WorldWideScience

Sample records for on-line calibration monitoring

  1. On-line monitoring for calibration reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, M.

    2005-09-01

    On-Line Monitoring evaluates instrument channel performance by assessing its consistency with other plant indications. Elimination or reduction of unnecessary field calibrations can reduce associated labour costs, reduce personnel radiation exposure, and reduce the potential for calibration errors. On-line calibration monitoring is an important technique to implement a state-based maintenance approach and reduce unnecessary field calibrations. In this report we will look at how the concept is currently applied in the industry and what the arising needs are as it becomes more commonplace. We will also look at the PEANO System, a tool developed by the Halden Project to perform signal validation and on-line calibration monitoring. Some issues will be identified that are being addressed in the further development of these tools to better serve the future needs of the industry in this area. An outline for how to improve these points and which aspects should be taken into account is described in detail. (Author)

  2. On-line monitoring for calibration reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Mario; Gran, Frauke Schmitt; Thunem, Harald P-J.

    2004-04-01

    On-Line Monitoring (OLM) of a channel's calibration state evaluates instrument channel performance by assessing its consistency with other plant indications. Industry and experience at several plants has shown this overall approach to be very effective in identifying instrument channels that are exhibiting degrading or inconsistent performance characteristics. The Halden Reactor Project has developed the signal validation system PEANO, which can be used to assist with the tasks of OLM. To further enhance the PEANO System for use as a calibration reduction tool, the following two additional modules have been developed; HRP Prox, which performs pre-processing and statistical analysis of signal data, Batch Monitoring Module (BMM), which is an off-line batch monitoring and reporting suite. The purpose and functionality of the HRP Prox and BMM modules are discussed in this report, as well as the improvements made to the PEANO Server to support these new modules. The Halden Reactor Project has established a Halden On-Line Monitoring User Group (HOLMUG), devoted to the discussion and implementation of on-line monitoring techniques in power plants. It is formed by utilities, vendors, regulatory bodies and research institutes that meet regularly to discuss implementation aspects of on-line monitoring, technical specification changes, cost-benefit analysis and regulatory issues. (Author)

  3. Calibration through on-line monitoring of instruments channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Plant technical specifications require periodic calibration of instrument channels, and this has traditionally meant calibration at fixed time intervals for nearly all instruments. Experience has shown that unnecessarily frequent calibrations reduce channel availability and reliability, impact outage durations, and increase maintenance costs. An alternative approach to satisfying existing requirements for periodic calibration consists of on-line monitoring and quantitative comparison of instrument channels during operation to identify instrument degradation and failure. A Utility Working Group has been formed by EPRI to support the technical activities necessary to achieve generic NRC acceptance of on-line monitoring of redundant instrument channels as a basis for determining when to perform calibrations. A topical report proposing NRC acceptance of this approach was submitted in August 1995, and the Working Group is currently resolving NRC technical questions. This paper describes the proposed approach and the current status of the topical report with regard to NRC review. While these activities will not preclude utilities from continuing to use existing calibration approaches, successful acceptance of this performance-based approach will allow utilities to substantially reduce the number of calibrations which are performed. Concurrent benefits will include reduced I ampersand C impact on outage durations and improved sensitivity to instrument channel performance

  4. On-line monitoring applications at nuclear power plants. A risk informed approach to calibration reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, Ramesh; Hussey, Aaron; Davis, Eddie

    2003-01-01

    On-line monitoring of instrument channels provides increased information about the condition of monitored channels through accurate, more frequent evaluation of each cannel's performance over time. This type of performance monitoring is a methodology that offers an alternate approach to traditional time-directed calibration. EPRI's strategic role in on-line monitoring is to facilitate its implementation and cost-effective use in numerous applications at power plants. To this end, EPRI has sponsored an on-line monitoring implementation project at multiple nuclear plants specifically intended to install and use on-line monitoring technology. The selected on-line monitoring method is based on the Multivariate State Estimation Technique. The project has a planned three-year life; seven plants are participating in the project. The goal is to apply on-line monitoring to all types of power plant applications and document all aspects of the implementation process in a series of EPRI reports. These deliverables cover installation, modeling, optimization, and proven cost-benefit. This paper discusses the actual implementation of on-line monitoring to various nuclear plant instrument systems. Examples of detected instrument drift are provided. (author)

  5. Instrument calibration reduction through on-line monitoring in the USA. Annex IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are required to calibrate important instruments once every fuel cycle. This requirement dates back more than 30 years, when commercial nuclear power plants began to operate. Based on calibration data accumulated over this period, it has been determined that the calibration of some instruments, such as pressure transmitters, do not drift enough to warrant calibration as often as once every fuel cycle. This fact, combined with human resources limitations and reduced maintenance budgets, has provided the motivation for the nuclear industry to develop new technologies for identifying drifting instruments during plant operation. Implementing these technologies allows calibration efforts to be focused on the instruments that have drifted out of tolerance, as opposed to current practice, which calls for calibration verification of almost all instruments every fuel cycle. To date, an array of technologies, referred to collectively as 'on-line calibration monitoring', has been developed to meet this objective. These technologies are based on identifying outlier sensors using techniques that compare a particular sensor's output to a calculated estimate of the actual process the sensor is measuring. If on-line monitoring data are collected during plant startup and/or shutdown periods as well as normal operation, the on-line monitoring approach can help verify the calibration of instruments over their entire operating range. Although on-line calibration monitoring is applicable to most sensors and can cover an entire instrument channel, the main application of this approach in nuclear power plants is currently for pressure transmitters (including level and flow transmitters). (author)

  6. On-line Monitoring and Calibration Techniques in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Years of research, testing and experience in the field of sensor diagnostics have yielded many technologies which offer financial as well as operational benefits to the nuclear industry. Among these technologies are On-Line Monitoring (OLM) and On-Line Calibration of critical process monitoring sensors such as resistance temperature detectors (RTD), thermocouples, and pressure transmitters to name a few. The remote access and verification of these sensors have been shown to limit the exposure of maintenance personnel to harsh environments while at the same time effectively and efficiently diagnosing the health and performance of these sensors. In addition to sensors, technologies exist in determining not only the health of instrumentation and control (I and C) cabling that carries the signals from these sensors, but also these same cable testing techniques can be used in the remote evaluation of many end devices used in safety related operations as well. Given these advances in sensor system monitoring techniques it would seem to follow that nuclear utilities from around the world would be applying these tried and true techniques to optimize up time and to provide additional confidence in the output of processing sensors. However, although several of the world's regulatory bodies have approved of the concept of these techniques, few utilities have undertaken to fully embrace on-line monitoring and on-line calibration of nuclear process sensors. In the United States efforts are now underway, with representatives of the U.S. nuclear industry and nuclear power plant vendors to obtain generic NRC licensing for the use of OLM in nuclear power plants. If approved, generic licensing will help pave the way toward greater implementation of OLM and its related calibration techniques. (author)

  7. Comparison of process estimation techniques for on-line calibration monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumaker, B. D.; Hashemian, H. M.; Morton, G. W.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of on-line calibration monitoring is to reduce the number of unnecessary calibrations performed each refueling cycle on pressure, level, and flow transmitters in nuclear power plants. The effort requires a baseline for determining calibration drift and thereby the need for a calibration. There are two ways to establish the baseline: averaging and modeling. Averaging techniques have proven to be highly successful in the applications when there are a large number of redundant transmitters; but, for systems with little or no redundancy, averaging methods are not always reliable. That is, for non-redundant transmitters, more sophisticated process estimation techniques are needed to augment or replace the averaging techniques. This paper explores three well-known process estimation techniques; namely Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Auto-Associative Neural Networks (AANN), and Auto-Associative Kernel Regression (AAKR). Using experience and data from an operating nuclear plant, the paper will present an evaluation of the effectiveness of these methods in detecting transmitter drift in actual plant conditions. (authors)

  8. Principal components based support vector regression model for on-line instrument calibration monitoring in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, In Yong; Ha, Bok Nam; Lee, Sung Woo; Shin, Chang Hoon; Kim, Seong Jun

    2010-01-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPPs), periodic sensor calibrations are required to assure that sensors are operating correctly. By checking the sensor's operating status at every fuel outage, faulty sensors may remain undetected for periods of up to 24 months. Moreover, typically, only a few faulty sensors are found to be calibrated. For the safe operation of NPP and the reduction of unnecessary calibration, on-line instrument calibration monitoring is needed. In this study, principal component based auto-associative support vector regression (PCSVR) using response surface methodology (RSM) is proposed for the sensor signal validation of NPPs. This paper describes the design of a PCSVR-based sensor validation system for a power generation system. RSM is employed to determine the optimal values of SVR hyperparameters and is compared to the genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed PCSVR model is confirmed with the actual plant data of Kori Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 and is compared with the Auto-Associative support vector regression (AASVR) and the auto-associative neural network (AANN) model. The auto-sensitivity of AASVR is improved by around six times by using a PCA, resulting in good detection of sensor drift. Compared to AANN, accuracy and cross-sensitivity are better while the auto-sensitivity is almost the same. Meanwhile, the proposed RSM for the optimization of the PCSVR algorithm performs even better in terms of accuracy, auto-sensitivity, and averaged maximum error, except in averaged RMS error, and this method is much more time efficient compared to the conventional GA method

  9. Development and calibration of an on-line aerosol monitor for PHEBUS test FPT1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.E.; Carmack, W.J.; Sprenger, M.H.; Thurston, G.C.; Hunt, J.L.

    1994-10-01

    An on-line aerosol monitor (OLAM2) has been developed and tested for PHEBUS test FPT1. OLAM2 utilizes new detachable fiber optic cables and sapphire light pipes for light transmission between the OLAM and the electronics. This light transmission system was tested and found to provide better signal-to-noise performance than was achieved with the continuous fibers used for test FPT0. An additional advantage of the detachable fiber/light pipe system is ease of installation. Aerosol testing (OLAM calibration) was performed in order to verify adequate signal-to-noise performance of the new fiber optic system over the specified operating conditions and to check the quantitative light attenuation measurements against theoretical predictions. Results of the testing indicated that light extinction measurements obtained during Phebus tests could be used to estimate aerosol volume concentrations, if diamond window fouling can be avoided. OLAM2 was also subjected to a proof pressure test and a long-term thermal stability test. These tests verified the mechanical and thermal integrity of the OLAM within design specifications. Long-term output signal stability was also verified with the system maintained at design temperature and half-design pressure

  10. Adaptive on-line calibration for around-view monitoring system using between-camera homography estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungsoo; Lee, Seohyung; Kim, Jun-geon; Lee, Daeho

    2018-01-01

    The around-view monitoring (AVM) system is one of the major applications of advanced driver assistance systems and intelligent transportation systems. We propose an on-line calibration method, which can compensate misalignments for AVM systems. Most AVM systems use fisheye undistortion, inverse perspective transformation, and geometrical registration methods. To perform these procedures, the parameters for each process must be known; the procedure by which the parameters are estimated is referred to as the initial calibration. However, when only using the initial calibration data, we cannot compensate misalignments, caused by changing equilibria of cars. Moreover, even small changes such as tire pressure levels, passenger weight, or road conditions can affect a car's equilibrium. Therefore, to compensate for this misalignment, additional techniques are necessary, specifically an on-line calibration method. On-line calibration can recalculate homographies, which can correct any degree of misalignment using the unique features of ordinary parking lanes. To extract features from the parking lanes, this method uses corner detection and a pattern matching algorithm. From the extracted features, homographies are estimated using random sample consensus and parameter estimation. Finally, the misaligned epipolar geographies are compensated via the estimated homographies. Thus, the proposed method can render image planes parallel to the ground. This method does not require any designated patterns and can be used whenever cars are placed in a parking lot. The experimental results show the robustness and efficiency of the method.

  11. On-line monitoring of CO2 production in Lactococcus lactis during physiological pH decrease using membrane inlet mass spectrometry with dynamic pH calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Lauritsen, Frants Roager; Olsen, Lars Folke

    2005-12-20

    Monitoring CO2 production in systems, where pH is changing with time is hampered by the chemical behavior and pH-dependent volatility of this compound. In this article, we present the first method where the concentration and production rate of dissolved CO2 can be monitored directly, continuously, and quantitatively under conditions where pH changes rapidly ( approximately 2 units in 15 min). The method corrects membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) measurements of CO2 for pH dependency using on-line pH analysis and an experimentally established calibration model. It is valid within the pH range of 3.5 to 7, despite pH-dependent calibration constants that vary in a non-linear fashion with more than a factor of 3 in this interval. The method made it possible to determine the carbon dioxide production during Lactococcus lactis fermentations, where pH drops up to 3 units during the fermentation. The accuracy was approximately 5%. We used the method to investigate the effect of initial extracellular pH on carbon dioxide production during anarobic glucose fermentation by non-growing Lactocoocus lactis and demonstrated that the carbon dioxide production rate increases considerably, when the initial pH was increased from 6 to 6.8. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. DOE-EPRI On-Line Monitoring Implementation Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Davis, R. Bickford

    2003-01-01

    Industry and EPRI experience at several plants has shown on-line monitoring to be very effective in identifying out-of-calibration instrument channels or indications of equipment-degradation problems. The EPRI implementation project for on-line monitoring has demonstrated the feasibility of on-line monitoring at several participating nuclear plants. The results have been very encouraging, and substantial progress is anticipated in the coming years

  13. ON-LINE MONITORING OF I&C TRANSMITTERS AND SENSORS FOR CALIBRATION VERIFICATION AND RESPONSE TIME TESTING WAS SUCCESSFULLY IMPLEMENTED AT ATR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Phillip A.; O' Hagan, Ryan; Shumaker, Brent; Hashemian, H. M.

    2017-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has always had a comprehensive procedure to verify the performance of its critical transmitters and sensors, including RTDs, and pressure, level, and flow transmitters. These transmitters and sensors have been periodically tested for response time and calibration verification to ensure accuracy. With implementation of online monitoring techniques at ATR, the calibration verification and response time testing of these transmitters and sensors are verified remotely, automatically, hands off, include more portions of the system, and can be performed at almost any time during process operations. The work was done under a DOE funded SBIR project carried out by AMS. As a result, ATR is now able to save the manpower that has been spent over the years on manual calibration verification and response time testing of its temperature and pressure sensors and refocus those resources towards more equipment reliability needs. More importantly, implementation of OLM will help enhance the overall availability, safety, and efficiency. Together with equipment reliability programs of ATR, the integration of OLM will also help with I&C aging management goals of the Department of Energy and long-time operation of ATR.

  14. Adaptive calibration method with on-line growing complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šika Z.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a modified variant of a kinematical calibration algorithm. In the beginning, a brief review of the calibration algorithm and its simple modification are described. As the described calibration modification uses some ideas used by the Lolimot algorithm, the algorithm is described and explained. Main topic of this paper is a description of a synthesis of the Lolimot-based calibration that leads to an adaptive algorithm with an on-line growing complexity. The paper contains a comparison of simple examples results and a discussion. A note about future research topics is also included.

  15. On-line calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Farmer, J.P. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    An on-line instrumentation monitoring system was developed and validated for use in nuclear power plants. This system continuously monitors the calibration status of instrument channels and determines whether or not they require manual calibrations. This is accomplished by comparing the output of each instrument channel to an estimate of the process it is monitoring. If the deviation of the instrument channel from the process estimate is greater than an allowable limit, then the instrument is said to be {open_quotes}out of calibration{close_quotes} and manual adjustments are made to correct the calibration. The success of the on-line monitoring system depends on the accuracy of the process estimation. The system described in this paper incorporates both simple intercomparison techniques as well as analytical approaches in the form of data-driven empirical modeling to estimate the process. On-line testing of the calibration of process instrumentation channels will reduce the number of manual calibrations currently performed, thereby reducing both costs to utilities and radiation exposure to plant personnel.

  16. On-line data analysis and monitoring for H1 drift chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düllmann, Dirk

    1992-05-01

    The on-line monitoring, slow control and calibration of the H1 central jet chamber uses a VME multiprocessor system to perform the analysis and a connected Macintosh computer as graphical interface to the operator on shift. Task of this system are: - analysis of event data including on-line track search, - on-line calibration from normal events and testpulse events, - control of the high voltage and monitoring of settings and currents, - monitoring of temperature, pressure and mixture of the chambergas. A program package is described which controls the dataflow between data aquisition, differnt VME CPUs and Macintosh. It allows to run off-line style programs for the different tasks.

  17. Robust on-line monitoring of biogas processes; Robusta maettekniker on-line foer optimerad biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Aake; Hansson, Mikael; Kanerot, Mija; Krozer, Anatol; Loefving, Bjoern; Sahlin, Eskil

    2010-03-15

    project showed that pH-adjustment with Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} can be a way of compensating for the losses of volatile compounds (up to 20% of VS), which occurs when standardized reference methods are used. This is a fundamental problem and requires further research. Monitoring of a laboratory-scale anaerobic digester with NIR showed that a previously developed multivariate model could predict propionate concentrations (R2= 0,92; RMSEP 0,39 g/L) in the interval 0-5 g/L, which is a relevant interval for inhibition (limit ca 3 g/L). A commercial FT-NIR instrument was subsequently installed at the production plant. However, the organic loading was decreased during the evaluation period due to process disturbances, at which the dynamic of the process was not in the range needed for prediction of e.g. propionate. Measurements and evaluation will continue during normal conditions after the completion of this project. Evaluation of a potentiometric sensor for ammonia with potential for on-line application showed low stability and a need for daily calibration, which therefore did not fulfill the requested demand. The project has demonstrated technologies with significant potential for on-line monitoring at production scale facilities, thus improving the knowledge base for making important decisions. Knowledge about on-line implementation has increased, and important insights into the limitations of standardized reference methods and substrate characteristics have been achieved. Instrument suppliers have in general a limited insight in the conditions at a biogas plant, which suggests that this type of WR-financed project is important for development in the area

  18. On-line Monitoring of Instrumentation in Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-12-01

    This publication is the result of a benchmarking effort undertaken under the IAEA coordinated research project on improved instrumentation and control (I&C) maintenance techniques for research reactors. It lays the foundation for implementation of on-line monitoring (OLM) techniques and establishment of the validity of those for improved maintenance practices in research reactors for a number of applications such as change to condition based calibration, performance monitoring of process instrumentation systems, detection of process anomalies and to distinguish between process problems/effects and instrumentation/sensor issues. The techniques and guidance embodied in this publication will serve the research reactor community in providing the technical foundation for implementation of OLM techniques. It is intended to be used by Member States to implement I&C maintenance and to improve performance of research reactors.

  19. On-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance in Nuclear Power Plant Using PEANO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, Paolo F.; Hoffmann, Mario; Shankar, Ramesh; Davis, Eddie L.

    2002-01-01

    On-Line monitoring evaluates instrument channel performance by assessing its consistency with other plant indications. Industry and EPRI experience at several plants has shown this overall approach to be very effective in identifying instrument channels that are exhibiting degrading or inconsistent performance characteristics. On-Line monitoring of instrument channels provides information about the condition of the monitored channels through accurate, more frequent monitoring of each channel's performance over time. This type of performance monitoring is a methodology that offers an alternate approach to traditional time-directed calibration. On-line monitoring of these channels can provide an assessment of instrument performance and provide a basis for determining when adjustments are necessary. Elimination or reduction of unnecessary field calibrations can reduce associated labor costs, reduce personnel radiation exposure and reduce the potential for miss-calibration. PEANO is a system for on-line calibration monitoring developed in the years 1995-2000 at the Institutt for energiteknikk (IFE), Norway, which makes use of Artificial Intelligence techniques for its purpose. The system has been tested successfully in Europe in off-line tests with EDF (France), Tecnatom (Spain) and ENEA (Italy). PEANO is currently installed and used for on-line monitoring at the HBWR reactor in Halden. This paper describes the results of performance tests on PEANO with real data from a US PWR plant, in the framework of a co-operation among IFE, EPRI and Edan Engineering, to evaluate the potentials of PEANO for future installations in US nuclear plants. (authors)

  20. Quality control of on-line calibration in computerized assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1998-01-01

    In computerized adaptive testing, updating parameter estimates using adaptive testing data is often called online calibration. In this paper, how to evaluate whether the adaptive testing model used for online calibration fits the item response model used sufficiently is studied. Three approaches are

  1. On-line process control monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Van Hare, D.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes apparatus for monitoring at a plurality of locations within a system the concentration of at least one chemical substance involved in a chemical process. It comprises plurality of process cells; first means for carrying the light; second means for carrying the light; means for producing a spectrum from the light received by the second carrying means; multiplexing means for selecting one process cell of the plurality of process cells at a time so that the producing means can produce a process spectrum from the one cell of the process cells; a reference cell for producing a reference spectrum for comparison to the process spectrum; a standard cell for producing a standard spectrum for comparison to the process spectrum; and means for comparing the reference spectrum, the standard spectrum and the process spectrum and determining the concentration of the chemical substance in the process cell

  2. Calibration of radiation monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Radiation protection is dependent on good radiation monitoring, and properly calibrated instruments are essential for this work. Simple procedures for periodically checking and recalibrating different kinds of radiation monitoring instruments are shown in this training film

  3. Calibration of radiation monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-12-31

    Radiation protection is dependent on good radiation monitoring, and properly calibrated instruments are essential for this work. Simple procedures for periodically checking and recalibrating different kinds of radiation monitoring instruments are shown in this training film

  4. On-line data analysis and monitoring for H1 drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duellmann, D.

    1992-01-01

    The on-line monitoring, slow control and calibration of the H1 central jet chamber uses a VME multiprocessor system to perform the analysis and a connected Macintosh computer as graphical interface to the operator on shift. Tasks of this system are: Analysis of event data including on-line track search; on-line calibration from normal events and testpulse events; control of the high voltage and monitoring of settings and currents; monitoring of temperature, pressure and mixture of the chambergas. A program package is described which controls the dataflow between data aquisition, different VME CPUs and Macintosh. It allows to run off-line style programs for the different tasks. (orig.)

  5. An on-line adaptive core monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verspeek, J.A.; Bruggink, J.C.; Karuza, J.

    1997-01-01

    An on-line core monitoring system has been in operation for three years in the Dodewaard Nuclear Power Plant. The core monitor uses the on-line measured reactor data as an input for a power distribution calculation. The measurements are frequently performed. The system is used for monitoring as well as for predicting purposes. The limiting thermal hydraulic parameters are monitored as well as the pellet-clad interaction limits. The data are added to a history file used for cycle burn-up calculations and trending of parameters. The reactor states are presented through a convenient graphical user interface. (authors)

  6. Calibration of moisture monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, R.L.

    1979-02-01

    A method for calibrating an aluminum oxide hygrometer against an optical chilled mirror dew-point hygrometer has been established. A theoretical cross-point line of dew points from both hygrometers and a maximum moisture content of 10 ppM/sub v/ are used to define an area for calibrating the sensor probes of the aluminum oxide hygrometer

  7. On-line sodium and cover as purity monitors gas operating tools at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.R.F.; Richardson, W.J.; Holmes, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    Plugging temperature indicators, electrochemical oxygen meters and hydrogen diffusion meters are the on-line sodium purity monitors now in use at EBR-II. On-line gas chromatographs are used to monitor helium, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen impurities in the argon cover gases. Monitors for tritium-in-sodium and for hydrocarbons-in-cover gas have been developed and are scheduled for installation in the near future. An important advantage of on-line monitors over the conventional grab-sampling techniques is the speed of response to changing reactor conditions. This helps us to identify the source of the impurity, whether the cause may be transient or constant, and take corrective action as necessary. The oxygen meter is calibrated monthly against oxygen in sodium determined by the vanadium wire equilibration method. The other instruments either do not require calibration or are self-calibrating. The ranges, sensitivity and response times of all of the on-line purity monitors has proven satisfactory under EBR-II operating conditions

  8. On-line testing of calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. Phase 2, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1995-11-01

    The nuclear industry is interested in automating the calibration of process instrumentation channels; this report provides key results of one of the sponsored projects to determine the validity of automated calibrations. Conclusion is that the normal outputs of instrument channels in nuclear plants can be monitored over a fuel cycle while the plant is operating to determine calibration drift in the field sensors and associated signal conversion and signal conditioning equipment. The procedure for on-line calibration tests involving calculating the deviation of each instrument channel from the best estimate of the process parameter that the instrument is measuring. Methods were evaluated for determining the best estimate. Deviation of each signal from the best estimate is updated frequently while the plant is operating and plotted vs time for entire fuel cycle, thereby providing time history plots that can reveal channel drift and other anomalies. Any instrument channel that exceeds allowable drift or channel accuracy band is then scheduled for calibration during a refueling outage or sooner. This provides calibration test results at the process operating point, one of the most critical points of the channel operation. This should suffice for most narrow-range instruments, although the calibration of some instruments can be verified at other points throughout their range. It should be pointed out that the calibration of some process signals such as the high pressure coolant injection flow in BWRs, which are normally off- scale during plant operation, can not be tested on-line

  9. Initiating Events Modeling for On-Line Risk Monitoring Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Mikulicic, V.

    1998-01-01

    In order to make on-line risk monitoring application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment more complete and realistic, a special attention need to be dedicated to initiating events modeling. Two different issues are of special importance: one is how to model initiating events frequency according to current plant configuration (equipment alignment and out of service status) and operating condition (weather and various activities), and the second is how to preserve dependencies between initiating events model and rest of PRA model. First, the paper will discuss how initiating events can be treated in on-line risk monitoring application. Second, practical example of initiating events modeling in EPRI's Equipment Out of Service on-line monitoring tool will be presented. Gains from application and possible improvements will be discussed in conclusion. (author)

  10. Improving integrity of on-line grammage measurement with traceable basic calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasrääsiö, Juha

    2010-07-01

    The automatic control of grammage (basis weight) in paper and board production is based upon on-line grammage measurement. Furthermore, the automatic control of other quality variables such as moisture, ash content and coat weight, may rely on the grammage measurement. The integrity of Kr-85 based on-line grammage measurement systems was studied, by performing basic calibrations with traceably calibrated plastic reference standards. The calibrations were performed according to the EN ISO/IEC 17025 standard, which is a requirement for calibration laboratories. The observed relative measurement errors were 3.3% in the first time calibrations at the 95% confidence level. With the traceable basic calibration method, however, these errors can be reduced to under 0.5%, thus improving the integrity of on-line grammage measurements. Also a standardised algorithm, based on the experience from the performed calibrations, is proposed to ease the adjustment of the different grammage measurement systems. The calibration technique can basically be applied to all beta-radiation based grammage measurements. 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. On-line corrosion monitoring in district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Sonja; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2004-01-01

    ), Electrochemical Noise (EN) and Zero Resistance Ammetry (ZRA). Electrochemical Resistance (ER) has also been used to measure corrosion. The method traditionally only measures corrosion off-line but with newly developed high-sensitive ER technique developed by MetriCorr in Denmark, on-line monitoring is possible...... complicates the chemistry of the environment. Hydrogen sulphide is present in geothermal systems and can be formed as a by-product of sulphate-reducing-bacteria (SRB). The application of electrochemical methods makes on-line monitoring possible. These methods include: Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR....... In order to assess both general corrosion and localized corrosion, it is necessary to apply more than one monitoring technique simultaneously, ZRA or EN for measuring localized corrosion and LPR or ER for measuring general corrosion rate. The advantage of monitoring localized corrosion is indisputable...

  12. On-line testing of response time and calibration of temperature and pressure sensors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Periodic calibrations and response time measurements are necessary for temperature and pressure sensors in the safety systems of nuclear power plants. Conventional measurement methods require the test to be performed at the sensor location or involve removing the sensor from the process and performing the tests in a laboratory or on the bench. The conventional methods are time consuming and have the potential of causing wear and tear on the equipment, can expose the test personnel to radiation and other harsh environments, and increase the length of the plant outage. Also, the conventional methods do not account for the installation effects which may have an influence on sensor performance. On-line testing methods alleviate these problems by providing remote sensor response time and calibration capabilities. For temperature sensors such as Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) and thermocouples, an on-line test method called the Loop Current Step Response (LCSR) technique has been developed, and for pressure transmitters, an on-line method called noise analysis which was available for reactor diagnostics was validated for response time testing applications. Both the LCSR and noise analysis tests are performed periodically in U.S. nuclear power plants to meet the plant technical specification requirements for response time testing of safety-related sensors. Automated testing of the calibration of both temperature and pressure sensors can be accomplished through an on-line monitoring system installed in the plant. The system monitors the DC output of the sensors over the fuel cycle to determine if any calibration drift has occurred. Changes in calibration can be detected using signal averaging and intercomparison methods and analytical redundancy techniques. (author)

  13. On-line chemistry monitoring for the secondary side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) has developed a computerized water chemistry data acquisition and management system for nuclear plant secondary coolant systems. The Integrated Water Chemistry Monitoring System (IWCMS) provides on-line monitoring of conditions and rapid trend analysis of sampled data. So far it has been installed at GPU Three Mile Island unit 1 and at Toledo Edison Davis-Besse. The IWCMS meets the following utility needs for monitoring power plant chemistry: control of chemistry conditions to minimize corrosion and extend component/system life; continuous analysis of data from on-line detectors and grab samples; expediting of transient recovery actions with trend, alarm and evaluation capability; provision for rapid sharing of useful operational chemistry information; concentration of attention on evaluation instead of data manipulation. The system is composed of three functional parts: data acquisition hardware; PC-based computer system and customised system software. (author)

  14. An on-line monitoring system for navigation equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Yang, Ping; Liu, Jing; Yang, Zhengbo; Liang, Fei

    2017-10-01

    Civil air navigation equipment is the most important infrastructure of Civil Aviation, which is closely related to flight safety. In addition to regular flight inspection, navigation equipment's patrol measuring, maintenance measuring, running measuring under special weather conditions are the important means of ensuring aviation flight safety. According to the safety maintenance requirements of Civil Aviation Air Traffic Control navigation equipment, this paper developed one on-line monitoring system with independent intellectual property rights for navigation equipment, the system breakthroughs the key technologies of measuring navigation equipment on-line including Instrument Landing System (ILS) and VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR), which also meets the requirements of navigation equipment ground measurement set by the ICAO DOC 8071, it provides technical means of the ground on-line measurement for navigation equipment, improves the safety of navigation equipment operation, and reduces the impact of measuring navigation equipment on airport operation.

  15. High sensitivity on-line monitor for radioactive effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Toshimi [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Ltd., Sendai (Japan); Ishizuka, Akira; Abe, Eisuke; Inoue, Yasuhiko; Fujii, Masaaki; Kitaguchi, Hiroshi; Doi, Akira

    1983-04-01

    A new approach for a highly sensitive effluent monitor is presented. The free flow type monitor, which consists of a straightener, nozzle, monitoring section and ..gamma..-ray detector, is demonstrated to be effective in providing long term stability. The 160 start-and-stop cycles of effluent discharge were repeated in a 120-h testing period. Results showed a background increase was not observed for the free flow type monitor. The background count rate was calibrated to the lowest detection limit to be 2.2 x 10/sup -2/ Bq/ml for a 300 s measurement time.

  16. On-line plant-wide monitoring using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkcan, E.; Ciftcioglu, O.; Eryurek, E.; Upadhyaya, B.R.

    1992-06-01

    The on-line signal analysis system designed for a multi-level mode operation using neural networks is described. The system is capable of monitoring the plant states by tracking different number of signals up to 32 simultaneously. The data used for this study were acquired from the Borssele Nuclear Power Plant (PWR type), and using the on-line monitoring system. An on-line plant-wide monitoring study using a multilayer neural network model is discussed in this paper. The back-propagation neural network algorithm is used for training the network. The technique assumes that each physical state of the power plant can be represented by a unique pattern of instrument readings which can be related to the condition of the plant. When disturbance occurs, the sensor readings undergo a transient, and form a different set of patterns which represent the new operational status. Diagnosing these patterns can be helpful in identifying this new state of the power plant. To this end, plant-wide monitoring with neutral networks is one of the new techniques in real-time applications. (author). 9 refs.; 5 figs

  17. On-line fouling monitor for heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsou, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Biological and/or chemical fouling in utility service water system heat exchangers adversely affects operation and maintenance costs, and reduced heat transfer capability can force a power deaerating or even a plant shut down. In addition, service water heat exchanger performance is a safety issue for nuclear power plants, and the issue was highlighted by NRC in Generic Letter 89-13. Heat transfer losses due to fouling are difficult to measure and, usually, quantitative assessment of the impact of fouling is impossible. Plant operators typically measure inlet and outlet water temperatures and flow rates and then perform complex calculations for heat exchanger fouling resistance or ''cleanliness''. These direct estimates are often imprecise due to inadequate instrumentation. Electric Power Research Institute developed and patented an on-line condenser fouling monitor. This monitor may be installed in any location within the condenser; does not interfere with routine plant operations, including on-line mechanical and chemical treatment methods; and provides continuous, real-time readings of the heat transfer efficiency of the instrumented tube. This instrument can be modified to perform on-line monitoring of service water heat exchangers. This paper discusses the design, construction of the new monitor, and algorithm used to calculate service water heat exchanger fouling

  18. On-Line Enrichment Monitor for UF{sub 6} Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, K. D.; Boyer, B.; Favalli, A.; Goda, J. M.; Hill, T.; Keller, C.; Lombardi, M.; Paffett, M.; MacArthur, D. W.; McCluskey, C.; Moss, C. E.; Parker, R.; Smith, M. K.; Swinhoe, M. T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States)

    2012-06-15

    This paper is a continuation of the Advanced Enrichment Monitoring Technology for UF{sub 6} Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) work, presented in the 2010 IAEA Safeguards Symposium. Here we will present the system architecture for a planned side-by-side field trial test of passive (186-keV line spectroscopy and pressure-based correction for UF{sub 6} gas density) and active (186-keV line spectroscopy and transmission measurement based correction for UF{sub 6} gas density) enrichment monitoring systems in URENCO's enrichment plant in Capenhurst. Because the pressure and transmission measurements of UF{sub 6} are complementary, additional information on the importance of the presence of light gases and the UF{sub 6} gas temperature can be obtained by cross-correlation between simultaneous measurements of transmission, pressure and 186-keV intensity. We will discuss the calibration issues and performance in the context of accurate, on-line enrichment measurement. It is hoped that a simple and accurate on-line enrichment monitor can be built using the UF{sub 6} gas pressure provided by the Operator, based on online mass spectrometer calibration, assuming a negligible (a small fraction of percent) contribution of wall deposits. Unaccounted-for wall deposits present at the initial calibration will lead to unwanted sensitivity to changes in theUF{sub 6} gas pressure and thus to error in the enrichment results. Because the accumulated deposits in the cascade header pipe have been identified as an issue for Go/No Go measurements with the Cascade Header Enrichment Monitor (CHEM) and Continuous Enrichment Monitor (CEMO), it is important to explore their effect. Therefore we present the expected uncertainty on enrichment measurements obtained by propagating the errors introduced by deposits, gas density, etc. and will discuss the options for a deposit correction during initial calibration of an On-Line Enrichment Monitor (OLEM).

  19. On-line Monitoring System for Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru HOTEA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Power transformers are the most important and expensive equipment from the electricity transmission system, so it is very important to know the real state of health of such equipment in every moment. De-energizing the power transformer accidentally due to internal defects can generate high costs. Annual maintenance proved to be ineffective in many cases to determine the internal condition of the equipment degradation due to faults rapidly evolving. An On-line Monitoring System for Power Transformers help real-time condition assessment and to detect errors early enough to take action to eliminate or minimize them. After abnormality detected, it is still important to perform full diagnostic tests to determine the exact condition of the equipment. On-line monitoring systems can help increase the level of availability and reliability of power transformers and lower costs of accidental interruption. This paper presents cases studies on several power transformers equipped with on-line monitoring systems from Transelectrica substation.

  20. Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

    2009-03-12

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma

  1. On-line monitoring system for utility boiler diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radovanovic, P.M.; Afgan, N.H.; Caralho, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the new developed modular type Monitoring System for Utility Boiler Diagnostics. Each module is intended to assess the specific process and can be used as a stand alone application. Four modules are developed, namely: LTC - module for the on-line monitoring of parameters related to the life-time consumption of selected boiler components; TRD - module for the tube rupture detection by the position and working fluid Ieakage quantity; FAM - module for the boiler surfaces fouling (slagging) assessment and FLAP - module for visualization of the boiler furnace flame position. All four modules are tested on respective pilot plants built oil the 200 and 300 MWe utility boilers. Monitoring System is commercially available and can be realized in any combination of its modules depending on demands induced by the operational problems of specific boiler. Further development of Monitoring System is performed in accordance with the respective EU project on development of Boiler Expert System. (Author)

  2. On-line monitoring of main coolant pump seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.M.; Spencer, J.W.; Morris, D.J.; Glass, S.W.; Sommerfield, G.A.; Harrison, D.

    1984-06-01

    The Babcock and Wilcox Company has developed and implemented a Reactor Coolant Pump Monitoring and Diagnostic System (RCPM and DS). The system has been installed at Toledo Edison Company's Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station Unit 1. The RCPM and PS continuously monitors a number of indicators of pump performance and notifies the plant operator of out-of-tolerance conditions or pump performance trending toward out-of-tolerance conditions. Pump seal parameters being monitored include pump internal pressures, temperatures, and flow rates. Rotordynamic performanvce and plant operating conditions are also measured with a variety of dynamic sensors. This paper describes the implementation of the system and the results of on-line monitoring of four RC pumps

  3. Development of an On-Line Uranium Enrichment Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuesheng, L.; Guorong, L.; Yonggang, Z.; Xueyuan, H. X.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    An on-line enrichment monitor was developed to measure the enrichment of UF6 flowing through the processing pipes in centrifuge uranium enrichment plant. A NaI(Tl) detector was used to measure the count rates of the 186 keV gamma ray emitted from 235U, and the total quantity of uranium was determined from thermodynamic characteristics of gaseous uranium hexafluoride. The results show that the maximum relative standard deviation is less than 1% when the measurement time is 120 s or more and the pressure is more than 2 kPa in the measurement chamber. There are two working models for the monitor. The monitor works normally in the continuous model, When the gas's pressure in the pipe fluctuates greatly, it can work in the intermittent model, and the measurement result is very well. The background of the monitor can be measured automatically periodically. It can control automatically electromagnetic valves open and close, so as to change the gas's quantity in the chamber. It is a kind of unattended and remote monitor, all of data can be transfer to central control room. It should be effective for nuclear materials accountability verifications and materials balance verification at uranium enrichment plant by using the monitor to monitor Uranium enrichment of gaseous uranium hexafluoride in the output end of cascade continuously. (author)

  4. On-line monitoring and inservice inspection in codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartonicek, J.; Zaiss, W.; Bath, H.R.

    1999-01-01

    The relevant regulatory codes determine the ISI tasks and the time intervals for recurrent components testing for evaluation of operation-induced damaging or ageing in order to ensure component integrity on the basis of the last available quality data. In-service quality monitoring is carried out through on-line monitoring and recurrent testing. The requirements defined by the engineering codes elaborated by various institutions are comparable, with the KTA nuclear engineering and safety codes being the most complete provisions for quality evaluation and assurance after different, defined service periods. German conventional codes for assuring component integrity provide exclusively for recurrent inspection regimes (mainly pressure tests and optical testing). The requirements defined in the KTA codes however always demanded more specific inspections relying on recurrent testing as well as on-line monitoring. Foreign codes for ensuring component integrity concentrate on NDE tasks at regular time intervals, with time intervals scope of testing activities being defined on the basis of the ASME code, section XI. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Development of an on-line radon monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Huiping; Shang Aiguo; Liu Junfeng; Zhou Chunlin; Di Yuming

    2004-01-01

    Of the actual demand by the strategic missile troops, the author has successfully developed a specially designed passive diffusion collecting chamber to collect the decay products of radon by high voltage static electricity, and using the single-chip microcomputer to reckon the radon concentration in air, which is actually a portable, continuous and automatic on-line monitoring instrument. It was made into a four-slot standard plug-in board of a NIM, and it functions as auto data memory, data process, display, over-threshold alarming and so on. (authors)

  6. On-line core monitoring with CORE MASTER / PRESTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, S.O.; Borresen, S.; Ovrum, S.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced calculational tools are instrumental in improving reactor plant capacity factors and fuel utilization. The computer code package CORE MASTER is an integrated system designed to achieve this objective. The system covers all main activities in the area of in-core fuel management for boiling water reactors; design, operation support, and on-line core monitoring. CORE MASTER operates on a common data base, which defines the reactor and documents the operating history of the core and of all fuel bundles ever used

  7. Core on-line monitoring and computerized procedures systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    The availability of operating nuclear power plants has been affected significantly by the difficulty people have in coping with the complexity of the plants and the operating procedures. Two ways to use modern computer technology to ease the burden of coping are discussed in this paper, an on-line core monitoring system with predictive capability and a computerized procedures system using live plant data. These systems reduce human errors by presenting information rather than simply data, using the computer to manipulate the data, but leaving the decisions to the plant operator

  8. On-line fatigue monitoring and margins probabilistic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, I.; Morilhat, P.

    1993-01-01

    An on-line computer aided system has been developed by Electricite de France, the French utility, for a fatigue monitoring of critical locations in the nuclear steam supply system. This tool, called fatiguemeter, includes as input data only existing plant parameters and is based on some conservative assumptions at several steps of the damage assessment (thermal boundary conditions, stress computation...). This paper presents recent developments performed toward a better assessing of margins involved in the complete analysis. The methodology is enlightened with an example showing the influence of plant parameters incertitude on the final stress computed at a PWR 900 MW unit pressurizer surge line nozzle. (author)

  9. On-line monitoring of low-level plutonium concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Huff, G.A.; Rebagay, T.V.

    1979-10-01

    An on-line monitor has been developed to assay plutonium in nitric acid solutions. The performance of the monitor has been assessed by a laboratory experimentation program using solutions with plutonium concentrations from 0.1 to 10 g/l. These conditions are typical of the plutonium solutions in an input stream to a plutonium-purification cycle in a reprocessing plant following uranium/plutonium partitioning. The monitoring system can be fully automated and shows great promise for detecting and quantifying plutonium in situ, thus minimizing the reliance on traditional sampling and laboratory-analysis techniques. The total concentration and isotopic abundance of plutonium are determined by measuring the absolute intensities of the low-energy gamma rays characteristics of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu nuclides by direct gamma-ray spectroscopy and computer analysis of the spectral data. The addition of a monitoring system of this type to the input stream of a plutonium-purification cycle along with other suitable monitors on the waste streams and on the product stream provides the basis for a near real-time materials control and inventory system. Results of the laboratory-evaluation program employing plutonium in solutions with isotopic compositions typical of those involved in processing light water reactor fuels are presented. The detailed design of a monitoring cell and detection system is given. The precision and accuracy of the results relative to those measured by mass spectrometry and controlled potential coulometry are also summarized

  10. The Monitor System for the LHCb on-line farm

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifazi, F; Carbone, A; Galli, D; Gregori, D; Marconi, U; Peco, G; Vagnoni, V

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb on-line farm Monitor System is to keep under control all the working indicators which are relevant for the farm operation, and to set the appropriate alarms whenever an error or a critical condition comes up. Since the most stressing tasks of the farm are the data transfer and processing, relevant indicators includes the CPU and the memory load of the system, the network interface and the TCP/IP stack parameters, the rates of the interrupts raised by the network interface card and the detailed status of the running processes. The monitoring of computers’ physical conditions (temperatures, fan speeds and motherboard voltages) are the subject of a separate technical note, since they are accessed in a different way, by using the IPMI protocol.

  11. PHEBUS on-line aerosol monitor development test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprenger, M.H.; Pentecost, C.G.

    1992-03-01

    EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. developed an on-line aerosol monitor (OLAM) for the French PHEBUS Fission Product Project. Part of the development was to manufacture and test an OLAM prototype. This report presents the results of the testing which determined the mechanical integrity of the monitor at operating temperature and pressure and performed a preliminary test of the optical system. A series of twenty different tests was conducted during the prototype testing sequence. Since no leaks were detected, the OLAM demonstrated that it could provide a pressure boundary at required test conditions. The optical and electrical system also proved its integrity by exceeding the design requirement of less than 105 optical signal drift during an actual two-hour test sequence

  12. The Westinghouse BEACON on-line core monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechel, Robert J.; Boyd, William A.; Casadei, Alberto L.

    1995-01-01

    BEACON (Best Estimate Analysis of Core Operations - Nuclear), a core monitoring and operational support package developed by Westinghouse, has been installed at many operating PWRs worldwide. The BEACON system is a real-time monitoring system which can be used in plants with both fixed and movable incore detector systems and utilizes an on-line nodal model combined with core instrumentation data to provide continuous core power distribution monitoring. In addition, accurate core-predictive capabilities utilizing a full core nodal model updated according to plant operating history can be made to provide operational support. Core history information is kept and displayed to help operators anticipate core behavior and take pro-active control actions. The BEACON system has been licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for direct, continuous monitoring of DNBR and peak linear heat rate. This allows BEACON to be integrated into the plant technical specifications to permit significant relaxation of operating limitations defined by conventional technical specifications. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  13. On-line monitoring system for I-131 manufacturing labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osovizky, A.; Malamud, Y.; Paran, Y.; Tal, N.; Turgeman, S.; Weinstein, M.

    1997-01-01

    An on-line monitoring and safety system has been installed in a lab for manufacturing 1-131 capsules for nuclear medicine use. Production of up to 100mCi batches is performed in shielded glove boxes. The safety system is based on a unique, 'Medi SMARTS' system (Medical Survey Mapping Automatic Radiation Tracing System), that collects continuously the radiation measurements for processing, display, and storage for future retrieval. Radiation is measured by GM tubes, data is transferred to a data processing unit, and then via a RS-485 communication line to a computer. In addition to the operational advantages and radiation levels storage, the system is being evaluated for the purpose of identifying risky stages in the process. (authors)

  14. On-line fatigue monitoring system for reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, K.; Sakai, A.; Aoki, T.; Ranganath, S.; Stevens, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    A workstation-based, on-line fatigue monitoring system for tracking fatigue usage applied to an operating boiling water reactor (BWR), Tsuruga Unit-1, is described. The system uses the influence function approach and determines component stresses using temperature, pressure, and flow rate data that are made available via signal taps from previously existing plant sensors. Using plant unique influence functions developed specifically for the feedwater nozzle location, the system calculates stresses as a function of time and computed fatigue usage. The analysis method used to compute fatigue usage complies with MITI Code Notification No.501. Fatigue usage results for an entire fuel cycle are presented and compared to assumed design basis events to confirm that actual plant thermal duty is significantly less severe than originally estimated in the design basis stress report. As a result, the system provides the technical basis to more accurately evaluate actual reactor conditions as well as the justification for plant life extension. (author)

  15. On-line fatigue monitoring and probabilistic assessment of margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, I. [Electricite de France, 93 - Saint-Denis (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Morilhat, P. [Electricite de France, 93 - Saint-Denis (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1995-01-01

    An on-line computer-aided system has been developed by Electricite de France, the French utility, for fatigue monitoring of critical locations in the nuclear steam supply system. This tool, called a fatigue meter, includes as input data plant parameters and is based on some conservative assumptions at several steps of the damage assessment (thermal boundary conditions, stress computation,..). In this paper we present recent developments performed towards a better assessment of margins involved in the complete analysis. The methodology is illustrated with an example showing the influence of uncertainty in plant parameters on the final stress computed at a pressurized water reactor 900MW unit pressurizer surge line nozzle. A second example is shown to illustrate the possibility of defining some transient archetypes. ((orig.)).

  16. On-line Corrosion Monitoring in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Sonja; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion control in district heating systems is today performed primarily with control of the water quality. The corrosion rate is kept low by assuring low dissolved oxygen concentration, high pH and low conductivity. Corrosion failures can occur, e.g. as a result of unknown oxygen ingress, ......, precipitation of deposits or crevices. The authors describe methods used for on-line monitoring of corrosion, cover the complications and the main results of a Nordic project.......The corrosion control in district heating systems is today performed primarily with control of the water quality. The corrosion rate is kept low by assuring low dissolved oxygen concentration, high pH and low conductivity. Corrosion failures can occur, e.g. as a result of unknown oxygen ingress...

  17. Development of on-line monitoring system using smart material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Lee, Sang Pill; Park, Yi Hyun [Dongeui Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Chul [Donga Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    A hot press method was used to create the optimal fabrication condition for a Shape Memory Alloy(SMA) composite. The bonding strength between the matrix and the reinforcement within the SMA composite by the hot press method was more increased by cold rolling. In this study, the objective was to develop an on-line monitoring system in order to prevent the crack initiation and propagation by shape memory effect in SMA composite. Shape memory effect was used to prevent the SMA composite from crack propagation. For this system an optimal AE parameter should be determined according to the degree of damage and crack initiation. When the SMA composite was heated by the plate heater attached at the composite, the propagating cracks could be controlled by the compressive force of SMA.

  18. Development of on-line monitoring system using smart material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Lee, Sang Pill; Park, Yi Hyun; Park, Young Chul

    2003-01-01

    A hot press method was used to create the optimal fabrication condition for a Shape Memory Alloy(SMA) composite. The bonding strength between the matrix and the reinforcement within the SMA composite by the hot press method was more increased by cold rolling. In this study, the objective was to develop an on-line monitoring system in order to prevent the crack initiation and propagation by shape memory effect in SMA composite. Shape memory effect was used to prevent the SMA composite from crack propagation. For this system an optimal AE parameter should be determined according to the degree of damage and crack initiation. When the SMA composite was heated by the plate heater attached at the composite, the propagating cracks could be controlled by the compressive force of SMA

  19. On-line electrochemical monitoring of microbially influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, N.J.E.; Stansbury, E.E.; White, D.C.; Borenstein, S.W.; Danko, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Newly emerging electrochemical measurement techniques can provide on-line, non-destructive monitoring of the average corrosion rate and indications of localized pitting corrosion together with insight into fundamental electrochemical mechanisms responsible for the corrosion process. This information is relevant to evaluating, monitoring, understanding and controlling microbially influenced corrosion (MIC). MIC of coupons exposed in sidestream devices on site or in laboratory-based experiments, where the corrosion response is accelerated by exposure to active consortia of microbes recovered from specific sites, can be utilized to evaluate mitigation strategies. The average corrosion rates can be determined by small amplitude cyclic voltametry (SACV), and AC impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS can also give insight into the mechanisms of the MIC and indications of localized corrosion. Pitting corrosion can be detected non-destructively with open circuit potential monitoring (OCP). OCP also responds to bacterial biofilm activities such as oxygen depletion and other electrochemical activities. Utilizing these methods, accelerated tests can be designed to direct the selection of materials, surface treatments of materials, and welding filler materials, as well as the optimization of chemical and mechanical countermeasures with the microbial consortia recovered and characterized from the specific sites of interest

  20. The development of on-line thermal performance monitors in Nuclear Electric Company's stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines the economic benefits of using on-line monitoring techniques in assisting Station Staff with the task of optimising the efficient use of reactor fuel. The role of thermal performance monitoring for detecting changes in plant condition is also examined and the way in which the data can be used by engineers to assist with the preparation of operating and maintenance programmes. To enable genuine gradual changes in plant performance to be detected when operating against a background of changing plant signal accuracy conditions, plant transducers have to be calibrated on a regular basis. This can be both costly and labour intensive. To reduce this requirement for regular calibrations, an automatic software signal verification program has been developed for use in on-line monitoring schemes. It forms part of the total unit performance calculation package and uses a whole plant model to verify plant signals. All plant signals used to calculate unit heat rate are verified typically every 15 minutes with signals going outside predetermined limits being automatically reported to the user. The program is interactive allowing the user to interrogate the condition of the signal, with respect to both its error magnitude and rate of drift outside signal limits. The program runs in real time mode on a Workstation connected directly to the plant

  1. Overview of on-line core monitoring system BEACON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Qing; Chen Xiaosong

    2013-01-01

    After more than 20 years of development, key technologies embedded with such system have reached a certain degree of maturity among some foreign countries. However, domestically, there is no comparable system yet. Through in-depth research and analysis on the most widely used core monitoring system in the world, BEACON, it's hope that this will provide guidance on our independent development of the first core monitoring system in China. Excore detectors, core outlet thermocouples and incore movable detectors are used to provide measure data on the status of the core for BEACON. Under the assumption of nodal homogeneity, an effective fast group model is used to solve the diffusion equation, followed by core-wise interpolation by Green's function. Finally, reconstruction of a calculated core is fitted with measured data using the surface spline function. The most significant technological advances are core monitoring during unstable core conditions, the use of nodal expansion method to improve accuracy and the adoption of single point calibration to increase the period of recalibration for the whole core. (authors)

  2. Inexpensive on-line alcohol sensor for fermentation monitoring and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, S W; Turner, A P.F.; Ashby, R E

    1987-01-01

    An inorganic electrochemical fuel cell sensor was interfaced to a microcomputer and used to measure on-line the alcohol concentration in the off-gas of a fermentor. A calibration curve was obtained for methanol (linear range 0-9 g/l) and ethanol (linear range 0-6 g/l) to relate the alcohol concentration in the fermentor liquid with that in the off-gas. The consumption of methanol in a batch fermentation of the methylotroph Ps.BB1 was monitored (sampling frequency of 5 minutes) and compared with samples taken for off-line analysis by GLC. On-line control of the methanol concentration in a fed-batch fermentation was achieved by proportional and integral control. 24 references.

  3. An on-line tritium-in-water monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.N.; Ratnakaran, M.; Vohra, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes the development and operation of a continuous on-line tritium-in-water monitor for the detection of heavy water leaks into the secondary coolant light water of a heavy water power reactor. The heart of the instrument is its plastic scintillator sponge detector, made from 5 μm thick plastic scintillator films. The sponge weighs only about 1 g and is in the form of disc of 48 mm diameter and 8 mm thickness. The total surface area of the films is about 3000 cm 2 . In the coincidence mode of counting, the detector gives 1000 cps for the passage of 3.7 x 10 4 Bq/cm 3 (1 μCi/cm 3 ) of tritiated water. The background in 6 cm thick lead shielding in the laboratory is 0.2 cps, and inside the reactor building it is below 1 cps. The monitor presently scans 18 sample lines in sequence for 5 min each and gives a printout for the activity in each line. (orig.)

  4. An on-line tritium-in-water monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. N.; Ratnakaran, M.; Vohra, K. G.

    1985-05-01

    The paper describes the development and operation of a continuous on-line tritium-in-water monitor for the detection of heavy water leaks into the secondary coolant light water of a heavy water power reactor. The heart of the instrument is its plastic scintillator sponge detector, made from 5 μm thick plastic scintillator films. The sponge weighs only about 1 g and is in the form of disc of 48 mm diameter and 8 mm thickness. The total surface area of the films is about 3000 cm 2. In the coincidence mode of counting, the detector gives 1000 cps for the passage of 3.7 × 10 4 Bq/cm 3 (1 μCi/cm 3) of tritiated water. The background in 6 cm thick lead shielding in the laboratory is 0.2 cps, and inside the reactor building it is below 1 cps. The monitor presently scans 18 sample lines in sequence for 5 min each and gives a printout for the activity in each line.

  5. Calibration of alpha surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, I.S.M. de; Goncalez, O.L.

    1990-01-01

    In this work, the results, as well as the methodology, of the calibration of an alpha surface contamination monitor are presented. The calibration factors are obtained by least-squares fitting with effective variance. (author)

  6. Proton beam monitor chamber calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomà, C; Meer, D; Safai, S; Lorentini, S

    2014-01-01

    The first goal of this paper is to clarify the reference conditions for the reference dosimetry of clinical proton beams. A clear distinction is made between proton beam delivery systems which should be calibrated with a spread-out Bragg peak field and those that should be calibrated with a (pseudo-)monoenergetic proton beam. For the latter, this paper also compares two independent dosimetry techniques to calibrate the beam monitor chambers: absolute dosimetry (of the number of protons exiting the nozzle) with a Faraday cup and reference dosimetry (i.e. determination of the absorbed dose to water under IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions) with an ionization chamber. To compare the two techniques, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to convert dose-to-water to proton fluence. A good agreement was found between the Faraday cup technique and the reference dosimetry with a plane-parallel ionization chamber. The differences—of the order of 3%—were found to be within the uncertainty of the comparison. For cylindrical ionization chambers, however, the agreement was only possible when positioning the effective point of measurement of the chamber at the reference measurement depth—i.e. not complying with IAEA TRS-398 recommendations. In conclusion, for cylindrical ionization chambers, IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for monoenergetic proton beams led to a systematic error in the determination of the absorbed dose to water, especially relevant for low-energy proton beams. To overcome this problem, the effective point of measurement of cylindrical ionization chambers should be taken into account when positioning the reference point of the chamber. Within the current IAEA TRS-398 recommendations, it seems advisable to use plane-parallel ionization chambers—rather than cylindrical chambers—for the reference dosimetry of pseudo-monoenergetic proton beams. (paper)

  7. Knowledge-based on-line vibration monitoring diagnose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.G.; Karlsson, A.; Noeremark, A.

    1990-01-01

    ABB STAL developed some years ago a knowledge-based on-line vibration analysis system (working-name KOVA). KOVA is intended to work together with some type of vibration monitoring system, at present it is adapted to TVM 300. KOVA has no controlling function. It will only diagnose the actual situation and give the user explanations and proposals for actions to be taken. During the developing work, great experience has been gained of the features this type of system demands. This paper will present the outlines of the application and also discuss how to make diagnoses based both on general rules as well as on historical vibration cases for that particular unit (or identical units9. Another subject that this paper will outline, is the representation and evaluation of knowledge. KOVA serves as a decision-support system for the operator. Since KOVA will often give the operator more than one possible diagnosis as the cause of a fault, it is of great importance to give the operator comprehensive explanations and as many facts as possible. It is also important to rank the suggested diagnoses in some way. In KOVA these demands are effectively supported. The models and tools used to realize this functionality will be described in this paper

  8. On-line monitoring of lithium carbonate dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yuzhu; Song, Xingfu; Wang, Jin; Luo, Yan; Yu, Jianguo [National Engineering Research Center for Integrated Utilization Salt Lake Resources, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2009-11-15

    Dissolution of lithium carbonate (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in aqueous solution was investigated using three on-line apparatuses: the concentration of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was measured by electrical conductivity equipment; CLD (Chord Length Distribution) was monitored by FBRM (Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement); crystal image was observed by PVM (Particle Video Microscope). Results show dissolution rate goes up with a decrease of particle size, and with an increase in temperature; stirring speed causes little impact on dissolution; ultrasound facilitates dissolution obviously. The CLD evolution and crystal images of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}powders in stirred fluid were observed detailedly by FBRM and PVM during dissolution. Experimental data were fitted to Avrami model, through which the activation energy was found to be 34.35 kJ/mol. PBE (Population Balance Equation) and moment transform were introduced to calculate dissolution kinetics, obtaining correlation equations of particle size decreasing rate as a function of temperature and undersaturation. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. On-line confidence monitoring during decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Dror; Meyniel, Florent; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2018-02-01

    Humans can readily assess their degree of confidence in their decisions. Two models of confidence computation have been proposed: post hoc computation using post-decision variables and heuristics, versus online computation using continuous assessment of evidence throughout the decision-making process. Here, we arbitrate between these theories by continuously monitoring finger movements during a manual sequential decision-making task. Analysis of finger kinematics indicated that subjects kept separate online records of evidence and confidence: finger deviation continuously reflected the ongoing accumulation of evidence, whereas finger speed continuously reflected the momentary degree of confidence. Furthermore, end-of-trial finger speed predicted the post-decisional subjective confidence rating. These data indicate that confidence is computed on-line, throughout the decision process. Speed-confidence correlations were previously interpreted as a post-decision heuristics, whereby slow decisions decrease subjective confidence, but our results suggest an adaptive mechanism that involves the opposite causality: by slowing down when unconfident, participants gain time to improve their decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Design of an on-line monitoring system for radioactive wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Guoxiu; Youning Xu; Lei Wang; Xuesong Zhang; Wenping Zhou; Weizhe Li

    2017-01-01

    An on-line monitoring system for radioactive wastewater was designed to discriminate the type and concentration of the radionuclides discharged from nuclear facilities. An HPGe semiconductor was used as the detector in the system for continuous monitoring by pumping wastewater. The minimum detectable activity for 137 Cs was 0.4 Bq L -1 after 10 min of measuring wastewater with the system. The system can detect excessive radioactivity in the wastewater and quickly and effectively alert personnel. Based on the experimental measurements and the Monte Carlo simulation, the detection efficiency of the system was calibrated, and an efficiency curve was determined for the energy range from 50 to 2754 keV. (author)

  11. Integrated sensor array for on-line monitoring micro bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krommenhoek, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    The “Fed��?batch on a chip��?��?project, which was carried out in close cooperation with the Technical University of Delft, aims to miniaturize and parallelize micro bioreactors suitable for on-line screening of micro-organisms. This thesis describes an electrochemical sensor array which has been

  12. On-line iron ore slurry monitoring using laser induced plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrette, L.; Turmel, S.; Boivin, J.-A.; Sabsabi, M.; Martinovic, T.I.; Ouellet, G.

    1999-01-01

    In response to the need for a better control [Lb1] of the various additives used in the iron ore pellet making process, Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (LIPS) has been tested for the on-line monitoring of Si, AI, Ca, Mg, and C. This work shows that factors such as laser beam focusing, particle size, slurry density and mineralogical composition have to be taken into account to meet precision and accuracy requirements. An internal standardization (peak ratio) and an original multivariate calibration technique based on fuzzy logic concepts [Lb2] are [Lb3] used to minimize the effect of these factors. This paper describes the experimental set-up, the effect of influence factors and the results obtained both in the laboratory and in an iron ore plant. (author)

  13. Denmark's on - line early warning radiation monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walmod-Larsen, O.; Lippert, J.

    1990-01-01

    In Denmark an emergency response coordination committee was set up to cope with the problems after the Chernobyl accident with participation of all relevant authorities. For help in an emergency situation the ARGOS (Accident Reporting and Guiding Operational System), system will be put into use. The ARGOS emergency evaluation computer system, which has been developed in cooperation with the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, is in operation in connection with the emergency planning for the east region of Denmark with regard to the Swedish nuclear power plant operating at Barseback. Inputs of measurement data are on-line available on data screens for evaluation in the emergency coordination centers, presented on suitable geographical maps, showing iso-contours calculated from the input. In case of an alert situation other systems can be put in operation, f.ex. mobile measuring units from the CDEPA's local, operational emergency centers. Their readings can then be put into the computing system parallel to the on-line stations and be presented by the ARGOS-system for evaluation in the emergency command centers. If another national authority in an alert situation requests a transfer of measurement data, and if this is agreed upon by the competent Danish authority, then the transfer can be arranged from the ARGOS-system, through agreed transmission channels. At present the ARGOS system is being improved and expanded by RNL to cover the whole Danish region and to present measurements from the on-line warning system

  14. Robust signal extraction for on-line monitoring data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, P.L.; Fried, R.; Gather, U.

    2004-01-01

    Data from the automatic monitoring of intensive care patients exhibits trends, outliers, and level changes as well as periods of relative constancy. All this is overlaid with a high level of noise and there are dependencies between the different items measured. Current monitoring systems tend to

  15. Calibration device for wide range monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodoku, Masaya; Sato, Toshifumi.

    1989-01-01

    The calibration device for a wide range monitor according to the present invention can continuously calibrate the entire counting regions of a wide range monitor. The wide range monitor detect the reactor power in the neutron source region by means of a pulse counting method and detects the reactor power in the intermediate region by means of a cambell method. A calibration signal outputting means is disposed for continuously outputting, as such calibration signals, pulse number varying signals in which the number of pulses per unit time varies depending on the reactor power in the neutron source region to be simulated and amplitude square means varying signal in which the mean square value of amplitude varies depending on the reactor power in the intermediate region to be simulated. By using both of the calibration signals, calibration can be conducted for the nuclear reactor power in the neutron source region and the intermediate region even if the calibration is made over two regions, further, calibration for the period present over the two region can be conducted easily as well. (I.S.)

  16. On-line defected fuel monitoring using GFP data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingstone, S.; Lewis, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the initial development of an on-line defected fuel diagnostic tool. The tool is based on coolant activity, and uses a quantitative and qualitative approach from existing mechanistic fission product release models, and also empirical rules based on commercial and experimental experience. The model departs from the usual methodology of analyzing steady-state fission product coolant activities, and instead uses steady-state fission product release rates calculated from the transient coolant activity data. An example of real-time defected fuel analysis work is presented using a prototype of this tool with station data. The model is in an early developmental stage, and this paper demonstrates the promising potential of this technique. (author)

  17. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marjanovic, Marija; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs), located in the outer part of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells, each one being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of the full readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration sub-systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements, and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and to equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal evolution, from scintillation light to digitization. Calibration runs are monitored from a data quality perspective and u...

  18. Acoustic Emission for on-line reactor pressure boundary monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, P.H.; Kurtz, R.J.; Pappas, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The program objective is to develop AE for continuous surveillance to assess flaw growth in reactor pressure boundaries. Technology in the laboratory is being evaluated on structures. Results have demonstrated basic feasibility of the program objective. AE monitoring a long term fatigue test of a pressure vessel demonstrated an instrument system, and the ability to detect unexpected as well as well as known fatigue cracks. Monitoring a nuclear reactor system shows that the coolant flow noise problem is manageable and AE can be detected under simulated operating conditions

  19. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-16

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R(2) > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air.

  20. On-line biofilm monitoring by "BIOX" electrochemical probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, A; Cristiani, P

    2003-01-01

    The innovative electrochemical monitoring probe (BIOX) recently developed to improve the antifouling treatments of cooling systems in industrial plants is presented. On the basis of the good results obtained from applications on marine sites, some research has been stated to validate this technique in biofilm growth and prevention of microbial corrosion in fresh and drinking waters.

  1. On line instrument systems for monitoring steam turbogenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapis, A.; Giorgetti, G.; Lapini, G. L.; Benanti, A.; Frigeri, C.; Gadda, E.; Mantino, E.

    A computerized real time data acquisition and data processing for the diagnosis of malfunctioning of steam turbogenerator systems is described. Pressure, vibration and temperature measurements are continuously collected from standard or special sensors including startup or stop events. The architecture of the monitoring system is detailed. Examples of the graphics output are presented. It is shown that such a system allows accurate diagnosis and the possibility of creating a data bank to describe the dynamic characteristics of the machine park.

  2. Research progress of on-line automatic monitoring of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Youfa; Fu, Xing; Gao, Xiaolu; Li, Lianyin

    2018-02-01

    With the increasingly stricter control of pollutant emission in China, the on-line automatic monitoring of water quality is particularly urgent. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a comprehensive index to measure the contamination caused by organic matters, and thus it is taken as one important index of energy-saving and emission reduction in China’s “Twelve-Five” program. So far, the COD on-line automatic monitoring instrument has played an important role in the field of sewage monitoring. This paper reviews the existing methods to achieve on-line automatic monitoring of COD, and on the basis, points out the future trend of the COD on-line automatic monitoring instruments.

  3. Semi-on-line analysis for fast and precise monitoring of bioreaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.H.; Marcher, J.; Schulze, Ulrik

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring of substrates and products during fermentation processes can be achieved either by on-line, in situ sensors or by semi-on-line analysis consisting of an automatic sampling step followed by an ex situ analysis of the retrieved sample. The potential risk of introducing time delays...

  4. Monitoring of fission products through on-line gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagnon, F.; Warlop, R.

    1989-01-01

    Under normal operating conditions, the monitoring of the possible deterioration of the pressurized water reactor core fuel rods is achieved through analysis of the radioactive fission products carried by the primary system. For acquiring results of spectrometric analyses in real time, and avoiding risks of errors linked to manual operations, CEA/DMG and EDF/SEPTEN have jointly developed an entirely automatic system. This system allows measuring permanently the primary system activity of two coupled units, with no human operation nor any handling of active coolant specimens. The PIGAL facility has been set up in the nuclear auxiliary building, common to the two units, and it is used on a demonstration basis for units 2 and 3 of the BUGEY site. This device has been patented

  5. Integrated electrochemical sensor array for on-line monitoring of yeast fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krommenhoek, E.E.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Bomer, Johan G.; Li, X.; Ottens, M.; van Dedem, G.W.K.; van Leeuwen, M.; van Gulik, W.M.; van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Heijnen, J.J.; van den Berg, Albert

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the design, modeling, and experimental characterization of an electrochemical sensor array for on-line monitoring of fermentor conditions in both miniaturized cell assays and in industrial scale fertnentations. The viable biomass concentration is determined from impedance

  6. On-line Bayesian model updating for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetta, Roberto; Broggi, Matteo; Huchet, Quentin; Patelli, Edoardo

    2018-03-01

    Fatigue induced cracks is a dangerous failure mechanism which affects mechanical components subject to alternating load cycles. System health monitoring should be adopted to identify cracks which can jeopardise the structure. Real-time damage detection may fail in the identification of the cracks due to different sources of uncertainty which have been poorly assessed or even fully neglected. In this paper, a novel efficient and robust procedure is used for the detection of cracks locations and lengths in mechanical components. A Bayesian model updating framework is employed, which allows accounting for relevant sources of uncertainty. The idea underpinning the approach is to identify the most probable crack consistent with the experimental measurements. To tackle the computational cost of the Bayesian approach an emulator is adopted for replacing the computationally costly Finite Element model. To improve the overall robustness of the procedure, different numerical likelihoods, measurement noises and imprecision in the value of model parameters are analysed and their effects quantified. The accuracy of the stochastic updating and the efficiency of the numerical procedure are discussed. An experimental aluminium frame and on a numerical model of a typical car suspension arm are used to demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  7. On-line monitoring of boiling crevice chemistry evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, C.B.; Oh, S.; Park, B.G.; Hwang, I.S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, I.H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Soonchunhyang Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Kim, U.C.; Na, J.W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    In a locally restricted geometry on the secondary side of steam generator (SG) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), impurities in bulk water can be concentrated by boiling process to extreme pH that may then accelerate the corrosion of tubing and adjacent materials. To simulate a real SG tubesheet crevice, a high temperature/high pressure (HT/HP) crevice simulation system was constructed. Primary water was pumped at a high flow rate through a 3/4'' outer-diameter tubing and a crevice section was made on the outer diameter (OD) side of the tubing. The simulated crevice area was monitored with thermocouples and electrodes for the measurement of temperature and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP), respectively, in the crevice as well as free span. A secondary solution composed of 50 ppm Na and 200 ppb hydrogen (H{sub 2}) was supplied at a flow rate of about 4 L/hr. In an open tubesheet crevice with 0.15 mm radial gap and 40 mm depth, axial distributions of temperature and ECP were measured as a function of time and available superheat. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration process in the crevice and the resultant evolution of crevice boiling regions were characterized from temperature and ECP data. Measured data for an open crevice showed a similar behavior to predictions by a thermodynamic equilibrium code. Magnetite-packed crevice had much longer time to reach a steady state than open crevice. (authors)

  8. On-line monitoring of water amount in fresh concrete by radioactive-wave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemi, T.; Arai, M.; Enomoto, S.; Suzki, K.; Kumahara, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The committee on nondestructive inspection for steel reinforced concrete structures in the Federation of Construction Materials Industries, Japan has published a proposed standard for on-line monitoring of water amount in fresh concrete by the radioactive wave method. By applying a neutron technique, water amount in fresh concrete is estimated continuously from the energy consumption of neutron due to hydrogen. A standard is discussed along with results of verification tests. Thus, on-line monitoring for water amount is proposed

  9. Monitoring the metering performance of an electronic voltage transformer on-line based on cyber-physics correlation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhu; Li, Hongbin; Hu, Chen; Jiao, Yang; Tang, Dengping

    2017-01-01

    Metering performance is the key parameter of an electronic voltage transformer (EVT), and it requires high accuracy. The conventional off-line calibration method using a standard voltage transformer is not suitable for the key equipment in a smart substation, which needs on-line monitoring. In this article, we propose a method for monitoring the metering performance of an EVT on-line based on cyber-physics correlation analysis. By the electrical and physical properties of a substation running in three-phase symmetry, the principal component analysis method is used to separate the metering deviation caused by the primary fluctuation and the EVT anomaly. The characteristic statistics of the measured data during operation are extracted, and the metering performance of the EVT is evaluated by analyzing the change in statistics. The experimental results show that the method successfully monitors the metering deviation of a Class 0.2 EVT accurately. The method demonstrates the accurate evaluation of on-line monitoring of the metering performance on an EVT without a standard voltage transformer. (paper)

  10. Monitoring the metering performance of an electronic voltage transformer on-line based on cyber-physics correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhu; Li, Hongbin; Tang, Dengping; Hu, Chen; Jiao, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Metering performance is the key parameter of an electronic voltage transformer (EVT), and it requires high accuracy. The conventional off-line calibration method using a standard voltage transformer is not suitable for the key equipment in a smart substation, which needs on-line monitoring. In this article, we propose a method for monitoring the metering performance of an EVT on-line based on cyber-physics correlation analysis. By the electrical and physical properties of a substation running in three-phase symmetry, the principal component analysis method is used to separate the metering deviation caused by the primary fluctuation and the EVT anomaly. The characteristic statistics of the measured data during operation are extracted, and the metering performance of the EVT is evaluated by analyzing the change in statistics. The experimental results show that the method successfully monitors the metering deviation of a Class 0.2 EVT accurately. The method demonstrates the accurate evaluation of on-line monitoring of the metering performance on an EVT without a standard voltage transformer.

  11. Monitoring coordinate measuring machines by calibrated parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weckenmann, A; Lorz, J

    2005-01-01

    Coordinate measuring machines (CMM) are essential for quality assurance and production control in modern manufacturing. Due to the necessity of assuring traceability during the use of CMM, interim checks with calibrated objects carried out periodically. For this purpose usually special artefacts like standardized ball plates, hole plates, ball bars or step gages are measured. Measuring calibrated series parts would be more advantageous. Applying the substitution method of ISO 15530-3: 2000 such parts can be used. It is less cost intensive and less time consuming than measuring expensive special standardized objects in special programmed measurement routines. Moreover, the measurement results can directly compare with the calibration values; thus, direct information on systematic measurement deviations and uncertainty of the measured features are available. The paper describes a procedure for monitoring horizontal-arm CMMs with calibrated sheet metal series parts

  12. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes, located in the outer part of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two photomultiplier in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and equalise the calorimeter r...

  13. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00445232; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser and charge injection elements and it allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scin...

  14. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00445232; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises cesium radioactive sources, Laser and charge injection elements, and allows for monitoring and equalization of the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, ...

  15. Development of an on-line radon monitoring apparatus and design of the on-line radon monitoring platform based on CAN bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Huiping; Lu Ning; Shang Aiguo; Zhou Chunlin; Chen Yingfen; Yu Hongwei

    2004-12-01

    For actual demand, an idea of 'on-line monitoring' is put forward as a way of radon monitoring, instead of traditional so called 'off-line monitoring'. In this way, the apparatus has some automatic functions such as continuous monitoring, real-time alarm; thereby, there is no need for operators' intervention in each monitoring process. With technique of hardware and software design in automation's field, the authors have successfully developed the prototype and finished the scale of it in a standard radon-chamber. This apparatus is composed of detector part and secondary-instrument. The detector part is made up of a passive diffusion collecting chamber, high voltage static electricity, semiconductor detector, charge-sensitive preamplifier and forming circuit. The secondary-instrument is actually a micro-controller system, which consists of a single-chip micro-controller cored measure-controlling unit, display unit, printing unit and alarming unit. Taking this apparatus as a cell, a 'on-line Radon Monitoring Platform' based on CAN bus has been put forward, which can realize multi-points environmental radioactivity real-time monitoring radioactivity and data process. (authors)

  16. Linear accelerator calibration monitor with a memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.L.; Ekstrand, K.E.

    1979-01-01

    A calibration monitor has been designed for measuring the constancy of linear accelerator or cobalt unit output between full calibrations. This monitor is battery-operated, light-weight, and slides into the shadow tray attachment on a linear accelerator or cobalt unit for easy setup. It provides a digital readout of the dose delivered, and a consistency check can be made in less than two minutes. The precision of the monitor, determined by cobalt-60 irradiations over a 2 1/2 month period, is +- 0.6% (standard deviation). The monitor also retains the dose reading in a CMOS digital counter indefinitely, hence it can be used in the same fashion as mailed thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) for calibration checks at remote facilities without the complicated readout procedures associated with TLD. The monitor can be mailed to a remote facility, positioned without ambiguity, and irradiated; and the reading can be verified on return to the originating center simply by pressing a switch. The monitor can easily be set up to carry out a ''blind'' check in which the reading obtained is not known to the remote facility

  17. Program for large scanning-measuring table calibration on-line with the TRA-1001 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykova, L.P.; Ososkov, G.A.; Pogodina, G.A.; Skryl', I.I.

    1975-01-01

    A description of a programme variant for complex calibration of the system of boards BPS-2, is given in which the stage of measurements and accumulation of calibration data is separated from that of data processing on CDC-1604A computers. Stage-by-stage calibration allows for simultaneous and parallel measurements on all the 6 boards. Such a possibility of the boards' operation on a computer-controlled line has been used as checking of the operators' actions with current control of the data obtained. Mathematical formulae are followed by programmes' descriptions. Reception and accumulation of coordinates of the units of the calibrating plate, with a highly precise net of straight lines, are accomplished with the help of the DATREC programme working on a guiding TPA-1001 computer with simultaneous calibration of all the six BPS-2 boards. The DATREC programme is written in the SLANG-1 language. The CALBPS programme works on CDC-1604A computer, is written in FORTRAN, and calculates transformation coefficients and corresponding precision characteristics. The work has resulted in reducing the calibration time from 10-15 min. per board to 10-15 min. per all the 6 boards. The time of accumulation in the memory TPA-1001 and of recording on the CDC-608 tape recorder of calibration data is from 3 to 5 min.; the remaining time is spent on processing on a bigger CDC-1604A computer. Examples of typical output and certain results of calibration measurements are given

  18. Turbidimetric Measurement for On-line Monitoring of SiO2 Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Sook; Lim, H. B.; Kim, Yang Sun

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the fundamental study of on-line monitoring of SiO 2 particles in the size range of 40 nm to 725 nm was carried out using turbidimetry. The size of particle was measured using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The factors affecting on the turbidity were discussed, for example, wavelength, size, and concentration. In order to observe the dependence of turbidity on the wavelength, a turbidimetric system equipped with charged coupled detector (CCD) was built. The shape of the transmitted peak was changed and the peak maximum was shifted to the red when the concentration of particle was increased. This result indicates that the turbidity is related to the wavelength, which corresponds to the characteristic of the Mie extinction coefficient, Q, that is a function of not only particle diameter and refractive index but also wavelength. It is clear that a linear calibration curve for each particle in different size can be obtained at an optimized wavelength

  19. Robot calibration with a photogrammetric on-line system using reseau scanning cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diewald, Bernd; Godding, Robert; Henrich, Andreas

    1994-03-01

    The possibility for testing and calibration of industrial robots becomes more and more important for manufacturers and users of such systems. Exacting applications in connection with the off-line programming techniques or the use of robots as measuring machines are impossible without a preceding robot calibration. At the LPA an efficient calibration technique has been developed. Instead of modeling the kinematic behavior of a robot, the new method describes the pose deviations within a user-defined section of the robot's working space. High- precision determination of 3D coordinates of defined path positions is necessary for calibration and can be done by digital photogrammetric systems. For the calibration of a robot at the LPA a digital photogrammetric system with three Rollei Reseau Scanning Cameras was used. This system allows an automatic measurement of a large number of robot poses with high accuracy.

  20. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-González, Arely

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes, located in the outer part of the calorimeter. Neutral particles may also produce a signal after interacting with the material and producing charged particles. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells, each of them being read out by two photomultipliers in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. This comprises Cesium radioactive sources, Laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Information from all systems allows to monitor and equalise the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitisation. Calibration runs are monitored from a data quality perspective and used as a cross-check for physics runs. The data quality efficiency achieved during 2016 was 98.9%. These calibration and stability of the calorimeter reported here show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  1. On-line monitoring of heavy-ion therapy using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors present results of on-line monitoring of heavy-ion therapy using PET. It is concluded that in-beam positron emission tomography is a feasible and valuable method for in-situ and non-invasive monitoring of heavy-ion therapy

  2. On-line bioprocess monitoring - an academic discipline or an industrial tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Lisbeth; Schulze, Ulrik; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1998-01-01

    Bioprocess monitoring capabilities are gaining increasing Importance bath in physiological studies and in bioprocess development, The present article focuses on on-line analytical systems since these represent the backbone of most bioprocess monitoring systems, both in academia and in industry. W...

  3. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). PMT signals are then digitized at 40 MHz and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first level trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator b...

  4. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomont, Arthur; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises cesium radioactive sources, Laser and charge injection elements, and allows for monitoring and equalization of the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitization. Based on LHC Run 1 experience, several calibration systems were improved for Run 2. The lessons learned, the modifications, and the current LHC Run 2 performance are discussed.

  5. Status and Needs Research for On-line Monitoring of VOCs Emissions from Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Wang, Qiang; Zhong, Qi; Zhao, Jinbao; Yang, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Based on atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution control requirements during the twelfth-five year plan and the current status of monitoring and management at home and abroad, instrumental architecture and technical characteristics of continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) for VOCs emission from stationary sources are investigated and researched. Technological development needs of VOCs emission on-line monitoring techniques for stationary sources in china are proposed from the system sampling pretreatment technology and analytical measurement techniques.

  6. On-Line Monitoring of Fermentation Processes by Near Infrared and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Carina

    Monitoring and control of fermentation processes is important to ensure high product yield, product quality and product consistency. More knowledge on on-line analytical techniques such as near infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy is desired in the fermentation industry to increase the efficiency...... of on-line monitoring systems. The primary aim of this thesis is to elucidate and explore the dynamics in fermentation processes by spectroscopy. Though a number of successful on-line lab-scale monitoring systems have been reported, it seems that several challenges are still met, which limits the number...... of full-scale systems implemented in industrial fermentation processes. This thesis seeks to achieve a better understanding of the techniques near infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy and thereby to solve some of the challenges that are encountered. The thesis shows the advantages of applying real...

  7. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor for monitoring drinking water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højris, Bo; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Today, microbial drinking water quality is monitored through either time-consuming laboratory methods or indirect on-line measurements. Results are thus either delayed or insufficient to support proactive action. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor with a 10-minute time resolution has been...... and quantifying bacteria and particles in pure and mixed suspensions, and the quantification correlates with total bacterial counts. Several field applications have demonstrated that the technology can monitor changes in the concentration of bacteria, and is thus well suited for rapid detection of critical...... conditions such as pollution events in drinking water....

  8. Joint Data Assimilation and Parameter Calibration in on-line groundwater modelling using Sequential Monte Carlo techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramgraber, M.; Schirmer, M.

    2017-12-01

    As computational power grows and wireless sensor networks find their way into common practice, it becomes increasingly feasible to pursue on-line numerical groundwater modelling. The reconciliation of model predictions with sensor measurements often necessitates the application of Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) techniques, most prominently represented by the Ensemble Kalman Filter. In the pursuit of on-line predictions it seems advantageous to transcend the scope of pure data assimilation and incorporate on-line parameter calibration as well. Unfortunately, the interplay between shifting model parameters and transient states is non-trivial. Several recent publications (e.g. Chopin et al., 2013, Kantas et al., 2015) in the field of statistics discuss potential algorithms addressing this issue. However, most of these are computationally intractable for on-line application. In this study, we investigate to what extent compromises between mathematical rigour and computational restrictions can be made within the framework of on-line numerical modelling of groundwater. Preliminary studies are conducted in a synthetic setting, with the goal of transferring the conclusions drawn into application in a real-world setting. To this end, a wireless sensor network has been established in the valley aquifer around Fehraltorf, characterized by a highly dynamic groundwater system and located about 20 km to the East of Zürich, Switzerland. By providing continuous probabilistic estimates of the state and parameter distribution, a steady base for branched-off predictive scenario modelling could be established, providing water authorities with advanced tools for assessing the impact of groundwater management practices. Chopin, N., Jacob, P.E. and Papaspiliopoulos, O. (2013): SMC2: an efficient algorithm for sequential analysis of state space models. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology), 75 (3), p. 397-426. Kantas, N., Doucet, A., Singh, S

  9. On-line monitoring system of lactic acid fermentation by using integrated enzyme sons ors; Shusekika koso sensa wo mochiita nyusan hakko keisokuyo onrain monitaringu shisutemu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masayasu; Kumagi, Takeshi; Nakashima, Yuuichi [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering and Science

    1999-03-10

    An on-line monitoring system for lactic acid fermentation is developed by using integrated micro enzyme sensors, a flow injection analysis system, and a micro dialysis system. The calibration curves of micro glucose, lactose and lactate sensors show good linearity in the concentration range below 70 mM. By combination with the micro dialysis system, the enzyme sensors can measure the whole concentration range of lactic acid fermentation, and interference by the medium can not be observed. The on-line sensor system is then applied to lactic acid fermentation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii. The sensor system can monitor the glucose and lactate concentrations simultaneously during 24-h fermentation, and the measurements show good agreement with those of the conventional colorimetric method. The sensor system can also be applied to on-line monitoring of lactose and lactate during Lactobacillus lactis fermentation. (author)

  10. A new on-line leakage current monitoring system of ZnO surge arresters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bok-Hee; Kang, Sung-Man

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new on-line leakage current monitoring system of zinc oxide (ZnO) surge arresters. To effectively diagnose the deterioration of ZnO surge arresters, a new algorithm and on-line leakage current detection device, which uses the time-delay addition method, for discriminating the resistive and capacitive currents was developed to use in the aging test and durability evaluation for ZnO arrester blocks. A computer-based measurement system of the resistive leakage current, the on-line monitoring device can detect accurately the leakage currents flowing through ZnO surge arresters for power frequency ac applied voltages. The proposed on-line leakage current monitoring device of ZnO surge arresters is more highly sensitive and gives more linear response than the existing devices using the detection method of the third harmonic leakage currents. Therefore, the proposed leakage current monitoring device can be useful for predicting the defects and performance deterioration of ZnO surge arresters in power system applications

  11. Atomic emission spectroscopy for the on-line monitoring of incineration processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, E.A.H.; de Groote, F.P.J.; Jonkers, J.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    A diagnostic measurement system based on atomic emission spectroscopy has been developed for the purpose of on-line monitoring of hazardous elements in industrial combustion gases. The aim was to construct a setup with a high durability for rough and variable experimental conditions, e.g. a strongly

  12. On-line system for monitoring of boiling in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuerkcan, E.; Kozma, R.; Verhoef, J.P.; Nabeshima, K.

    1996-01-01

    An important goal of nuclear reactor instrumentation is the continuous monitoring of the state of the reactor and the detection of deviations from the normal behaviour at an early stage. Early detection of anomalies enables one to make the necessary steps in order to prevent further damage of nuclear fuel. In the present paper, an on-line core monitoring system is described by means of which boiling anomaly in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies can be detected. (author). 9 refs, 7 figs

  13. The design and implementation of on-line monitoring system for UHV compact shunt capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Weiliang; Ni, Xuefeng; Lin, Hao; Jiang, Shengbao

    2017-08-01

    Because of the large capacity and compact structure of the UHV compact shunt capacitor, it is difficult to take effective measures to detect and prevent the faults. If the fault capacitor fails to take timely maintenance, it will pose a threat to the safe operation of the system and the life safety of the maintenance personnel. The development of UHV compact shunt capacitor on-line monitoring system can detect and record the on-line operation information of UHV compact shunt capacitors, analyze and evaluate the early fault warning signs, find out the fault capacitor or the capacitor with fault symptom, to ensure safe and reliable operation of the system.

  14. Reducing BWR O and M costs through on-line performance monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, T.; Gross, R.; Logback, F.; Josyula, R.

    1995-01-01

    Competition in the electric power industry has placed significant emphasis on reducing operating and maintenance (O and M) costs at nuclear facilities. Therefore, on-line performance monitoring to locate power losses for boiling water reactor (BWR) plants is creating tremendous interest. In addition, the ability to automate activities such as data collection, analysis, and reporting increases the efficiency of plant engineers and gives them more time to concentrate on solving plant efficiency problems. This capability is now available with a unique software product called GEBOPS. GE Nuclear Energy, in conjunction with Joint Venture partner Black and Veatch, has undertaken development of the General Electric/Black and Veatch On-line Performance System (GEBOPS), an on-line performance monitoring system for BWR plants. The experience and expertise of GE Nuclear Energy with BWR plants, coupled with the proven on-line monitoring software development experience and capability of Black and Veatch, provide the foundation for a unique product which addresses the needs of today's BWR plants

  15. Research on on-line monitoring technology for steel ball's forming process based on load signal analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-jun; Ai, Chang-sheng; Men, Xiu-hua; Zhang, Cheng-liang; Zhang, Qi

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a novel on-line monitoring technology to obtain forming quality in steel ball's forming process based on load signal analysis method, in order to reveal the bottom die's load characteristic in initial cold heading forging process of steel balls. A mechanical model of the cold header producing process is established and analyzed by using finite element method. The maximum cold heading force is calculated. The results prove that the monitoring on the cold heading process with upsetting force is reasonable and feasible. The forming defects are inflected on the three feature points of the bottom die signals, which are the initial point, infection point, and peak point. A novel PVDF piezoelectric force sensor which is simple on construction and convenient on installation is designed. The sensitivity of the PVDF force sensor is calculated. The characteristics of PVDF force sensor are analyzed by FEM. The PVDF piezoelectric force sensor is fabricated to acquire the actual load signals in the cold heading process, and calibrated by a special device. The measuring system of on-line monitoring is built. The characteristics of the actual signals recognized by learning and identification algorithm are in consistence with simulation results. Identification of actual signals shows that the timing difference values of all feature points for qualified products are not exceed ±6 ms, and amplitude difference values are less than ±3%. The calibration and application experiments show that PVDF force sensor has good static and dynamic performances, and is competent at dynamic measuring on upsetting force. It greatly improves automatic level and machining precision. Equipment capacity factor with damages identification method depends on grade of steel has been improved to 90%.

  16. On-line valve monitoring at the Ormen Lange gas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenlees, R.; Hale, S. [Score Atlanta Inc., Kennesaw, Georgia (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss replacing time and labor intensive nuclear outage activities with on line condition monitoring solutions, primarily the periodic verification of MOV functionality discussed in USNRC Generic Letter 96.05. This regulation requires that MOV age related performance degradations are properly identified and accounted for, causing utilities to have to retest valves periodically for the duration of the plants operating license. AECL designed CANDU reactors have a world class performance and safety record, with typical average annual capacity factors of 90%. The CANDU reactor design has the ability to refuel on line, as a result (a) it can be a challenge scheduling all required valve testing into limited duration outage work windows, (b) at multi unit sites, Unit 0 valves can be difficult to test because they are rarely ever out of service, (c) deuterium-oxide (heavy water) moderator is expensive to manufacture, as a result, effective through valve leakage monitoring is essential. These three factors alone make CANDU sites the most suitable candidates for on line valve monitoring systems. Nuclear industry regulations have been instrumental in the development of 'at the valve' diagnostic systems, but diagnostic testing has not typically been utilized to the same degree in other less regulated industries. However, that trend is changing, and the move toward valve diagnostics and condition monitoring has moved fastest in the offshore oil and gas industry on the Norwegian side of the North Sea. The Ormen Lange plant, located on Nyhamna Island on the west coast of Norway, operated by Shell, is one of the worlds most advanced gas processing plants. A stated maintenance goal for the plant is that 70% of the maintenance budget and spend should be based on the results of on line condition monitoring, utilizing monitoring systems equipped with switch sensing, strain gages, hydraulic and pneumatic pressure transducers and

  17. On-line valve monitoring at the Ormen Lange gas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenlees, R.; Hale, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss replacing time and labor intensive nuclear outage activities with on line condition monitoring solutions, primarily the periodic verification of MOV functionality discussed in USNRC Generic Letter 96.05. This regulation requires that MOV age related performance degradations are properly identified and accounted for, causing utilities to have to retest valves periodically for the duration of the plants operating license. AECL designed CANDU reactors have a world class performance and safety record, with typical average annual capacity factors of 90%. The CANDU reactor design has the ability to refuel on line, as a result (a) it can be a challenge scheduling all required valve testing into limited duration outage work windows, (b) at multi unit sites, Unit 0 valves can be difficult to test because they are rarely ever out of service, (c) deuterium-oxide (heavy water) moderator is expensive to manufacture, as a result, effective through valve leakage monitoring is essential. These three factors alone make CANDU sites the most suitable candidates for on line valve monitoring systems. Nuclear industry regulations have been instrumental in the development of 'at the valve' diagnostic systems, but diagnostic testing has not typically been utilized to the same degree in other less regulated industries. However, that trend is changing, and the move toward valve diagnostics and condition monitoring has moved fastest in the offshore oil and gas industry on the Norwegian side of the North Sea. The Ormen Lange plant, located on Nyhamna Island on the west coast of Norway, operated by Shell, is one of the worlds most advanced gas processing plants. A stated maintenance goal for the plant is that 70% of the maintenance budget and spend should be based on the results of on line condition monitoring, utilizing monitoring systems equipped with switch sensing, strain gages, hydraulic and pneumatic pressure transducers and acoustic leakage

  18. Radioactive contamination in monitors received for calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Paulo S.; Santos, Gilvan C. dos; Brunelo, Maria Antonieta G.; Paula, Tiago C. de; Pires, Marina A.; Borges, Jose C.

    2013-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory - LABCAL, from the Research Center for Metrology and Testing - METROBRAS, MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., began activities in October 2008 and, in August 2009, decided to establish a procedure for monitoring tests, external and internal, of all packages received from customers, containing instruments for calibration. The aim was to investigate possible contamination radioactive on these instruments. On July 2011, this procedure was extended to packagings of personal thermoluminescent dosemeters - TLD, received by the newly created Laboratory Laboratorio de Dosimetria Pessoal - LDP . In the monitoring procedure were used monitors with external probe, type pancake, MRA brand, models GP - 500 and MIR 7028. During the 37 months in which this investigation was conducted, were detected 42 cases of radioactive contamination, with the following characteristics: 1) just one case was personal dosimeter, TLD type; 2) just one case was not from a packing from nuclear medicine service - was from a mining company; 3) contamination occurred on packs and instruments, located and/or widespread; 4) contamination values ranged from slightly above the level of background radiation to about a thousand fold. Although METROBRAS has facilities for decontamination, in most cases, especially those of higher contamination, the procedure followed was to store the contaminated material in a room used for storage of radioactive sources. Periodically, each package and/or instrument was monitored, being released when the radiation level matched the background radiation. Every contamination detected, the client and/or owner of the instrument was informed. The Brazilian National Energy Commission - CNEN, was informed, during your public consultation for reviewing the standard for nuclear medicine services, held in mid-2012, having received from METROBRAS the statistical data available at the time. The high frequency of contamination detected and the high

  19. Calibration curves for on-line leakage detection using radiotracer injection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoub Khatooni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important requirements for industrial pipelines is the leakage detection. In this paper, detection of leak and determination of its amount using radioactive tracer injection method has been simulated by Monte Carlo MCNP code. The detector array included two NaI (Tl detectors which were located before and after the considered position, measure emitted gamma from radioactive tracer. After calibration of radiation detectors, the amount of leakage can be calculated based on the count difference of detectors. Also, the effect of material and thickness and diameter of pipe, crystal dimension, types of fluid, activity of tracer and its type (24Na, 82Br, 131I, 99mTc, 113mIn as well as have been investigated on the detectable amount of leakage. According to the results, for example, leakage more than 0.007% in volume of the inlet fluid for iron pipe with outer diameter 4 inch and thickness of 0.5 cm, Petrol as fluid inside pipe, 3 3 inch detector and 24Na with activity of 100 mCi can be detected by this presented method.

  20. Near Infrared Spectroscopy for On-line Monitoring of Alkali- Free Cloth /Phenolic Resin Prepreg During Manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Dong Huang

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A NIR method was developed for the on-line monitoring of alkali-freecloth/phenolic resin prepreg during its manufacturing process. First, the sizing content ofthe alkali-free cloth was analyzed, and then the resin, soluble resin and volatiles content ofthe prepreg was analyzed simultaneously using the FT-NIR spectrometer. Partial leastsquare (PLS regression was used to develop the calibration models, which for the sizingcontent was preprocessed by 1stDER MSC, for the volatile content by 1stDER VN, forthe soluble resin content by 1stDER MSC and for the resin content by the VN spectraldata preprocessing method. RMSEP of the prediction model for the sizing content was0.732 %, for the resin content it was 0.605, for the soluble resin content it was 0.101 andfor volatiles content it was 0.127. The results of the paired t-test revealed that there was nosignificant difference between the NIR method and the standard method. The NIRspectroscopy method could be used to predict the resin, soluble resin and the volatilescontent of the prepreg simultaneously, as well as sizing content of alkali-free cloth. Theprocessing parameters of the prepreg during manufacture could be adjusted quickly withthe help of the NIR analysis results. The results indicated that the NIR spectroscopymethod was sufficiently accurate and effective for the on-line monitoring of alkali-freecloth/phenolic resin prepreg.

  1. On line performance monitoring for predictive maintenance [Paper No.: VIA - 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Chandra, Rajesh

    1981-01-01

    There will always be progressive deterioration in the performance of dynamic equipment due to normal inevitable wear, malfunctions, failures and other reasons. In most cases it is possible to monitor some parameters of a system which would get progressively affected with the deterioration in the health of the system. By on-line monitoring of such predetermined parameters, compared with preset base data generated for a healthy system earlier, would prove very helpful in avoiding breakdowns and in proper planning of preventive and predictive maintenance. With increasing use of on-line computerised controls the generation of design base data and also the in-built self checking feature of monitoring the equipment health can be achieved by incorporating suitable software. This type of system will be helpful in: (a) predicting the life of component, (b) prewarning the operator about impending malfunctions, (c) establishing a maintenance schedule and spare inventory, and (d) analysing the failures. This type of centralised predictive maintenance is increasingly becoming important where: (a) the number of equipments are large, (b) the operation of equipment is critical from safety criteria, and (c) the minimum safety margin in the performance of the component is to be maintained. Keeping this in mind, the Fuel Handling System of Narora Atomic Power Project and the future power plants having computerised controls will have facility for on-line performance monitoring for predictive maintenance. The paper also describes methodology of the technique in detail, with a few representative cases. (author)

  2. Calibration method of radiation monitoring system at TQNPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhengshan; Zhang Qingli; Liu Jinjin; Miao Yuxing; Geng Lixin; Zhuang Yun; Dong Jianfeng; He Change

    2009-04-01

    The calibration methods and calibration device for standard monitor of radioactive particulate, iodine, noble gas and so on are not yet set up at home. On consideration of the present situation of the radiation monitoring system at the Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., we have studied the calibration method of these radiation monitoring instruments used for measuring the waste liquid, particulate, iodine and noble gas produced during the operation of nuclear reactor. Through the check against these instruments during the No. 202 and No. 103 overhaul, we got initially the method of the calibration and obtained the transfer coefficient of calibration when secondary solid sources are used for calibration. Through the testing and calibration, the credibility of the radiation monitoring system is enhanced. And at the same time, the problems existing in the calibration are discussed. (authors)

  3. Development of the advanced on-line BWR core monitoring system TiARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    Development of an integrated computer environment to support plant operators and station nuclear engineers is a recent activity. In achieving this goal, an advanced on-line boiling water reactor (BWR) core monitoring system: TiARA has been developed by Toden Software. An integrated design approach was performed through the introduction of recent computer technologies, a sophisticated human/machine interface (HMI) and an advanced nodal method. The first prototype of TiARA was ready in early 1996. This prototype is now undergoing a field test at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa unit 6. After successful completion of this test, the authors will have achieved the following goals: (1) consistency between on-line core monitoring system and off-line core management system; (2) an enhanced HMI and database; (3) user-friendly operability and maintainability; (4) system development from the utilities' standpoint to fully satisfy operator needs

  4. On-line monitoring of fermentation processes using multi-wavelength fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odman, Peter; Petersen, Nanna; Johansen, Claus Lindvald

    2007-01-01

    . The model system considered in this work is the antibiotic production by Streptomyces coelicolor, a filamentous bacterium. In addition to predicting concentrations of biomass in the fermentation broth, the data allowed detection of different physiological states, i.e. growth phase and phosphate limitation......Fermentation processes often suffer from a lack of real-time methods for on-line determination of variables like the concentrations of nutrients and products. This work aims at investigating the possibilities of implementing an on-line fermentation monitoring system based on multi......-wavelength fluorescence (MWF). This type of sensor has previously showed promising accuracy and selectivity for in situ monitoring of cell mass and certain metabolites in bioreactors (Lantz et al., 2006). The sensor generates multivariate data outputs, which necessitate chemometric modeling for signal interpretation...

  5. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor for monitoring drinking water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højris, Bo; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Smith, Christian; Dahlqvist, Mathis

    2016-04-04

    Today, microbial drinking water quality is monitored through either time-consuming laboratory methods or indirect on-line measurements. Results are thus either delayed or insufficient to support proactive action. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor with a 10-minute time resolution has been developed. The sensor is based on 3D image recognition, and the obtained pictures are analyzed with algorithms considering 59 quantified image parameters. The sensor counts individual suspended particles and classifies them as either bacteria or abiotic particles. The technology is capable of distinguishing and quantifying bacteria and particles in pure and mixed suspensions, and the quantification correlates with total bacterial counts. Several field applications have demonstrated that the technology can monitor changes in the concentration of bacteria, and is thus well suited for rapid detection of critical conditions such as pollution events in drinking water.

  6. The use of PEANO for on-line monitoring of fossil power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, Paolo F.; Zanetta, Gian Antonio; Gregori, Luca

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the use of a combined approach of artificial neural network and fuzzy logic, implemented in the computer code PEANO, to the on-line monitoring of the steam-water cycle of a 320 MW fossil plant in Italy. First, a short review of the underlying theory is reported. Then some results are illustrated of data pre-processing, aimed at selecting the appropriate data and to address the neural networks architecture. Finally the simulation of continuous monitoring is documented and data reconciliation capability of the code is discussed in some detail. These results demonstrate that the approach provided by PEANO is very effective to validate measured signals and to track a process on-line, giving the plant operator an immediate insight of the evolution of a possible fault in sensors or system components. (Author)

  7. Review of techniques for on-line monitoring and inspection of laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, J; Yan, Y

    2005-01-01

    Laser welding has been applied to various industries, in particular, automotive, aerospace and microelectronics. However, traditional off-line testing of the welds is costly and inefficient. Therefore, on-line inspection systems with low cost have being developed to increase productivity and maintain high welding quality. This paper presents the applications of acoustic, optical, visual, thermal and ultrasonic techniques and latest development of laser welding monitoring. The advantages and limitations of these techniques are also discussed

  8. On-line monitoring of the crystallization process: relationship between crystal size and electrical impedance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yanlin; Yao, Jun; Wang, Mi

    2016-01-01

    On-line monitoring of crystal size in the crystallization process is crucial to many pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industrial applications. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for the on-line monitoring of the cooling crystallization process of L-glutamic acid (LGA) using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS method can be used to monitor the growth of crystal particles relying on the presence of an electrical double layer on the charged particle surface and the polarization of double layer under the excitation of alternating electrical field. The electrical impedance spectra and crystal size were measured on-line simultaneously by an impedance analyzer and focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), respectively. The impedance spectra were analyzed using the equivalent circuit model and the equivalent circuit elements in the model can be obtained by fitting the experimental data. Two equivalent circuit elements, including capacitance ( C 2 ) and resistance ( R 2 ) from the dielectric polarization of the LGA solution and crystal particle/solution interface, are in relation with the crystal size. The mathematical relationship between the crystal size and the equivalent circuit elements can be obtained by a non-linear fitting method. The function can be used to predict the change of crystal size during the crystallization process. (paper)

  9. Unattended reaction monitoring using an automated microfluidic sampler and on-line liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Darshan C; Lyu, Yaqi Fara; Gandarilla, Jorge; Doherty, Steve

    2018-04-03

    In-process sampling and analysis is an important aspect of monitoring kinetic profiles and impurity formation or rejection, both in development and during commercial manufacturing. In pharmaceutical process development, the technology of choice for a substantial portion of this analysis is high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Traditionally, the sample extraction and preparation for reaction characterization have been performed manually. This can be time consuming, laborious, and impractical for long processes. Depending on the complexity of the sample preparation, there can be variability introduced by different analysts, and in some cases, the integrity of the sample can be compromised during handling. While there are commercial instruments available for on-line monitoring with HPLC, they lack capabilities in many key areas. Some do not provide integration of the sampling and analysis, while others afford limited flexibility in sample preparation. The current offerings provide a limited number of unit operations available for sample processing and no option for workflow customizability. This work describes development of a microfluidic automated program (MAP) which fully automates the sample extraction, manipulation, and on-line LC analysis. The flexible system is controlled using an intuitive Microsoft Excel based user interface. The autonomous system is capable of unattended reaction monitoring that allows flexible unit operations and workflow customization to enable complex operations and on-line sample preparation. The automated system is shown to offer advantages over manual approaches in key areas while providing consistent and reproducible in-process data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A methodology for on-line fatigue life monitoring of Indian nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.K.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushawaha, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most important aging effects of nuclear power plant components. Information about accumulation of fatigue helps in assessing structural degradation of the components. This assists in-service inspection and maintenance and may also support future life extension program of a plant. In the present report a methodology is being proposed for monitoring on line fatigue life of nuclear power plant components using available plant instrumentations. Major factors affecting fatigue life of a nuclear power plant components are the fluctuations of temperature, pressure and flow rate. Green's function technique is used in on line fatigue monitoring as computation time is much less than finite element method. A code has been developed which computes temperature and stress Green's functions in 2-D and axisymmetric structure by finite element method due to unit change in various fluid parameters. A post processor has also been developed which computes the temperature and stress responses using corresponding Green's functions and actual fluctuation in fluid parameters. In this post processor, the multiple site problem is solved by superimposing single site Green's function technique. It is also shown that Green's function technique is best suited for on line fatigue life monitoring of nuclear power plant components. (author). 6 refs., 43 figs

  11. On-line surveillance system for Borssele nuclear power plant monitoring and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuerkcan, E.; Ciftcioglu, Oe.

    1993-08-01

    An operating on-line surveillance and diagnostic system is described where information processing for monitoring and fault diagnosis and plant maintenance are addressed. The surveillance system by means of its realtime multiprocessing, multitasking execution capabilities can perform plant-wide and wide-range monitoring for enhanced plant safety and operational reliability as well as enhanced maintenance. At the same time the system provides the possibilities for goal-oriented research and development such as estimation, filtering, verification and validation and neural networks. (orig./HP)

  12. Radioactive standards and calibration methods for contamination monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-06-01

    Contamination monitoring in the facilities for handling unsealed radioactive materials is one of the most important procedures for radiation protection as well as radiation dose monitoring. For implementation of the proper contamination monitoring, radiation measuring instruments should not only be suitable to the purpose of monitoring, but also be well calibrated for the objective qualities of measurement. In the calibration of contamination monitoring instruments, quality reference activities need to be used. They are supplied in different such as extended sources, radioactive solutions or radioactive gases. These reference activities must be traceable to the national standards or equivalent standards. On the other hand, the appropriate calibration methods must be applied for each type of contamination monitoring instruments. In this paper, the concepts of calibration for contamination monitoring instruments, reference sources, determination methods of reference quantities and practical calibration methods of contamination monitoring instruments, including the procedures carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and some relevant experimental data. (G.K.)

  13. On-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance: Volume 3: Applications to Nuclear Power Plant Technical Specification Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.; Rasmussen, B.

    2004-01-01

    This report is a guide for a technical specification change submittal and subsequent implementation of on-line monitoring for safety-related applications. This report is the third in a three-volume set. Volume 1, ''Guidelines for Model Development and Implementation'', presents the various tasks that must be completed to prepare models for and to implement an on-line monitoring system

  14. Thin layer activation : on-line monitoring of metal loss in process plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulton, L.H.; Wallace, G.

    1993-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion and wear of metals is a common cause of failure in some process plant and equipment. Monitoring of these destructive effects has been done for many years to help plant engineers minimise the damage, in order to avoid unexpected failures and unscheduled shutdowns. Traditional methods of monitoring, such as standard NDT techniques, inform the engineer of what has happened, providing data such as culmulative loss of wall thickness. The modern approach to monitoring however, is to employ a technique which gives both current loss rates as well as integrated losses. Thin Layer Activation (TLA) provides on-line monitoring of corrosion, erosion and wear of metals, to a high degree of accuracy. It also gives cumulative information which can be backed up with weight-loss results if required. Thus current rather than historical loss rates are measured before any significant loss of metal has occurred. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs

  15. Development of an on-line tritium monitor with gamma-ray rejection and energy discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.A.; Yule, T.J.; Bennett, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    With the prospect of large fusion facilities coming on-line in the not-too-distant future, it is becoming increasingly important that an on-line tritium-monitoring system be developed which is capable of detecting small amounts of released tritium. Since tritium oxide is some 400 times as hazardous as elemental tritium, it is necessary to distinguish between the two in order to properly evaluate the hazard. Presently available on-line instrumentation has marginal sensitivity, is unable to distinguish between the two forms of tritium, and has poor discrimination against background gamma radiation and air activation products. The objective of our program is to develop a monitoring system with the capability of distinguishing between the two forms of tritium, detecting tritium with a sensitivity of a fraction of an MPC/sub a/ (1 MPC/sub a/ = 5. x 10 - 6 Ci/M 3 ) for the oxide, and discriminating against gamma activity and airborne activity other than tritium

  16. On-line monitoring of monoclonal antibody formation in high density perfusion culture using FIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenge, C; Fraune, E; Freitag, R; Scheper, T; Schügerl, K

    1991-05-01

    An automated flow injection system for on-line analysis of proteins in real fermentation fluids was developed by combining the principles of stopped-flow, merging zones flow injection analysis (FIA) with antigen-antibody reactions. IgG in the sample reacted with its corresponding antibody (a-IgG) in the reagent solution. Formation of insoluble immunocomplexes resulted in an increase of the turbidity which was determined photometrically. This system was used to monitor monoclonal antibody production in high cell density perfusion culture of hybridoma cells. Perfusion was performed with a newly developed static filtration unit equipped with hydrophilic microporous tubular membranes. Different sampling devices were tested to obtain a cell-free sample stream for on-line product analysis of high molecular weight (e.g., monoclonal antibodies) and low molecular weight (e.g., glucose, lactate) medium components. In fermentation fluids a good correlation (coefficient: 0.996) between the FIA method and an ELISA test was demonstrated. In a high density perfusion cultivation process mAb formation was successfully monitored on-line over a period of 400 h using a reliable sampling system. Glucose and lactate were measured over the same period of time using a commercially available automatic analyser based on immobilized enzyme technology.

  17. On-line monitoring the extract process of Fu-fang Shuanghua oral solution using near infrared spectroscopy and different PLS algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qian; Ru, Qingguo; Liu, Yan; Xu, Lingyan; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yifei; Zhang, Yewen; Li, Hui; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    An on-line near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy monitoring method with an appropriate multivariate calibration method was developed for the extraction process of Fu-fang Shuanghua oral solution (FSOS). On-line NIR spectra were collected through two fiber optic probes, which were designed to transmit NIR radiation by a 2 mm flange. Partial least squares (PLS), interval PLS (iPLS) and synergy interval PLS (siPLS) algorithms were used comparatively for building the calibration regression models. During the extraction process, the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy was employed to determine the concentrations of chlorogenic acid (CA) content, total phenolic acids contents (TPC), total flavonoids contents (TFC) and soluble solid contents (SSC). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultraviolet spectrophotometric method (UV) and loss on drying methods were employed as reference methods. Experiment results showed that the performance of siPLS model is the best compared with PLS and iPLS. The calibration models for AC, TPC, TFC and SSC had high values of determination coefficients of (R2) (0.9948, 0.9992, 0.9950 and 0.9832) and low root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) (0.0113, 0.0341, 0.1787 and 1.2158), which indicate a good correlation between reference values and NIR predicted values. The overall results show that the on line detection method could be feasible in real application and would be of great value for monitoring the mixed decoction process of FSOS and other Chinese patent medicines.

  18. The importance of on-line monitoring systems within the environmental monitoring program of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.A.; Winter, M.; Schmitt, A.

    1980-10-01

    The two on-line monitoring systems used in KfK environmental monitoring should be taken as measures of accident precaution and they are restricted to measurement of gamma local dose rates and of the (β + γ)-radiation levels. One of the systems serves to monitor the KfK operational area, the second serves to monitor the surrounding communities up to a radius of 8 km. By use of two different types of detectors the first system covers a range of measurement of 10 μrem/h to 1000 rem/h. By the second system only increases in the radiation level can be detected. It allows to record accidents in which countermeasures must be taken very urgently. The two monitoring systems are described which have been operated and partly been developed at the KfK. The possibilities and limits of using them for environmental monitoring are discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Development of the integrated core on-line monitoring and protection aid surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byung Oh; In, Wang Kee; Song, Jae Seung; Zee, Sung Quun

    1998-01-01

    The integrated Core On-line Monitoring and Protection Aid Surveillance System (COMPASS) is developed for the purpose of supporting the reactor operation, based on the three-dimensional nodal design code, MASTER. The heart of COMPASS is an adaptive nodal core simulator for the on-line calculation of three-dimensional assembly and pin power distributions which are used for the evaluation of the thermal margins and for the guide in operation. In this paper, the overall structures and the solution methods of COMPASS are described. The uncertainty of COMPASS for SMART core was also evaluated by comparing that of MASTER. The results showed that COMPASS uncertainty in power shape prediction is identical to that of the design code system, MASTER. The application of COMPASS to the analysis of peaking factor for SMART core resulted with about 4% gain in peaking factor margin when compared to COLSS

  20. Development of on-line monitoring device to detect the presence/absence of sodium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolson, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C.; Kremesec, V.J.; Kolba, V.M.

    1983-03-01

    A process is being developed by the Sodium Waste Technology Program at ANL-W to remove metallic sodium from scrap and waste. The final step in the process is the removal of residual metallic sodium by evaporation at temperatures up to 482 0 C (900 0 F) and at pressures of about 10 - 2 torr (1.3 Pa). Efficient operation of this process requires that the operators have a method to indicate the completion of the evaporation. This end point would signify when the chamber and scrap and waste is free of metallic sodium. It was determined that a measure of the vacuum was not sufficiently sensitive, and a research effort was undertaken to select an on-line monitoring device. In this effort, three promising methods were reviewed. The use of quadrupole mass spectrometer was recommended and an on-line device was designed for use in a Sodium Process Demonstration (SPD) Plant

  1. On-line monitoring of fluid bed granulation by photometric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppela, Ira; Antikainen, Osmo; Sandler, Niklas; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2014-11-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a photometric surface imaging approach for on-line monitoring of fluid bed granulation. Five granule batches consisting of paracetamol and varying amounts of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose were manufactured with an instrumented fluid bed granulator. Photometric images and NIR spectra were continuously captured on-line and particle size information was extracted from them. Also key process parameters were recorded. The images provided direct real-time information on the growth, attrition and packing behaviour of the batches. Moreover, decreasing image brightness in the drying phase was found to indicate granule drying. The changes observed in the image data were also linked to the moisture and temperature profiles of the processes. Combined with complementary process analytical tools, photometric imaging opens up possibilities for improved real-time evaluation fluid bed granulation. Furthermore, images can give valuable insight into the behaviour of excipients or formulations during product development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. On-line monitoring of wear and/or corrosion processes by thin layer activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandreanu, B.; Popa-Simil, L.; Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Thin Layer Activation (TLA) principle consists in creating a radioactive layer by ion beam irradiation of a machine part subjected to wear. The method is based on the determination of the increasing radioactivity in the lubricant due to suspended wear particles and has a sensitivity threshold of about 40 μ g / cm 2 . The most used radioactive markers are 56 Co, 57 Co, 65 Zn, 51 Cr, 48 V, 124 Sb. In this paper, we have chosen to present an on-line wear level determination experiment performed for a thermal engine. The study of possible influence of a SR3 added lubricant upon the wear level of a Dacia 1410 car engine is presented, illustrating the on-line TLA based monitoring of wear for industrial uses. The examples presented outline the advantages of this method over the conventional one, like the fast response and the high sensitivity, while no dismantling of the engine is implied. (author)

  3. Design of on-line steam generator leak monitoring system based on Cherenkov counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dileep, B.N.; D'Cruz, S.J.; Biju, P.; Jashi, K.B.; Prabhakaran, V.; Venkataramana, K.; Managanvi, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The methodology developed by Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. for identification of leaky Steam Generator (SG) by monitoring 134 I activity in the blow down water is a very high sensitive method. However, this technique can not be put into use as an on-line system. A new method of on-line detection of SG leak and identify the offending SG based on Cherenkov counting technique is explained in this paper. It identifies the leak by detecting Cherenkov radiation produced by the hard beta emitting radio nuclides escaped into feed water during leak in an operating reactor. A simulated system shows that a leak rate of 2 kg/h can be detected by the proposed system, while coolant 134 I activity is 3.7 MBq/l (100μCi/l). (author)

  4. An improved, computer-based, on-line gamma monitor for plutonium anion exchange process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, N.G.; Marsh, S.F.

    1987-06-01

    An improved, low-cost, computer-based system has replaced a previously developed on-line gamma monitor. Both instruments continuously profile uranium, plutonium, and americium in the nitrate anion exchange process used to recover and purify plutonium at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The latest system incorporates a personal computer that provides full-feature multichannel analyzer (MCA) capabilities by means of a single-slot, plug-in integrated circuit board. In addition to controlling all MCA functions, the computer program continuously corrects for gain shift and performs all other data processing functions. This Plutonium Recovery Operations Gamma Ray Energy Spectrometer System (PROGRESS) provides on-line process operational data essential for efficient operation. By identifying abnormal conditions in real time, it allows operators to take corrective actions promptly. The decision-making capability of the computer will be of increasing value as we implement automated process-control functions in the future. 4 refs., 6 figs

  5. A Comparison of Multiscale Permutation Entropy Measures in On-Line Depth of Anesthesia Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Cui; Liang, Zhenhu; Li, Xiaoli; Li, Duan; Li, Yongwang; Ursino, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Multiscale permutation entropy (MSPE) is becoming an interesting tool to explore neurophysiological mechanisms in recent years. In this study, six MSPE measures were proposed for on-line depth of anesthesia (DoA) monitoring to quantify the anesthetic effect on the real-time EEG recordings. The performance of these measures in describing the transient characters of simulated neural populations and clinical anesthesia EEG were evaluated and compared. Six MSPE algorithms-derived from Shannon permutation entropy (SPE), Renyi permutation entropy (RPE) and Tsallis permutation entropy (TPE) combined with the decomposition procedures of coarse-graining (CG) method and moving average (MA) analysis-were studied. A thalamo-cortical neural mass model (TCNMM) was used to generate noise-free EEG under anesthesia to quantitatively assess the robustness of each MSPE measure against noise. Then, the clinical anesthesia EEG recordings from 20 patients were analyzed with these measures. To validate their effectiveness, the ability of six measures were compared in terms of tracking the dynamical changes in EEG data and the performance in state discrimination. The Pearson correlation coefficient (R) was used to assess the relationship among MSPE measures. CG-based MSPEs failed in on-line DoA monitoring at multiscale analysis. In on-line EEG analysis, the MA-based MSPE measures at 5 decomposed scales could track the transient changes of EEG recordings and statistically distinguish the awake state, unconsciousness and recovery of consciousness (RoC) state significantly. Compared to single-scale SPE and RPE, MSPEs had better anti-noise ability and MA-RPE at scale 5 performed best in this aspect. MA-TPE outperformed other measures with faster tracking speed of the loss of unconsciousness. MA-based multiscale permutation entropies have the potential for on-line anesthesia EEG analysis with its simple computation and sensitivity to drug effect changes. CG-based multiscale permutation

  6. Calibration of beam position monitor for the SPring-8 synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Tsuyoshi; Yonehara, Hiroto; Suzuki, Hiromitsu

    1995-01-01

    Beam position monitors (BPMs) for SPring-8 synchrotron were already designed and manufactured. 80-BPMs were successfully calibrated for the beam position measurement. In this paper, we introduce the structure of BPMs, the electronics of signal detection system and the calibration system, and the results of calibration are reported. (author)

  7. On-line liquid-effluent monitoring of sewage at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Cate, J.L.; Rueppel, D.W.; Huntzinger, C.J.; Gonzalez, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    An automatic on line sewage effluent monitoring system has been developed. A representative fraction of the total waste stream leaving the site is monitored for pH, radiation, and metals as it passes through a detection assembly. This assembly consists of an industrial pH probe, NaI radiation detectors, and an x-ray fluorescence metal detector. A microprocessor collects, reduces and analyzes the data to determine if the levels are acceptable by established environmental limits. Currently, if preset levels are exceeded, a sample of the suspect sewage is automatically collected for further analysis, and an alarm is sent to a station where personnel can be alerted to respond on a 24-hour basis. Since at least four hours pass before LLNL effluent reaches the treatment plant, sufficient time is available to alert emergency personnel, evaluate the situation, and if necessary arrange for diversion of the material to emergency holding basins at the treatment plant. Information on the current system is presented, and progress is reported in developing an on-line tritium monitor as an addition to the assembly

  8. On-line monitoring of Glucose and penicillin by sequential injection analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, R.W.; Nielsen, Jens Bredal; Villadsen, John

    1996-01-01

    and a detector. The glucose analyzer is based on an enzymatic reaction using glucose oxidase, which converts glucose to glucono-lactone with formation of hydrogen peroxide and subsequent detection of H2O2 by a chemiluminescence reaction involving luminol. The penicillin analysis is based on formation......A sequential injection analysis (SIA) system has been developed for on-line monitoring of glucose and penicillin during cultivations of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. The SIA system consists of a peristaltic pump, an injection valve, two piston pumps, two multi-position valves...

  9. Dielectrophoresis microsystem with integrated flow cytometers for on-line monitoring of sorting efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Hansen, Ole; Petersen, Peter Kalsen

    2006-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) and flow cytometry are powerful technologies and widely applied in microfluidic systems for handling and measuring cells and particles. Here, we present a novel microchip with a DEP selective filter integrated with two microchip flow cytometers (FCs) for on-line monitoring...... of cell sorting processes. On the microchip, the DEP filter is integrated in a microfluidic channel network to sort yeast cells by positive DER The two FCs detection windows are set upstream and downstream of the DEP filter. When a cell passes through the detection windows, the light scattered by the cell...

  10. Investigation of the stochastic subspace identification method for on-line wind turbine tower monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kaoshan; Wang, Ying; Lu, Wensheng; Ren, Xiaosong; Huang, Zhenhua

    2017-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) of wind turbines has been applied in the wind energy industry to obtain their real-time vibration parameters and to ensure their optimum performance. For SHM, the accuracy of its results and the efficiency of its measurement methodology and data processing algorithm are the two major concerns. Selection of proper measurement parameters could improve such accuracy and efficiency. The Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) is a widely used data processing algorithm for SHM. This research discussed the accuracy and efficiency of SHM using SSI method to identify vibration parameters of on-line wind turbine towers. Proper measurement parameters, such as optimum measurement duration, are recommended.

  11. On-line monitoring system of PV array based on internet of things technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. F.; Lin, P. J.; Zhou, H. F.; Chen, Z. C.; Wu, L. J.; Cheng, S. Y.; Su, F. P.

    2017-11-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) Technology is used to inspect photovoltaic (PV) array which can greatly improve the monitoring, performance and maintenance of the PV array. In order to efficiently realize the remote monitoring of PV operating environment, an on-line monitoring system of PV array based on IoT is designed in this paper. The system includes data acquisition, data gateway and PV monitoring centre (PVMC) website. Firstly, the DSP-TMS320F28335 is applied to collect indicators of PV array using sensors, then the data are transmitted to data gateway through ZigBee network. Secondly, the data gateway receives the data from data acquisition part, obtains geographic information via GPS module, and captures the scenes around PV array via USB camera, then uploads them to PVMC website. Finally, the PVMC website based on Laravel framework receives all data from data gateway and displays them with abundant charts. Moreover, a fault diagnosis approach for PV array based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is applied in PVMC. Once fault occurs, a user alert can be sent via E-mail. The designed system enables users to browse the operating conditions of PV array on PVMC website, including electrical, environmental parameters and video. Experimental results show that the presented monitoring system can efficiently real-time monitor the PV array, and the fault diagnosis approach reaches a high accuracy of 97.5%.

  12. An on-line monitoring system for a micro electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Y S; Chang, T Y; Chuang, T J

    2008-01-01

    A pulse-type discriminating system to monitor the process of micro electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) is developed and implemented. The specific features are extracted and the pulses from a RC-type power source are classified into normal, effective arc, transient short circuit and complex types. An approach to discriminate the pulse type according to three durations measured at three pre-determined voltage levels of a pulse is proposed. The developed system is verified by using simulated signals. Discrimination of the pulse trains in actual machining processes shows that the pulses are mainly the normal type for micro wire-EDM and micro-EDM milling. The pulse-type distribution varies during the micro-EDM drilling process. The percentage of complex-type pulse increases monotonically with the drilling depth. It starts to drop when the gap condition is seriously deteriorated. Accordingly, an on-line monitoring strategy for the micro-EDM drilling process is proposed

  13. Integrating shallow and deep knowledge in the design of an on-line process monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallanti, M.; Gilardoni, L.; Guida, G.; Stefanini, A.; Tomada, L.

    1989-01-01

    Monitoring and malfunctions diagnosis of complex industrial plants involves, in addition to shallow empirical knowledge about plant operation, also deep knowledge about structure and function. This paper presents the results obtained in the design and experimentation of PROP and PROP-2 systems, devoted to on-line monitoring and diagnosis of pollution phenomena in the cycle water of a thermal power plant. In particular, it focuses on PROP-2 architecture, with encompasses a four-level hierarchical knowledge base including both empirical knowledge and a deep model of the plant. Shallow knowledge is represented by production rules and event-graphs (a formalism for expressing procedural knowledge), while deep knowledge is expressed using a representation language based on the concept of component. One major contribution of the proposed approach has been to show in a running experimental system that a suitable blend of shallow and deep knowledge can offer substantial advantages over a single paradigm.

  14. Diagnosis and on-line displacement monitoring for critical pipe of fossil power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, J. S.; Hyun, J. S. [Korea Electric Power Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Heo, J. R.; Lee, S. K.; Cho, S. Y. [Korea South-East Power Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    High temperature steam pipes of fossil power plant are subject to a severe thermal range and usually operates well into the creep range. Cyclic operation of the plant subjects the piping system to mechanical and thermal fatigue mechanisms and poor or malfunctional support assemblies can impose massive loads or stress onto the piping system. In order to prevent the serious damage and failure of the critical pipe system, various inspection methods such as visual inspection, computational analysis and on-line piping displacement monitoring were developed. 3-Dimensional piping displacement monitoring system was developed with using he aluminum alloy rod and rotary encoder type sensors, this system was installed and operated on the 'Y' fossil power plant successfully. It is expected that this study will contribute to the safety of piping system, which could minimize stress and extend the actual life of critical piping.

  15. Feasibility analysis of marine ecological on-line integrated monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, D. Z.; Cao, X.; Zhang, S. W.; Wu, N.; Ma, R.; Zhang, L.; Cao, L.

    2017-08-01

    The in-situ water quality sensors were susceptible to biological attachment. Moreover, sea water corrosion and wave impact damage, and many sensors scattered distribution would cause maintenance inconvenience. The paper proposed a highly integrated marine ecological on-line integrated monitoring system, which can be used inside monitoring station. All sensors were reasonably classified, the similar in series, the overall in parallel. The system composition and workflow were described. In addition, the paper proposed attention issues of the system design and corresponding solutions. Water quality multi-parameters and 5 nutrient salts as the verification index, in-situ and systematic data comparison experiment were carried out. The results showed that the data consistency of nutrient salt, PH and salinity was better. Temperature and dissolved oxygen data trend was consistent, but the data had deviation. Turbidity fluctuated greatly; the chlorophyll trend was similar with it. Aiming at the above phenomena, three points system optimization direction were proposed.

  16. The BEACON on-line core monitoring system. Functional upgrades and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, W.A.; Miller, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    The BEACON TM core monitor system has been in commercial operation since 1989 and was licensed by the USNRC for on-line core power distribution and thermal power limit monitoring in 1994. Since that time BEACON has been installed at 17 plants. Each of these customers has a different perspective on the use of data from BEACON and a different approach on the application of BEACON to support their plant operations. To support these varied needs and approaches the BEACON system has been divided into three operational levels to better match the system functions to the customer needs and approaches to system integration. Based on customer feedback, the BEACON system was upgraded in some areas and streamlined in other areas to better support the needs of each customer. The three operational levels of the BEACON system, the major product upgrades and system evolution that has taken place to support the needs and applications of our customers are discussed. (authors)

  17. Westinghouse Electric Company experiences in chemistry on-line monitoring in Eastern European nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balavage, J.

    2001-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company has provided a number of Chemistry On-Line Monitoring (OLM) Systems to Nuclear Power Plants in Eastern Europe. Eleven systems were provided to the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant in the south of the Czech Republic. Four systems were provided to the Russian NPP at Novovoronezh. In addition, a system design was developed for primary side chemistry monitoring for units 5 and 6 of another eastern European VVER. The status of the Temelin OLM systems is discussed including updates to the Temelin designs, and the other Eastern European installations and designs are also described briefly. Some of the problems encountered and lessons learned from these projects are also discussed. (R.P.)

  18. Development of on-line uranium enrichment monitor of gaseous UF6 for uranium enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xuesheng; Liu Guorong; Jin Huimin; Zhao Yonggang; Li Jinghuai; Hao Xueyuan; Ying Bin; Yu Zhaofei

    2013-01-01

    An on-line enrichment monitor was developed to measure the enrichment of UF 6 , flowing through the processing pipes in uranium enrichment plant. A Nal (Tl) detector was used to measure the count rates of the 185.7 keV γ-ray emitted from 235 U, and the total quantity of uranium was determined from thermodynamic characteristics of gaseous uranium hexafluoride. The results show that the maximum relative standard deviation is less than 1% when the measurement time is 120 s or more and the pressure is more than 2 kPa in the measurement chamber. Uranium enrichment of gaseous uranium hexafluoride in the output end of cascade can be monitored continuously by using the device. It should be effective for nuclear materials accountability verifications and materials balance verification at uranium enrichment plant. (authors)

  19. On-line monitoring system development for single-phase flow accelerated corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Na Young; Lee, Seung Gi; Ryu, Kyung Ha; Hwang, Il Soon

    2007-01-01

    Aged nuclear piping has been reported to undergo corrosion-induced accelerated failures, often without giving signatures to current inspection campaigns. Therefore, we need diverse sensors which can cover a wide area in an on-line application. We suggest an integrated approach to monitor the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) susceptible piping. Since FAC is a combined phenomenon, we need to monitor as many parameters as possible and that cover wide area, since we do not know where the FAC occurs. For this purpose, we introduce the wearing rate model which focuses on the electrochemical parameters. Using this model, we can predict the wearing rate and then compare testing results. Through analysis we identified feasibility and then developed electrochemical sensors for high temperature application; we also introduced a mechanical monitoring system which is still under development. To support the validation of the monitored results, we adopted high temperature ultrasonic transducer (UT), which shows good resolution in the testing environment. As such, all the monitored results can be compared in terms of thickness. Our validation tests demonstrated the feasibility of sensors. To support direct thickness measurement for a wide-area, the direct current potential drop (DCPD) method will be researched to integrate into the developed framework

  20. Development of on-line monitoring system for flow accelerated corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, N.Y.; Lee, S.G.; Hwang, I.S.; Kim, J.T.; Luk, V.K.

    2005-01-01

    Aged nuclear piping has been reported to undergo corrosion-induced accelerated failures, often without giving signatures to current inspection campaigns. Therefore, we need diverse sensors which can cover wide area in the on-line application. We suggested integrated approach to monitor the FAC-susceptible piping. Since FAC is a combined phenomenon, we need to monitor as many parameters as possible, and that cover wide area, since we don't know where the FAC occurs. For this purpose, we introduced wearing rate model, which concentrates on the electrochemical parameters. By the model, we can predict the wearing rate and then can compare the testing result. After we identified feasibility by analytical way, we developed electrochemical sensors for high temperature application, and introduced mechanical monitoring system, which is still under development. To support the validation of the monitored results, we adopted high temperature UT, which shows good resolution in the testing environment. By this way, all the monitored results can be compared in terms of thickness. Validation test shows the feasibility of sensors. To support direct thickness measurement for wide-area, Direct Current Potential Drop method will be researched to integrate to the developed framework. (authors)

  1. Micro flow reactor chips with integrated luminescent chemosensors for spatially resolved on-line chemical reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, Leonid; Hoera, Christian; Meier, Robert J; Nagl, Stefan; Belder, Detlev

    2013-10-21

    Real-time chemical reaction monitoring in microfluidic environments is demonstrated using luminescent chemical sensors integrated in PDMS/glass-based microscale reactors. A fabrication procedure is presented that allows for straightforward integration of thin polymer layers with optical sensing functionality in microchannels of glass-PDMS chips of only 150 μm width and of 10 to 35 μm height. Sensor layers consisting of polystyrene and an oxygen-sensitive platinum porphyrin probe with film thicknesses of about 0.5 to 4 μm were generated by combining spin coating and abrasion techniques. Optimal coating procedures were developed and evaluated. The chip-integrated sensor layers were calibrated and investigated with respect to stability, reproducibility and response times. These microchips allowed observation of dissolved oxygen concentration in the range of 0 to over 40 mg L(-1) with a detection limit of 368 μg L(-1). The sensor layers were then used for observation of a model reaction, the oxidation of sulphite to sulphate in a microfluidic chemical reactor and could observe sulphite concentrations of less than 200 μM. Real-time on-line monitoring of this chemical reaction was realized at a fluorescence microscope setup with 405 nm LED excitation and CCD camera detection.

  2. Characterization of appendage weld quality by on line monitoring of electrical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setty, D.S.; Somani, A.K.; Ram, A.M.; Rao, A.R.; Jayaraj, R.N.; Kalidas, R. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. of Atomic Energy, Hyderabad (India)

    2005-07-01

    Resistance projection welding of zirconium alloy appendages is one of the most critical processes in the PHWR fuel fabrication. Appendages like Spacers and Bearing pads having multi projections are joined to the fuel sheath using capacitor discharge power source. Variations in the projection sizes, weld parameters and cleanliness of the work pieces have significant effect on the weld quality, in addition to material properties like hardness, tensile strength and surface finish. Defects like metal expulsion and weak welds are occasionally observed in appendage welding process, which need to be identified and segregated. Though numerous off-line inspection methods are available for the weld quality evaluation, on-line monitoring of weld quality is essential for identifying defective welds. For this purpose, various monitoring techniques like acoustic emission, analyzing derived electrical parameters and weld upset/deformation measurements are employed. The derived electrical parameters like A{sup 2}-Sec and Ohm-Sec can also be monitored. The present paper highlights development of suitable acceptance criteria for the monitoring technique by employing derived electrical parameters covering a wide range of weld variables like watt-sec and squeeze force. Excellent correlation could be achieved in identifying the weak welds and weld expulsion defects in mass production. (author)

  3. Design of a tracking device for on-line dose monitoring in hadrontherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistoni, G. [INFN Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Faccini, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, “La Sapienza” Università di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Marafini, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); Mattei, I. [INFN Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Muraro, S., E-mail: silvia.muraro@mi.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Paramatti, R. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Patera, V. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per Ingegneria, “La Sapienza” Università di Roma, Roma (Italy); Pinci, D. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Rucinski, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per Ingegneria, “La Sapienza” Università di Roma, Roma (Italy); Russomando, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, “La Sapienza” Università di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Center for Life Nano Science@Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Roma (Italy); and others

    2017-02-11

    Hadrontherapy is a technique for cancer treatment that exploits ion beams (mostly protons and carbons). A critical issue is the accuracy that is achievable when monitoring the dose released by the beam to the tumor and to the surrounding tissues. We present the design of a tracking device, developed in the framework of the INSIDE project , capable of monitoring in real time the longitudinal profile of the dose delivered in the patient. This is possible by detecting the secondary particles produced by the interaction of the beam in the tissues. The position of the Bragg peak can be correlated to the charged particles emission point distribution measurement. The tracking device will be able to provide a fast response on the dose pattern by tracking the secondary charged fragments. The tracks are detected using 6 planes of scintillating fibers, providing the 3D coordinates of the track intersection with each plane. The fibers planes are followed by a plastic scintillator and by a small calorimeter built with a pixelated Lutetium Fine Silicate (LFS) crystal. A complete detector simulation, followed by the event reconstruction, has been performed to determine the achievable monitoring spatial resolution. - Highlights: • On-line range monitoring in hadrontherapy. • New approach: detection of charged secondary particles escaping the patient. • Correlation of longitudinal emission profile of secondaries with the beam range. • New detector integrated in a multi-modal system to be tested in clinical operation.

  4. On-line Monitoring of VoIP Quality Using IPFIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Matousek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of VoIP services is to provide a reliable and high-quality voice transmission over packet networks. In order to prove the quality of VoIP transmission, several approaches were designed. In our approach, we are concerned about on-line monitoring of RTP and RTCP traffic. Based on these data, we are able to compute main VoIP quality metrics including jitter, delay, packet loss, and finally R-factor and MOS values. This technique of VoIP quality measuring can be directly incorporated into IPFIX monitoring framework where an IPFIX probe analyses RTP/RTCP packets, computes VoIP quality metrics, and adds these metrics into extended IPFIX flow records. Then, these extended data are stored in a central IPFIX monitoring system called collector where can be used for monitoring purposes. This paper presents a functional implementation of IPFIX plugin for VoIP quality measurement and compares the results with results obtained by other tools.

  5. On-line monitoring and inservice inspection in codes; Betriebsueberwachung und wiederkehrende Pruefungen in den Regelwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartonicek, J.; Zaiss, W. [Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Neckar GmbH, Neckarwestheim (Germany); Bath, H.R. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany). Geschaeftsstelle des Kerntechnischen Ausschusses (KTA)

    1999-08-01

    The relevant regulatory codes determine the ISI tasks and the time intervals for recurrent components testing for evaluation of operation-induced damaging or ageing in order to ensure component integrity on the basis of the last available quality data. In-service quality monitoring is carried out through on-line monitoring and recurrent testing. The requirements defined by the engineering codes elaborated by various institutions are comparable, with the KTA nuclear engineering and safety codes being the most complete provisions for quality evaluation and assurance after different, defined service periods. German conventional codes for assuring component integrity provide exclusively for recurrent inspection regimes (mainly pressure tests and optical testing). The requirements defined in the KTA codes however always demanded more specific inspections relying on recurrent testing as well as on-line monitoring. Foreign codes for ensuring component integrity concentrate on NDE tasks at regular time intervals, with time intervals scope of testing activities being defined on the basis of the ASME code, section XI. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Fuer die Komponentenintegritaet sind die Schaedigungsmechanismen mit dem nach den Regelwerken einzuhaltenden Abstand abzusichern. Dabei ist die jeweils vorhandene (Ist-) Qualitaet als Ausgangspunkt entscheidend. Die Absicherung der vorhandenen Qualitaet im weiteren Betrieb erfolgt durch geeignete Betriebsueberwachung und wiederkehrende Pruefungen. Die Anforderungen der Regelwerke sind vergleichbar, wobei die Bestimmung der vorhandenen Qualitaet nach einer bestimmten Betriebszeit sowie deren Absicherung im weiteren Betrieb am vollstaendigsten auf Basis des KTA-Regelwerkes moeglich ist. Die Absicherung der Komponentenintegritaet im Betrieb beruht in deutschen konventionellen Regelwerken nur auf den wiederkehrenden Pruefungen (hauptsaechlich Druckpruefungen und Sichtpruefungen). Das KTA-Regelwerk forderte hier schon immer qualifizierte

  6. A Review of Sensor Calibration Monitoring for Calibration Interval Extension in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Hashemian, Hash; Shumaker, Brent; Cummins, Dara

    2012-08-31

    Currently in the United States, periodic sensor recalibration is required for all safety-related sensors, typically occurring at every refueling outage, and it has emerged as a critical path item for shortening outage duration in some plants. Online monitoring can be employed to identify those sensors that require calibration, allowing for calibration of only those sensors that need it. International application of calibration monitoring, such as at the Sizewell B plant in United Kingdom, has shown that sensors may operate for eight years, or longer, within calibration tolerances. This issue is expected to also be important as the United States looks to the next generation of reactor designs (such as small modular reactors and advanced concepts), given the anticipated longer refueling cycles, proposed advanced sensors, and digital instrumentation and control systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) accepted the general concept of online monitoring for sensor calibration monitoring in 2000, but no U.S. plants have been granted the necessary license amendment to apply it. This report presents a state-of-the-art assessment of online calibration monitoring in the nuclear power industry, including sensors, calibration practice, and online monitoring algorithms. This assessment identifies key research needs and gaps that prohibit integration of the NRC-approved online calibration monitoring system in the U.S. nuclear industry. Several needs are identified, including the quantification of uncertainty in online calibration assessment; accurate determination of calibration acceptance criteria and quantification of the effect of acceptance criteria variability on system performance; and assessment of the feasibility of using virtual sensor estimates to replace identified faulty sensors in order to extend operation to the next convenient maintenance opportunity. Understanding the degradation of sensors and the impact of this degradation on signals is key to

  7. ON-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance: Volume 3: Applications to Nuclear Power Plant Technical Specification Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E Davis, B Rasmussen

    2004-12-31

    This report is a guide for a technical specification change submittal and subsequent implementation of on-line monitoring for safety-related applications. This report is the third in a three-volume set. Volume 1, ''Guidelines for Model Development and Implementation'', presents the various tasks that must be completed to prepare models for and to implement an on-line monitoring system.

  8. FPGA implementation of a hybrid on-line process monitoring in PC based real-time systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one way of FPGA implementation of hybrid (hardware-software based on-line process monitoring in Real-Time systems (RTS. The reasons for RTS monitoring are presented at the beginning. The summary of different RTS monitoring approaches along with its advantages and drawbacks are also exposed. Finally, monitoring module is described in details. Also, FPGA implementation results and some useful monitoring system applications are mentioned.

  9. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  10. ''PSAD'' on-line monitoring and aid to diagnosis workstation: a monitoring tool for EDF power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J.; Mazalerat, J.M.; Monnier, B.; Cordier, R.

    1993-01-01

    Like other electricity utilities, Electricite de France seeks to enhance the safety and availability of its nuclear power plants. To this end, for over ten years EDF has been installing on each plant unit two monitoring systems of its own design, one to monitor the primary cooling system, and the other, the turbogenerator set. Since the beginning of this project, widespread progress has been made in techniques of signal acquisition and processing, and in diagnosis using artificial intelligence methods. EDF has decided to call on these advanced techniques in developing its new-generation monitoring equipment, and to integrate them in its development of a workstation for on-line monitoring and diagnosis-support (PSAD: Poste de Surveillance et d'Aide au Diagnostic). PSAD will be a tool for on-line monitoring of the main components in nuclear power plants (initially the main coolant pumps and turbogenerator sets, and soon thereafter, monitoring of internal structures, detection of loose parts in the primary cooling system, etc.). PSAD will provide plant personnel with indispensable support in their diagnosis of the condition of plant equipment. It will integrate user-friendly, high-performance systems that also free the operator from many day-to-day tasks. PSAD will have a flexible architecture, for optimum distribution of the computing power where it is most needed, thereby improving the quality of the data. This paper presents the project objectives and describes work currently under way to implement EDF's diagnosis-support strategy for the years to come. (authors). 5 figs., 6 refs

  11. On line system monitoring and analysis for efficient maintenance management [Paper No.: I-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, R.M.P.

    1981-01-01

    Continuously operating chemical plants and nuclear reactors with huge investments cannot afford unscheduled shut down, costly down time, undesired exposure of people to radiation and high cost of inventory. To obtain cost effectiveness in terms of increased plant availability with increased quality, safety and reliability of plant operations a good maintenance system is required. A preventive maintenance programme, though successful to a greater extent, has got the limitations of being based upon elapsed time, subjective approach or statistical data. Hence, maintenance action is mistimed. Preventive maintenance can become very effective if rational and scientific data on equipment under working conditions are available. It can be achieved through on-line predictive instruments like sound level and vibration analyzers, probologs, corrosmeters, strain gages, thermographic infrared sensors, on-line ferrographs, chromatographs, acoustic emission, eddy current ultrasonic and wireless sensors etc. Instruments help maintenance engineer to diagnose, inspect, monitor, and help in forecasting failures and scheduling the frequencies optimally for overhauls, replacements, lubrication etc. They are also helpful in establishing work load, manpower, resource planning and inventory control. This paper discusses real time computer based system as well as conventional instruments and techniques. (author)

  12. Development of On-line Monitoring System for Shape Memory Alloy Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Park, Young Chul; Lee, Min Rae; Lee, Dong Hwa; Lee, Kyu Chang

    2003-01-01

    A hot press method was use for the optimal manufacturing condition for a shape memory alloy(SMA) composite. The bonding between the matrix and the reinforcement within the SMA composite by the hot press method was strengthened by cold rolling. In this study, the objective was to develop an on-line monitoring system for the prevention of the crack initiation and propagation by shape memory effort of SMA composite. Shape memory effect was used to prevent the SMA composite from cracking. For the system to be developed, an optimal hE parameter should be determined based on the degree of damage and crack initiation. When the SHA composite was heated by the plate heater attached at the composite, the propagating cracks appeared to be controlled by the compressive force of SMA

  13. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on On-Line Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, Thomas; Tawfik, Magdy; Bond, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    In support of expanding the use of nuclear power, interest is growing in methods of determining the feasibility of longer term operation for the U.S. fleet of nuclear power plants, particularly operation beyond 60 years. To help establish the scientific and technical basis for such longer term operation, the DOE-NE has established a research and development (R and D) objective. This objective seeks to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which addresses the needs of this objective, is being developed in collaboration with industry R and D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of nuclear power plants. The LWRS Program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy and environmental security. In moving to identify priorities and plan activities, the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on On-Line Monitoring (OLM) Technologies was held June 10-12, 2010, in Seattle, Washington. The workshop was run to enable industry stakeholders and researchers to identify the nuclear industry needs in the areas of future OLM technologies and corresponding technology gaps and research capabilities. It also sought to identify approaches for collaboration that would be able to bridge or fill the technology gaps. This report is the meeting proceedings, documenting the presentations and discussions of the workshop and is intended to serve as a basis for a plan which is under development that will enable the I and C research pathway to achieve its goals. Benefits to the nuclear industry accruing from On Line Monitoring Technology cannot be ignored. Information gathered thus far has contributed significantly to the Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. DOE

  14. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on On-Line Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Baldwin; Magdy Tawfik; Leonard Bond

    2010-06-01

    In support of expanding the use of nuclear power, interest is growing in methods of determining the feasibility of longer term operation for the U.S. fleet of nuclear power plants, particularly operation beyond 60 years. To help establish the scientific and technical basis for such longer term operation, the DOE-NE has established a research and development (R&D) objective. This objective seeks to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which addresses the needs of this objective, is being developed in collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of nuclear power plants. The LWRS Program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy and environmental security. In moving to identify priorities and plan activities, the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on On-Line Monitoring (OLM) Technologies was held June 10–12, 2010, in Seattle, Washington. The workshop was run to enable industry stakeholders and researchers to identify the nuclear industry needs in the areas of future OLM technologies and corresponding technology gaps and research capabilities. It also sought to identify approaches for collaboration that would be able to bridge or fill the technology gaps. This report is the meeting proceedings, documenting the presentations and discussions of the workshop and is intended to serve as a basis for a plan which is under development that will enable the I&C research pathway to achieve its goals. Benefits to the nuclear industry accruing from On Line Monitoring Technology cannot be ignored. Information gathered thus far has contributed significantly to the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. DOE has

  15. Sensors for on-line monitoring of water chemistry parameters for NPP`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alltonen, P; Maekelae, K [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-02-01

    The on-line monitoring of the water chemistry parameters of aqueous solutions in nuclear power plants is considered essential to control corrosion phenomena. New sensors and electrodes that can be used under plant operating conditions are key components to the application of this technology. The research and development programs are running to develop practical instruments. The experimental capabilities available to research high temperature and pressure phenomena is growing rapidly. It is now possible to experimentally measure all information needed to make estimations and predictions concerning reactions taking place in the coolant of an operating reactor. However, further development of devices and practical experiences are needed to meet the requirement of power stations. (author). 8 refs, 8 figs.

  16. Sensors for on-line monitoring of water chemistry parameters for NPP's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alltonen, P.; Maekelae, K.

    1997-01-01

    The on-line monitoring of the water chemistry parameters of aqueous solutions in nuclear power plants is considered essential to control corrosion phenomena. New sensors and electrodes that can be used under plant operating conditions are key components to the application of this technology. The research and development programs are running to develop practical instruments. The experimental capabilities available to research high temperature and pressure phenomena is growing rapidly. It is now possible to experimentally measure all information needed to make estimations and predictions concerning reactions taking place in the coolant of an operating reactor. However, further development of devices and practical experiences are needed to meet the requirement of power stations. (author). 8 refs, 8 figs

  17. Application of classical versus bayesian statistical control charts to on-line radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVol, T.A.; Gohres, A.A.; Williams, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    False positive and false negative incidence rates of radiological monitoring data from classical and Bayesian statistical process control chart techniques are compared. The on-line monitoring for illicit radioactive material with no false positives or false negatives is the goal of homeland security monitoring, but is unrealistic. However, statistical fluctuations in the detector signal, short detection times, large source to detector distances, and shielding effects make distinguishing between a radiation source and natural background particularly difficult. Experimental time series data were collected using a 1' x 1' LaCl 3 (Ce) based scintillation detector (Scionix, Orlando, FL) under various simulated conditions. Experimental parameters include radionuclide (gamma-ray) energy, activity, density thickness (source to detector distance and shielding), time, and temperature. All statistical algorithms were developed using MATLAB TM . The Shewhart (3-σ) control chart and the cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart are the classical procedures adopted, while the Bayesian technique is the Shiryayev-Roberts (S-R) control chart. The Shiryayev-Roberts method was the best method for controlling the number of false positive detects, followed by the CUSUM method. However, The Shiryayev-Roberts method, used without modification, resulted in one of the highest false negative incidence rates independent of the signal strength. Modification of The Shiryayev-Roberts statistical analysis method reduced the number of false negatives, but resulted in an increase in the false positive incidence rate. (author)

  18. Monitoring and control of enzymic sucrose hydrolysis using on-line biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandenius, C F; Buelow, L; Danielsson, B; Mosbach, K

    1985-02-01

    Previously reported flow microcalorimeter devices for enzymic reaction heat measurement, enzyme thermistors, have here been extended with systems for on-line sample treatment. Glucose analysis was performed by intermittent flow injection of 50 ..mu..l samples through such an enzyme thermistor device containing immobilized glucose oxidase and catalase. Sucrose analysis was performed by allowing diluted samples to continuously pass through an additional enzyme thermistor containing immobilized invertase. The reaction heats were recorded as temperature changes in the order of 10-50 m degrees C for concentration of 0.05-0.30 M glucose or sucrose present in the original non-diluted samples. The performance of this system was investigated by its ability to follow concentration changes obtained from a gradient mixer. The system was applied to monitoring and controlling the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose in a plug-flow reactor with immobilized invertase. The reactor was continuously fed by a flow of sucrose of up to 0.3 M (100 g/l). Glucose and remaining sucrose were monitored in the effluent of the column. By using flow rate controlled feed pumps for sucrose and diluent the influent concentration of sucrose was varied while the overall flow rate remained constant. On-line control of the effluent concentration of glucose and sucrose was achieved by a proportional and integral regulator implemented on a microcomputer. Present concentration of glucose in the effluent could be maintained over an extended period of time despite changes in the overall capacity of the invertase reactor. Long delay times in the sensor system and the enzyme column made it necessary to carefully tune the control parameters. Changes of set-point value and temperature disturbances were used to verify accuracy of controlling performance. 32 references.

  19. On-Line Monitoring for Control and Safeguarding of Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Billing, Justin M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Johnsen, Amanda M.; Peterson, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced techniques enabling enhanced safeguarding of the spent fuel reprocessing plants are urgently needed. Our approach is based on prerequisite that real time monitoring of the solvent extraction flowsheets provides unique capability to quickly detect unwanted manipulations with fissile isotopes present in the radiochemical streams during reprocessing activities. The methods used to monitor these processes must be robust and must be able to withstand harsh radiation and chemical environments. A new on-line monitoring system satisfying these requirements and featuring Raman spectroscopy combined with a Coriolis and conductivity probes, has been recently developed by our research team. It provides immediate chemical data and flow parameters of high-level radioactive waste streams with high brine content generated during retrieval activities from Hanford nuclear waste storage tanks. The nature of the radiochemical streams at the spent fuel reprocessing plant calls for additional spectroscopic information, which can be gained by the utilization of UV-vis-NIR capabilities. Raman and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopies are analytical techniques that have extensively been extensively applied for measuring the various organic and inorganic compounds including actinides. The corresponding spectrometers used under the laboratory conditions are easily convertible to the process-friendly configurations allowing remote measurements under the flow conditions. A fiber optic Raman probe allows monitoring of the high concentration species encountered in both aqueous and organic phases within the UREX suite of flowsheets, including metal oxide ions, such as uranyl, components of the organic solvent, inorganic oxo-anions, and water. The actinides and lanthanides are monitored remotely by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy in aqueous and organic phases. In this report, we will present our recent results on spectroscopic measurements of simulant flowsheet solutions and commercial fuels available at

  20. Tritium monitor calibration at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjork, C.J.; Aikin, D.J.; Houlton, T.W.

    1997-08-01

    Tritium in air is monitored at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with air breathing instruments based on ionization chambers. Stack emissions are continuously monitored from sample tubes which each connect to a Tritium bubble which differentially collects HTO and HT. A set of glass vials of glycol capture the HTO. The HT is oxidized with a palladium catalyst and the resultant HTO is captured in a second set of vials of glycol. The glycol is counted with a liquid scintillation counter. All calibrations are performed with tritium containing gas. The Radiation Instrumentation and Calibration (RIC) Team has constructed and maintains two closed loop gas handling systems based on femto TECH model U24 tritium ion chamber monitors: a fixed system housed in a fume hood and a portable system mounted on two two wheeled hand trucks. The U24 monitors are calibrated against tritium in nitrogen gas standards. They are used as standard transfer instruments to calibrate other ion chamber monitors with tritium in nitrogen, diluted with air. The gas handling systems include a circulation pump which permits a closed circulation loop to be established among the U24 monitor and typically two to four other monitors of a given model during calibration. Fixed and portable monitors can be calibrated. The stack bubblers are calibrated in the field by: blending a known concentration of tritium in air within the known volume of the two portable carts, coupled into a common loop; releasing that gas mixture into a ventilation intake to the stack; collecting oxidized tritium in the bubbler; counting the glycol; and using the stack and bubbler flow rates, computing the bubbler's efficiency. Gas calibration has become a convenient and quality tool in maintaining the tritium monitors at LANL

  1. Application of effective variance method for contamination monitor calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalez, O.L.; Freitas, I.S.M. de.

    1990-01-01

    In this report, the calibration of a thin window Geiger-Muller type monitor for alpha superficial contamination is presented. The calibration curve is obtained by the method of the least-squares fitting with effective variance. The method and the approach for the calculation are briefly discussed. (author)

  2. Development of a calibration system for surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marechal, M.H.H.; Barbosa, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A calibration system for surface contamination monitors is developed, aiming supply the existence demand of these instruments. A experimental arrangement and a methodology are described. The advantages of use this system for calibration routine optimization are also discussed. (C.G.C.)

  3. On-line dynamic monitoring automotive exhausts: using BP-ANN for distinguishing multi-components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yudi; Wei, Ruyi; Liu, Xuebin

    2017-10-01

    Remote sensing-Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (RS-FTIR) is one of the most important technologies in atmospheric pollutant monitoring. It is very appropriate for on-line dynamic remote sensing monitoring of air pollutants, especially for the automotive exhausts. However, their absorption spectra are often seriously overlapped in the atmospheric infrared window bands, i.e. MWIR (3 5μm). Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is an algorithm based on the theory of the biological neural network, which simplifies the partial differential equation with complex construction. For its preferable performance in nonlinear mapping and fitting, in this paper we utilize Back Propagation-Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN) to quantitatively analyze the concentrations of four typical industrial automotive exhausts, including CO, NO, NO2 and SO2. We extracted the original data of these automotive exhausts from the HITRAN database, most of which virtually overlapped, and established a mixed multi-component simulation environment. Based on Beer-Lambert Law, concentrations can be retrieved from the absorbance of spectra. Parameters including learning rate, momentum factor, the number of hidden nodes and iterations were obtained when the BP network was trained with 80 groups of input data. By improving these parameters, the network can be optimized to produce necessarily higher precision for the retrieved concentrations. This BP-ANN method proves to be an effective and promising algorithm on dealing with multi-components analysis of automotive exhausts.

  4. Field Trial of LANL On-Line Advanced Enrichment Monitor for UF6 GCEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, Kiril D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lombardi, Marcie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MacArthur, Duncan W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Parker, Robert F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Morag K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keller, Clifford [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Friend, Peter [URENCO; Dunford, Andrew [URENCO

    2012-07-13

    The outline of this presentation is: (1) Technology basis of on-line enrichment monitoring; (2) Timescale of trial; (3) Description of installed equipment; (4) Photographs; (5) Results; (6) Possible further development; and (7) Conclusions. Summary of the good things about the Advanced Enrichment Monitor (AEM) performance is: (1) High accuracy - normally better than 1% relative, (2) Active system as accurate as passive system, (3) Fast and accurate detection of enrichment changes, (4) Physics is well understood, (5) Elegant method for capturing pressure signal, and (6) Data capture is automatic, low cost and fast. A couple of negative things are: (1) Some jumps in measured passive enrichment - of around +2% relative (due to clock errors?); and (2) Data handling and evaluation is off-line, expensive and very slow. Conclusions are: (1) LANL AEM is being tested on E23 plant at Capenhurst; (2) The trial is going very well; (3) AEM could detect production of HEU at potentially much lower cost than existing CEMO; (4) AEM can measure {sup 235}U assay accurately; (5) Active system using X-Ray source would avoid need for pressure measurement; (6) Substantial work lies ahead to go from current prototype to a production instrument.

  5. A study on the computerization of secondary side on-line chemistry monitoring system of PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kyung Lin; Lee, Eun Heui [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    A computer system for on-line chemistry monitoring system located in secondary side of PWR plant is under developing. Keithley 500 A mainframe and AMM1A and AIM3A modules are used for data acquisition and scientific and engineering software package of ASYST is used for developing software program. The contents are as follows: (1) Data acquisition and real-time display. The output signals of monitoring chemical sensors are stored in PC showing real-time data display as true values and graphics. (2) Data management and trending graphs. The data stored in PC are outcoming in various graphic mode for data management such as simple trending graphs screen display, time duration plot and histogram plot. (3) Daily basis data manual input. The chemical analysis data of grab sample are stored in PC by manual input for supplement data. (4) Tabular data report preparation. Summarized daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly and yearly reports are prepared with various mode of graphic display. 6 figs, 9 tabs, 8 refs. (Author).

  6. A study on the computerization of secondary side on-line chemistry monitoring system of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kyung Lin; Lee, Eun Heui

    1994-12-01

    A computer system for on-line chemistry monitoring system located in secondary side of PWR plant is under developing. Keithley 500 A mainframe and AMM1A and AIM3A modules are used for data acquisition and scientific and engineering software package of ASYST is used for developing software program. The contents are as follows: 1) Data acquisition and real-time display. The output signals of monitoring chemical sensors are stored in PC showing real-time data display as true values and graphics. 2) Data management and trending graphs. The data stored in PC are outcoming in various graphic mode for data management such as simple trending graphs screen display, time duration plot and histogram plot. 3) Daily basis data manual input. The chemical analysis data of grab sample are stored in PC by manual input for supplement data. 4) Tabular data report preparation. Summarized daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly and yearly reports are prepared with various mode of graphic display. 6 figs, 9 tabs, 8 refs. (Author)

  7. Atomic emission spectroscopy for the on-line monitoring of incineration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, E.A.H.; Groote, F.P.J. de; Jonkers, J.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A.; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der

    2003-01-01

    A diagnostic measurement system based on atomic emission spectroscopy has been developed for the purpose of on-line monitoring of hazardous elements in industrial combustion gases. The aim was to construct a setup with a high durability for rough and variable experimental conditions, e.g. a strongly fluctuating gas composition, a high gas temperature and the presence of fly ash and corrosive effluents. Since the setup is primarily intended for the analysis of combustion gases with extremely high concentrations of pollutants, not much effort has been made to achieve low detection limits. It was found that an inductively coupled argon plasma was too sensitive to molecular gas introduction. Therefore, a microwave induced plasma torch, compromising both the demands of a high durability and an effective evaporation and excitation of the analyte was used as excitation source. The analysis system has been installed at an industrial hazardous waste incinerator and successfully tested on combustion gases present above the incineration process. Abundant elements as zinc, lead and sodium could be easily monitored

  8. Nuclear plant's virtual simulation for on-line radioactive environment monitoring and dose assessment for personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Lapa, Celso Marcelo F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the use of nuclear plant's simulation for online dose rate monitoring and dose assessment for personnel, using virtual reality technology. The platform used for virtual simulation was adapted from a low cost game engine, taking advantage of all its image rendering capabilities, as well as the physics for movement and collision, and networking capabilities for multi-user interactive navigation. A real nuclear plant was virtually modeled and simulated, so that a number of users can navigate simultaneously in this virtual environment in first or third person view, each one receiving visual information about both the radiation dose rate in each actual position, and the radiation dose received. Currently, this research and development activity has been extended to consider also on-line measurements collected from radiation monitors installed in the real plant that feed the simulation platform with dose rate data, through a TCP/IP network. Results are shown and commented, and other improvements are discussed, as the execution of a more detailed dose rate mapping campaign.

  9. Statistical evaluation of the on line core monitoring effectiveness for limiting the consequences of the fuel assembly misloading event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, A.; Kereszturi, A.; Temesvari, E.; Korpas, L.

    2007-01-01

    In WWER-440 type reactors, on line core monitoring is used for the early indication of such abnormal events like fuel assembly misloading, inadvertent misalignment of Control Assemblies, blockage of coolant channels. The paper is focusing on the assembly misloading, which can not be indicated by other measurements. A Monte Carlo method was developed and applied to evaluate the on line core monitoring effectiveness for the indication of this abnormal event during the power increase in due time, when the consequences are still acceptable. The investigations proved the satisfactory effectiveness of the online core monitoring down to 55 % power even in case when 75 % of the temperature measurements was only available (Authors)

  10. On-line monitoring of solar cell module production by ellipsometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fried, M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-destructive analyzing tools are needed at all stages of thin film photovoltaic (PV) development, and on production lines. In thin film PV, layer thicknesses, micro-structure, composition, layer optical properties, and their uniformity (because each elementary cell is connected electrically in series within a big panel) serve as an important starting point in the evaluation of the performance of the cell or module. An important focus is to express the dielectric functions of each component material in terms of a handful of wavelength independent parameters whose variation can cover all process variants of that material. With the resulting database, spectroscopic ellipsometry coupled with multilayer analysis can be developed for on-line point-by-point mapping and on-line line-by-line imaging. This work tries to review the investigations of different types of PV-layers (anti-reflective coating, transparent-conductive oxide (TCO), multi-diode-structure, absorber and window layers) showing the existing dielectric function databases for the thin film components of CdTe, CuInGaSe 2 , thin Si, and TCO layers. Off-line point-by-point mapping can be effective for characterization of non-uniformities in full scale PV panels in developing labs but it is slow in the on-line mode when only 15 points can be obtained (within 1 min) as a 120 cm long panel moves by the mapping station. In the last years [M. Fried et al., Thin Solid Films 519, 2730 (2011)], instrumentation was developed that provides a line image of spectroscopic ellipsometry (wl = 350–1000 nm) data. Up to now a single 30 point line image can be collected in 10 s over a 15 cm width of PV material. This year we are building a 30 and a 60 cm width expanded beam ellipsometer the speed of which will be increased by 10 ×. Then 1800 points can be mapped in a 1 min traverse of a 60 ∗ 120 cm PV panel or flexible roll-to-roll substrate. - Highlights: • Instrumentation developed provides a line image of

  11. On-line monitoring of solar cell module production by ellipsometry technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, M., E-mail: fried@mfa.kfki.hu

    2014-11-28

    Non-destructive analyzing tools are needed at all stages of thin film photovoltaic (PV) development, and on production lines. In thin film PV, layer thicknesses, micro-structure, composition, layer optical properties, and their uniformity (because each elementary cell is connected electrically in series within a big panel) serve as an important starting point in the evaluation of the performance of the cell or module. An important focus is to express the dielectric functions of each component material in terms of a handful of wavelength independent parameters whose variation can cover all process variants of that material. With the resulting database, spectroscopic ellipsometry coupled with multilayer analysis can be developed for on-line point-by-point mapping and on-line line-by-line imaging. This work tries to review the investigations of different types of PV-layers (anti-reflective coating, transparent-conductive oxide (TCO), multi-diode-structure, absorber and window layers) showing the existing dielectric function databases for the thin film components of CdTe, CuInGaSe{sub 2}, thin Si, and TCO layers. Off-line point-by-point mapping can be effective for characterization of non-uniformities in full scale PV panels in developing labs but it is slow in the on-line mode when only 15 points can be obtained (within 1 min) as a 120 cm long panel moves by the mapping station. In the last years [M. Fried et al., Thin Solid Films 519, 2730 (2011)], instrumentation was developed that provides a line image of spectroscopic ellipsometry (wl = 350–1000 nm) data. Up to now a single 30 point line image can be collected in 10 s over a 15 cm width of PV material. This year we are building a 30 and a 60 cm width expanded beam ellipsometer the speed of which will be increased by 10 ×. Then 1800 points can be mapped in a 1 min traverse of a 60 ∗ 120 cm PV panel or flexible roll-to-roll substrate. - Highlights: • Instrumentation developed provides a line image of

  12. On-line acquisition of plant related and environmental parameters (plant monitoring) in gerbera: determining plant responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, R.; Slootweg, G.

    2004-01-01

    For on-line plant monitoring equipment to be functional in commercial glasshouse horticulture, relations between sensor readings and plant responses on both the short (days) and long term (weeks) are required. For this reason, systems were installed to monitor rockwool grown gerbera plants on a

  13. Application of a mechanistic model as a tool for on-line monitoring of pilot scale filamentous fungal fermentation processes-The importance of evaporation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M; Albaek, Mads O; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V

    2017-03-01

    A mechanistic model-based soft sensor is developed and validated for 550L filamentous fungus fermentations operated at Novozymes A/S. The soft sensor is comprised of a parameter estimation block based on a stoichiometric balance, coupled to a dynamic process model. The on-line parameter estimation block models the changing rates of formation of product, biomass, and water, and the rate of consumption of feed using standard, available on-line measurements. This parameter estimation block, is coupled to a mechanistic process model, which solves the current states of biomass, product, substrate, dissolved oxygen and mass, as well as other process parameters including k L a, viscosity and partial pressure of CO 2 . State estimation at this scale requires a robust mass model including evaporation, which is a factor not often considered at smaller scales of operation. The model is developed using a historical data set of 11 batches from the fermentation pilot plant (550L) at Novozymes A/S. The model is then implemented on-line in 550L fermentation processes operated at Novozymes A/S in order to validate the state estimator model on 14 new batches utilizing a new strain. The product concentration in the validation batches was predicted with an average root mean sum of squared error (RMSSE) of 16.6%. In addition, calculation of the Janus coefficient for the validation batches shows a suitably calibrated model. The robustness of the model prediction is assessed with respect to the accuracy of the input data. Parameter estimation uncertainty is also carried out. The application of this on-line state estimator allows for on-line monitoring of pilot scale batches, including real-time estimates of multiple parameters which are not able to be monitored on-line. With successful application of a soft sensor at this scale, this allows for improved process monitoring, as well as opening up further possibilities for on-line control algorithms, utilizing these on-line model outputs

  14. Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Coal Gasifier Refractory Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Anbo [Center for Photonics Technology, Blacksburgh, VA (United States); Yu, Zhihao [Center for Photonics Technology, Blacksburgh, VA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program “Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Coal Gasifier Refractory Health,” funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The scope of work entails analyses of traveling grating generation technologies in an optical fiber, as well as the interrogation of the gratings to infer a distributed temperature along the fiber, for the purpose of developing a real-time refractory health condition monitoring technology for coal gasifiers. During the project period, which is from 2011-2015, three different sensing principles were studied, including four-wave mixing (FWM), coherent optical time-domain reflectometer (C-OTDR) and Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). By comparing the three methods, the BOTDA was selected for further development into a complete bench-top sensing system for the proposed high-temperature sensing application. Based on the input from Eastman Chemical, the industrial collaborator on this project, a cylindrical furnace was designed and constructed to simulate typical gasifier refractory temperature conditions in the laboratory, and verify the sensor’s capability to fully monitor refractory conditions on the back-side at temperatures up to 1000°C. In the later stages of the project, the sensing system was tested in the simulated environment for its sensing performance and high-temperature survivability. Through theoretical analyses and experimental research on the different factors affecting the sensor performance, a sensor field deployment strategy was proposed for possible future sensor field implementations.

  15. A method for on-line reactivity monitoring in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulla, S.; Nervo, M.; Ravetto, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The problem of the on-line monitoring of reactivity in a source-free nuclear reactor is considered. • A relationship between the system stable period and the power, its derivative and its integral is derived. • The reactivity can be reconstructed at each time instant from the measured power-related quantities. • A study on the sensitivity of the reactivity to the uncertainty on the values of the integral parameters is performed. • The spatial effects are investigated by applying the method to the interpretation of flux signals. - Abstract: In the present work the problem of the on-line monitoring of the reactivity in a source-free nuclear reactor is considered. The method is based on the classic point kinetic model of reactor physics. A relationship between the instantaneous value of the system stable period and the values of the neutron flux amplitude (or the power), of its derivative and of the integral convolution term determining the instantaneous value of the effective delayed neutron concentration is derived. The reactivity can then be evaluated through the application of the inhour equation, assuming the effective delayed neutron fraction and prompt generation time are known from independent measurements. Since the power related quantities can be assumed to be experimental observables at each instant, the reactivity can be easily reconstructed. The method is tested at first through the interpretation of power histories simulated by the solution of the point kinetic equations; the effect of the time interval between power detections on the accuracy is studied, proving the excellent performance of the procedure. The work includes also a study on the sensitivity of the reactivity forecast to the uncertainty on the values of the effective delayed neutron fraction and prompt generation time. The spatial effects are investigated by applying the method to the interpretation of flux evolution histories generated by a numerical code solving

  16. Advanced on-line monitoring of power plant water/steam quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perboni, G.; Rocchini, G.; Sigon, F. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    To improve the behaviour and resistance of materials in the water-steam cycle critical components (steam generator, condensate heaters, turbine) it is necessary to adopt proper actions for promoting formation and integrity of surface protective oxide layers and preventing general and localised corrosion and transport processes of corrosion products throughout the cycle. In this report two important topics are reported: steam side corrosion in the low pressure turbines induced by the `first condensate` in the final stages of the turbine, and the stability of the oxides layers as a function of the condensate chemistry, with particular attention to the transport of corrosion products to the boiler. Furthermore an innovative technique for monitoring some physico-chemical parameters at the actual fluid temperature (150-300C) using new electrochemical sensors improved by ENEL/CRAM is studied: pH, conductivity, corrosion rate, corrosion and redox potentials.ENEL/CRAM validated on lab-scale testing loops these sensors and carried out the following programs: calibration procedures, reliability of the response, long-term stability and assessment of a reduced maintenance. Applications of the electrochemical methods to fossil fired units have demonstrated their validity for monitoring the cycle chemistry and the resistance to corrosion of structural materials in real time.

  17. Establishment of X-ray Measurement System for On-line Monitoring of Water Content in Powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J. S. [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, B. J. [Idealsystem Co., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    On-line process monitoring is of critical importance in many industries, and therefore a variety of the state-of-the-art physical and chemical measurement techniques have been proposed. But, these techniques have their own pros and cons under the field process environments. Because the field process environments are very different from the well-organized chemical laboratories, many factors should be considered in order to optimize the process monitoring system. However, there have been few studies on the on-line measurement of water content in powder materials. For that reason, the X-ray measurement system based on the X-ray scattering technique, which was first proposed in 2011 as a new method for the determination of water content in powder, has been improved. in the present study, our original X-ray measurement system has been modified for more rapid, simple, and adequate for maximizing the field applicability of the on-line monitoring system

  18. On-line vibration and loose parts monitoring of nuclear power stations as a preventive maintenance tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An equipment for on-line monitoring of vibrations and loose parts of nuclear power plants is described. The unit consists of piezoelectric transducers, preamplifiers, a data processor, and peripherals. It secures on-line measurement without interfering with the operation of the power plant. A diagram is given showing the monitor of vibrations and loose parts for pressurized water reactors and the Spectra-Scan equipment for the automatic recording and computer processing of noise signals is described. A survey is given of diagnostic methods for internal vibrations, noise and oscillations and procedures for the analysis of recordings are described. The experiences of Atomica International with the observation of vibrations in nuclear power plants are described and an economic assessment is presented of the efficiency of on-line monitoring of these vibrations. A cost-benefit analysis is made of such equipment which justifies their introduction. (B.S.)

  19. A methodology for on line fatigue life monitoring : rainflow cycle counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.K.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    Green's function technique is used in on line fatigue life monitoring to convert plant data to stress versus time data. This technique converts plant data most efficiently to stress versus time data. To compute the fatigue usage factor the actual number of cycles experienced by the component is to be found out from stress versus time data. Using material fatigue properties the fatigue usage factor is to be computed from the number of cycles. Generally the stress response is very irregular in nature. To convert an irregular stress history to stress frequency spectra rainflow cycle counting method is used. This method is proved to be superior to other counting methods and yields best fatigue estimates. A code has been developed which computes the number of cycles experienced by the component from stress time history using rainflow cycle counting method. This postprocessor also computes the accumulated fatigue usage factor from material fatigue properties. The present report describes the development of a code to compute fatigue usage factor using rainflow cycle counting technique and presents a real life case study. (author). 10 refs., 10 figs

  20. Operational experience of water quality improvement accompanied by monitoring with on-line ion chromatograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Maeda, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Ishibe, T.; Usui, N.; Osumi, K.; Ishigure, K.

    1997-01-01

    Hamaoka Unit No.1 (BWR 540 MWe) of Chubu Electric Power Company, Inc. had experienced fuel failures caused by fuel cladding corrosion at the cycle 11 in 1990. This cladding corrosion was considered to be caused by a combination of cladding material susceptibility to corrosion and anomalous reactor water quality. Based on the intensive investigations on the causes of anomalous reactor water quality, several countermeasures were proposed to improve the reactor water quality for the subsequent cycles operation. As the results of countermeasures, reactor water quality of Hamaoka Unit No.1 in the cycle 12 became much better than that of any other previous cycles and neither failure nor accelerated corrosion was found in the subsequent annual inspection. As one of the countermeasures for water quality improvement, an on-line ion chromatograph has been installed on Hamaoka Unit No.1 to reinforce reactor water quality monitoring, that has enabled us to identify ion species in reactor water and to evaluate reactor water behaviour in detail. (author). 3 refs, 8 figs, 2 tab

  1. A system for on-line monitoring of light element concentration distributions in thin samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brands, P.J.M. E-mail: p.j.m.brands@tue.nl; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; Voigt, M.J.A. de

    1999-09-02

    At the Cyclotron Laboratory, a scanning proton microprobe is used to determine concentration distributions in biomedical samples. The data acquired in these measurements used to be analysed in a time consuming off-line analysis. To avoid the loss of valuable measurement and analysis time, DYANA was developed. DYANA is an on-line method for the analysis of data from biomedical measurements. By using a database of background shapes, light elements such as Na and Mg, can be fitted even more precisely than in conventional fitting procedures. The entire analysis takes only several seconds and is performed while the acquisition system is gathering a new subset of data. Data acquisition must be guaranteed and may not be interfered by other parallel processes. Therefore, the analysis, the data acquisition and the experiment control is performed on a PCI-based Pentium personal computer (PC), running a real-time operating system. A second PC is added to run a graphical user interface for interaction with the experimenter and the monitoring of the analysed results. The system is here illustrated using atherosclerotic tissue but is applicable to all kinds of thin samples.

  2. Quantitative on-line age monitoring system for power generation industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.K.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    The degradation effect of various components of power generation industries is an important information for safe and cost effective running of the plant. Among the various such aging effects, fatigue, fatigue creep interaction and crack growth are commonly responsible for most of the failures. Information about various aging effects help in assessing structural degradation of the components. This provides actual plant transients to future designers, guidelines for in-service inspection and maintenance programmes and may also support future life extension of a power plant. In the present paper, development of a quantitative on-line age monitoring methodology using the available plant instrumentations is presented. Green's function technique is used to convert plant data to temperature and stress versus time data. Fatigue usage factor is computed using rain flow cycle counting algorithm using the material fatigue data. The effect of creep is considered adopting life fraction rule using material creep data. Crack growth rate is predicted using linear elastic fracture mechanics and time dependent C t approach. The present paper describes the detailed steps of this methodology, the development of various codes and the case studies carried out. (author). 3 figs

  3. On-Line Fission Gas Release Monitoring System in the High Flux Reactor Petten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurie, M.; Fuetterer, M. A.; Appelman, K.H.; Lapetite, J.-M.; Marmier, A.; Knol, S.; Best, J.

    2013-06-01

    For HTR fuel irradiation tests in the HFR Petten a specific installation was designed and installed dubbed the 'Sweep Loop Facility' (SLF). The SLF is tasked with three functions, namely temperature control by gas mixture technique, surveillance of safety parameters (temperature, pressure, radioactivity etc.) and analysis of fission gas release for three individual capsules in two separate experimental rigs. The SLF enables continuous and independent surveillance of all gas circuits. The release of volatile fission products (FP) from the in-pile experiments is monitored by continuous gas purging. The fractional release of these FP, defined as the ratio between release rate of a gaseous fission isotope (measured) to its instantaneous birth rate (calculated), is a licensing-relevant test for HTR fuel. The developed gamma spectrometry station allows for higher measurement frequencies, thus enabling follow-up of rapid and massive release transients. The designed stand-alone system was tested and fully used through the final irradiation period of the HFR-EU1 experiment which was terminated on 18 February 2010. Its robustness allowed the set up to be used as extra safety instrumentation. This paper describes the gas activity measurement technique based on HPGe gamma spectrometry and illustrates how qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile FP can be performed on-line. (authors)

  4. Operational experience of water quality improvement accompanied by monitoring with on-line ion chromatograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M; Maeda, K [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Hashimoto, H; Ishibe, T [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan); Usui, N [Hitachi Engineering Co. Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Osumi, K [Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi (Japan); Ishigure, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Hamaoka Unit No.1 (BWR 540 MWe) of Chubu Electric Power Company, Inc. had experienced fuel failures caused by fuel cladding corrosion at the cycle 11 in 1990. This cladding corrosion was considered to be caused by a combination of cladding material susceptibility to corrosion and anomalous reactor water quality. Based on the intensive investigations on the causes of anomalous reactor water quality, several countermeasures were proposed to improve the reactor water quality for the subsequent cycles operation. As the results of countermeasures, reactor water quality of Hamaoka Unit No.1 in the cycle 12 became much better than that of any other previous cycles and neither failure nor accelerated corrosion was found in the subsequent annual inspection. As one of the countermeasures for water quality improvement, an on-line ion chromatograph has been installed on Hamaoka Unit No.1 to reinforce reactor water quality monitoring, that has enabled us to identify ion species in reactor water and to evaluate reactor water behaviour in detail. (author). 3 refs, 8 figs, 2 tab.

  5. Application of laser ultrasonic method for on-line monitoring of friction stir spot welding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kuanshuang; Zhou, Zhenggan; Zhou, Jianghua

    2015-09-01

    Application of a laser ultrasonic method is developed for on-line monitoring of the friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process. Based on the technology of FSSW, laser-generated ultrasonic waves in a good weld and nonweld area are simulated by a finite element method. The reflected and transmitted waves are analyzed to disclose the properties of the welded interface. The noncontact-laser ultrasonic-inspection system was established to verify the numerical results. The reflected waves in the good-weld and nonweld area can be distinguished by time-of-flight. The transmitted waves evidently attenuate in the nonweld area in contrast to signal amplitude in the good weld area because of interfacial impedance difference. Laser ultrasonic C-scan images can sufficiently evaluate the intrinsic character of the weld area in comparison with traditional water-immersion ultrasonic testing results. The research results confirm that laser ultrasonics would be an effective method to realize the characterization of FSSW defects.

  6. Modeling and Analysis Methods for an On-line Enrichment Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Leon E.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Wittman, Richard S.; Zalavadia, Mital A.; March-Leuba, Jose A.

    2016-05-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has developed an On-Line Enrichment Monitor (OLEM) as one possible component in a new generation of safeguards measures for uranium enrichment plants. The OLEM measures 235U emissions from the UF6 gas flowing through a unit header pipe using NaI(Tl) spectrometers, and corrects for gas density changes using pressure and temperature sensors in order to determine the enrichment of the gas as a function of time. In parallel with the OLEM instrument development, a Virtual OLEM (VOLEM) software tool has been developed that is capable of producing synthetic gamma-ray, pressure, and temperature data representative of a wide range of enrichment plant operating conditions. VOLEM complements instrument development activities and allows the study of OLEM for scenarios that will be difficult or impossible to evaluate empirically. Uses of VOLEM include: investigation of hardware design options; inter-comparison of candidate gamma-ray spectral analysis and enrichment estimation algorithms; uncertainty budget analysis and performance prediction for typical and atypical operational scenarios; and testing of the OLEM data acquisition, analysis and reporting software. This paper describes the technical foundations of VOLEM and illustrates how it can be used. An overview of the nominal instrument design and deployment scenario for OLEM is provided, with emphasis on the key online-assay measurement challenge: accurately determining the portion of the total 235U signal that comes from a background that includes solid uranium deposits on the piping walls. Monte Carlo modeling tools, data analysis algorithms and uncertainty quantification methods are described. VOLEM is then used to quantitatively explore the uncertainty budgets and predicted instrument performance for a plausible range of typical plant operating parameters, and one set of candidate analysis algorithms. Additionally, a series of VOLEM case studies illustrates how an online

  7. Onboard calibration and monitoring for the SWIFT instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnama, P; McDade, I; Shepherd, G; Gault, W

    2012-01-01

    The SWIFT (Stratospheric Wind Interferometer for Transport studies) instrument is a proposed space-based field-widened Doppler Michelson interferometer designed to measure stratospheric winds and ozone densities using a passive optical technique called Doppler Michelson imaging interferometry. The onboard calibration and monitoring procedures for the SWIFT instrument are described in this paper. Sample results of the simulations of onboard calibration measurements are presented and discussed. This paper also discusses the results of the derivation of the calibrations and monitoring requirements for the SWIFT instrument. SWIFT's measurement technique and viewing geometry are briefly described. The reference phase calibration and filter monitoring for the SWIFT instrument are two of the main critical design issues. In this paper it is shown that in order to meet SWIFT's science requirements, Michelson interferometer optical path difference monitoring corresponding to a phase calibration accuracy of ∼10 −3 radians, filter passband monitoring corresponding to phase accuracy of ∼5 × 10 −3 radians and a thermal stability of 10 −3 K s −1 are required. (paper)

  8. On-line monitoring and control of animal-cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der J.J.

    1996-01-01


    On-line analysis and control of biotechnological processes is still the stepchild in industry. In general, only parameters as dissolved-oxygen concentration, pH and temperature are controlled on-line. Important parameters as substrate and inhibitor concentrations are only measured

  9. Calibration of radiation monitors at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudreau, L.; Miller, A.D.; Naughton, M.D.

    1994-03-01

    This work was performed to provide guidance to the utilities in the primary and secondary calibration of the radiation monitoring systems (RMS) installed in nuclear power plants. These systems are installed in nuclear power plants to monitor ongoing processes, identify changing radiation fields, predict and limit personnel radiation exposures and measure and control discharge of radioactive materials to the environment. RMS are checked and calibrated on a continuing basis to ensure their precision and accuracy. This report discusses various approaches towards primary and secondary calibrations of the RMS equipment in light of accepted practices at typical power plants and recent interpretations of regulatory guidance. Detailed calibration techniques and overall system responses, trends, and practices are discussed. Industry, utility, and regulatory sources were contacted to create an overall consensus of the most reasonable approaches to optimizing the performance of this equipment

  10. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter time calibration, monitoring and performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00075913; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. This sampling device is made of plastic scintillating tiles alternated with iron plates and its response is calibrated to electromagnetic scale by means of several dedicated calibration systems. The accurate time calibration is important for the energy reconstruction, non-collision background removal as well as for specific physics analyses. The initial time calibration with so-called splash events and subsequent fine-tuning with collision data are presented. The monitoring of the time calibration with laser system and physics collision data is discussed as well as the corrections for sudden changes performed still before the recorded data are processed for physics analyses. Finally, the time resolution as measured with jets and isolated muons particles is presented.

  11. A fixed incore based system for an on line core margin monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourlevat, J. L.; Carrasco, M.

    2002-01-01

    FRAMATOME-ANP has developed a new core monitoring system which is based on measurements coming from fixed incore sensors and on a 3D power distribution on line reconstruction. After selecting the rhodium self powered neutron detectors as fixed incore sensors, a first step of this development consisted in testing this kind of sensors in the French Golfech Unit 2 reactor (4L, 1300 MWe). (Author)

  12. Development and Validation of an On-Line Water Toxicity Sensor with Immobilized Luminescent Bacteria for On-Line Surface Water Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woutersen, Marjolijn; van der Gaag, Bram; Abrafi Boakye, Afua; Mink, Jan; Marks, Robert S; Wagenvoort, Arco J; Ketelaars, Henk A M; Brouwer, Bram; Heringa, Minne B

    2017-11-22

    Surface water used for drinking water production is frequently monitored in The Netherlands using whole organism biomonitors, with for example Daphnia magna or Dreissena mussels, which respond to changes in the water quality. However, not all human-relevant toxic compounds can be detected by these biomonitors. Therefore, a new on-line biosensor has been developed, containing immobilized genetically modified bacteria, which respond to genotoxicity in the water by emitting luminescence. The performance of this sensor was tested under laboratory conditions, as well as under field conditions at a monitoring station along the river Meuse in The Netherlands. The sensor was robust and easy to clean, with inert materials, temperature control and nutrient feed for the reporter organisms. The bacteria were immobilized in sol-gel on either an optical fiber or a glass slide and then continuously exposed to water. Since the glass slide was more sensitive and robust, only this setup was used in the field. The sensor responded to spikes of genotoxic compounds in the water with a minimal detectable concentration of 0.01 mg/L mitomycin C in the laboratory and 0.1 mg/L mitomycin C in the field. With further optimization, which should include a reduction in daily maintenance, the sensor has the potential to become a useful addition to the currently available biomonitors.

  13. Development and Validation of an On-Line Water Toxicity Sensor with Immobilized Luminescent Bacteria for On-Line Surface Water Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolijn Woutersen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface water used for drinking water production is frequently monitored in The Netherlands using whole organism biomonitors, with for example Daphnia magna or Dreissena mussels, which respond to changes in the water quality. However, not all human-relevant toxic compounds can be detected by these biomonitors. Therefore, a new on-line biosensor has been developed, containing immobilized genetically modified bacteria, which respond to genotoxicity in the water by emitting luminescence. The performance of this sensor was tested under laboratory conditions, as well as under field conditions at a monitoring station along the river Meuse in The Netherlands. The sensor was robust and easy to clean, with inert materials, temperature control and nutrient feed for the reporter organisms. The bacteria were immobilized in sol-gel on either an optical fiber or a glass slide and then continuously exposed to water. Since the glass slide was more sensitive and robust, only this setup was used in the field. The sensor responded to spikes of genotoxic compounds in the water with a minimal detectable concentration of 0.01 mg/L mitomycin C in the laboratory and 0.1 mg/L mitomycin C in the field. With further optimization, which should include a reduction in daily maintenance, the sensor has the potential to become a useful addition to the currently available biomonitors.

  14. On-line Monitoring Device for High-voltage Switch Cabinet Partial Discharge Based on Pulse Current Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Tao, S.; Zhang, X. Z.; Cai, H. W.; Li, P.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, T. C.; Li, J.; Wang, W. S.; Zhang, X. K.

    2017-12-01

    The pulse current method for partial discharge detection is generally applied in type testing and other off-line tests of electrical equipment at delivery. After intensive analysis of the present situation and existing problems of partial discharge detection in switch cabinets, this paper designed the circuit principle and signal extraction method for partial discharge on-line detection based on a high-voltage presence indicating systems (VPIS), established a high voltage switch cabinet partial discharge on-line detection circuit based on the pulse current method, developed background software integrated with real-time monitoring, judging and analyzing functions, carried out a real discharge simulation test on a real-type partial discharge defect simulation platform of a 10KV switch cabinet, and verified the sensitivity and validity of the high-voltage switch cabinet partial discharge on-line monitoring device based on the pulse current method. The study presented in this paper is of great significance for switch cabinet maintenance and theoretical study on pulse current method on-line detection, and has provided a good implementation method for partial discharge on-line monitoring devices for 10KV distribution network equipment.

  15. Calibration of radiation protection area monitoring instruments in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, I.I.; Youssif, B.E.; Beineen, A.A.; Hassan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents results of measurements for the calibration of radiation protection area monitoring instruments carried out during the period 2006-2008 at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of Sudan. The work performed included quality assurance measurements, measurements for the dosimeter calibrations and uncertainty analysis. Calibrations were performed using 137 Cs gamma ray sources produced by OB 85 and OB 34/1 gamma calibrators producing air kerma rate that ranged from 10 μGy/h to 50 mGy/h. Area monitoring instruments were calibrated in terms of ambient dose equivalent, H*(10) derived using air kerma to ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. Results are presented for 78 area monitoring instruments representing most commonly used types in Sudan. Radioactive check source measurements for the reference chamber showed deviation within 1% limit. The accuracy in the beam output measurements was within 5% internationally considered as acceptable. The results highlighted the importance of radiation protection calibrations. Regulations are further need to ensure safety aspect really meet the required international standards.

  16. Implementation of automated, on-line fatigue monitoring in a boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takeshi; Tokunaga, Katsumi; Stevens, G.L.; Ranganath, S.

    1993-01-01

    A workstation-based, on-line fatigue monitoring system for tracking fatigue usage applied to a Japanese operating boiling water reactor (BWR), Tsuruga Unit 1, is described. The system uses the influence function approach and rainflow cycle counting methodology, operates on a workstation computer, and determines component stresses using temperature, pressure, and flow rate data that are made available via signal taps from previously existing plant sensors. Using plant-unique influence functions developed specifically for the feedwater nozzle location, the system calculates stresses as a function of time and computes the fatigue usage. The analysis method used to compute fatigue usage complies with MITI Code Notification number-sign 501. Fatigue values are saved automatically on files at times defined by the user for use at a later time. Of particular note, this paper describes some of the details involved with implementing such a system from the utility perspective. Utility installation details, as well as why such a system was chosen for implementation are presented. Fatigue results for an entire fuel cycle are presented and compared to assumed design basis events to confirm that actual plant thermal duty is significantly less severe than originally estimated in the design basis stress report. Although the system is specifically set up to address fatigue duty for the feedwater nozzle location, a generic shell structure was implemented so that any other components could be added at a future time without software modifications. As a result, the system provides the technical basis to more accurately evaluate actual reactor conditions as well as the justification for plant life extension

  17. Evaluation on the model of performance predictions for on-line monitoring system for combined-cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Si Moon

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the simulation model developed to predict design and off-design performance of an actual combined cycle power plant(S-Station in Korea), which would be running combined with on-line performance monitoring system in an on-line real-time fashion. The first step in thermal performance analysis is to build an accurate performance model of the power plant, in order to achieve this goal, GateCycle program has been employed in developing the model. This developed models predict design and off-design performance with a precision of one percent over a wide range of operating conditions so that on-line real-time performance monitoring can accurately establish both current performance and expected performance and also help the operator identify problems before they would be noticed

  18. Determination of the delivered hemodialysis dose using standard methods and on-line clearance monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatković Vlastimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: Delivered dialysis dose has a cumulative effect and significant influence upon the adequacy of dialysis, quality of life and development of co-morbidity at patients on dialysis. Thus, a great attention is given to the optimization of dialysis treatment. On-line Clearance Monitoring (OCM allows a precise and continuous measurement of the delivered dialysis dose. Kt/V index (K = dialyzer clearance of urea; t = dialysis time; V = patient's total body water, measured in real time is used as a unit for expressing the dialysis dose. The aim of this research was to perform a comparative assessment of the delivered dialysis dose by the application of the standard measurement methods and a module for continuous clearance monitoring. Methods. The study encompassed 105 patients who had been on the chronic hemodialysis program for more than three months, three times a week. By random choice, one treatment per each controlled patient was taken. All the treatments understood bicarbonate dialysis. The delivered dialysis dose was determined by the calculation of mathematical models: Urea Reduction Ratio (URR singlepool index Kt/V (spKt/V and by the application of OCM. Results. Urea Reduction Ratio was the most sensitive parameter for the assessment and, at the same time, it was in the strongest correlation with the other two, spKt/V indexes and OCM. The values pointed out an adequate dialysis dose. The URR values were significantly higher in women than in men, p < 0.05. The other applied model for the delivered dialysis dose measurement was Kt/V index. The obtained values showed that the dialysis dose was adequate, and that, according to this parameter, the women had significantly better dialysis, then the men p < 0.05. According to the OCM, the average value was slightly lower than the adequate one. The women had a satisfactory dialysis according to this index as well, while the delivered dialysis dose was insufficient in men. The difference

  19. A study of the long-range inspection method for on-line monitoring of pipes in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Heung Seop; Lim, Sa Hoe; Kim, Jae Hee; Kim, Young H.; Song, Sung Jin

    2005-01-01

    Deployment of an advanced on-line monitoring of the component integrity offers the prospect of an improved performance, enhanced safety, and reduced overall cost for nuclear power plants (NPPs). Also ultrasonic guided ultrasonic wave has been known as one of the promising techniques that could be utilized for on-line monitoring, because it enables us to undertake a long-range inspection of structures such as plates and pipes. The present work is aimed at developing a new method using ultrasonic guided waves for the on-line monitoring of pipes. For this purpose we fabricated the necessary hardware and carried out transmitter tuning, group velocity measurement, receiver tuning, and mode identification. Finally we carried out an experiment on a long-range inspection with the developed hardware and the techniques. In the experiment, we could detect the flaws at a distance of about 20M from the transmitter, and we could verify the possibility of using the developed hardware and techniques for on-line monitoring of pipes in NPPs

  20. NDE of stainless steel and on-line leak monitoring of LWRs. Annual report, October 1984-September 1985. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Claytor, T.N.; Mathieson, T.; Prine, D.W.

    1986-02-01

    This progress report summarizes work performed by the Argonne National Laboratory and GARD, Inc. (Division of Chamberlain Mfg. Corp.) as subcontractor on NDE of stainless steel and on-line leak monitoring of LWRs during the 12 months from October 1984 to September 1985. 15 refs., 36 figs

  1. Feasibility study of applying a multi-channel analysis model to on-line core monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, W. K.; Yoo, Y. J.; Hwang, D. H.; Jun, T. H.

    1998-01-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the effect of implementing a multi-channel analysis model in on-line core monitoring system. A simplified thermal-hydraulic model has been used in the on-line core monitoring system of digital PWR. The design procedure, core thermal margin and computation time were investigated in case of replacing the simplified model with the multi-channel analysis model. For the given ranges of limiting conditions for operation in Yonggwang Unit 3 Cycle 1, the minimum DNBR of the simplified thermal-hydraulic code CETOP-D was compared to that of the multi-channel analysis code MATRA. A CETOP-D tuning is additionally required to ensure the accurate and conservative DNBR calculation but the MATRA tuning is not necessary. MATRA appeared to increase the DNBR overpower margin from 2.5% to 6% over the CETOP-D margin. MATRA took approximately 1 second to compute DNBR on the HP9000 workstation system, which is longer than the DNBR computation time of CETOP-D. It is, however, fast enough to perform the on-line monitoring of DNBR. It can be therefore concluded that the application of the multi-channel analysis model MATRA in the on-line core monitoring system is feasible

  2. On-line acquisition of plant related and environmental parameters (plant monitoring) in gerbera: determining plant responses

    OpenAIRE

    Baas, R.; Slootweg, G.

    2004-01-01

    For on-line plant monitoring equipment to be functional in commercial glasshouse horticulture, relations between sensor readings and plant responses on both the short (days) and long term (weeks) are required. For this reason, systems were installed to monitor rockwool grown gerbera plants on a minute-to-minute basis from July 2002 until April 2003. Data collected included, amongst others, crop transpiration from lysimeter data (2 m2), canopy temperature using infrared sensors, rockwool water...

  3. On-line monitoring of extraction process of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae using near infrared spectroscopy combined with synergy interval PLS and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wang, Lei; Wu, Yongjiang; Liu, Xuesong; Bi, Yuan; Xiao, Wei; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    There is a growing need for the effective on-line process monitoring during the manufacture of traditional Chinese medicine to ensure quality consistency. In this study, the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique to monitor the extraction process of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae was investigated. A new algorithm of synergy interval PLS with genetic algorithm (Si-GA-PLS) was proposed for modeling. Four different PLS models, namely Full-PLS, Si-PLS, GA-PLS, and Si-GA-PLS, were established, and their performances in predicting two quality parameters (viz. total acid and soluble solid contents) were compared. In conclusion, Si-GA-PLS model got the best results due to the combination of superiority of Si-PLS and GA. For Si-GA-PLS, the determination coefficient (Rp2) and root-mean-square error for the prediction set (RMSEP) were 0.9561 and 147.6544 μg/ml for total acid, 0.9062 and 0.1078% for soluble solid contents, correspondingly. The overall results demonstrated that the NIR spectroscopy technique combined with Si-GA-PLS calibration is a reliable and non-destructive alternative method for on-line monitoring of the extraction process of TCM on the production scale.

  4. Monte Carlo calculations of calibrations of calibration coefficients of ATL monitors installed at NPP Temelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solc, J.; Suran, J.; Novotna, M.; Pavlis, J.

    2008-01-01

    The contribution describes a technique of determination of calibration coefficients of a radioactivity monitor using Monte Carlo calculations. The monitor is installed at the NPP Temelin adjacent to lines with a radioactive medium. The output quantity is the activity concentration (in Bq/m3) that is converted from the number of counts per minute measured by the monitor. The value of this conversion constant, i.e. calibration coefficient, was calculated for gamma photons emitted by Co-60 and compared to the data stated by the manufacturer and supplier of these monitors, General Atomic Electronic Systems, Inc., USA. Results of the comparison show very good agreement between calculations and manufacturer data; the differences are lower than the quadratic sum of uncertainties. (authors)

  5. Calibration, monitoring, and control of complex detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breidenbach, M.

    1981-01-01

    LEP detectors will probably be complex devices having tens of subsystems; some subsystems having perhaps tens of thousands of channels. Reasonable design goals for such a detector will include economic use of money and people, rapid and reliable calibration and monitoring of the detector, and simple control and operation of the device. The synchronous operation of an e + e - storage ring, coupled with its relatively low interaction rate, allow the design of simple circuits for time and charge measurements. These circuits, and more importantly, the basic detector channels, can usually be tested and calibrated by signal injection into the detector. Present detectors utilize semi-autonomous controllers which collect such calibration data and calculate statistics as well as control sparse data scans. Straightforward improvements in programming technology should move the entire calibration into these local controllers, so that calibration and testing time will be a constant independent of the number of channels in a system. Considerable programming effort may be saved by emphasizing the similarities of the subsystems, so that the subsystems can be described by a reasonable database and general purpose calibration and test routines can be used. Monitoring of the apparatus will probably continue to be of two classes: 'passive' histogramming of channel occupancies and other more complex combinations of the data; and 'active' injection of test patterns and calibration signals during a run. The relative importance of active monitoring will increase for the low data rates expected off resonances at high s. Experience at SPEAR and PEP is used to illustrate these approaches. (Auth.)

  6. Calibration, Monitoring, and Control of Complex Detector Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbach, M.

    1981-04-01

    LEP Detectors will probably be complex devices having tens of subsystems; some subsystems having perhaps tens of thousands of channels. Reasonable design goals for such a detector will include economic use of money and people, rapid and reliable calibration and monitoring of the detector, and simple control and operation of the device. The synchronous operation of an e+e- storage ring, coupled with its relatively low interaction rate, allow the design of simple circuits for time and charge measurements. These circuits, and more importantly, the basic detector channels, can usually be tested and calibrated by signal injection into the detector. Present detectors utilize semi-autonomous controllers which collect such calibration data and calculate statistics as well as control sparse data scans. Straightforward improvements in programming technology should move the entire calibration into these local controllers, so that calibration and testing time will be a constant independent of the number of channels in a system. Considerable programming effort may be saved by emphasizing the similarities of the subsystems, so that the subsystems can be described by a reasonable database and general purpose calibration and test routines can be used. Monitoring of the apparatus will probably continue to be of two classes: "passive" histogramming of channel occupancies and other more complex combinations of the data; and "active" injection of test patterns and calibration signals during a run. The relative importance of active monitoring will increase for the low data rates expected off resonances at high s. Experience at SPEAR and PEP is used to illustrate these approaches.

  7. Optogalvanic wavelength calibration for laser monitoring of reactive atmospheric species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Laser-based techniques have been successfully employed for monitoring atmospheric species of importance to stratospheric ozone chemistry or tropospheric air quality control. When spectroscopic methods using tunable lasers are used, a simultaneously recorded reference spectrum is required for wavelength calibration. For stable species this is readily achieved by incorporating into the sensing instrument a reference cell containing the species to be monitored. However, when the species of interest is short-lived, this approach is unsuitable. It is proposed that wavelength calibration for short-lived species may be achieved by generating the species of interest in an electrical or RF discharge and using optogalvanic detection as a simple, sensitive, and reliable means of recording calibration spectra. The wide applicability of this method is emphasized. Ultraviolet, visible, or infrared lasers, either CW or pulsed, may be used in aircraft, balloon, or shuttle experiments for sensing atoms, molecules, radicals, or ions.

  8. Emulsion (Co)polymerization of styrene and butyl acrylate monitored by On-line Raman Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, H.J.T.; Pepers, M.L.H.; Herk, van A.M.; German, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The homo- and copolymerizations of styrene and n-butyl acrylate were studied by on-line in-situ Raman spectroscopy.Results from the solution (homo)polymerizations proved to be very useful in the quantification of the Raman data from the emulsion homopolymerization. From the homopolymerization data

  9. Monitoring on-line system for the lactic fermentation measurement using the integration enzyme sensor; Shusekika koso sensa wo mochiita nyusan hakko keisokuyo onrain monitringu shisutemu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masayasu; Kumagaya, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Yoichi [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1999-04-05

    The monitoring on-line system for the lactic fermentation measurement in which the simultaneous measurement of the substrate. Generation was possible was constructed without consuming the culture medium by using soliciting small enzyme sensor and flow injection analysis system integrate. There was the linearity that anyway was also range of concentration of 70mM or less and that it is good on the calibration curve of minute glucose, lactose, and lactic acid sensor. It became clear that it proved that all range of concentration of the substrate of these three which combining with the micro diary system, breaks in the lactic fermentation measurement with the necessity can be measured and not observe the interference by medium components, etc. either. Constructed monitoring on-line system is Lactobacillus delbrueckii and, it was applied to the lactic fermentation process of Lactobacillus lactis. Through the fermentation process for 24 hours, simultaneous measurement of glucose (or lactose) and lactic acid is possible. The measured value agreed well with the result of colorimetric method using the enzyme. (translated by NEDO)

  10. On-Line Monitoring for Process Control and Safeguarding of Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.; Levitskaia, T.; Casella, A.

    2015-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safe- guards standards for fissionable material at spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide a more timely, cost-effective and resource-efficient means for MC&A verification at such facilities. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including a spectroscopy-based monitoring system, to potentially reduce the time and re- source burden associated with current techniques. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major cold flowsheet chemicals using ultra-violet and visible, near infrared and Raman spectroscopy. This paper will provide an overview of the methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies. Our ability to identify material intentionally diverted from a liquid-liquid solvent extraction contactor system was successfully tested using on-line process monitoring as a means to detect the amount of material diverted. A chemical diversion, and detection of that diversion, from a solvent extraction scheme was demonstrated using a centrifugal contactor system operating with the PUREX flowsheet. A portion of the feed from a counter-current extraction system was diverted while a continuous extraction experiment was underway. The amount observed to be diverted by on-line spectroscopic process monitoring was in excellent agreement with values based from the known mass of

  11. Calibration of Heat Stress Monitor and its Measurement Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Can

    2017-07-01

    Wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) equation is a heat stress index that gives information for the workers in the industrial areas. WBGT equation is described in ISO Standard 7243 (ISO 7243 in Hot environments—estimation of the heat stress on working man, based on the WBGT index, ISO, Geneva, 1982). WBGT is the result of the combined quantitative effects of the natural wet-bulb temperature, dry-bulb temperature, and air temperature. WBGT is a calculated parameter. WBGT uses input estimates, and heat stress monitor measures these quantities. In this study, the calibration method of a heat stress monitor is described, and the model function for measurement uncertainty is given. Sensitivity coefficients were derived according to GUM. Two-pressure humidity generators were used to generate a controlled environment. Heat stress monitor was calibrated inside of the generator. Two-pressure humidity generator, which is located in Turkish Standard Institution, was used as the reference device. This device is traceable to national standards. Two-pressure humidity generator includes reference temperature Pt-100 sensors. The reference sensor was sheltered with a wet wick for the calibration of natural wet-bulb thermometer. The reference sensor was centred into a black globe that has got 150 mm diameter for the calibration of the black globe thermometer.

  12. Combined micro-droplet and thin-film-assisted pre-concentration of lead traces for on-line monitoring using anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belostotsky, Inessa; Gridin, Vladimir V; Schechter, Israel; Yarnitzky, Chaim N

    2003-02-01

    An improved analytical method for airborne lead traces is reported. It is based on using a Venturi scrubber sampling device for simultaneous thin-film stripping and droplet entrapment of aerosol influxes. At least threefold enhancement of the lead-trace pre-concentration is achieved. The sampled traces are analyzed by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The method was tested by a series of pilot experiments. These were performed using contaminant-controlled air intakes. Reproducible calibration plots were obtained. The data were validated by traditional analysis using filter sampling. LODs are comparable with the conventional techniques. The method was successfully applied to on-line and in situ environmental monitoring of lead.

  13. Combined micro-droplet and thin-film-assisted pre-concentration of lead traces for on-line monitoring using anodic stripping voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belostotsky, Inessa; Gridin, Vladimir V.; Schechter, Israel; Yarnitzky, Chaim N. [Department of Chemistry, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, 32000, Haifa (Israel)

    2003-02-01

    An improved analytical method for airborne lead traces is reported. It is based on using a Venturi scrubber sampling device for simultaneous thin-film stripping and droplet entrapment of aerosol influxes. At least threefold enhancement of the lead-trace pre-concentration is achieved. The sampled traces are analyzed by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The method was tested by a series of pilot experiments. These were performed using contaminant-controlled air intakes. Reproducible calibration plots were obtained. The data were validated by traditional analysis using filter sampling. LODs are comparable with the conventional techniques. The method was successfully applied to on-line and in situ environmental monitoring of lead. (orig.)

  14. Wireless Power Supply via Coupled Magnetic Resonance for on-line Monitoring Wireless Sensor of High-voltage Electrical Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xingkui, Mao; Qisheng, Huang; Yudi, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    On-line monitoring of high-voltage electrical equipment (HV-EE) aiming to detect faults effectively has become crucial to avoid serious accidents. Moreover, highly reliable power supplies are the key component for the wireless sensors equipped in such on-line monitoring systems. Therefore......, in this paper, the wireless power supply via coupled magnetic resonance (MR-WPS) is proposed for powering the wireless sensor and the associated wireless sensor solution is also proposed. The key specifications of the MR-WPS working in switchgear cabinet with a harsh operation environment are analyzed...... power is able to be delivered to the wireless sensor through the designed MR-WPS, and therefore the theoretical analysis and design is verified....

  15. Analytical techniques for in-line/on-line monitoring of uranium and plutonium in process solutions : a brief literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, S.G.; Sood, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    In-line/on-line monitoring of various parameters such as uranium-plutonium-fission product concentration, acidity, density etc. plays an important role in quickly understanding the efficiency of processes in a reprocessing plant. Efforts in studying and installation of such analytical instruments are going on since more than three decades with adaptation of newer methods and technologies. A review on the developement of in-line analytical instrumentation was carried out in this laboratory about two decades ago. This report presents a very short literature survey of the work in the last two decades. The report includes an outline of principles of the main techniques employed in the in-line/on-line monitoring. (author). 77 refs., 6 tabs

  16. Microfluidic electrochemical sensor for on-line monitoring of aerosol oxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameenoi, Yupaporn; Koehler, Kirsten; Shapiro, Jeff; Boonsong, Kanokporn; Sun, Yele; Collett, Jeffrey; Volckens, John; Henry, Charles S

    2012-06-27

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution has a significant impact on human morbidity and mortality; however, the mechanisms of PM-induced toxicity are poorly defined. A leading hypothesis states that airborne PM induces harm by generating reactive oxygen species in and around human tissues, leading to oxidative stress. We report here a system employing a microfluidic electrochemical sensor coupled directly to a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) system to measure aerosol oxidative activity in an on-line format. The oxidative activity measurement is based on the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, where, after being oxidized by PM, the remaining reduced DTT is analyzed by the microfluidic sensor. The sensor consists of an array of working, reference, and auxiliary electrodes fabricated in a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based microfluidic device. Cobalt(II) phthalocyanine-modified carbon paste was used as the working electrode material, allowing selective detection of reduced DTT. The electrochemical sensor was validated off-line against the traditional DTT assay using filter samples taken from urban environments and biomass burning events. After off-line characterization, the sensor was coupled to a PILS to enable on-line sampling/analysis of aerosol oxidative activity. Urban dust and industrial incinerator ash samples were aerosolized in an aerosol chamber and analyzed for their oxidative activity. The on-line sensor reported DTT consumption rates (oxidative activity) in good correlation with aerosol concentration (R(2) from 0.86 to 0.97) with a time resolution of approximately 3 min.

  17. Calibration and monitoring of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). PMT signals are then digitized at 40~MHz and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first level trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator b...

  18. Application of a chronoamperometric measurement to the on-line monitoring of a lithium metal reduction for uranium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tack-Jin; Cho, Young-Hwan; Choi, In-Kyu; Kang, Jun-Gill; Song, Kyuseok; Jee, Kwang-Yong

    2008-01-01

    Both a potentiometric and a chronoamperometric electrochemical technique have been applied in an attempt to develop an efficient method for an on-line monitoring of a lithium metal reduction process of uranium oxides at a high-temperature in a molten salt medium. As a result of this study, it was concluded that the chronoamperometric method provided a simple and effective way for a direct on-line monitoring measurement of a lithium metal reduction process of uranium oxides at 650 o C by the measuring electrical currents dependency on a variation of the reduction time for the reaction. A potentiometric method, by adopting a homemade oxide ion selective electrode made of ZrO 2 stabilized by a Y 2 O 3 doping, however, was found to be inappropriate for an on-line monitoring of the reduction reaction of uranium oxide in the presence of lithium metal due to an abnormal behavior of the adopted electrodes. The observed experimental results were discussed in detail by comparing them with previously published experimental data

  19. A PAT approach for the on-line monitoring of pharmaceutical co-crystals formation with near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda C; Ribeiro, Paulo R S; Santos, Adenilson O; Silva, Marta C D; Lopes, João A

    2014-08-25

    Cocrystals represent a class of crystalline solids consisting of two or more molecular species usually held together by non-covalent bonds. Pharmaceutical cocrystals can alter the physicochemical properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredient to improve solubility, dissolution rate, particle properties and stability. This work presents a process analytical technology (PAT) approach to monitor on-line the cocrystallization of furosemide and adenine by solvent evaporation using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Furosemide and adenine were added to a small volume of methanol in a beaker and stirred on an orbital stirring table during 8h at room temperature. The on-line monitoring was performed with a FT-NIR spectrometer fitted with a reflectance fiber optic probe. Monitoring was performed with the probe tip placed 1cm above the cocrystallization medium to avoid interference with the cocrystallization process. Cocrystals were vacuum dried to remove residual solvent and characterized off-line by NIRS, MIRS, DSC and XRPD. Results demonstrate that it was possible to follow the main cocrystallization events on-line. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Progress for on-line acoustic emission monitoring of cracks in reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, P.H.; Friesel, M.A.; Kurtz, R.J.

    1985-10-01

    This paper reviews FY1985 accomplishments and FY1986 plans for the NRC sponsored research program concerned with ''Acoustic Emission/Flaw Relationships for Inservice Monitoring of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Boundaries''. The objective of the acoustic emission (AE) monitoring program is to develop and validate the use of AE methods for continuous surveillance of reactor pressure boundaries to detect flaw growth. Topics discussed include testing AE monitoring on reactors, refinement of an AE signal identification relationship, study of slow crack growth rate effects on AE generation, and activity to produce an ASTM standard for AE monitoring and to gain ASME code acceptance of AE monitoring

  1. The calibration of the MAST neutron yield monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stammers, Keith; Loughlin, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Several neutron detectors have been installed on MAST to monitor the temporal production of neutrons during neutral beam injection. This paper describes the detectors, their calibration and applications of the data. The main neutron diagnostic is a guarded fission chamber, with processing electronics that allow data collection in three modes of operation, and covers the whole range of neutron production rate to be expected from current operations and future upgrades. The scalar mode of operation is calibrated with a 252 Cf source inside the vacuum vessel and then MCNP modelling is used to relate this calibration to an extended plasma source. Plasma neutron data are used to extend the calibration to the Campbell and ion-current modes, with final uncertainties of approximately 8% in each case. Corroborative evidence for the accuracy of the calibration, obtained from neutron activation, indicates that the method is satisfactory. The neutron data are used routinely to keep track of the radio-activation of key components of the MAST tokamak

  2. Field experience with advanced methods of on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion degradation in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellwag, B.; Aaltonen, P.; Hickling, J.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced methods for on-line, in-situ water chemistry and corrosion monitoring in nuclear power stations have been developed during the past decade. The terms ''on-line'' and ''in-situ'' characterize approaches involving continuous measurement of relevant parameters in high temperature water, preferably directly in the systems and components and not in removed samples at room temperature. This paper describes the field experience to-date with such methods in terms of three examples: (1) On-line chemistry monitoring of the primary coolant during shutdown of a Type WWER-440 PWR. (2) Redox and corrosion potential measurements in final feedwater preheaters and steam generators of two large KWU PWRs over several cycles of plant operation. (3) Real-time, in-situ corrosion surveillance inside the calundia vault of a CANDU reactor. The way in which water chemistry sensors and corrosion monitoring sensors complement each other is outlined: on-line, in-situ measurement of pH, conductivity and redox potential gives information about the possible corrosivity of the environment. Electrochemical noise techniques display signals of corrosion activity under the actual environmental conditions. A common experience gained from separate use of these different types of sensors has been that new and additional information about plants and their actual process conditions is obtained. Moreover, they reveal the intimate relationship between the operational situation and its consequences for the quality of the working fluid and the corrosion behaviour of the plant materials. On this basis, the efficiency of the existing chemistry sampling and control system can be checked and corrosion degradation can be minimized. Furthermore, activity buildup in the primary circuit can be studied. Further significant advantages can be expected from an integration of these various types of sensors into a common water chemistry and corrosion surveillance system. For confirmation, a complete set of sensors

  3. Field experience with advanced methods of on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion degradation in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stellwag, B [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Aaltonen, P [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hickling, J [CML GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Advanced methods for on-line, in-situ water chemistry and corrosion monitoring in nuclear power stations have been developed during the past decade. The terms ``on-line`` and ``in-situ`` characterize approaches involving continuous measurement of relevant parameters in high temperature water, preferably directly in the systems and components and not in removed samples at room temperature. This paper describes the field experience to-date with such methods in terms of three examples: (1) On-line chemistry monitoring of the primary coolant during shutdown of a Type WWER-440 PWR. (2) Redox and corrosion potential measurements in final feedwater preheaters and steam generators of two large KWU PWRs over several cycles of plant operation. (3) Real-time, in-situ corrosion surveillance inside the calundia vault of a CANDU reactor. The way in which water chemistry sensors and corrosion monitoring sensors complement each other is outlined: on-line, in-situ measurement of pH, conductivity and redox potential gives information about the possible corrosivity of the environment. Electrochemical noise techniques display signals of corrosion activity under the actual environmental conditions. A common experience gained from separate use of these different types of sensors has been that new and additional information about plants and their actual process conditions is obtained. Moreover, they reveal the intimate relationship between the operational situation and its consequences for the quality of the working fluid and the corrosion behaviour of the plant materials. On this basis, the efficiency of the existing chemistry sampling and control system can be checked and corrosion degradation can be minimized. Furthermore, activity buildup in the primary circuit can be studied. Further significant advantages can be expected from an integration of these various types of sensors into a common water chemistry and corrosion surveillance system. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. Expanded beam spectro-ellipsometry for big area on-line monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, M.; Major, C.; Juhasz, G.; Petrik, P.; Horvath, Z.

    2015-05-01

    Non-destructive analysing tools are needed at all stages of thin film process-development, especially photovoltaic (PV) development, and on production lines. In the case of thin films, layer thicknesses, micro-structure, composition, layer optical properties, and their uniformity are important parameters. An important focus is to express the dielectric functions of each component material in terms of a handful of wavelength independent parameters whose variation can cover all process variants of that material. With the resulting database, spectroscopic ellipsometry coupled with multilayer analysis can be developed for on-line point-by-point mapping and on-line line-by-line imaging. Off-line point-by-point mapping can be effective for characterization of non-uniformities in full scale PV panels or big area (even 450 mm diameter) Si-wafers in developing labs but it is slow in the on-line mode when only 15 points can be obtained (within 1 min) as a 120 cm long panel moves by the mapping station. Last years [M. Fried et al, Thin Solid Films 519, 2730 (2011)], a new instrumentation was developed that provides a line image of spectroscopic ellipsometry (wl=350- 1000 nm) data. Earlier a single 30 point line image could be collected in 10 s over a 15 cm width of PV material. Recent years we have built a 30, a 45 and a 60 cm width expanded beam ellipsometer which speed is increased by 10x. Now, 1800 points can be mapped in a 1 min traverse of a 60*120 cm PV panel or flexible roll-to-roll substrate.

  5. A self-calibrating radon monitor with statistical discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcov, N.; Purghel, L.

    2002-01-01

    A radon monitor, able to perform the measurement of the radon and its progeny volumic activity, in a gamma-ray or natural radiation background field, was developed. The instrument consists of a 10 l ionization chamber, a high voltage source, an integrating preamplifier, a data acquisition system and a personal computer. A new method for self-calibration of Radon volumic activity measurements, based on the alpha counting with an ionization chamber is also presented

  6. An intelligent condition monitoring system for on-line classification of machine tool wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Fu; Hope, A D; Javed, M [Systems Engineering Faculty, Southampton Institute (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The development of intelligent tool condition monitoring systems is a necessary requirement for successful automation of manufacturing processes. This presentation introduces a tool wear monitoring system for milling operations. The system utilizes power, force, acoustic emission and vibration sensors to monitor tool condition comprehensively. Features relevant to tool wear are drawn from time and frequency domain signals and a fuzzy pattern recognition technique is applied to combine the multisensor information and provide reliable classification results of tool wear states. (orig.) 10 refs.

  7. An intelligent condition monitoring system for on-line classification of machine tool wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Pan; Hope, A.D.; Javed, M. [Systems Engineering Faculty, Southampton Institute (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The development of intelligent tool condition monitoring systems is a necessary requirement for successful automation of manufacturing processes. This presentation introduces a tool wear monitoring system for milling operations. The system utilizes power, force, acoustic emission and vibration sensors to monitor tool condition comprehensively. Features relevant to tool wear are drawn from time and frequency domain signals and a fuzzy pattern recognition technique is applied to combine the multisensor information and provide reliable classification results of tool wear states. (orig.) 10 refs.

  8. On-line use of personal computers to monitor and evaluate important parameters in the research reactor DHRUVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.K.; Sengupta, S.N.; Darbhe, M.D.; Agarwal, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    The on-line use of Personal Computers in research reactors, with custom made applications for aiding the operators in analysing plant conditions under normal and abnormal situations, has become extremely popular. A system has been developed to monitor and evaluate important parameters for the research reactor DHRUVA, a 100 MW research reactor located at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay. The system was essentially designed for on-line computation of the following parameters: reactor thermal power, reactivity load due to Xenon, core reactivity balance and performance monitoring of shut-down devices. Apart from the on-line applications, the system has also been developed to cater some off-line applications with Local Area Network in the Dhruva complex. The microprocessor based system is designed to function as an independent unit, parallel dumping the acquired data to a PC for application programmes. The user interface on the personal computer is menu driven application software written in 'C' language. The main input parameters required for carrying out the options given in the above menu are: Reactor power, Moderator level, Coolant inlet temperature to the core, Secondary coolant flow rate, temperature rise of secondary coolant across the heat exchangers, heavy water level in the Dump tank and Drop time of individual shut off rods. (author)

  9. New measurement system for on line in core high-energy neutron flux monitoring in materials testing reactor conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geslot, B.; Vermeeren, L.; Filliatre, P.; Lopez, A. Legrand; Barbot, L.; Jammes, C.; Bréaud, S.; Oriol, L.; Villard, J.-F.

    2011-03-01

    Flux monitoring is of great interest for experimental studies in material testing reactors. Nowadays, only the thermal neutron flux can be monitored on line, e.g., using fission chambers or self-powered neutron detectors. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between SCK-CEN and CEA, we have developed a fast neutron detector system (FNDS) capable of measuring on line the local high-energy neutron flux in fission reactor core and reflector locations. FNDS is based on fission chambers measurements in Campbelling mode. The system consists of two detectors, one detector being mainly sensitive to fast neutrons and the other one to thermal neutrons. On line data processing uses the CEA depletion code DARWIN in order to disentangle fast and thermal neutrons components, taking into account the isotopic evolution of the fissile deposit. The first results of FNDS experimental test in the BR2 reactor are presented in this paper. Several fission chambers have been irradiated up to a fluence of about 7 × 1020 n/cm2. A good agreement (less than 10% discrepancy) was observed between FNDS fast flux estimation and reference flux measurement.

  10. New measurement system for on line in core high-energy neutron flux monitoring in materials testing reactor conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geslot, B.; Filliatre, P.; Barbot, L.; Jammes, C.; Breaud, S.; Oriol, L.; Villard, J.-F. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, SPEx/LDCI, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vermeeren, L. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Lopez, A. Legrand [CEA, DEN, Saclay, SIREN/LECSI, F-91400 Saclay (France)

    2011-03-15

    Flux monitoring is of great interest for experimental studies in material testing reactors. Nowadays, only the thermal neutron flux can be monitored on line, e.g., using fission chambers or self-powered neutron detectors. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between SCK-CEN and CEA, we have developed a fast neutron detector system (FNDS) capable of measuring on line the local high-energy neutron flux in fission reactor core and reflector locations. FNDS is based on fission chambers measurements in Campbelling mode. The system consists of two detectors, one detector being mainly sensitive to fast neutrons and the other one to thermal neutrons. On line data processing uses the CEA depletion code DARWIN in order to disentangle fast and thermal neutrons components, taking into account the isotopic evolution of the fissile deposit. The first results of FNDS experimental test in the BR2 reactor are presented in this paper. Several fission chambers have been irradiated up to a fluence of about 7 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2}. A good agreement (less than 10% discrepancy) was observed between FNDS fast flux estimation and reference flux measurement.

  11. New measurement system for on line in core high-energy neutron flux monitoring in materials testing reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geslot, B.; Filliatre, P.; Barbot, L.; Jammes, C.; Breaud, S.; Oriol, L.; Villard, J.-F.; Vermeeren, L.; Lopez, A. Legrand

    2011-01-01

    Flux monitoring is of great interest for experimental studies in material testing reactors. Nowadays, only the thermal neutron flux can be monitored on line, e.g., using fission chambers or self-powered neutron detectors. In the framework of the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between SCK-CEN and CEA, we have developed a fast neutron detector system (FNDS) capable of measuring on line the local high-energy neutron flux in fission reactor core and reflector locations. FNDS is based on fission chambers measurements in Campbelling mode. The system consists of two detectors, one detector being mainly sensitive to fast neutrons and the other one to thermal neutrons. On line data processing uses the CEA depletion code DARWIN in order to disentangle fast and thermal neutrons components, taking into account the isotopic evolution of the fissile deposit. The first results of FNDS experimental test in the BR2 reactor are presented in this paper. Several fission chambers have been irradiated up to a fluence of about 7 x 10 20 n/cm 2 . A good agreement (less than 10% discrepancy) was observed between FNDS fast flux estimation and reference flux measurement.

  12. Control and monitoring of On-line Trigger Algorithms using gaucho

    CERN Document Server

    Van Herwijnen, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In the LHCb experiment, the trigger decisions are computed by Gaudi (the LHCb software framework) algorithms running on an event filter farm of around 2000 PCs. The control and monitoring of these algorithms has to be integrated in the overall experiment control system (ECS). To enable and facilitate this integration Gaucho, the GAUdi Component Helping Online, was developed. Gaucho consists of three parts: a C++ package integrated with Gaudi, the communications package DIM, and a set of PVSS panels and libraries. PVSS is a commercial SCADA system chosen as toolkit and framework for the LHCb controls system. The C++ package implements monitor service interface (IMonitorSvc) following the Gaudi specifications, with methods to declare variables and histograms for monitoring. Algorithms writers use them to indicate which quantities should be monitored. Since the interface resides in the GaudiKernel the code does not need changing if the monitoring services are not present. The Gaudi main job implements a state ma...

  13. On-line internal corrosion monitoring and data management for remote pipelines: a technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wold, Kjell; Stoen, Roar; Jenssen, Hallgeir [Roxar Flow Measurement AS, Stavanger (Norway); Carvalho, Anna Maria [Roxar do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Internal corrosion monitoring of remote pipelines can be costly and demanding on resources. Online and non-intrusive monitoring directly on the pipe wall can improve the quality of measurements, make installation more convenient and allow more efficient communication of data. The purpose of this paper is to describe a non-intrusive technology, and show examples on field installations of the system. Furthermore, the non-intrusive technology data can be stored, interpreted and combined with conventional (intrusive) system information, in order to get a full picture of internal corrosion profile, corrosion rate and trends regarding the pipeline being monitored. (author)

  14. WARMS - a continuous on-line environmental and emergency radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsden, D.

    1984-01-01

    The Winfrith Airborne Release Monitoring System (WARMS) is used to monitor the environment around the Winfrith reactor site. It operates continuously monitoring the background radiation at 16 outstations and can provide rapid information should an accidental release occur. WARMS was developed jointly by the Radiological Safety Division and the Control and Instrumentation Division at Winfrith in association with the Safety and Reliability Directorate at Culcheth which developed the software. The system became operational in the autumn of 1983 and has since demonstrated a high degree of reliability and effectiveness. (author)

  15. Calibration of neutrons monitors with moderators and application in the calibration factors of albedo dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, L.A.

    1978-11-01

    The calibration factors and the reproducibility of an Albedo Dosimeter designed for personal neutron monitoring were determined. These factor were obtained simulating the dosimeter reading and the equivalent dose in the locality by a convenient combination of responses of the Bonner Sphere Spectrometer. The results obtained in the simulation were verified experimentally for different spectra employing the Am-Be, bare 252 Cf source and 253 Cf source with graphite sields of varying thickness. Different standards were used in the procedures necessary for the determination of the calibration factors. An Am-Be neutron source, standardized by the activation of a manganese sulphate bath was used as a primary standard. As a secondary standard, for the measurement of the neutron fluence, a De Pangher Long Counter was used and the scattering effects were determined using the shadow cone method. The other monitors such as the Rem-Counter and the Bonner Sphere Spectrometer were also calibrated with reference to the secondary standard with a view to comparing the results obtained with those furnished by the Albedo Dosimeter. (Author) [pt

  16. An application of on-line battery monitoring to the Vulcano PV plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonarota, A.; Menga, P.; Ostano, P.; Scarioni, V.

    1988-05-01

    The reliable knowledge of the state-of-charge (SOC) of the battery of a photovoltaic (PV) plant can contribute to improve system management. Unfortunately, the technologies currently adopted to determine the battery SOC are not fully satisfactory. The experience obtained by ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) on traction lead-acid batteries, operating under cyclic conditions, led to the formulation of a simple model capable of describing the relationships among the operating conditions (profile of current, temperature, etc.) and the internal SOC of the battery. This model was extended to the stationary accumulators to the Vulcano PV plant of ENEL, and checked by means of laboratory tests at the CESI (Italy) laboratories. Relevant to this work, an automatic system for the on-line evaluation of the SOC of the battery has recently been set up and installed at Vulcano. This paper presents the basis of the methodology, the layout of the system, and the preliminary results.

  17. On-line condition monitoring of nuclear systems via symbolic time series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopalan, V.; Ray, A.; Garcia, H. E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a symbolic time series analysis approach to fault diagnostics and condition monitoring. The proposed technique is built upon concepts from wavelet theory, symbolic dynamics and pattern recognition. Various aspects of the methodology such as wavelet selection, choice of alphabet and determination of depth of D-Markov Machine are explained in the paper. The technique is validated with experiments performed in a Machine Condition Monitoring (MCM) test bed at the Idaho National Laboratory. (authors)

  18. On-line Cutting Tool Condition Monitoring in Machining Processes Using Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo, Antonio J.; Morales-Menéndez, Rub&#;n; Alique, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presented new ideas for monitoring and diagnosis of the cutting tool condition with two different algorithms for pattern recognition: HMM, and ANN. The monitoring and diagnosis system was implemented for peripheral milling process in HSM, where several Aluminium alloys and cutting tools were used. The flank wear (VB) was selected as the criterion to evaluate the tool's life and four cutting tool conditions were defined to be recognized: New, half new, half worn, and worn conditio...

  19. Experience of MAPS in monitoring of personnel movement with on-line database management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, T.S.; Anand, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    As a part of physical protection system, access control system has been installed in Madras Atomic Power Station(MAPS) to monitor and regulate the movement of persons within MAPS. The present system in its original form was meant only for security monitoring. A PC based database management system was added to this to computerize the availability of work force for actual work. (author). 2 annexures

  20. On-line, continuous monitoring in solar cell and fuel cell manufacturing using spectral reflectance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, Bhushan; Rupnowski, Przemyslaw; Ulsh, Michael

    2016-01-12

    A monitoring system 100 comprising a material transport system 104 providing for the transportation of a substantially planar material 102, 107 through the monitoring zone 103 of the monitoring system 100. The system 100 also includes a line camera 106 positioned to obtain multiple line images across a width of the material 102, 107 as it is transported through the monitoring zone 103. The system 100 further includes an illumination source 108 providing for the illumination of the material 102, 107 transported through the monitoring zone 103 such that light reflected in a direction normal to the substantially planar surface of the material 102, 107 is detected by the line camera 106. A data processing system 110 is also provided in digital communication with the line camera 106. The data processing system 110 is configured to receive data output from the line camera 106 and further configured to calculate and provide substantially contemporaneous information relating to a quality parameter of the material 102, 107. Also disclosed are methods of monitoring a quality parameter of a material.

  1. On-line core monitoring system based on buckling corrected modified one group model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Fernando S.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors require core monitoring during plant operation. To provide safe, clean and reliable core continuously evaluate core conditions. Currently, the reactor core monitoring process is carried out by nuclear code systems that together with data from plant instrumentation, such as, thermocouples, ex-core detectors and fixed or moveable In-core detectors, can easily predict and monitor a variety of plant conditions. Typically, the standard nodal methods can be found on the heart of such nuclear monitoring code systems. However, standard nodal methods require large computer running times when compared with standards course-mesh finite difference schemes. Unfortunately, classic finite-difference models require a fine mesh reactor core representation. To override this unlikely model characteristic we can usually use the classic modified one group model to take some account for the main core neutronic behavior. In this model a course-mesh core representation can be easily evaluated with a crude treatment of thermal neutrons leakage. In this work, an improvement made on classic modified one group model based on a buckling thermal correction was used to obtain a fast, accurate and reliable core monitoring system methodology for future applications, providing a powerful tool for core monitoring process. (author)

  2. Rhodium self-powered neutron detector as a suitable on-line thermal neutron flux monitor in BNCT treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marcelo E; Sztejnberg, Manuel L; González, Sara J; Thorp, Silvia I; Longhino, Juan M; Estryk, Guillermo

    2011-12-01

    A rhodium self-powered neutron detector (Rh SPND) has been specifically developed by the Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA) of Argentina to measure locally and in real time thermal neutron fluxes in patients treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this work, the thermal and epithermal neutron response of the Rh SPND was evaluated by studying the detector response to two different reactor spectra. In addition, during clinical trials of the BNCT Project of the CNEA, on-line neutron flux measurements using the specially designed detector were assessed. The first calibration of the detector was done with the well-thermalized neutron spectrum of the CNEA RA-3 reactor thermal column. For this purpose, the reactor spectrum was approximated by a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in the thermal energy range. The second calibration was done at different positions along the central axis of a water-filled cylindrical phantom, placed in the mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam of CNEA RA-6 reactor. In this latter case, the RA-6 neutron spectrum had been well characterized by both calculation and measurement, and it presented some marked differences with the ideal spectrum considered for SPND calibrations at RA-3. In addition, the RA-6 neutron spectrum varied with depth in the water phantom and thus the percentage of the epithermal contribution to the total neutron flux changed at each measurement location. Local (one point-position) and global (several points-positions) and thermal and mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities were determined from these measurements. Thermal neutron flux was also measured during BNCT clinical trials within the irradiation fields incident on the patients. In order to achieve this, the detector was placed on patient's skin at dosimetric reference points for each one of the fields. System stability was adequate for this kind of measurement. Local mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities and global thermal and mixed

  3. Rhodium self-powered neutron detector as a suitable on-line thermal neutron flux monitor in BNCT treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Marcelo E.; Sztejnberg, Manuel L.; Gonzalez, Sara J.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Longhino, Juan M.; Estryk, Guillermo [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1429 (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1429, Argentina and CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1033 (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1429 (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: A rhodium self-powered neutron detector (Rh SPND) has been specifically developed by the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) of Argentina to measure locally and in real time thermal neutron fluxes in patients treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this work, the thermal and epithermal neutron response of the Rh SPND was evaluated by studying the detector response to two different reactor spectra. In addition, during clinical trials of the BNCT Project of the CNEA, on-line neutron flux measurements using the specially designed detector were assessed. Methods: The first calibration of the detector was done with the well-thermalized neutron spectrum of the CNEA RA-3 reactor thermal column. For this purpose, the reactor spectrum was approximated by a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in the thermal energy range. The second calibration was done at different positions along the central axis of a water-filled cylindrical phantom, placed in the mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam of CNEA RA-6 reactor. In this latter case, the RA-6 neutron spectrum had been well characterized by both calculation and measurement, and it presented some marked differences with the ideal spectrum considered for SPND calibrations at RA-3. In addition, the RA-6 neutron spectrum varied with depth in the water phantom and thus the percentage of the epithermal contribution to the total neutron flux changed at each measurement location. Local (one point-position) and global (several points-positions) and thermal and mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities were determined from these measurements. Thermal neutron flux was also measured during BNCT clinical trials within the irradiation fields incident on the patients. In order to achieve this, the detector was placed on patient's skin at dosimetric reference points for each one of the fields. System stability was adequate for this kind of measurement. Results: Local mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities and

  4. Rhodium self-powered neutron detector as a suitable on-line thermal neutron flux monitor in BNCT treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Marcelo E.; Sztejnberg, Manuel L.; Gonzalez, Sara J.; Thorp, Silvia I.; Longhino, Juan M.; Estryk, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A rhodium self-powered neutron detector (Rh SPND) has been specifically developed by the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) of Argentina to measure locally and in real time thermal neutron fluxes in patients treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this work, the thermal and epithermal neutron response of the Rh SPND was evaluated by studying the detector response to two different reactor spectra. In addition, during clinical trials of the BNCT Project of the CNEA, on-line neutron flux measurements using the specially designed detector were assessed. Methods: The first calibration of the detector was done with the well-thermalized neutron spectrum of the CNEA RA-3 reactor thermal column. For this purpose, the reactor spectrum was approximated by a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in the thermal energy range. The second calibration was done at different positions along the central axis of a water-filled cylindrical phantom, placed in the mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam of CNEA RA-6 reactor. In this latter case, the RA-6 neutron spectrum had been well characterized by both calculation and measurement, and it presented some marked differences with the ideal spectrum considered for SPND calibrations at RA-3. In addition, the RA-6 neutron spectrum varied with depth in the water phantom and thus the percentage of the epithermal contribution to the total neutron flux changed at each measurement location. Local (one point-position) and global (several points-positions) and thermal and mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities were determined from these measurements. Thermal neutron flux was also measured during BNCT clinical trials within the irradiation fields incident on the patients. In order to achieve this, the detector was placed on patient's skin at dosimetric reference points for each one of the fields. System stability was adequate for this kind of measurement. Results: Local mixed-field thermal neutron sensitivities and global

  5. On-line estimation of physiological states for monitoring and control of bioprocesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velislava N Lyubenova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach for monitoring of main physiological states of a class processes is proposed. This class is characterized by production and consumption of intermediate metabolite related to target product. The balance between these two phenomena is considered as key parameter for recognizing the process physiological states. A general structure of cascade software sensor of the key parameter is derived and applied for process monitoring and control. Two type processes are considered as case study. The first one is mono culture for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the second one is mixed culture for biopolymer production by L. delbrulckii and R. Eutropha. The good properties of the proposed monitoring and control schemes are demonstrated by simulation investigations.

  6. On-line acoustic monitoring of EDF nuclear plants in operation and loose-part diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J.L.; Puyal, C.

    1991-05-01

    In order to detect incipient failures in nuclear power plant components, EDF has now put into operation more than 50 loose-part monitoring systems, on its 900 MW and 1 300 MW units. This paper first reviews the experience gained on the 900 MW reactors in recent years. It then focuses on the 1 300 MW loose part monitoring system (IDEAL) and to the tools developed for the diagnosis off site within a specific Expertise Laboratory at the Research and Development Division. New studies have been undertaken within the Monitoring and Aid to Diagnosis Station (PSAD) in order to extend the capabilities of loose part diagnosis on site. The new tools here presented integrate the recent progress in acquisition technology (SMART system) and in artificial intelligence (MIGRE expert system)

  7. Electronics and Calibration system for the CMS Beam Halo Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Nicolò; Fabbri, Franco L; Finkel, Alexey; Orfanelli, Stella; Loos, R; Montanari, Alessandro; Rusack, R; Stickland, David P

    2014-01-01

    In the context of increasing luminosity of LHC, it will be important to accurately measure the Machine Induced Background. A new monitoring system will be installed in the cavern of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment for measuring the beam background at high radius. This detector is composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators, coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The readout chain of this detector will make use of many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadron Calorimeter electronics, with a dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal will be digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics will record bunch-by-bunch histograms, which will be published to CMS and the LHC using the newly designed CMS beam instrumentation specific DAQ. A calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate triggered pulses of...

  8. Continuous realtime radioiodine monitor employing on-line methyl iodide conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, S.J.; Motes, B.G.

    1980-01-01

    An integrated 14 C, 129 I, and 85 Kr monitor was proposed by Fernandez, et al. that separates 129 I from 85 Kr by selective permeation across thin silicone rubber membranes. Subsequent studies of the permeation of CH 3 I and I 2 through silicone rubber membranes demonstrated that I 2 transport across the membranes is too slow to be useful in a realtime monitor. Transport of methyl iodide, however, is rapid and gives a separation factor of greater than 100 from 85 Kr

  9. Experience and evaluation of advanced on-line core monitoring system 'BEACON' at IKATA site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitsuka, Nobumichi; Tanouchi, Hideyuki; Imamura, Yasuhiro; Mizobuchil, Daisuke

    1997-01-01

    Shikoku Electric Power Company installed BEACON core monitoring system into IKATA unit 3 in May 1994. During its first cycle of core operation, various operational data were obtained including data of some anomalous reactor conditions introduced for the test objective of the plant start-up. This paper presents the evaluation of the BEACON system capability based on this experience. The system functions such as core monitoring and anomaly detection, prediction of future reactor conditions and increased efficiency of core management activities are discussed. Our future plan to utilize the system is also presented. (authors)

  10. Incorporating spectroscopic on-line monitoring as a method of detection for a Lewis cell setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Forrest D.; Casella, Amanda J.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2017-01-01

    A Lewis cell was designed and constructed for investigating solvent extraction systems by spectrophotometrically monitoring both the organic and aqueous phases in real time. This new Lewis cell was tested and shown to perform well compared to other previously reported Lewis cell designs. The advantage of the new design is that the spectroscopic measurement allows determination of not only metal ion concentrations, but also information regarding chemical speciation—information not available with previous Lewis cell designs. For convenience, the new Lewis cell design was dubbed COSMOFLEX (COntinuous Spectroscopic MOnitoring of Forrest’s Liquid-liquid EXtraction cell).

  11. A biocompatible micro cell culture chamber for culturing and on-line monitoring of Eukaryotic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Visualisering af cellulære processer over længere tidsperioder har været besværliggjort af cellernes krav til varme, fugtighed og et fysiologisk pH balanceret medie. Fremskridt indenfor mikro teknologi har muliggjort fabrikation af miniaturiserede celle kultur anordninger der er i stand til...... at holde celler i live over længere tidsperioder I det foreliggende arbejde præsenteres et nyt perfusions baseret mikro celle dyrknings kultur kammer med integreret termisk overvågning og regulering. Kammeret opretholdt både dyrkning og on-line overvågning af både kræft celler såvel som stam celler over...... at dyrknings betingelserne i kammeret var sammenlignelige med dem i konventionelle celle kultur dyrknings flaske, hvis lys intensiteten på mikroskopet og omgivelserne blev minimeret mest muligt. Overflade modificeringer af den strukturelle fotoresist SU-8, der ofte bliver brugt til fabrikation af mikro kanaler...

  12. Acoustic emission for on-line reactor monitoring: results from field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, P.H.; Kurtz, R.J.

    1984-09-01

    The objective of the acoustic emission (AE)/flaw characterization program is to develop use of the AE method on a continuous basis (during operation and during hydrotest) to detect and analyze flaw growth in reactor pressure vessels and primary piping. AE has the unique capability for continuous monitoring, high sensitivity, and remote flaw location

  13. NON-INVASIVE SPECTROSCOPIC ON-LINE METHODS TO MONITOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooker, M. H.; Berg, Rolf W.

    2003-01-01

    and Raman spectroscopy to monitor discrete molecular species at concentrations on the 0.1% level or lower. A brief introduction to the art of modern vibrational spectroscopy is given, mainly by means of a list of important references, followed by a specific example (the liquid-liquid system CO2-water...

  14. On-line monitoring of milk electrical conductivity by fuzzy logic technology to characterise health status in dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Intramammary infection affects the quality and quantity of dairy goat milk. Health status (HS and milk quality can be monitored by electrical conductivity (EC. The aim of the study was to determine the detection potential of EC when measured on-line on a daily basis and compared with readings from previous milkings. Milk yields (MYs were investigated with the same approach. To evaluate these relative traits, a multivariate model based on fuzzy logic technology – which provided interesting results in cows – was used. Two foremilk samples from 8 healthy Saanen goats were measured daily over the course of six months. Bacteriological tests and somatic cells counts were used to define the HS. On-line EC measurements for each gland and MYs were also considered. Predicted deviations of EC and MY were calculated using a moving-average model and entered in the fuzzy logic model. The reported accuracy has a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 69%. Conclusions show that fuzzy logic is an interesting approach for dairy goats, since it offered better accuracy than other methods previously published. Nevertheless, specificity was lower than in dairy cows, probably due to the lack of a significant decrease of MY in diseased glands. Still, results show that the detection of the HS characteristics with EC is improved, when measured on-line, daily and compared with the readings from previous milkings.

  15. The influence of water chemistry and biocide additions on the response of an on-line biofilm monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licina, G.J.; Nekoksa, G.

    1995-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a significant cause of degradation of piping and heat transfer surfaces in cooling water systems. The interaction between the metabolic processes of microorganisms attached to metallic surfaces and corrosion processes can lead to localized corrosion and rapid penetration of piping and heat exchanger tubes. On-line Monitoring of biofilm formation on Metallic Surfaces is a key both for automatic control equipment and for system operators so that mitigation activities can be initiated well before the structural integrity of piping or components is jeopardized. In addition, tracking of biofilm activity on line provides feedback useful for evaluating the effectiveness of biocide additions and optimizing the concentrations and addition schedules of biocides and other control chemicals. A probe has been developed to provide a method for determining the onset of biofilm formation on metal surfaces and tracking biofilm activity on line in a power plant or industrial environment; in fresh water and seawater environments. Experience with the system in a variety of water chemistries, and system responses to biofilm growth and subsequent destruction by biocide additions are described

  16. Development of on-line condition monitoring system in aerospace structures using advanced composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z.M.

    2005-01-01

    This research aims to develop condition monitoring systems for advanced aerospace composite structures. To perform these functions successfully a smart system is required that could autonomously respond to environmental changes. The integrated structure senses the environments, conveys the message to central processing unit and reacts instantaneously to external stimuli. Such structures not only monitor their own health but also for warn about onset of failures, fatigue and impending disasters. This required development of methods for embedding optical fibers in composite panels for sensing given defect. The thick and cylindrical composite structures have layer waviness due to fiber microbend defect. Such kind of defect is characteristically hard to detect. It leads to delamination, cracking and deterioration of mechanical properties. The experimental investigation revealed correlation of the intensity of light with the microbend defect in composite structure. (author)

  17. Radioactivity Monitoring System for TRIGA 2000 Reactor Water Tank with On-Line Gamma Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasetyo Basuki; Sudjatmi KA

    2009-01-01

    One of the requirements in radiological safety in the operating condition of research reactor are the absence of radionuclide from fission product released to reactor cooling water and environment. Early detection of fission product that released from fuel element can be done by monitoring radioactivity level on primary cooling water.Reactor cooling water can be used as an important indicator in detecting radioactivity level of material fission product, when the leakage occurs. Therefore, it needs to build a monitoring system for measuring radioactivity level of cooling water directly and simple. The idea of this system is counting radioactivity water flow from reactor tank to the marinelli cube that attached to the HPGe detector on gamma spectrometer. Cooling water from tank aimed on plastic pipe to the marinelli cube. Water flows in gravitational driven to the marinelli cube, with volume flow rate 5.1 liters/minute in the inlet and 2.2 liters/minute in output. (author)

  18. A demonstration of on-line plant corrosion monitoring using thin layer activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, J.; Webb, J.W.; Wilkins, N.J.M.; Lawrence, P.F.; UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Materials Development Div.)

    1981-12-01

    The corrosion of a 1 inch water pipe in an evaporative cooling system has been monitored over three periods of plant operation using thin layer activation (TLA). The corrosion rate was followed at a sensitivity of about 1 μm and clearly reflected changes in plant operation. Examination of the test section after removal, both by autoradiography and metallography revealed the extent of corrosion and pitting over the active area. (author)

  19. On-line monitoring of technological process of material abrasive water jet cutting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kinik, D.; Gánovská, B.; Hloch, Sergej; Monka, P.; Monková, K.; Hutyrová, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2015), s. 351-357 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : abrasive water jet * vibrations * monitoring Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.464, year: 2015 http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=203519

  20. On-line, real-time monitoring for petrochemical and pipeline process control applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Russell D.; Eden, D.C.; Cayard, M.S.; Eden, D.A.; Mclean, D.T. [InterCorr International, Inc., 14503 Bammel N. Houston, Suite 300, Houston Texas 77014 (United States); Kintz, J. [BASF Corporation, 602 Copper Rd., Freeport, Texas 77541 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Corrosion problems in petroleum and petrochemical plants and pipeline may be inherent to the processes, but costly and damaging equipment losses are not. With the continual drive to increase productivity, while protecting both product quality, safety and the environment, corrosion must become a variable that can be continuously monitored and assessed. This millennium has seen the introduction of new 'real-time', online measurement technologies and vast improvements in methods of electronic data handling. The 'replace when it fails' approach is receding into a distant memory; facilities management today is embracing new technology, and rapidly appreciating the value it has to offer. It has offered the capabilities to increase system run time between major inspections, reduce the time and expense associated with turnaround or in-line inspections, and reduce major upsets which cause unplanned shut downs. The end result is the ability to know on a practical basis of how 'hard' facilities can be pushed before excessive corrosion damage will result, so that process engineers can understand the impact of their process control actions and implement true asset management. This paper makes reference to use of a online, real-time electrochemical corrosion monitoring system - SmartCET 1- in a plant running a mostly organic process media. It also highlights other pertinent examples where similar systems have been used to provide useful real-time information to detect system upsets, which would not have been possible otherwise. This monitoring/process control approach has operators and engineers to see, for the first time, changes in corrosion behavior caused by specific variations in process parameters. Process adjustments have been identified that reduce corrosion rates while maintaining acceptable yields and quality. The monitoring system has provided a new window into the chemistry of the process, helping chemical engineers improve their process

  1. On-line water chemistry monitoring for corrosion prevention in ageing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.; Jaernstroem, R.; Kvarnstroem, R.; Chanfreau, E.

    1991-01-01

    General corrosion and consequently radiation buildup in nuclear power plants are controlled by the selection of material and the chemical environment. In power plants useful information concerning the kinetics of chemical reactions can be obtained by using high temperature, high pressure measurements for pH, conductivity and electrochemical potentials (ECP) of construction materials or redox-potential. The rates of general or uniform corrosion of materials in contact with the primary coolant are quite low and do not compromise the integrity of the primary circuit. Chemistry control should be applied in the first hand to minimize the dissolution and the transport and subsequent deposition of activated corrosion products to out-of-core regions. A computerized monitoring system for high temperature high pressure pH and electrochemical potential (ECP) has been in continuous use at the Loviisa power plant since 1988. Special emphasis has been put on learning the effect of pH and ECP control during cooldown process in order to further reduce background radiation buildup. During the shutdown for refueling outage in summer 1989 the high temperature water chemistry parameters were monitored. In addition to the high temperature water chemistry parameters concentrations of dissolved corrosion products as well as the activities of the corrosion products were measured. In this paper the results obtained through simultaneous monitoring of water chemistry parameters and concentrations of dissolved corrosion products as well as the activity measurements are presented and discussed. (author)

  2. Microprocessor-assisted calibration for a remote working level monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.P.; Keefe, D.J.; Groer, P.G.; Witek, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for calibrating a Remote Working Level Monitor, an instrument which measures Working Level and Rn-daughter concentrations in the atmosphere. The method makes use of a microprocessor to calculate beta efficiencies for RaB and RaC from the counts accumulated in the RaA, Ra(B + C) and RaC' channels of the instrument. Both the alpha spectroscopic and total-alpha methods are used to determine the Rn-daughter concentrations. These methods require the processor to solve systems of linear equations with several unknowns. No assumptions about Rn-daughter equilibrium are made

  3. Microprocessor-assisted calibration for a remote working level monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.P.; Keefe, D.J.; Groer, P.G.; Witek, R.T.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for calibrating a Remote Working Level Monitor, an instrument which measures Working Level and Rn-daughter concentrations in the atmosphere. The method makes use of a microprocessor to calculate beta efficiencies for RaB and RaC from the counts accumulated in the RaA, Ra(B + C) and RaC' channels of the instrument. Both the alpha spectroscopic and total-alpha methods are used to determine the Rn-daughter concentrations. These methods require the processor to solve systems of linear equations with several unknowns. No assumptions about Rn-daughter equilibrium are made

  4. Use of on-line fatigue monitoring of nuclear reactor components as a tool for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.L.; Ranganath, S.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the application of an on-line fatigue monitoring system for tracking fatigue usage in operating power plants is described. The system, like several others which have been developed, uses the influence function approach, operates on a microcomputer, and determines component stresses using temperature, pressure, and flow rate data that are typically available from plant computers. Using plant-unique influence functions developed specifically for each component location, the system calculates stresses as a function of time and computes the fatigue usage. Stress values are calculated at time internals defined by the user and the fatigue values are saved on files for use at a later time. The application of the GE Fatigue Monitoring System (GEFMS) to calculate fatigue usage in the feedwater nozzle of a GE boiling Water Reactor is described in this paper

  5. An on-line monitor for cation exchange elution chromatography using lithium silicate glass beads as solid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Rongbao; Yang Liucheng; Wei Liansheng; Ji Liqiang; Zhang Zengrui

    1988-03-01

    A new type of on-line monitoring system used to monitor radioactive nuclides with α or soft β radiation in the effluent from a high pressure ion exchange column is described. The beads made of cerium-impregnated lithium silicate glass are used as scientillation material. They are filled into a quartz glass tube to form a flow cell. By reducing the diameter of glass beads to more closly approximate the average range of α or soft β radiation in solution, the absolute counting efficiency for 241 Am, 242 Cm α radiation have reached and 85.8% and 92.8% respectively, for 14 C, 90 Sr- 90 Y β radiation, 62.1% and 88.6% respectively. These values can be comparable to those achieved with on-line liquid scientillation technique. When the total amount of 241 Am added into column is decreased to 7.4 Bq it is still possible to obtain a clear chromatography peak (half peak width = 0.22 mL)

  6. Hygrometric measurement for on-line monitoring of PWR vessel head penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, J.L.; Loisy, F.; Apolzan, S.

    1994-06-01

    In September 1991, a small leak was found on one of the reactor's upper vessel head penetrations. After inspection, other non-throughwall cracks were localized in the lower part of the vessel head adapter in questions. The same type of crack was later found inside some adapters on other French PWR units. After repairs, the safety authorities granted approval to continue unit operation, with the specific provision that a system for ongoing monitoring of the penetrations be set up. Two types of system were selected to detect leaks through any potential cracks: the first is based on nitrogen-13 detection and the second on steam detection. Both systems call for sampling the air in a confined space above the vessel head. The number and distribution of sampling taps in the circuit, and the balancing of their respective flow rates, are factors in proper monitoring of all vessel head penetrations. Gas-injection holes are also installed in the confined space. These holes are used during the sampling system qualification tests to simulate leaks in various positions and calculate the effective performance of the sampling system. Leaks are simulated using a helium-base gas tracer and measuring tracer concentrations in the sampling system. The system for measuring steam levels in air samples uses chilled-mirror hygrometers. A microcomputer takes regular readings, drives the various automatic functions of the measurement system and automatically analyses the readings so as to monitor operations and trigger an alarm at the first sign of a leak. This system has now been installed for a year and a half on three French PWR units and is functioning satisfactorily. (authors). 5 figs

  7. On-line gamma spectroscopy measuring station for cover gas monitoring at KNK II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, G.; Letz, K.D.

    1980-02-01

    An automated Ge-γ-spectrometer was developed for cover gas monitoring at KNK II which, by the gamma spectra measured, is to allow the following statements to be made on fuel cladding failure: Type, size, variation with time and subsequent development of the failure. In this report the hardware and software will be explained. Besides, an instruction manual was written for the measuring station, which allows to operate it without detailed knowledge of the manuals for the individual hardware components. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  8. Development of an on-line ultrasonic system to monitor flow-accelerated corrosion of piping in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, N.Y.; Bahn, C.B.; Lee, S.G.; Kim, J.H.; Hwang, I.S.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, J.T.; Luk, V.

    2004-01-01

    Designs of contemporary nuclear power plants (NPPs) are concentrated on improving plant life as well as safety. As the nuclear industry prepares for continued operation beyond the design lifetime of existing NPP, aging management through advanced monitoring is called for. Therefore, we suggested two approaches to develop the on-line piping monitoring system. Piping located in some position is reported to go through flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). One is to monitor electrochemical parameters, ECP and pH, which can show occurrence of corrosion. The other is to monitor mechanical parameters, displacement and acceleration. These parameters are shown to change with thickness. Both measured parameters will be combined to quantify the amount of FAC of a target piping. In this paper, we report the progress of a multidisciplinary effort on monitoring of flow-induced vibration, which changes with reducing thickness. Vibration characteristics are measured using accelerometers, capacitive sensor and fiber optic sensors. To theoretically support the measurement, we analyzed the vibration mode change in a given thickness with the aid of finite element analysis assuming FAC phenomenon is represented only as thickness change. A high temperature flow loop has been developed to simulate the NPP secondary condition to show the applicability of new sensors. Ultrasonic transducer is introduced as validation purpose by directly measuring thickness. By this process, we identify performance and applicability of chosen sensors and also obtain base data for analyzing measured value in unknown conditions. (orig.)

  9. Real-time on-line space research laboratory environment monitoring with off-line trend and prediction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2007-06-01

    With the International Space Station currently operational, a significant amount of acceleration data is being down-linked, processed and analyzed daily on the ground on a continuous basis for the space station reduced gravity environment characterization, the vehicle design requirements verification and science data collection. To help understand the impact of the unique spacecraft environment on the science data, an artificial intelligence monitoring system was developed, which detects in near real time any change in the reduced gravity environment susceptible to affect the on-going experiments. Using a dynamic graphical display, the monitoring system allows science teams, at any time and any location, to see the active vibration disturbances, such as pumps, fans, compressor, crew exercise, re-boost and extra-vehicular activities that might impact the reduced gravity environment the experiments are exposed to. The monitoring system can detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance activities. It can also perform trend analysis and prediction by analyzing past data over many increments (an increment usually lasts 6 months) collected onboard the station for selected disturbances. This feature can be used to monitor the health of onboard mechanical systems to detect and prevent potential systems failures. The monitoring system has two operating modes: online and offline. Both near real-time on-line vibratory disturbance detection and off-line detection and trend analysis are discussed in this paper.

  10. On-line Monitoring System Based on Principle of Electro-acoustic Monitoring for Transformer Partial Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Ya LIU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge inside a transformer is mainly responsible for the insulation aging and damage of the transformer. However, partial discharge is usually accompanied by external signals like sound, light and electrical signals and detectable physical phenomena such as characteristical gas and dielectric loss. Therefore, it is of great significance to monitor online the external signals and phenomena formed during partial discharge of the transformer when the transformer diagnoses faults. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of the electro-acoustic joint monitoring principles and its monitoring systems and the judgment skills concerned, on the basis of which the monitoring system is designed.

  11. On-line H2S monitoring using near-infrared tunable diode laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partin, J.K.; Jeffrey, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate the technique of frequency-modulated, tunable diode laser spectroscopy for the monitoring of H 2 S gas in geothermal plant emissions. The geothermal power industry has an interest in the development of real-time techniques for monitoring these emissions, since improved measurement capabilities could lead to considerable cost savings through the optimization of the chemicals used for abatement. There are several locations throughout the plant at which this measurement could be performed. They vary from the main stream line which operates at a temperature of about 350 F (175 C) and a pressure of 100 psig to the cooling stack with a temperature of 80--100 F (27--38 C) at ambient pressure. Gas concentrations range from 0.1 ppm to 1,000's of ppms. The technical goal of this effort was to perform a series of scoping experiments to determine the effect of elevated pressure, temperature and water vapor on the sensitivity of this spectroscopic technique for the detection of H 2 S. The results of these experiments are presented, and the deployment options and system designs are discussed

  12. On-line monitoring of food fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peris, Miguel, E-mail: mperist@qim.upv.es [Departamento de Química, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Escuder-Gilabert, Laura [Departamento de Química Analítica, Universitat de Valencia, C/ Vicente Andrés Estellés s/n, E-46100 Burjasot, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •This review paper deals with the applications of electronic noses and electronic tongues to the monitoring of fermentation processes. •Positive and negative aspects of the different approaches reviewed are analyzed. •Current and future endeavors in this field are also commented. -- Abstract: Fermentation processes are often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, close follow-up of this type of processes is critical for detecting unfavorable deviations as early as possible in order to save downtime, materials and resources. Nevertheless the use of traditional analytical techniques is often hindered by the need for expensive instrumentation and experienced operators and complex sample preparation. In this sense, one of the most promising ways of developing rapid and relatively inexpensive methods for quality control in fermentation processes is the use of chemical multisensor systems. In this work we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the monitoring of fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues. After a brief description of the fundamentals of both types of devices, the different approaches are critically commented, their strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. Finally, future trends in this field are also mentioned in the last section of the article.

  13. On-line monitoring of food fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peris, Miguel; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •This review paper deals with the applications of electronic noses and electronic tongues to the monitoring of fermentation processes. •Positive and negative aspects of the different approaches reviewed are analyzed. •Current and future endeavors in this field are also commented. -- Abstract: Fermentation processes are often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, close follow-up of this type of processes is critical for detecting unfavorable deviations as early as possible in order to save downtime, materials and resources. Nevertheless the use of traditional analytical techniques is often hindered by the need for expensive instrumentation and experienced operators and complex sample preparation. In this sense, one of the most promising ways of developing rapid and relatively inexpensive methods for quality control in fermentation processes is the use of chemical multisensor systems. In this work we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the monitoring of fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues. After a brief description of the fundamentals of both types of devices, the different approaches are critically commented, their strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. Finally, future trends in this field are also mentioned in the last section of the article

  14. On-line vibration monitoring for submerged vertical shaft pumps: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, T.J.; Marchione, M.M.

    1988-03-01

    The overall goal of this project was to extend to vertical pumps the capability that presently exists to monitor and diagnose vibration problems in horizontal pumps. Specific objectives included the development of analytical techniques to interpret vibration measurements, the verification of these techniqeus by in-plant tests, and the development of recommendations for procuring submergible vibration sensors. A concurrent analytical and experimental approach was used to accomplish these objectives. Rotordynamic analyses of selected pumps were accomplished, and each pump was instrumented and monitored for extended periods of time. The models were used to determine important frequencies and optimum sensor locations and to predict the effect that wear, imbalance, misalighment, and other mechanical changes would have on measured vibration. The predictive ability of the models was confirmed by making changes to instrumented pumps and observing actual changes in pump vibration. Simplified guidelines have been developed to assist the interested user to develop a computer model that realistically predicts the rotordynamic performance of the installed pump. Based on the work accomplished, typical sensor locations have been established. Experience gained in application of commercially available submergible sensors is also related. 11 refs., 11 figs

  15. On-line monitoring of toxic materials in sewage at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auyong, M.; Cate, J.L. Jr.; Rueppel, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly important for industry to prevent releases of potentially toxic material to the environment. The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has developed a system to monitor its sewage effluent on a continuous basis. A representative fraction of the total waste stream leaving the Plant is passed through a detection assembly consisting of an x-ray fluorescence unit which detects high levels of metals, sodium iodide crystal detectors that scan the sewage for the presence of elevated levels of radiation, and an industrial probe for pH monitoring. With the aid of a microprocessor, the data collected is reduced and analyzed to determine whether levels are approaching established environmental limits. Currently, if preset pH or radiation levels are exceeded, a sample of the suspect sewage is automatically collected for further analysis, and an alarm is sent to a station where personnel can be alerted to respond on a 24-hour basis. In the same manner, spectral data from the x-ray fluorescence unit will be routed through the 24-hour alarm system as soon as evaluation of the unit is complete. The design of the system and operational experience is discussed

  16. An On-Line Water Monitor for Low Level {beta}-Radioactivity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, E J.M.

    1968-05-15

    A detection system is described for the continuous monitoring of {beta}-radioactivity in the secondary cooling water at the Studsvik R2 reactor. Radiation emanating from a water surface is measured by a large area gas proportional detector. To protect the detector from splash caused by bursting bubbles a protective film and heater assembly is interposed between the detector and the water surface. A special feature is the programmed 'exercise' sequence for the magnetic valves which eliminates a tendency for them to stick after prolonged periods of idleness. The extent to which contamination affects the background counting rate has been studied. It is shown that for the duration of the tests described the monitor remains free from the effects of contamination so long as the scaler live time is suitably chosen. Minimum measurable specific activities obtainable in practice extend from 4 x 10{sup -6} to 3.86 x 10{sup -8} Ci/m{sup 3} depending on the {beta} end-point energy in the range 167 keV - 2.26 MeV.

  17. Spectroscopic and physicochemical measurements for on-line monitoring of used nuclear fuel separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nee, Ko; Nilsson, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of California, 916 Engineering Tower, Irvine, CA 92697-2575 (United States); Bryan, S.; Levitskaia, T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO BOX 999, Richland, CA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Separation processes for used nuclear fuel are often complicated and challenging due to the high constraints in purity of the products and safeguards of the process streams. In order to achieve a safe, secure and efficient separation process, the liquid streams in the separation process require close monitoring. Due to the high radiation environment, sampling of the materials is difficult. Availability of a detection technique that is remote, non-destructive and can avoid time-delay caused by retrieving samples would be beneficial and could minimize the exposure to personnel and provide material accountancy to avoid diversion (non-proliferation). For example, Ultra Violet (UV), Visible (Vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy that detect and quantify elements present in used nuclear fuel, e.g. lanthanides, actinides and molecules such as nitrate, can be used. In this work, we have carried out NIR and Raman spectroscopy to study aqueous solutions composed of different concentrations of nitric acid, sodium nitrate, and neodymium at varied temperatures. A chemometric model for online monitoring based on the PLS-Toolbox (MATLAB) software has been developed and validated to provide chemical composition of process streams based on spectroscopic data. In conclusion, both of our NIR and Raman spectra were useful for H{sup +} and NO{sub 3} prediction, and only NIR was helpful for the Nd{sup 3+} prediction.

  18. The development on-line monitoring system of active magnetic bearings for HTR-10GT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhengang; Shi Lei; Zha Meisheng; Yu Suyuan

    2005-01-01

    High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTR) is recognized as an advanced type of reactor incorporating many design enhancements such as inherent safety features, fuel cycle flexibility, highly fuel utilization, highly efficient electricity generation and process heat application. The research and development of HTR started at the middle of the 1970's, and came to be a part of the Chinese High Technology Program in 1986. A plan to build a 10 MW High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTR-10) was approved by the State Science and Technology Commission in 1990, and in 1995 the construction was initiated at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET), Tsinghua University. The full power 10 MW operation for 72 hours have reached in 2003, and have been checked and accepted by the State Science and Technology Commission. In order to advance the HTR-10 performance, the project of the Helium Gas Turbine Generator for the HTR-10 was authorized by the State Science and Technology Commission, and stared in 2003. In this project, active magnetic bearings (AMBs) are chosen to support the generator rotor and the turbocompressor rotor in the power conversion unit because of their numerous advantages over the conventional bearings. In order to detect how the AMB system works in operation and make diagnosis whether the system behaves normally or not, the monitoring system based on the virtual instruments is designed to monitor the working conditions of the PCU, and to ensure its normal operation. This monitoring system consists of the industry personal computer (PC), the data acquisition system, the measurement transmitters and the LabVIEW system platform. It is located at the PCU control room, and communicates with the master control room by Controller Area Net (CAN). The development is divided into the following three steps: First, a data acquisition platform to collect and acquire all the necessary and useful data from the operation of the AMB system is developed. Second, the

  19. Calibration of alpha-track monitors for measurement of thoron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, M.D.

    1990-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology established the Technical Measurements Center (TMC) at the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) to provide standardization, calibration, verification of data, quality assurance, and cost-effectiveness for environmental measurements associated with the various DOE remedial action programs. The GJPO Radon Laboratory has conducted a number of studies evaluating the precision and accuracy of alpha-track monitors for the measurement of airborne radon (Rn-222) concentration. These studies have demonstrated the usefulness of using alpha-track monitors to measure radon. Alpha-track devices have also been proposed for estimating concentrations of thoron (Rn-220). 9 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Calibration of instrument and personnel monitoring in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Aziz Mohamad Ramli; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    1987-01-01

    It is difficult to choose radioprotection equipments that are not too expensive and suit the purpose. Some of the dosimetric characteristics of good dosemeters outlined by ISO 4071-1978 (E) namely scale linearity, energy dependence, radiation quality dependence and angular dependence for some of the commercially available dosemeters are discussed. The calibration procedures practised at the National Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL), of the Nuclear Energy Unit (NEU) is also explained. The radiological equipments for personnel monitoring such as film badge and TLD are widely used to estimate the radiation dose delivered to the whole or partial body of a personnel. Both of the personnel monitoring procedures have been established at the NEU. The objective, use and maintenance of the devices are also discussed in detail. The evaluation of the monthly dose received by a personnel from various establishments in the country are also presented. (author). 17 figs

  1. Evaluation of statistical control charts for on-line radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, L.D.; DeVol, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    Statistical control charts are presented for the evaluation of time series radiation counter data from flow cells used for monitoring of low levels of 99 TcO 4 - in environmental solutions. Control chart methods consisted of the 3-sigma (3σ) chart, the cumulative sum (CUSUM) chart, and the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) chart. Each method involves a control limit based on the detector background which constitutes the detection limit. Both the CUSUM and EWMA charts are suitable to detect and estimate sample concentration requiring less solution volume than when using a 3? control chart. Data presented here indicate that the overall accuracy and precision of the CUSUM method is the best. (author)

  2. Manageable and Extensible Video Streaming Systems for On-Line Monitoring of Remote Laboratory Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Wei Lin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available To enable clients to view real-time video of the involved instruments during a remote experiment, two real-time video streaming systems are devised. One is for the remote experiments which instruments locate in one geographic spot and the other is for those which instruments scatter over different places. By means of running concurrent streaming processes at a server, multiple instruments can be monitored simultaneously by different clients. The proposed systems possess excellent extensibility, that is, the systems can easily add new digital cameras for instruments without modifying any software. Also they are well-manageable, meaning that an administrator can conveniently adjust the quality of the real-time video depending on system load and visual requirements. Finally, some evaluation concerning CPU utilization and bandwidth consumption of the systems have been evaluated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed solutions.

  3. Developing RCM Strategy for Hydrogen Fuel Cells Utilizing On Line E-Condition Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baglee, D; Knowles, M J

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell vehicles are considered to be a viable solution to problems such as carbon emissions and fuel shortages for road transport. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are mainly used in this purpose because they can run at low temperatures and have a simple structure. Yet high maintenance costs and the inherent dangers of maintaining equipment using hydrogen are two main issues which need to be addressed. The development of appropriate and efficient strategies is currently lacking with regard to fuel cell maintenance. A Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) approach offers considerable benefit to the management of fuel cell maintenance since it includes an identification and consideration of the impact of critical components. Technological developments in e-maintenance systems, radio-frequency identification (RFID) and personal digital assistants (PDAs) have proven to satisfy the increasing demand for improved reliability, efficiency and safety. RFID technology is used to store and remotely retrieve electronic maintenance data in order to provide instant access to up-to-date, accurate and detailed information. The aim is to support fuel cell maintenance decisions by developing and applying a blend of leading-edge communications and sensor technology including RFID. The purpose of this paper is to review and present the state of the art in fuel cell condition monitoring and maintenance utilizing RCM and RFID technologies. Using an RCM analysis critical components and fault modes are identified. RFID tags are used to store the critical information, possible faults and their cause and effect. The relationship between causes, faults, symptoms and long term implications of fault conditions are summarized. Finally conclusions are drawn regarding suggested maintenance strategies and the optimal structure for an integrated, cost effective condition monitoring and maintenance management system.

  4. Developing RCM Strategy for Hydrogen Fuel Cells Utilizing On Line E-Condition Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglee, D.; Knowles, M. J.

    2012-05-01

    Fuel cell vehicles are considered to be a viable solution to problems such as carbon emissions and fuel shortages for road transport. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are mainly used in this purpose because they can run at low temperatures and have a simple structure. Yet high maintenance costs and the inherent dangers of maintaining equipment using hydrogen are two main issues which need to be addressed. The development of appropriate and efficient strategies is currently lacking with regard to fuel cell maintenance. A Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) approach offers considerable benefit to the management of fuel cell maintenance since it includes an identification and consideration of the impact of critical components. Technological developments in e-maintenance systems, radio-frequency identification (RFID) and personal digital assistants (PDAs) have proven to satisfy the increasing demand for improved reliability, efficiency and safety. RFID technology is used to store and remotely retrieve electronic maintenance data in order to provide instant access to up-to-date, accurate and detailed information. The aim is to support fuel cell maintenance decisions by developing and applying a blend of leading-edge communications and sensor technology including RFID. The purpose of this paper is to review and present the state of the art in fuel cell condition monitoring and maintenance utilizing RCM and RFID technologies. Using an RCM analysis critical components and fault modes are identified. RFID tags are used to store the critical information, possible faults and their cause and effect. The relationship between causes, faults, symptoms and long term implications of fault conditions are summarized. Finally conclusions are drawn regarding suggested maintenance strategies and the optimal structure for an integrated, cost effective condition monitoring and maintenance management system.

  5. On-line gross alpha radiation monitoring of natural waters with extractive scintillating resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Lara; De Vol, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Extractive scintillating resins, which are used to simultaneously separate and quantify radioactivity in aqueous solutions, were developed for low-level alpha radiation monitoring of natural waters. Resins were investigated with bis(2-ethylhexyl)methane-diphosphonic acid (H 2 DEH[MDP], Dipex[reg]) extractant, which has a strong affinity for tri-, tetra- and hexavalent actinides in dilute acids. Extractive scintillating resins were manifested (1) as a mixed bed of scintillating resin and extraction chromatographic resin and (2) by diffusing the organic fluor 2-(1-naphtyl)-5-phenyloxazole into macroporous polystyrene chromatographic resin, then coating with H 2 DEH[MDP], or by coating H 2 DEH[MDP] on scintillating polyvinyltoluene beads. The scintillation light was detected with a modified Hidex Triathler to allow for continuous flow measurements. The average detection efficiencies were 51.7±2.6% and 65.8±10.1% for natural uranium and 241 Am, respectively, for the extractant coated scintillator. The resin was stable for solution flow of up to 1000 ml resulting in rapid real-time quantification of natural uranium in groundwater down to 30 μg/ml

  6. A Novel Method To On-Line Monitor Reactor Nuclear Power And In-Core Thermal Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hanying; Miller, Don W.; Li, Dongxu; Radcliff, Thomas D.

    2002-01-01

    dynamic performance in the compensation mode. Therefore, a theoretical second order model was developed based on the structure of the sensor. The input variable in the developed second order model is technically transformed in order to easily determine the sensor transfer function. The sensor is also simulated using a numerical model. The simulation results are compared with the theoretical model in terms of the relation between the sensor dynamics and the thermal environment variables. This comparison verifies the feasibility of the proposed method using the compensation mode to on-line monitor in-core thermal environments and using the measurement mode to on-line measure nuclear power. (authors)

  7. On-line generation of core monitoring power distribution in the SCOMS couppled with core design code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. B.; Kim, K. K.; In, W. K.; Ji, S. K.; Jang, M. H.

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides the description of the methodology and main program module of power distribution calculation of SCOMS(SMART COre Monitoring System). The simulation results of the SMART core using the developed SCOMS are included. The planar radial peaking factor(Fxy) is relatively high in SMART core because control banks are inserted to the core at normal operation. If the conventional core monitoring method is adapted to SMART, highly skewed planar radial peaking factor Fxy yields an excessive conservatism and reduces the operation margin. In addition to this, the error of the core monitoring would be enlarged and thus operating margin would be degraded, because it is impossible to precalculate the core monitoring constants for all the control banks configurations taking into account the operation history in the design stage. To get rid of these drawbacks in the conventional power distribution calculation methodology, new methodology to calculate the three dimensional power distribution is developed. Core monitoring constants are calculated with the core design code (MASTER) which is on-line coupled with SCOMS. Three dimensional (3D) power distribution and the several peaking factors are calculated using the in-core detector signals and core monitoring constant provided at real time. Developed methodology is applied to the SMART core and the various core states are simulated. Based on the simulation results, it is founded that the three dimensional peaking factor to calculate the Linear Power Density and the pseudo hot-pin axial power distribution to calculate the Departure Nucleate Boiling Ratio show the more conservative values than those of the best-estimated core design code, and SCOMS adapted developed methodology can secures the more operation margin than the conventional methodology

  8. Calibration of the radiation monitor onboard Akebono using Geant4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Keiko; Takashima, Takeshi; Koi, Tatsumi; Nagai, Tsugunobu

    Natural high-energy electrons and protons (keV-MeV) in the space contaminate the data re-ciprocally. In order to calibrate the energy ranges and to remove data contamination on the radiation monitor (RDM) onboard the Japanese satellite, Akebono (EXOS-D), the detector is investigated using the Geant4 simulation toolkit of computational particle tracing. The semi-polar orbiting Akebono, launched in February 1989, is active now. This satellite has been observed the space environment at altitudes of several thousands km. The RDM instrument onboard Akebono monitors energetic particles in the Earth's radiation belt and gives important data accumulated for about two solar cycles. The data from RDM are for electrons in three energy channels of 0.3 MeV, protons in three energy channels of ¿ 30 MeV, and alpha particles in one energy channels of 15-45 MeV. The energy ranges are however based on information of about 20 years ago so that the data seem to include some errors actuary. In addition, these data include contamination of electrons and protons reciprocally. Actuary it is noticed that the electron data are contaminated by the solar protons but unknown quantitative amount of the contamination. Therefore we need data calibration in order to correct the energy ranges and to remove data contamination. The Geant4 simulation gives information of trajectories of incident and secondary particles whose are interacted with materials. We examine the RDM monitor using the Geant4 simulation. We find from the results that relativistic electrons of MeV behave quite complicatedly because of particle-material interaction in the instrument. The results indicate that efficiencies of detection and contamination are dependent on energy. This study compares the electron data from Akebono RDM with the simultaneous observation of CRRES and tries to lead the values of correction for each of the energy channels.

  9. Development and Validation of an On-Line Water Toxicity Sensor with Immobilized Luminescent Bacteria for On-Line Surface Water Monitoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, Marjolijn; van der Gaag, Bram; Abrafi Boakye, Afua; Mink, Jan; Marks, Robert S; Wagenvoort, Arco J; Ketelaars, Henk A M; Brouwer, Bram; Heringa, Minne B

    2017-01-01

    Surface water used for drinking water production is frequently monitored in The Netherlands using whole organism biomonitors, with for exampleDaphnia magnaorDreissenamussels, which respond to changes in the water quality. However, not all human-relevant toxic compounds can be detected by these

  10. On-Line Junction Temperature Monitoring of Switching Devices with Dynamic Compact Thermal Models Extracted with Model Order Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Di Napoli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Residual lifetime estimation has gained a key point among the techniques that improve the reliability and the efficiency of power converters. The main cause of failures are the junction temperature cycles exhibited by switching devices during their normal operation; therefore, reliable power converter lifetime estimation requires the knowledge of the junction temperature time profile. Since on-line dynamic temperature measurements are extremely difficult, in this work an innovative real-time monitoring strategy is proposed, which is capable of estimating the junction temperature profile from the measurement of the dissipated powers through an accurate and compact thermal model of the whole power module. The equations of this model can be easily implemented inside a FPGA, exploiting the control architecture already present in modern power converters. Experimental results on an IGBT power module demonstrate the reliability of the proposed method.

  11. A multisyringe flow-through sequential extraction system for on-line monitoring of orthophosphate in soils and sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buanuam, Janya; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2007-01-01

    A fully automated flow-through microcolumn fractionation system with on-line post-extraction derivatization is proposed for monitoring of orthophosphate in solid samples of environmental relevance. The system integrates dynamic sequential extraction using 1.0 mol l-1 NH4Cl, 0.1 mol l-1 NaOH and 0...... of the operational times from days to hours, highly temporal resolution of the leaching process, and the capability for immediate decision for stopping or proceeding with the ongoing extraction. Very importantly, accurate determination of the various orthophosphate pools is ensured by minimization of the hydrolysis...... of extracted organic phosphorus and condensed inorganic phosphates within the time frame of the assay. The potential of the novel system for accommodation of the harmonized protocol from the Standards, Measurement and Testing (SMT) Program of the Commission of the European Communities for inorganic phosphorus...

  12. Analysis of a Kalman filter based method for on-line estimation of atmospheric dispersion parameters using radiation monitoring data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Martin; Lauritzen, Bent; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    A Kalman filter method is discussed for on-line estimation of radioactive release and atmospheric dispersion from a time series of off-site radiation monitoring data. The method is based on a state space approach, where a stochastic system equation describes the dynamics of the plume model...... parameters, and the observables are linked to the state variables through a static measurement equation. The method is analysed for three simple state space models using experimental data obtained at a nuclear research reactor. Compared to direct measurements of the atmospheric dispersion, the Kalman filter...... estimates are found to agree well with the measured parameters, provided that the radiation measurements are spread out in the cross-wind direction. For less optimal detector placement it proves difficult to distinguish variations in the source term and plume height; yet the Kalman filter yields consistent...

  13. Development and evaluation of a long-term deposit probe for on-line monitoring of deposit growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, Anders; Lauren, Tor; Yrjas, Patrik; Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20540 Turku (Finland); Friesenbichler, Joachim [Institute for Resource Efficient and Sustainable Systems, Technical University Graz Inffeldg. 21b, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2007-12-15

    A newly designed air-cooled probe for on-line monitoring of deposition growth has been tested in a boiler firing three woody fuels. Thermocouples are mounted on both sides of the tube wall enabling measurements of the heat flux through the probe wall. Knowing the heat flux through the probe wall, it is possible to measure the additional heat transfer resistance caused by the deposit and to estimate the properties of the deposit. Calculating the deposit thickness using the collected temperature data indicated the thinnest deposit when wood was fired, followed by bark and waste wood. The calculated deposit thickness was larger than those found when analysing the deposit thickness after the probe had been removed. Nevertheless, the ranking of fuels by deposit build-up rate was the same. (author)

  14. Improved Fuzzy Logic System to Evaluate Milk Electrical Conductivity Signals from On-Line Sensors to Monitor Dairy Goat Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and test a new fuzzy logic model for monitoring the udder health status (HS of goats. The model evaluated, as input variables, the milk electrical conductivity (EC signal, acquired on-line for each gland by a dedicated sensor, the bandwidth length and the frequency and amplitude of the first main peak of the Fourier frequency spectrum of the recorded milk EC signal. Two foremilk gland samples were collected from eight Saanen goats for six months at morning milking (lactation stages (LS: 0–60 Days In Milking (DIM; 61–120 DIM; 121–180 DIM, for a total of 5592 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cell counts (SCC were used to define the HS of the glands. With negative bacteriological analyses and SCC < 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as healthy. When bacteriological analyses were positive or showed a SCC > 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as not healthy (NH. For each EC signal, an estimated EC value was calculated and a relative deviation was obtained. Furthermore, the Fourier frequency spectrum was evaluated and bandwidth length, frequency and amplitude of the first main peak were identified. Before using these indexes as input variables of the fuzzy logic model a linear mixed-effects model was developed to evaluate the acquired data considering the HS, LS and LS × HS as explanatory variables. Results showed that performance of a fuzzy logic model, in the monitoring of mammary gland HS, could be improved by the use of EC indexes derived from the Fourier frequency spectra of gland milk EC signals recorded by on-line EC sensors.

  15. Continuous monitoring of bisulfide variation in microdialysis effluents by on-line droplet-based microfluidic fluorescent sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaocui; Xu, Lei; Wu, Tongbo; Xu, Anqin; Zhao, Meiping; Liu, Shaorong

    2014-05-15

    We demonstrate a novel fluorescent sensor for real-time and continuous monitoring of the variation of bisulfide in microdialysis effluents by using a nanoparticle-glutathione-fluorescein isothiocyanate (AuNP-GSH-FITC) probe coupled with on-line droplet-based microfluidic chip. The AuNP-GSH-FITC fluorescent probe was firstly developed and used for bisulfide detection in bulk solution by quantitative real-time PCR, which achieved a linear working range from 0.1 μM to 5.0 μM and a limit of detection of ~50 nM. The response time was less than 2 min. With the aid of co-immobilized thiol-polyethylene glycol, the probe exhibited excellent stability and reproducibility in high salinity solutions, including artificial cerebrospinal fluids (aCSF). By adding 0.1% glyoxal to the probe solution, the assay allowed quantification of bisulfide in the presence of cysteine at the micro-molarity level. Using the AuNP-GSH-FITC probe, a droplet-based microfluidic fluorescent sensor was further constructed for online monitoring of bisulfide variation in the effluent of microdialysis. By using fluorescence microscope-charge-coupled device camera as the detector, the integrated microdialysis/microfluidic chip device achieved a detection limit of 2.0 μM and a linear response from 5.0 μM to 50 μM for bisulfide in the tested sample. The method was successfully applied for the on-line measurement of bisulfide variation in aCSF and serum samples. It will be a very useful tool for tracking the variation of bisulfide or hydrogen sulfide in extracellular fluids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. On-line generation of three-dimensional core power distribution using incore detector signals to monitor safety limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Wook; Lee, Ki Bog; Na, Man Gyun; Lee, Yoon Joon

    2004-01-01

    It is essential in commercial reactors that the safety limits imposed on the fuel pellets and fuel clad barriers, such as the Linear Power Density (LPD) and the Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR), are not violated during reactor operations. In order to accurately monitor the safety limits of current reactor states, a detailed three-dimensional (3D) core power distribution should be estimated from the in-core detector signals. In this paper, we propose a calculation methodology for detailed 3D core power distribution, using in-core detector signals and core monitoring constants such as the 3D Coupling Coefficients (3DCC), node power fraction, and pin-to-node factors. Also, the calculation method for several core safety parameters is introduced. The core monitoring constants for the real core state are promptly provided by the core design code and on-line MASTER(Multi-purpose Analyzer for Static and Transient Effects of Reactors), coupled with the core monitoring program. Through the plant computer, core state variables, which include reactor thermal power, control rod bank position, boron concentration, inlet moderator temperature, and flow rate, are supplied as input data for MASTER. MASTER performs the core calculation based on the neutron balance equation and generates several core monitoring constants corresponding to the real core state in addition to the expected core power distribution. The accuracy of the developed method is verified through a comparison with the current CECOR method. Because in all the verification calculation cases the proposed method shows a more conservative value than the best estimated value and a less conservative one than the current CECOR and COLSS methods, it is also confirmed that this method secures a greater operating margin through the simulation of the YGN-3 cycle-1 core from the viewpoint of the power peaking factor for the LPD and the pseudo hot pin axial power distribution for the DNBR calculation

  17. A Self-Calibrating Remote Control Chemical Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessica Croft

    2007-06-01

    The Susie Mine, part of the Upper Tenmile Mining Area, is located in Rimini, MT about 15 miles southwest of Helena, MT. The Upper Tenmile Creek Mining Area is an EPA Superfund site with 70 abandoned hard rock mines and several residential yards prioritized for clean up. Water from the Susie mine flows into Tenmile Creek from which the city of Helena draws part of its water supply. MSE Technology Applications in Butte, Montana was contracted by the EPA to build a treatment system for the Susie mine effluent and demonstrate a system capable of treating mine waste water in remote locations. The Idaho National Lab was contracted to design, build and demonstrate a low maintenance self-calibrating monitoring system that would monitor multiple sample points, allow remote two-way communications with the control software and allow access to the collected data through a web site. The Automated Chemical Analysis Monitoring (ACAM) system was installed in December 2006. This thesis documents the overall design of the hardware, control software and website, the data collected while MSE-TA’s system was operational, the data collected after MSE-TA’s system was shut down and suggested improvements to the existing system.

  18. Design, test, and calibration of an electrostatic beam position monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Cohen-Solal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The low beta of proton or ion beams favors an electrostatic pickup to measure the transverse beam centroid position. Often papers on beam position monitors (BPM are focused on a particular aspect of the problem; however, it is important to consider all various issues of a position measurement system. Based on our experience at the IPHI (high intensity injector proton facility at CEA-Saclay, this paper will address all aspects to design, test, and calibrate a BPM for proton linear accelerators, while emphasizing the determination of the absolute beam position. We present details of the readout electronics, and describe the calibration of the BPM using a test station. For calculation and simulation of the electrical signals we developed a Mathematica script. The error analysis presented, on the basis of six BPMs installed in the high energy section of IPHI, demonstrates the expected accuracy of the position measurement. These studies also identify the parameters that could improve the performance of the beam position control. The experience from these developments is currently being used for the BPM design and test stand dedicated to the Spiral2 accelerator at Ganil-Caen which will deliver heavy ion beams.

  19. Design, test, and calibration of an electrostatic beam position monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Solal, Maurice

    2010-03-01

    The low beta of proton or ion beams favors an electrostatic pickup to measure the transverse beam centroid position. Often papers on beam position monitors (BPM) are focused on a particular aspect of the problem; however, it is important to consider all various issues of a position measurement system. Based on our experience at the IPHI (high intensity injector proton) facility at CEA-Saclay, this paper will address all aspects to design, test, and calibrate a BPM for proton linear accelerators, while emphasizing the determination of the absolute beam position. We present details of the readout electronics, and describe the calibration of the BPM using a test station. For calculation and simulation of the electrical signals we developed a Mathematica script. The error analysis presented, on the basis of six BPMs installed in the high energy section of IPHI, demonstrates the expected accuracy of the position measurement. These studies also identify the parameters that could improve the performance of the beam position control. The experience from these developments is currently being used for the BPM design and test stand dedicated to the Spiral2 accelerator at Ganil-Caen which will deliver heavy ion beams.

  20. Monitoring of an esterification reaction by on-line direct liquid sampling mass spectrometry and in-line mid infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Andrew W.; McAulay, Edith A.J.; Nordon, Alison; Littlejohn, David; Lynch, Thomas P.; Lancaster, J. Steven; Wright, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High efficiency thermal vaporiser designed and used for on-line reaction monitoring. • Concentration profiles of all reactants and products obtained from mass spectra. • By-product formed from the presence of an impurity detected by MS but not MIR. • Mass spectrometry can detect trace and bulk components unlike molecular spectrometry. - Abstract: A specially designed thermal vaporiser was used with a process mass spectrometer designed for gas analysis to monitor the esterification of butan-1-ol and acetic anhydride. The reaction was conducted at two scales: in a 150 mL flask and a 1 L jacketed batch reactor, with liquid delivery flow rates to the vaporiser of 0.1 and 1.0 mL min −1 , respectively. Mass spectrometry measurements were made at selected ion masses, and classical least squares multivariate linear regression was used to produce concentration profiles for the reactants, products and catalyst. The extent of reaction was obtained from the butyl acetate profile and found to be 83% and 76% at 40 °C and 20 °C, respectively, at the 1 L scale. Reactions in the 1 L reactor were also monitored by in-line mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry; off-line gas chromatography (GC) was used as a reference technique when building partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration models for prediction of butyl acetate concentrations from the MIR spectra. In validation experiments, good agreement was achieved between the concentration of butyl acetate obtained from in-line MIR spectra and off-line GC. In the initial few minutes of the reaction the profiles for butyl acetate derived from on-line direct liquid sampling mass spectrometry (DLSMS) differed from those of in-line MIR spectrometry owing to the 2 min transfer time between the reactor and mass spectrometer. As the reaction proceeded, however, the difference between the concentration profiles became less noticeable. DLSMS had advantages over in-line MIR spectrometry as it was easier to generate

  1. Quantitative monitoring of an activated sludge reactor using on-line UV-visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarraguca, Mafalda C.; Lopes, Joao A. [Universidade do Porto, REQUIMTE, Servico de Quimica-Fisica, Faculdade de Farmacia, Porto (Portugal); Paulo, Ana; Alves, Madalena M.; Dias, Ana M.A.; Ferreira, Eugenio C. [Universidade do Minho, IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Braga (Portugal)

    2009-10-15

    The performance of an activated sludge reactor can be significantly enhanced through use of continuous and real-time process-state monitoring, which avoids the need to sample for off-line analysis and to use chemicals. Despite the complexity associated with wastewater treatment systems, spectroscopic methods coupled with chemometric tools have been shown to be powerful tools for bioprocess monitoring and control. Once implemented and optimized, these methods are fast, nondestructive, user friendly, and most importantly, they can be implemented in situ, permitting rapid inference of the process state at any moment. In this work, UV-visible and NIR spectroscopy were used to monitor an activated sludge reactor using in situ immersion probes connected to the respective analyzers by optical fibers. During the monitoring period, disturbances to the biological system were induced to test the ability of each spectroscopic method to detect the changes in the system. Calibration models based on partial least squares (PLS) regression were developed for three key process parameters, namely chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate concentration (N-NO{sub 3}{sup -}), and total suspended solids (TSS). For NIR, the best results were achieved for TSS, with a relative error of 14.1% and a correlation coefficient of 0.91. The UV-visible technique gave similar results for the three parameters: an error of {proportional_to}25% and correlation coefficients of {proportional_to}0.82 for COD and TSS and 0.87 for N-NO{sub 3}{sup -}. The results obtained demonstrate that both techniques are suitable for consideration as alternative methods for monitoring and controlling wastewater treatment processes, presenting clear advantages when compared with the reference methods for wastewater treatment process qualification. (orig.)

  2. Quantitative monitoring of an activated sludge reactor using on-line UV-visible and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda C; Paulo, Ana; Alves, Madalena M; Dias, Ana M A; Lopes, João A; Ferreira, Eugénio C

    2009-10-01

    The performance of an activated sludge reactor can be significantly enhanced through use of continuous and real-time process-state monitoring, which avoids the need to sample for off-line analysis and to use chemicals. Despite the complexity associated with wastewater treatment systems, spectroscopic methods coupled with chemometric tools have been shown to be powerful tools for bioprocess monitoring and control. Once implemented and optimized, these methods are fast, nondestructive, user friendly, and most importantly, they can be implemented in situ, permitting rapid inference of the process state at any moment. In this work, UV-visible and NIR spectroscopy were used to monitor an activated sludge reactor using in situ immersion probes connected to the respective analyzers by optical fibers. During the monitoring period, disturbances to the biological system were induced to test the ability of each spectroscopic method to detect the changes in the system. Calibration models based on partial least squares (PLS) regression were developed for three key process parameters, namely chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate concentration (N-NO(3)(-)), and total suspended solids (TSS). For NIR, the best results were achieved for TSS, with a relative error of 14.1% and a correlation coefficient of 0.91. The UV-visible technique gave similar results for the three parameters: an error of approximately 25% and correlation coefficients of approximately 0.82 for COD and TSS and 0.87 for N-NO(3)(-) . The results obtained demonstrate that both techniques are suitable for consideration as alternative methods for monitoring and controlling wastewater treatment processes, presenting clear advantages when compared with the reference methods for wastewater treatment process qualification.

  3. On-Line Fuel Failure Monitor for Fuel Testing and Monitoring of Gas Cooled Very High Temperature Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawari, Ayman I.; Bourham, Mohamed A.

    2010-01-01

    Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR) utilize the TRISO microsphere as the fundamental fuel unit in the core. The TRISO microsphere (∼ 1-mm diameter) is composed of a UO2 kernel surrounded by a porous pyrolytic graphite buffer, an inner pyrolytic graphite layer, a silicon carbide (SiC) coating, and an outer pyrolytic graphite layer. The U-235 enrichment of the fuel is expected to range from 4%-10% (higher enrichments are also being considered). The layer/coating system that surrounds the UO2 kernel acts as the containment and main barrier against the environmental release of radioactivity. To understand better the behavior of this fuel under in-core conditions (e.g., high temperature, intense fast neutron flux, etc.), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is launching a fuel testing program that will take place at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). During this project North Carolina State University (NCSU) researchers will collaborate with INL staff for establishing an optimized system for fuel monitoring for the ATR tests. In addition, it is expected that the developed system and methods will be of general use for fuel failure monitoring in gas cooled VHTRs.

  4. Microfluidic setup for on-line SERS monitoring using laser induced nanoparticle spots as SERS active substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-M. Buja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A microfluidic setup which enables on-line monitoring of residues of malachite green (MG using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS is reported. The SERS active substrate was prepared via laser induced synthesis of silver or gold nanoparticles spot on the bottom of a 200 μm inner dimension glass capillary, by focusing the laser beam during a continuous flow of a mixture of silver nitrate or gold chloride and sodium citrate. The described microfluidic setup enables within a few minutes the monitoring of several processes: the synthesis of the SERS active spot, MG adsorption to the metal surface, detection of the analyte when saturation of the SERS signal is reached, and finally, the desorption of MG from the spot. Moreover, after MG complete desorption, the regeneration of the SERS active spot was achieved. The detection of MG was possible down to 10−7 M concentration with a good reproducibility when using silver or gold spots as SERS substrate.

  5. Operative correction of judoists’ training loads on the base of on-line monitoring of heart beats rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Qiang Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: ensure increase of effectiveness of training process’s control by means of operative correction of training loads of different qualification judo wrestlers’ heart beats rate indicators. Material: the research was conducted on the base of Brest SCJSOR № 1. Judo wrestlers of different sport qualification (age 17-19 years old, n=15 participated in the research. Monitoring of judo wrestlers’ heart beats rate was carried out with the help of system “Polar”. Results: we have found factorial structure of functional fitness in every profile of sportsmen. Model characteristics of judo wrestlers were supplemented with the most important sides of functional fitness. Analysis of indicators of restoration effectiveness indicators (REI in both groups of judo wrestlers showed high level of organism’s responsiveness to training load of special and power orientation in comparison with speed power load. We have worked out algorithm of operative correction of training loads by indicators of heart beats rate in training process, depending on orientation and intensity of loads’ physiological influence on judo wrestler. Conclusions: Telemetric on-line monitoring of sportsman’s heart beats rate and calculation of REI permit to objectively assess effectiveness of training’s construction and of micro-cycle in total and detect in due time the trend to development of over-loading and failure of adaptation.

  6. Operative correction of judoists’ training loads on the base of on-line monitoring of heart beats rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong Qiang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: ensure increase of effectiveness of training process’s control by means of operative correction of training loads of different qualification judo wrestlers’ heart beats rate indicators. Material: the research was conducted on the base of Brest SCJSOR № 1. Judo wrestlers of different sport qualification (age 17-19 years old, n=15 participated in the research. Monitoring of judo wrestlers’ heart beats rate was carried out with the help of system “Polar”. Results: we have found factorial structure of functional fitness in every profile of sportsmen. Model characteristics of judo wrestlers were supplemented with the most important sides of functional fitness. Analysis of indicators of restoration effectiveness indicators (REI in both groups of judo wrestlers showed high level of organism’s responsiveness to training load of special and power orientation in comparison with speed power load. We have worked out algorithm of operative correction of training loads by indicators of heart beats rate in training process, depending on orientation and intensity of loads’ physiological influence on judo wrestler. Conclusions: Telemetric on-line monitoring of sportsman’s heart beats rate and calculation of REI permit to objectively assess effectiveness of training’s construction and of micro-cycle in total and detect in due time the trend to development of over-loading and failure of adaptation.

  7. The EOP Visualization Module Integrated into the Plasma On-Line Nuclear Power Plant Safety Monitoring and Assessment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornaes, Arne; Hulsund, John Einar; Vegh, Janos; Major, Csaba; Horvath, Csaba; Lipcsei, Sandor; Kapocs, Gyoergy

    2001-01-01

    An ambitious project to replace the unit information systems (UISs) at the Hungarian Paks nuclear power plant was started in 1998-99. The basic aim of the reconstruction project is to install a modern, distributed UIS architecture on all four Paks VVER-440 units. The new UIS includes an on-line plant safety monitoring and assessment system (PLASMA), which contains a critical safety functions monitoring module and provides extensive operator support during the execution of the new, symptom-oriented emergency operating procedures (EOPs). PLASMA includes a comprehensive EOP visualization module, based on the COPMA-III procedure-handling software developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Halden Reactor Project. Intranet technology is applied for the presentation of the EOPs with the use of a standard hypertext markup language (HTML) browser as a visualization tool. The basic design characteristics of the system, with a detailed description of its user interface and functions of the new EOP display module, are presented

  8. A theoretical approach to calibrate radiation portal monitor (RPM) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafee, Sherif S.; Abbas, Mahmoud I.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation portal monitor (RPM) systems are widely used at international border crossings, where they are applied to the task of detecting nuclear devices, special nuclear material, and radiation dispersal device materials that could appear at borders. The requirements and constraints on RPM systems deployed at high-volume border crossings are significantly different from those at weapons facilities or steel recycling plants, the former being required to rapidly detect localized sources of radiation with a very high detection probability and low false-alarm rate, while screening all of the traffic without impeding the flow of commerce [Chambers, W.H., Atwater, H.F., Fehlau, P.E., Hastings, R.D., Henry, C.N., Kunz, W.E., Sampson, T.E., Whittlesey, T.H., Worth, G.M., 1974. Portal Monitor for Diversion Safeguards. LA-5681, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM]. In the present work, compact analytical formulae are derived and used to calibrate two RPM systems with isotropic radiating sources: (i) polyvinyltoluene (PVT) or plastic and (ii) thallium-doped crystalline sodium iodide, NaI(Tl), gamma-ray detector materials. The calculated efficiencies are compared to measured values reported in the literatures, showing very good agreement

  9. Instruments for calibration and monitoring of the LHCb Muon Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Deplano, C; Lai, A

    2006-01-01

    The subject of this Ph. D. thesis is the study and the development of the instruments needed to monitor and calibrate the Muon Detector of the LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty) experiment. LHCb is currently under installation at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and will start to take data during 2007. The experiment will study B mesons decays to achieve a profound understanding of favour physics in the Standard Model framework and to search signs of new physics beyond. Muons can be found in the final states of many B-decays which are sensitive to CP violation. The Muon Detector has the crucial role to identify the muon particles generated by the b-hadron decays through a measurement of their transverse momentum, already at the first trigger level (Level-0). A 95% effciency in events selection is required for the Muon Trigger, which operates at the Level-0. 1380 detectors are used to equip the whole Muon System and the corresponding 122,112 readout channels must be time aligned and monitored with a resol...

  10. Neutron activation procedures used for the calibration of a nitrogen-16 reactor power monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jester, W.A.; Daubenspeck, T.

    2000-01-01

    Personnel from the Pennsylvania State University's Breazeale Nuclear Reactor assisted NRC (Nuclear Research Corporation) personnel in calibrating a new MSL/ 16 N Nitrogen-16 Monitor. Neutron flux calibration procedures utilized and the results obtained for the production of a nitrogen-16 source of known activity for a BGO detector calibration are described. (author)

  11. Construction and calibration of a simple scintillation counter for monitoring radioactive gases in ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, M.S.

    1984-07-01

    A report is given of the practical construction, laboratory calibration and simple-in-situ calibration check of scintillation detectors used for monitoring radioactive inert gases in gaseous effluents. The βγ-ray and γ-ray detectors are identical except for an absorber which is placed over the window of the γ-ray detector after calibration. The construction and calibration of both detectors is therefore identical. (author)

  12. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

    2010-04-01

    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

  13. Development and installation of a new on-line plant safety monitoring system for the Paks VVER-440 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegh, J.; Major, C.; Buerger, L.; Lipcsei, S.; Horvath, C.; Kapocs, G.; Eiler, J.; Hornaes, A.; Hulsund, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the architecture, modules, algorithms and human-machine interface of a new operator support system (OSS), which is integrated into the new, reconstructed Paks NPP plant computers. The main task of the new OSS is to perform continuous plant safety monitoring and assessment, it has the following basic functions: on-line evaluation and presentation of critical safety function (CSF) status trees, continuous evaluation and presentation of the actual safety status of the plant, displaying and browsing the new symptom-oriented EOPs, automatic displaying of those process signals which are quoted in the EOPs. The first version of the new operator support system was connected to the Paks NPP full scope simulator in October 1999. This configuration was later successfully applied for the simulator testing of the new symptom-oriented EOP set for the Paks NPP in November 1999. The installation process was continued in 2000: the new system started its operation on Unit 2 (June) and on Unit 1 (August), together with the reconstructed, new PCS. (author)

  14. Monitoring gradient profile on-line in micro- and nano-high performance liquid chromatography using conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Apeng; Lu, Joann J; Cao, Chengxi; Liu, Shaorong

    2016-08-19

    In micro- or nano-flow high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), flow-splitters and gradient elutions are commonly used for reverse phase HPLC separations. When a flow splitter was used at a high split-ratio (e.g., 1000:1 or higher), the actual gradient may deviate away from the programmed gradient. Sometimes, mobile phase concentrations can deviate by as much as 5%. In this work, we noticed that the conductivity (σ) of a gradient decreased with the increasing organic-solvent fraction (φ). Based on the relationship between σ and φ, a method was developed for monitoring gradient profile on-line to record any deviations in these HPLC systems. The conductivity could be measured by a traditional conductivity detector or a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D). The method was applied for assessing the performance of an electroosmotic pump (EOP) based nano-HPLC. We also observed that σ value of the gradient changed with system pressure; a=0.0175ΔP (R(2)=0.964), where a is the percentage of the conductivity increase and ΔP is the system pressure in bar. This effect was also investigated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greacen, E.L.; Correll, R.L.; Cunningham, R.B.; Johns, G.G.; Nicolls, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Procedures common to different methods of calibration of neutron moisture meters are outlined and laboratory and field calibration methods compared. Gross errors which arise from faulty calibration techniques are described. The count rate can be affected by the dry bulk density of the soil, the volumetric content of constitutional hydrogen and other chemical components of the soil and soil solution. Calibration is further complicated by the fact that the neutron meter responds more strongly to the soil properties close to the detector and source. The differences in slope of calibration curves for different soils can be as much as 40%

  16. On-line monitoring of methanol and methyl formate in the exhaust gas of an industrial formaldehyde production plant by a mid-IR gas sensor based on tunable Fabry-Pérot filter technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genner, Andreas; Gasser, Christoph; Moser, Harald; Ofner, Johannes; Schreiber, Josef; Lendl, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    On-line monitoring of key chemicals in an industrial production plant ensures economic operation, guarantees the desired product quality, and provides additional in-depth information on the involved chemical processes. For that purpose, rapid, rugged, and flexible measurement systems at reasonable cost are required. Here, we present the application of a flexible mid-IR filtometer for industrial gas sensing. The developed prototype consists of a modulated thermal infrared source, a temperature-controlled gas cell for absorption measurement and an integrated device consisting of a Fabry-Pérot interferometer and a pyroelectric mid-IR detector. The prototype was calibrated in the research laboratory at TU Wien for measuring methanol and methyl formate in the concentration ranges from 660 to 4390 and 747 to 4610 ppmV. Subsequently, the prototype was transferred and installed at the project partner Metadynea Austria GmbH and linked to their Process Control System via a dedicated micro-controller and used for on-line monitoring of the process off-gas. Up to five process streams were sequentially monitored in a fully automated manner. The obtained readings for methanol and methyl formate concentrations provided useful information on the efficiency and correct functioning of the process plant. Of special interest for industry is the now added capability to monitor the start-up phase and process irregularities with high time resolution (5 s).

  17. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, Belle R.; Hines, J. Wesley

    2004-01-01

    Integrity monitoring and flaw diagnostics of flat beams and tubular structures was investigated in this research task using guided acoustic signals. A piezo-sensor suite was deployed to activate and collect Lamb wave signals that propagate along metallic specimens. The dispersion curves of Lamb waves along plate and tubular structures are generated through numerical analysis. Several advanced techniques were explored to extract representative features from acoustic time series. Among them, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a recently developed technique for the analysis of non-linear and transient signals. A moving window method was introduced to generate the local peak characters from acoustic time series, and a zooming window technique was developed to localize the structural flaws. The time-frequency analysis and pattern recognition techniques were combined for classifying structural defects in brass tubes. Several types of flaws in brass tubes were tested, both in the air and in water. The techniques also proved to be effective under background/process noise. A detailed theoretical analysis of Lamb wave propagation was performed and simulations were carried out using the finite element software system ABAQUS. This analytical study confirmed the behavior of the acoustic signals acquired from the experimental studies. The report presents the background the analysis of acoustic signals acquired from piezo-electric transducers for structural defect monitoring. A comparison of the use of time-frequency techniques, including the Hilbert-Huang transform, is presented. The report presents the theoretical study of Lamb wave propagation in flat beams and tubular structures, and the need for mode separation in order to effectively perform defect diagnosis. The results of an extensive experimental study of detection, location, and isolation of structural defects in flat aluminum beams and brass tubes are presented. The results of this research show the feasibility of on-line

  18. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    Integrity monitoring and flaw diagnostics of flat beams and tubular structures was investigated in this research task using guided acoustic signals. A piezo-sensor suite was deployed to activate and collect Lamb wave signals that propagate along metallic specimens. The dispersion curves of Lamb waves along plate and tubular structures are generated through numerical analysis. Several advanced techniques were explored to extract representative features from acoustic time series. Among them, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a recently developed technique for the analysis of non-linear and transient signals. A moving window method was introduced to generate the local peak characters from acoustic time series, and a zooming window technique was developed to localize the structural flaws. The time-frequency analysis and pattern recognition techniques were combined for classifying structural defects in brass tubes. Several types of flaws in brass tubes were tested, both in the air and in water. The techniques also proved to be effective under background/process noise. A detailed theoretical analysis of Lamb wave propagation was performed and simulations were carried out using the finite element software system ABAQUS. This analytical study confirmed the behavior of the acoustic signals acquired from the experimental studies. The report presents the background the analysis of acoustic signals acquired from piezo-electric transducers for structural defect monitoring. A comparison of the use of time-frequency techniques, including the Hilbert-Huang transform, is presented. The report presents the theoretical study of Lamb wave propagation in flat beams and tubular structures, and the need for mode separation in order to effectively perform defect diagnosis. The results of an extensive experimental study of detection, location, and isolation of structural defects in flat aluminum beams and brass tubes are presented. The results of this research show the feasibility of on-line

  19. Practical utility of on-line clearance and blood temperature monitors as noninvasive techniques to measure hemodialysis blood access flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontseré, Néstor; Blasco, Miquel; Maduell, Francisco; Vera, Manel; Arias-Guillen, Marta; Herranz, Sandra; Blanco, Teresa; Barrufet, Marta; Burrel, Marta; Montaña, Javier; Real, Maria Isabel; Mestres, Gaspar; Riambau, Vicenç; Campistol, Josep M

    2011-01-01

    Access blood flow (Qa) measurements are recommended by the current guidelines as one of the most important components in vascular access maintenance programs. This study evaluates the efficiency of Qa measurement with on-line conductivity (OLC-Qa) and blood temperature monitoring (BTM-Qa) in comparison with the gold standard saline dilution method (SDM-Qa). 50 long-term hemodialysis patients (42 arteriovenous fistulas/8 arteriovenous grafts) were studied. Bland-Altman and Lin's coefficient (ρ(c)) were used to study accuracy and precision. Mean values were 1,021.7 ± 502.4 ml/min SDM-Qa, 832.8 ± 574.3 ml/min OLC-Qa (p = 0.007) and 1,094.9 ± 491.9 ml/min with BTM-Qa (p = NS). Biases and ρ(c) obtained were -188.8 ml/min (ρ(c) 0.58) OLC-Qa and 73.2 ml/min (ρ(c) 0.89) BTM-Qa. The limits of agreement (bias ± 1.96 SD) obtained were from -1,119 to 741.3 ml/min (OLC-Qa) and -350.6 to 497.2 ml/min (BTM-Qa). BTM-Qa and OLC-Qa are valid noninvasive and practical methods to estimate Qa, although BTM-Qa was more accurate and had better concordance than OLC-Qa compared with SDM-Qa. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. On-line monitoring of trace compounds in the flue gas of an incineration pilot plant: Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, H. J.; Zimmermann, R.; Dorfner, R.; Kettrup, A.; Boesl, U.

    1998-01-01

    Laser mass spectrometry is applied for on-line analysis of PAHs from a complex flue gas matrix in the combustion chamber of an incineration plant. Process monitoring of industrial processes can be performed. New insights into the formation of toxic combustion byproducts are possible

  1. An LC-MS Assay with Isocratic Separation and On-Line Solid Phase Extraction to Improve the Routine Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Busulfan in Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ialongo Cristiano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Busulfan (Bu requires therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM in subjects undergoing a conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. To speed up the procedure and increase reproducibility, we improved our routine LC-MS/MS assay using the on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE of samples.

  2. A self-calibrating ionisation chamber for the precise intensity calibration of high-energy heavy-ion beam monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junghans, A.

    1996-01-01

    The intensity of a 136 Xe(600 A MeV) beam has been determined by simultaneously measuring the particle rate and the corresponding ionisation current with an ionisation chamber. The ionisation current of this self-calibrating device was compared at higher intensities with the current of a secondary-electron monitor and a calibration of the secondary-electron current was achieved with a precision of 2%. This method can be applied to all high-energy heavy-ion beams. (orig.)

  3. Experiences in troubleshooting of neutron rem monitor electronics and its subsequent calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maithani, Atul; Dash, Amit Kumar; Vijayasekaran, P.; Mathews, Geo; Ajoy, K.C.; Dhanasekaran, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the troubleshooting of the signal processing and counting electronics of two no's of Neutron Rem monitors and its subsequent calibration. Electronics servicing with respect to detection of fault in the circuit board, replacement of faulty ICs, circuits (Analog and Digital) tracing and installation of new rechargeable battery pack was done. Electronic calibration using Test pulse generator was carried out for dose rate measurements, amplitude measurements and discriminator level setting. Serial communication settings were checked with both HyperTerminal and software for the monitors. Neutron Source calibration was also carried out for both the monitors. (author)

  4. Radioactive contamination in monitors received for calibration; Contaminacao em monitores de radiacao recebidos para calibracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Paulo S.; Santos, Gilvan C. dos; Brunelo, Maria Antonieta G.; Paula, Tiago C. de; Pires, Marina A.; Borges, Jose C. [MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., Jardinopolis, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ensaios e Pesquisas em Metrologia (METROBRAS)

    2013-10-01

    The Calibration Laboratory - LABCAL, from the Research Center for Metrology and Testing - METROBRAS, MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., began activities in October 2008 and, in August 2009, decided to establish a procedure for monitoring tests, external and internal, of all packages received from customers, containing instruments for calibration. The aim was to investigate possible contamination radioactive on these instruments. On July 2011, this procedure was extended to packagings of personal thermoluminescent dosemeters - TLD, received by the newly created Laboratory Laboratorio de Dosimetria Pessoal - LDP . In the monitoring procedure were used monitors with external probe, type pancake, MRA brand, models GP - 500 and MIR 7028. During the 37 months in which this investigation was conducted, were detected 42 cases of radioactive contamination, with the following characteristics: 1) just one case was personal dosimeter, TLD type; 2) just one case was not from a packing from nuclear medicine service - was from a mining company; 3) contamination occurred on packs and instruments, located and/or widespread; 4) contamination values ranged from slightly above the level of background radiation to about a thousand fold. Although METROBRAS has facilities for decontamination, in most cases, especially those of higher contamination, the procedure followed was to store the contaminated material in a room used for storage of radioactive sources. Periodically, each package and/or instrument was monitored, being released when the radiation level matched the background radiation. Every contamination detected, the client and/or owner of the instrument was informed. The Brazilian National Energy Commission - CNEN, was informed, during your public consultation for reviewing the standard for nuclear medicine services, held in mid-2012, having received from METROBRAS the statistical data available at the time. The high frequency of contamination detected and the high

  5. Online calibration method for condition monitoring of nuclear reactor instrumentations based on electrical signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syaiful Bakhri

    2013-01-01

    Electrical signature analysis currently becomes an alternative in condition monitoring in nuclear power plants not only for stationary components such as sensors, measurement and instrumentation channels, and other components but also for dynamic components such as electric motors, pumps, generator or actuators. In order to guarantee the accuracy, the calibration of monitoring system is a necessary which practically is performed offline, under limited schedules and certain tight procedures. This research aims to introduce online calibration technique for electrical signature condition monitoring in order that the accuracy can be maintained continuously which in turn increases the reactor safety as a whole. The research was performed step by stepin detail from the conventional technique, online calibration using baseline information and online calibration using differential gain adjustment. Online calibration based on differential gain adjustment provides better results than other techniques even tough under extreme gain insertion as well as external disturbances such as supply voltages. (author)

  6. Continuous glucose monitoring in newborn infants: how do errors in calibration measurements affect detected hypoglycemia?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Felicity Louise; Signal, Mathew; Harris, Deborah L.; Weston, Philip J.; Harding, Jane E.; Shaw, Geoffrey M.; Chase, J. Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and can cause serious brain injury. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) could improve hypoglycemia detection, while reducing blood glucose (BG) measurements. Calibration algorithms use BG measurements to convert sensor signals into CGM data. Thus, inaccuracies in calibration BG measurements directly affect CGM values and any metrics calculated from them. The aim was to quantify the effect of timing delays and calibration BG measurement errors on hypoglycemia me...

  7. Design, development and calibration of a radioactive gas (85Kr) detector for continuous environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janardhanan, S.; Swaminathan, N.; John, Jacob; Kutty, K.N.; Wattamwar, S.B.; Gopalan, C.S.; Menezes, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    Design, development and calibration of a scintillation type detector for environmental monitoring of low levels of 85 Kr activity in off-line effluents or plant areas in presence of gamma background are reported. Calibration of the system was done using NBS 85 Kr standard. (author)

  8. Design, development and calibration of a radioactive gas (/sup 85/Kr) detector for continuous environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janardhanan, S.; Swaminathan, N.; John, J.; Kutty, K.N.; Wattamwar, S.B. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Health Physics Div.); Gopalan, C.S.; Menezes, C.M. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Electronics Div.)

    Design, development and calibration of a scintillation type detector for environmental monitoring of low levels of /sup 85/Kr activity in off-line effluents or plant areas in presence of gamma background are reported. Calibration of the system was done using NBS /sup 85/Kr standard.

  9. An optimised multi-baseline approach for on-line MR-temperature monitoring on commodity graphics hardware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Noe, Karsten Østergaard; Ries, Mario

    2008-01-01

    . They have required significant time to compute however, and have not been sufficiently fast for several real-time temperature mapping applications. This paper proposes to use modern graphics cards (GPUs) to assess on-line motion corrected thermal maps. The computation times obtained on the GPU are compared...

  10. Development of an On-Line Surgeon-Specific Operating Room Time Prediction System (Experience with the Michigan Surgical Monitors)

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Allan C.D.; Schmidt, Nancy M.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a micro-computer application for the on-line prediction of surgeon-specific operating room time using an IBM - PCXT is described. The reasons leading to the project, together with an assessment of the Condor 20 relational database management system as the basis for the application are discussed.

  11. On-Line/At-Line Technetium Monitor Using Scintillating Ion Exchange Resins for the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wach, S.T.

    2000-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that the combination of extraction chromatography and on-line flow-cell scintillation counting can exceed a 99Tc detection limit of 0.005 Ci/mL in the presence of 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239Pu in less than an 18 minute analysis time

  12. Calibration measurements using the ORNL fissile mass flow monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March-Leuba, J.; Uckan, T.; Sumner, J.; Mattingly, J.; Mihalczo, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a demonstration of fissile-mass-flow measurements using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fissile Mass Flow Monitor in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). This Flow Monitor is part of a Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) that will be installed in at least two Russian Federation (R.F.) blending facilities. The key objectives of the demonstration of the ORNL Flow Monitor are two: (a) demonstrate that the ORNL Flow Monitor equipment is capable of reliably monitoring the mass flow rate of 235 UF 6 gas, and (b) provide a demonstration of ORNL Flow Monitor system in operation with UF 6 flow for a visiting R.F. delegation. These two objectives have been met by the PGDP demonstration, as presented in this paper

  13. Calibration of the beam-position monitor system for the SLAC PEP-II B factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.; Smith, S.; Kurita, N.

    1997-06-01

    The Beam-Position Monitors (BPM) for the PEP-II B Factory consist of four 1.5-cm diameter button style pickups mounted on the diagonals of the quadrupole vacuum chambers. Before installation of the vacuum chambers in the quadrupole assemblies, the electrical center of the BPMs is measured with respect to the mechanical center in a calibration test stand. In this paper the calibration test stand is described and the precision and accuracy of the calibrations are presented. After installation of the quadrupole assemblies in the PEP-II tunnel, the passive attenuation for each channel of the system is measured to preserve the accuracy of the calibration. Finally, the active electronics includes an onboard calibrator. Results for these portions of the calibration are presented

  14. On-line control of the plasma spraying process by monitoring the temperature, velocity, and trajectory of in-flight particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, C.; Gougeon, P.; Lamontagne, M.; Lacasse, V.; Vaudreuil, G.; Cielo, P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new optical sensing device for on-line monitoring of the temperature, velocity and trajectory of in-flight particles during industrial coating production. Thermal radiation emitted by the in-flight particles is collected by a small and robust sensing head that can be attached to the plasma gun providing continuous monitoring of the spray process. The collected radiation is transmitted through optical fibers to a detection cabinet located away from the dusty environment around the operating plasma gun. On-line measurement of the particle velocity, temperature and trajectory can provide an efficient diagnostic tool to maintain optimum spraying conditions leading to a better reproducibility of the coating properties

  15. Generation of data base for on-line fatigue life monitoring of Indian nuclear power plant components: Part I - Generation of Green's functions for end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.K.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    Green's function technique is the heart of the on- line fatigue monitoring methodology. The plant transients are converted to stress and temperature response using this technique. To implement this methodology in a nuclear power plant, Green's functions are to be generated in advance. For structures of complex geometries, Green's functions are to be stored in a data base to convert on-line, the plant data to temperature/stress response, using a personal computer. End fitting, end shield, pressurizer, steam generator tube sheet are few such components of PHWR where fatigue monitoring is needed. In the present paper, Green's functions are generated for end fitting of a 235 MWe Indian PHWR using finite element method. End fitting has been analysed using both 3-D and 2-D (axisymmetric) finite element models. Temperature and stress Green's functions are generated at few critical locations using the code ABAQUS. (author). 10 refs., 11 figs

  16. Practical Field Calibration of Portable Monitors for Mobile Measurements of Multiple Air Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To reduce inaccuracies in the measurement of air pollutants by portable monitors it is necessary to establish quantitative calibration relationships against their respective reference analyser. This is usually done under controlled laboratory conditions or one-off static co-location alongside a reference analyser in the field, neither of which may adequately represent the extended use of portable monitors in exposure assessment research. To address this, we investigated ways of establishing and evaluating portable monitor calibration relationships from repeated intermittent deployment cycles over an extended period involving stationary deployment at a reference site, mobile monitoring, and completely switched off. We evaluated four types of portable monitors: Aeroqual Ltd. (Auckland, New Zealand S500 O3 metal oxide and S500 NO2 electrochemical; RTI (Berkeley, CA, USA MicroPEM PM2.5; and, AethLabs (San Francisco, CA, USA AE51 black carbon (BC. Innovations in our study included: (i comparison of calibrations derived from the individual co-locations of a portable monitor against its reference analyser or from all the co-location periods combined into a single dataset; and, (ii evaluation of calibrated monitor estimates during transient measurements with the portable monitor close to its reference analyser at separate times from the stationary co-location calibration periods. Within the ~7 month duration of the study, ‘combined’ calibration relationships for O3, PM2.5, and BC monitors from all co-locations agreed more closely on average with reference measurements than ‘individual’ calibration relationships from co-location deployment nearest in time to transient deployment periods. ‘Individual’ calibrations relationships were sometimes substantially unrepresentative of the ‘combined’ relationships. Reduced quantitative consistency in field calibration relationships for the PM2.5 monitors may have resulted from generally low PM2

  17. Exercise of laboratory comparison for contamination monitor calibration between LNMRI/IRD and LCR/UERJ - 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, T.S.; David, M.

    2016-01-01

    This work was motivated by the need to decide on the best methodology to be applied in the next contamination monitor calibration comparisons with the Brazilian network of calibration radiation monitors. The calibration factor was chosen as a response calibration performed in the four monitors used in this comparison because it does not require the detector area or probe thereby reducing an important variable. It was observed that the variation of the positioning system may have an influence up to 10% in calibration. The results obtained for the calibration factor showed a difference of up to 31.2%. (author)

  18. A CDC 1700 on-line system for the analysis, data logging and monitoring of big bubble chamber pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyonnet, J.-L.

    1975-01-01

    This work presents the analysis system of large bubble chamber such as Gargamelle, BEBC pictures realized in the heavy liquid bubble chamber group with scanning and measurement stations on-line with a CDC 1700 computer. This work deals with the general characteristics of these stations and of the computer, and puts emphasis on the conception and functions of the analysis programmes: scanning, measurement and data processing. The data acquisition system runs in a context of real time multiprogrammation [fr

  19. Calibration of Community-based Coral Reef Monitoring Protocols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coral reef monitoring (CRM) has been recognised as an important management tool and has consequently been incorporated in Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) programmes in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). Community-based coral reef monitoring (CB-CRM), which uses simplified procedures suitable for ...

  20. Continuous glucose monitoring in subcutaneous tissue using factory-calibrated sensors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoss, Udo; Jeddi, Iman; Schulz, Mark; Budiman, Erwin; Bhogal, Claire; McGarraugh, Geoffrey

    2010-08-01

    Commercial continuous subcutaneous glucose monitors require in vivo calibration using capillary blood glucose tests. Feasibility of factory calibration, i.e., sensor batch characterization in vitro with no further need for in vivo calibration, requires a predictable and stable in vivo sensor sensitivity and limited inter- and intra-subject variation of the ratio of interstitial to blood glucose concentration. Twelve volunteers wore two FreeStyle Navigator (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) continuous glucose monitoring systems for 5 days in parallel for two consecutive sensor wears (four sensors per subject, 48 sensors total). Sensors from a prototype sensor lot with a low variability in glucose sensitivity were used for the study. Median sensor sensitivity values based on capillary blood glucose were calculated per sensor and compared for inter- and intra-subject variation. Mean absolute relative difference (MARD) calculation and error grid analysis were performed using a single calibration factor for all sensors to simulate factory calibration and compared to standard fingerstick calibration. Sensor sensitivity variation in vitro was 4.6%, which increased to 8.3% in vivo (P glucose monitoring is feasible with similar accuracy to standard fingerstick calibration. Additional data are required to confirm this result in subjects with diabetes.

  1. Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) calibration and assessment of the ATR SPING-3 stack effluent monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppen, L.D.; Rogers, J.W.; Simpson, O.D.

    1983-12-01

    An evaluation, calibration and assessment of the Eberline SPING-3 ATR stack effluent monitor was conducted. This unit which monitors particulate, iodine and noble gas effluents was producing abnormal results following the initial installation and operational testing. The purposes of this work were to find the causes of the abnormal results and correct them if possible; check the calibrations and adjust them if necessary; and to provide a better in-depth understanding of what the unit is monitoring and how well it performs under this application. Results have shown that there were some problems associated with the unit as initially installed and tested. These problems have been identified and suggested alternatives shown, the monitor was found to be applicable to some extent under the current conditions. The calibrations have been checked and adjustments made. More operation testing and evaluation is needed to assess how well this works under a variety of ATR operating conditions. 2 references, 10 figures, 3 tables

  2. Combination of On-line pH and Oxygen Transfer Rate Measurement in Shake Flasks by Fiber Optical Technique and Respiration Activity MOnitoring System (RAMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Büchs

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Shake flasks are commonly used for process development in biotechnologyindustry. For this purpose a lot of information is required from the growth conditions duringthe fermentation experiments. Therefore, Anderlei et al. developed the RAMOS technology[1, 2], which proviedes on-line oxygen and carbondioxide transfer rates in shake flasks.Besides oxygen consumption, the pH in the medium also plays an important role for thesuccessful cultivation of micro-organisms and for process development. For online pHmeasurement fiber optical methods based on fluorophores are available. Here a combinationof the on-line Oxygen Transfer Rate (OTR measurements in the RAMOS device with anon-line, fiber optical pH measurement is presented. To demonstrate the application of thecombined measurement techniques, Escherichia coli cultivations were performed and on-line pH measurements were compared with off-line samples. The combination of on-lineOTR and pH measurements gives a lot of information about the cultivation and, therefore, itis a powerful technique for monitoring shake flask experiments as well as for processdevelopment.

  3. A biocompatible micro cell culture chamber (mu CCC) for the culturing and on-line monitoring of eukaryote cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Petronis, Sarunas; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2006-01-01

    culture chip compared to cell culture flasks. The cell culture chip could without further modification support cell growth of two other cell lines. Light coming from the microscope lamp during optical recordings of the cells was the only external factor identified, that could have a negative effect...... on cell survival. Low grade light exposure was however compatible with optical recordings as well as cell viability. These results strongly indicate that a cell culture chip could be constructed that allowed for on-line optical recording of cellular events without affecting the cell culturing condition...

  4. A biocompatible micro cell culture chamber (microCCC) for the culturing and on-line monitoring of eukaryote cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Petronis, Sarunas; Jørgensen, A M

    2006-01-01

    culture chip compared to cell culture flasks. The cell culture chip could without further modification support cell growth of two other cell lines. Light coming from the microscope lamp during optical recordings of the cells was the only external factor identified, that could have a negative effect...... on cell survival. Low grade light exposure was however compatible with optical recordings as well as cell viability. These results strongly indicate that a cell culture chip could be constructed that allowed for on-line optical recording of cellular events without affecting the cell culturing condition...

  5. On-line near infrared monitoring of ammonium and dry matter in biosturry for robust biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Ihunegbo, Felicia N.; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2012-01-01

    was applied on-line in a re-circulating loop configuration operating identically as a full-scale setup. Ammonium could be modelled in the industrially relevant range 2.42 – 8.52 g L-1 with an excellent accuracy and precision, slope ~1.0, r2 = 0.97, corresponding toa relative Root Mean Square Error......Heterogeneous substrates fed into agricultural biogas plants originate from many sources with resulting quality fluctuations potentially inhibiting the process. Biogas yield can be substantially increased by optimisation of the organic dry matter load. In this study, near infrared spectroscopy...

  6. The Atlas Experiment On-Line Monitoring And Filtering As An Example Of Real-Time Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Korcyl

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ATLAS detector, recording LHC particles’ interactions, produces events with rate of40 MHz and size of 1.6 MB. The processes with new and interesting physics phenomena arevery rare, thus an efficient on-line filtering system (trigger is necessary. The asynchronouspart of that system relays on few thousands of computing nodes running the filtering software.Applying refined filtering criteria results in increase of processing times what may lead tolack of processing resources installed on CERN site. We propose extension to this part ofthe system based on submission of the real-time filtering tasks into the Grid.

  7. Data quality assurance in monitoring of wastewater quality: Univariate on-line and off-line methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alferes, J.; Poirier, P.; Lamaire-Chad, C.

    To make water quality monitoring networks useful for practice, the automation of data collection and data validation still represents an important challenge. Efficient monitoring depends on careful quality control and quality assessment. With a practical orientation a data quality assurance proce...

  8. Development of nuclear power plant monitoring system with neutral network using on-line PWR plant simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeshima Kunihiko; Suzuki Katsuo; Nose, Shoichi; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a nuclear power plant monitoring system using artificial neural network (ANN). The major advantages of the monitoring system are that a multi-output process system can be modelled using measurement information without establishing any mathematical expressions. The dynamics model of reactor plant was constructed by using three layered auto-associative neural network with backpropagation learning algorithm. The basic idea of anomaly detection method is to monitor the deviation between process signals measured from actual plant and corresponding output signals from the ANN plant model. The simulator used is a self contained system designed for training. Four kinds of simulated malfunction caused by equipment failure during steady state operation were used to evaluate the capability of the neural network monitoring system. The results showed that this monitoring system detected the symptom of small anomaly earlier than the prevailing alarm system. (author). 7 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Development of nuclear power plant monitoring system with neutral network using on-line PWR plant simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunihiko, Nabeshima; Katsuo, Suzuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Nose, Shoichi; Kudo, Kazuhiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a nuclear power plant monitoring system using artificial neural network (ANN). The major advantages of the monitoring system are that a multi-output process system can be modelled using measurement information without establishing any mathematical expressions. The dynamics model of reactor plant was constructed by using three layered auto-associative neural network with backpropagation learning algorithm. The basic idea of anomaly detection method is to monitor the deviation between process signals measured from actual plant and corresponding output signals from the ANN plant model. The simulator used is a self contained system designed for training. Four kinds of simulated malfunction caused by equipment failure during steady state operation were used to evaluate the capability of the neural network monitoring system. The results showed that this monitoring system detected the symptom of small anomaly earlier than the prevailing alarm system. (author). 7 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs.

  10. On-line monitoring of base current and forward emitter current gain of the voltage regulator's serial pnp transistor in a radiation environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of on-line monitoring of the low-dropout voltage regulator's operation in a radiation environment is developed in this paper. The method had to enable detection of the circuit's degradation during exploitation, without terminating its operation in an ionizing radiation field. Moreover, it had to enable automatic measurement and data collection, as well as the detection of any considerable degradation, well before the monitored voltage regulator's malfunction. The principal parameters of the voltage regulator's operation that were monitored were the serial pnp transistor's base current and the forward emitter current gain. These parameters were procured indirectly, from the data on the voltage regulator's load and quiescent currents. Since the internal consumption current in moderately and heavily loaded devices was used, the quiescent current of a negligibly loaded voltage regulator of the same type served as a reference. Results acquired by on-line monitoring demonstrated marked agreement with the results acquired from examinations of the voltage regulator's maximum output current and minimum dropout voltage in a radiation environment. The results were particularly consistent in tests with heavily loaded devices. Results obtained for moderately loaded voltage regulators and the risks accompanying the application of the presented method, were also analyzed.

  11. High temperature on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion control in water cooled power reactors. Report of a co-ordinated research project 1995-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    This report documents the results of the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on High Temperature On-line Monitoring of Water Chemistry and Corrosion in Water Cooled Power Reactors (1995-1999). This report attempts to provide both an overview of the state of the art with regard to on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion in operating reactors, and technical details of the important contributions made by programme participants to the development and qualification of new monitoring techniques. The WACOL CRP is a follow-up to the WACOLIN (Investigations on Water Chemistry Control and Coolant Interaction with Fuel and Primary Circuit Materials in Water Cooled Power Reactors) CRP conducted by the IAEA from 1986 to 1991. The WACOLIN CRP, which described chemistry, corrosion and activity-transport aspects, clearly showed the influence of water chemistry on corrosion of both fuel and reactor primary-circuit components, as well as on radiation fields. It was concluded that there was a fundamental need to monitor water-chemistry parameters in real time, reliably and accurately. The objectives of the WACOL CRP were to establish recommendations for the development, qualification and plant implementation of methods and equipment for on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion. Chief investigators from 18 organizations representing 15 countries provided a variety of contributions aimed at introducing proven monitoring techniques into plants on a regular basis and filling the gaps between plant operator needs and available monitoring techniques. The CRP firmly demonstrated that in situ monitoring is able to provide additional and valuable information to plant operators, e.g. ECP, high temperature pH and conductivity. Such data can be obtained promptly, i.e. in real time and with a high degree of accuracy. Reliable techniques and sensor devices are available which enable plant operators to obtain additional information on the response of structural materials in

  12. Design and Development of a Relative Humidity and Room Temperature Measurement System with On Line Data Logging Feature for Monitoring the Fermentation Room of Tea Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal SARMA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and development of a Relative Humidity (RH and Room Temperature (RT monitoring system with on line data logging feature for monitoring fermentation room of a tea factory is presented in this paper. A capacitive RH sensor with on chip signal conditioner is taken as RH sensor and a temperature to digital converter (TDC is used for ambient temperature monitoring. An 8051 core microcontroller is the heart of the whole system which reads the digital equivalent of RH data with the help of a 12-bit Analog to Digital (A/D converter and synchronize TDC to get the ambient temperature. The online data logging is achieved with the help of RS-232C communication. Field performance is also studied by installing it in the fermentation room of a tea factory.

  13. Calibration of ITER Instant Power Neutron Monitors: Recommended Scenario of Experiments at the Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, A. A.; Deryabina, N. A.; Markovskij, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    Instant power is a key parameter of the ITER. Its monitoring with an accuracy of a few percent is an urgent and challenging aspect of neutron diagnostics. In a series of works published in Problems of Atomic Science and Technology, Series: Thermonuclear Fusion under a common title, the step-by-step neutronics analysis was given to substantiate a calibration technique for the DT and DD modes of the ITER. A Gauss quadrature scheme, optimal for processing "expensive" experiments, is used for numerical integration of 235U and 238U detector responses to the point sources of 14-MeV neutrons. This approach allows controlling the integration accuracy in relation to the number of coordinate mesh points and thus minimizing the number of irradiations at the given uncertainty of the full monitor response. In the previous works, responses of the divertor and blanket monitors to the isotropic point sources of DT and DD neutrons in the plasma profile and to the models of real sources were calculated within the ITER model using the MCNP code. The neutronics analyses have allowed formulating the basic principles of calibration that are optimal for having the maximum accuracy at the minimum duration of in situ experiments at the reactor. In this work, scenarios of the preliminary and basic experimental ITER runs are suggested on the basis of those principles. It is proposed to calibrate the monitors only with DT neutrons and use correction factors to the DT mode calibration for the DD mode. It is reasonable to perform full calibration only with 235U chambers and calibrate 238U chambers by responses of the 235U chambers during reactor operation (cross-calibration). The divertor monitor can be calibrated using both direct measurement of responses at the Gauss positions of a point source and simplified techniques based on the concepts of equivalent ring sources and inverse response distributions, which will considerably reduce the amount of measurements. It is shown that the monitor

  14. Comprehensive inter-laboratory calibration of reference materials for δ18O versus VSMOW using various on-line high-temperature conversion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Aerts-Bijma, Anita T.; Bohlke, John Karl; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Groning, Manfred; Jansen, Henk G.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Mroczkowski, Stanley J.; Qi, Haiping; Soergel, Karin; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Weise, Stephan M.; Werner, Roland A.

    2009-01-01

    Internationally distributed organic and inorganic oxygen isotopic reference materials have been calibrated by six laboratories carrying out more than 5300 measurements using a variety of high-temperature conversion techniques (HTC) in an evaluation sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). To aid in the calibration of these reference materials, which span more than 125‰, an artificially enriched reference water (δ18O of +78.91‰) and two barium sulfates (one depleted and one enriched in 18O) were prepared and calibrated relative to VSMOW2 and SLAP reference waters. These materials were used to calibrate the other isotopic reference materials in this study, which yielded:Reference materialδ18O and estimated combined uncertainty IAEA-602 benzoic acid+71.28 ± 0.36‰USGS35 sodium nitrate+56.81 ± 0.31‰IAEA-NO-3 potassium nitrate+25.32 ± 0.29‰IAEA-601 benzoic acid+23.14 ± 0.19‰IAEA-SO-5 barium sulfate+12.13 ± 0.33‰NBS 127 barium sulfate+8.59 ± 0.26‰VSMOW2 water0‰IAEA-600 caffeine−3.48 ± 0.53‰IAEA-SO-6 barium sulfate−11.35 ± 0.31‰USGS34 potassium nitrate−27.78 ± 0.37‰SLAP water−55.5‰The seemingly large estimated combined uncertainties arise from differences in instrumentation and methodology and difficulty in accounting for all measurement bias. They are composed of the 3-fold standard errors directly calculated from the measurements and provision for systematic errors discussed in this paper. A primary conclusion of this study is that nitrate samples analyzed for δ18O should be analyzed with internationally distributed isotopic nitrates, and likewise for sulfates and organics. Authors reporting relative differences of oxygen-isotope ratios (δ18O) of nitrates, sulfates, or organic material should explicitly state in their reports the δ18O values of two or more internationally distributed nitrates (USGS34, IAEA-NO-3, and USGS35), sulfates (IAEA-SO-5, IAEA

  15. Second IRMF comparison of surface contamination monitor calibrations 2001-2002

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, C J

    2002-01-01

    The Ionising Radiations Metrology Forum (IRMF) organised a second comparison of surface contamination monitor calibrations in which twenty establishments in the UK participated. The exercise involved the circulation of three surface contamination monitors for calibration using large area reference sources available in the participants' laboratories. The instruments used were a Mini Instruments EP15, a Berthold LB122 and an Electra ratemeter with DP6AD probe. The instrument responses were calculated by the individual participants and submitted to the for analysis along with details of the reference sources used. Details of the estimated uncertainties were also reported. The results are compared and demonstrate generally satisfactory agreement between the participating establishments.

  16. An electrochemical method for on-line monitoring of biofilm activity in cooling water using the BIoGEORGE trademark probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licina, G.J.; Nekoksa, G.; Howard, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of active microorganisms on piping and components in cooling water systems can have a profound effect on the corrosion performance of such systems. Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) can result in premature failures of critical and support systems, increased downtime of equipment for repairs and maintenance, and increased operating costs associated with mitigation measures. In some cases, MIC has forced premature replacement of tanks, heat exchangers, and piping systems with a severe effect on plant availability. Monitoring methods that alert plant operators that biofilm formation is occurring on pipe work and components permit the operators to initiate mitigation actions before biofouling becomes severe or MIC has occurred. An electrochemical probe to permit on-line monitoring of biofilm activity under power plant or other industrial exposure conditions is under development. This device, the BIoGEORGE trademark electrochemical biofilm monitor, permits on-line evaluations of the effects of biofilm formation upon the surfaces of passive alloys such as stainless steels exposed to cooling water environments. Benchtop experiments have shown that biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces can be detected by an electrochemical indication well in advance of any visual evidence of biofilm or corrosion on the electrodes. The design of the probe, results of benchtop experiments, and a description of its installation at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant are described

  17. Development of a magnetic resonance sensor for on-line monitoring of 99Tc and 23Na in tank waste cleanup processes: Final report and implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckman, S. L.; Jendrzejczyk, J. A.; Raptis, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    In response to US Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for advanced cross-cutting technologies, Argonne National Laboratory is developing an on-line sensor system for the real-time monitoring of 99 Tc and 23 Na in various locations throughout radioactive-waste processing facilities. Based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the highly automated sensor system can provide near-real-time response with minimal sampling. The technology, in the form of a flow-through nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based on-line process sensing and control system, can rapidly monitor 99 Tc speciation and concentration (from 0.1 molar to 10 micro molar) in the feedstocks and eluents of radioactive-waste treatment processes. The system is nonintrusive, capable of withstanding harsh plant environments, and reasonably immune to contaminants. Furthermore, the system is capable of operating over large variations in pH, conductivity, and salinity. This document describes design parameters, results from sensitivity studies, and initial results obtained from oxidation-reduction studies that were conducted on technetium standards and waste specimens obtained from DOE's Hanford site. A cursory investigation of the system's capabilities to monitor 23 Na at high concentrations are also reported, as are descriptions of site requirements, implementation recommendations, and testing techniques

  18. Experiences with non-intrusive monitoring of distribution transformers based on the on-line frequency response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gomez Luna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents the results obtained in experiences that use the Impulse Frequency Response Analysis (IFRA method with a transformer in service. The IFRA method has been implemented in order to transform the transient signals to the frequency domain using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT. However, it can be considered that the DFT is not the most suitable tool for this type of analysis, since, by definition, this tool is useful for processing stationary signals. Taking that into consideration, the analysis of transient signals could be hypothetically improved by using continuous wavelet transform (CWT, given their variable time/frequency resolution. The analysis of transient signals in Wavelet domain has improved the repeatability of the frequency response curves, as it has been ob-served in experimental results. The proposed on-line IFRA method, based on Wavelet transform, was validated under load and no-load conditions on a 150 kVA three-phase transformer 13200/225 Volts, in the Campus of the Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

  19. Surface quality monitoring for process control by on-line vibration analysis using an adaptive spline wavelet algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, G. Y.; Osypiw, D.; Irle, M.

    2003-05-01

    The dynamic behaviour of wood machining processes affects the surface finish quality of machined workpieces. In order to meet the requirements of increased production efficiency and improved product quality, surface quality information is needed for enhanced process control. However, current methods using high price devices or sophisticated designs, may not be suitable for industrial real-time application. This paper presents a novel approach of surface quality evaluation by on-line vibration analysis using an adaptive spline wavelet algorithm, which is based on the excellent time-frequency localization of B-spline wavelets. A series of experiments have been performed to extract the feature, which is the correlation between the relevant frequency band(s) of vibration with the change of the amplitude and the surface quality. The graphs of the experimental results demonstrate that the change of the amplitude in the selective frequency bands with variable resolution (linear and non-linear) reflects the quality of surface finish, and the root sum square of wavelet power spectrum is a good indication of surface quality. Thus, surface quality can be estimated and quantified at an average level in real time. The results can be used to regulate and optimize the machine's feed speed, maintaining a constant spindle motor speed during cutting. This will lead to higher level control and machining rates while keeping dimensional integrity and surface finish within specification.

  20. PBL on Line: A Proposal for the Organization, Part-Time Monitoring and Assessment of PBL Group Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Enric; Gil, Debora; Gurguí, Antoni; Hernández-Sabaté, Aura; Rocarías, Jaume; Poveda, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the organisation of PBL (Project Based Learning) for a subject included in the IT engineering degree course. It is the result of 10 years of experience of the implantation and continuous improvement of the PBL class structure. The latest innovations include the experience of part-time monitoring with PBL groups using the Open…

  1. Desgin of On-line Monitoring Device for MOA (Metal Oxide Arrestor Based on FPGA and C8051F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotong YAO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of metal oxide surge arresters (MOA due to aging, moisture and other components cause increased resistive current. Through a lot of practices, it has been proved that in the early days, MOA insulation damage and current increase is not obvious. The accurate working conditions of the MOA are also not obvious but it can reflect the aging or moisture of MOA. When the resistive current of the fundamental component increases, there is no increment in the harmonic components that is the general performance of a serious or moisture contamination. In the same way when the resistive current of harmonic components increases, the fundamental component is not increased and it is the general performance of aging. Therefore, this paper designed an experiment-based FPGA and C8051F-line monitoring device. This device uses resistive current as a detection target. The main monitoring parameters are the fundamental and peak value of resistive current, third harmonic content of the leakage current, phase angle difference and power consumption. Through laboratory tests, the device can be used with a network arrester line monitoring, maintenance, reduce the economic losses caused by power outages and improve the distribution network reliability.

  2. Air quality monitoring in the Bow Corridor : final report December 1999 to August 2001. On-line ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Alberta Environment monitored the air quality of the Bow Corridor and the Cochrane area from December 1999 to August 2001 in an effort to address recent concerns about particulate emissions from industrial, natural and domestic sources as well as concerns about air pollution from traffic along Highway 1 and in communities in the corridor. The Mobile Air Monitoring Laboratory (MAML) monitored air quality at 22 sites in the Cochrane, Exshaw, Canmore and Banff areas. The work included monitoring for sulphur dioxide, particulates, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia using continuous analyzers. In addition, a stationary particulate sampler was used to monitor very small, respirable particulates (PM2.5) as well as larger, inhalable particulates (PM10). Weather parameters such as wind, temperature and relative humidity were also monitored. A passive (no power required) air quality monitoring network was also set up to collect monthly samples of sulphur dioxide at 7 sites and nitrogen dioxide and ozone at 11 different sites. The pollutant levels were compared with air quality levels to Alberta's Ambient Air Quality Guidelines which are some of the most stringent in North America. Maximum one-hour concentrations were : 53 per cent of the one-hour guideline for sulphur dioxide; 15 per cent of the one-hour guideline for nitrogen dioxide; 68 per cent of the one-hour guideline for ozone; 8 per cent of the one-hour guideline for carbon monoxide; 20 per cent of the one-hour guideline for hydrogen sulphide; and 2 per cent of the one-hour guideline for ammonia. These air quality levels were compared to other locations in Alberta. The sources of airborne particulates were wind-blown dust from natural sources, limestone mining operations, manufacturing plants (cement, lime and magnesia), vehicle exhaust from local traffic and Highway 1, and smoke from recreational burning and forest fires. The sources of oxides of nitrogen are

  3. Calibration and Monitoring systems of the ATLAS Tile Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    BOUMEDIENE, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The TileCal is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. It is a sampling calorimeter with iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. The scintillation light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to about 10000 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Integrated on the calorimeter there is a composite device that allows to monitor and/or equalize the signals at various stages of its formation. This device is based on signal generation from different sources: radioactive, LASER and charge injection and minimum bias events produces in proton-proton collisions. In this contribution is given a brief description of the different systems hardware and presented the latest results on their performance, like the determination of the conversion factors, linearity and stability.

  4. Development of a method of absorbed dose on-line monitoring at product processing by scanned electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomatsalyuk, R.I.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Tenishev, A.Eh.; Titov, D.V.; Uvarov, V.L.

    2016-01-01

    The conditions of the contact-free absorbed dose monitoring at industrial product processing by electron beam are investigated. The method is based on analysing the collected charge in a stack monitor (SM) mounted down-stream of irradiated object. Using computer simulation on the basis of a modified transport code PENELOPE-2008, it is shown that by placing a filter of low-energy electrons before SM it is possible to obtain the one-to-one correlation dependence between the monitor charge and absorbed energy of radiation in the processed object. At a certain surface density of the filter, this dependence takes on the form similar to linear. The possibility to use an air gap between the object and SM as such a filter has been demonstrated. For the conditions of radiation plant with an electron accelerator LU-10 of NSC KIPT, the optimum distance of the SM location has been established. For the practical range of the electron energy, beam scan width and surface density of the irradiated product, the constants of ''product absorbed energy-to- SM charge '' linear dependence have been determined. The capability to establish the average absorbed dose in the object moving trough the irradiation zone on the SM current is shown. The calculation data are in satisfactory agreement with the results of measurements.

  5. Uncertainty Quantification Techniques for Sensor Calibration Monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Lin, Guang; Crawford, Susan L.; Konomi, Bledar A.; Coble, Jamie B.; Shumaker, Brent; Hashemian, Hash

    2014-04-30

    This report describes research towards the development of advanced algorithms for online calibration monitoring. The objective of this research is to develop the next generation of online monitoring technologies for sensor calibration interval extension and signal validation in operating and new reactors. These advances are expected to improve the safety and reliability of current and planned nuclear power systems as a result of higher accuracies and increased reliability of sensors used to monitor key parameters. The focus of this report is on documenting the outcomes of the first phase of R&D under this project, which addressed approaches to uncertainty quantification (UQ) in online monitoring that are data-driven, and can therefore adjust estimates of uncertainty as measurement conditions change. Such data-driven approaches to UQ are necessary to address changing plant conditions, for example, as nuclear power plants experience transients, or as next-generation small modular reactors (SMR) operate in load-following conditions.

  6. Uncertainty Quantification Techniques for Sensor Calibration Monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Lin, Guang; Crawford, Susan L.; Konomi, Bledar A.; Braatz, Brett G.; Coble, Jamie B.; Shumaker, Brent; Hashemian, Hash

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the status of ongoing research towards the development of advanced algorithms for online calibration monitoring. The objective of this research is to develop the next generation of online monitoring technologies for sensor calibration interval extension and signal validation in operating and new reactors. These advances are expected to improve the safety and reliability of current and planned nuclear power systems as a result of higher accuracies and increased reliability of sensors used to monitor key parameters. The focus of this report is on documenting the outcomes of the first phase of R&D under this project, which addressed approaches to uncertainty quantification (UQ) in online monitoring that are data-driven, and can therefore adjust estimates of uncertainty as measurement conditions change. Such data-driven approaches to UQ are necessary to address changing plant conditions, for example, as nuclear power plants experience transients, or as next-generation small modular reactors (SMR) operate in load-following conditions.

  7. [Conservative calibration of a clearance monitor system for waste material from nuclear medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Carsten; Geworski, Lilli

    2014-09-01

    Clearance monitor systems are used for gross gamma measurements of waste potentially contaminated with radioactivity. These measurements are to make sure that legal requirements, e.g. clearance criteria according to the german radiation protection ordinance, are met. This means that measurement results may overestimate, but must not underestimate the true values. This paper describes a pragmatic way using a calibrated Cs-137 point source to generate a conservative calibration for the clearance monitor system used in the Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (MHH). The most important nuclides used in nuclear medicine are considered. The measurement result reliably overestimates the true value of the activity present in the waste. The calibration is compliant with the demands for conservativity and traceability to national standards. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Optimization and verification of image reconstruction for a Compton camera towards application as an on-line monitor for particle therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taya, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Tagawa, L.; Mochizuki, S.; Toshito, T.; Kimura, M.; Nagao, Y.; Kurita, K.; Yamaguchi, M.; Kawachi, N.

    2017-07-01

    Particle therapy is an advanced cancer therapy that uses a feature known as the Bragg peak, in which particle beams suddenly lose their energy near the end of their range. The Bragg peak enables particle beams to damage tumors effectively. To achieve precise therapy, the demand for accurate and quantitative imaging of the beam irradiation region or dosage during therapy has increased. The most common method of particle range verification is imaging of annihilation gamma rays by positron emission tomography. Not only 511-keV gamma rays but also prompt gamma rays are generated during therapy; therefore, the Compton camera is expected to be used as an on-line monitor for particle therapy, as it can image these gamma rays in real time. Proton therapy, one of the most common particle therapies, uses a proton beam of approximately 200 MeV, which has a range of ~ 25 cm in water. As gamma rays are emitted along the path of the proton beam, quantitative evaluation of the reconstructed images of diffuse sources becomes crucial, but it is far from being fully developed for Compton camera imaging at present. In this study, we first quantitatively evaluated reconstructed Compton camera images of uniformly distributed diffuse sources, and then confirmed that our Compton camera obtained 3 %(1 σ) and 5 %(1 σ) uniformity for line and plane sources, respectively. Based on this quantitative study, we demonstrated on-line gamma imaging during proton irradiation. Through these studies, we show that the Compton camera is suitable for future use as an on-line monitor for particle therapy.

  9. Simulation and System Analysis of Flow Pulsation at Normal and Emergency for Advanced On-line Monitoring and Control of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskouriakov, K.N.; Moukhine, V.S.

    2002-01-01

    In addition to investigation of thermal-hydraulic processes on NPP with use of computer codes the new system analysis of flow pulsation is worked out. System analysis shows that properties of heat rejection circuits of NPP as oscillatory system are not equal the sum of properties of its separate elements but gives the new properties which must be taken into account. Methods have been worked out for calculating and identifying the sources of thermal-hydraulic disturbances are intended to improve the means of early diagnostics of anomalies in the technological process, to forecast their development, to improve the efficiency of overhauling operations and safety in operation, and also to create advanced on-line monitoring and control of NPP. Conception of the control system development presents. Proposal for main topics R and D areas for advanced NPP monitoring, diagnostic and control are identified. (authors)

  10. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI): On-Line Intelligent Self-Diagnostic Monitoring for Next Generation Nuclear Plants - Phase I Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. J. Bond; S. R. Doctor; R. W. Gilbert; D. B. Jarrell; F. L. Greitzer; R. J. Meador

    2000-09-01

    OAK-B135 This OSTI ID belongs to an IWO and is being released out of the system. The Program Manager Rebecca Richardson has confirmed that all reports have been received. The objective of this project is to design and demonstrate the operation of the real-time intelligent self-diagnostic and prognostic system for next generation nuclear power plant systems. This new self-diagnostic technology is titled, ''On-Line Intelligent Self-Diagnostic Monitoring System'' (SDMS). This project provides a proof-of-principle technology demonstration for SDMS on a pilot plant scale service water system, where a distributed array of sensors is integrated with active components and passive structures typical of next generation nuclear power reactor and plant systems. This project employs state-of-the-art sensors, instrumentation, and computer processing to improve the monitoring and assessment of the power reactor system and to provide diagnostic and automated prognostics capabilities.

  11. Development of signal processing electronics for self powered neutron detector signal with built-in on-line insulation monitoring [Paper No.:E3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Amitabha; Chaganty, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    Self powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) are employed to monitor in-core neutron flux in nuclear reactors for control, safety and mapping of in-core neutron flux. The d.c. current produced by SPND is converted into a proportional d.c. voltage, which in turn is used for various purposes stated above. This paper describes various features of the SPND amplifier developed in the Electronics Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). It also outlines the principle of working of on-line monitoring of insulation resistance (IR) of the detector and associated mineral insulated (MI) and soft cables. The amplifier generates an alarm in case of the IR of the detector and the cable assembly falls below an accepted value or the cable is not connected to the amplifier and relieves the operator from periodic and manual checking of each of the individual detectors and ensures the validity of the signal for further processing. (author). 3 figs

  12. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI): On-Line Intelligent Self-Diagnostic Monitoring for Next Generation Nuclear Plants - Phase I Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, L.G.; Doctor, S.R.; Gilbert, R.W.; Jarrell, D.B.; Greitzer, F.L.; Meador, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 This OSTI ID belongs to an IWO and is being released out of the system. The Program Manager Rebecca Richardson has confirmed that all reports have been received. The objective of this project is to design and demonstrate the operation of the real-time intelligent self-diagnostic and prognostic system for next generation nuclear power plant systems. This new self-diagnostic technology is titled, ''On-Line Intelligent Self-Diagnostic Monitoring System'' (SDMS). This project provides a proof-of-principle technology demonstration for SDMS on a pilot plant scale service water system, where a distributed array of sensors is integrated with active components and passive structures typical of next generation nuclear power reactor and plant systems. This project employs state-of-the-art sensors, instrumentation, and computer processing to improve the monitoring and assessment of the power reactor system and to provide diagnostic and automated prognostics capabilities

  13. Magnetic field effects on spectrally resolved lifetime of on-line oxygen monitoring using magneto-optic probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermut, O.; Gallant, P.; Le Bouch, N.; Leclair, S.; Noiseux, I.; Vernon, M.; Morin, J.-F.; Diamond, K.; Patterson, M. S.; Samkoe, K.; Pogue, B.

    2009-02-01

    Multimodal agents that serve as both probes for contrast and light-activated effectors of cellular processes in diseased tissue were developed. These agents were introduced into multicellular tumor spheroids (3D tissue models) and in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of a chicken embryo. The luminescence decay was examined using a novel technique involving a spectrally-resolved fluorescence lifetime apparatus integrated with a weak electromagnet. A spectrallyresolved lifetime setup was used to identify magneto-optic species sensitive to magnetic field effects and distinguish from background emissions. We demonstrate that the applied magnetic fields can alter reaction rates and product distribution of some dyes detected by time- and spectrally-resolved luminescence changes. We will discuss the use of exogenous magneto-optical probes taken up in tumors to both induce phototoxicity, a process that is governed by complex and dynamically evolving mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species, and monitor treatment progress. The magnetic field enhancement, measured over a range of weak fields (0-300 mT) is correlated to oxygenation and may be used to monitor dynamic changes occurring due to oxygen consumption over the course of photodynamic therapy. Such online measurements provide the possibility to derive real-time information about response to treatment via monitoring magnetic field enhancement/suppression of the time-resolved, spectrally-resolved luminescence of the probe at the site of the treatment directly. Magnetic perturbation of lifetime can serve as a status reporter, providing optical feedback of oxygen-mediated treatments in situ and allowing for real-time adjustment of a phototherapy treatment plan.

  14. Evaluation of uncertainties in the calibration of radiation personal monitor with Cesium-137 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirapalheta, Tatiane; Alexandre, Anderson; Costa, Camila; Batista, Gilmar; Paulino, Thyago; Albuquerque, Marcos; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    2016-01-01

    This work shows the entire calibration process of an individual monitor, focusing on radiation protection, in health, correlating these measures associated uncertainties. The results show an expanded uncertainty of 5.81% for dose rate measurements and an expanded uncertainty of 5.61% for integrated dose measurements, these uncertainties have been evaluated the type A and type B with its components. (author)

  15. The GRAAL high resolution BGO calorimeter and its energy calibration and monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghio, F.; Girolami, B.

    1997-07-01

    The authors describe the electromagnetic calorimeter built for the GRAAL apparatus at the ESRF. Its monitoring system is presented in detail. Result from tests and the performance obtained during the first GRAAL experiments are given. The energy calibration accuracy and stability reached is a small fraction of the intrinsic detector resolution

  16. On-Line Condition Monitoring System for High Level Trip Water in Steam Boiler’s Drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Alnaimi Firas B.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a monitoring technique using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN with four different training algorithms for high level water in steam boiler’s drum. Four Back-Propagations neural networks multidimensional minimization algorithms have been utilized. Real time data were recorded from power plant located in Malaysia. The developed relevant variables were selected based on a combination of theory, experience and execution phases of the model. The Root Mean Square (RMS Error has been used to compare the results of one and two hidden layer (1HL, (2HL ANN structures

  17. Proceedings: On-line monitoring of corrosion an water chemistry for the electric power utility industry: An EPRI workshop held during the 12th International Corrosion Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licina, G.

    1994-03-01

    A two-day EPRI workshop on On-line Monitoring of Corrosion and Water Chemistry for the Electric Power Utility Industry included discussions on a variety of methods for the online monitoring of corrosion and water chemistry in a power plant environment. The workshop was held September 22 and 23, 1993 in Houston, Texas, as a part of the 12th International Corrosion Congress sponsored by NACE International. Methods in various stages of development, from laboratory demonstrations to in-plant monitoring, were presented by authors from all over the world. Recent developments in corrosion monitoring and the detection of specific chemical species in power plant environments have utilized a variety of electrochemical methods (both AC and DC), electrical resistance techniques, and potential drop techniques to evaluate crack extension. Other approaches, such as Raman spectroscopy of corroding surfaces, Specific ion detectors, and X-ray fluorescence and ion chromatography to analyze corrosion products have been demonstrated in the laboratory. Techniques that were described in the twenty-three technical papers included: Electrochemical noise, Electrical resistance, Field signature method, Linear polarization resistance, Neutron activation, Corrosion potential monitoring, Electrochemical detection of biofilm activity, Analysis of corrosion products by X-ray fluorescence, Potential drop method for assessing environmentally assisted crack growth, Harmonic impedance spectroscopy, Contact electric resistance, Conductivity and hydrogen sensors, Solid state methods for tracking oxygen and pH, and Raman spectroscopy. Individual papers are indexed separately

  18. On-line coupling of a miniaturized bioreactor with capillary electrophoresis, via a membrane interface, for monitoring the production of organic acids by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehala, S; Vassiljeva, I; Kuldvee, R; Vilu, R; Kaljurand, M

    2001-09-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) can be a valuable tool for on-line monitoring of bioprocesses. Production of organic acids by phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria and fermentation of UHT milk were monitored and controlled by use of a membrane-interfaced dialysis device and a home-made microsampler for a capillary electrophoresis unit. Use of this specially designed sampling device enabled rapid consecutive injections without interruption of the high voltage. No additional sample preparation was required. The time resolution of monitoring in this particular work was approximately 2 h, but could be reduced to 2 min. Analytes were detected at low microg mL(-1) levels with a reproducibility of approximately 10%. To demonstrate the potential of CE in processes of biotechnological interest, results from monitoring phosphate solubilization by bacteria were submitted to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Fermentation experiments on UHT milk showed that monitoring of the processes by CE can provide good resolution of complex mixtures, although for more specific, detailed characterization the identification of individual substances is needed.

  19. Monitoring and calibration of the ALICE time projection chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Dag Toppe

    The aim of the A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) experiment at CERN is to study the properties of the Quark–Gluon Plasma (QGP). With energies up to 5.5 A T eV for Pb+Pb collisions, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) sets a new benchmark for heavy- ion collisions, and opens the door to a so far unexplored energy domain. A closer look at some of the physics topics of ALICE is given in Chapter 1. ALICE consists of several sub-detectors and other sub-systems. The various sub- detectors are designed for exploring different aspects of the particle production of an heavy-ion collision. Chapter 2 gives some insight into the design. The main tracking detector is the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). It has more than half million read-out channels, divided into 216 Read-out Partitions (RPs). Each RP is a separate Front-End Electronics (FEE) entity, as described in Chapter 3. A complex Detector Control System (DCS) is needed for configuration, monitoring and control. The heart of it on the RP side is a small embedded ...

  20. Preliminary Characterization Tests of Detectors of on-Line Monitor Systems of the Italian National Center of Oncological Hadron-Therapy (CNAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkazem Ansarinejad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hadron-therapy is an effective technique used to treat tumors that are located between or nearby vital organs. The Italian National Center of Oncological Hadron-therapy (CNAO has been realized as the first facility in Italy to treat very difficult tumors with protons and Carbon ions. The on-line monitor system for CNAO has been developed by the Department of Physics of the University of Torino and Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN. The monitoring system performs the on-line checking of the beam intensity, dimension, and beam position. Materials and Methods The monitor system is based on parallel plate ionization chambers and is composed of five ionization chambers with the anodes fully integrated or segmented in pixels or strips that are placed in two boxes. A series of measurements were performed that involve the background current and the detectors have been characterized by means of a series of preliminary testes in order to verify reproducibility and uniformity of the chambers using an X-ray source. Results The measured background currents for StripX, StripY and Pixel chambers are five orders of magnitude smaller than the nominal treatment current. The reproducibility error of chambers is less than 1%. The analysis of the uniformity showed that the monitor devices have a spread in gain that varies, but only about 2%. Conclusion The reproducibility and the uniformity values are considered as a good result, taking into account that the X-ray energy range is several orders of magnitude smaller than the particle energies used at CNAO.

  1. On-line monitoring of Escherichia coli in raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant, Oslo (Norway).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, Ingun; Eregno, Fasil Ejigu; Braathen, Henrik; Khalaf, Goran; Sjølander, Ingrid; Fossum, Marie

    2015-02-04

    The fully automated Colifast ALARM™ has been used for two years for daily monitoring of the presence/absence of Escherichia coli in 100 mL raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The raw water is extracted from 35 m depth from the Lake Maridalsvannet. E. coli was detected in 18% of the daily samples. In general, most samples positive for E. coli were observed during the autumn turnover periods, but even in some samples taken during warm and dry days in July, with stable temperature stratification in the lake, E. coli was detected. The daily samples gave useful additional information compared with the weekly routine samples about the hygienic raw water quality and the hygienic barrier efficiency of the lake under different weather conditions and seasons. The winter 2013/2014 was much warmer than the winter 2012/2013. The monitoring supported the hypothesis that warmer winters with shorter periods with ice cover on lakes, which may be a consequence of climate changes, may reduce the hygienic barrier efficiency in deep lakes used as drinking water sources.

  2. On-Line Monitoring of Escherichia coli in Raw Water at Oset Drinking Water Treatment Plant, Oslo (Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingun Tryland

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fully automated Colifast ALARMTM has been used for two years for daily monitoring of the presence/absence of Escherichia coli in 100 mL raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The raw water is extracted from 35 m depth from the Lake Maridalsvannet. E. coli was detected in 18% of the daily samples. In general, most samples positive for E. coli were observed during the autumn turnover periods, but even in some samples taken during warm and dry days in July, with stable temperature stratification in the lake, E. coli was detected. The daily samples gave useful additional information compared with the weekly routine samples about the hygienic raw water quality and the hygienic barrier efficiency of the lake under different weather conditions and seasons. The winter 2013/2014 was much warmer than the winter 2012/2013. The monitoring supported the hypothesis that warmer winters with shorter periods with ice cover on lakes, which may be a consequence of climate changes, may reduce the hygienic barrier efficiency in deep lakes used as drinking water sources.

  3. A practical technique for on-line monitoring of a photovoltaic plant connected to a single-phase grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahyaoui, Imene; Segatto, Marcelo E.V.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Automatic detection of main faults in PV systems is presented and tested. • Specific indicators detect bypass module, open-circuit string and partial shading. • The strategy efficiency is validated by experiments for two days. • The strategy allows the number of faulty PV modules and strings to be determined. • The method is effective and minimizes the use of sensors in the monitoring system. - Abstract: Improving the reliability and enhancing the performance of photovoltaic (PV) plants are important objectives that increase the competitiveness of the PV systems, especially for grid connected PV plants, for which, every kilowatt-hour is crucial, since only kilowatt-hours that are fed into the grid are remunerated. Therefore, monitoring and automatic faults detection during the PV panels operation are necessary to ensure the optimal use of the energy generated by the PV plant, and to provide a reliable power supply. In this research paper, two current and voltage indicators are used to analyze and to distinguish, in real-time, the faults related to bypassed PV modules, open-circuits strings and partial shading for a PV plant connected to a single-phase grid. Moreover, the presented strategy allows determining the total number of faulty PV modules and/or strings. The efficiencies of these indicators are tested by experiments, using a Control and Data Acquisition System, which proved the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. Application of AE technique for on-line monitoring of quenching in racetrack superconducting coil at cryogenic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Hyun; Lee, Min Rae; Shon, Myung Hwan; Kwon, Young Kil

    1998-01-01

    An acoustic emission(AE) technique has been used to monitor and diagnose quenching phenomenon in racetrack shaped superconducting magnets at cryogenic environment of 4.2 K. The ultimate goal is to ensure the safety and reliability of large superconducting magnet systems by being able to identity and locate the sources of quench in superconducting magnets. The characteristics of AE parameters have been analyzed by correlating with quench number, winding tension of superconducting coil and charge rate by transport current. It was found in this study that there was good correlation between quench current and AE parameters. The source location of quenching in superconducting magnet was also discussed on the hashing of correlation between magnet voltage and AE energy.

  5. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers, Volumes 1, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, Belle R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hines, J. Wesley [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lu, Baofu [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2005-06-03

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001 September 2004. Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance.Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. Development of advanced signal processing methods using

  6. On-Line Enrichment Monitor (OLEM) Phase II Final Report Techniques and Equipment for Safeguards at Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younkin, James R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Garner, James R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Over the last five years, OLEM has been a collaborative development effort involving the IAEA, LANL, ORNL, URENCO, and the NNSA. The collective team has completed the following: design and modelling, software development, hardware integration, testing with the ORNL UF6 Flow Loop, a field trial at the Urenco facility in Almelo, the Netherlands, and a Demonstration at the Urenco USA facility in Eunice, New Mexico. This combined effort culminated in the deployment of several OLEM collection nodes in Iran. These OLEM units are one unattended monitoring system component of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action allowing the International Atomic Energy Agency to verify Iran’s compliance with the enrichment production aspects of the agreement.

  7. The calibration procedure of the radiation monitoring system installed in radiation controlled area of KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung-Kyun; Min, Yi-Sub; Park, Jeong-Min; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The spaces, where these accelerators are installed, are defined as the radiation controlled area and the levels of the radiation in this area are monitored by the radiation monitoring system (RMS) to protect radiation workers and experiment users from the hazards of the ionizing radiation and the surface and air contamination tests are carried out periodically by the radiation secure team. The most of RMS instruments are installed in the accelerator building, where the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator is installed. All detectors of RMS should be calibrated every year to prove the reliability of RMS and almost all instruments for RMS was calibrated during this summer maintenance period of KOMAC this year. Almost all RMS instruments installed in KOMAC is calibrated between 2016-07-13 and 2016-08-24. As the calibration result, if the current reading value are within the 5% of the reference dose rate value, this RMS instrument can be used one more year. Otherwise, the detector of that RMS instrument should be repaired or replaced. The self-calibration certificate for each RMS instrument will be published only for the instrument to satisfy the condition.

  8. Long-term calibration monitoring of Spectralon diffusers BRDF in the air-ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T; Butler, James J

    2007-11-10

    Long-term calibration monitoring of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of Spectralon diffusers in the air-ultraviolet is presented. Four Spectralon diffusers were monitored in this study. Three of the diffusers, designated as H1, H2, and H3, were used in the prelaunch radiance calibration of the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/2 (SBUV/2) satellite instruments on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 14 and 16. A fourth diffuser, designated as the 400 diffuser, was used in the prelaunch calibration of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instrument scheduled for initial flight in 2009 on the National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project. The BRDF data of this study were obtained between 1994 and 2005 using the scatterometer located in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Diffuser Calibration Laboratory. The diffusers were measured at 13 wavelengths between 230 and 425 nm at the incident and scatter angles used in the prelaunch calibrations of SBUV/2 and OMPS. Spectral features in the BRDF of Spectralon are also discussed. The comparison shows how the air-ultraviolet BRDF of these Spectralon samples changed over time under clean room deployment conditions.

  9. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, Belle R.; Wesley Hines, J.

    2004-01-01

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001-September 2004. (1) Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. (2) Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance. (3) Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. (4) Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. (5) Development of advanced signal

  10. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001-September 2004. (1) Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. (2) Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance. (3) Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. (4) Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. (5) Development of advanced signal

  11. Self-Calibrating Ultrasonic Methods for In-Situ Monitoring of Fatigue Crack Progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, J.E.; Mi, B.; Cobb, A.C.; Michaels, T.E.; Stobbe, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasonic sensors permanently affixed to aluminum coupons are used to monitor progression of damage during fatigue testing with the long term goal of structural health monitoring for diagnostics and prognostics. Necessary for success are proper design of the ultrasonic testing methods, robust transducer mounting techniques, and real-time signal processing for determining the state of the structure. It is also highly desirable for the overall system to be self-calibrating with built-in diagnostics in order to detect and compensate for sensor degradation or failure. Self-calibrating ultrasonic techniques are applied for monitoring of cracks initiating and propagating from the inaccessible inner diameters of rivet holes where the transducers are mounted on the accessible specimen surface. Angle beam ultrasonic methods are utilized that are suitable for detecting small defects in critical local regions of high stress. Results are presented for aluminum coupons subjected to low cycle fatigue and demonstrate ultrasonic tracking of crack growth

  12. A Study on Structured Simulation Framework for Design and Evaluation of Human-Machine Interface System -Application for On-line Risk Monitoring for PWR Nuclear Power Plant-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, J.; Yang, M.; Li, S.C.; Peng, M.J.; Yan, S.Y.; Zhang, Z.J.

    2006-01-01

    The operators in the main control room of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) need to monitor plant condition through operation panels and understand the system problems by their experiences and skills. It is a very hard work because even a single fault will cause a large number of plant parameters abnormal and operators are required to perform trouble-shooting actions in a short time interval. It will bring potential risks if operators misunderstand the system problems or make a commission error to manipulate an irrelevant switch with their current operation. This study aims at developing an on-line risk monitoring technique based on Multilevel Flow Models (MFM) for monitoring and predicting potential risks in current plant condition by calculating plant reliability. The proposed technique can be also used for navigating operators by estimating the influence of their operations on plant condition before they take an action that will be necessary in plant operation, and therefore, can reduce human errors. This paper describes the risk monitoring technique and illustrates its application by a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) accident in a 2-loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Marine Nuclear Power Plant (MNPP). (authors)

  13. Borehole Calibration Facilities to Support Gamma Logging for Hanford Subsurface Investigation and Contaminant Monitoring - 13516

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCain, R.G.; Henwood, P.D.; Pope, A.D.; Pearson, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Repeated gamma logging in cased holes represents a cost-effective means to monitor gamma-emitting contamination in the deep vadose zone over time. Careful calibration and standardization of gamma log results are required to track changes and to compare results over time from different detectors and logging systems. This paper provides a summary description of Hanford facilities currently available for calibration of logging equipment. Ideally, all logging organizations conducting borehole gamma measurements at the Hanford Site will take advantage of these facilities to produce standardized and comparable results. (authors)

  14. Borehole Calibration Facilities to Support Gamma Logging for Hanford Subsurface Investigation and Contaminant Monitoring - 13516

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCain, R.G.; Henwood, P.D.; Pope, A.D.; Pearson, A.W. [S M Stoller Corporation, 2439 Robertson Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Repeated gamma logging in cased holes represents a cost-effective means to monitor gamma-emitting contamination in the deep vadose zone over time. Careful calibration and standardization of gamma log results are required to track changes and to compare results over time from different detectors and logging systems. This paper provides a summary description of Hanford facilities currently available for calibration of logging equipment. Ideally, all logging organizations conducting borehole gamma measurements at the Hanford Site will take advantage of these facilities to produce standardized and comparable results. (authors)

  15. Requirements for the authorization of operation os a calibration laboratory of gamma-ray monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Raimundo Dias da; Kibrit, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the process for obtaining the authorization of operation of a laboratory designed to calibrate area and personal monitors with gamma radiation, by using a sealed Cs-137 source. The regulations of Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) are deeply analysed and discussed. The authorization for construction, the authorization for modification of items important to safety, the authorization for the acquisition and handling of radiation sources, the authorization for operating, and the authorization for withdrawal of operation of the laboratory are also discussed. The paper also describes the technical and managerial requirements necessary to operate a gamma radiation calibration laboratory in Brazil. . (author)

  16. Monitoring tumor motion with on-line mega-voltage cone-beam computed tomography imaging in a cine mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, Bodo; Gayou, Olivier; Parda, David S; Miften, Moyed

    2008-01-01

    Accurate daily patient localization is becoming increasingly important in external-beam radiotherapy (RT). Mega-voltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT) utilizing a therapy beam and an on-board electronic portal imager can be used to localize tumor volumes and verify the patient's position prior to treatment. MV-CBCT produces a static volumetric image and therefore can only account for inter-fractional changes. In this work, the feasibility of using the MV-CBCT raw data as a fluoroscopic series of portal images to monitor tumor changes due to e.g. respiratory motion was investigated. A method was developed to read and convert the CB raw data into a cine. To improve the contrast-to-noise ratio on the MV-CB projection data, image post-processing with filtering techniques was investigated. Volumes of interest from the planning CT were projected onto the MV-cine. Because of the small exposure and the varying thickness of the patient depending on the projection angle, soft-tissue contrast was limited. Tumor visibility as a function of tumor size and projection angle was studied. The method was well suited in the upper chest, where motion of the tumor as well as of the diaphragm could be clearly seen. In the cases of patients with non-small cell lung cancer with medium or large tumor masses, we verified that the tumor mass was always located within the PTV despite respiratory motion. However for small tumors the method is less applicable, because the visibility of those targets becomes marginal. Evaluation of motion in non-superior-inferior directions might also be limited for small tumor masses. Viewing MV-CBCT data in a cine mode adds to the utility of MV-CBCT for verification of tumor motion and for deriving individualized treatment margins

  17. On-line near-infrared spectroscopy optimizing and monitoring biotransformation process of γ-aminobutyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Ding

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS with its fast and nondestructive advantages can be qualified for the real-time quantitative analysis. This paper demonstrates that NIRS combined with partial least squares (PLS regression can be used as a rapid analytical method to simultaneously quantify l-glutamic acid (l-Glu and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA in a biotransformation process and to guide the optimization of production conditions when the merits of NIRS are combined with response surface methodology. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC reference analysis was performed by the o-phthaldialdehyde pre-column derivatization. NIRS measurements of two batches of 141 samples were firstly analyzed by PLS with several spectral pre-processing methods. Compared with those of the HPLC reference analysis, the resulting determination coefficients (R2, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP and residual predictive deviation (RPD of the external validation for the l-Glu concentration were 99.5%, 1.62 g/L, and 11.3, respectively. For the GABA concentration, R2, RMSEP, and RPD were 99.8%, 4.00 g/L, and 16.4, respectively. This NIRS model was then used to optimize the biotransformation process through a Box-Behnken experimental design. Under the optimal conditions without pH adjustment, 200 g/L l-Glu could be catalyzed by 7148 U/L glutamate decarboxylase (GAD to GABA, reaching 99% conversion at the fifth hour. NIRS analysis provided timely information on the conversion from l-Glu to GABA. The results suggest that the NIRS model can not only be used for the routine profiling of enzymatic conversion, providing a simple and effective method of monitoring the biotransformation process of GABA, but also be considered to be an optimal tool to guide the optimization of production conditions.

  18. Determination of Cd, Hg, Pb and Se in sediments slurries by isotopic dilution calibration ICP-MS after chemical vapor generation using an on-line system or retention in an electrothermal vaporizer treated with iridium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Mariana Antunes; Ribeiro, Anderson Schwingel; Dias, Lucia Felicidade; Curtius, Adilson Jose

    2005-01-01

    A method for the determination of Cd, Hg, Pb and Se in sediments reference materials by slurry sampling chemical vapor generation (CVG) using isotopic dilution (ID) calibration and detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is proposed. Two different systems were used for the investigation: an on-line flow injection system (FI-CVG-ICP-MS) and an off-line system with in situ trapping electrothermal vaporization (CVG-ETV-ICP-MS). About 100 mg of the reference material, ground to a particle size ≤50 μm, was mixed with acid solutions (aqua regia, HF and HCl) in an ultrasonic bath. The enriched isotopes 111 Cd, 198 Hg, 206 Pb and 77 Se were then added to the slurry in an adequate amount in order to produce an altered isotopic ratio close to 1. For the on-line system, a standing time for the slurry of 12 h before measurement was required, while for the batch system, no standing time is needed to obtain accurate results. The conditions for the formation of the analyte vapor were optimized for the evaluated systems. The following altered isotope ratios were measured: 111 Cd/ 114 Cd, 198 Hg/ 199 Hg, 206 Pb/ 208 Pb e 77 Se/ 82 Se. The obtained detection limits in the on-line system, in μg g -1 , were: Cd: 0.15; Hg: 0.09; Pb: 6.0 and Se: 0.03. Similar detection limits were obtained with the system that uses the ETV: 0.21 for Hg, 6.0 for Pb and 0.06 μg g -1 for Se. No signal for Cd was obtained in this system. One estuarine, two marine and two river certified sediments were analyzed to check the accuracy. The obtained values by both systems were generally in agreement with the certified concentrations, according to the t-test for a confidence level of 95%, demonstrating that isotope equilibration was attained in the slurries submitted to a chemical vapor generation procedure and detection by ICP-MS. The relative standard deviations were lower than 10%, adequate for slurry analysis. The almost quantitative analytes extractions to the aqueous phase

  19. Dopant-assisted negative photoionization Ion mobility spectrometry coupled with on-line cooling inlet for real-time monitoring H2S concentration in sewer gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Hua, Lei; Li, Haiyang

    2016-06-01

    Malodorous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas often exists in the sewer system and associates with the problems of releasing the dangerous odor to the atmosphere and causing sewer pipe to be corroded. A simple method is in demand for real-time measuring H2S level in the sewer gas. In this paper, an innovated method based on dopant-assisted negative photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (DANP-IMS) with on-line semiconductor cooling inlet was put forward and successfully applied for the real-time measurement of H2S in sewer gas. The influence of moisture was effectively reduced via an on-line cooling method and a non-equilibrium dilution with drift gas. The limits of quantitation for the H2S in ≥60% relative humidity air could be obtained at ≤79.0ng L(-1) with linear ranges of 129-2064ng L(-1). The H2S concentration in a sewer manhole was successfully determined while its product ions were identified by an ion-mobility time-of-fight mass spectrometry. Finally, the correlation between sewer H2S concentration and the daily routines and habits of residents was investigated through hourly or real-time monitoring the variation of sewer H2S in manholes, indicating the power of this DANP-IMS method in assessing the H2S concentration in sewer system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Eye lens monitoring for interventional radiology personnel: dosemeters, calibration and practical aspects of Hp(3) monitoring. A 2015 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carinou, Eleftheria; Ferrari, Paolo; Bjelac, Olivera Ciraj; Gingaume, Merce; Merce, Marta Sans; O’Connor, Una

    2015-01-01

    A thorough literature review about the current situation on the implementation of eye lens monitoring has been performed in order to provide recommendations regarding dosemeter types, calibration procedures and practical aspects of eye lens monitoring for interventional radiology personnel. Most relevant data and recommendations from about 100 papers have been analysed and classified in the following topics: challenges of today in eye lens monitoring; conversion coefficients, phantoms and calibration procedures for eye lens dose evaluation; correction factors and dosemeters for eye lens dose measurements; dosemeter position and influence of protective devices. The major findings of the review can be summarised as follows: the recommended operational quantity for the eye lens monitoring is H p (3). At present, several dosemeters are available for eye lens monitoring and calibration procedures are being developed. However, in practice, very often, alternative methods are used to assess the dose to the eye lens. A summary of correction factors found in the literature for the assessment of the eye lens dose is provided. These factors can give an estimation of the eye lens dose when alternative methods, such as the use of a whole body dosemeter, are used. A wide range of values is found, thus indicating the large uncertainty associated with these simplified methods. Reduction factors from most common protective devices obtained experimentally and using Monte Carlo calculations are presented. The paper concludes that the use of a dosemeter placed at collar level outside the lead apron can provide a useful first estimate of the eye lens exposure. However, for workplaces with estimated annual equivalent dose to the eye lens close to the dose limit, specific eye lens monitoring should be performed. Finally, training of the involved medical staff on the risks of ionising radiation for the eye lens and on the correct use of protective systems is strongly recommended. (review)

  1. An on-line actinide-in-air monitor to operate at concentrations below 0.1 ICRP MPCsub(a)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woollam, P.B.

    1985-11-01

    A prototype on-line actinide-in-air monitoring system has been built which has sufficient sensitivity to determine average concentrations as low as 0.04 dpm m -3 (8 x 10 -3 ICRP MPCsub(a)) over an 8 h shift. Routine measurements at 0.3 dmp m -3 (0.075 ICRP MPCsub(a)) can be made with a probability of < 1% per shift of a false alarm, even in the presence of unusually large concentrations of radon daughter products. The system uses a combination of inertial particle size separation, alpha energy discrimination and isotope decay analysis to achieve this performance, which is between 10 and 100 times better than commercially available equipment. (U.K.)

  2. ON-LINE MONITORING OF BIOMASS CONCENTRATION BASED ON A CAPACITANCE SENSOR: ASSESSING THE METHODOLOGY FOR DIFFERENT BACTERIA AND YEAST HIGH CELL DENSITY FED-BATCH CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. L. Horta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The performance of an in-situ capacitance sensor for on-line monitoring of biomass concentration was evaluated for some of the most important microorganisms in the biotechnology industry: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris and Bacillus megaterium. A total of 33 batch and fed-batch cultures were carried out in a bench-scale bioreactor and biomass formation trends were followed by dielectric measurements during the growth phase as well as the induction phase, for 5 recombinant E. coli strains. Permittivity measurements and viable cellular concentrations presented a linear correlation for all the studied conditions. In addition, the permittivity signal was further used for inference of the cellular growth rate. The estimated specific growth rates mirrored the main trends of the metabolic states of the different cells and they can be further used for setting-up control strategies in fed-batch cultures.

  3. The Improved NRL Tropical Cyclone Monitoring System with a Unified Microwave Brightness Temperature Calibration Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The near real-time NRL global tropical cyclone (TC monitoring system based on multiple satellite passive microwave (PMW sensors is improved with a new inter-sensor calibration scheme to correct the biases caused by differences in these sensor’s high frequency channels. Since the PMW sensor 89 GHz channel is used in multiple current and near future operational and research satellites, a unified scheme to calibrate all satellite PMW sensor’s ice scattering channels to a common 89 GHz is created so that their brightness temperatures (TBs will be consistent and permit more accurate manual and automated analyses. In order to develop a physically consistent calibration scheme, cloud resolving model simulations of a squall line system over the west Pacific coast and hurricane Bonnie in the Atlantic Ocean are applied to simulate the views from different PMW sensors. To clarify the complicated TB biases due to the competing nature of scattering and emission effects, a four-cloud based calibration scheme is developed (rain, non-rain, light rain, and cloudy. This new physically consistent inter-sensor calibration scheme is then evaluated with the synthetic TBs of hurricane Bonnie and a squall line as well as observed TCs. Results demonstrate the large TB biases up to 13 K for heavy rain situations before calibration between TMI and AMSR-E are reduced to less than 3 K after calibration. The comparison stats show that the overall bias and RMSE are reduced by 74% and 66% for hurricane Bonnie, and 98% and 85% for squall lines, respectively. For the observed hurricane Igor, the bias and RMSE decrease 41% and 25% respectively. This study demonstrates the importance of TB calibrations between PMW sensors in order to systematically monitor the global TC life cycles in terms of intensity, inner core structure and convective organization. A physics-based calibration scheme on TC’s TB corrections developed in this study is able to significantly reduce the

  4. Calibration of environmental monitors operating on time integrating principles for radon/thoron decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Grenier, M.

    1982-03-01

    An environmental radiation monitor for radon decay products has been tested under laboratory controlled conditions. The instrument is of a quasi-time-integrating type and was tested in conjunction with a radon 'box' calibration facility. It has been found that the instrument appreciably underestimates the radon daughter Working Level (WL). This is attributed to plate-out of decay products in the monitor sampling head. The difference between monitor reading and the WL by grab-sampling was higher for low aerosol concentrations. Plate-out on the instrument detector and sampling head, and contamination effects have been observed for the thoron case. There is partial agreement between experimental results and theoretical expectation. The monitor is slow to react to sudden changes in radiation level. The instrument should prove quite useful in the routine monitoring of surface and underground environments provided some suggested changes in the instrument are introduced

  5. Spectroscopic On-Line Monitoring of Cu/W Contacts Erosion in HVCBs Using Optical-Fibre Based Sensor and Chromatic Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixiang; Jones, Gordon R; Spencer, Joseph W; Wang, Xiaohua; Rong, Mingzhe

    2017-03-06

    Contact erosion is one of the most crucial factors affecting the electrical service lifetime of high-voltage circuit breakers (HVCBs). On-line monitoring the contacts' erosion degree is increasingly in demand for the sake of condition based maintenance to guarantee the functional operation of HVCBs. A spectroscopic monitoring system has been designed based upon a commercial 245 kV/40 kA S F 6 live tank circuit breaker with copper-tungsten (28 wt % and 72 wt %) arcing contacts at atmospheric S F 6 pressure. Three optical-fibre based sensors are used to capture the time-resolved spectra of arcs. A novel approach using chromatic methods to process the time-resolved spectral signal has been proposed. The processed chromatic parameters have been interpreted to show that the time variation of spectral emission from the contact material and quenching gas are closely correlated to the mass loss and surface degradation of the plug arcing contact. The feasibility of applying this method to online monitoring of contact erosion is indicated.

  6. Spectroscopic On-Line Monitoring of Cu/W Contacts Erosion in HVCBs Using Optical-Fibre Based Sensor and Chromatic Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Contact erosion is one of the most crucial factors affecting the electrical service lifetime of high-voltage circuit breakers (HVCBs. On-line monitoring the contacts’ erosion degree is increasingly in demand for the sake of condition based maintenance to guarantee the functional operation of HVCBs. A spectroscopic monitoring system has been designed based upon a commercial 245 kV/40 kA S F 6 live tank circuit breaker with copper–tungsten (28 wt % and 72 wt % arcing contacts at atmospheric S F 6 pressure. Three optical-fibre based sensors are used to capture the time-resolved spectra of arcs. A novel approach using chromatic methods to process the time-resolved spectral signal has been proposed. The processed chromatic parameters have been interpreted to show that the time variation of spectral emission from the contact material and quenching gas are closely correlated to the mass loss and surface degradation of the plug arcing contact. The feasibility of applying this method to online monitoring of contact erosion is indicated.

  7. On-line monitoring of in-vitro oral bioaccessibility tests as front-end to liquid chromatography for determination of chlorogenic acid isomers in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremr, Daniel; Cocovi-Solberg, David J; Bajerová, Petra; Ventura, Karel; Miró, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    A novel fully automated in-vitro oral dissolution test assay as a front-end to liquid chromatography has been developed and validated for on-line chemical profiling and monitoring of temporal release profiles of three caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) isomers, namely, 3-CQA,4-CQA and 5-CQA, known as chlorogenic acids, in dietary supplements. Tangential-flow filtration is harnessed as a sample processing approach for on-line handling of CQA containing extracts of hard gelatin capsules and introduction of protein-free samples into the liquid chromatograph. Oral bioaccessibility/dissolution test assays were performed at 37.0±0.5°C as per US Pharmacopeia recommendations using pepsin with activity of ca. 749,000 USP units/L in 0.1mol/L HCl as the extraction medium and a paddle apparatus stirred at 50rpm. CQA release rates and steady-state dissolution conditions were determined accurately by fitting the chromatographic datasets, namely, the average cumulative concentrations of bioaccessible pools of every individual isomer monitored during 200min, with temporal resolutions of ≥10min, to a first-order dissolution kinetic model. Distinct solid-to-liquid phase ratios in the mimicry of physiological extraction conditions were assessed. Relative standard deviations for intra-day repeatability and inter-day intermediate precision of 5-CQA within the 5-40µg/mL concentration range were <3.4% and <5.5%, respectively. Trueness of the automatic flow method for determination of 5-CQA released from dietary supplements in gastric fluid surrogate was demonstrated by spike recoveries, spanning from 91.5-104.0%, upon completion of the dissolution process. The proposed hyphenated setup was resorted for evaluating potential differences in dissolution profiles and content of the three most abundant chlorogenic acid isomers in dietary supplements from varied manufacturers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm −1 (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm −1 (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis

  9. ANN-based calibration model of FTIR used in transformer online monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honglei; Liu, Xian-yong; Zhou, Fangjie; Tan, Kexiong

    2005-02-01

    Recently, chromatography column and gas sensor have been used in online monitoring device of dissolved gases in transformer oil. But some disadvantages still exist in these devices: consumption of carrier gas, requirement of calibration, etc. Since FTIR has high accuracy, consume no carrier gas and require no calibration, the researcher studied the application of FTIR in such monitoring device. Experiments of "Flow gas method" were designed, and spectrum of mixture composed of different gases was collected with A BOMEM MB104 FTIR Spectrometer. A key question in the application of FTIR is that: the absorbance spectrum of 3 fault key gases, including C2H4, CH4 and C2H6, are overlapped seriously at 2700~3400cm-1. Because Absorbance Law is no longer appropriate, a nonlinear calibration model based on BP ANN was setup to in the quantitative analysis. The height absorbance of C2H4, CH4 and C2H6 were adopted as quantitative feature, and all the data were normalized before training the ANN. Computing results show that the calibration model can effectively eliminate the cross disturbance to measurement.

  10. Calibration and operation of continuous air monitors for alpha-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    Spectrometer-based continuous air monitors have improved our capabilities for detecting aerosols of alpha-emitting radionuclides. This paper describes basic requirements and statistical limitations in the sensitivity of alpha continuous air monitors, and presents a technical basis for selecting the energy window for detection of uranium and plutonium aerosols, correcting for interference from airborne dust, selecting filters with low pressure drop and good front surface collection characteristics, and properly using electroplated calibration sources. Sensitivity limits are described for detecting uranium or plutonium aerosols in the presence of increased concentrations of naturally occurring, alpha-emitting radon progeny radionuclides. Decreasing the lower energy boundary of the detection window from 4.3 MeV to 2.7 MeV improves by a factor of three the detection of plutonium in the presence of dust, while causing minimal additional interference from ambient radon progeny. Selection of the Millipore Fluoropore teflon membrane filter reduces both pressure drop and interference from ambient radon progeny by up to a factor of two. Field collection of ambient radon progeny can be used to verify the proper energy of alpha emissions from electroplated calibration sources. In the absence of energy verification, errors in instrument calibration may result from solid state diffusion of the electroplated calibration radionuclide into the substrate plate

  11. An Improved Calibration Method for Hydrazine Monitors for the United States Air Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K

    2003-07-07

    This report documents the results of Phase 1 of the ''Air Force Hydrazine Detector Characterization and Calibration Project''. A method for calibrating model MDA 7100 hydrazine detectors in the United States Air Force (AF) inventory has been developed. The calibration system consists of a Kintek 491 reference gas generation system, a humidifier/mixer system which combines the dry reference hydrazine gas with humidified diluent or carrier gas to generate the required humidified reference for calibrations, and a gas sampling interface. The Kintek reference gas generation system itself is periodically calibrated using an ORNL-constructed coulometric titration system to verify the hydrazine concentration of the sample atmosphere in the interface module. The Kintek reference gas is then used to calibrate the hydrazine monitors. Thus, coulometric titration is only used to periodically assess the performance of the Kintek reference gas generation system, and is not required for hydrazine monitor calibrations. One advantage of using coulometric titration for verifying the concentration of the reference gas is that it is a primary standard (if used for simple solutions), thereby guaranteeing, in principle, that measurements will be traceable to SI units (i.e., to the mole). The effect of humidity of the reference gas was characterized by using the results of concentrations determined by coulometric titration to develop a humidity correction graph for the Kintek 491 reference gas generation system. Using this calibration method, calibration uncertainty has been reduced by 50% compared to the current method used to calibrate hydrazine monitors in the Air Force inventory and calibration time has also been reduced by more than 20%. Significant findings from studies documented in this report are the following: (1) The Kintek 491 reference gas generation system (generator, humidifier and interface module) can be used to calibrate hydrazine detectors. (2) The

  12. Calibration of low-cost gas sensors for an urban air quality monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A.; Kelley, C.; He, C.; Ghugare, P.; Lehman, A.; Benish, S.; Stratton, P.; Dickerson, R. R.; Zuidema, C.; Azdoud, Y.; Ren, X.

    2017-12-01

    In a warming world, environmental pollution may be exacerbated by anthropogenic activities, such as climate change and the urban heat island effect, as well as natural phenomena such as heat waves. However, monitoring air pollution at federal reference standards (approximately 1 part per billion or ppb for ambient ozone) is cost-prohibitive in heterogeneous urban areas as many expensive devices are required to fully capture a region's geo-spatial variability. Innovation in low-cost sensors provide a potential solution, yet technical challenges remain to overcome possible imprecision in the data. We present the calibrations of ozone and nitrous dioxide from a low-cost air quality monitoring device designed for the Baltimore Open Air Project. The sensors used in this study are commercially available thin film electrochemical sensors from SPEC Sensor, which are amperometric, meaning they generate current proportional to volumetric fraction of gas. The results of sensor calibrations in the laboratory and field are presented.

  13. Calibration of an air monitor prototype for a radiation surveillance network based on gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, A.; Caballero, J.M.; Corbacho, J.Á.; Ontalba-Salamanca, M.Á.; Vasco, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present the improvements that have been made in quasi-real-time air radioactivity concentration monitors which were initially based on overall activity determinations, by incorporating gamma spectrometry into the current prototype. To this end it was necessary to develop a careful efficiency calibration procedure for both the particulate and the gaseous fractions of the air being sampled. The work also reports the values of the minimum detectable activity calculated for different isotopes and acquisition times. - Highlights: • Deficiencies of a commercial air monitoring system are detailed. • Gamma spectrometry introduction is the basis of the new prototype. • Efficiency calibration procedure is described for aerosol and gaseous fractions. • MDA is evaluated for different isotopes and acquisition times

  14. In-flight calibration system for the INTEGRAL x-ray monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, E.; Feroci, M.; Barbanera, L.

    1996-01-01

    of Amptek Cool-X15 X-ray generators. The latter is a novel product, based on a pyroelectric crystal used to generate energetic electrons that produce fluorescence lines by hitting a metallic target. We plan to use the four low intensity radioactive sources for monitoring the four independent anode chains......JEM-X is the x-ray monitor serving the two gamma-ray experiments imager and spectrometer onboard the ESA's INTEGRAL satellite. Due to the intrinsic weakness of the celestial sources in the gamma energy range they will need very long integration times. During these long pointings JEM-X will be able...... to detect very small variations on most x-ray sources, but only if accurately calibrated. The in- flight calibration system of the JEM-X experiment is devoted to measure the response of the detection chain (detector plus electronics) in a small set of positions and energies. The data from this system...

  15. Calibration method based on direct radioactivity measurement for radioactive gas monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Makoto; Ohi, Yoshihiro; Chida, Tohru; Wu, Youyang.

    1993-01-01

    A calibration method for radioactive gas monitoring instruments was studied. In the method, gaseous radioactivity standards were provided on the basis of the direct radioactivity measurement by the diffusion-in long proportional counter method (DLPC method). The radioactivity concentration of the gas mixture through a monitoring instrument was determined by sampling the known volume of the gas mixture into the proportional counter used for the DLPC method. Since oxygen in the gas mixture decreased the counting efficiency in a proportional counter, the influence on calibration was experimentally estimated. It was not serious and able to be easily corrected. By the present method, the relation between radioactivity concentration and ionization current was determined for a gas-flow ionization chamber with 1.5 l effective volume. It showed good agreement with the results in other works. (author)

  16. Calibration of a He accumulation fluence monitor for fast reactor dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Chikara [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-03-01

    The helium accumulation fluence monitor (HAFM) has been developed for a fast reactor dosimetry. The HAFM measurement system was calibrated using He gas and He implanted samples and the measurement accuracy was confirmed to be less than 5%. Based on the preliminary irradiation test in JOYO, the measured He in the {sup 10}B type HAFM agreed well with the calculated values using the JENDL-3.2 library. (author)

  17. Usability of Calibrating Monitor for Soft Proof According to CIE CAM02 Colour Appearance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoljub Novakovic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Colour appearance models describe viewing conditions and enable simulating appearance of colours under different illuminants and illumination levels according to human perception. Since it is possible to predict how colour would look like when different illuminants are used, colour appearance models are incorporated in some monitor profiling software. Owing to these software, tone reproduction curve can be defined by taking into consideration viewing condition in which display is observed. In this work assessment of CIE CAM02 colour appearance model usage at calibrating LCD monitor for soft proof was tested in order to determine which tone reproduction curve enables better reproduction of colour. Luminance level was kept constant, whereas tone reproduction curves determined by gamma values and by parameters of CIE CAM02 model were varied. Testing was conducted in case where physical print reference is observed under illuminant which has colour temperature according to iso standard for soft-proofing (D50 and also for illuminants D65.  Based on the results of calibrations assessment, subjective and objective assessment of created profiles, as well as on the perceptual test carried out on human observers, differences in image display were defined and conclusions of the adequacy of CAM02 usage at monitor calibration for each of the viewing conditions reached.

  18. Design of a self-calibration high precision micro-angle deformation optical monitoring scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingying; Wang, Li; Guo, Shaogang; Wu, Yun; Liu, Da

    2018-03-01

    In order to meet the requirement of high precision and micro-angle measurement on orbit, a self-calibrated optical non-contact real-time monitoring device is designed. Within three meters, the micro-angle variable of target relative to measuring basis can be measured in real-time. The range of angle measurement is +/-50'', the angle measurement accuracy is less than 2''. The equipment can realize high precision real-time monitoring the micro-angle deformation, which caused by high strength vibration and shock of rock launching, sun radiation and heat conduction on orbit and so on.

  19. Setup and Calibration of SLAC's Peripheral Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C.

    2004-09-03

    The goals of this project were to troubleshoot, repair, calibrate, and establish documentation regarding SLAC's (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's) PMS (Peripheral Monitoring Station) system. The PMS system consists of seven PMSs that continuously monitor skyshine (neutron and photon) radiation levels in SLAC's environment. Each PMS consists of a boron trifluoride (BF{sub 3}) neutron detector (model RS-P1-0802-104 or NW-G-20-12) and a Geiger Moeller (GM) gamma ray detector (model TGM N107 or LND 719) together with their respective electronics. Electronics for each detector are housed in Nuclear Instrument Modules (NIMs) and are plugged into a NIM bin in the station. All communication lines from the stations to the Main Control Center (MCC) were tested prior to troubleshooting. To test communication with MCC, a pulse generator (Systron Donner model 100C) was connected to each channel in the PMS and data at MCC was checked for consistency. If MCC displayed no data, the communication cables to MCC or the CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control) crates were in need of repair. If MCC did display data, then it was known that the communication lines were intact. All electronics from each station were brought into the lab for troubleshooting. Troubleshooting usually consisted of connecting an oscilloscope or scaler (Ortec model 871 or 775) at different points in the circuit of each detector to record simulated pulses produced by a pulse generator; the input and output pulses were compared to establish the location of any problems in the circuit. Once any problems were isolated, repairs were done accordingly. The detectors and electronics were then calibrated in the field using radioactive sources. Calibration is a process that determines the response of the detector. Detector response is defined as the ratio of the number of counts per minute interpreted by the detector to the amount of dose equivalent rate (in mrem per hour, either calculated

  20. Continuous on-line monitoring of left ventricular function with a new nonimaging detector:validation and clinical use in the evaluation of patients post angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breisblatt, W M; Schulman, D S; Follansbee, W P

    1991-06-01

    A new miniaturized nonimaging radionuclide detector (Cardioscint, Oxford, England) was evaluated for the continuous on-line assessment of left ventricular function. This cesium iodide probe can be placed on the patient's chest and can be interfaced to an IBM compatible personal computer conveniently placed at the patient's bedside. This system can provide a beat-to-beat or gated determination of left ventricular ejection fraction and ST segment analysis. In 28 patients this miniaturized probe was correlated against a high resolution gamma camera study. Over a wide range of ejection fraction (31% to 76%) in patients with and without regional wall motion abnormalities, the correlation between the Cardioscint detector and the gamma camera was excellent (r = 0.94, SEE +/- 2.1). This detector system has high temporal (10 msec) resolution, and comparison of peak filling rate (PFR) and time to peak filling (TPFR) also showed close agreement with the gamma camera (PFR, r = 0.94, SEE +/- 0.17; TPFR, r = 0.92, SEE +/- 6.8). In 18 patients on bed rest the long-term stability of this system for measuring ejection fraction and ST segments was verified. During the monitoring period (108 +/- 28 minutes) only minor changes in ejection fraction occurred (coefficient of variation 0.035 +/- 0.016) and ST segment analysis showed no significant change from baseline. To determine whether continuous on-line measurement of ejection fraction would be useful after coronary angioplasty, 12 patients who had undergone a successful procedure were evaluated for 280 +/- 35 minutes with the Cardioscint system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Absolute Sea Level Monitoring and Altimeter Calibration At Gavdos, Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, E. C.; Gavdos Team

    We present the mean sea level (MSL) monitoring aspect of the altimeter calibration fa- cility under deployment on western Crete and the isle of Gavdos. The Eastern Mediter- ranean area is one of great interest for its intense tectonic activity as well as for its regional oceanography. Recent observations have convincingly demonstrated the im- portance of that area for the regional meteorological and climatological changes. Tide- gauge monitoring with GPS has gained importance lately since tectonics contaminate the inferred sea level variations, and a global network of tide-gauges with long his- torical records can be used as satellite altimeter calibration sites for current and fu- ture missions (e.g. TOPEX/POSEIDON, GFO, JASON-1, ENVISAT, etc.). This is at present a common IOC-GLOSS-IGS effort, already underway (TIGA). Crete hosts two of the oldest tide-gauges in the regional network and our project will further ex- pand it to the south of the island with a new site on the isle of Gavdos, the southernmost European parcel of land. One component of our "GAVDOS" project is the repeated occupation of two already in existence tide-gauge sites at Souda Bay and Heraklion, and their tie to the new facility. We show here initial results from positioning of these sites and some of the available tidal records. Gavdos is situated under a ground-track crossing point of the present T/P and JASON-1 orbits. It is an ideal calibration site if the tectonic motions are monitored precisely and continuously. Our plans include the deployment of additional instrumentation at this site: GPS and DORIS beacons for positioning, transponders for direct calibration, water vapor radiometers, GPS-loaded buoys, airborne surveys with gravimeters and laser profiling lidars, etc., to ensure the best possible and most reliable results.

  2. Calibration of personnel monitors by exposure to gamma radiation with energies up to 9 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, J.L.B.; Cunha, P.G. da; Diz, R.; Oberhofer, M.

    Occupational exposure with photons of high energy (higher than those from 60 Co) might occur from nuclear reactors and accelerators. Radiation monitors for absorbed dose determination, however, often do not have a wall thickness sufficient to establish electronical equilibrium in that energy range. Using calibration factors determined for lower energies (calibration factors for 60 Co radiation) might cause a significant underestimation of the soft tissue absorbed dose. The calibration factor of the personnel monitors of the Eberline Instrument Co.based on TL dosimeters of LiF is reported. This monitor was calibrated with 9 MeV photons produced by thermal neutrons capture in a Nitarget, at an absorbed dose rate of 125 rads/h at the C.E.N. in France. The results are compared with the corresponding calibration factors for different energies up to 60 Co radiation determined in the IRD (Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria Rio de Janeiro). (Author) [pt

  3. Cuban-Brazilian comparison of the calibration procedures for surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, Gonzalo W.; Garcia, Jose A.T.; Ramos, Manoel M.O.

    2007-01-01

    The calibration laboratory of the CPHR, Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, is the only laboratory that performs calibrations of radiation protection instruments in Cuba. Recently they started a cooperation project with IAEA, code number CUB3002-01 with the task title 'Assuring and Demonstrating the safety of radioactive Waste Management'. Within the frame of this project they have a compromise to implement the calibration service for surface contamination monitors, for which they received instruments and sources. In 2006 the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI) from the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, IRD/CNEN, was invited to perform a mission to CPHR in order to evaluate the level of implementation of the service trough the insertion of the service in the Quality Assurance System of their laboratory, and perform a comparison exercise to test the calibration method implemented. The results were evaluated by the methodology recommended in the ISO/IEC 43-1 standard. These results show that all values from both laboratories are comparable for most radionuclides except for Cl-36. The preliminary investigation about this situation is presented in the paper. (author)

  4. Flume and field-based calibration of surrogate sensors for monitoring bedload transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, L.; Carrillo, R.; Escauriaza, C.; Iroume, A.

    2016-01-01

    Bedload transport assessment is important for geomorphological, engineering, and ecological studies of gravel-bed rivers. Bedload can be monitored at experimental stations that require expensive maintenance or by using portable traps, which allows measuring instantaneous transport rates but at a single point and at high costs and operational risks. The need for continuously measuring bedload intensity and dynamics has therefore increased the use and enhancement of surrogate methods. This paper reports on a set of flume experiments in which a Japanese acoustic pipe and an impact plate have been tested using four well-sorted and three poorly sorted sediment mixtures. Additional data were collected in a glacierized high-gradient Andean stream (Estero Morales) using a portable Bunte-type bedload sampler. Results show that the data provided by the acoustic pipe (which is amplified on 6 channels having different gains) can be calibrated for the grain size and for the intensity of transported sediments coarser than 9 mm (R2 = 0.93 and 0.88, respectively). Even if the flume-based calibration is very robust, upscaling the calibration to field applications is more challenging, and the bedload intensity could be predicted better than the grain size of transported sediments (R2 = 0.61 and 0.43, respectively). The inexpensive impact plate equipped with accelerometer could be calibrated for bedload intensity quite well in the flume but only poorly in the field (R2 = 0.16) and could not provide information on the size of transported sediments.

  5. Respiration monitoring by Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) Technique in a group of healthy males. Calibration equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balleza, M; Vargas, M; Delgadillo, I; Kashina, S; Huerta, M R; Moreno, G

    2017-01-01

    Several research groups have proposed the electrical impedance tomography (EIT) in order to analyse lung ventilation. With the use of 16 electrodes, the EIT is capable to obtain a set of transversal section images of thorax. In previous works, we have obtained an alternating signal in terms of impedance corresponding to respiration from EIT images. Then, in order to transform those impedance changes into a measurable volume signal a set of calibration equations has been obtained. However, EIT technique is still expensive to attend outpatients in basics hospitals. For that reason, we propose the use of electrical bioimpedance (EBI) technique to monitor respiration behaviour. The aim of this study was to obtain a set of calibration equations to transform EBI impedance changes determined at 4 different frequencies into a measurable volume signal. In this study a group of 8 healthy males was assessed. From obtained results, a high mathematical adjustment in the group calibrations equations was evidenced. Then, the volume determinations obtained by EBI were compared with those obtained by our gold standard. Therefore, despite EBI does not provide a complete information about impedance vectors of lung compared with EIT, it is possible to monitor the respiration. (paper)

  6. On-line monitoring of benzene air concentrations while driving in traffic by means of isotopic dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoli, E; Cappellini, L; Moggi, M; Ferrari, S; Fanelli, R

    1996-01-01

    There is no shortage of information about the average benzene concentrations in urban air, but there is very little about microenvironmental exposure, such as in-vehicle concentrations while driving in various traffic conditions, while refuelling, or while in a parking garage. The main reason for this lack of data is that no analytical instrumentation has been available to measure on-line trace amounts of benzene in such situations. We have recently proposed a highly accurate, high-speed cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system for monitoring benzene concentrations in air. Accuracy of the analytical data is achieved by enrichment of the air sample before trapping, with a stable isotope permeation tube system. The same principles have been applied to a new instrument, specifically designed for operation on an electric vehicle (Ducato Elettra, Fiat). The zero emission vehicle and the fully transportable, battery-operated GC/MS system provide a unique possibility of monitoring benzene exposure in real everyday situations such as while driving, refuelling, or repairing a car. All power consumptions have been reduced so as to achieve a battery-operated GC/MS system. Liquid nitrogen cryofocusing has been replaced by a packed, inductively heated, graphitized charcoal microtrap. The instrument has been mounted on shock absorbers and installed in the van. The whole system has been tested in both fixed and mobile conditions. The maximum monitoring period without external power supply is 6 h. The full analytical cycle is 4 min, allowing close to real-time monitoring, and the minimum detectable level is 1 microgram/m3 for benzene. In-vehicle monitoring showed that, when recirculation was off and ventilation on, i.e., air from outside the vehicle was blown inside, concentrations varied widely in different driving conditions: moving from a parking lot into normal traffic on an urban traffic condition roadway yielded an increase in benzene concentration

  7. The Canadian National Calibration Reference Center for Bioassay and in-vivo Monitoring: A program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.H.; Zamora, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian National Calibration Reference Center for Bioassay and in-vivo Monitoring is part of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Department of Health. The Reference Center operates a variety of different intercomparison programs that are designed to confirm that workplace monitoring results are accurate and provide the necessary external verification required by the Canadian regulators. The programs administered by the Reference Center currently include urinalysis intercomparisons for tritium, natural uranium, and 14 C, and in-vivo programs for whole-body, thorax, and thyroid monitoring. The benefits of the intercomparison programs to the participants are discussed by example. Future programs that are planned include dual spiked urine sample which contain both tritium and 14 C and the in-vivo measurement of 99m Tc. 18 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Commissioning of an LED calibration and monitoring system for the prototype of a hadronic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattimena, N.

    2006-12-15

    The anticipated physics program for the International Linear Collider (ILC) requires a highly granular hadronic calorimeter. One option for such a tracking calorimeter is a scintillator-steel sandwich structure placed inside the magnetic coil. The development of hadronic showers will be studied with a physics prototype, in order to improve current models. This prototype, currently being built within the collaboration for a CAlorimeter for the LInear Collider Experiment (CALICE) at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) also serves to test a new semiconductor based photodetector the so called silicon photomultiplier. The calibration of these new photodetectors requires to take into account their nonlinear response.The response function, describing this behaviour, is investigated in this thesis. A calibration and monitoring system, needed to correct for the temperature and voltage dependence of the silicon photomultiplier signals and to observe changes of their response over time, is optimised and tested. (orig.)

  9. Commissioning of an LED calibration and monitoring system for the prototype of a hadronic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattimena, N.

    2006-12-01

    The anticipated physics program for the International Linear Collider (ILC) requires a highly granular hadronic calorimeter. One option for such a tracking calorimeter is a scintillator-steel sandwich structure placed inside the magnetic coil. The development of hadronic showers will be studied with a physics prototype, in order to improve current models. This prototype, currently being built within the collaboration for a CAlorimeter for the LInear Collider Experiment (CALICE) at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) also serves to test a new semiconductor based photodetector the so called silicon photomultiplier. The calibration of these new photodetectors requires to take into account their nonlinear response.The response function, describing this behaviour, is investigated in this thesis. A calibration and monitoring system, needed to correct for the temperature and voltage dependence of the silicon photomultiplier signals and to observe changes of their response over time, is optimised and tested. (orig.)

  10. CALIBRATION ERRORS IN THE CAVITY BEAM POSITION MONITOR SYSTEM AT THE ATF2

    CERN Document Server

    Cullinan, F; Joshi, N; Lyapin, A

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown at the Accelerator Test Facility at KEK, that it is possible to run a system of 37 cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) and achieve high working resolution. However, stability of the calibration constants (position scale and radio frequency (RF) phase) over a three/four week running period is yet to be demonstrated. During the calibration procedure, random beam jitter gives rise to a statistical error in the position scale and slow orbit drift in position and tilt causes systematic errors in both the position scale and RF phase. These errors are dominant and have been evaluated for each BPM. The results are compared with the errors expected after a tested method of beam jitter subtraction has been applied.

  11. Continuous glucose monitoring in newborn infants: how do errors in calibration measurements affect detected hypoglycemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Felicity; Signal, Mathew; Harris, Deborah L; Weston, Philip J; Harding, Jane E; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and can cause serious brain injury. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) could improve hypoglycemia detection, while reducing blood glucose (BG) measurements. Calibration algorithms use BG measurements to convert sensor signals into CGM data. Thus, inaccuracies in calibration BG measurements directly affect CGM values and any metrics calculated from them. The aim was to quantify the effect of timing delays and calibration BG measurement errors on hypoglycemia metrics in newborn infants. Data from 155 babies were used. Two timing and 3 BG meter error models (Abbott Optium Xceed, Roche Accu-Chek Inform II, Nova Statstrip) were created using empirical data. Monte-Carlo methods were employed, and each simulation was run 1000 times. Each set of patient data in each simulation had randomly selected timing and/or measurement error added to BG measurements before CGM data were calibrated. The number of hypoglycemic events, duration of hypoglycemia, and hypoglycemic index were then calculated using the CGM data and compared to baseline values. Timing error alone had little effect on hypoglycemia metrics, but measurement error caused substantial variation. Abbott results underreported the number of hypoglycemic events by up to 8 and Roche overreported by up to 4 where the original number reported was 2. Nova results were closest to baseline. Similar trends were observed in the other hypoglycemia metrics. Errors in blood glucose concentration measurements used for calibration of CGM devices can have a clinically important impact on detection of hypoglycemia. If CGM devices are going to be used for assessing hypoglycemia it is important to understand of the impact of these errors on CGM data. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. Accuracy of subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring in critically ill adults: improved sensor performance with enhanced calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarathna, Lalantha; English, Shane W; Thabit, Hood; Caldwell, Karen; Allen, Janet M; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Wilinska, Malgorzata E; Nodale, Marianna; Haidar, Ahmad; Evans, Mark L; Burnstein, Rowan; Hovorka, Roman

    2014-02-01

    Accurate real-time continuous glucose measurements may improve glucose control in the critical care unit. We evaluated the accuracy of the FreeStyle(®) Navigator(®) (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device in critically ill adults using two methods of calibration. In a randomized trial, paired CGM and reference glucose (hourly arterial blood glucose [ABG]) were collected over a 48-h period from 24 adults with critical illness (mean±SD age, 60±14 years; mean±SD body mass index, 29.6±9.3 kg/m(2); mean±SD Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score, 12±4 [range, 6-19]) and hyperglycemia. In 12 subjects, the CGM device was calibrated at variable intervals of 1-6 h using ABG. In the other 12 subjects, the sensor was calibrated according to the manufacturer's instructions (1, 2, 10, and 24 h) using arterial blood and the built-in point-of-care glucometer. In total, 1,060 CGM-ABG pairs were analyzed over the glucose range from 4.3 to 18.8 mmol/L. Using enhanced calibration median (interquartile range) every 169 (122-213) min, the absolute relative deviation was lower (7.0% [3.5, 13.0] vs. 12.8% [6.3, 21.8], P<0.001), and the percentage of points in the Clarke error grid Zone A was higher (87.8% vs. 70.2%). Accuracy of the Navigator CGM device during critical illness was comparable to that observed in non-critical care settings. Further significant improvements in accuracy may be obtained by frequent calibrations with ABG measurements.

  13. The Calibration and Use of Capacitance Sensors to Monitor Stem Water Content in Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, Ashley M; Garrity, Steven R; Bohrer, Gil

    2017-12-27

    Water transport and storage through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum is critical to the terrestrial water cycle, and has become a major research focus area. Biomass capacitance plays an integral role in the avoidance of hydraulic impairment to transpiration. However, high temporal resolution measurements of dynamic changes in the hydraulic capacitance of large trees are rare. Here, we present procedures for the calibration and use of capacitance sensors, typically used to monitor soil water content, to measure the volumetric water content in trees in the field. Frequency domain reflectometry-style observations are sensitive to the density of the media being studied. Therefore, it is necessary to perform species-specific calibrations to convert from the sensor-reported values of dielectric permittivity to volumetric water content. Calibration is performed on a harvested branch or stem cut into segments that are dried or re-hydrated to produce a full range of water contents used to generate a best-fit regression with sensor observations. Sensors are inserted into calibration segments or installed in trees after pre-drilling holes to a tolerance fit using a fabricated template to ensure proper drill alignment. Special care is taken to ensure that sensor tines make good contact with the surrounding media, while allowing them to be inserted without excessive force. Volumetric water content dynamics observed via the presented methodology align with sap flow measurements recorded using thermal dissipation techniques and environmental forcing data. Biomass water content data can be used to observe the onset of water stress, drought response and recovery, and has the potential to be applied to the calibration and evaluation of new plant-level hydrodynamics models, as well as to the partitioning of remotely sensed moisture products into above- and belowground components.

  14. The NRPI multi-purpose on-line monitoring station for measurement of natural radioactivity in the ambient atmosphere and in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilek, K.; Slezakova, M.; Fronka, A.; Prokop, T.; Neubauer, L.

    2017-01-01

    During years 2010 12 an automated, on-line and wireless outdoor measurement station of atmospheric radon, gamma dose rate and meteorological parameters was realised at the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in Prague. At the turn of the year 2013 an expansion of the existing station was completed. Under the project funded by the Czech Technological Agency a new updated station was established, additionally equipped with modules for measurement of atmospheric radon/thoron short-lived decay products, radon in water and soil and radon exhalation rate from soil. After the introduction of the station updated key detection parameters and benefits, its use for atmospheric modelling and monitoring is demonstrated. There are summarised results from the 3-year measurement period in the NRPI outdoor area in Prague and from simultaneous annual measurement performed by another similar station located near uranium mud fields in DIAMO, state enterprise, Straz pod Ralskem. Observed seasonal and diurnal variations of atmospheric radon concentrations and variability of the equilibrium factor, F, are illustrated and compared. (authors)

  15. On-line monitoring of glucose and/or lactate in a fermentation process using an expanded micro-bed flow injection analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, M P; Lali, A M; Mattiasson, B

    1999-01-01

    A novel flow injection biosensor system for monitoring fermentation processes has been developed using an expanded micro bed as the enzyme reactor. An expanded bed reactor is capable of handling a mobile phase containing suspended matter like cells and cell debris. Thus, while the analyte is free to interact with the adsorbent, the suspended particulate matter passes through unhindered. With the use of a scaled down expanded bed in the flow injection analysis (FIA) system, it was possible to analyse samples directly from a fermentor without the pretreatment otherwise required to extract the analyte or remove the suspended cells. This technique, therefore, provides a means to determine the true concentrations of the metabolites in a fermentor, with more ease than possible with other techniques. Glucose oxidase immobilised on STREAMLINE was used to measure glucose concentration in a suspension of dead yeast cells. There was no interference from the cell particles even at high cell densities such as 15 gm dry weight per litre. The assay time was about 6 min. Accuracy and reproducibility of the system was found to be good. In another scheme, lactate oxidase was covalently coupled to STREAMLINE for expanded bed operation. With the on-line expanded micro bed FIA it was possible to follow the fermentation with Lactobacillus casei.

  16. The Performance and Usability of a Factory-Calibrated Flash Glucose Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Timothy; Bode, Bruce W.; Christiansen, Mark P.; Klaff, Leslie J.; Alva, Shridhara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance and usability of the FreeStyle? Libre? Flash glucose monitoring system (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) for interstitial glucose results compared with capillary blood glucose results. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two study participants with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were enrolled by four U.S. clinical sites. A sensor was inserted on the back of each upper arm for up to 14 days. Three factory-only calibrated s...

  17. An optical sensor network for vegetation phenology monitoring and satellite data calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklundh, L.; Jin, H.; Schubert, P.

    2011-01-01

    -board Aqua and Terra satellite platforms. PAR fluxes are partitioned into reflected and absorbed components for the ground and canopy. The measurements demonstrate that the instrumentation provides detailed information about the vegetation phenology and variations in reflectance due to snow cover variations......We present a network of sites across Fennoscandia for optical sampling of vegetation properties relevant for phenology monitoring and satellite data calibration. The network currently consists of five sites, distributed along an N-S gradient through Sweden and Finland. Two sites are located...... and vegetation development. Valuable information about PAR absorption of ground and canopy is obtained that may be linked to vegetation productivity....

  18. On-line monitoring of the U(VI) concentration in 30 vol.% TBP/kerosene: an evaluation of real-time analysis in polyetheretherketone (PEEK) containers via Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Bai; Ding-Ming Li; Zhi-Yuan Chang; De-Jun Fan; Jin-Ping Liu; Hui Wang

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the practicability of Raman spectroscopy for on-line U(VI) concentration monitoring in 30 vol.% TBP/kerosene within polyetheretherketone containers, laboratory scale experiments were performed and several influencing factors for real-time determination were investigated. A method of internal standard was employed for the first time. Software developed for real-time concentration data display can give the U(VI) concentration autonomously within several seconds. The study confirmed Raman spectroscopy as a promising methodology for on-line U(VI) concentration monitoring in organic phase. (author)

  19. Monitoring and forecasting of radiation hazard from great solar energetic particle events by using on-line one-min neutron monitor and satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorman, L. I.

    2007-01-01

    The method of automatically determining the start of great solar energetic particle (SEP) events are described on the basis of cosmic ray (CR) one-min observations by neutron monitors in real-time scale. It is shown that the probabilities of false alarms and missed triggers are negligible. After the start of SEP event, it is automatically determined by the method of coupling functions the SEP energy spectrum and flux for each minute of observations. By solving the inverse problem during few first minutes of SEP event, diffusion coefficient in the interplanetary space, source function on the Sun, and time of ejection of SEP into solar wind are determined. For extending obtained results into small energy range we use also available from Internet the satellite one-min CR data. This make possible to give forecast of space-time variation of SEP for more than 2 days and estimate expected radiation dose for satellite and aircraft. With each new minute of observations, the quality of forecast increased, and after ∼30 min became near 100%. (authors)

  20. Air alpha monitoring device and system for the calibration of the track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danis, A; Oncescu, M.; Ciubotariu, M.

    2001-01-01

    The radon measurement plays a critical role: - in monitoring the human health and safety, due to radon destructive health effects. Sustained exposures of humans to high concentration of radon, in fact to high concentrations of its decay products, can produce lung cancer; - in a variety of geophysical, geochemical, hydrological and atmospheric investigations, such as exploring resources of uranium or hydrocarbons. The transport of radon within the earth, waters and atmosphere makes it a useful tracer in these purposes. in both cases, the reliable long-term measurements are required because usual short-term variations in concentration need to be averaged. These variations are caused by factors such as relative humidity, temperature, atmospheric pressure and their seasonal variations, moisture content in the air, or ventilation in the dwelling or working places. The integrating measurement methods meet these requirements. Among them, the alpha track method is one of the adequate and useful method and it is used by authors in radon measurements in dwelling and working places including mines and house cellars. The best etched track alpha detector for radon measurements proved to be the detector CR-39 due to: - its sensitivity to alpha particles emitted by radon decay products; - its stability against various environmental factors; - its high degree of optical clarity, was used in a proper device for alpha monitoring in air. Its calibration for radon measurements was performed in the proper calibration system. The general descriptions and specifications were given previously. Only some characteristics of these devices are given here. For air alpha monitoring device: i) equipped with filter, during alpha exposure, the alpha particles of radon are registered in the etched track detector mounted inside (ρ Rn - track density); ii) without filter, the alpha particles emitted by radon + its alpha decay products/their aerosols are registered in the detector (ρ tot - track

  1. Calibration and monitoring of a scintillator HCAL with SiPMs CALICE scintillator HCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaci-Timoce, Angela

    2009-01-01

    The operational experience with a highly-granular analogue hadronic calorimeter (AHCAL) consisting of 7608 individual scintillator tiles readout via Silicon-Photo-multipliers (SiPM) is presented. The calibration of each cell is based on minimum ionizing particle signals for which in general a muon beam is used. In addition, a correction for the non-linearity introduced by the finite number of pixels (1156) in the SiPM is applied. The aspects of temperature and voltage dependence of SiPM are addressed, and monitoring and calibration procedures are discussed. Such procedures are essential for the extrapolation of calibration factors over several days of data taking with the calorimeter. For this purpose a versatile UV-LED light distribution system was developed, capable of delivering light to all tiles with intensity from a few photo-electrons to the saturation of the SiPM. The procedures are tested using data collected with the AHCAL at the CERN SPS test beam.

  2. Monitoring angiogenesis using a human compatible calibration for broadband near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runze; Zhang, Qiong; Wu, Ying; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of many conditions, including cancer, stroke, vascular disease, diabetes, and high-altitude exposure. We have previously shown that one can study angiogenesis in animal models by using total hemoglobin (tHb) as a marker of cerebral blood volume (CBV), measured using broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (bNIRS). However, the method was not suitable for patients as global anoxia was used for the calibration. Here we determine if angiogenesis could be detected using a calibration method that could be applied to patients. CBV, as a marker of angiogenesis, is quantified in a rat cortex before and after hypoxia acclimation. Rats are acclimated at 370-mmHg pressure for three weeks, while rats in the control group are housed under the same conditions, but under normal pressure. CBV increased in each animal in the acclimation group. The mean CBV (%volume/volume) is 3.49%±0.43% (mean±SD) before acclimation for the experimental group, and 4.76%±0.29% after acclimation. The CBV for the control group is 3.28%±0.75%, and 3.09%±0.48% for the two measurements. This demonstrates that angiogenesis can be monitored noninvasively over time using a bNIRS system with a calibration method that is compatible with human use and less stressful for studies using animals.

  3. The Monitoring and Calibration Web Systems for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Data Quality Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivolella, A; Maidantchik, C; Ferreira, F

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is one of the ATLAS sub-detectors. The read-out is performed by about 10,000 PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMTs). The signal of each PMT is digitized by an electronic channel. The Monitoring and Calibration Web System (MCWS) supports the data quality analysis of the electronic channels. This application was developed to assess the detector status and verify its performance. It can provide to the user the list of TileCal known problematic channels, that is stored in the ATLAS condition database (COOL DB). The bad channels list guides the data quality validator in identifying new problematic channels and is used in data reconstruction and the system allows to update the channels list directly in the COOL database. MCWS can generate summary results, such as eta-phi plots and comparative tables of the masked channels percentage. Regularly, during the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) shutdown a maintenance of the detector equipments is performed. When a channel is repaired, its calibration constants stored in the COOL database have to be updated. Additionally MCWS system manages the update of these calibration constants values in the COOL database. The MCWS has been used by the Tile community since 2008, during the commissioning phase, and was upgraded to comply with ATLAS operation specifications. Among its future developments, it is foreseen an integration of MCWS with the TileCal control Web system (DCS) in order to identify high voltage problems automatically.

  4. Sensitivity and offset calibration for the beam position monitors at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Barr, D.; Decker, G.; Evans, K. Jr.; Kahana, E.

    1995-01-01

    The beam position monitors (BPMs) play a critically important role in commissioning and operation of accelerators. Accurate determination of the offsets relative to the magnetic axis and sensitivities of individual BPMs is thus needed. We will describe in this paper the schemes for calibrating all of the 360 BPMs for sensitivity and offset in the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring and the results. For the sensitivity calibration, a 2-dimensional map of the BPM response in the aluminum vacuum chamber is obtained theoretically, which is combined with the measured nonlinear response of the BPM electronics. A set of 2-dimensional polynomial coefficients is then obtained to approximate the result analytically. The offset calibration of the BPMs is done relative to the magnetic axis of the quadrupoles using the beam. This avoids the problem arising from various mechanical sources as well as the offset in the processing electronics. The measurement results for the resolution and long-term drift of the BPM electronics shows 0.06-μm/√Hz resolution and 2-μm/hr drift over a period of 1.5 hrs

  5. Source Water Management for Disinfection By-Product Control using New York City's Operations Support Tool and On-Line Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W. J.; Becker, W.; Schindler, S.

    2012-12-01

    simulation model (OASIS, HydroLogics, Inc.), reservoir water quality models, a near real-time monitoring network, and hydrologic forecasts to provide analytical support for both long-term planning and near-term operations. The OST helps managers and operators balance multiple objectives, including water supply reliability, water quality, and environmental and community release objectives. This paper will describe the results of initial testing to evaluate the potential to reduce DBP levels by managing source water withdrawals to minimize the transport of natural organic matter (NOM) precursors from upper reservoirs. Operating rules were developed that take advantage of selective withdrawal capabilities at some upstate reservoirs and the inherent flexibility of the overall water supply system, seeking to minimize DBPs within the larger framework of water supply, water quality, environmental, and regulatory objectives. The results demonstrated that there is substantial flexibility within the system to manage DBP levels, in some cases providing the potential for reductions of DBP precursors of nearly 10%. Additional research is underway that seeks to better understand the sources of natural organic matter in the NYC watershed to provide guidance for on-line monitoring to be used with the OST to support real-time operation support for DBP control.

  6. Comparison and calibration of numerical models from monitoring data of a reinforced concrete highway bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. M. de Andrade

    Full Text Available The last four decades were important for the Brazilian highway system. Financial investments were made so it could expand and many structural solutions for bridges and viaducts were developed. In parallel, there was a significant raise of pathologies in these structures, due to lack of maintenance procedures. Thus, this paper main purpose is to create a short-term monitoring plan in order to check the structural behavior of a curved highway concrete bridge in current use. A bridge was chosen as a case study. A hierarchy of six numerical models is shown, so it can validate the bridge's structural behaviour. The acquired data from the monitoring was compared with the finest models so a calibration could be made.

  7. Monitoring and measurement of radon activity in a new design of radon calibration chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidary, S.; Setayeshi, S.; Ghannadi-Maragheh, M.; Negarestani, A.

    2011-01-01

    A new radon calibration chamber has been designed, constructed and tested to set various desired environmental parameters. The chamber is cubic with two trapezoid sides with a total volume size of 0.498 m 3 . The three parameters, temperature, humidity and flow are controlled in the range of 20-45 deg. C (±2 deg. C), 10-70% (±2.5%) and 0.2-10 m 3 /min (±0.1 m 3 /min) respectively. The chamber is equipped with a controllable speed centrifugal fan to achieve a desirably uniform radon flow rate. Many parts of this system are controlled and monitored with a PLC (Programmable Logic Control) and HMI (Human Monitoring Interface) software (Citect Scada). Finally a radon detector (Alpha-Guard) registers the activity parameter.

  8. OLDES - an on-line dose evaluation system that can be integrated into the remote monitoring system of nuclear power stations for additional monitoring and prognostic assessment in case of major accidental activity release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, H. de; Brenk, H.D.; Kruschel, K.P.; Knaup, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Remote monitoring systems are an inherent part of the environmental surveillance installations of most commercial LWR power plants in the FRG. The systems are designed to cover routine and accident situations. They provide meteorological data, gross effluent dose rates, and dose measurements at approximately 25 locations in the vicinity of the plant in time steps of 10 minutes. Based on such a network, an attempt has been made to develop an on-line dose evaluation system (OLDES) as a tool to aid decision making processes in case of major accidental releases. On-line, here means that the software package directly includes the measurements at the monitoring stations in order to adjust the dose computations to the measurements in time steps of 10 minutes. In this way the system yields the best possible bases, both for actual diagnosis of radiation exposure, and for dose projections. The software package uses a Gaussian puff trajectory model to simulate atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides. It includes 'cloud- and ground-shine irradiation' and allows for changing weather conditions without exceeding the limits of real time calculation. Preliminary tests of the software package revealed reasonable semioperational performance. (orig.)

  9. Calibration of gyro G-sensitivity coefficients with FOG monitoring on precision centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiazhen; Yang, Yanqiang; Li, Baoguo; Liu, Ming

    2017-07-01

    The advantages of mechanical gyros, such as high precision, endurance and reliability, make them widely used as the core parts of inertial navigation systems (INS) utilized in the fields of aeronautics, astronautics and underground exploration. In a high-g environment, the accuracy of gyros is degraded. Therefore, the calibration and compensation of the gyro G-sensitivity coefficients is essential when the INS operates in a high-g environment. A precision centrifuge with a counter-rotating platform is the typical equipment for calibrating the gyro, as it can generate large centripetal acceleration and keep the angular rate close to zero; however, its performance is seriously restricted by the angular perturbation in the high-speed rotating process. To reduce the dependence on the precision of the centrifuge and counter-rotating platform, an effective calibration method for the gyro g-sensitivity coefficients under fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG) monitoring is proposed herein. The FOG can efficiently compensate spindle error and improve the anti-interference ability. Harmonic analysis is performed for data processing. Simulations show that the gyro G-sensitivity coefficients can be efficiently estimated to up to 99% of the true value and compensated using a lookup table or fitting method. Repeated tests indicate that the G-sensitivity coefficients can be correctly calibrated when the angular rate accuracy of the precision centrifuge is as low as 0.01%. Verification tests are performed to demonstrate that the attitude errors can be decreased from 0.36° to 0.08° in 200 s. The proposed measuring technology is generally applicable in engineering, as it can reduce the accuracy requirements for the centrifuge and the environment.

  10. Impact of retrospective calibration algorithms on hypoglycemia detection in newborn infants using continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, Matthew; Le Compte, Aaron; Harris, Deborah L; Weston, Philip J; Harding, Jane E; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2012-10-01

    Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and may cause serious brain injury. Diagnosis is by blood glucose (BG) measurements, often taken several hours apart. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) could improve hypoglycemia detection, while reducing the number of BG measurements. Calibration algorithms convert sensor signals into CGM output. Thus, these algorithms directly affect measures used to quantify hypoglycemia. This study was designed to quantify the effects of recalibration and filtering of CGM data on measures of hypoglycemia (BG neonates. CGM data from 50 infants were recalibrated using an algorithm that explicitly recognized the high-accuracy BG measurements available in this study. CGM data were analyzed as (1) original CGM output, (2) recalibrated CGM output, (3) recalibrated CGM output with postcalibration median filtering, and (4) recalibrated CGM output with precalibration median filtering. Hypoglycemia was classified by number of episodes, duration, severity, and hypoglycemic index. Recalibration increased the number of hypoglycemic events (from 161 to 193), hypoglycemia duration (from 2.2% to 2.6%), and hypoglycemic index (from 4.9 to 7.1 μmol/L). Median filtering postrecalibration reduced hypoglycemic events from 193 to 131, with little change in duration (from 2.6% to 2.5%) and hypoglycemic index (from 7.1 to 6.9 μmol/L). Median filtering prerecalibration resulted in 146 hypoglycemic events, a total duration of hypoglycemia of 2.6%, and a hypoglycemic index of 6.8 μmol/L. Hypoglycemia metrics, especially counting events, are heavily dependent on CGM calibration BG error, and the calibration algorithm. CGM devices tended to read high at lower levels, so when high accuracy calibration measurements are available it may be more appropriate to recalibrate the data.

  11. Comparison of Calibration Techniques for Low-Cost Air Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malings, C.; Ramachandran, S.; Tanzer, R.; Kumar, S. P. N.; Hauryliuk, A.; Zimmerman, N.; Presto, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Assessing the intra-city spatial distribution and temporal variability of air quality can be facilitated by a dense network of monitoring stations. However, the cost of implementing such a network can be prohibitive if high-quality but high-cost monitoring systems are used. To this end, the Real-time Affordable Multi-Pollutant (RAMP) sensor package has been developed at the Center for Atmospheric Particle Studies of Carnegie Mellon University, in collaboration with SenSevere LLC. This self-contained unit can measure up to five gases out of CO, SO2, NO, NO2, O3, VOCs, and CO2, along with temperature and relative humidity. Responses of individual gas sensors can vary greatly even when exposed to the same ambient conditions. Those of VOC sensors in particular were observed to vary by a factor-of-8, which suggests that each sensor requires its own calibration model. To this end, we apply and compare two different calibration methods to data collected by RAMP sensors collocated with a reference monitor station. The first method, random forest (RF) modeling, is a rule-based method which maps sensor responses to pollutant concentrations by implementing a trained sequence of decision rules. RF modeling has previously been used for other RAMP gas sensors by the group, and has produced precise calibrated measurements. However, RF models can only predict pollutant concentrations within the range observed in the training data collected during the collocation period. The second method, Gaussian process (GP) modeling, is a probabilistic Bayesian technique whereby broad prior estimates of pollutant concentrations are updated using sensor responses to generate more refined posterior predictions, as well as allowing predictions beyond the range of the training data. The accuracy and precision of these techniques are assessed and compared on VOC data collected during the summer of 2017 in Pittsburgh, PA. By combining pollutant data gathered by each RAMP sensor and applying

  12. Evaluation of the homogeneity of reference flat sources used in calibration of surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, I.A.; Xavier, M.; Siqueira, P.T.D.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the uniformity of the wide area reference sources of the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI-IPEN) used in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, according the recommendations of the ISO 8769 standard and the NRPB. In this work used six wide area reference sources of 150 cm 2 of 241 Am, 14 C, 36 Cl, 137 Cs, 90 Sr+ 90 Y and 99 Tc with reference dates between 1996 and 1997 and three sources of 100 cm 2 of 14 C, 137 Cs and 60 Co were used with reference dates 2007. Measurements were performed with a radiation monitor of the Thermo, model FH40GX with a pancake probe, model FHZ732GM. We also made several models on paper with the objective of define each measurement position and an aluminum plate with a square hole (6.25 cm 2 ) in its center, allowing the passage of the radiation only through the hole. Each wide area reference source was positioned in setup and measurements were performed in order to cover the entire surface of the source. The values of the uniformity obtained partially confirm previous data obtained in another study conducted by LCI-IPEN, showing that some wide area reference sources 150 cm 2 in disagree with ISO 8769. In the former work, just the source of 241 Am (7.3%) was within the range specified by the standard, now have sources of 241 Am (5.7%), 137 Cs (8.8%), 90 Sr+ 9 '0Y (8, 8%) and 99 Tc (9.2%) with values within the specified uniformity. The sources of 14 C (53.3%) and 36 Cl (16.6%) were outside the specified. The wide area reference sources of 100 cm 2 , show disagreement in values of uniformity of the sources 14 C (46.7%) and 60 Co (10.4%). The values of the uniformity of the wide area reference sources show that some fonts can not be used in calibrations, because not in accordance with the value of uniformity specified in ISO 8769:2010, this is a conditions to believe a laboratory according to ISO 17025, show the laboratory performs its services with a high quality. The

  13. Portable and fixed monitoring units for tank calibrations and monitoring of process liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landat, D.A.; Hunt, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    The development work stems from safeguards support activities carried out at the JRC Ispra, Italy to the inspectorate agencies. A range of measurement equipment covering the needs of the inspector have been designed, developed and tested in both the laboratory and in nuclear facilities. The instruments comprise four units: (1) a portable pressure measurement device, (2) a volume long term monitoring device, (3) an unattended volume measurement system and (4) a level measurement unit. Utilization of the equipment has proven to give independent measurement checks and confirmation of operator's instrumentation and declarations, ensuring continuity of knowledge. (J.P.N.)

  14. Testing of a prototype of calibration facility for noble gas monitoring using 41Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibathulham, Holnisar; Wurdiyanto, Gatot; Marsum, Pujadi

    2012-01-01

    A prototype of a calibration facility for noble gas monitoring using 41 Ar in the PTKMR-BATAN has been tested. The facility was designed in such a way that the standard source of gas can be reused. The radioactive 41 Ar source was obtained by thermal neutron reaction of 40 Ar(n, γ) 41 Ar using a thermal neutron flux of 4.8×10 13 neutrons per cm 2 per second in two minutes on the multipurpose G.A. Siwabessy Reactor (Batan, Serpong, Indonesia). Gamma spectrometry was used to measure the radioactivity and purity of 41 Ar. The spectrum of the 41 Ar observed yields an energy of 1294 keV because of the highest intensity (99.2%). The activity of 41 Ar was 2821 kBq and 4% of the expanded uncertainty. The time required for 41 Ar to reach homogeneity was 7 min, and the effectiveness of resuse was 53%. - Highlights: ► Testing of a calibration facility prototype for noble gas monitor using 41 Ar in PTKMR-BATAN. ► This facility was designed such that a standard radioactive gas source can be used repeatedly. ► Standardization of the 41 Ar is performed using gamma spectrometry. ► The time required for the 41 Ar gas to be distributed evenly throughout the cavity of the facility was 7 min. ► The effectiveness of repeated use was 53%.

  15. FPGA-based calibration and monitoring system for the HADES electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Alessandra [University of Turin (Italy); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: HADES-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) at GSI was designed to measure dileptons and strangeness in elementary and heavy-ion collisions. An upgrade of HADES with an Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) has started and will be ready for beam in 2017. The goal is to measure π{sup 0} and η meson yields together with the dielectron data in pion and proton-induced reactions as well as in heavy ion collisions. Moreover, photon measurement is important for Λ{sup 0} (1405) and Σ{sup 0} (1385) spectroscopy. It is essential to precisely calibrate all the lead-glass crystal modules individually in order to achieve the required ECAL performances. Continuous monitoring with a light pulser system is required. It is foreseen to use blue light from an LED source, driven by short signals from a flexible pulse generator and distributed with optical fibers to each module of the ECAL. Due to their great flexibility, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) have been chosen to implement the mentioned monitoring system. In this contribution an FPGA-based calibration system for commissioning as well as long term stability of the ECAL modules are presented.

  16. Development of a calibration system for airborne "1"3"1I monitoring devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, C.; Tang, F.; He, L.; Xu, Y.; Lu, X.

    2016-01-01

    A prototype calibration system for airborne "1"3"1I monitoring devices was developed at the Shanghai Institute of Measurement and Testing Technology (SIMT). This system consists of a gaseous "1"3"1I_2 generator, an airborne storage chamber, an airborne iodine sampler, and an HPGe spectrometer. With this system, "1"3"1I reference samples in the form of charcoal filters and charcoal cartridges, with activities ranging from 100 to 10,000 Bq, were produced with overall relative standard uncertainties of 2.8% (for filter samples) and 3.5% (for cartridge samples); the activities range could be extended according to need. - Highlights: • Original calibration system for airborne "1"3"1I monitoring devices was developed. • Two types of "1"3"1I reference samples was prepared. • The activity of the produced "1"3"1I reference sample could be easily controlled. • The influence of uneven distribution of "1"3"1I in cartridge samples was considered.

  17. The potential of dielectric analysis as an on-line cure monitoring technique in the manufacture of advanced fibre reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlhagger, A.T.

    2002-02-01

    Composite manufacturing processes such as RTM, are being developed in the aerospace industry in order to promote and reduce the cost of advanced fibre reinforced composites. The aerospace industry has identified the need for a cure monitoring system to be utilised in this production, to improve the efficiency and reliability of processing. The system must be able to determine through-thickness properties of the composite, on-line and without affecting the integrity of the finished component. Literature has shown that a number of techniques are available but these do not address all of the requirements of industry. The most important process parameters in RTM are the resin flow, point of minimum viscosity, gelation and subsequent completion of cure. These 'key cure parameters' are often difficult to control accurately in the manufacturing environment. Although dielectric analysis has been around for many years, literature identified an urgent requirement for research on the interpretation of dielectric sensor data relating to these main process parameters. A dielectric laboratory instrument, operated in the parallel plate sensor configuration was utilised to simulate a standard RTM cure cycle. The important transitions in the resin, namely minimum viscosity, gelation, vitrification and completion of cure, were identified. The parallel plate dielectric technique was applied to composites containing conductive and non-conductive reinforcement fibres. The appropriate dielectric signals and frequency were determined based on the sensor configuration, insulating layer and resin/fabric type. Correlations have been demonstrated between dielectric results and other established thermal (DSC and. DMA) and mechanical test techniques (tensile, flexural and interlaminar shear). Test methods were designed and investigated to provide information to compare with dielectric data. The parallel plate configuration was used to investigate the effect of composite thickness variation on

  18. How does higher frequency monitoring data affect the calibration of a process-based water quality model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Blake, Leah; Helliwell, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    Process-based catchment water quality models are increasingly used as tools to inform land management. However, for such models to be reliable they need to be well calibrated and shown to reproduce key catchment processes. Calibration can be challenging for process-based models, which tend to be complex and highly parameterised. Calibrating a large number of parameters generally requires a large amount of monitoring data, spanning all hydrochemical conditions. However, regulatory agencies and research organisations generally only sample at a fortnightly or monthly frequency, even in well-studied catchments, often missing peak flow events. The primary aim of this study was therefore to investigate how the quality and uncertainty of model simulations produced by a process-based, semi-distributed catchment model, INCA-P (the INtegrated CAtchment model of Phosphorus dynamics), were improved by calibration to higher frequency water chemistry data. Two model calibrations were carried out for a small rural Scottish catchment: one using 18 months of daily total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) concentration data, another using a fortnightly dataset derived from the daily data. To aid comparability, calibrations were carried out automatically using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo - DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (MCMC-DREAM) algorithm. Calibration to daily data resulted in improved simulation of peak TDP concentrations and improved model performance statistics. Parameter-related uncertainty in simulated TDP was large when fortnightly data was used for calibration, with a 95% credible interval of 26 μg/l. This uncertainty is comparable in size to the difference between Water Framework Directive (WFD) chemical status classes, and would therefore make it difficult to use this calibration to predict shifts in WFD status. The 95% credible interval reduced markedly with the higher frequency monitoring data, to 6 μg/l. The number of parameters that could be reliably auto-calibrated

  19. Educational intervention together with an on-line quality control program achieve recommended analytical goals for bedside blood glucose monitoring in a 1200-bed university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor; Rodriguez-Oliva, Manuel; Sánchez-Pozo, Cristina; Fernández-Gallardo, María Francisca; Goberna, Raimundo

    2005-01-01

    Portable meters for blood glucose concentrations are used at the patients bedside, as well as by patients for self-monitoring of blood glucose. Even though most devices have important technological advances that decrease operator error, the analytical goals proposed for the performance of glucose meters have been recently changed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) to reach nurses in a 1200-bed University Hospital to achieve recommended analytical goals, so that we could improve the quality of diabetes care. We used portable glucose meters connected on-line to the laboratory after an educational program for nurses with responsibilities in point-of-care testing. We evaluated the system by assessing total error of the glucometers using high- and low-level glucose control solutions. In a period of 6 months, we collected data from 5642 control samples obtained by 14 devices (Precision PCx) directly from the control program (QC manager). The average total error for the low-level glucose control (2.77 mmol/l) was 6.3% (range 5.5-7.6%), and even lower for the high-level glucose control (16.66 mmol/l), at 4.8% (range 4.1-6.5%). In conclusion, the performance of glucose meters used in our University Hospital with more than 1000 beds not only improved after the intervention, but the meters achieved the analytical goals of the suggested ADA/National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry criteria for total error (<7.9% in the range 2.77-16.66 mmol/l glucose) and optimal total error for high glucose concentrations of <5%, which will improve the quality of care of our patients.

  20. Development of an automated chip culture system with integrated on-line monitoring for maturation culture of retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee-Hae Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In cell manufacturing, the establishment of a fully automated, microfluidic, cell culture system that can be used for long-term cell cultures, as well as for process optimization is highly desirable. This study reports the development of a novel chip bioreactor system that can be used for automated long-term maturation cultures of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. The system consists of an incubation unit, a medium supply unit, a culture observation unit, and a control unit. In the incubation unit, the chip contains a closed culture vessel (2.5 mm diameter, working volume 9.1 μL, which can be set to 37 °C and 5% CO2, and uses a gas-permeable resin (poly- dimethylsiloxane as the vessel wall. RPE cells were seeded at 5.0 × 104 cells/cm2 and the medium was changed every day by introducing fresh medium using the medium supply unit. Culture solutions were stored either in the refrigerator or the freezer, and fresh medium was prepared before any medium change by warming to 37 °C and mixing. Automated culture was allowed to continue for 30 days to allow maturation of the RPE cells. This chip culture system allows for the long-term, bubble-free, culture of RPE cells, while also being able to observe cells in order to elucidate their cell morphology or show the presence of tight junctions. This culture system, along with an integrated on-line monitoring system, can therefore be applied to long-term cultures of RPE cells, and should contribute to process control in RPE cell manufacturing.

  1. Monitoring of the infrastructure and services used to handle and automatically produce Alignment and Calibration conditions at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Sipos, Roland; Franzoni, Giovanni; Di Guida, Salvatore; Pfeiffer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment makes a vast use of alignment and calibration measurements in several crucial workflows in the event selection at the High Level Trigger (HLT), in the processing of the recorded collisions and in the production of simulated events.A suite of services addresses the key requirements for the handling of the alignment and calibration conditions such as recording the status of the experiment and of the ongoing data taking, accepting conditions data updates provided by the detector experts, aggregating and navigating the calibration scenarios, and distributing conditions for consumption by the collaborators. Since a large fraction of such services is critical for the data taking and event filtering in the HLT, a comprehensive monitoring and alarm generating system had to be developed. Such monitoring system has been developed based on the open source industry standard for monitoring and alerting services (Nagios) to monitor the database back-end, the hosting nodes and k...

  2. Overview of individual monitoring and calibration of radiation monitors in the country; Panorama da monitoração individual e calibração de monitores de radiação no país

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alencar, M.A.V.; Patrão, K.C.S.; Ferreira, P.R.R.; Matta, L.E.S.C.; Peres, S.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da, E-mail: vallim@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Since 1995, the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN-RJ) has been responsible for the certification of instrument calibration laboratories and monitoring of occupationally exposed individuals (IOE), as well as monitoring and auditing the activities of eleven individual monitoring services (SMIE) and six instrument calibration laboratories (LCI) in the country. The work presents an overview of the number of IOE monitored and calibrated radiation monitors, from 2008 to 2016. The data were obtained through a census with the SMIE and LCI. The results show that in this period there was an increase of around 47% in the total number of IOE monitored and approximately 40% in the number of instrument calibrations. It was also observed the reduction of dosimetric film use and the beginning of OSLD monitoring.

  3. HYDROGRAV - Hydrological model calibration and terrestrial water storage monitoring from GRACE gravimetry and satellite altimetry, First results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O.B.; Krogh, P.E.; Michailovsky, C.

    2008-01-01

    Space-borne and ground-based time-lapse gravity observations provide new data for water balance monitoring and hydrological model calibration in the future. The HYDROGRAV project (www.hydrograv.dk) will explore the utility of time-lapse gravity surveys for hydrological model calibration and terre...... change from 2002 to 2008 along with in-situ gravity time-lapse observations and radar altimetry monitoring of surface water for the southern Africa river basins will be presented.......Space-borne and ground-based time-lapse gravity observations provide new data for water balance monitoring and hydrological model calibration in the future. The HYDROGRAV project (www.hydrograv.dk) will explore the utility of time-lapse gravity surveys for hydrological model calibration...... and terrestrial water storage monitoring. Merging remote sensing data from GRACE with other remote sensing data like satellite altimetry and also ground based observations are important to hydrological model calibration and water balance monitoring of large regions and can serve as either supplement or as vital...

  4. Calibration of a large volume argon-41 gas-effluent monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, William E.; Lovas, Thomas A.

    1976-01-01

    In September of 1975, a large volume Argon-41 sampler was calibrated using a series connected calibration chamber of known sensitivity and a constant flow of activated Argon gas. The calibration included analysis of the effects of flow rate through the large volume sampler and yielded a calibration constant of 2.34 x 10 -8 μc/cm 3 /CPM. (author)

  5. Two-Step Single Particle Mass Spectrometry for On-Line Monitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Bound to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; Bente, M.; Sklorz, M.

    2007-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are formed as trace products in combustion processes and are emitted to the atmosphere. Larger PAH have low vapour pressure and are predominantly bound to the ambient fine particulate matter (PM). Upon inhalation, PAH show both, chronic human toxicity (i.e. many PAH are potent carcinogens) as well as acute human toxicity (i.e. inflammatory effects due to oxi-dative stress) and are discussed to be relevant for the observed health effect of ambient PM. Therefore a better understanding of the occurrence, dynamics and particle size dependence of particle bound-PAH is of great interest. On-line aerosol mass spectrometry in principle is the method of choice to investigate the size resolved changes in the chemical speciation of particles as well the status of internal vs. external mixing of chemical constituents. However the present available aerosol mass spectrometers (ATOFMS and AMS) do not allow detection of PAH from ambient air PM. In order to allow a single particle based monitoring of PAH from ambient PM a new single particle laser ionisation mass spectrometer was built and applied. The system is based on ATOFMS principle but uses a two- step photo-ionization. A tracked and sized particle firstly is laser desorbed (LD) by a IR-laser pulse (CO2-laser, λ=10.2 μm) and subsequently the released PAH are selectively ionized by an intense UV-laser pulse (ArF excimer, λ=248 nm) in a resonance enhanced multiphoton ionisation process (REMPI). The PAH-ions are detected in a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS). A virtual impactor enrichment unit is used to increase the detection frequency of the ambient particles. With the current inlet system particles from about 400 nm to 10 μm are accessible. Single particle based temporal profiles of PAH containing particles ion (size distribution and PAH speciation) have been recorded in Oberschleissheim, Germany from ambient air. Furthermore profiles of relevant emission sources (e

  6. Effect of water chemistry on flow accelerated corrosion rate of carbon steel measured by on-line corrosion-monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, K.; Domae, M.; Yoneda, K.; Inada, F.

    2010-01-01

    Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel is one of the most important subjects in coolant systems of power plants. FAC is influenced by material, flow condition, temperature, and water chemistry. Iron and chromium solubility should be the most effective factor to determine the effect of water chemistry on the FAC. It is very important to evaluate the correlation between the solubility and the FAC rate of the carbon steel. In the present study, the effects of pH and Cr concentration of material on the FAC rate of carbon steel were evaluated by using high temperature loop equipment with on-line corrosion-monitoring system. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration at pH 7 was also evaluated. The experimental FAC rates were compared with the calculation result, which was obtained from a FAC model developed previously by the authors' group. The tube specimens made of STPT 480 carbon steel were used for the FAC tests. The Cr concentration of STPT 480 was specially adjusted to 0.001 and 0.08 %. The inner diameters of the tubes were 1.6, 2.4, and 3.2 mm. The solutions were fed to the specimens with the flow rate of 1.5 l/min. The temperature of the solution at the specimen was controlled at 140 o C. Test solutions were demineralized water or NH 3 solutions of pH 8.0, 9.2, and 10.0. The increase in pH more than 9 decreased the FAC rates of both 0.001 and 0.08 % Cr specimens at 140 o C. Increase of the Cr concentration of the material decreased the FAC rate in the solution of pH 7.0, 8.0, 9.2, and 10.0. The FAC model reproduced well dependence of the experimental FAC behavior on water chemistry. It was confirmed that effect of pH and Cr concentration of material on the FAC rate were closely related to the solubility and diffusion of iron and chromium. (author)

  7. Instrument surveillance and calibration verification through plant wide monitoring using autoassociative neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrest, D.J.; Hines, J.W.; Uhrig, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    The approach to instrument surveillance and calibration verification (ISCV) through plant wide monitoring proposed in this paper is an autoassociative neural network (AANN) which will utilize digitized data presently available in the Safety Parameter Display computer system from Florida Power Corporations Crystal River number 3 nuclear power plant. An autoassociative neural network is one in which the outputs are trained to emulate the inputs over an appropriate dynamic range. The relationships between the different variables are embedded in the weights by the training process. As a result, the output can be a correct version of an input pattern that has been distorted by noise, missing data, or non-linearities. Plant variables that have some degree of coherence with each other constitute the inputs to the network. Once the network has been trained with normal operational data it has been shown to successfully monitor the selected plant variables to detect sensor drift or failure by simply comparing the network inputs with the outputs. The AANN method of monitoring many variables not only indicates that there is a sensor failure, it clearly indicates the signal channel in which the signal error has occurred. (author). 11 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Instrument surveillance and calibration verification through plant wide monitoring using autoassociative neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrest, D J; Hines, J W; Uhrig, R E [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The approach to instrument surveillance and calibration verification (ISCV) through plant wide monitoring proposed in this paper is an autoassociative neural network (AANN) which will utilize digitized data presently available in the Safety Parameter Display computer system from Florida Power Corporations Crystal River number 3 nuclear power plant. An autoassociative neural network is one in which the outputs are trained to emulate the inputs over an appropriate dynamic range. The relationships between the different variables are embedded in the weights by the training process. As a result, the output can be a correct version of an input pattern that has been distorted by noise, missing data, or non-linearities. Plant variables that have some degree of coherence with each other constitute the inputs to the network. Once the network has been trained with normal operational data it has been shown to successfully monitor the selected plant variables to detect sensor drift or failure by simply comparing the network inputs with the outputs. The AANN method of monitoring many variables not only indicates that there is a sensor failure, it clearly indicates the signal channel in which the signal error has occurred. (author). 11 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs.

  9. The Monitoring and Calibration Web Systems for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Data Quality Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sivolella, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Ferreira, F

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), one of the ATLAS detectors, has four partitions, where each one contains 64 modules and each module has up to 48 PhotoMulTipliers (PMTs), totalizing more than 10,000 electronic channels. The Monitoring and Calibration Web System (MCWS) supports data quality analyses at channels level. This application was developed to assess the detector status and verify its performance, presenting the problematic known channels list from the official database that stores the detector conditions data (COOL). The bad channels list guides the data quality validator during analyses in order to identify new problematic channels. Through the system, it is also possible to update the channels list directly in the COOL database. MCWS generates results, as eta-phi plots and comparative tables with masked channels percentage, which concerns TileCal status, and it is accessible by all ATLAS collaboration. Annually, there is an intervention on LHC (Large Hadronic Collider) when the detector equipments (P...

  10. Review of regulatory requirements relevant to calibration of monitoring instruments in research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomaa, Hassan; Khedr, Ahmed; El-Din Talha, Kamal [Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Safety Engineering Dept.

    2015-05-15

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the regulatory requirements pertaining to calibration of monitoring instruments in research reactors. The regulatory statements concerning this subject in IAEA safety standards and the implementation of such regulations in twelve countries with different levels of nuclear programs are surveyed: Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, Egypt, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, United Kingdom of England and United States of America. In addition, the requirements of ISO/IEC17025 and NUPIC (Nuclear Utilities Procurement Issues Committee) are compared. Seven technical and administrate aspects are suggested as the comparison criteria and the explicit expression of the statements, the level of document (i.e.: act, requirement or guide) are the considered resources. The main differences and similarities between the different approaches are identified in order to provide an input for future development of the national regulations.

  11. Low-emittance tuning of storage rings using normal mode beam position monitor calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wolski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new technique for low-emittance tuning of electron and positron storage rings. This technique is based on calibration of the beam position monitors (BPMs using excitation of the normal modes of the beam motion, and has benefits over conventional methods. It is relatively fast and straightforward to apply, it can be as easily applied to a large ring as to a small ring, and the tuning for low emittance becomes completely insensitive to BPM gain and alignment errors that can be difficult to determine accurately. We discuss the theory behind the technique, present some simulation results illustrating that it is highly effective and robust for low-emittance tuning, and describe the results of some initial experimental tests on the CesrTA storage ring.

  12. Low-emittance tuning of storage rings using normal mode beam position monitor calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, A.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Shanks, J.

    2011-07-01

    We describe a new technique for low-emittance tuning of electron and positron storage rings. This technique is based on calibration of the beam position monitors (BPMs) using excitation of the normal modes of the beam motion, and has benefits over conventional methods. It is relatively fast and straightforward to apply, it can be as easily applied to a large ring as to a small ring, and the tuning for low emittance becomes completely insensitive to BPM gain and alignment errors that can be difficult to determine accurately. We discuss the theory behind the technique, present some simulation results illustrating that it is highly effective and robust for low-emittance tuning, and describe the results of some initial experimental tests on the CesrTA storage ring.

  13. Application of a Mechanistic Model as a Tool for On-line Monitoring of Pilot Scale Filamentous Fungal Fermentation Processes - The Importance of Evaporation Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Albæk, Mads Orla

    2017-01-01

    A mechanistic model-based soft sensor is developed and validated for 550L filamentous fungus fermentations operated at Novozymes A/S. The soft sensor is comprised of a parameter estimation block based on a stoichiometric balance, coupled to a dynamic process model. The on-line parameter estimation...... a historical dataset of eleven batches from the fermentation pilot plant (550L) at Novozymes A/S. The model is then implemented on-line in 550L fermentation processes operated at Novozymes A/S in order to validate the state estimator model on fourteen new batches utilizing a new strain. The product...... block models the changing rates of formation of product, biomass, and water, and the rate of consumption of feed using standard, available on-line measurements. This parameter estimation block, is coupled to a mechanistic process model, which solves the current states of biomass, product, substrate...

  14. Calibration of AN Acoustic Sensor (geophone) for Continuous Bedload Monitoring in Mountainous Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiris, A. G.; Papanicolaou, T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurement of bedload rates is a crucial component in the study of alluvial processes in mountainous streams. Stream restoration efforts, the validation of morphodynamic models and the calibration empirical transport formulae rely on accurate bedload transport measurements. Bedload measurements using traditional methods (e.g. samplers, traps) are time consuming, resource intensive and not always feasible, especially at higher flow conditions. These limitations could potentially be addressed by acoustic instruments, which may provide unattended, continuous bedload measurements even at higher flow conditions, provided that these instruments are properly calibrated. The objective of this study is to calibrate an acoustic instrument (geophone) for performing bedload measurements in a well-monitored laboratory environment at conditions corresponding to low flow regime in mountainous streams. The geophone was manufactured by ClampOn® and was attached to the bottom of a steel plate with dimensions 0.15x0.15 m. The geophone registers the energy of the acoustic signal produced by the movement of the bedload particles over the steel plate with time resolution of one second. The plate-sensor system was installed in an acrylic housing such that the steel plate top surface was at the same level with the surface of a flat porous bed consisting of unisize spheres with diameter 19.1 mm. Unisize spherical glass particles, 15.9 mm in diameter, were preplaced along a 2 m long section upstream of the sensor, and were entrained over the steel plate. In these experiments, the geophone records spanned the complete experiment duratio. Plan view video of the particle movement over the steel plate was recorded via an overhead camera, and was used to calculate the actual bedload rate over the steel plate. Synchronized analysis of this plan view video and the geophone time series revealed that the geophone detected 62% of the bedload particles passing over the steel plate, which triggered

  15. WE-D-9A-06: Open Source Monitor Calibration and Quality Control Software for Enterprise Display Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevins, N; Vanderhoek, M; Lang, S; Flynn, M [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Medical display monitor calibration and quality control present challenges to medical physicists. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate and share experiences with an open source package that allows for both initial monitor setup and routine performance evaluation. Methods: A software package, pacsDisplay, has been developed over the last decade to aid in the calibration of all monitors within the radiology group in our health system. The software is used to calibrate monitors to follow the DICOM Grayscale Standard Display Function (GSDF) via lookup tables installed on the workstation. Additional functionality facilitates periodic evaluations of both primary and secondary medical monitors to ensure satisfactory performance. This software is installed on all radiology workstations, and can also be run as a stand-alone tool from a USB disk. Recently, a database has been developed to store and centralize the monitor performance data and to provide long-term trends for compliance with internal standards and various accrediting organizations. Results: Implementation and utilization of pacsDisplay has resulted in improved monitor performance across the health system. Monitor testing is now performed at regular intervals and the software is being used across multiple imaging modalities. Monitor performance characteristics such as maximum and minimum luminance, ambient luminance and illuminance, color tracking, and GSDF conformity are loaded into a centralized database for system performance comparisons. Compliance reports for organizations such as MQSA, ACR, and TJC are generated automatically and stored in the same database. Conclusion: An open source software solution has simplified and improved the standardization of displays within our health system. This work serves as an example method for calibrating and testing monitors within an enterprise health system.

  16. WE-D-9A-06: Open Source Monitor Calibration and Quality Control Software for Enterprise Display Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevins, N; Vanderhoek, M; Lang, S; Flynn, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Medical display monitor calibration and quality control present challenges to medical physicists. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate and share experiences with an open source package that allows for both initial monitor setup and routine performance evaluation. Methods: A software package, pacsDisplay, has been developed over the last decade to aid in the calibration of all monitors within the radiology group in our health system. The software is used to calibrate monitors to follow the DICOM Grayscale Standard Display Function (GSDF) via lookup tables installed on the workstation. Additional functionality facilitates periodic evaluations of both primary and secondary medical monitors to ensure satisfactory performance. This software is installed on all radiology workstations, and can also be run as a stand-alone tool from a USB disk. Recently, a database has been developed to store and centralize the monitor performance data and to provide long-term trends for compliance with internal standards and various accrediting organizations. Results: Implementation and utilization of pacsDisplay has resulted in improved monitor performance across the health system. Monitor testing is now performed at regular intervals and the software is being used across multiple imaging modalities. Monitor performance characteristics such as maximum and minimum luminance, ambient luminance and illuminance, color tracking, and GSDF conformity are loaded into a centralized database for system performance comparisons. Compliance reports for organizations such as MQSA, ACR, and TJC are generated automatically and stored in the same database. Conclusion: An open source software solution has simplified and improved the standardization of displays within our health system. This work serves as an example method for calibrating and testing monitors within an enterprise health system

  17. On line portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to examine the various imaging devices that have been developed for portal imaging, describe some of the image registration methods that have been developed to determine geometric errors quantitatively, and discuss how portal imaging has been incorporated into clinical practice. Discussion: Verification of patient positioning has always been an important aspect of external beam radiation therapy. Over the past decade many portal imaging devices have been developed by individual investigators and most accelerator manufacturers now offer 'on-line' portal imaging systems. The commercial devices include T.V. camera-based systems, liquid ionisation chamber systems, and shortly, flat panel systems. The characteristics of these imaging systems will be discussed. In addition, other approaches such as the use of kilovoltage x-ray sources, video monitoring, and ultrasound have been proposed for improving patient positioning. Some of the advantages of these approaches will be discussed. One of the major advantages of on-line portal imaging is that many quantitative techniques have been developed to detect errors in patient positioning. The general approach is to register anatomic structures on a portal image with the same structures on a digitized simulator film. Once the anatomic structures have been registered, any discrepancies in the position of the patient can be identified. One problem is finding a common frame of reference for the simulator and portal images, since the location of the radiation field within the pixel matrix may differ for the two images. As a result, a common frame of reference has to be established before the anatomic structures in the images can be registered - generally by registering radiation field edges identified in the simulator and portal images. In addition, distortions in patient geometry or rotations out of the image plane can confound the image registration techniques. Despite the

  18. Cross-Calibration of the Oceansat-2 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) with Terra and Aqua MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, Amit; Brinkmann, Jake; Kumar, A. Senthil; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    The Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) sensor on-board the Oceansat-2 spacecraft has been operational since its launch in September, 2009. The Oceansat 2 OCM primary design goal is to provide continuity to Oceansat-1 OCM to obtain information regarding various ocean-colour variables. OCM acquires Earth scene measurements in eight multi-spectral bands in the range from 402 to 885 nm. The MODIS sensor on the Terra and Aqua spacecraft has been successfully operating for over a decade collecting measurements of the earth's land, ocean surface and atmosphere. The MODIS spectral bands, designed for land and ocean applications, cover the spectral range from 412 to 869 nm. This study focuses on comparing the radiometric calibration stability of OCM using near-simultaneous TOA measurements with Terra and Aqua MODIS acquired over the Libya 4 target. Same-day scene-pairs from all three sensors (OCM, Terra and Aqua MODIS) between August, 2014 and September, 2015 were chosen for this analysis. On a given day, the OCM overpass is approximately an hour after the Terra overpass and an hour before the Aqua overpass. Due to the orbital differences between Terra and Aqua, MODIS images the Libya 4 site at different scan-angles on a given day. Some of the high-gain ocean bands for MODIS tend to saturate while viewing the bright Libya 4 target, but bands 8-10 (412 nm - 486 nm) provide an unsaturated response and are used for comparison with the spectrally similar OCM bands. All the standard corrections such as bidirectional reflectance factor (BRDF), relative spectral response mismatch, and impact for atmospheric water-vapor are applied to obtain the reflectance differences between OCM and the two MODIS instruments. Furthermore, OCM is used as a transfer radiometer to obtain the calibration differences between Terra and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands.

  19. X-ray facility for the ground calibration of the X-ray monitor JEM-X on board INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loffredo, G.; Pelliciari, C.; Frontera, F.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the X-ray facility developed for the calibration of the X-ray monitor JEM-X on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The apparatus allowed the scanning of the detector geometric area with a pencil beam of desired energy over the major part of the passband of the instrument. The monochromatic...

  20. Conversion of an Alpha CAM Monitor of Victoreen calibrated of factory for plutonium in a measurement monitor of radon in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno y Moreno, A.

    2004-01-01

    It is presented in this work the conversion of a monitor ALPHA CAM of the monitor Victoreen gauged of it manufactures for plutonium in a monitor for radon mensuration in the atmosphere. Those units in that the radon measures are expressed are: peak curies/unit of volume of air to sampling. This way one has to gauge and to supplement the software and the parts that the old one monitor for plutonium. It requires. This task implies: a) To calibrate and to determine the efficiency of the detector of accustomed to state of 1700 mm 2 for alpha particles coming from the radioactive series of the radon. b) to connect in series and to calibrate a flow measurer of air in it lines with the detector. Measures are presented of the ambient air and other places of the the historical area of the city of Puebla obtained with the team Converted ALPHA-CAM. (Author)