitake (Lentinus edodes), Shimeji (Pleurotus ssp), Paris Champignon (Agaricus bisporus), Hiratake ( Pleurotus ssp) and Eringue (Pleurotus Eryngu. The mushroom samples were acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from the producers. Essential element contents in mushrooms varied between Br 0.03 to 4.1 mg/kg; Fe 20 to 267 mg/kg; K 1.2 to 5.3 g/kg, Na 10 to 582 mg/kg and Zn 60 to 120 mg/kg. The results confirm that mushrooms can be considered a good source of K, Fe and Zn. The low Na level is a good nutritional benefit for the consumer. (author)