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Sample records for on-demand routing protocol

  1. Comparison of on Demand Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhushan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A routing protocol is used to facilitate communication in ad hoc network. The primary goal of such a routing protocol is to provide an efficient and reliable path between a pair of nodes. The routing protocols for ad hoc network can be categorized into three categories: table driven, on demand and hybrid routing. The table driven and hybrid routing strategies require periodic exchange of hello messages between nodes of the ad hoc network and thus have high processing and bandwidth requirements. On the other hand on demand routing strategy creates routes when required and hence is very much suitable for ad hoc network. This paper therefore examines the performance of three on demand routing protocols at application layer using QualNet-5.01 simulator.

  2. Performance Evaluation of On Demand Routing Protocols AODV and Modified AODV (R-AODV) in MANETS

    OpenAIRE

    Humaira Nishat; Vamsi Krishna K; Dr.D.Srinivasa Rao; Shakeel Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, there is no centralized infrastructure to monitor or allocate the resources used by the mobile nodes. The absence of any central coordinator makes the routing a complex onecompared to cellular networks. The Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing algorithm is a routing protocol designed for ad hoc mobile devices. AODV uses an on demand approach for findingroutes. AODV and most of the on demand ad hoc routing protocols use single route reply along the reverse...

  3. A Multicast Protocol Utilizing On-demand Routing Strategy for MPRN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a multicast protocol utilizing ondemand routing strategy for mobile packet radio network. It does not maintain permanent route tables with full topological views. Instead, multicast senders apply on-demand procedures to dynamically discover routes and build forwarding group in this protocol. The data packets are propagated by each forwarding group member via scoped flooding, so the protocol can reduce network bandwidth overhead and avoid the propagation of potentially large routing updates throughout the network.

  4. Evaluation of Ad Hoc on Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol in HetMAN Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Zahian Ismail; Rosilah Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), a type of network with special characteristics, needs a special mechanism to bear with its ad hoc behavior. Approach: The important issue in MANET is routing protocol. Routing protocol is a standard used to determine the route path taken during the transmission of data. Results: In this study we focused on the Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol for MANET. Simulation experiments were carried out using the OMNeT++ network s...

  5. The LLN On-demand Ad hoc Distance-vector Routing Protocol - Next Generation (LOADng)

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Thomas Heide; Colin De Verdière, Axel

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the LLN Ad hoc On-Demand (LOAD) distance vector routing protocol - Next Generation, a reactive routing protocol intended for use in Low power Lossy Networks (LLN). The protocol is derived from AODV and extended for use in LLNs.; Ce document décrit le protocole de routage "distance vector" LOAD - Next Generation (LLN Ad hoc On-Demand). Il s'agit d'un protocole réactif qui s'adresse aux réseaux á faible puissance et fort taux de perte (Low power and Lossy Networks, LLNs)...

  6. Performance Evaluation of On Demand Routing Protocols AODV and Modified AODV (R-AODV in MANETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humaira Nishat

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, there is no centralized infrastructure to monitor or allocate the resources used by the mobile nodes. The absence of any central coordinator makes the routing a complex onecompared to cellular networks. The Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV routing algorithm is a routing protocol designed for ad hoc mobile devices. AODV uses an on demand approach for findingroutes. AODV and most of the on demand ad hoc routing protocols use single route reply along the reverse path. Due to rapid changes of topology the route reply may not arrive to the source noderesulting in sending several route request messages and degrading the performance of the routing protocol. The extended AODV called Reverse Ad Hoc On Demand Vector (R-AODV protocol uses a reverse route discovery mechanism and performs well when link breakage is frequent. In this paper we compare the QoS parameters such as Throughput, Delay and Packet Delivery ratio of both traditional AODV and R-AODV using TCP New Reno as the traffic source. Simulation results show that R-AODV performs well when link breakage is frequent.

  7. An Authenticated On-Demand Routing Protocol with Key Exchange for Secure MANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngho; Rhee, Kyung-Hyune

    In the meantime, most secure ad hoc routing protocols based on cryptography just have assumed that pair-wise secret keys or public keys were distributed among nodes before running a routing protocol. In this paper, we raise a question about key management related to existing secure routing protocols, and then we propose an authenticated on-demand ad hoc routing protocol with key exchange by applying the ID-based keyed authenticator. In particular, we focus on providing an authentication mechanism to Dynamic Source Routing protocol combined with Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol, and then we demonstrate simulated performance evaluations. The main contribution of our work is to provide a concurrent establishment of a route and a session key in a secure manner between source and destination nodes in ad hoc networks.

  8. Performance Analysis of On-Demand Routing Protocols in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafatur RAHMAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs have recently gained a lot of popularity due to their rapid deployment and instant communication capabilities. WMNs are dynamically self-organizing, self-configuring and self-healing with the nodes in the network automatically establishing an adiej hoc network and preserving the mesh connectivity. Designing a routing protocol for WMNs requires several aspects to consider, such as wireless networks, fixed applications, mobile applications, scalability, better performance metrics, efficient routing within infrastructure, load balancing, throughput enhancement, interference, robustness etc. To support communication, various routing protocols are designed for various networks (e.g. ad hoc, sensor, wired etc.. However, all these protocols are not suitable for WMNs, because of the architectural differences among the networks. In this paper, a detailed simulation based performance study and analysis is performed on the reactive routing protocols to verify the suitability of these protocols over such kind of networks. Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR and Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO routing protocol are considered as the representative of reactive routing protocols. The performance differentials are investigated using varying traffic load and number of source. Based on the simulation results, how the performance of each protocol can be improved is also recommended.

  9. Effective Performance Evaluation of On-Demand Routing Protocol for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Sethi, Sangita Pal, Ashima Rout

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To solveSpectrum decision and route selectionproblemwhich have vital role in cognitive radio adhoc network (CRAHN,many researchersdeveloped different methodology how efficientlyselect the proper route between source anddestination. In this paperit has beenanalysed theefficiency and routing load ofon-demand routingprotocolbased onad hoc on-demand distance vector(AODV routing protocolfor CRAHN. It observedthat the overall performanceof routing protocol inCRAHNis better at less numbers of secondary users(SUs presents in the Cognitive radio ad hocnetwork.

  10. Performance Evaluation of Stable Weight-Based on Demand Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

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    Oon C. Hsi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A MANET is an autonomous collection of mobile users that communicate over relatively bandwidth constrained wireless links. Since the nodes are mobile, the network topology may change rapidly and unpredictably over time. Approach: A Stable Weight-based On demand Routing Protocol (SWORP that uses the weight-based route strategy to select a stable route was created by Wang. But SWORP only evaluated in a limited setting of simulation, more simulation parameter have to test with SWORP to evaluate how far this protocol can go on. In this project, SWORP was implemented in simulation environment with two other routing protocols, AODV and DSR. Results: These three protocols were implemented in Network Simulator 2 (NS2 and the performance was compare with performance metrics, end-to-end delay, number of packet drop and packet delivery ratio. Conclusion: As expected, SWORP had outperformed AODV and DSR in the overall routing performance.

  11. Implementation of an On-Demand Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yang; Wu, Jian; Havinga, P.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present our experiences in implementing and validating the on-demand EYES Source Routing protocol (ESR) in a real wireless sensor network (WSN) environment. ESR has a fast recovery mechanism relying on MAC layer feedback to overcome frequent network topology changes resulting from node mobility a

  12. Implementation of an On-Demand Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Wu Jian, W.J.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present our experiences in implementing and validating the on-demand EYES Source Routing protocol (ESR) in a real wireless sensor network (WSN) environment. ESR has a fast recovery mechanism relying on MAC layer feedback to overcome frequent network topology changes resulting from node mobility

  13. On the effects of fading and mobility in on-demand routing protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nassef

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most overlooked factors in evaluating performance of ad hoc routing protocols is the variation in received signal strength known as fading. Many types of routing protocols have been proposed based on simplified assumptions and unrealistic propagation models that neglect the effect of fading. The choice of propagation models have a great impact on performance, so realistic models are necessary to consider the effect of fading as far as an accurate analysis of performance of the routing protocols is concerned. In this paper, comparative analysis of two on demand ad hoc routing protocols is performed in order to study the impact of mobility and fading on performance. The non-fading models such as free space and two ray ground are simulated for comparison with fading models such as Shadowing, Ricean, and Rayleigh fading. The simulation results reveal that the fading models have a significantly degraded network performance with respect to two mobility scenarios.

  14. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV. PMID:27258013

  15. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Al-Nahari

    Full Text Available Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV, which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.

  16. Receiver-Based Ad Hoc On Demand Multipath Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nahari, Abdulaziz; Mohamad, Mohd Murtadha

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.

  17. On-demand multicast routing protocol based on node classification in MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xia; SUN Li-min; WANG Jian-xin; LUO Yu-hong; CHEN Jian-er

    2006-01-01

    An improved on-demand multicast routing protocol(ODMRP), node classification on-demand multicast routing protocol(NC-ODMRP), which is based on node classification in mobile ad hoc networks was proposed. NCODMRP classifies nodes into such three categories as ordinary node, forwarding group(FG) node, neighbor node of FG node according to their history forwarding information. The categories are distinguished with different weights by a weight table in the nodes. NC-ODMRP chooses the node with the highest weight as an FG node during the setup of forwarding group, which reduces a lot of redundant FG nodes by sharing more FG nodes between different sender and receiver pairs. The simulation results show that NC-ODMRP can reduce more than 20% FG number of ODMRP, thus enhances nearly 14% data forwarding efficiency and 12% energy consumption efficiency when the number of multicast senders is more than 5.

  18. A Comprehensive Performance Comparison of On-Demand Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jahangir; Hayder, Syed Irfan

    Mobile ad hoc network is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves on a fly. In this paper we focus on the performance of the on-demand routing protocols such as DSR and AODV in ad-hoc networks. We have observed the performance change of each protocol through simulation with varying the data in intermediate nodes and to compare data throughput in each mobile modes of each protocol to analyze the packet fraction for application data. The objective of this work is to evaluate two routing protocols such as On-demand behavior, namely, Ad hoc Demand Distance vector (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), for wireless ad hoc networks based on performance of intermediate nodes for the delivery of data form source to destination and vice versa in order to compare the efficiency of throughput in the neighbors nodes. To overcome we have proposed OPNET simulator for performance comparison of hop to hop delivery of data packet in autonomous system.

  19. A time-slotted on-demand routing protocol for mobile ad hoc unmanned vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsmann, J. Hope; Hiromoto, Robert E.; Svoboda, John

    2007-04-01

    Successful deployment of Unmanned Vehicle Systems (UVS) in military operations has increased their popularity and utility. The ability to sustain reliable mobile ad hoc formations dramatically enhances the usefulness and performance of UVS. Formation movement increases the amount of ground coverage in less time, decreases fuel consumption of the individual nodes, and provides an avenue for mission expansion through cooperative maneuvers such as refueling. In this paper, we study the wireless communication demands that arise from formation and maintenance of UVS within the context of a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). A MANET in formation is typically characterized by tradeoffs between network congestion and the ability to maintain useable communication bandwidth. Maintenance of UVS formations requires each node in the network to be peer-aware, which places a heavy demand on inner node communication. In order to mitigate the inner node network congestion, we introduce a time-slotted communication protocol. The protocol assigns time-slots and allows the designated nodes to communicate directly with other peer-nodes. This approach has been introduced within the context of the Time-Slotted Aloha protocol for station-to-station communication. The approach taken here is to embed the time-slotted reservation protocol into a standard on-demand routing protocol to also address the need to reactively and proactively respond to formation maintenance. The time-slotted on-demand routing protocol is shown to eliminate collisions due to route determination and, therefore, enhance quality of service as well as ensure necessary support for formation movement. A worst-case scenario is described and simulations performed to comparatively demonstrate the advantages of the new protocol.

  20. A High Throughput On-Demand Routing Protocol for Multirate Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mustafizur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

    Routing in wireless ad hoc networks is a challenging issue because it dynamically controls the network topology and determines the network performance. Most of the available protocols are based on single-rate radio networks and they use hop-count as the routing metric. There have been some efforts for multirate radios as well that use transmission-time of a packet as the routing metric. However, neither the hop-count nor the transmission-time may be a sufficient criterion for discovering a high-throughput path in a multirate wireless ad hoc network. Hop-count based routing metrics usually select a low-rate bound path whereas the transmission-time based metrics may select a path with a comparatively large number of hops. The trade-off between transmission time and effective transmission range of a data rate can be another key criterion for finding a high-throughput path in such environments. In this paper, we introduce a novel routing metric based on the efficiency of a data rate that balances the required time and covering distance by a transmission and results in increased throughput. Using the new metric, we propose an on-demand routing protocol for multirate wireless environment, dubbed MR-AODV, to discover high-throughput paths in the network. A key feature of MR-AODV is that it controls the data rate in transmitting both the data and control packets. Rate control during the route discovery phase minimizes the route request (RREQ) avalanche. We use simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed MR-AODV protocol and results reveal significant improvements in end-to-end throughput and minimization of routing overhead.

  1. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ON-DEMAND ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR VEHICULAR AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shastri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs are a peculiar subclass of mobile ad hoc networks that raise anumber of technical challenges, especially from the point of view of their mobility models. Currently, thefield of VANETs has gained an important part of the interest of researchers and become very popular.More specifically, VANETs can operate without fixed infrastructure and can survive rapid changes in thenetwork topology. The main method for evaluating the performance of routing protocols for VANETs byNetwork Simulator-2.34. This paper is subjected to the on-demand routing protocols with identical loadsand evaluates their relative performance with respect to the two performance context: average End-to-End delay and packet delivery ratio. We investigated various simulation scenarios with varying pausetimes, connections and no. of nodes particularly for AODV and DSR. We will also discuss briefly aboutthe feasibility of VANETs in respect of Indian automotive networks.

  2. An Energy-Aware On-Demand Routing Protocol for Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Veerayya, Mallapur

    2008-01-01

    An ad-hoc wireless network is a collection of nodes that come together to dynamically create a network, with no fixed infrastructure or centralized administration. An ad-hoc network is characterized by energy constrained nodes, bandwidth constrained links and dynamic topology. With the growing use of wireless networks (including ad-hoc networks) for real-time applications, such as voice, video, and real-time data, the need for Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees in terms of delay, bandwidth, and packet loss is becoming increasingly important. Providing QoS in ad-hoc networks is a challenging task because of dynamic nature of network topology and imprecise state information. Hence, it is important to have a dynamic routing protocol with fast re-routing capability, which also provides stable route during the life-time of the flows. In this thesis, we have proposed a novel, energy aware, stable routing protocol named, Stability-based QoS-capable Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (SQ-AODV), which is an enhancement...

  3. Enhancing On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocols using Mobility Prediction in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Makhlouf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a self-organizing wireless communication network in which mobile devices are based on no infrastructure like base stations or access points. Minimal configuration and quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable for emergency situations like disaster recovery or military conflict. Since node mobility may cause links to be broken frequently, a very important issue for routing in MANETs is how to set reliable paths which can last as long as possible. To solve this problem, non-random behaviors for the mobility patterns that mobile users exhibit are exploited. This paper introduces a scheme to improve On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP performances by using mobility prediction. 

  4. Experimental evaluation of an on-demand multipath routing protocol for video transmission in mobile ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANIYAMA Kenta; MORII Takeshi; KOIZUMI Shinya; NOGUCHI Kazuhiro; KOTANI Yukihiro; KATTO Jiro

    2006-01-01

    We propose an on-demand multipath routing algorithm in a mobile ad hoc network for video transmission and evaluate its real world performance in video streaming application. There have been a number of multipath routing protocols extended from AODV which is a well-known single path routing protocol. Multipath routing protocols indicate good performance in the reduction of route discovery latency and unnecessary routing packets in simulations. We show that the route establishment using source route lists provided by us (Hu and Johnson, 2002) can reduce the route discovery latency, select stable routes automatically, and work well for live video streaming without limitation of the hop count based approaches. We evaluate this proposed method compared with the original AODV by using eight laptop PCs and demonstrate live streaming experiments.

  5. An Analysis on Endaira:A Provably Secure On-Demand Source Routing Protocol

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    A.F.A. Abidin,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Routing is one of the most basic networking functions inmobile ad hoc networks. Secure routing protocols for mobile ad hocnetworks provide the necessary functionality for proper networkoperation. Hence, an adversary can easily paralyze the operation ofthe network by attacking the routing protocol. This has beenrealized by many researchers, and several “secure” routingprotocols have been proposed for ad hoc networks. There are somesecure routing protocols that have been proposed to reduce the riskof attacking the routing protocol by Denial of Service, hackers andso on. In this research, we will explore and discuss a new ondemandsource routing protocol, called ENDAIRA, and wedemonstrate the usage of our framework by proving that it is mostsecure routing protocol. We assess the simulation study to compareand prove the strength of ENDAIRA model among the other securerouting protocol.

  6. Quick Recovery from Link Failures using Enhanced On-demand Multicast Routing Protocol

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    S. Muthumari Lakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to reduce the number of link failures and provide a quick recovery mechanism in MANETs. Multicasting is one of the greatest issues among MANETs due to the seamless variations in topology and link dynamics. Due to the wireless nature of the network, the nodes are under the compulsion to perform communication at adverse situations for any emergency or defense operations. The On Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP is one of the solutions proposed to avoid the multicasting problem in Wireless Mobile Ad hoc Network. In order to avoid excessive flooding of control messages in the network, Enhanced ODMRP was proposed that introduced short time frames to wait until the refresh messages are flooded. In this study, we propose a quick recovery mechanism that along with the EODMRP helps in the quick recovery from route failures and increases performance in the network. An analysis of the EODMRP protocol for multicasting in MANETs is presented along with the proposed quick recovery mechanism using simulations in the network simulator.

  7. Location and Mobility Optimized On-demand Geographical Multipath Routing Protocol for MANET

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    M. Kokilamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of science and technology had made mobile ad hoc network an important tool to access network of next generation. Recently, numerous multipath routing protocols for mobile ad hoc network are reported in literature. Each routing methods works based on their salient feature, but failed to control congestion, energy efficiency, overhead packets, signal stability during data transmission which leads to edge effect, signal decay and bottleneck situation of the bandwidth consumption. In this paper a novel approach havely Geographical Distance based Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (GD-AOMDV, which selects the path based on transmission distance value to limit and control the congestion and control overheads has been proposed. The salient feature of the proposed model is that it establishes a relationship between path distance and MANET design parameters including transmission range, consumption of energy and bandwidth. The accuracy of the proposed scheme is analyzed and validated with the experimental results in respect to various flow using NS2 simulations.

  8. LINK STABILITY WITH ENERGY AWARE AD HOC ON DEMAND MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

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    Senthil Murugan Tamilarasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Network is one of the wireless network in which mobile nodes are communicate with each other and have no infrastructure because no access point. The MANET protocols can be classified as proactive and reactive routing protocol. The proactive routing protocols, all nodes which participated in network have routing table. This table updated periodically and is used to find the path between source and destination. The reactive routing protocol, nodes are initiate route discovery procedure when on-demand routes. In order to find the better route in MANET, many routing protocols are designed in the recent years. But those protocols are not concentrating about communication links and battery energy. Communication links between nodes and energy of nodes are very important factor for improving quality of routing protocols. This study presents innovative Link Stability with Energy Aware (LSEA multipath routing protocol. The key idea of the protocol is find the link quality, maximum remaining energy and lower delay. Reflections of these factors are increasing the qualities like packet delivery ratio, throughputs and reduce end-to-end delay. The LSEAMRP was simulated on NS-2 and evaluation results also shown.

  9. Enhancement in Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing Protocol Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cui-rong; YANG Xiao-zong; GAO Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Ad-hoc networking has mainly been associated with military battlefield networks. Security has received considerably less attention and the issue needs to be addressed before any successful applications will appear. Due to the insecure nature of the wireless link and their dynamically changing topology, wireless ad-hoc networks require a careful and security-oriented approach for designing routing protocols.In this paper, an AODV-based secure routing protocolENAODV is presented. A speed-optimized digital signature algorithm is integrated into the routing protocol. The protocol algorithm is implemented with NS-2. The security of the protocol is analyzed. The simulating results show that the performances of ENAODV protocol, such as average node energy consumption, packet delay and packet delivery is nearly the same as standard AODV protocol.

  10. The research of a new adaptive on-demand routing protocol in WSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongjie; Cui, Gang; Huang, Junheng; Zhang, Zhaoxing

    2013-03-01

    As an important part of the Internet of Things, WSN also has routing strategies which plays a critical role as well as it does in Ad hoc. After the introduction of some distinct traits of WSN, a detailed analysis is performed for a typical ondemand routing protocol in Ad hoc AODV, which then is transplanted into WSN. Furthermore, a transition method of adaptive clustering routing is proposed, based on which, a new adaptive hierarchical routing transition protocol (BCRP) is put forward. Finally, simulations and comparisons of BCRP are performed which lead to a conclusion that BCRP has been greatly improved concerning adaptability and extensibility.

  11. A Time-Slotted On-Demand Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Unmanned Vehicle Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hope Forsmann; Robert Hiromoto; John Svoboda

    2007-04-01

    The popularity of UAVs has increased dramatically because of their successful deployment in military operations, their ability to preserve human life, and the continual improvements in wireless communication that serves to increase their capabilities. We believe the usefulness of UAVs would be dramatically increased if formation flight were added to the list of capabilities. Currently, sustained formation flight with a cluster of UAVs has only been achieved with two nodes by the Multi-UAV Testbed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (Park, 2004) Formation flight is a complex operation requiring the ability to adjust the flight patterns on the fly and correct for wind gusts, terrain, and differences in node equipment. All of which increases the amount of inner node communication. Since one of the problems with MANET communication is network congestion, we believe a first step towards formation flight can be made through improved inner node communication. We have investigated current communication routing protocols and developed an altered hybrid routing protocol in order to provide communication with less network congestion.

  12. MQARR-AODV: A NOVEL MULTIPATH QOS AWARE RELIABLE REVERSE ON-DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

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    K.G. Santhiya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Network is an infra structure less wireless ad-hoc network that does not require any basic central control. The topology of the network changes drastically due to very fast mobility of nodes. So an adaptive routing protocol is needed for routing in MANET. AODV (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing is the effective and prominent on-demand Ad-hoc routing protocols. During route establishment phase in traditional AODV, only one route reply message will be sent in the reverse path to establish routing path. The high mobility of nodes may affect the reply messages which lead to the retransmission of route request message by the sender which in turn leads to higher communication delay, power consumption and the reduction in the ratio of packets delivered. Sending multiple route reply messages and establishing multiple paths in a single path discovery will reduce the routing overhead involved in maintaining the connection between source and destination nodes. Multipath routing can render high scalability, end-to-end throughput and provide load balancing in MANET. The new proposed novel Multipath QoS aware reliable routing protocol establishes two routes of maximum node disjoint paths and the data transfer is carried out in the two paths simultaneously. To select best paths, the new proposed protocol uses three parameters Link Eminence, MAC overhead and node residual energy. The experimental values prove that the MQARR-AODV protocol achieves high reliability, stability, low latency and outperforms AODV by the less energy consumption, overhead and delay.

  13. AODVSEC: A Novel Approach to Secure Ad Hoc on-Demand Distance Vector (AODV Routing Protocol from Insider Attacks in MANETs

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    Akshai Aggarwal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a collection of mobile nodes that can communicate with each other using multihop wireless links without requiring any fixed based-station infrastructure and centralizedmanagement. Each node in the network acts as both a host and a router. In such scenario, designing of an efficient, reliable and secure routing protocol has been a major challenging issue over the last many years. Numerous schemes have been proposed for secure routing protocols and most of the research work has so far focused on providing security for routing using cryptography. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to secure Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV routing protocol from the insider attacks launched through active forging of its Route Reply (RREP control message. AODV routing protocol does not have any security provision that makes it less reliable in publicly open ad hoc network. To deal with the concerned security attacks, we have proposed AODV Security Extension (AODVSEC which enhances the scope of AODV for the security provision. We have compared AODVSEC with AODV and Secure AODV (SAODV in normal situation as well as in presence of the three concerned attacks viz.Resource Consumption (RC attack, Route Disturb (RD attack, Route Invasion (RI attack and Blackhole (BH attack. To evaluate the performances, we have considered Packet Delivery Fraction (PDF, Average End-to-End Delay (AED, Average Throughput (AT, Normalized Routing Load (NRL and Average Jitter and Accumulated Average Processing Time.

  14. Integrated Metric-Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector: A Routing Protocol over Wireless Mesh Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Md. A Rahman; Farhat Anwar; Md. S. Azad

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) is an emerging technology for wireless environment. Since WMNs are permanent or semi-permanent network, an efficient and reliable path establishment is the core concern for such type of networks. Several performance metrics has been designed for WMNs such as Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Expected Transmission Time (ETT), interference Aware Routing Metric (iAWARE), Link Type Aware (LTA) Metric, Success Probability Product (SPP) and so on. H...

  15. Ad Hoc on-Demand Distance Vector (AODV Routing Protocol Performance Evaluation on Hybrid Ad Hoc Network: Comparison of Result of Ns-2 Simulation and Implementation on Testbed using PDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riri Sari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET, node supplemented with wireless equipment has the capacity to manage and organise autonomously, without the presence of network infrastructures. Hybrid ad hoc network, enable several nodes to move freely (mobile to create instant communication. Independent from infrastructure. They could access the Local Area Network (LAN or the Internet. Functionalities of ad hoc network very much dependent on the routing protocol that determines the routing around node. Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV is one of routing protocols in ad hoc network which has a reactive characteristic. This protocol is the most common protocol being researched and used. In this Research, AODV protocol investigation was conducted by developing a testbed using Personal Computer, several Laptops (the Linux Red Hat operation system 9.0 and Fedora Core 2, and Personal Digital Assistant (PDA. This research also made a complete package by mean of cross compilation for PDA iPAQ. In general, results obtained from the simulation of AODV protocol using Network Simulator NS-2 are packet delivery ratio 99.89%, end-to-end delay of 0.14 seconds and routing overhead of 1,756.61 byte per second. Afterwards results from simulation were compared to results from testbed. Results obtained from testbed are as follows: the packet delivery ratio is 99.57%, the end-to-end delay is 1.004 seconds and the routing overhead is 1,360.36 byte per second.

  16. 地理位置信息辅助的AODV路由协议%Location Aided Ad Hoc On Demand Vector Routing Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷建栋

    2013-01-01

    By using location information, this paper proposed a new routing protocol called Location-aided AODV (LAODV). LAODV uses location information to predefine a flooding area only in which the nodes are responsible for forwarding the control packets. This method can limit the scope of route discovery process thus reducing the control overhead. The location information is enclosed in control message to distribute in the network. At last this paper simulated the proposed protocol on OPNET Modeler,the simulation result show that LAODV is effective in reducing control overhead.%在AODV协议的基础上设计和实现了一种地理位置信息辅助的AODV协议,LAODV。利用地理位置信息设置RREQ控制分组的广播区域从而减小协议的控制开销。节点的位置信息通过RREQ和RREP分组在网络中散布,不会增加很多额外开销。通过OPNET仿真验证LAODV协议的改进效果。

  17. ACRR: Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing with Controlled Route Requests

    CERN Document Server

    Kataria, Jayesh; Sanyal, Sugata

    2010-01-01

    Reactive routing protocols like Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks which are used in Mobile and Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) work by flooding the network with control packets. There is generally a limit on the number of these packets that can be generated or forwarded. But a malicious node can disregard this limit and flood the network with fake control packets. These packets hog the limited bandwidth and processing power of genuine nodes in the network while being forwarded. Due to this, genuine route requests suffer and many routes either do not get a chance to materialize or they end up being longer than otherwise. In this paper we propose a non cryptographic solution to the above problem and prove its efficiency by means of simulation.

  18. Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Reactive Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, Nadeem; Javaid, Akmal; Malik, Shahzad A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have modeled the routing over- head generated by three reactive routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DYnamic MANET On-deman (DYMO). Routing performed by reactive protocols consists of two phases; route discovery and route maintenance. Total cost paid by a protocol for efficient routing is sum of the cost paid in the form of energy consumed and time spent. These protocols majorly focus on the optimization performed by expanding ring search algorithm to control the flooding generated by the mechanism of blind flooding. So, we have modeled the energy consumed and time spent per packet both for route discovery and route maintenance. The proposed framework is evaluated in NS-2 to compare performance of the chosen routing protocols.

  19. Routing Protocols to Minimize the Number of Route Disconnections for Communication in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Routing Protocol MAODV [5] is the multicast extension of the well-known Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector ( AODV ...extensions of the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol [4] or the Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector ( AODV ) routing protocol [5]. The multi-path routing ...Multi-path Distance Vector (AOMDV) routing protocol [7], an extension of AODV to compute multiple loop-free link- disjoint routes ; (iii) AODV

  20. Modify AODV Routing Protocol to Improve Motorway Surveillance System Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Layth Abdulkareem Hassnawi; R. Badlishah Ahmad; Abid Yahya

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to modify the Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol in order to improve the routing performance in motorway surveillance systems. The proposed protocol has all the characteristics of the original AODV routing protocol since it follows all the steps of the route discovery and route maintenance mechanism of the original AODV routing protocol. The Modified AODV (MAODV) is different from the original AODV protocol in that it modifies the origina...

  1. Comparison of Two Hierarchical Routing Protocols for Heterogeneous MANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    protocols (e.g. Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector routing protocol , AODV ) search for and maintain routes to destination nodes upon demand from...the time it takes to find a route when data needs to be sent. Protocols such as OLSR and AODV support nodes having multiple interfaces. However they...hierarchical ad hoc routing protocols are derived from a “flat” ad routing protocol . For instance, H- AODV [8] and H-DSR [11] are examples

  2. IP Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco Pinto, Armando

    2002-03-01

    Uyless Black is a widely known expert in computer networks and data communications. He is author of more than ten books in the communication technologies field, which puts him in a good position to address this topic. In IP Routing Protocols he starts by providing the background and concepts required for understanding TCP/IP technology. This is done clearly and assumes little prior knowledge of the area. As might be expected, he emphasizes the IP route discovery problem. Later he details several routing protocols.

  3. Varying Overhead Ad Hoc on Demand Vector Routing in Highly Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An inherent feature of mobile ad hoc networks is the frequent change of network topology leading to stability and reliability problems of the network. Highly dynamic and dense network have to maintain acceptable level of service to data packets and limit the network control overheads. This capability is closely related as how quickly the network protocol control overhead is managed as a function of increased link changes. Dynamically limiting the routing control overheads based on the network topology improves the throughput of the network. Approach: In this study we propose Varying Overhead - Ad hoc on Demand Vector routing protocol (VO-AODV for highly dynamic mobile Ad hoc network. The VO-AODV routing protocol proposed dynamically modifies the active route time based on the network topology. Results and Conclusion: Simulation results prove that the proposed model decreases the control overheads without decreasing the QOS of the network.

  4. EXTENDED DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR AD HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Kumari Sharma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available MANET is a collection of self-configurable mobile nodes. Several routing protocols are proposed for ad hoc network among which DSR and AODV On demand routing protocols are mostly used. Existing Dynamic source routing protocol is not suitable for large network because packet size gets increased according to the number of nodes travelled by route discovery packet. In this paper, extended DSR routing protocol is proposed to eliminate the above limitation of existing DSR. Proposed protocol will be suitable for small and large both types of networks.

  5. Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha Sunny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is an autonomous system that is composed of the mobile nodes which communicates through wireless links without any preexisting infrastructure. MANET is a collection of mobile nodes which can self-organize freely and dynamically into arbitrary and temporary network topologies. Mobile nodes in ad-hoc networks function as a router and can dynamically establish routes among themselves by means of a routing protocol. Routing protocols in mobile ad-hoc network helps node to send and receive packets. Therefore, selection of an appropriate routing protocol is an integral part of establishing a MANET. A suitable and effective routing mechanism helps to extend the successful deployment of mobile ad-hoc networks. An attempt has been made to compare the performance between on-demand reactive routing protocols namely AODV, DSR and proactive routing protocol namely DSDV for Constant Bit Rate (CBR traffic by varying network scope i.e. number of participating nodes as well as by varying the speed. The parameters used for evaluation are Packet delivery ratio (PDR, Normalized routing overhead, Average end to end delay (Delay, Throughput and Average Energy consumption. The simulations are carried out using Network Simulator NS2:34.

  6. A Performance Comparison of Stability, Load-Balancing and Power-Aware Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    and on-demand protocols like the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [5], Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector ( AODV ) routing [6], Location-aided Routing (LAR...minimum residual battery power of a node in the route . MMBCR can be implemented on the top of any on-demand routing protocol like DSR, AODV and etc...Comparison of Stability, Load-Balancing and Power-Aware Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Natarajan Meghanathan1 and Leslie C. Milton2

  7. A New Route Maintenance in Dynamic Source Routing Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is infrastructureless, self-organizable, multi hop packet switched network. A number of routing protocols for MANETs have been proposed in recent years. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol is one of the most popular routing protocol for ad hoc networks. This paper presents a novel method to enhance route maintenance part of DSR protocol. Our proposed route maintenance significantly increases the efficiency of the protocol at the time of route failures.

  8. An Intelligent Multicast Ad-hoc On demand Distance Vector Protocol for MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baburaj

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently multicast ro uting protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs are emerging for wireless group communication. This includes application such as multipoint data dissemination and multiparty conferencing which made the analytical design and development of the MANETs in a very efficient manner. For MANETs there are several multicast routing protocols are available, but they perform well under specific scenarios only. The topology of a MANET changes adequately based on the random mobility of network nodes, unlike the network topology of a wired network which is static.Multicast routing protocol outperforms the basic broadcast routing by sharing the resources along general links, while sending information to a set of predefined multiple destinations in a concurrent way. Due to the lack of redundancy in multipath and multicast structures, the multicast routing protocols are vulnerable to the component failure in ad-hoc networks. So it is the dire need to solve the problem optimally. One of the efficient techniques for solving the optimization problem is the Genetic Algorithm (GA. The key factors that determine the performance of GA is by the well designed architecture of chromosomes and operators in the intelligent algorithm. This paper proposes a new genetic algorithm based Multicast Ad-hoc On demand Distance Vector Protocol for MANETs (GA-MAODV, which improves the packet delivery ratio of the routing messages. The GAbased MAODV allows each node in the network to send out multicast data packets, and the multicast data packets are broadcast when propagating along the multicast group tree.

  9. Preventing AODV Routing Protocol from Black Hole Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Himral,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc networks, due to their improvised nature, are frequently established insecure environments, which makes them susceptible to attacks. These attacks are launched by participating malicious nodes against different network services. Routing protocols, which act as the binding force in these networks, are a common target of these nodes. Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing (AODVis a widely adopted network routing protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET. Black hole attack is one of the severe security threats in ad-hoc networks which can be easily employed by exploitingvulnerability of on-demand routing protocols such as AODV. In this paper we proposed a solution for identifying the malicious node in AODV protocol suffering from black hole attack.

  10. Improvement In MAODV Protocol Using Location Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Sharnjeet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is difficult in wireless sensor network (WSN due to limited resources. Each node in WSN is constrained by their limited battery power for their energy. The energy is reduced as the time goes off due to the packet transmission and reception. Energy management techniques are necessary to minimize the total power consumption of all the nodes in the network in order to maximize its life span. Our proposed protocol Location based routing (LBR aimed to find a path which utilizes the minimum energy to transmit the packets between the source and the destination. The required energy for the transmission and reception of data is evaluated in MATLAB. LBR is implemented on Multicast Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (MAODV to manage the energy consumption in the transmission and reception of data. Simulation results of LBR show the energy consumption has been reduced.

  11. Analyzing Reactive Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Kamaljit I. Lakhtaria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET is an autonomous mobile nodes forming network in an infrastructure less environment and has dynamic topology. MANET reactive protocols always not have low control overhead. The control overhead for reactive protocols is more sensitive to the traffic load, in terms of the number of traffic rows, and mobility, in terms of link connectivity change rates, than other protocols. Therefore, reactive protocols may only be suitable for MANETs with small number of traffic loads and small link connectivity change rates. It is already proved that, it is more feasible to maintain full network topology in a MANET with low control overhead. In this Research Paper through simulations that were carried out by using Network Simulator-2 (NS-2 we had analyze Reactive/ On-demand protocols such as Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV, Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA, and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR,

  12. COSR: A Reputation-Based Secure Route Protocol in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang LaurenceT

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Now, the route protocols defined in the Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET are constructed in a common assumption which all nodes contained in such networks are trustworthy and cooperative. Once malicious or selfish nodes exist, all route paths built by these protocols must be broken immediately. According to the secure problems within MANET, this paper proposes Cooperative On-demand Secure Route (COSR, a novel secure source route protocol, against malicious and selfish behaviors. COSR measures node reputation (NR and route reputation (RR by contribution, Capability of Forwarding (CoF and recommendation upon Dynamic Source Route (DSR and uses RR to balance load to avoid hotpoint. Furthermore, COSR defines path collection algorithm by NR to enhance efficiency of protocol. At last, we verify COSR through GloMoSim. Results show that COSR is secure and stable.

  13. A Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Zougagh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a collection of mobile nodes in which the wireless links are frequently broken down due to mobility and dynamic infrastructure. Routing is a significant issue and challenge in ad hoc networks. Many routing protocols have been proposed like OLSR, AODV so far to improve the routing performance and reliability. In this paper, we describe the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR and the Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV. We evaluate their performance through exhaustive simulations using the Network Simulator 2 (ns2 by varying conditions (node mobility, network density.

  14. Mobility-Assisted on-Demand Routing Algorithm for MANETs in the Presence of Location Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sungoh

    2014-01-01

    We propose a mobility-assisted on-demand routing algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks in the presence of location errors. Location awareness enables mobile nodes to predict their mobility and enhances routing performance by estimating link duration and selecting reliable routes. However, measured locations intrinsically include errors in measurement. Such errors degrade mobility prediction and have been ignored in previous work. To mitigate the impact of location errors on routing, we propose an on-demand routing algorithm taking into account location errors. To that end, we adopt the Kalman filter to estimate accurate locations and consider route confidence in discovering routes. Via simulations, we compare our algorithm and previous algorithms in various environments. Our proposed mobility prediction is robust to the location errors. PMID:24959628

  15. Mobility-Assisted on-Demand Routing Algorithm for MANETs in the Presence of Location Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Kien Vu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a mobility-assisted on-demand routing algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks in the presence of location errors. Location awareness enables mobile nodes to predict their mobility and enhances routing performance by estimating link duration and selecting reliable routes. However, measured locations intrinsically include errors in measurement. Such errors degrade mobility prediction and have been ignored in previous work. To mitigate the impact of location errors on routing, we propose an on-demand routing algorithm taking into account location errors. To that end, we adopt the Kalman filter to estimate accurate locations and consider route confidence in discovering routes. Via simulations, we compare our algorithm and previous algorithms in various environments. Our proposed mobility prediction is robust to the location errors.

  16. SIMULATION STUDY AND IMPLEMENTATION ON ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Yadav

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc networks are characterized by a lack of infrastructure, and by a random and quickly changing network topology; thus the need for a robust dynamic routing protocol that can accommodate such an environment. Consequently, many routing algorithms have come in toexistence to satisfy the needs of communications in such networks. This article presents a simulation study and comparison the performance between two categories of routing protocols, table-driven (Proactive and on-demand (Reactive routing protocols, this two categories were illustrated by using two different examples ofrouting protocols, first example is DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance-Vector from the Proactive family and the second example isAODV (Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector and DSR (Dynamic Source Routing Protocol from the Reactive family. Both protocols weresimulated by using NS-2 (network simulator-2 package. Both routing protocols were compared in terms of average throughput (packets delivery ratio while varying data rate, TCP types ,maximumpackets in queue and number of packet drop while varying data rate by using the Trace file. For the same queue length DSDV performsbetter than AODV. AODV is preferred due to its more efficient use of bandwidth.

  17. Performance Analysis of AODV-UI Routing Protocol With Energy Consumption Improvement Under Mobility Models in Hybrid Ad hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Abdusy Syarif; Riri Fitri Sari

    2011-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), routing protocol plays the most important role. In the last decade, Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol becomes the attention of focussed research on MANETs world wide. A lot of protocols had been proposed to improve and optimize AODV routing protocol to achieve the best in quest of reliable protocol. In this paper, we present some improvement suggestion to AODV routing protocol. Our proposed protocol, called AODV-UI, improved AODV in g...

  18. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK ROUTING PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Kaur Gulati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET is an infrastructure less and decentralized network which need a robust dynamic routing protocol. Many routing protocols for such networks have been proposed so far to find optimized routes from source to the destination and prominent among them are Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV, and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV routing protocols. The performance comparison of these protocols should be considered as the primary step towards the invention of a new routing protocol. This paper presents a performance comparison of proactive and reactive routing protocols DSDV, AODV and DSR based on QoS metrics (packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay, throughput, jitter, normalized routing overhead and normalized MAC overhead by using the NS-2 simulator. The performance comparison is conducted by varying mobility speed, number of nodes and data rate. The comparison results show that AODV performs optimally well not the best among all the studied protocols.

  19. Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Proactive Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, Nadeem; Javaid, Akmal; Malik, Shahzad A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed framework consisting of modeling of routing overhead generated by three widely used proactive routing protocols; Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). The questions like, how these protocols differ from each other on the basis of implementing different routing strategies, how neighbor estimation errors affect broadcast of route requests, how reduction of broadcast overhead achieves bandwidth, how to cope with the problem of mobility and density, etc, are attempted to respond. In all of the above mentioned situations, routing overhead and delay generated by the chosen protocols can exactly be calculated from our modeled equations. Finally, we analyze the performance of selected routing protocols using our proposed framework in NS-2 by considering different performance parameters; Route REQuest (RREQ) packet generation, End-to-End Delay (E2ED) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL) with respect to varyi...

  20. Instability Free Routing: Beyond One Protocol Instance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    assigned a Rout- ing Information Base (RIB) [13]. This database is used to store the routing information related to the routing process (e.g., routes...presents routing anomalies that can derive from route selection by itself, i.e., without any route redis - tribution configured between the routing... redis - tributed into the RIP protocol, all RIP messages received from the neighbors are in fact discarded independently of the AD values. This

  1. Reformative multicast routing protocol based on Ad Hoc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨喜旺; 王华; 焦国太

    2008-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc networks has been widely applied to military field, emergency management, public service and so on. Because it is uncertain on network and communication, a great deal of energy will be consumed with nodes increasing and creating routing each other. The reformative on-demand multicast routing protocol was putted forward by researching the energy consuming of multicast routing protocol in Ad Hoc. It will decrease consumption in a big multicast flooding through studying the relaying group net structure based on map or wormhole. The energy consumption is reduced 30% by creating the two kinds of routing principles: minimization of energy consumption and minimization of maximum nodes energy consumption. The simulation result indicates that the reformative RODMRP is effective to reduce the energy consuming while routing protocol built.

  2. Ants-Based On-Demand Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An ants-based on-demand routing algorithm (AORA) specialized for mobile ad hoc networks is proposed. AORA measures the network's traffic information including delivery time,route energy etc. by the continuous delivery of data packets,then calculates the compositive parameter for each route which can be seen as the stigmity and uses it to choose the comparatively optimal route in real time.To adjust the weight of each traffic information,the algorithm can meet the different demand of the network's user. Multipath source self repair routing (MSSRR) algorithm and dynamic source routing (DSR) can be seen as the special samples of AORA. The routing overhead is not increased in this algorithm. By using simulation, it can be seen that the performance of AORA is better than that of DSR in all scenarios obviously,especially the delivery fraction is increased by more than 100%.

  3. New Routing Metrics for ADHOC Network Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The performance and reliability of Internet is measured using different quantities. When the quantities measured are essential and have wide range of acceptance then they are called metrics. Performance metrics enable comparison and selection among the alternatives. In computer networks, metrics are used to evaluate an application, protocol etc. Routing in adhoc networks is nontrivial. Routing protocols for adhoc networks are still evolving and there is need for continuous evaluation of them. In the literature existing, several routing protocols are evaluated using standard metrics under different conditions. This paper proposes new metrics for evaluation of routing protocols and uses them to evaluate the adhoc network routing protocols AODV, DSR, DSDV and TORA. Simulation environment is created using NS-2 simulator. Typical range of speeds, pause times and data rates are used. The results provide new insights in to the working of the routing protocols.

  4. Security Verification of Secure MANET Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    the destination. The route discovery phase is complete upon receipt of the RREP at the requesting node. The DYMO protocol is a simpler version of AODV ...described in this appendix. The protocols are Secure AODV (SAODV), Secure Efficient Distance Vector (SEAD), and Secure Link State Routing Protocol (SLSP...SECURITY VERIFICATION OF SECURE MANET ROUTING PROTOCOLS THESIS Matthew F. Steele, Captain, USAF AFIT/GCS/ENG/12-03 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR

  5. A Comparision Study of Common Routing Protocols Used In Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim Alhadidi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze and compare performance of both reactive and proactive Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs routing protocols using different environments. Wireless networks are divided into two types: infrastructure and ad hoc network. In wireless ad hoc networks each node can be a sender, router and receiver, so these types of network are less structure compared to infrastructure network. Therefore wireless ad hoc networks need special routing protocols to overcome the limitations of wireless ad hoc networks. Wireless ad hoc networks routing protocols can be categorized into two types: reactive (on demand routing protocols and proactive routing protocols. In proactive routing protocols the nodes periodically send control messages across the network to build routing table. Different routing protocols have been simulated using GloMoSim (Global Mobile Information system simulation library and PARSEC compiler. Five multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols have been simulated to cover a range of design choices: Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP, Fisheye State Routing (FSR, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV and Location Aided Routing (LAR. The protocols are evaluated in different environments to investigate performance metrics. Performance metric includes the following aspects: packets deliver ratio, end-to-end delay and end-to-end throughput.

  6. VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Bijan; Bikas, Md Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is a new technology which has taken enormous attention in the recent years. Due to rapid topology changing and frequent disconnection makes it difficult to design an efficient routing protocol for routing data among vehicles, called V2V or vehicle to vehicle communication and vehicle to road side infrastructure, called V2I. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol has taken significant attention. So, it is very necessary to identify the pros and cons of routing protocols which can be used for further improvement or development of any new routing protocol. This paper presents the pros and cons of VANET routing protocols for inter vehicle communication.

  7. A Survey on Distance Vector Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Linpeng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we give a brief introduction to five different distance vector routing protocols (RIP, AODV, EIGRP, RIP-MTI and Babel) and give some of our thoughts on how to solve the count to infinity problem. Our focus is how distance vector routing protocols, based on limited information, can prevent routing loops and the count to infinity problem.

  8. Performance of Routing Protocols in Very Large Scale Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xuelian Cai; Jiandong Li; Lina Zhu

    2012-01-01

    With deployment of thousands or even tens of thousands of sensors in a wireless sensor network (WSN) feasible, the scalability of routing protocols has drawn a lot of attention. Routing protocols in ad hoc networks, such as Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol and its enhanced versions provide one option for the routing design in a large scale WSN. Combining the strengths of AODV with link layer feedback (AODV-LLF) and AODV/Jr, an efficient routing protocol named AODV with Route I...

  9. A Survey of Unipath Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Barveen Banu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A MANET (Mobile Ad hoc NETwork is an interconnection of mobile devices by wireless links forming a dynamic topology without much physical network infrastructure such as routers, servers, access points/cables or centralized administration. Routing is a mechanism of exchanging data between the source node and the destination node. Several protocols are used to perform routing the information from the source node to the destination node. The main aim of this paper is to explore the working principles of each unipath routing protocol. The unipath routing protocols are divided into Table-Driven (Proactive, On-demand (Reactive, Hybrid routing protocols.

  10. A Comparative Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols in MANET using NS3 Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Jha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to frequent topology changes and routing overhead, selection of routing protocol in Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET is a great challenge. A design issue for an efficient and effective routing protocol is to achieve optimum values of performance parameters under network scenarios. There are various routing protocols available for MANET. This paper involves study of four routing protocols (Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing, Optimized Link State Routing, Dynamic Source Routing and Distance Sequenced Distance Vector, and performance comparisons between these routing protocols on the basis of performance metrics (throughput, packet delivery ratio, Packet dropped, jitter and end to end delay measured after simulation of network with the help of NS3 Simulator.

  11. Performance Evaluation on Extended Routing Protocol of AODV in Manet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debraj Modak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-hoc Network is a collection of mobile n odes that form a wireless network and the mobile nodes dynamically communicate to other nodes withou t the use of any preplanned infrastructure. Each node can acts as a router and forwards data packets to every other nodes in the network. Topology of t he network changes very frequently due to mobility of the nodes. AODV(Ad-hoc on demand distance vector routing protocol has been extensively used protoco l in MANET. But AODV and other on demand routing protocol use single route reply. An extension versi on of AODV called RAODV (Reverse AODV [11] tries multiple route replies and enhances the network per formances like packet delivery ratio. Another exten ded version of AODV namely MAODV allows each node in th e network to send out multicast data packets rather than sending unicast traffic. An evaluation of these two protocols has been carried out by usin g NS- 2.34.The comparisons of these protocols has been st udied using some performance metrics like end to en d delay, overhead by varying number of nodes which ha s not been done.

  12. Secure Geographic Routing Protocols: Issues and Approaches

    CERN Document Server

    sookhak, Mehdi; Haghparast, Mahboobeh; ISnin, Ismail Fauzi

    2011-01-01

    In the years, routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been substantially investigated by researches. Most state-of-the-art surveys have focused on reviewing of wireless sensor network .In this paper we review the existing secure geographic routing protocols for wireless sensor network (WSN) and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

  13. Secure Geographic Routing Protocols: Issues and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi sookhak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the years, routing protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSN have been substantially investigated by researches Most state-of-the-art surveys have focused on reviewing of wireless sensor network .In this paper we review the existing secure geographic routing protocols for wireless sensor network (WSN and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

  14. MILITARY MULTI-HOP ROUTING PROTOCOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Military tactical network is one of the most important applications of ad hoc network. Currently the existing routing protocols are put forward based on the simple and universal network model which has the ability of multi-hop routing but cannot work efficiently in the special military applications. The narrow bandwidth and limited energy of the wireless network make general routing protocols seem to be more redundant.In order to satisfy military needs properly, this letter makes a detailed analysis of physical nodes and traffic distribution in military network, uses cross-layer design concept for reference, combines traffic characteristic of application layer with routing protocol design. It categorized routing problem as crucial routes and non-crucial routes which adopted separate maintenance methods. It not only realizes basic transmission function but also works efficiently. It is quite fit for military application.

  15. Traffic Performance Analysis of Manet Routing Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Rajeswari, S; 10.5121/ijdps.2011.2306

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this research work is to study and investigate the performance measures of Gossip Routing protocol and Energy Efficient and Reliable Adaptive Gossip routing protocols. We use TCP and CBR based traffic models to analyze the performance of above mentioned protocols based on the parameters of Packet Delivery Ratio, Average End-to-End Delay and Throughput. We will investigate the effect of change in the simulation time and Number of nodes for the MANET routing protocols. For Simulation, we have used ns-2 simulator.

  16. Simulations of the Impact of Controlled Mobility for Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Loscrí

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses mobility control routing in wireless networks. Given a data flow request between a source-destination pair, the problem is to move nodes towards the best placement, such that the performance of the network is improved. Our purpose is to find the best nodes selection depending on the minimization of the maximum distance that nodes have to travel to reach their final position. We propose a routing protocol, the Routing Protocol based on Controlled Mobility (RPCM, where the chosen nodes' path minimizes the total travelled distance to reach desirable position. Specifically, controlled mobility is intended as a new design dimension network allowing to drive nodes to specific best position in order to achieve some common objectives. The main aim of this paper is to show by simulation the effectiveness of controlled mobility when it is used as a new design dimension in wireless networks. Extensive simulations are conducted to evaluate the proposed routing algorithm. Results show how our protocol outperforms a well-known routing protocol, the Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector routing (AODV, in terms of throughput, average end-to-end data packet delay and energy spent to send a packet unit.

  17. ANALYSIS OF AODV AND DSDV ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MANET

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    Abhishek Purohit Gajendra Singh Chandel Ravindra Gupta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET every node functions as transmitter, router and data sink. MANET is network without infrastructure. It discover its local neighbors and through them it will communicate to nodes that are out of its transmission range. The advantages of this mechanism are to overcome the interaction of three fundamental difficulties such as node connectivity, contention and congestion. The paper described the formal evaluation of performances of three types of MANET routing protocols when the node density or the number of nodes varies. Every ad hoc routing protocol on their performances in the network has their own advantages. The protocols included the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV, Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR protocol and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV protocol. The analysis had been done the theoretically and through simulation using an Optimized Network Engineering Tools NS-2.With the help of NS-2 software we can analysis the performances of the following metrics: packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, packet dropped, routing load and end-to-end throughput.

  18. A Secure and Pragmatic Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-yuan

    2008-01-01

    An ad hoc network is a group of wireless mobile computers (or nodes), in which individual nodes cooperate by forwarding packets for each other to allow nodes to communicate beyond direct wireless transmission range. Because of node mobility and power limitations, the network topology changes frequently. Routing protocol plays an important role in the ad hoc network. A recent trend in ad hoc network routing is the reactive on-demand philosophy where routes are established only when required. As an optimization for the current Dynamic Source Routing Protocol, a secure and pragmatic routes selection scheme based on Reputation Systems was proposed. We design the Secure and Pragmatic Routing protocol and implement simulation models using GloMoSim. Simulation results show that the Secure and Pragmatic Routing protocol provides better experimental results on packet delivery ratio, power consumption and system throughput than Dynamic Source Routing Protocol.

  19. QAODV: Improved Security Routing Protocol of AODV

    OpenAIRE

    Ruihui Mu; Wuqiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Network control system (NCS) has higher requirements on QoS index of the network, but MANET can hardly meet the demands of control systems because of its own characteristics. The paper improves AODV and proposes AODV routing protocol QAODV with certain QoS security in combination with NCS and MANET, and expounds routing detection, routing register and routing maintenance. Simulation results show that end-to-end delay and packet loss of QAODV reduces evidently compared with AODV, and the proto...

  20. Comparative Study of AODV and DSR Routing Protocols for MANET: Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Goyal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An ad hoc network is an assortment of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a transitory network lacking the use of any presented network communications or centralized management. A number of routing protocols like Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Ad Hoc on-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV and Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA have been projected. In this work an attempt has been ended to evaluate the performance of two outstanding on demand reactive routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks: DSR and AODV. Although DSR and AODV share comparable on-demand behavior, the differences in the protocol mechanics can lead to significant performance differentials. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying time, packet delivery ratio, throughput and end-to-end delay. These simulations are carried out using the ns-2 network simulator, which is used to run ad hoc simulations.

  1. Generalized routing protocols for multihop relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Performance of multihop cooperative networks depends on the routing protocols employed. In this paper we propose the last-n-hop selection protocol, the dual path protocol, the forward-backward last-n-hop selection protocol and the forward-backward dual path protocol for the routing of data through multihop relay networks. The average symbol error probability performance of the schemes is analysed by simulations. It is shown that close to optimal performance can be achieved by using the last-n-hop selection protocol and its forward-backward variant. Furthermore we also compute the complexity of the protocols in terms of number of channel state information required and the number of comparisons required for routing the signal through the network. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Analysis of Enhanced Associativity Based Routing Protocol

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    Said A. Shaar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces an analysis to the performance of the Enhanced Associativity Based Routing protocol (EABR based on two factors; Operation complexity (OC and Communication Complexity (CC. OC can be defined as the number of steps required in performing a protocol operation, while CC can be defined as the number of messages exchanged in performing a protocol operation[1]. The values represent the worst-case analysis. The EABR has been analyzed based on CC and OC and the results have been compared with another routing technique called ABR. The results have shown that EABR can perform better than ABR in many circumstances during the route reconstruction.

  3. A SURVEY ON MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suruliandi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multicast is a process used to transfer same message to multiple receivers at the same time. This paper presents the simulation and analysis of the performance of six different multicast routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. They are On Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP, Protocol for Unified Multicasting through Announcement (PUMA, Multicast Adhoc On demand Distance Vector Protocol (MAODV, Overlay Boruvka-based Adhoc Multicast Protocol (OBAMP, Application Layer Multicast Algorithm (ALMA and enhanced version of ALMA (ALMA-H for WSN. Among them, ODMRP, MAODV and PUMA are reactive protocols while OBAMP, ALMA and ALMA-H are proactive protocols. This paper compares the performance of these protocols with common parameters such as Throughput, Reliability, End-to-End delay and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR with increasing the numbers of nodes and increasing the speed of the nodes. The main objective of this work is to select the efficient multicast routing protocol for WSN among six multicast routing protocol based on relative strength and weakness of each protocol. The summary of above six multicast routing protocols is presented with a table of different performance characteristics. Experimental result shows that ODMRP attains higher throughput, reliability and higher packet delivery ratio than other multicast routing protocol, while incurring far less end-to-end delay.

  4. Performance Analysis of TORA & DSR Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D GEETHA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. The main classes of routing protocols are Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid. A Reactive (on-demand routing strategy is a popular routing category for wireless ad hoc routing. It is a relatively new routing philosophy that provides a scalable solution to relatively large network topologies. The design follows the idea that each node tries to reduce routing overhead by sending routing packets whenever a communication is requested. In this paper an attempt has been made to compare the performance of two prominent on demand reactive routing protocols for MANETs: Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR protocols. This subjected the protocols to identical loads and environmental conditions and evaluates their relative performance with respect to quantitative metrics; throughput, average delay, packet delivery ratio and routing load. From the detailed simulation results and analysis of presented, we use NS-2 simulator for simulation of DSR and TORA protocol and variation occurs in mobility of packets, time interval between the packets sent and packet size of packets sent in throughout the protocols.

  5. Manet Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol

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    Hesham Arafat Ali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, multi-path routing protocols have attained more attention in mobile ad hoc networks as compared to other routing schemes due to their abilities and efficiency in improving bandwidth of communication, increasing delivery reliability, responding to congestion and heavy traffic. Several protocols have been developed to address multi path routing, but it always has a problem that the discovered paths may be not 100% disjoint and sending data is done in only one path until it's broken; the discovery of multiple paths also generates more overhead on the network. Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol [LBPRP] tried to solve previous multi path problems, distributing traffic among multiple paths sending data in parallel form as it uses all paths in the same time. We employed a simple test scenario to be sure of proposed model efficiency and to validate the proposed Load Balancing Parallel Routing Protocol. [LBPRP] will achieve load balancing in sending data, decreasing the end-to-end delay and increasing the packet delivery ratio and throughput, thus the performance of multi-path routing protocols can be improved consequently.

  6. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SINGLE-PATH AND MULTIPATH MANETS ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR DENSE AND SPARSE TOPOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tat-Chee Wan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET is a multi-hop wireless network in which fixed infrastructure is not used. A single-path routing protocol is mainly proposed as a single route from source node to destination node, while a multipath routing protocol uses multiple routes from the source to the destination node. This paper evaluates the performance of single-path routing protocols which are Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP and Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV along with a multipath routing protocol which is Ad hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector routing (AOMDV in MANET environments with varying node densities (Dense and Sparse. Network Simulator (NS2 was used to evaluate the performance of these routing protocols. Our experimental simulation results show that: AOMDV protocol is better than AODV and CBRP in terms of Delay for both Dense and Sparse topologies with variant traffic sources, whereas AODV is better than CBRP and AOMDV in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR with all traffic sources in Sparse topology.

  7. Performance Evaluation of MANET Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrituparna Paul

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The task of finding and sustaining routes in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETS is an important factor in determining the efficiency of any MANET protocol. MANET characteristically is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links without any centralised infrastructure. Absence of fixed infrastructures and host mobility thus network may experience rapid and unpredictable topology changes. Hence, routing is required in order to perform communication among the entire network. There are several routing protocols namely proactive, reactive and hybrid etc. In this paper we will discuss the active research work on these routing protocols and its performance evaluation. To this end, we adopt a simulation approach, which is more suitable to this kind of analysis

  8. Integrated Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Anshul

    2012-01-01

    In opportunistic networks the existence of a simultaneous path is not assumed to transmit a message between a sender and a receiver. Information about the context in which the users communicate is a key piece of knowledge to design efficient routing protocols in opportunistic networks. But this kind of information is not always available. When users are very isolated, context information cannot be distributed, and cannot be used for taking efficient routing decisions. In such cases, context oblivious based schemes are only way to enable communication between users. As soon as users become more social, context data spreads in the network, and context based routing becomes an efficient solution. In this paper we design an integrated routing protocol that is able to use context data as soon as it becomes available and falls back to dissemination based routing when context information is not available. Then, we provide a comparison between Epidemic and PROPHET, these are representative of context oblivious and co...

  9. Dynamic Request Routing for Online Video-on-Demand Service: A Markov Decision Process Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiong Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the request routing problem in the CDN-based Video-on-Demand system. We model the system as a controlled queueing system including a dispatcher and several edge servers. The system is formulated as a Markov decision process (MDP. Since the MDP formulation suffers from the so-called “the curse of dimensionality” problem, we then develop a greedy heuristic algorithm, which is simple and can be implemented online, to approximately solve the MDP model. However, we do not know how far it deviates from the optimal solution. To address this problem, we further aggregate the state space of the original MDP model and use the bounded-parameter MDP (BMDP to reformulate the system. This allows us to obtain a suboptimal solution with a known performance bound. The effectiveness of two approaches is evaluated in a simulation study.

  10. Eccentricity in Zone Routing Protocol for MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs Komal Nair

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a decentralized network of autonomous mobile nodes, able to communicate with each other over wireless links. Due to the mobility of the nodes, the topology ofthe network changes spontaneously, therefore use of conventional routing tables maintained at fixed points (routers is not suggested. Such a network may operate in a standalone fashion. There are variousrouting protocols available for MANETs. The most popular ones are DSR, DSDV and ZRP .The zone routing protocol (ZRP is a hybrid routing protocol that proactively maintains routes within a localregion of the network. ZRP can be configured for a particular network through adjustment of a single parameter, the routing zone radius. In this paper, we address the issue of configuring the ZRP to providethe best performance for a particular network at any time with the concept of eccentricity. The results illustrate the important characteristics of different protocols based on their performance and thus suggest some improvements in the respective protocol. The tools used for the simulation are NS2 which is the main simulator, NAM (Network Animator and Tracegraph which is used for preparing the graphs from the trace files.

  11. A New Distributed Routing Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Kindm ’[t., BMnclh CntMU Consider a attuatJion in %, Adhd them am n n es0 ndh lidkd to at least ne &her node sudh that all moe a wwmwted. either...distributed Itn r that is cpable, of failsafe distributed routing. 37 ~L MANHATAN %SQ.ARE GP :,!: NETWORK, - CONNECTTVY S . .. . I ip p- t 0 4 Figure 4-3

  12. A CONTRIBUTION TO SECURE THE ROUTING PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed ERRITALI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a contribution to secure the routing protocol GPSR (Greedy Perimeter StatelessRouting for vehicular ad hoc networks, we examine the possible attacks against GPSR and securitysolutions proposed by different research teams working on ad hoc network security. Then, we propose asolution to secure GPSR packet by adding a digital signature based on symmetric cryptographygenerated using the AES algorithm and the MD5 hash function more suited to a mobile environment

  13. Multicast Routing Protocols in Adhoc Mobile networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Nagaprasad,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of applications are in areas where rapid deployment and dynamic reconfiguration are necessary and a wire line network is not available. These include military battlefields, emergency search and rescue sites, classrooms, and conventions where participants share information dynamically using their mobile devices. Well established routing protocols do exist to offer efficient multicasting service in conventional wired networks. These protocols, having been designed for fixed networks, may fails to keep up with node movements and frequent topology changes in a MANET. Therefore, adapting existing wired multicast protocols as such to a MANET, which completely lacks infrastructure, appear less promising. Providing efficient multicasting over MANET faces many challenges, includes scalability,quality of service, reliable service, security, Address configuration, Applications for multicast over MANET. The existing multicast routing protocol do not addresses these issues effectively over Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET.

  14. Energy-Aware Performance Metric for AODV and DSDV Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Vijayalakshmi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs, mobile devices are equipped with power (energy. In order to utilize this energy equipped devices efficiently for transmission of data packets, many energy aware routing strategies are followed. As a key note to these routing strategies, the energy aware performance metrics are analyzed on two routing protocols like Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector Protocol (AODV and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing Protocol (DSDV. The comparison results prove that AODV protocol can be adopted for any routing strategy, in order to increase the performance of the network lifetime in comparison with DSDV.

  15. A Multipath Routing Protocol Based on Bloom Filter for Multihop Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On-demand multipath routing in a wireless ad hoc network is effective in achieving load balancing over the network and in improving the degree of resilience to mobility. In this paper, the salvage capable opportunistic node-disjoint multipath routing (SNMR protocol is proposed, which forms multiple routes for data transmission and supports packet salvaging with minimum overhead. The proposed mechanism constructs a primary path and a node-disjoint backup path together with alternative paths for the intermediate nodes in the primary path. It can be achieved by considering the reverse route back to the source stored in the route cache and the primary path information compressed by a Bloom filter. Our protocol presents higher capability in packet salvaging and lower overhead in forming multiple routes. Simulation results show that SNMR outperforms the compared protocols in terms of packet delivery ratio, normalized routing load, and throughput.

  16. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Urquiza-Aguiar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation.

  17. Robust On-Demand Multipath Routing with Dynamic Path Upgrade for Delay-Sensitive Data over Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Node mobility in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs causes frequent route breakages and intermittent link stability. In this paper, we introduce a robust routing scheme, known as ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector with dynamic path update (AOMDV-DPU, for delay-sensitive data transmission over MANET. The proposed scheme improves the AOMDV scheme by incorporating the following features: (i a routing metric based on the combination of minimum hops and received signal strength indicator (RSSI for discovery of reliable routes; (ii a local path update mechanism which strengthens the route, reduces the route breakage frequency, and increases the route longevity; (iii a keep alive mechanism for secondary route maintenance which enables smooth switching between routes and reduces the route discovery frequency; (iv a packet salvaging scheme to improve packet delivery in the event of a route breakage; and (v low HELLO packet overhead. The simulations are carried out in ns-2 for varying node speeds, number of sources, and traffic load conditions. Our AOMDV-DPU scheme achieves significantly higher throughput, lower delay, routing overhead, and route discovery frequency and latency compared to AOMDV. For H.264 compressed video traffic, AOMDV-DPU scheme achieves 3 dB or higher PSNR gain over AOMDV at both low and high node speeds.

  18. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ADHOC ON DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR PROTOCOL WITH BLACKHOLE ATTACK IN WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The security is major challenging issue in wireless sensor network applications because they are operated in public and unrestrained areas which also makes difficult to protect against tampering or captured by an adversary force that can launch insider attacks to make a node compromised. One type of such attack is black hole attack. Existing AODV routing protocol does not have mechanism to defend against such attacks. In this study, we comprehensively investigates the performance of AODV protocol by simulating it on the various network parameters with various number of blackhole nodes. The metrics for evaluation has been considered as packet delivery ratio, end to end delay, normalized routing overhead and total number of packets drop. The simulation results show that blackhole attack severely degrades the performance of WSN.

  19. Energy Efficient Routing in Mobile Adhoc Networks based on AODV Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinki Nayak

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs suffer from power exhaustion as many nodes use batteries as their source. Energy consumption is one of the most important system design optimization criterion in MANETs. The conventional routing protocols do not consider energy of nodes while selecting routes. So, using the same route for a longer duration leads to partitioning of the network. Therefore, considering energy of the nodes while selecting a route efficiently utilizes the nodal energy and helps prolong the lifetime of the network. This paper attempts to modify the popular on demand routing protocol AODV to make it energy aware. The proposed algorithm also varies the transmission power between two nodes as per their distance. The protocols are simulated using Network Simulator (NS-2.34. The performance of both the protocols is analyzed under various conditions and the proposed scheme shows efficient energy utilization and increased network lifetime

  20. A Novel Smart Routing Protocol for Remote Health Monitoring in Medical Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. P. Sundararajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a Medical Wireless Network (MWN, sensors constantly monitor patient's physiological condition and movement. Inter-MWN communications are set up between the Patient Server and one or more Centralized Coordinators. However, MWNs require protocols with little energy consumption and the self-organizing attribute perceived in ad-hoc networks. The proposed Smart Routing Protocol (SRP selects only the nodes with a higher residual energy and lower traffic density for routing. This approach enhances cooperation among the nodes of a Mobile Ad Hoc Network. Consequently, SRP produces better results than the existing protocols, namely Conditional Min-Max Battery Cost Routing, Min-Max Battery Cost Routing and AdHoc On-demand Distance Vector in terms of network parameters. The performance of the erstwhile schemes for routing protocols is evaluated using the network simulator Qualnet v 4.5.

  1. A novel Smart Routing Protocol for remote health monitoring in Medical Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, T V P; Sumithra, M G; Maheswar, R

    2014-01-01

    In a Medical Wireless Network (MWN), sensors constantly monitor patient's physiological condition and movement. Inter-MWN communications are set up between the Patient Server and one or more Centralized Coordinators. However, MWNs require protocols with little energy consumption and the self-organizing attribute perceived in ad-hoc networks. The proposed Smart Routing Protocol (SRP) selects only the nodes with a higher residual energy and lower traffic density for routing. This approach enhances cooperation among the nodes of a Mobile Ad Hoc Network. Consequently, SRP produces better results than the existing protocols, namely Conditional Min-Max Battery Cost Routing, Min-Max Battery Cost Routing and AdHoc On-demand Distance Vector in terms of network parameters. The performance of the erstwhile schemes for routing protocols is evaluated using the network simulator Qualnet v 4.5.

  2. Comparison of Random Waypoint & Random Walk Mobility Model under DSR, AODV & DSDV MANET Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Aslam, Muhammad Zaheer

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Adhoc Network is a kind of wireless ad hoc network where nodes are connected wirelessly and the network is self configuring. MANET may work in a standalone manner or may be a part of another network. In this paper we have compared Random Walk Mobility Model and Random Waypoint Mobility Model over two reactive routing protocols Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Adhoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) protocol and one Proactive routing protocol Distance Sequenced Distance Vector Routing (DSDV) Our analysis showed that DSR, AODV & DSDV under Random Walk and Random Way Point Mobility models have similar results for similar inputs however as the pause time increases so does the difference in performance rises. They show that their motion, direction, angle of direction, speed is same under both mobility models. We have made their analysis on packet delivery ratio, throughput and routing overhead. We have tested them with different criteria like different number of nodes, speed and different maximum...

  3. Performance Comparison of Secure Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Garg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A mobile Ad-Hoc network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Each node operates not only as an end system but, also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. A node can get compromised during the route discovery process. Attackers from inside or outside can easily exploit the network. Several secure routing protocols are proposed for MANETs by researchers. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare the performance of two prominent secure routing protocols for MANETs: Secure Efficient Ad-Hoc Distance Vector Protocol i.e. SEAD (a proactive or table driven protocol and Ariadne (a reactive or on demand protocol.Compared to the proactive routing protocols, less control overhead is a distinct advantage of the reactive protocols. Thus, reactive routing protocols have better scalability than proactive routing protocols. However, when using reactive routing protocols, source nodes may suffer from long delays for route searching before they can forward data packets. Hence these protocols are not suitable for real-time applications. As per our findings the difference in the protocols mechanics leads to significant performance differentials for both of these protocols. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying simulation time. These simulations are carried out using the NS-2 network simulator. The results presented in this work illustrate the importance in carefully evaluating and implementing routing protocols in an ad hoc environment.

  4. Performance evaluation of reactive and proactive routing protocol in IEEE 802.11 ad hoc network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamma, Salima; Cizeron, Eddy; Issaka, Hafiz; Guédon, Jean-Pierre

    2006-10-01

    Wireless technology based on the IEEE 802.11 standard is widely deployed. This technology is used to support multiple types of communication services (data, voice, image) with different QoS requirements. MANET (Mobile Adhoc NETwork) does not require a fixed infrastructure. Mobile nodes communicate through multihop paths. The wireless communication medium has variable and unpredictable characteristics. Furthermore, node mobility creates a continuously changing communication topology in which paths break and new one form dynamically. The routing table of each router in an adhoc network must be kept up-to-date. MANET uses Distance Vector or Link State algorithms which insure that the route to every host is always known. However, this approach must take into account the adhoc networks specific characteristics: dynamic topologies, limited bandwidth, energy constraints, limited physical security, ... Two main routing protocols categories are studied in this paper: proactive protocols (e.g. Optimised Link State Routing - OLSR) and reactive protocols (e.g. Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector - AODV, Dynamic Source Routing - DSR). The proactive protocols are based on periodic exchanges that update the routing tables to all possible destinations, even if no traffic goes through. The reactive protocols are based on on-demand route discoveries that update routing tables only for the destination that has traffic going through. The present paper focuses on study and performance evaluation of these categories using NS2 simulations. We have considered qualitative and quantitative criteria. The first one concerns distributed operation, loop-freedom, security, sleep period operation. The second are used to assess performance of different routing protocols presented in this paper. We can list end-to-end data delay, jitter, packet delivery ratio, routing load, activity distribution. Comparative study will be presented with number of networking context consideration and the results show

  5. A Rule-Based Data Transfer Protocol for On-Demand Data Exchange in Vehicular Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Hsien-Chou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of Intelligent Transport System (ITS is mainly to increase the driving safety and efficiency. Data exchange is an important way to achieve the purpose. An on-demand data exchange is especially useful to assist a driver avoiding some emergent events. In order to handle the data exchange under dynamic situations, a rule-based data transfer protocol is proposed in this paper. A set of rules is designed according to the principle of request-forward-reply (RFR. That is, they are used to determine the timing of data broadcasting, forwarding, and replying automatically. Two typical situations are used to demonstrate the operation of rules. One is the front view of a driver occluded by other vehicles. The other is the traffic jam. The proposed protocol is flexible and extensible for unforeseen situations. Three simulation tools were also implemented to demonstrate the feasibility of the protocol and measure the network transmission under high density of vehicles. The simulation results show that the rule-based protocol is efficient on data exchange to increase the driving safety.

  6. Advanced routing protocols for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Campista , Miguel Elias Mitre

    2014-01-01

    This text introduces the principles of routing protocols and metrics as they affect wireless networking environments, specifically in urban areas. Timely because of the recent rise in small city life, this topic includes the consideration of ad hoc, mesh, vehicular, sensor, and delay tolerant networks. These approaches are each unique, and author Miguel Mitre Campista provides a thorough, but accessible, explanation of their individual characteristics for engineers, computer scientists, IT professionals, and curious Internet users.

  7. The Secure Dynamic Source Routing Protocol in MANET using MD5 Hash Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha S. Savankar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic Source Routing (DSR is a routing protocol designed specifically for use in mobile ad hoc networks. The protocol allows nodes to dynamically discover a source route across multiple network hops to any destination in the ad hoc network. The protocol is composed of the two mechanisms of Route Discovery and Route Maintenance, which work together to allow nodes to discover and maintain source routes to arbitrary destinations in the ad hoc network. When using source routing, each packet to be routed carries in its header the complete, ordered list of nodes through which the packet must pass. A key advantage of source routing is that intermediate hops do not need to maintain routing information in order to route the packets they receive, since the packets themselves already contain all of the necessary routing information. This, coupled with the dynamic, on-demand nature of Route Discovery, completely eliminates the need for periodic router advertisements and link status packets, reducing the overhead of DSR, especially during periods when the network topology is stable and these packets serve only as keep-alives

  8. LOARP: A Low Overhead Routing Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Hasinur Rahman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Underwater wireless communications among underwater sensor nodes enable a large number of scientific, environmental and military applications. For example, autonomous underwater vehicles will enable exploration of deep sea resources and gathering of scientific data for collaborative missions. In order to make underwater applications possible, real-time communication protocols among underwater devices must be enabled. Because of the high attenuation and scattering effect of radio and optical waves, respectively, these underwater devices are based on acoustic wireless technology. The unique characteristics of underwater acoustic channel - such as distance-dependent limited bandwidth and high propagation delays, require new, efficient and reliable communication protocols over multiple hops to network multiple devices which may be either static or mobile. This paper proposes a new low overhead ad hoc routing protocol designed for underwater acoustic sensor network. The protocol performs route discovery when needed in an on-demand manner. It also characterises a route maintenance phase which tries to recover a failed route. Detection of route failure can generate a lot of routing traffic. The proposed protocol tries to minimize this routing traffic by detecting failure in a more intelligent way either by monitoring network data traffic (if present or generating lazy acknowledgements (if necessary. Reducing routing traffic minimizes the chance of packet collisions which in turn increases data packet delivery ratio. The performance of the proposed protocol is measured in terms of network throughput, packet delivery ratio, average endto-end delay and control overhead. The results are compared to those obtained using similar on-demand routing protocols. Simulation results show that the reduction of routing trafficcan improve the performance of the network.

  9. An improved AODV routing protocol based on tower structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yong Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposed a new routing protocol(IAODV based on tower structure in the Ad Hoc network for the problem which Location Routing Protocol need hardware and Complex algorithm. By the simulation, The complexity of the new routing protocol is reduced without reducing the performance of the network.

  10. An Efficient Searching and an Optimized Cache Coherence handling Scheme on DSR Routing Protocol for MANETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Kumar Gujral

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETS are self-created and self organized by a collection of mobile nodes, interconnected by multi-hop wireless paths in a strictly peer to peer fashion. DSR (Dynamic Source Routing is an on-demand routing protocol for wireless ad hoc networks that floods route requests when the route is needed. Route caches in intermediate mobile node on DSR are used to reduce flooding of route requests. But with the increase in network size, node mobility and local cache of every mobile node cached route quickly become stale or inefficient. In this paper, for efficient searching, we have proposed a generic searching algorithm on associative cache memory organization to faster searching single/multiple paths for destination if exist in intermediate mobile node cache with a complexity O(n (Where n is number of bits required to represent the searched field.The other major problem of DSR is that the route maintenance mechanism does not locally repair a broken link and Stale cache information could also result in inconsistencies during the route discovery /reconstruction phase. So to deal this, we have proposed an optimized cache coherence handling scheme for on -demand routing protocol (DSR.

  11. Delay aware Reactive Routing Protocols for QoS in MANETs: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad M. Adam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs are wireless networks, which do not require any infrastructure support for transferring data packets between mobile nodes. These nodes communicate in a multi-hop mode; each mobile node acting both as a host and router. The main function of Quality of Service (QoS routing in MANETs is to establish routes among different mobile nodes that satisfy QoS requirements such as bandwidth, end-to-end delay and to be able operate within the limited energy constraints. Efficient QoS routing protocols are required by most commercial, real-time and multimedia applications. Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR protocols are two of the most on-demand protocols used in MANETs. These protocols use shortest path as a main metric to establish routing between source and destination. However, they are designed primarily as best effort services and as such they do not fully heed QoS requirements as required by MANETs. This paper presents an overview of reactive routing protocols in QoS which use delay as a main metric.

  12. Intelligent QoS routing algorithm based on improved AODV protocol for Ad Hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibin, Liu; Jun, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks were playing an increasingly important part in disaster reliefs, military battlefields and scientific explorations. However, networks routing difficulties are more and more outstanding due to inherent structures. This paper proposed an improved cuckoo searching-based Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing protocol (CSAODV). It elaborately designs the calculation methods of optimal routing algorithm used by protocol and transmission mechanism of communication-package. In calculation of optimal routing algorithm by CS Algorithm, by increasing QoS constraint, the found optimal routing algorithm can conform to the requirements of specified bandwidth and time delay, and a certain balance can be obtained among computation spending, bandwidth and time delay. Take advantage of NS2 simulation software to take performance test on protocol in three circumstances and validate the feasibility and validity of CSAODV protocol. In results, CSAODV routing protocol is more adapt to the change of network topological structure than AODV protocol, which improves package delivery fraction of protocol effectively, reduce the transmission time delay of network, reduce the extra burden to network brought by controlling information, and improve the routing efficiency of network.

  13. A robust cross-layer metric for routing protocol in mobile wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucchi, Lorenzo; Chisci, Luigi; Fabbrini, Luca; Giovannetti, Giulio

    2012-12-01

    In a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) where Mobile Nodes (MNs) self-organize to ensure the communication over radio links, routing protocols clearly play a significant role. In future MANETs, protocols should provide routing under full mobility, power constraints, fast time-varying channels, and nodes subject to high loading. In this article, a novel robust routing protocol, named distributed X-layer fastest path (DXFP), is proposed. The protocol is based on a cross-layer metric which is robust against the time-variations of the network as far as topology (mobility), congestion of the nodes and channel quality (fading, power constraints) are concerned. All these features are integrated in a single physical cost, i.e., the network crossing time, which has to be minimized. Furthermore, several routes from source to destination are stored for a given data flow to efficiently face the disconnections which frequently occur in MANETs. It is shown that the DXFP protocol, though locally operating in a fully distributed way within the MNs, provides, for each data flow, the optimum routes according to the considered metric. The DXFP protocol has been compared with two of the most commonly used routing protocols for MANETs, i.e., dynamic source routing and ad hoc on-demand distance vector, showing significant improvements in performance and robustness.

  14. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research. PMID:27011193

  15. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research.

  16. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research.

  17. SPEED: A Real-Time Routing Protocol for Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    guarantees, which were not the main goals of previous location-based routing protocols . Reactive routing algorithms such as AODV [11], DSR[5] and TORA [10...1 SPEED: A Real-Time Routing Protocol for Sensor Networks1 Tian He John A Stankovic Chenyang Lu Tarek Abdelzaher Department of...control packet overhead. 2. State of thea Art A number of routing protocols (e.g., [2] [5] [8] [11] [12]) have been developed for ad hoc wireless

  18. A Study Issues Related To Improve Route Stability In AODY Routing Protocol In VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annu Mor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET is a sub class of mobile ad hoc networks. VANET provides wireless communication among vehicles and vehicle to road side equipments, according to IEEE 802.11 p standard for end to end communication between vehicles . For end to end communication between vehicles a routing protocols is used to find a route based on link properties. One of the most important routing protocols used in ad hoc networks is AODV. This protocol is connectivity based reactive protocol that searches routes only when they are needed. It always exchanges control packets between neighbor nodes for routing. In this article author present cross layer technique that find channel security at link layer to AODV routing protocol to improve the communication in vehicles for safety purpose. To eliminate route discovery routers, propose PAODV as routing protocol. It improves AODV control overhead and makes routes more stable.

  19. Performance Evaluation of the WSN Routing Protocols Scalability

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Scalability is an important factor in designing an efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). A good routing protocol has to be scalable and adaptive to the changes in the network topology. Thus scalable protocol should perform well as the network grows larger or as the workload increases. In this paper, routing protocols for wireless sensor networks are simulated and their performances are evaluated to determine their capability for supporting network ...

  20. Performance Evaluation of the WSN Routing Protocols Scalability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alazzawi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Scalability is an important factor in designing an efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. A good routing protocol has to be scalable and adaptive to the changes in the network topology. Thus scalable protocol should perform well as the network grows larger or as the workload increases. In this paper, routing protocols for wireless sensor networks are simulated and their performances are evaluated to determine their capability for supporting network scalability.

  1. Research on multihop wireless ad hoc network and its routing protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zhu, Qiuping

    2004-04-01

    An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without using any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Because of its acentric, self-organized, fast deployable and mobile property, people are paying more attention to the using of ad hoc network in the emergency. In such an environment, multiple networks "hops" may be needed for one node to exchange data with another across the network, due to the limited range of each mobile node"s wireless transmissions. So for an ad hoc network, a rational routing protocol is especially important. The paper will analyze the character of ad hoc network and the special requirement for communication protocols. Toward the routing protocols, this paper presents four multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols that cover a range of design choices: DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector), TORA (Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm), DSR (Dynamic Source Routing), and AODV (Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector). After thoroughly analyzed the network structure and routing protocols, the paper gives the proposal of a new hybrid routing protocol and the view for future work.

  2. Routing Protocol Design and Performance Optimization in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguo Wu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Routing protocol is an important issue in cognitive radio networks. This paper explored the issues and challenges of routing protocol in cognitive radio network from five aspects: hidden terminal, exposed terminal, deafness, cross-layer design, and topology. The existed protocols are classified by the metrics: the establishment of active routing, cross-layer routing, and network performance indicators. Focusing on analyzing performance of routing protocols and design optimized schemes in cognitive radio networks, the advantage and disadvantage of related work were discussed in detail.

  3. Fidelity Based On Demand Secure(FBOD Routing in Mobile Adhoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himadri Nath Saha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad-hoc network (MANET, secure routing is a challenging issue due to its open nature, infrastructure less property and mobility of nodes. Many mobile ad-hoc network routing schemes have been proposed, but none of them have been designed with security as a goal. We propose security goals for routing in mobile ad-hoc networks, an approach significantly different from the existing ones where data packets are routed, based on a specific criterion of the nodes called “fidelity” The approach will reduce the computational overhead to a lot extent. Our simulation results show how we have reduced the amount of network activity for each node required to route a data packet and how this scheme prevents various attacks which may jeopardize any MANET.

  4. Performance Evaluation of MANET Routing Protocols Based on Internet Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Bello Said,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The topology of mobile ad hoc network (MANET changes rapidly and unpredictably due to nodes mobility. This makes routing protocols very important to analyze so as to communicate efficiently between the wireless nodes. Another important issue in the MANET is the internet protocols IPv4 and IPV6. The former which have been conventionally in use for long and the latter which is seen as the future standard for network architecture is studied due to its improved protection and huge address space support. In this paper, performance of AODV, DYMO, OLSRv2 and OLSR are analyzed under the IPv4 and IPv6 standards using the Qualnet simulator. Distinct performance metrics viz. Packet delivery ratio, Throughput, Average End-to-End Delay, and Average jitter are selected for the experiment. The results are then analyzed and scrutinized to provide qualitative assessment of their performances.

  5. An Enhanced Route Recovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangkyung; Park, Noyeul; Kim, Changhwa; Choi, Seung-Sik

    In case of link failures, many ad hoc routing protocols recover a route by employing source-initiated route re-discovery, but this approach can degrade system performance. Some use localized route recovery, which may yield non-optimal paths. Our proposal provides a mechanism that can enhance the overall routing performance by initiating route recovery at the destination node. We elucidate the effects through simulations including comparisons with AODV and AODV with local repair.

  6. Design of Distributed Prefetching Protocol in Push-to-Peer Video-on-Demand System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiruselvan. R

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer networks have to streaming the video on the Internet. In P2P streaming system, the upstream bandwidth of peers are larger than video playback rate. This system does not overcome the upstream bandwidth limitation by server based stream delivery. But, the push-to-peer system does not rely on content servers except in the push phase. So, this system can overcome the bandwidth limitation. In this paper is content placement and associated pull policies that allow the optimal use of uplink bandwidth in push-to-peer video-on-demand system. The initial content placement increases the content availability and improves the use of peer uplink bandwidth. The mostly required videos are proactively pushed to the set-top-boxes in the digital subscriber line networks during time of low network utilization that is in the early morning. There are two approaches used for content placement and pull policies, which are Full striping scheme and Code-based placement scheme. The client can easily download and play out video from set-top-boxes. So, it would reduce server load, network load and downloading time. In Full striping scheme, videos are strip into video blocks and push the distinct video block into the set-top-box. This system has to provide high quality of video streaming and to reduce the client’s waiting time. This system can reduce the server load, network load and congestion. In Code-based placement scheme, videos are encoded into coded symbol by using rate less code algorithm. This approach could eliminate the box failure in full striping scheme. When the client’s required data is not available in the set-top-box, then the distributed prefetching protocol used to directly connect client to the video server and streaming the video from video server to client.

  7. Analysis on Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N.Renjith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Outlook of wireless communication system marked an extreme transform with the invention of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. WSN is a promising technolog y for enabling a variety of applications like environmental monitoring, security and applications that save our lives and assets. In WSN, large numbers of sensor nodes are deployed to sensing and gathering information and forward them to the base station with the help of routing protocol. Routing protocols plays a major role by identifying and maintaining the routes in the network. Competence o f sensor networks relay on the strong and effective routing protocol used. In this paper, we present a simulation based performance evaluation of differen t Ad hoc routing protocols like AODV, DYMO, FSR, LANM AR, RIP and ZRP in Wireless Sensor Networks. Based on the study, the future research areas and k ey challenges for routing protocol in WSN are to optimize network performance for QoS support and en ergy conservation

  8. An Efficient Quality of Service Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Godder

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc network is set up with multiple wireless devices without any infrastructure. Its employment is favored in many environments. Quality of Service (QoS is one of the main issues for any network and due to bandwidth constraint and dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks, supporting Quality of Service (QoS is extremely a challenging task. It is modeled as a multi-layer problem and is considered in both Medium Access Control (MAC and routing layers for ad hoc networks. Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV routing protocol is one of the most used and popular reactive routing protocols in ad-hoc networks. This paper proposed a new protocol QoS based AODV (QAODV which is a modified version of AODV.

  9. Analysis of Multipath MANET Routing Protocols under Variable Range Transmission Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Lalitha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad Hoc Network is a collection of mobile wireless nodes connected together to form a dynamic network without the need for any fixed infrastructure. This dynamic and unpredictable nature of MANETs requires multi-path routing. In multipath routing multiple paths are established between a source and destination pair of nodes. Multi-path routing provides several benefits such as fault-tolerance, load balancing etc. Transmission power of nodes plays an important role in MANET communication. Now, let us assume that each node can dynamically control the transmission power it uses independently of other nodes. The objective of this work is to study the behavior and performance of the two multi-path MANET routing protocols with respect to different transmission range/power of individual nodes of the network. We have selected Ad Hoc On-Demand Multi-path Distance Vector (AOMDV Routing Protocol and Multi-path Dynamic Address Routing (MDART Protocol for this study. We will analyze the impact of increase in transmission range/power of individual nodes on the performance of these multi-path MANET routing protocols.

  10. Multipath Routing Protocol for Effective Local Route Recovery in Mobile Ad hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Srivatsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In mobile ad hoc networks, frequent mobility during the transmission of data causes route failure which results in route rediscovery. In this, we propose multipath routing protocol for effective local route recovery in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET. In this protocol, each source and destination pair establishes multiple paths in the single route discovery and they are cached in their route caches. Approach: The cached routes are sorted on the basis of their bandwidth availability. In case of route failure in the primary route, a recovery node which is an overhearing neighbor, detects it and establishes a local recovery path with maximum bandwidth from its route cache. Results: By simulation results, we show that the proposed approach improves network performance. Conclusion: The proposed route recovery management technique prevents the frequent collision and degradation in the network performance.

  11. The Extended Clustering AD HOC Routing Protocol (ECRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buthayna Al-Sharaa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc networks are acollection of mobile nodes communicating via wireless channels without any fixedinfrastructure. Because of their ease and low cost of building, ad hoc networks have a lot of attractiveapplications in different fields. The topology of ad hoc networks changes dynamically, and each node in thenetwork can act as a host or router.With the increase in the number of wirelessdevices andlarge amountof traffic to be exchanged, the demand for scalable routing protocols has increased. This paper presents ascalable routing protocol, based on AODV protocol, called the Extended Clustering Ad Hoc RoutingProtocol (ECRP. This is a hybrid protocol, which combines reactive and proactive approaches in routing.The protocol uses theGlobal PositioningSystem todetermine the position of certain nodesin the network.The evaluation methodology and simulation results obtained showthat the protocol is efficient and scaleswell in large networks

  12. Evaluating Wireless Proactive Routing Protocols under Scalability and Traffic Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, N; Khan, Z A; Khan, U; Djouani, K

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate and analyze the impact of different network loads and varying no. of nodes on distance vector and link state routing algorithms. We select three well known proactive protocols; Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) operates on distance vector routing, while Fisheye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocols are based on link state routing. Further, we evaluate and compare the effects on the performance of protocols by changing the routing strategies of routing algorithms. We also enhance selected protocols to achieve high performance. We take throughput, End-to-End Delay (E2ED) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL) as performance metrics for evaluation and comparison of chosen protocols both with default and enhanced versions. Based upon extensive simulations in NS-2, we compare and discuss performance trade-offs of the protocols, i.e., how a protocol achieves high packet delivery by paying some cost in the form of increased E2ED and/or routing overhead...

  13. Prevention Of WormholeAttacks In Geographic Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Poornima,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As mobile ad hoc network applications are deployed, security emerges as a central requirement..Position aided routing protocols can offer a significant performance increase over traditional ad hoc routing protocols. Boundary State Routing (BSR is a geographic routing protocol which routes the data using the location of the nodes. Geographic routing protocols are known to be particularly susceptible to attacks.. In this paper we present the possible attacks on BSR protocol. One of the most popular and serious attacks in ad hoc networks is wormhole attack in which two or more colluding attackers record packets at one location, and tunnel them to another location for a replay at that remote location. A wormhole attack is very powerful, and preventing the attack has proven to be very difficult. In this paper, we devise efficient methods to detect and avoid wormhole attacks in the BSR protocol. The first method namely Reverse Routing Scheme (RRS attempts to detect the intrusion action .The second technique namely Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS uses cryptographic concepts to detect and prevent wormhole attacks. It not only detects the fake route but also adopts preventive measures against action wormhole nodes from reappearing during routing. The proposed system is designed in Boundary state routing (BSRprotocol and analysis and simulations are performed in network simulator (NS-2.

  14. A double candidate survivable routing protocol for HAP network

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Panfeng; Li, Chunyue; Ni, Shuyan

    2016-11-01

    To improve HAP network invulnerability, and at the same time considering the quasi-dynamic topology in HAP network, a simple and reliable routing protocol is proposed in the paper. The protocol firstly uses a double-candidate strategy for the next-node select to provide better robustness. Then during the maintenance stage, short hello packets instead of long routing packets are used only to check link connectivity in the quasi-dynamic HAP network. The route maintenance scheme based on short hello packets can greatly reduce link spending. Simulation results based on OPNET demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed routing protocol.

  15. Securing Zone Routing Protocol in Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a contribution in the field of security analysis on mobile ad-hoc networks, and security requirements of applications. Limitations of the mobile nodes have been studied in order to design a secure routing protocol that thwarts different kinds of attacks. Our approach is based on the Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP; the most popular hybrid routing protocol. The importance of the proposed solution lies in the fact that it ensures security as needed by providing a comprehensive architecture of Secure Zone Routing Protocol (SZRP based on efficient key management, secure neighbor discovery, secure routing packets, detection of malicious nodes, and preventing these nodes from destroying the network. In order to fulfill these objectives, both efficient key management and secure neighbor mechanisms have been designed to be performed prior to the functioning of the protocol.To validate the proposed solution, we use the network simulator NS-2 to test the performance of secure protocol and compare it with the conventional zone routing protocol over different number of factors that affect the network. Our results evidently show that our secure version paragons the conventional protocol in the packet delivery ratio while it has a tolerable increase in the routing overhead and average delay. Also, security analysis proves in details that the proposed protocol is robust enough to thwart all classes of ad-hoc attacks.

  16. Security Analysis of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadeghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I describe briefly some of the different types of attacks on wireless sensor networks such as Sybil, HELLO, Wormhole and Sinkhole attacks. Then I describe security analysis of some major routing protocols in wireless sensor network such as Directed Diffusion, TinyOS beaconing, geographic and Rumor routings in term of attacks and security goals. As a result I explain some secure routing protocols for wireless sensor network and is discussed briefly some methods and policy of these protocols to meet their security requirements. At last some simulation results of these protocols that have been done by their designer are mentioned.

  17. Modelling and Initial Validation of the DYMO Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espensen, Kristian Asbjørn Leth; Kjeldsen, Mads Keblov; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2008-01-01

    A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is an infrastructureless network established by a set of mobile devices using wireless communication. The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) protocol is a routing protocol for multi-hop communication in MANETs currently under development by the Internet Engineering Task...... Force (IETF). This paper presents a Coloured Petri Net (CPN) model of the mandatory parts of the DYMO protocol, and shows how scenario-based state space exploration has been used to validate key properties of the protocol. Our CPN modelling and verification work has spanned two revisions of the DYMO...... protocol specification and have had direct impact on the most recent version of the protocol specification....

  18. Routing Protocol Performance Issues and Evaluation Considerations in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Venkata Maheswara,

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile nodes in Wire less a d-hoc networ k need to operate as routers in or d er to maintain the informa tion ab out network connectivity as there is no centralized infrastructure. Therefore,Routing Protocols are required which could adapt dynamically to the changing topologies and works at low data rates. As are sult, there arises a need for the compreh ensive performance evaluation of the ad-doc routing protocols in same frame work to under stand their comparative merits and suitability for deployment in different scenarios. In this paper the protocols suite selected for comparison are AODV, DSR, TORA and OLSR ad- hoc routing protocols, as these were the most promising from all other protocols. The performance of these protocols is evaluated through exhaustive simulations using the OPNET Model network simulator under different parameters like routing over head, delay , throughput and network load under varying the mobile nodes .

  19. Analisis Performansi Routing Protocol OLSR Dan AOMDV Pada Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianda Anisia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET is a development of the Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET, which makes the vehicle as its nodes. VANET technology is expected to improve the security of drivers while driving on a highway between the others, with the map location, traffic information, warning if there will be a collision, and internet access in the vehicle. However, VANET has the characteristics of a network rapidly changing due to the rapid movement of nodes that need to have a routing protocol that is considered suitable and efficient so that data transmission can be optimally lasts. This research will be simulated and analyzed the comparative performance of Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR and Ad Hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV using urban conditions (urban. The environment will be tested in speed changes and the effect of the number of nodes nodes. This simulation was done using NS-equipped with SUMO 0.12.3 2:34. as mobility MOVE as a script generator and generator Performance was measured using parameters such as Average throughput comparison, Packet Delivery Ratio, Average End-to-end delay, Normalized Routing Load, and Routing Overhead. Results of analysis in environmental VANET, routing protocols AOMDV superior routing protocol than OLSR. Because almost all parameters tested in scenarios of changes in the number of nodes and node speed AOMDV have better performance so AOMDV more efficient use on urban environmental conditions.

  20. 3DMRP: 3-Directional Zone-Disjoint Multipath Routing Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongseung; Kim, Dongkyun

    In static wireless ad hoc networks such as wireless mesh networks and wireless sensor networks, multipath routing techniques are very useful for improving end-to-end delay, throughput, and load balancing, as compared to single-path routing techniques. When determining multiple paths, however, multipath routing protocols should address the well-known route coupling problem that results from a geographic proximity of adjacent routes and that hampers performance gain. Although a lot of multipath routing protocols have been proposed, most of them focused on obtaining node or link-disjoint multipaths. In order to address the route coupling problem, some multipath routing protocols utilizing zone-disjointness property were proposed. However, they suffer from an overhead of control traffic or require additional equipment such as directional antenna. This paper therefore proposes a novel multipath routing protocol, based on geographical information with low overhead, called 3-directional zone-disjoint multipath routing protocol (3DMRP). 3DMRP searches up to three zone-disjoint paths by using two techniques: 1) greedy forwarding, and 2) RREP-overhearing. One primary and two secondary paths are obtained via greedy forwarding in order to reduce control overhead, and these secondary paths are found by avoiding the RREP overhearing zone created during the primary path acquisition. In particular, two versions of 3DMRP are introduced in order to avoid the RREQ-overhearing zone. Through ns-2 simulations, 3DMRP is evaluated to verify that it achieves performance improvements in terms of throughput and control overhead.

  1. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiali Almazaydeh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of sensor networks strongly depends on the routing protocol used. In this paper, we analyze three different types of routing protocols: LEACH, PEGASIS, and VGA. Sensor networks aresimulated using Sensoria simulator. Several simulations are conducted to analyze the performance of these protocols including the power consumption and overall network performance. The simulationresults, using same limited sensing range value, show that PEGASIS outperforms all other protocols while LEACH has better performance than VGA. Furthermore, the paper investigates the powerconsumption for all protocols. On the average, VGA has the worst power consumption when the sensing range is limited, while VGA is the best when the sensing range is increased

  3. Routing protocol extension for resilient GMPLS multi-domain networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Romeral, Ricardo;

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of multi-domain networks under the Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching control framework in case of a single inter-domain link failure. We propose and evaluate a routing protocol extension for the Border Gateway Protocol, which allows domains to obtain ...

  4. A Review of Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Movassaghi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advancements in wireless communication, integrated circuits and Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMs has enabled miniaturized, lowpower, intelligent, invasive/ non-invasive micro and nanotechnology sensor nodes placed in or on the human body for use in monitoring body function and its immediate environment referred to as Body Area Networks (BANs. BANs face many stringent requirements in terms of delay, power, temperature and network lifetime which need to be taken into serious consideration in the design of different protocols. Since routing protocols play an important role in the overall system performance in terms of delay, power consumption, temperature and so on, a thorough study on existing routing protocols in BANs is necessary. Also, the specific challenges of BANs necessitates the design of new routing protocols specifically designed for BANs. This paper provides a survey of existing routing protocols mainly proposed for BANs. These protocols are further classified into five main categories namely, temperature based, crosslayer, cluster based, cost-effective and QoS-based routing, where each protocol is described under its specified category. Also, comparison among routing protocols in each category is given.

  5. On Performance Modeling of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayam SyedAli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation studies have been the predominant method of evaluating ad hoc routing algorithms. Despite their wide use and merits, simulations are generally time consuming. Furthermore, several prominent ad hoc simulations report inconsistent and unrepeatable results. We, therefore, argue that simulation-based evaluation of ad hoc routing protocols should be complemented with mathematical verification and comparison. In this paper, we propose a performance evaluation framework that can be used to model two key performance metrics of an ad hoc routing algorithm, namely, routing overhead and route optimality. We also evaluate derivatives of the two metrics, namely, total energy consumption and route discovery latency. Using the proposed framework, we evaluate the performance of four prominent ad hoc routing algorithms: DSDV, DSR, AODV-LL, and Gossiping. We show that the modeled metrics not only allow unbiased performance comparison but also provide interesting insight about the impact of different parameters on the behavior of these protocols.

  6. Dynamic Routing Protocol for Computer Networks with Clustering Topology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical dynamic routing protocol (HDRP) based on the discrete dynamic programming principle. The proposed protocol can adapt to the dynamic and large computer networks (DLCN) with clustering topology. The procedures for realizing routing update and decision are presented in this paper. The proof of correctness and complexity analysis of the protocol are also made. The performance measures of the HDRP including throughput and average message delay are evaluated by using of simulation. The study shows that the HDRP provides a new available approach to the routing decision for DLCN or high speed networks with clustering topology.

  7. Analysis of Prominent Reactive Routing Protocols using Self Created Network Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Makkar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Adhoc Network is characterized by multi-hop wireless connectivity and dynamic topology. The mobile nodes in this network communicate with each other without established infrastructure. Since the wireless links are highly error prone and can go down frequently due to mobility of nodes, therefore, routing in MANET is a critical task due to highly dynamic environment. In this research paper, pattern analysis of two on-demand routing protocols has been done by presenting their functionality. A simulation model with TCP and UDP connections has been developed to study inter-layer interactions and their performance implications. The performance differential parameters have been analyzed using metrics like PDR with varying speed and pause time. Based on the simulation results, recommendations have been made about the significance of either protocol in various situations. The study reveals that DSR protocol outperforms AODV protocol under low as well as high mobility situation in case of UDP as well as TCP connections. AODV protocol also starts performing well under high mobility situation. DSR protocol outperforms AODV protocol when the connections are through UDP and this analysis is independent of pause time. AODV protocol outperforms the DSR protocol when the connections are through TCP and the pause time is increased up to a large extent.

  8. Evaluating Impact of Mobility on Wireless Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, N; Ahmad, A; Naveed, A; Djouani, K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate, analyze, and compare the impact of mobility on the behavior of three reactive protocols (AODV, DSR, DYMO) and three proactive protocols (DSDV, FSR, OLSR) in multi-hop wireless networks. We take into account throughput, end-to-end delay, and normalized routing load as performance parameters. Based upon the extensive simulation results in NS-2, we rank all of six protocols according to the performance parameters. Besides providing the interesting facts regarding the response of each protocol on varying mobilities and speeds, we also study the trade-offs, the routing protocols have to make. Such as, to achieve throughput, a protocol has to pay some cost in the form of increased end-to-end delay or routing overhead.

  9. Scripted Mobile Network Routing in a Contested Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Protocol Comparisons Iwata measures on-demand routing , such as AODV , Fisheye State Routing (FSR...comparison between DSDV, CGSR, The Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP), AODV , DSR, TORA, Associativity-Based Routing (ABR) and Signal Stability Routing (SSR...with AODV . The modified routing does not change AODV , and can be used with any routing protocol . AODV is tested with and without the plan

  10. On-Demand Multicasting in Ad-hoc Networks: Performance Evaluation of AODV, ODMRP and FSR

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, M

    2011-01-01

    Adhoc networks are characterized by connectivity through a collection of wireless nodes and fast changing network topology. Wireless nodes are free to move independent of each other which makes routing much difficult. This calls for the need of an efficient dynamic routing protocol. Mesh-based multicast routing technique establishes communications between mobile nodes of wireless adhoc networks in a faster and efficient way. In this article the performance of prominent on-demand routing protocols for mobile adhoc networks such as ODMRP (On Demand Multicast Routing Protocol), AODV (Adhoc on Demand Distance Vector) and FSR (Fisheye State Routing protocol) was studied. The parameters viz., average throughput, packet delivery ration and end-to-end delay were evaluated. From the simulation results and analysis, a suitable routing protocol can be chosen for a specified network. The results show that the ODMRP protocol performance is remarkably superior as compared with AODV and FSR routing protocols. Keywords: MANE...

  11. Comparative Analysis of AODV, OLSR, TORA, DSR and DSDV Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilpreet Kaur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs are autonomous and decentralized wireless systems. Mobile Ad hoc Network is a collection of mobile nodes in which the wireless links are frequently broken down due to mobility and dynamic infrastructure. Routing is a significant issue and challenge in ad hoc networks. Many Routing protocols have been proposed so far to improve the routing performance and reliability. This research paper describes the characteristics of ad hoc routing protocols Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV, Optimized link State Routing (OLSR, Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV based on the performance metrics like packet delivery fraction, Average delay, Normalized Routing load, Throughput and Jitter under low mobility and low traffic network as well as under high mobility and high traffic network. Results show that AODV has maximum throughput under low traffic and DSDV has maximum throughput under high traffic. As network becomes dense OLSR, DSR and DSDV perform well in terms of Throughput than AODV and TORA. TORA performs well in dense networks in terms of packet delivery fraction but at the same time Normalized Routing load of TORA is maximum among all the protocols in both the networks. DSDV has least Normalized Routing load in both low and high traffic. OLSR and DSDV give the least Jitter and Average Delay in both networks.

  12. Analyzing Zone Routing Protocol in MANET Applying Authentic Parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhtaria, Kamaljit I

    2010-01-01

    Routing is the main part of wireless adhoc network conventionally there are two approaches first one is Proactive and another one is Reactive. Both these approaches have some substantial disadvantage and to overcome hybrid routing protocols designed. ZRP (Zone Routing Protocol) is one of the hybrid routing protocols, it takes advantage of proactive approach by providing reliability within the scalable zone, and for beyond the scalable zone it looks for the reactive approach. It (ZRP) uses the proactive and the reactive routing according to the need of the application at that particular instance of time depending upon the prevailing scenario. This work revolves around the performance of ZRP against realistic parameters by varying various attributes such as Zone Radius of ZRP in different node density. Results vary as we change the node density on Qualnet 4.0 network simulator.

  13. Routing Protocols for Cognitive Radio Networks: A Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    with the cognitive radio (CR) technology, a wireless system can exploit opportunistically the radio spectrum licensed to other systems. Thus, CR is regarded as a solution to the problems resulting from the limited available spectrum and the inefficiency in the spectrum usage. The multi-hop CR networks need some novel routing algorithms taking the open spectrum phenomenon into account. The main approach in designing the routing algorithm for the CR networks is the joint design of routing and spectrum management. Works on such issues have just started and are still in a rudimentary stage. In this paper, we survey comprehensively the existing research on the routing protocols for CR networks, especially with reference to CR ad hoc networks. We classify the routing protocols, discuss the essential features of the different protocols, and provide the future research directions.

  14. Cross-Layer Design of Energy-Saving AODV Routing Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bing; JIN Zhigang; SHU Yantai

    2009-01-01

    Since most ad hoc mobile devices today operate on batteries, the power consumption becomes an im-portant issue. This paper proposes a cross-layer design of energy-aware ad hoc on-demand distance vector (CEAODV)routing protocol which adopts cross-layer mechanism and energy-aware metric to improve AODV routing protocol to reduce the energy consumption and then prolong the life of the whole network. In CEAODV, the link layer and the routing layer work together to choose the optimized transmission power for nodes and the route for packets. The link layer provides the energy consumption information for the routing layer and the routing layer chooses route accordingly and conversely controls the link layer to adjust the transmission power. The simulation result shows that CEAODV can outperform AODV to save more energy. It can reduce the consumed energy by about 8% over traditional energy-aware algorithm. And the performance is better when the traffic load is higher in the network.

  15. Enhanced DSR Routing Protocol for the Short Time Disconnected MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAPAJ Ján

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Data delivery in Mobile Ad-Hoc network (MANET is a very difficult task due to the fact the sporadic connections between mobile nodes. For this reason, we introduce the new modified routing protocol that enables the data delivery in the case that the connections are disconnected. A key aspect of the protocol is a process of finding connections between source and destination nodes that can provide low end-to-end delay and better delivery performance in a disconnected MANET. The protocol provides the concepts of opportunistic routing of the routing packets in disconnected MANETs. In this paper we present a modification of the DSR routing protocol and also some results of a simulation.

  16. Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Rakesh Kumar,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available hoc networks are self configuring network and by a random and quickly changing network topology; thus the need for a robust dynamic routing protocol can accommodate such an environment. Different protocols govern the mobile ad hoc networks and to improve the packet delivery ratio of Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks with high mobility, a message exchange scheme for its invalid route reconstruction is being used. Three protocols AODV, DSDV and I-DSDV were simulated using NS-2 package and were compared in terms of packet delivery ratio, end to end delay routing overhead in different environment; varying number of nodes, speed and pause time. Simulation results show that IDSDVcompared with DSDV, it reduces the number of dropped data packets with little increased overhead at higher rates of node mobility but still compete with AODV in higher node speed and number of node.

  17. Performance Analysis of MANET (WLAN Using Different Routing Protocols in Multi service Environments-An Quantitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K.Nadesh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network is a network (MANET of wireless mobile nodes (MNs that communicate with each other without centralized control or established infrastructure. Routing protocols are divided into Proactive and Reactive.Pro-active is a table–driven protocols. The proactive routing protocols use link- state routing algorithm which frequently flood the link information about its neighbors. Reactive or on-demand routing protocols create routes when they are needed by the source host and these routes are maintained while they are needed. This paper proposes a solution for performance enhancement of VoIP and HTTP in Ad-hoc WLANs. This paper compares the performance of VoIP and HTTP over different IEEE standards and draws a conclusion based on performance of the network over different QoS parameters. Later the suitability of different routing protocols like AODV, DSR, OLSR and GRP for VoIP and HTTP traffic is compared and OLSR is found to have highest throughput with least delay as compared to other protocols. Thus we observed that, the throughput increase of around 80% over the existing routing standard and enormous decrease in end to end delay.

  18. Improving MANET Routing Protocols Through the Use of Geographical Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil Hnatyshin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a summary of our research studyof the location-aided routing protocols for mobilead hoc networks (MANET. This study focuses on theissue of using geographical location information toreduce the control traffic overhead associated withthe route discovery process of the ad-hoc on demanddistance vector (AODV routing protocol. AODV performs route discovery by flooding the wholenetwork with the route request packets. This results in unnecessarily large number of control packetstraveling through the network. In this paper, we introduced a new Geographical AODV (GeoAODVprotocol that relies on location information to reduce the flooding area to a portion of the network that islikely contains a path to destination. Furthermore,we also compared GeoAODV performance with thatof the Location Aided Routing (LAR protocol and examined four mechanisms for reducing the size of theflooding area: LAR zone, LAR distance, GeoAODV static, and GeoAODV rotate. We employed OPNETModeler version 16.0 software to implement these mechanisms and to compare their performancethrough simulation. Collected results suggest thatlocation-aided routing can significantly reduce thecontrol traffic overhead during the route discoveryprocess. The comparison study revealed that the LARzone protocol consistently generates fewer controlpackets than other location-aided mechanisms.However, LAR zone relies on the assumption that location information and traveling velocities of all thenodes are readily available throughout the network,which in many network environments is unrealistic.At the same time, the GeoAODV protocols make no such assumption and dynamically distribute locationinformation during route discovery. Furthermore, the collected results showed that the performance ofthe GeoAODV rotate protocol was only slightly worsethan that of LAR zone. We believe that eventhough GeoAODV rotate does not reduce the control traffic overhead by as much as LAR zone, it canbecome a

  19. Flying Ad-Hoc Networks: Routing Protocols, Mobility Models, Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Muneer Bani Yassein; “Nour Alhuda” Damer

    2016-01-01

    Flying Ad-Hoc Networks (FANETs) is a group of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) which completed their work without human intervention. There are some problems in this kind of networks: the first one is the communication between (UAVs). Various routing protocols introduced classified into three categories, static, proactive, reactive routing protocols in order to solve this problem. The second problem is the network design, which depends on the network mobility, in which is the process of cooperati...

  20. Analysis QoS Parameters for MANETs Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Biradar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a decentralized network of autonomous mobile nodes able to communicate with each other over wireless links. We selected three routing protocols DSDV, DSR and AODVfor measuring QoS parameters. We have used the network simulator ns-2 for simulating routing protocols using group mobility model, and present the results of simulations of networks of 40 wireless mobile nodes.

  1. Perancangan dan Analisis Redistribution Routing Protocol OSPF dan EIGRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI ARYANTA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak OSPF (Open Shortest Path First dan EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol adalah dua routing protokol yang banyak digunakan dalam jaringan komputer. Perbedaan karakteristik antar routing protokol menimbulkan masalah dalam pengiriman paket data. Teknik redistribution adalah solusi untuk melakukan komunikasi antar routing protokol. Dengan menggunakan software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 pada penelitian ini dibuat simulasi OSPF dan EIGRP yang dihubungkan oleh teknik redistribution, kemudian dibandingkan kualitasnya dengan single routing protokol EIGRP dan OSPF. Parameter pengujian dalam penelitian ini adalah nilai time delay dan trace route. Nilai trace route berdasarkan perhitungan langsung cost dan metric dibandingkan dengan hasil simulasi. Hasilnya dapat dilakukan proses redistribution OSPF dan EIGRP. Nilai delay redistribution lebih baik 1% dibanding OSPF dan 2-3% di bawah EIGRP tergantung kepadatan traffic. Dalam perhitungan trace route redistribution dilakukan 2 perhitungan, yaitu cost untuk area OSPF dan metric pada area EIGRP. Pengambilan jalur utama dan alternatif pengiriman paket berdasarkan nilai cost dan metric yang terkecil, hal ini terbukti berdasarkan perhitungan dan simulasi. Kata kunci: OSPF, EIGRP, Redistribution, Delay, Cost, Metric. Abstract OSPF (Open Shortest Path First and EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol are two routing protocols are widely used in computer networks. Differences between the characteristics of routing protocols pose a problem in the delivery of data packets. Redistribution technique is the solution for communication between routing protocols. By using the software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 in this study were made simulating OSPF and EIGRP redistribution linked by technique, then compared its quality with a single EIGRP and OSPF routing protocols. Testing parameters in this study is the value of the time delay and trace route. Value trace route based on direct calculation of cost

  2. Power Aware QoS Multipath Routing Protocol for Disaster Recovery Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Santhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile communication plays an important role in disaster recovery management during emergency situations. It is helpful in situations where the system has less robust and less flexible fixed infrastructure. The Disaster recovery management systems require timely interaction and coordination in order to save lives and property. Energy consumption in heterogeneous network is a major issue , whether they operate within a base station infrastructure , fixed network or in a free-standing Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET. The lifetime of network will be improved by suitably reducing the requirement of power for connections. There is a challenge to provide Quality of Service (QoS solutions to wired cum wireless domains and maintain end-to-end QoS in ad hoc network. In this paper we propose a new protocol Power Aware QoS Multipath Routing protocol (PAQMR for disaster recovery network. This protocol is the enhanced protocol of Ad-Hoc On Demand Multipath Distance Vector protocol (AOMDV. This routing protocol is used to avoid the loop formation in network so that it reduces congestion in the channel. The Network Simulator (NS-2.34 tool is utilized to measure the performance of AODV, AOMDV and PAQMR protocols in hybrid environment. The metrics for the simulation are energy consumption, average end to end delay and packet delivery ratio by varying the traffic load and pause time in the network. The results shows that the proposed protocol minimize the power, delay, congestion and maximize the packet delivery ratio.

  3. Efficient Resource Conservation Design in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Reactive Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Sujitha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network is a compilation of wireless mobile terminals that are in contact with each other in the absence of a permanent infrastructure network. This gives a irregular formation. Many resources like power, energy, reliable data delivery and end to end delay plays a significant role in the network. But due to the dynamic movement of nodes, power management and energy conservation stands as a critical area. This is also due to the limited battery power and the maximum utilization of power by the nodes in the network .The responsibility of saving power has increased and it is possible byminimizing the consumption during the routing process. It is done in order to expand the lifetime of the network. In view of such a vital position, we introduce a new algorithm using an MAODV( Modified AdHoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol protocol which exactly concentrates on power awareness at the time of route selection. Power status of each and every node is observed to avoid excess consumption. It also makes sure that there is a rise in the speed of route selection and discovery process. Route Patch-Up scheme used in this algorithm results in optimum utilization of power using an Modified AODV (MAODV protocol. Thus the idea proposed provides better performance through simulation over NS2.

  4. Survey on Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Devika

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is a wireless network consisting of ten to thousand small nodes with sensing, computing and wireless communication capabilities. WSN are generally used to monitor activities and report events, such as fire, overheating etc. in a specific area or environment. It routs data back to the Base Station (BS. Data transmission is usually a multi-hop from node to nodetowards the BS. Sensor nodes are limited in power, computational and communication bandwidth. Primary goal of researchers is to find the energy efficient routing protocol. This study highlights the different routing protocol with advantages and limitations.

  5. Optimized energy-delay sub-network routing protocol development and implementation for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda, James W.; Zawodniok, Maciej; Jagannathan, S.; Watkins, Steve E.

    2008-08-01

    The development and the implementation issues of a reactive optimized energy-delay sub-network routing (OEDSR) protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSN) are introduced and its performance is contrasted with the popular ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol. Analytical results illustrate the performance of the proposed OEDSR protocol, while experimental results utilizing a hardware testbed under various scenarios demonstrate improvements in energy efficiency of the OEDSR protocol. A hardware platform constructed at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), now the Missouri University of Science and Technology (MST), based on the Generation 4 Smart Sensor Node (G4-SSN) prototyping platform is also described. Performance improvements are shown in terms of end-to-end (E2E) delay, throughput, route-set-up time and drop rates and energy usage is given for three topologies, including a mobile topology. Additionally, results from the hardware testbed provide valuable lessons for network deployments. Under testing OEDSR provides a factor of ten improvement in the energy used in the routing session and extends network lifetime compared to AODV. Depletion experiments show that the time until the first node failure is extended by a factor of three with the network depleting and network lifetime is extended by 6.7%.

  6. Geo-Based Inter-Domain Routing (GIDR) Protocol for MANETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    routing protocol such as DSDV, AODV is used. The GIDR inter- domain routing protocol chooses the routing path which is marked by red... routing protocols , the scenarios of Figure 7 and 8 have multiple domains, each of which runs different routing protocols , such as AODV , BELLMANFORD...GEO-BASED INTER-DOMAIN ROUTING (GIDR) PROTOCOL FOR MANETS Biao Zhou*, Abhishek Tiwari+, Konglin Zhu*, You Lu$, Mario Gerla*, Anurag Ganguli+,

  7. Survey on Routing Protocols for Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Sharma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Different routing protocol perform different role in the underwater sensor network. All routing perform each and specific task into underwater sensor network which responsible for networking problems issue that is why this is the latest way of research. Routing term derived from “route” that means a path a way that perform different terms in underwater sensor network problem related issue. The best part is today many routing protocol are present in the underwater wireless sensor network. Some different attributes comes underwater wireless sensor network like likes high bit error rates, limited band-width, 3D deployment and high propagation delay. This paper is referring to as helpful for giving brief overview about each and every protocol and responsible for entire underwater wireless sensor network

  8. A Secure Wireless Routing Protocol Using Enhanced Chain Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Amitabh

    2009-01-01

    We propose a routing protocol for wireless networks. Wireless routing protocols allow hosts within a network to have some knowledge of the topology in order to know when to forward a packet (via broadcast) and when to drop it. Since a routing protocol forms the backbone of a network, it is a lucrative target for many attacks, all of which attempt to disrupt network traffic by corrupting routing tables of neighboring routers using false updates. Secure routing protocols designed for wired networks (such as S-BGP) are not scalable in an ad-hoc wireless environment because of two main drawbacks: (1) the need to maintain knowledge about all immediate neighbors (which requires a discovery protocol), and (2) the need to transmit the same update several times, one for each neighbor. Although information about neighbors is readily available in a fairly static and wired network, such information is often not updated or available in an ad-hoc wireless network with mobile devices. Our protocol is a variant of S-BGP call...

  9. From Active to Passive Progress in Testing Internet Routing Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵邑新; 吴建平; 尹霞

    2002-01-01

    Routing protocols play an important role in the Internet and the test requirements are running up. To test routing protocols more efficiently, several enhancing techniques are applied in the protocol integrated test system described in this paper. The Implementation Under Test is modeled as a black box with windows. The test system is endowed with multiple channels and multiple ports to test distributed protocols. The test suite and other related aspects are also extended. Meanwhile, the passive testing is introduced to test, analyze and manage routing protocols in the production field, which is able to perform the conformance test, the interoperability test and the performance test. The state machine of peer sessions is tested with the state synchronization algorithm, and the routing information manipulation and other operations are checked and analyzed with the methods like the topology analysis and the internal process simulation. With both the active testing and the passive testing, the routing protocol test is going further and more thoroughly and helps a lot in the development of routers.

  10. PGBR Protocol for Cloud Routing Implementation in NS-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Tushar Kailas Mendhe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current internet infrastructure is fronting a number of boundaries that is not suitable to meet the growing number of services and users. In particular, one aspect that requires enhancement is routing, where original routing concepts were designed for static traffic patterns with minimal variations and supporting mainly low through put traffic (e.g. Data. As the number of users as well as services supporting the user grows, the current routing mechanisms will not be feasible. In this paper we present a gradient based distributed routing technique that is based on discovering routes through a gradient field created in the topology. The gradient calculation is based on weighted sum of a number of components, which modifies the gradient field as the network load changes. An improved version of a fully distributed routing protocol that is applicable for cloud computing infrastructure, also an implementation of the PGBR routing protocol within the ns-3 simulator. Broadband convergence networks can offer a solution for multiple service classes through integrated heterogeneous networks. However, to prepare this for the future variability in traffic demand, a dynamic routing protocol that boosts scalability, QoS awareness, and easy roadmap to deployment if necessary. The implementation using ns-3 simulator can ensure this capability.

  11. Novel Routing Protocol Based on Periodic Route Discovery for Mobile Adhoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Jai KumarAssociate

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of mobile devices called as nodes, without any centralized network, communicates with each other over multi-hop links is called as an Ad-hoc Network (MANET. The military battle-field scenarios, Post-disaster rescue efforts, sensor networks, and entrepreneurs in a conference are some of the examples of mobile ad-hoc networks. Since there is no infrastructure in the network, the routing should be handled at every node. To improve the life time of network different routing protocols are consider. In present routing protocols of ad hoc networks, routing is an act of moving information from a source to destination in an internetwork. Route is selected in the route discovery phase until all the packets are sent out. Due to the continuous flow of packets in a selected route leads to the route failure. In order to reduce this problem we consider PRD-based MMBCR and considering the percentage of the optimum value for periodic route discovery. In our research we are going to analyze the performance of different routing protocols like DSR, MMBCR to get maximum optimum value using Network Simulator Software.

  12. On the routing protocol influence on the resilience of wireless sensor networks to jamming attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Valle-Soto, Carolina; Mex-Perera, Carlos; Monroy, Raul; Nolazco-Flores, Juan Arturo

    2015-03-27

    In this work, we compare a recently proposed routing protocol, the multi-parent hierarchical (MPH) protocol, with two well-known protocols, the ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) and dynamic source routing (DSR). For this purpose, we have developed a simulator, which faithfully reifies the workings of a given protocol, considering a fixed, reconfigurable ad hoc network given by the number and location of participants, and general network conditions. We consider a scenario that can be found in a large number of wireless sensor network applications, a single sink node that collects all of the information generated by the sensors. The metrics used to compare the protocols were the number of packet retransmissions, carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) inner loop retries, the number of nodes answering the queries from the coordinator (sink) node and the energy consumption. We tested the network under ordinary (without attacks) conditions (and combinations thereof) and when it is subject to different types of jamming attacks (in particular, random and reactive jamming attacks), considering several positions for the jammer. Our results report that MPH has a greater ability to tolerate such attacks than DSR and AODV, since it minimizes and encapsulates the network segment under attack. The self-configuring capabilities of MPH derived from a combination of a proactive routes update, on a periodic-time basis, and a reactive behavior provide higher resilience while offering a better performance (overhead and energy consumption) than AODV and DSR, as shown in our simulation results.

  13. On the Routing Protocol Influence on the Resilience of Wireless Sensor Networks to Jamming Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Del-Valle-Soto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we compare a recently proposed routing protocol, the multi-parent hierarchical (MPH protocol, with two well-known protocols, the ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV and dynamic source routing (DSR. For this purpose, we have developed a simulator, which faithfully reifies the workings of a given protocol, considering a fixed, reconfigurable ad hoc network given by the number and location of participants, and general network conditions. We consider a scenario that can be found in a large number of wireless sensor network applications, a single sink node that collects all of the information generated by the sensors. The metrics used to compare the protocols were the number of packet retransmissions, carrier sense multiple access (CSMA inner loop retries, the number of nodes answering the queries from the coordinator (sink node and the energy consumption. We tested the network under ordinary (without attacks conditions (and combinations thereof and when it is subject to different types of jamming attacks (in particular, random and reactive jamming attacks, considering several positions for the jammer. Our results report that MPH has a greater ability to tolerate such attacks than DSR and AODV, since it minimizes and encapsulates the network segment under attack. The self-configuring capabilities of MPH derived from a combination of a proactive routes update, on a periodic-time basis, and a reactive behavior provide higher resilience while offering a better performance (overhead and energy consumption than AODV and DSR, as shown in our simulation results.

  14. A native Bayesian classifier based routing protocol for VANETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhenshan; Zhou, Keqin; Zhang, Wenbo; Gong, Xiaolei

    2016-12-01

    Geographic routing protocols are one of the most hot research areas in VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network). However, there are few routing protocols can take both the transmission efficient and the usage of ratio into account. As we have noticed, different messages in VANET may ask different quality of service. So we raised a Native Bayesian Classifier based routing protocol (Naive Bayesian Classifier-Greedy, NBC-Greedy), which can classify and transmit different messages by its emergency degree. As a result, we can balance the transmission efficient and the usage of ratio with this protocol. Based on Matlab simulation, we can draw a conclusion that NBC-Greedy is more efficient and stable than LR-Greedy and GPSR.

  15. An Improved 6LoWPAN Hierarchical Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available IETF 6LoWPAN working group is engaged in the IPv6 protocol stack research work based on IEEE802.15.4 standard. In this working group, the routing protocol is one of the important research contents. In the 6LoWPAN, HiLow is a well-known layered routing protocol. This paper puts forward an improved hierarchical routing protocol GHiLow by improving HiLow parent node selection and path restoration strategy. GHiLow improves the parent node selection by increasing the choice of parameters. Simutaneously, it also improves path recovery by analysing different situations to recovery path. Therefore, GHiLow contributes to the ehancement of network performance and the decrease of network energy consumption.

  16. Management of Energy Consumption on Cluster Based Routing Protocol for MANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Seno, Seyed-Amin; Wan, Tat-Chee; Budiarto, Rahmat; Yamada, Masashi

    The usage of light-weight mobile devices is increasing rapidly, leading to demand for more telecommunication services. Consequently, mobile ad hoc networks and their applications have become feasible with the proliferation of light-weight mobile devices. Many protocols have been developed to handle service discovery and routing in ad hoc networks. However, the majority of them did not consider one critical aspect of this type of network, which is the limited of available energy in each node. Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) is a robust/scalable routing protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and superior to existing protocols such as Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) in terms of throughput and overhead. Therefore, based on this strength, methods to increase the efficiency of energy usage are incorporated into CBRP in this work. In order to increase the stability (in term of life-time) of the network and to decrease the energy consumption of inter-cluster gateway nodes, an Enhanced Gateway Cluster Based Routing Protocol (EGCBRP) is proposed. Three methods have been introduced by EGCBRP as enhancements to the CBRP: improving the election of cluster Heads (CHs) in CBRP which is based on the maximum available energy level, implementing load balancing for inter-cluster traffic using multiple gateways, and implementing sleep state for gateway nodes to further save the energy. Furthermore, we propose an Energy Efficient Cluster Based Routing Protocol (EECBRP) which extends the EGCBRP sleep state concept into all idle member nodes, excluding the active nodes in all clusters. The experiment results show that the EGCBRP decreases the overall energy consumption of the gateway nodes up to 10% and the EECBRP reduces the energy consumption of the member nodes up to 60%, both of which in turn contribute to stabilizing the network.

  17. Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks Routing Protocols - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Jayakumar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks(MANET represent complex distributed systems that comprise wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically self organize into arbitrary and temporary ad-hoc network topologies, allowing people and devices to seamlessly internet work in areas with no preexisting communication infrastructure e.g., disaster recovery environments. An ad-hoc network is not a new one, having been around in various forms for over 20 years. Traditionally, tactical networks have been the only communication networking application that followed the ad-hoc paradigm. Recently the introduction of new technologies such as Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11 and hyperlan are helping enable eventual commercial MANET deployments outside the military domain. These recent revolutions have been generating a renewed and growing interest in the research and development of MANET. To facilitate communication within the network a routing protocol is used to discover routes between nodes. The goal of the routing protocol is to have an efficient route establishment between a pair of nodes, so that messages can be delivered in a timely manner. Bandwidth and power constraints are the important factors to be considered in current wireless network because multi-hop ad-hoc wireless relies on each node in the network to act as a router and packet forwarder. This dependency places bandwidth, power computation demands on mobile host to be taken into account while choosing the protocol. Routing protocols used in wired network cannot be used for mobile ad-hoc networks because of node mobility. The ad-hoc routing protocols are divided into two classes: table driven and demand based. This paper reviews and discusses routing protocol belonging to each category.

  18. SDL design of MPLS routing protocol in the private network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Lu, Yang; Lin, Xiaokang

    2005-02-01

    Nowadays multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) technology has achieved great popularity in the world. Because MPLS adopts the scheme of "route once and switch many", routing is the key element to ensure packets are transmitted to destinations. Though there are many designs of MPLS routing protocol for public networks, they can hardly fit the private network very well for its special characteristics. This paper presents the design of MPLS routing protocol in the private network using the specification and description language (SDL), which is an object-oriented formal language and mainly used in communications area. In our design the whole autonomous system (AS) is regarded as a single area to reduce the number of protocol packets. The SDL module of MPLS routing protocol consists of four kinds of processes, namely Management, Checking, NeigSession and LSADbase. Simulations of the SDL design are run in many scenarios, the results of which indicate that the SDL module is manageable and the overall performance is satisfying. From our design and simulation experience, we find that the software development cycle can be drastically reduced by the use of SDL, and the code is easy to maintain and reuse.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Two Reactive Routing Protocols of MANET using Group Mobility Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harminder S. Bindra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad-hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any stand-alone infrastructure or centralized administration. Mobile ad-hoc network have the attributes such as wireless connection, continuously changing topology, distributed operation and ease of deployment. In this paper we have compared the performance of two reactive MANET routing protocol AODV and DSR by using Group mobility model. Both share similar On-Demand behavior, but the protocol's internal mechanism leads to significant performance difference. We have analyzed the performance of protocols by varying network load, mobility and type of traffic (CBR and TCP. Group Mobility model has been generated by IMPORTANT (Impact of Mobility Patterns on Routing in Ad-hoc NeTwork tool. A detailed simulation has been carried out in NS2. The metrics used for performance analysis are Packet Delivery Fraction, Average end-to-end Delay, Routing Overhead and Normalized Routing Load. It has been observed that AODV gives better performance in CBR traffic and real time delivery of packet. Where as DSR gives better results in TCP traffic and under restricted bandwidth condition.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Mesh based Multicast Reactive Routing Protocol under Black Hole Attack

    CERN Document Server

    Anita, E A Mary

    2009-01-01

    A mobile ad-hoc network is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links in which nodes cooperate by forwarding packets for each other thereby enabling communication beyond direct wireless transmission range. The wireless and dynamic nature of ad-hoc networks makes them vulnerable to attacks especially in routing protocols. Providing security in mobile ad-hoc networks has been a major issue over the recent years. One of the prominent mesh base reactive multicast routing protocols used in ad-hoc networks is On Demand Multicast Routing protocol (ODMRP). The security of ODMRP is compromised by a primary routing attack called black hole attack. In this attack a malicious node advertises itself as having the shortest path to the node whose packets it wants to intercept. This paper discusses the impact of black hole attack on ODMRP under various scenarios. The performance is evaluated using metrics such as packet delivery ratio and end to end delay for various numbers of senders and receivers via...

  1. Analyzed Virtual Routing Protocol for Future Networks (MANET & topological network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Viswanathan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is a wireless unstructured network and this has mostly suggested for multimedia streaming efficiency. The hackers attacks are reduce the capacity and efficiency of network in MANET. There are various types of protocol are used for the communication in MANET, but security is lacking in those techniques and some insoluble problems present in MANET. In this paper exhibits, a layered protocol network for secured data transmission called Analyzed Virtual Routing Protocol (AVRP. This protocol used to provide more secured data transmission and this not disturbing data streaming in the network.

  2. Performance Analysis of Route Discovery by Cross Layer Routing Protocol- RDCLRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehajabeen Fatima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wired and wireless network is based on the TCP / IP architecture but it is not sufficient to cope with the dynamics of the MANET. Cross layer design can be an alternative architecture for MANET. Frequent route break is one of the major problems of mobile adhoc network (MANET. Path breaks due to less available battery power and mobility of nodes. Most of the battery power is consumed in flooding of control packets. A key challenge in the design of efficient routing protocol is to reduce link breakage and flooding of control packets. Route breakage can be reduced if the possibility of route breakage is predicted and a handoff is done without drop of data packets. If route breakage is reduced, the more battery power will be available with nodes. In turn it reduces the possibility of route breakage and the possibility of flooding. This is a cumulative effect. So a novel preemptive route repair algorithm is proposed named as RDCLRP- Route discovery by cross layer routing protocol to reduce frequency of control packet flooding and route breakage. Three variants of RDCLRP and their results are illustrated. In this paper, the impact of the number of nodes on performance of RDCLRP are investigated and analyzed. The results show 55.6% reduction in link breakage, 14.7% improvement in residual battery power and an average of 6.7% increase in throughput compared to basic AODV.

  3. An Investigation about Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karthik

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any stand-alone infrastructure or centralized administration. Mobile Ad-hoc networks are self-organizing and self-configuring multihop wireless networks where, the structure of the network changes dynamically. This is mainly due to the mobility of nodes. The Nodes in the network not only acts as hosts but also as routers that route data to or from other nodes in network. In mobile ad-hoc networks a routing procedure is always needed to find a path so as to forward the packets appropriately between the source and the destination. The main aim of any ad-hoc network routing protocol is to meet the challenges of the dynamically changing topology and establish a correct and an efficient communication path between any two nodes with minimum routing overhead and bandwidth consumption. The design problem of such a routing protocol is not simple since an ad hoc environment introduces new challenges that are not present in fixed networks. A number of routing protocols have been proposed for this purpose like Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Destination- Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV. In this paper, we study and compare the performance of the following three routing protocols AODV, DSR and DSDV.

  4. Context Aware Routing Management Architecture for Airborne Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    Distance Vector Protocol The Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Protocol ( AODV ) is a MANET protocol with quick convergence that creates routes on demand...that are loop free. AODV requires very low processing and memory overhead when compared to other MANET routing protocols while delivering excellent...Figure 2.2: Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Protocol – Node A requests routing information for node G. The AODV algorithm does not require bootstrapping

  5. A multimetric, map-aware routing protocol for VANETs in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica; Rebollo-Monedero, David; de la Cruz Llopis, Luis J; Mezher, Ahmad Mohamad; Aguilar-Calderón, José Alfonso

    2014-01-28

    In recent years, the general interest in routing for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) has increased notably. Many proposals have been presented to improve the behavior of the routing decisions in these very changeable networks. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol for VANETs that uses four different metrics. which are the distance to destination, the vehicles' density, the vehicles' trajectory and the available bandwidth, making use of the information retrieved by the sensors of the vehicle, in order to make forwarding decisions, minimizing packet losses and packet delay. Through simulation, we compare our proposal to other protocols, such as AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector), GPSR (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing), I-GPSR (Improvement GPSR) and to our previous proposal, GBSR-B (Greedy Buffer Stateless Routing Building-aware). Besides, we present a performance evaluation of the individual importance of each metric to make forwarding decisions. Experimental results show that our proposed forwarding decision outperforms existing solutions in terms of packet delivery.

  6. A Multimetric, Map-Aware Routing Protocol for VANETs in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Igartua, Mónica Aguilar; Rebollo-Monedero, David; de la Cruz Llopis, Luis J.; Mezher, Ahmad Mohamad; Aguilar-Calderón, José Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the general interest in routing for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) has increased notably. Many proposals have been presented to improve the behavior of the routing decisions in these very changeable networks. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol for VANETs that uses four different metrics. which are the distance to destination, the vehicles' density, the vehicles' trajectory and the available bandwidth, making use of the information retrieved by the sensors of the vehicle, in order to make forwarding decisions, minimizing packet losses and packet delay. Through simulation, we compare our proposal to other protocols, such as AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector), GPSR (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing), I-GPSR (Improvement GPSR) and to our previous proposal, GBSR-B (Greedy Buffer Stateless Routing Building-aware). Besides, we present a performance evaluation of the individual importance of each metric to make forwarding decisions. Experimental results show that our proposed forwarding decision outperforms existing solutions in terms of packet delivery. PMID:24476683

  7. CRPCG—Clustering Routing Protocol based on Connected Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to balance the load between cluster head, save the energy consumption of the inter-cluster routing, enhance reliability and flexibility of data transmission, the paper proposes a new clustering routing protocol based on connected graph (CRPCG. The protocol optimizes and innovates in three aspects: cluster head election, clusters formation and clusters routing. Eventually, a connected graph is constituted by the based station and all cluster heads, using the excellent algorithm of the graph theory, to guarantee the network connectivity and reliability, improve the link quality, balance node energy and prolong the network life cycle. The results of simulation show that, the protocol significantly prolong the network life cycle, balance the energy of network nodes, especially in the phase of inter-cluster data transmission, improving the reliability and efficiency of data transmission.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocol (RPL for Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qusai Q. Abuein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF standardized a powerful and flexible routing protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL. RPL is a routing protocol for low power and lossy networks in the Internet of Things. It is an extensible distance vector protocol, which has been proposed for low power and lossy networks in the global realm of IPv6 networks, so it selects the routes from a source to a destination node based on certain metrics injected into the objective function (OF. There has been an investigation of the performance of RPL in the lighter density network. This study investigates the performance of RPL in medium density using of two objective function in various topologies (e.g. grid, random. The performance of RPL is studied using various metrics. For example, Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR, Power Consumption and Packet Reception Ratio (RX using a fixed Packet Reception Ratio (RX values.

  9. On Performance Modeling of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Khayam SyedAli; Farooq Muddassar; Saleem Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Simulation studies have been the predominant method of evaluating ad hoc routing algorithms. Despite their wide use and merits, simulations are generally time consuming. Furthermore, several prominent ad hoc simulations report inconsistent and unrepeatable results. We, therefore, argue that simulation-based evaluation of ad hoc routing protocols should be complemented with mathematical verification and comparison. In this paper, we propose a performance evaluation framework that can be used ...

  10. A Source-Initiated On-Demand Routing Algorithm Based on the Thorup-Zwick Theory for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Mao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The unreliability and dynamics of mobile wireless sensor networks make it hard to perform end-to-end communications. This paper presents a novel source-initiated on-demand routing mechanism for efficient data transmission in mobile wireless sensor networks. It explores the Thorup-Zwick theory to achieve source-initiated on-demand routing with time efficiency. It is able to find out shortest routing path between source and target in a network and transfer data in linear time. The algorithm is easy to be implemented and performed in resource-constrained mobile wireless sensor networks. We also evaluate the approach by analyzing its cost in detail. It can be seen that the approach is efficient to support data transmission in mobile wireless sensor networks.

  11. A source-initiated on-demand routing algorithm based on the Thorup-Zwick theory for mobile wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuxin; Zhu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    The unreliability and dynamics of mobile wireless sensor networks make it hard to perform end-to-end communications. This paper presents a novel source-initiated on-demand routing mechanism for efficient data transmission in mobile wireless sensor networks. It explores the Thorup-Zwick theory to achieve source-initiated on-demand routing with time efficiency. It is able to find out shortest routing path between source and target in a network and transfer data in linear time. The algorithm is easy to be implemented and performed in resource-constrained mobile wireless sensor networks. We also evaluate the approach by analyzing its cost in detail. It can be seen that the approach is efficient to support data transmission in mobile wireless sensor networks.

  12. Comprehensive Experimental Performance Analysis of DSR, AODV and DSDV Routing Protocol for Different Metrics Values with Predefined Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Mehmood

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Adhoc Network is a multi-hop self-configuring network without any fixed infrastructure. Due to mobility of nodes, dynamic topology and highly dynamic environment, designing and implementing stable routing in Mobile Ad-hoc Networking is a major challenge and a critical issue. This paper analyses the performance analysis of on demand routing protocol, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Adhoc on Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV and table driven protocol, Destination-Sequenced Distance Vectoring (DSDV using a network simulator NS2. Different types of test scenario have designed with fixed number of nodes but varying mobility. Different performance metric values like, throughput, delay, normalized network load, end to end delay, dropped packets, packets delivery ratio have been observed. The experimental results have been analysed and recommendation based on the obtained results has been proposed about the significance of each protocol in different scenarios and situations. The simulation results show that both protocols are good in performance in their own categories. We believe that findings of this paper will help the researcher to find the best protocol under predefined condition with varied mobility. We believe that this research will help the researcher to identify and further investigate any particular metrics value of AODV, DSR and DSDV.

  13. A Reliable Routing Protocol for Wireless Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Madani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been paid to Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET. VANETs address direct communication between vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicles to roadside units (RSUs. They are similar to the Mobile and Ad hoc Networks (MANET in their rapid and dynamic network topology changes due to the fast motion of nodes. High mobility of nodes and network resources limitations have made the routing, one of the most important challenges in VANET researches. Therefore, guaranteeing a stable and reliable routing algorithm over VANET is one of the main steps to realize an effective vehicular communications. In this paper, a two-step AODV-based routing protocol is proposed for VANET networks. At first, node-grouping is done using their mobility information such as speed and movement direction. If the first step cannot respond efficiently, the algorithm enters the second step which uses link expiration time (LET information in the formation of the groups. The goal of the proposed protocol is increasing the stability of routing algorithm by selecting long-lived routes and decreasing link breakages. The comparison of proposed algorithm with AODV and DSR protocols is performed via the Network Simulator NS-2. It is shown that the proposed algorithm increases the delivery ratio and also decreases the routing control overhead.

  14. A Network Coding Based Routing Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Guan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the particularities of the underwater environment, some negative factors will seriously interfere with data transmission rates, reliability of data communication, communication range, and network throughput and energy consumption of underwater sensor networks (UWSNs. Thus, full consideration of node energy savings, while maintaining a quick, correct and effective data transmission, extending the network life cycle are essential when routing protocols for underwater sensor networks are studied. In this paper, we have proposed a novel routing algorithm for UWSNs. To increase energy consumption efficiency and extend network lifetime, we propose a time-slot based routing algorithm (TSR.We designed a probability balanced mechanism and applied it to TSR. The theory of network coding is introduced to TSBR to meet the requirement of further reducing node energy consumption and extending network lifetime. Hence, time-slot based balanced network coding (TSBNC comes into being. We evaluated the proposed time-slot based balancing routing algorithm and compared it with other classical underwater routing protocols. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol can reduce the probability of node conflicts, shorten the process of routing construction, balance energy consumption of each node and effectively prolong the network lifetime.

  15. Improvement Of Aodv Routing Protocol Based On Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Baria Vanrajkumar Dineshkumar

    2012-01-01

    For wireless networks has no support infrastructure and shows a highly dynamic feature, routing becomes a key problem to be solved. Data packets are transmitted on a path that had least hops in AODV protocol. It couldn't consider the path stability. When the node of wireless networks moved quickly and the path had short lifetime, the path recovery and routing again is caused. It is a lot of network resource. For network performance, AODV_V that improvement of AODV protocol in the paper. Opnet...

  16. Evaluation of SVR: A Wireless Sensor Network Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ali Baloch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in technology has made it possible to create small in size, low cost sensor nodes. However, the small size and low cost of such nodes comesat at price that is, reduced processing power, low memory and significantly small battery energy storage. WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks are inherently ad hoc in nature and are assumed to work in the toughest terrain. The network lifetime plays a pivotal role in a wireless sensor network. A long network lifetime, could be achieved by either making significant changes in these low cost devices, which is not a feasible solution or by improving the means of communication throughout the network. The communication in such networks could be improved by employing energy efficient routing protocols, to route the data throughout the network. In this paper the SVR (Spatial Vector Routing protocol is compared against the most common WSN routing protocols, and from the results it could be inferred that the SVR protocol out performs its counterparts. The protocol provides an energy efficient means of communication in the network

  17. A Security Analysis of the 802.11s Wireless Mesh Network Routing Protocol and Its Secure Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Moo Yoo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless mesh networks (WMNs can act as a scalable backbone by connecting separate sensor networks and even by connecting WMNs to a wired network. The Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP is the default routing protocol for the 802.11s WMN. The routing protocol is one of the most important parts of the network, and it requires protection, especially in the wireless environment. The existing security protocols, such as the Broadcast Integrity Protocol (BIP, Counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code protocol (CCMP, Secure Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (SHWMP, Identity Based Cryptography HWMP (IBC-HWMP, Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm HWMP (ECDSA-HWMP, and Watchdog-HWMP aim to protect the HWMP frames. In this paper, we have analyzed the vulnerabilities of the HWMP and developed security requirements to protect these identified vulnerabilities. We applied the security requirements to analyze the existing secure schemes for HWMP. The results of our analysis indicate that none of these protocols is able to satisfy all of the security requirements. We also present a quantitative complexity comparison among the protocols and an example of a security scheme for HWMP to demonstrate how the result of our research can be utilized. Our research results thus provide a tool for designing secure schemes for the HWMP.

  18. A security analysis of the 802.11s wireless mesh network routing protocol and its secure routing protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Whye Kit; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lam, Jun Huy; Yoo, Seong-Moo

    2013-09-02

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can act as a scalable backbone by connecting separate sensor networks and even by connecting WMNs to a wired network. The Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) is the default routing protocol for the 802.11s WMN. The routing protocol is one of the most important parts of the network, and it requires protection, especially in the wireless environment. The existing security protocols, such as the Broadcast Integrity Protocol (BIP), Counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code protocol (CCMP), Secure Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (SHWMP), Identity Based Cryptography HWMP (IBC-HWMP), Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm HWMP (ECDSA-HWMP), and Watchdog-HWMP aim to protect the HWMP frames. In this paper, we have analyzed the vulnerabilities of the HWMP and developed security requirements to protect these identified vulnerabilities. We applied the security requirements to analyze the existing secure schemes for HWMP. The results of our analysis indicate that none of these protocols is able to satisfy all of the security requirements. We also present a quantitative complexity comparison among the protocols and an example of a security scheme for HWMP to demonstrate how the result of our research can be utilized. Our research results thus provide a tool for designing secure schemes for the HWMP.

  19. Orion Routing Protocol for Delay-Tolerant Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Medjiah, Samir; 10.1109/icc.2011.5963362

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of efficient routing in delay tolerant network. We propose a new routing protocol dubbed as ORION. In ORION, only a single copy of a data packet is kept in the network and transmitted, contact by contact, towards the destination. The aim of the ORION routing protocol is twofold: on one hand, it enhances the delivery ratio in networks where an end-to-end path does not necessarily exist, and on the other hand, it minimizes the routing delay and the network overhead to achieve better performance. In ORION, nodes are aware of their neighborhood by the mean of actual and statistical estimation of new contacts. ORION makes use of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) stochastic processes for best contact prediction and geographical coordinates for optimal greedy data packet forwarding. Simulation results have demonstrated that ORION outperforms other existing DTN routing protocols such as PRoPHET in terms of end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, hop count and first packet arr...

  20. Effect of Black Hole Attack on MANET Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspal Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the massive existing vulnerabilities in mobile ad-hoc networks, they may be insecure against attacks by the malicious nodes. In this paper we have analyzed the effects of Black hole attack on mobile ad hoc routing protocols. Mainly two protocols AODV and Improved AODV have been considered. Simulation has been performed on the basis of performance parameters and effect has been analyzed after adding Black-hole nodes in the network. Finally the results have been computed and compared to stumble on which protocol is least affected by these attacks.

  1. Performance Evaluation of MANET Routing Protocols under Varying Node Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Balaji Gupta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is an autonomous system containing a cluster of mobile nodes which can dynamically change their network topology. It requires no pre-existing fixed network infrastructureor centralized administration. It operates in a standalone fashion. All the mobile nodes in the network are connected by wireless links. These nodes are free to move anywhere and organize themselves into a network. Each node behaves as a router and should therefore forward packets to other nodes in the network. For this purpose, a routing protocol is needed. Mobile ad-hoc network has certain characteristics such as dynamic topology that inserts new demands on the routing protocol which often limits resources such as storage capacityof CPU, battery power and bandwidth. Mobility models emulate the realistic conditions and dictate the movement of nodes. This paper aims to evaluate the performance and compare the three MANET routingprotocols AODV, DSR and DSDV in different mobility conditions while varying pause time and node density. Three mobility models included are Random Waypoint, Random Walk and Random Direction. Lastly, wepresent simulation results that illustrate how the performance of a MANET protocols drastically change, as a result of changing the mobility taking Throughput, Average End-End Delay, Packet Delivery Ratio and Normalized Routing Load as differentials. The conclusion, which routing protocol is best in each of the varying mobility is also stated. Simulations are carried out using Ns2.

  2. Location Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubin Sebastian E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available : Most existing ad hoc routing protocols are susceptible to node mobility, especially for large-scale networks. This paper proposes a Location Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol (LOR to addresses the problem of delivering data packets for highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks in a reliable and timely manner.This protocol takes advantage of the stateless property of geographic routing and the broadcast nature of wireless medium. When a data packet is sent out, some of the neighbor nodes that have overheard the transmission will serve as forwarding candidates, and take turn to forward the packet if it is not relayed by the specific best forwarder within a certain period of time. By utilizing such in-the-air backup, communication is maintained without being interrupted. The additional latency incurred by local route recovery is greatly reduced and the duplicate relaying caused by packet reroute is also decreased. Simulation results on NS2 verified the effectiveness of the proposed protocol with improvement in throughput by 28%.

  3. UNICAST FORWARDED MULTI-SOURCE MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rangarajan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc network, nodes co-operatively form a network independent of any fixed base station infrastructure. Every node in a mobile ad-hoc network can function as a router and forwards the data packets to the other nodes. Multicasting plays an important role whenever group communications are required. Most of the existing multicast routing protocols in mobile ad hoc networks consider only one source in a multicast group and become inefficient when the protocol is extended to multi-source multicasting. In this paper, we propose a unicast forwarded multi-source multicast routing protocol, for ad hoc networks which is having more than one source in a group. Here, the sources of the group also act as a receiver for other sources in that group. The proposed routing method is a cluster based one and avoids the flooding or broadcasting of control packets to form routing structure. On executing source joining and receiver joining procedures, a complete path for multicast data transfer was established. As the join request control packets are forwarded only through cluster-heads and junction nodes, lower amount of control overhead is incurred. Simulation result shows that the proposed protocol maintains the delivery ratio with reduced control overhead and utilizes the bandwidth efficiently.

  4. Performance Analysis of MANET Routing Protocols in Different Mobility Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj K. Gupta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is basically called as a network without any central administration or fixed infrastructure. It consists of a number of mobile nodes that use to send data packets through a wireless medium. There is always a need of a good routing protocol in order to establish the connection between mobile nodes since they possess the property of dynamic changing topology. Further, in all the existing routing protocols, mobility of a node has always been one of the important characteristics in determining the overall performance of the ad hoc network. Thus, it is essential to know about various mobility models and their effect on the routing protocols. In this paper, we have made an attempt to compare different mobility models and provide an overview of their current research status. The main focus is on Random Mobility Models and Group Mobility Models. Firstly, we present a survey of the characteristics, drawbacks and research challenges of mobility modeling. At the last we present simulation results that illustrate the importance of choosing a mobility model in the simulation of an ad hoc network protocol. Also, we illustrate how the performance results of an ad hoc network protocol drastically change as a result of changing the mobility model simulated.

  5. A Hybrid Routing Algorithm Based on Ant Colony and ZHLS Routing Protocol for MANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafsanjani, Marjan Kuchaki; Asadinia, Sanaz; Pakzad, Farzaneh

    Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANETs) require dynamic routing schemes for adequate performance. This paper, presents a new routing algorithm for MANETs, which combines the idea of ant colony optimization with Zone-based Hierarchical Link State (ZHLS) protocol. Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a class of Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms. SI is the local interaction of many simple agents to achieve a global goal. SI is based on social insect for solving different types of problems. ACO algorithm uses mobile agents called ants to explore network. Ants help to find paths between two nodes in the network. Our algorithm is based on ants jump from one zone to the next zones which contains of the proactive routing within a zone and reactive routing between the zones. Our proposed algorithm improves the performance of the network such as delay, packet delivery ratio and overhead than traditional routing algorithms.

  6. Performance Analysis of Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols using Network Simulator – 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manikandan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc network is a network which consists of nodes that use a wireless interface to send packet data. Since the nodes in a network of this kind can serve as routers and hosts, they can forward packets on behalf of other nodes and run user application. A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is probably the most well-known example of this networking paradigm have been around for over twenty years, mainly exploited to design tactical networks. Furthermore, the multi-hop ad-hoc networking paradigm is often used for building sensor networks to study, control, monitor events and phenomena. To exploit these potentialities, modeling, simulation and theoretical analyses have to be complemented by real experiences, which provide both a direct evaluation of ad-hoc networks and at the same time precious information for a realistic modeling of these systems. Different routing protocols namely Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR protocol and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV protocol in MANET are compared and the performance are evaluated based on various metrics like Packet Delivery ratio, Avg. end-to-end delay, throughput, etc. For this purpose, a discrete event simulator known as NS2 is used.

  7. Performance Analysis of Energy Consumption in AODV Routing Protocols by Direct and Indirect Connection in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivangi Ranawat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The energy consumption is one of a most common factor in the wireless sensor network (WSN that does not appear in more traditional wired sensor network. Each sensor node is battery operated and it makes a wireless sensor network highly depended on each node battery. In this paper the attempt has been made for analysis of the energy consumption of the network. This energy consumption analysis is based on direct and indirect communicating nodes in Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing protocol with WSN. These nodes are created by such TCP (Transmission control protocol variants like Newreno, SACK, and FACK. The simulation tools is used for analysis is NS-2.

  8. BETTER SCALABLE ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR HYBRID WIRELESS MESH NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debraj Modak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many routing approaches have been borrowed from mobile ad hoc network to achieve routing solutions in wireless mesh network. WMN was developed for reliable data communication and load balancing. AODV provides loop-free routes even while repairing broken links. This paper have been proposed an improved hierarchical AODV routing protocol (IH-AODV, which exhibits better scalability and performance in the network. This IH-AODV protocol has been proposed for improvement in the scaling potential of AODV. MAODV allows each node in the network to send out multicast data packets, used for multicast traffic. The wireless mesh network architecture provides reduction in installation cost, large scale deployment, reliability and self management. It is mainly focused on implementing military or specialized civilian applications. Two protocols MAODV and IH-AODV were simulated using NS2 package. Simulation results will demonstrate that, IH-AODV scales well for large network and other metrics are also better than or comparable to MAODV in hybrid WMNs.

  9. Interface Assignment-Based AODV Routing Protocol to Improve Reliability in Multi-Interface Multichannel Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Suk Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of wireless mesh networks (WMNs has greatly increased, and the multi-interface multichannel (MIMC technic has been widely used for the backbone network. Unfortunately, the ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV routing protocol defined in the IEEE 802.11s standard was designed for WMNs using the single-interface single-channel technic. So, we define a problem that happens when the legacy AODV is used in MIMC WMNs and propose an interface assignment-based AODV (IA-AODV in order to resolve that problem. IA-AODV, which is based on multitarget path request, consists of the PREQ prediction scheme, the PREQ loss recovery scheme, and the PREQ sender assignment scheme. A detailed operation according to various network conditions and services is introduced, and the routing efficiency and network reliability of a network using IA-AODV are analyzed over the presented system model. Finally, after a real-world test-bed for MIMC WMNs using the IA-AODV routing protocol is implemented, the various indicators of the network are evaluated through experiments. When the proposed routing protocol is compared with the existing AODV routing protocol, it performs the path update using only 14.33% of the management frames, completely removes the routing malfunction, and reduces the UDP packet loss ratio by 0.0012%.

  10. Reliable and Power Efficient Routing Protocol for MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Sowmya Devi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focused on of the most proliferated network that is Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET. Due to the dynamic nature and limited power of nodes, the routes will fail frequently which intern cause high power dissipation. This paper proposed a reliable and power efficient routing with the nodes having high power level. As well as, this approach also concentrated on the reduction of power consumption during route failures by adapting an on-demand local route recovery mechanism through a set of helping nodes and they are called as Support Nodes (SN. The cooperation of support nodes will reduce the power consumption and significantly increases the reliability. The performance of proposed approach was evaluated through average energy consumption, packet delivery ratio and end-to-end delay over varying node speed and varying packet size. The power optimization and reliability achieved by the proposed approach gives an ideal solution to the future communication in MANETs for a long time.

  11. Neighborhood aware routing protocol based on AODV%基于AODV的邻域自意识路由协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵中灿; 王培康

    2006-01-01

    提出了一种基于按需距离矢量路由(Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector routing,AODV)的邻域自意识路由协议(Neighborhood Aware Routing Protocol based on AODV,NA-AODV),它充分考虑并利用了邻居信息,使故障路由具有快速修复的功能.仿真结果表明,NA-AODV较AODV在系统吞吐量和平均端到端延时方面,都有了明显的改善.

  12. Performance Comparisons of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Manickam, P; Girija, M; Manimegalai, Dr D; 10.5121/ijwmn.2011.3109

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically form a network temporarily without any support of central administration. Moreover, Every node in MANET moves arbitrarily making the multi-hop network topology to change randomly at unpredictable times. There are several familiar routing protocols like DSDV, AODV, DSR, etc...which have been proposed for providing communication among all the nodes in the network. This paper presents a performance comparison of proactive and reactive protocols DSDV, AODV and DSR based on metrics such as throughput, packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay by using the NS-2 simulator.

  13. A comparative view of routing protocols for underwater wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayrakdar, Y.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Kantarci, Aylin

    2011-01-01

    Design of efficient routing protocols for underwater sensor networks is challenging because of the distinctive characteristics of the water medium. Currently, many routing protocols are available for terrestrial wireless sensor networks. However, specific properties of underwater medium such as

  14. Power control in reactive routing protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    CERN Document Server

    Heni, Maher

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to change the routing strategy of AODV protocol (Ad hoc On Demand Vector) in order to improve the energy consumption in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). The purpose is to minimize the regular period of HELLO messages generated by the AODV protocol used for the research, development and maintenance of routes. This information is useful to have an idea about battery power levels of different network hosts. After storing this information, the node elect the shortest path following the classical model used this information to elect safest path (make a compromise) in terms of energy. Transmitter node does not select another node as its battery will be exhausted soon. Any node of the network can have the same information's about the neighborhoods as well as other information about the energy level of the different terminal to avoid routing using a link that will be lost due to an exhausted battery of a node in this link. Analytical study and simulations by Jist/SWANS have been conducted to no...

  15. Power Control in Reactive Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher HENI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to change the routing strategy of AODV protocol (Ad hoc On Demand Vector inorder to improve the energy consumption in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET. The purpose is tominimize the regular period of HELLO messages generated by the AODV protocol used for the research,development and maintenance of routes. This information is useful to have an idea about battery powerlevels of different network hosts. After storing this information, the node elect the shortest path followingthe classical model used this information to elect safest path (make a compromise in terms of energy.Transmitter node does not select another node as its battery will be exhausted soon.Any node of the network can have the same information’s about the neighborhoods as well as otherinformation about the energy level of the different terminal to avoid routing using a link that will be lostdue to an exhausted battery of a node in this link.Analytical study and simulations by Jist/SWANS have been conducted to note that no divergencerelatively to the classical AODV, a node can have this type of information that improves the energyefficiency in ad hoc networks.

  16. The improvement and simulation for LEACH clustering routing protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ai-guo; Zhao, Jun-xiang

    2017-01-01

    An energy-balanced unequal multi-hop clustering routing protocol LEACH-EUMC is proposed in this paper. The candidate cluster head nodes are elected firstly, then they compete to be formal cluster head nodes by adding energy and distance factors, finally the date are transferred to sink through multi-hop. The results of simulation show that the improved algorithm is better than LEACH in network lifetime, energy consumption and the amount of data transmission.

  17. An Investigation into the Advantages, Mechanisms, and Developmental Challenges of Scripted Mobile Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    AODV ) routing protocol is designed to take advantage of prior knowledge of topology to improve...data exists, it updates the routing table. If not then it broadcasts RREQs like AODV routing protocol . Using this approach, S- AODV enjoys reduced... routing traffic and route discovery times. S- AODV is compared with Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector ( AODV ) routing protocol . S- AODV provides

  18. Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. B. Nogales

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth is a cutting-edge technology used for implementing wireless ad hoc networks. In order to provide an overall scheme for mobile ad hoc networks, this paper deals with scatternet topology formation and routing algorithm to form larger ad hoc wireless Networks. Scatternet topology starts by forming a robust network, which is less susceptible to the problems posed by node mobility. Mobile topology relies on the presence of free nodes that create multiple connections with the network and on their subsequently rejoining the network. Our routing protocol is a proactive routing protocol, which is tailor made for the Bluetooth ad hoc network. The connection establishment connects nodes in a structure that simplifies packet routing and scheduling. The design allows nodes to arrive and leave arbitrarily, incrementally building the topology and healing partitions when they occur. We present simulation results that show that the algorithm presents low formation latency and also generates an efficient topology for forwarding packets along ad-hoc wireless networks.

  19. Energy Efficient Location Aided Routing Protocol for Wireless MANETs

    CERN Document Server

    Mikki, Mohammad A

    2009-01-01

    A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes forming a temporary network without using any centralized access point, infrastructure, or centralized administration. In this paper we introduce an Energy Efficient Location Aided Routing (EELAR) Protocol for MANETs that is based on the Location Aided Routing (LAR). EELAR makes significant reduction in the energy consumption of the mobile nodes batteries by limiting the area of discovering a new route to a smaller zone. Thus, control packets overhead is significantly reduced. In EELAR a reference wireless base station is used and the network's circular area centered at the base station is divided into six equal sub-areas. At route discovery instead of flooding control packets to the whole network area, they are flooded to only the sub-area of the destination mobile node. The base station stores locations of the mobile nodes in a position table. To show the efficiency of the proposed protocol we present simulations using NS-2. Simulation...

  20. Flying Ad-Hoc Networks: Routing Protocols, Mobility Models, Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Bani Yassein

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flying Ad-Hoc Networks (FANETs is a group of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs which completed their work without human intervention. There are some problems in this kind of networks: the first one is the communication between (UAVs. Various routing protocols introduced classified into three categories, static, proactive, reactive routing protocols in order to solve this problem. The second problem is the network design, which depends on the network mobility, in which is the process of cooperation and collaboration between the UAV. Mobility model of FANET is introduced in order to solve this problem. In Mobility Model, the path and speed variations of the UAV and represents their position are defined. As of today, Random Way Point Model is utilized as manufactured one for Mobility in the greater part of recreation situations. The Arbitrary Way Point model is not relevant for the UAV in light of the fact that UAV do not alter their course and versatility, speed quickly at one time because of this reason, we consider more practical models, called Semi-Random Circular Movement (SRCM Mobility Model. Also, we consider different portability models, Mission Plan-Based (MPB Mobility Model, Pheromone-Based Model. Moreover, Paparazzi Mobility Model (PPRZM. This paper presented and discussed the main routing protocols and main mobility models used to solve the communication, cooperation, and collaboration in FANET networks.

  1. On the Selection of MAC Optimised Routing Protocol for VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanu Priya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In today‘s era of modernization, the concept of smart vehicles, smart cities and automated vehicles is trending day by day. VANET (Vehicular Adhoc Network has also been emerging as a potential applicant to enable these smart applications. Though VANET is very much similar to MANET (Mobile Adhoc Network but VANET has more severe challenges as compared to MANET due to hostile channel conditions and high degree of mobility. So lot of work related to MAC and Network Layer need attention from the network designers. In this paper MAC Layer has been optimised in terms of Queue Size by using QoS Parameters namely Packet Collision Rate, Packet Drop Rate, Throughput Rate and Broadcast Rate. In doing so, simulative investigations have been done to find out optimum queue size. For this purpose various routing protocols namely DSDV, AODV, ADV and GOD have been considered and optimum queue length for each of these have been obtained. Further the most efficient routing protocol has also been identified. Moreover this paper also compares the performance of most efficient Routing Protocols selected in terms of QoS parameters for different MAC Interfaces.

  2. Administrator and Fidelity Based Secure Routing (AFSR Protocol in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of mobile computing and communication devices are driving a revolutionary change in our information society. Among all the applications and services run by mobile devices, network connections and corresponding data services are without doubt the most demanded services by mobile users. A MANET is a continuously self-configuring, infrastructure-less network of mobile devices connected without wires, which makes it ideal for the present scenario. But, due to lack of any centralized infrastructure and access to trusted authorities, the security in MANET poses a huge threat. The prominent routing protocols we know are generally designed for environments where the nodes within a network are non-malicious. Due to the vulnerable nature of the mobile ad hoc network, there are numerous security threats that disturb its development. We propose a protocol for MANETs named “Administrator and Fidelity Based Secure Routing Protocol” (AFSR, which ensures secure routing through the network: by electing an Administrator node on the basis of Willingness and Fidelity, after which a node only communicates to that secure Admin node. This selection of secured admin nodes results in mitigation of various threats. We have evaluated our proposed protocol by simulating and comparing in GloMoSim.

  3. Analysis of Routing Protocol for Cognitive Adhoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Shubhangini R. Ugale Prof. R. P. Deshmukh Prof. A. N. Thakare

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A cognitive radio is designed for the utilization of unused frequency. The transmission opportunity of a cognitive node is not guaranteed due to the presence of primary users (PUs. To evaluate the unique features of cognitive radio networks, we are using the AODV & DSDV routing protocol for Cognitive Radio Adhoc networks (CRAHNs as in the wireless communication & propose new routing metrics, including transmission delay over number of wireless adhoc nodes. Routing protocols for network without infrastructures have to be developed. These protocols determine how messages can be forwarded, from a source node to a destination node in the mobile nodes of the network. The various parameters have to evaluate. Since here we initially discuss about the packet transmission over number of nodes with effective end-to-end delay, and the next hope packet forwarding from source to destination. Here we use the Network simulator (NS-2 software tool for the simulation purpose to give effective results of cognitive ad hoc networks.

  4. An Analysis of ASRP Secure Routing Protocol for MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Dalal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET can be defined as a collection of large number of mobile nodes that form temporary network without aid of any existing network infrastructure or central access point. Each node participating in the network, acts both as host and a router and must therefore is willing to forward packets for other nodes. The characteristics of MANET provides large amount of degree of freedom and self-organizing capability that make it completely different from other network. Due to this nature of MANET, design and development of secure routing is challenging task for researcher in an open and distributed communication environments. The main work of this paper is to address the security issue, because MANET is generally more vulnerable to various attacks, so we proposed a secure routing protocol for MANET, named ASRP (Authenticate Secure Routing Protocol based on DSDV (Destination- sequence distance vector. This protocol is designed to protect the network from malicious and selfish nodes. We are implementing Extended Public key Cryptography mechanism in ASRP in order to achieve security goals.

  5. On the MAC/network/energy performance evaluation of Wireless Sensor Networks: Contrasting MPH, AODV, DSR and ZTR routing protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Valle-Soto, Carolina; Mex-Perera, Carlos; Orozco-Lugo, Aldo; Lara, Mauricio; Galván-Tejada, Giselle M; Olmedo, Oscar

    2014-12-02

    Wireless Sensor Networks deliver valuable information for long periods, then it is desirable to have optimum performance, reduced delays, low overhead, and reliable delivery of information. In this work, proposed metrics that influence energy consumption are used for a performance comparison among our proposed routing protocol, called Multi-Parent Hierarchical (MPH), the well-known protocols for sensor networks, Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), and Zigbee Tree Routing (ZTR), all of them working with the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer. Results show how some communication metrics affect performance, throughput, reliability and energy consumption. It can be concluded that MPH is an efficient protocol since it reaches the best performance against the other three protocols under evaluation, such as 19.3% reduction of packet retransmissions, 26.9% decrease of overhead, and 41.2% improvement on the capacity of the protocol for recovering the topology from failures with respect to AODV protocol. We implemented and tested MPH in a real network of 99 nodes during ten days and analyzed parameters as number of hops, connectivity and delay, in order to validate our Sensors 2014, 14 22812 simulator and obtain reliable results. Moreover, an energy model of CC2530 chip is proposed and used for simulations of the four aforementioned protocols, showing that MPH has 15.9% reduction of energy consumption with respect to AODV, 13.7% versus DSR, and 5% against ZTR.

  6. On the MAC/Network/Energy Performance Evaluation of Wireless Sensor Networks: Contrasting MPH, AODV, DSR and ZTR Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Del-Valle-Soto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks deliver valuable information for long periods, then it is desirable to have optimum performance, reduced delays, low overhead, and reliable delivery of information. In this work, proposed metrics that influence energy consumption are used for a performance comparison among our proposed routing protocol, called Multi-Parent Hierarchical (MPH, the well-known protocols for sensor networks, Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, and Zigbee Tree Routing (ZTR, all of them working with the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer. Results show how some communication metrics affect performance, throughput, reliability and energy consumption. It can be concluded that MPH is an efficient protocol since it reaches the best performance against the other three protocols under evaluation, such as 19.3% reduction of packet retransmissions, 26.9% decrease of overhead, and 41.2% improvement on the capacity of the protocol for recovering the topology from failures with respect to AODV protocol. We implemented and tested MPH in a real network of 99 nodes during ten days and analyzed parameters as number of hops, connectivity and delay, in order to validate our Sensors 2014, 14 22812 simulator and obtain reliable results. Moreover, an energy model of CC2530 chip is proposed and used for simulations of the four aforementioned protocols, showing that MPH has 15.9% reduction of energy consumption with respect to AODV, 13.7% versus DSR, and 5% against ZTR.

  7. Improving the Performance of Dynamic Source Routing Protocol by Optimization of Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Gargi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic Source Routing protocol is one of the most promising among on demand category of protocols for MANETs. Demands of network performance conflict with the demands of mobile networks . To enhance the QoS in a protocol like DSR we used ANN which helps to preserve the resources of the MANET leading to improvement in performance of DSR. While routing the data, If a legitimate node is mistaken as rogue node then also the QoS suffers and if a rogue node is not detected then also it can consume the resources of the network and deteriorate the QoS . In this work a neural network has been further optimized to improve its accuracy by varying the number of layers in it. A typical wireless network scenario of DSR has been simulated in NS2 and then a rogue node has been introduced to mimic attack. The parameters from the trace files have been used to train a neural network simulated in Matlab and its effectiveness has been improved to make the detection of intrusion more accurate. Although previous work has been reported in the area of application of neural networks for intrusion detection but there is a scope of improvement in this technique by varying the number of layers of ANN, making it more effective and improving the QoS of MANET.

  8. Hybrid Weighted-based Clustering Routing Protocol for Railway Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Xie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a hybrid clustering routing strategy is proposed for railway emergency ad hoc network, when GSM-R base stations are destroyed or some terminals (or nodes are far from the signal coverage. In this case, the cluster-head (CH election procedure is invoked on-demand, which takes into consideration the degree difference from the ideal degree, relative clustering stability, the sum of distance between the node and it’s one-hop neighbors, consumed power, node type and node mobility. For the clustering forming, the weights for the CH election parameters are allocated rationally by rough set theory. The hybrid weighted-based clustering routing (HWBCR strategy is designed for railway emergency communication scene, which aims to get a good trade-off between the computation costs and performances. The simulation platform is constructed to evaluate the performance of our strategy in terms of the average end-to-end delay, packet loss ratio, routing overhead and average throughput. The results, by comparing with the railway communication QoS index, reveal that our strategy is suitable for transmitting dispatching voice and data between train and ground, when the train speed is less than 220km/h

  9. An Energy E cient Routing Protocol for extending Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks by Transmission Radius Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohaideen Pitchai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks needs energy e cient routing protocols for increasing the network lifetime. e en- ergy consumption of sensor nodes can be decreased by reducing the transmission radius range. In this proposed work an Energy E cient Routing Protocol (EERP is developed for wireless sensor network by adjusting the node transmission radius and conserves the node energy. EERP follows on demand routing method for packet forwarding from source to destination. When the node’s energy reaches certain threshold then node reduces its transmission radius again in order to achieve less energy consumption under the circumstance. e trans- mission range distribution optimizations for networks are developed in order to obtain the maximum lifetime. Analysis of the solution shows that network lifetime improvement can be obtained through optimization comes at the expense of energy-ine ciency and a wasting of system resources. e simulation results shows that EERP protocol outperforms the existing routing protocols in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption and has a balanced network load and routing tra c.

  10. Analysis of Energy Optimized Hierarchical Routing Protocols in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Shelly Jain

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern wireless sensor network can be expanded into large geographical areas via cheap sensor devices which can sustain themselves with limited energy and developing an energy efficient protocol is a major challenge. Currently, routing in the wireless sensor network faces multiple challenges, such as new scalability, coverage, packet loss, interference, real-time audio and real time video streaming, weather reports, energy constraints and so forth. Clustering sensor nodes is an effective topology control approach. LEACH is an energy efficient clustering protocol because of its nodes distribution capabilities but still it has limitations because it leads to uneven energy distribution. PEGASIS is an enhancement of LEACH using chain-based technique to optimize the energy consumption. This protocol also has certain disadvantages like delays in larger networks etc. HEED is an advanced version of protocol which removes the disadvantages of LEACH and PEGASIS by using distributed algorithm for selecting the cluster heads (CH. It does not make any assumptions about the infrastructure or capabilities of nodes. LEACH, PEGASIS and HEED routing algorithms are compared using Matlab simulation on a Wi-Max network and the results & analysis are based upon the simulation experiments. Simulation results demonstrate that HEED is effective in prolonging the network lifetime and also overcomes the disadvantages of both LEACH & PEGASIS

  11. Energy Saving Multipath Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Arora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless sensor networks have many characteristics such as limited energy resources, low bandwidth and unreliable links. Due to these characteristics there are many challenges in the design of sensor networks. Routing in WSN is very challenging task. Multipath establishes several path for data transmission rather than single path. Due to this data delivery is high. In this paper, we propose energy saving multipath routing protocol (ESMRP. ESMRP make use of load balancing algorithm to transfer the data. ESMRP calculates node strength to discover its next best hop. Our protocol uses two versions, in the first version, data is transmitted through single path, if some path failure occurs or discovered path node strength goes below 15% of alternative path node strength then it will switch to next alternative path. In the second version of ESMRP, message is split into various segments and some correction codes are added to these segments. After that these segments are transmitted across multiple paths. Simulation results shows that the proposed protocol is more energy saving than previous protocol in providing efficient resource utilization.

  12. A Secure Cluster-Based Multipath Routing Protocol for WMSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal N. Al-Karaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption.

  13. A secure cluster-based multipath routing protocol for WMSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalkawi, Islam T; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N

    2011-01-01

    The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images) as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature) in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption.

  14. An Efficient Agent-Based AODV Routing Protocol in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bhati,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A MANET (Mobile Adhoc Network consists of a collection of mobile nodes communicating with each other without any fixed infrastructure such as access points or base stations. MANETS are self organizing or self restoring. Network topology in MANETS is subject to continuous and precipitous (unpredictable change. The limited bandwidth availability, energy constraints and highly dynamic topology make the routing process as exigent. The routing process in MANET relies (based on the cooperation of individual nodes which constitute the network. In this paper, we have tried to remove the existence of misbehaving nodes that may paralyze or slows down the routing operation in MANET. This increases the efficiency of a network. Efficiency can be calculated by the parameters or factors such astransmission capacity, battery power and scalability. Here we are considering the most crucial factor named as transmission capacity of a node. In MANET, as the network size increases complexity of anetwork also increases. To overcome this we make network as modular. So the network becomes task specific which refer to a particular work only. This is the reason of infusing the concept of agents in anefficient network. This proposed protocol provides the most efficient and reliable route which may or may not be minimum hop count.

  15. Performance Evaluation of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in a Swarm of Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    demand Distance Vector Routing ( AODV ) Like DSDV, the AODV protocol uses sequence numbers to prevent routing loops. Originally presented by Perkins...DSR, though as with most demand-driven routing protocols , path discovery causes some latency at the start of each data session. Unlike DSR, AODV ...research in mobile, ad hoc routing protocols . Broch, et al. performed a simulation comparison of the DSDV, DSR, AODV and Temporally-Ordered

  16. A SURVEY ON PROTOCOLS & ATTACKS IN MANET ROUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a dynamic wirelessnetwork that can be formed without any pre-existinginfrastructure in which each node can act as a router.MANET has no clear line of defense, so, it is accessible toboth legitimate network users and malicious attackers. Inthe presence of malicious nodes, one of the main challengesin MANET is to design the robust security solution that canprotect MANET from various routing attacks. Differentmechanisms have been proposed using variouscryptographic techniques to countermeasure the routingattacks against MANET. However, these mechanisms arenot suitable for MANET resource constraints, i.e., limitedbandwidth and battery power, because they introduce heavytraffic load to exchange and verifying keys. In this paper,the current security issues in MANET are investigated.Particularly, we have examined different routing attacks,such as flooding, blackhole, link spoofing, wormhole, andcolluding misrelay attacks, as well as existing solutions toprotect MANET protocols.

  17. Enhanced Direction Based Hazard Routing Protocol for Smooth Movement of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Needhi Lathar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc Network involves the movement of vehicles and the communication between them for their security. VANETs have many application areas. One of main applications of VANETs is to improve the driving safety. In various safety related applications, vehicular nodes constantly communicate with roadside equipments. Road Side Units (RSUs can sense the real time information about road conditions, animals straying and road blocks and passes all this hazardous related information to the vehicles approaching in its range. These alert messages enable the driver to take timely decisions in preventing from accidents or delays in information delivery. In this paper, Enhanced Direction based Hazard Routing Protocol and Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector protocols are used to avoid prevent vehicles from collision and to increase the coverage range of VANETs. These issues are resolved by bypass routing and a synchronized clock maintained with the RSUs respectively. To solve the issues and make the system more reliable we propose the roadside wireless sensor nodes along with vehicular nodes in the network. The RSUs are fixed at some distances and communicate with wireless sensors attached at vehicular nodes.

  18. Enhanced Route Re-Construction Method for Associativity Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz A.M. Masoud

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET is wireless network composed of mobile nodes that are dynamically and randomly located in such a manner that the interconnections between nodes are capable of changing on a continual basis. In order to facilitate communication within the network, a routing protocol is used to discover routes between nodes. The primary goal of such an ad-hoc network routing protocol is correct and efficient route establishment between a pair of nodes so that messages may be delivered in a timely manner. Route construction and maintenance should be done with a minimum of overhead and bandwidth consumption. The ABR is a source-initiated protocol and is working on the assumption of stable route from the source to the destination node. Maintenance for the route when the destination node moves will be performed in backtracking scheme starting from the immediate upstream node from the destination. If this process results in backtracking more than halfway to the source, it will discontinue and a new route request will be initiated from the source. In the case if the Source Node moves, then the Source Node will invoke a route reconstruction because the ABR is source-initiated protocol. This study presents an enhanced method for the route re-construction in case the source, the intermediate, or the destination node changes its location by giving more active role to the moving node in maintaining the established route.

  19. NHRPA: a novel hierarchical routing protocol algorithm for wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Hong-bing; YANG Geng; HU Su-jun

    2008-01-01

    Considering severe resources constraints and security threat of wireless sensor networks (WSN), the article proposed a novel hierarchical routing protocol algorithm. The proposed routing protocol algorithm can adopt suitable routing technology for the nodes according to the distance of nodes to the base station, density of nodes distribution, and residual energy of nodes. Comparing the proposed routing protocol algorithm with simple direction diffusion routing technology, cluster-based routing mechanisms, and simple hierarchical routing protocol algorithm through comprehensive analysis and simulation in terms of the energy usage, packet latency, and security in the presence of node compromise attacks, the results show that the proposed routing protocol algorithm is more efficient for wireless sensor networks.

  20. Comparison of MANET Routing Protocols in Different Traffic and Mobility Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Baraković

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Routing protocol election in MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network is a great challenge, because of its frequent topology changes and routing overhead. This paper compares performances of three routing protocols: Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV, Ad Hoc Ondemand Distance Vector (AODV and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, based on results analysis obtained using simulations with different load and mobility scenarios performed with Network Simulator version 2 (NS-2. In low load and low mobility scenarios routing protocols perform in a similar manner. However, with mobility and load increasing DSR outperforms AODV and DSDV protocols.

  1. CCMP-AES Model with DSR routing protocol to secure Link layer and Network layer in Mobile Adhoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.G.Padmavathi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Adhoc network is a special kind of wireless networks. It is a collection of mobile nodes without having aid of established infrastructure. Mobile Adhoc network are vulnerable to attacks compared to wired networks due to limited physical security, volatilenetwork topologies, power-constrained operations, intrinsic requirement of mutual trust among all nodes. During deployment, security emerges as a central requirement due to many attacks that affects the performance of the ad hoc networks. Particularly Blackhole attack is one such severe attack against ad hoc routing protocols which is a challenging one to defend against. The proposed model combines the On demand routing protocol DSR with CCMP-AES mode to defend against black hole attack and it also provides confidentiality and authentication of packets in both routing and link layers of MANET. The primary focus of this work is to provide security mechanisms while transmitting data frames in a node to node manner. The security protocol CCMP-AES working in data link layerkeeps data frame from eavesdropping, interception, alteration, or dropping from unauthorized party along the route from the source to the destination. The simulation is done for different number of mobile nodes using network simulator qualnet 5.0. The proposedmodel has shown better results in terms of Total bytes received, packet delivery ratio, throughput, End to End delay and Average jitter.

  2. Interface Assignment-Based AODV Routing Protocol to Improve Reliability in Multi-Interface Multichannel Wireless Mesh Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Won-Suk Kim; Sang-Hwa Chung

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has greatly increased, and the multi-interface multichannel (MIMC) technic has been widely used for the backbone network. Unfortunately, the ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol defined in the IEEE 802.11s standard was designed for WMNs using the single-interface single-channel technic. So, we define a problem that happens when the legacy AODV is used in MIMC WMNs and propose an interface assignment-based AODV (IA-AODV) in o...

  3. T2AR: trust-aware ad-hoc routing protocol for MANET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjayan, Gayathri; Subbiah, Janakiraman

    2016-01-01

    Secure data transfer against the malicious attacks is an important issue in an infrastructure-less independent network called mobile ad-hoc network (MANET). Trust assurance between MANET nodes is the key parameter in the high-security provision under dynamic topology variations and open wireless constraints. But, the malicious behavior of nodes reduces the trust level of the nodes that leads to an insecure data delivery. The increase in malicious attacks causes the excessive energy consumption that leads to a reduction of network lifetime. The lack of positional information update of the nodes in ad-hoc on-demand vector (AODV) protocol during the connection establishment offers less trust level between the nodes. Hence, the trust rate computation using energy and mobility models and its update are the essential tasks for secure data delivery. This paper proposes a trust-aware ad-hoc routing (T2AR) protocol to improve the trust level between the nodes in MANET. The proposed method modifies the traditional AODV routing protocol with the constraints of trust rate, energy, mobility based malicious behavior prediction. The packet sequence ID matching from the log reports of neighbor nodes determine the trust rate that avoids the malicious report generation. Besides, the direct and indirect trust observation schemes utilization increases the trust level. Besides, the received signal strength indicator utilization determines the trusted node is within the communication range or not. The comparative analysis between the proposed T2AR with the existing methods such as TRUNCMAN, RBT, GR, FBR and DICOTIDS regarding the average end-to-end delay, throughput, false positives, packet delivery ratio shows the effectiveness of T2AR in the secure MANET environment design.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Spatial Vector Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ali Baloch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks is an emerging area of research. Researchers worldwide are working on the issues faced by sensor nodes. Communication has been a major issue in wireless networks and the problem is manifolds in WSNs because of the limited resources. The routing protocol in such networks plays a pivotal role, as an effective routing protocol could significantly reduce the energy consumed in transmitting and receiving data packets throughout a network. In this paper the performance of SVR (Spatial Vector Routing an energy efficient, location aware routing protocol is compared with the existing location aware protocols. The results from the simulation trials show the performance of SVR.

  5. Improving Reactive Ad Hoc Routing Performance by Geographic Route Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yuan-da; YU Yan-bing; LU Di

    2005-01-01

    In order to help reactive ad hoc routing protocols select better-performance routes, a novel metric named geographic route length (GRL) is proposed. The relationship between GRL metric and routing performance is analyzed in detail. Combined with hop metric, GRL is applied into the original ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) to demonstrate its effectiveness. Simulation experiments have shown that GRL can effectively reduce packet delay and route discovery frequency, thus can improve reactive ad hoc routing performance.

  6. Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Raminder P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc sensor networks differ from wireless ad hoc networks from the following perspectives: low energy, lightweight routing protocols, and adaptive communication patterns. This paper proposes an energy-aware routing protocol (EARP suitable for ad hoc wireless sensor networks and presents an analysis for its energy consumption in various phases of route discovery and maintenance. Based on the energy consumption associated with route request processing, EARP advocates the minimization of route requests by allocating dynamic route expiry times. This paper introduces a unique mechanism for estimation of route expiry time based on the probability of route validity, which is a function of time, number of hops, and mobility parameters. In contrast to AODV, EARP reduces the repeated flooding of route requests by maintaining valid routes for longer durations.

  7. UML modelling of geographic routing protocol "Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing" for its integration into the "Java Network Simulator"

    CERN Document Server

    Erritali, Mohammed; Ouahidi, Bouabid El

    2012-01-01

    In this work we propose an UML modeling of the "Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing" (GPSR) protocol that integrate this geographic routing protocol, into "JavaNetwork Simulator" to simulate and study this protocol in a first time and offer some improvement in these features. Java Network Simulator (JNS) is a project of "translation" of Network Simulator (NS) in Java initiated by "the UCL Department of Computer Science". This simulator is not as complete as ns-2, but it is much more accessible to programmers unfamiliar with Tcl. Java Network Simulator does not support so far, no routing protocol for vehicular ad hoc networks and all the routing decisions are made statically or using RIP and OSPF. By modeling and integrating the routing protocol GPSR to JNS, users will be able to understand the concept of the geographic routing and how the routing information is transmitted and updated between nodes in vehicular ad hoc network. The article first examines the architecture of the Java Network Simulator, then give...

  8. Real-Time QoS Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Study and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Adwan; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-09-02

    Many routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. These routing protocols are almost always based on energy efficiency. However, recent advances in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras and small microphones have led to the development of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) as a class of wireless sensor networks which pose additional challenges. The transmission of imaging and video data needs routing protocols with both energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) characteristics in order to guarantee the efficient use of the sensor nodes and effective access to the collected data. Also, with integration of real time applications in Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs), the use of QoS routing protocols is not only becoming a significant topic, but is also gaining the attention of researchers. In designing an efficient QoS routing protocol, the reliability and guarantee of end-to-end delay are critical events while conserving energy. Thus, considerable research has been focused on designing energy efficient and robust QoS routing protocols. In this paper, we present a state of the art research work based on real-time QoS routing protocols for WMSNs that have already been proposed. This paper categorizes the real-time QoS routing protocols into probabilistic and deterministic protocols. In addition, both categories are classified into soft and hard real time protocols by highlighting the QoS issues including the limitations and features of each protocol. Furthermore, we have compared the performance of mobility-aware query based real-time QoS routing protocols from each category using Network Simulator-2 (NS2). This paper also focuses on the design challenges and future research directions as well as highlights the characteristics of each QoS routing protocol.

  9. A Fault Tolerant Congestion Aware Routing Protocol for Mobile Adhoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Duraiswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The performance of ad hoc routing protocols will significantly degrade when there are faulty nodes in the network. Packet losses and bandwidth degradation are caused due to congestion and thus, time and energy is wasted during its recovery. The fault tolerant congestion aware routing protocol addresses these problems by exploring the network redundancy through multipath routing. Approach: In this study, it is proposed to design a fault tolerant congestion aware multi path routing protocol to reduce the route breakages and congestion losses. The AOMDV protocol is used as a base for the multipath routing. This proposed scheme enables more nodes to salvage a dropped packet. Results: Simulation results show that the proposed protocol achieves better throughput and packet delivery ratio with reduced delay, packet drop and energy. Conclusion: An effective congestion control technique proposed in this study proactively detects node level and link level congestion and performs congestion control using the fault-tolerant multiple paths.

  10. EVALUATION AND COMPARISON OF EMERGING ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getsy S Sara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET consumes huge amount of power and bandwidth and undergoes frequent topology changes to which it must adjust quickly. Energy efficient routing protocols have an important role in MANET. In this survey, few of the emerging energy efficient routing protocols for MANET are reviewed and their performance critically compared. The energy efficient protocols either minimize the active communication energy required to transmit or receive packets or minimize the inactive energy. The classification suggested here summarizes the chief distinctiveness of many published proposals for energy efficient routing. After getting insight into the different emerging energy efficient protocols, the enhancements that can be done to improvise the existing routing protocols are pointed out. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the research efforts in combining the existing solutions to offer a more energy efficient routing mechanism.

  11. A Lightweight and Attack Resistant Authenticated Routing Protocol for Mobile Adhoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, M Rajesh; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2202

    2010-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, by attacking the corresponding routing protocol, an attacker can easily disturb the operations of the network. For ad hoc networks, till now many secured routing protocols have been proposed which contains some disadvantages. Therefore security in ad hoc networks is a controversial area till now. In this paper, we proposed a Lightweight and Attack Resistant Authenticated Routing Protocol (LARARP) for mobile ad hoc networks. For the route discovery attacks in MANET routing protocols, our protocol gives an effective security. It supports the node to drop the invalid packets earlier by detecting the malicious nodes quickly by verifying the digital signatures of all the intermediate nodes. It punishes the misbehaving nodes by decrementing a credit counter and rewards the well behaving nodes by incrementing the credit counter. Thus it prevents uncompromised nodes from attacking the routes with malicious or compromised nodes. It is also used to prevent the denial-of-service (DoS) attacks....

  12. THE IMPACT OF NODE MISBEHAVIOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Ahmed Abood Omer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available MANET is a cooperative wireless network in which mobile nodes are responsible for routing and forwarding packets from and to other nodes. Noncooperation is a challenge that definitely degrades the performance of MANET. A misbehaving or selfish node may make use of other nodes in the network, but decline to share its own resources with them. These selfish nodes may severely affect the performance of routing protocols in MANET. In this paper, we compare the performance of four routing protocols under security attack of node misbehavior in MANET. We investigate AODV and DSR reactive routing protocols and OLSR and GRP proactive routing protocols using Riverbed Modeler simulator. The performance comparison is carried out using two types of misbehaving nodes. The metrics used are End-to-End delay, Packet Delivery Ratio, Data dropped and the Load. The experimental results show that AODV routing protocol performs better than the other routing protocols with higher packet delivery ratio. Further, OLSR routing protocol outperforms the other routing protocols with minimum End-to-End delay.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Bilandi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of routing protocols in Mobile Ad hoc network (MANET always attracts many attentions. As many previous works have shown, routing performance is greatly dependent to the availability and stability of wireless links. Although there are some studies reported to evaluate the performance of routing protocols in MANET, little work is done for the system overall performance, which is generally referred to as the network throughput, delay and network load. MANET is a self organized and self configurable network where the mobile nodes move arbitrarily. Routing is a critical issue in MANET and hence the focus of this paper along with the performance analysis of routing protocols. We compared three routing protocols i.e. AODV, OLSR and GRP. Our simulation tool will be OPNET modeler. The performance of these routing protocols is analyzed by three metrics: delay, network load and throughput. All the three routing protocols are explained in a deep way with metrics. The comparison analysis will be carrying out about these protocols and in the last the conclusion will be presented, that which routing protocol is the best one for mobile ad hoc networks. The final evaluation is presented at the end of this paper.

  14. Max-min energy-aware hybrid routing protocol for ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaochuan; Wang, Changhong; Bai, Xu

    2009-12-01

    Max-min energy-aware AODV and OLSR hybrid routing (MEAOHR) protocol aims at prolonging the lifetime of network for AOHR protocol. With a little modification to the AODV protocol part of AOHR protocol, MEAOHR protocol can provide minimal energy information of every routing to destination nodes and source nodes by RREQ packets and RREP packets respectively. In this way, destination nodes and source nodes can choose a routing respectively with the max-min energy value among all routings as the path for packet delivery. Simulation results and analysis prove that MEAOHR protocol can effectively provide longer network's lifetime and steadier end-to-end delay without any performance loss compared to AOHR protocol.

  15. Performance Evaluation of DSDV and MDSDV Routing Protocol with Varying Node Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Mahajan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET is an important and challenging research area. The routing protocol should detect and maintain a good route between source and destination nodes in these dynamic networks. Many routing protocols have been proposed for mobile ad hoc networks, and none can be considered as the best under all conditions. This thesis work consist a systematic comparative evaluation of a new multipath routing protocol for MANETS. The new protocol, called Multipath Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (MDSDV is based on the well known single path Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV is compared with known protocol DSDV. This work containing evaluates the protocols on a range of MANETS with between 50, 75 and 100 nodes, which are static nodes. The protocol comparison metrics are Throughput and Residual Energy

  16. Theory and New Primitives for Safely Connecting Routing Protocol Instances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    reliability, and load. The current route redistribution procedure handles this incompatibility in a crude fashion. It resets the metric of a redis ...routing instances can also be performed in a link-state manner whereby one routing instance passes on its entire link state database to another...routers B and A, respectively. However, route redis - tribution at multiple points can easily result in routing anomalies [8]. Hence, to support

  17. An Energy- Aware Routing Protocol Based on Effective Transmission in Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Linfeng; YANG Zongkai; CHENG Wenqing; DU Xu

    2006-01-01

    In order to minimize the energy consumption in the discovery of the routing path, this paper introduces a novel concept of effective transmission (ET) that ensures each forwarding node is not only farther from the source node, but also nearer to the destination node with respect to its sender.An energy-aware routing protocol based on ET is proposed.It enables the energy consumption for each hop to be the least for the transmission. The simulation results show the routing protocol is effective in the performance of energy consumption comparing with some other routing protocols.

  18. Design of Intelligent Cross-Layer Routing Protocols for Airborne Wireless Networks Under Dynamic Spectrum Access Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    routing protocols require link layer detection and hello message to maintain multiple routes . Various single and multipath protocols , like AODV ... protocols (e.g., AODV , DSR, Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) etc.) with and without link layer detection. The protocols with link layer detection...Reactive protocols like AODV tend to reduce the control traffic messages overhead at the cost of increased latency in finding new routes . AODV has a

  19. HLAODV - A Cross Layer Routing Protocol for Pervasive Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks Based On Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Norman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A pervasive network consists of heterogeneous devices with different computing, storage, mobility and connectivity properties working together to solve real-world problems. The emergence of wireless sensor networks has enabled new classes of applications in pervasive world that benefit a large number of fields. Routing in wireless sensor networks is a demanding task. This demand has led to a number of routing protocols which efficiently utilize the limited resources available at the sensor nodes. Most of these protocols either support stationary sensor networks or mobile networks. This paper proposes an energy efficient routing protocol for heterogeneous sensor networks with the goal of finding the nearest base station or sink node. Hence the problem of routing is reduced to finding the nearest base station problem in heterogeneous networks. The protocol HLAODV when compared with popular routing protocols AODV and DSR is energy efficient. Also the mathematical model of the proposed system and its properties are studied.

  20. A multiple channel assignment algorithm and routing protocol base on wireless mesh networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaochuan; Li, Nan

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a hybrid routing protocol TOIRP and a distributed channel assignment algorithm CLBCA of WMN in the multi-channel environment are proposed. The tree base protocol and the traditional AODV routing protocol are integrated together to reduce delay in the routing protocol, which is proposed by HWMP. A new routing metric CETTI is used in this routing protocol, which uses a new method to quantify the interference of communication. It divided interference into two parts: inter-flow interference and intra- flow interference, and it integrate the considerations of hop- count and delay. This improves the throughput of WMN. The channel assignment algorithm is divided into two parts: radio- neighbor binding and channel-radio binding. This algorithm is based on the channel load and avoids the channel-dependency problem which is common in the multi-channel environment. In the same time, it increases the utilization of each channel.

  1. Performance Evaluation of Unicast and Broadcast Mobile Ad hoc Network Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, Sumon Kumar; Islam, Nayeema

    2010-01-01

    Efficient routing mechanism is a challenging issue for group oriented computing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). The ability of MANETs to support adequate Quality of Service (QoS) for group communication is limited by the ability of the underlying ad-hoc routing protocols to provide consistent behavior despite the dynamic properties of mobile computing devices. In MANET QoS requirements can be quantified in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Data Latency, Packet Loss Probability, Routing Overhead, Medium Access Control (MAC) Overhead and Data Throughput etc. This paper presents an in depth study of one to many and many to many communications in MANETs and provides a comparative performance evaluation of unicast and broadcast routing protocols. Dynamic Source Routing protocol (DSR) is used as unicast protocol and BCAST is used to represent broadcast protocol. The performance differentials are analyzed using ns2 network simulator varying multicast group size (number of data senders and data receivers). Bo...

  2. Comparative Performance Analysis of AODV and AODV-MIMC Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Periyasamy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bandwidth Scarcity is a major drawback in multi-hop ad hoc networks. When a single-interface single-channel (SISC approach is used for both incoming and outgoing traffic the bandwidth contention between nodes along the path has occurred as well as throughput is degraded. This drawback is overwhelmed by using MIMC approach as well as some of the Quality of Service (QoS requirements has been enhanced. In this paper we applied multi-interface muti-channel approach to AODV routing protocol, called AODV-MIMC routing protocol and its performance is compared with AODV routing protocol. The simulation results show the Network Life Time, Throughput, and Packet Delivery Ratio of AODV-MIMC routing protocol has been tremendously improved than the AODV routing protocol.

  3. Performance Evaluation of AODV Routing Protocol in Cognitive Radio Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhangi Mahamuni

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A cognitive radio is designed for the utilisation of unused frequency. The transmission opportunity of a cognitive node is not guaranteed due to the presence of primary users (PUs.To better characterize theunique features of cognitive radio networks, we propose new routing metrics, including Routing for CRNs using IEEE 802.11 which are the official standards for wireless communication. Routing protocols, for network without infrastructures, have to be developed. These protocols determine how messages can be forwarded, from a source node to a destination node which is out of the range of the former, using other mobile nodes of the network. Routing, which includes for example maintenance and discovery of routes, is one of the very challenging areas in communication. Numerous simulations of routing protocols have been made using different simulators, such as ns-2.The impact of sensing time, route path and mobility in Ad- Hoc networks on connectivity and throughput tested.

  4. A Simulated Behavioral Study of DSR Routing Protocol Using NS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali El-Desoky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANETS consists of wireless nodes communicating without any centralized administration .thus each node acts as a host and a router. There are many routing protocols designed for MANETS. The Dynamic Source Routing protocol (DSR is a simple and efficient Routing protocol designed specifically for use in multi-hop wireless mobile nodes. This paper describes the design the implementation of DSR protocol in NS-2 simulator environment. We also analyze the performance of the DSR for various performance matrixes such as average end to- end delay, throughput and packet delivery ratio. The analysis was made for different number of nodes using the NS-2 simulator.

  5. A Neural Networks-Based Hybrid Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Kojić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The networking infrastructure of wireless mesh networks (WMNs is decentralized and relatively simple, but they can display reliable functioning performance while having good redundancy. WMNs provide Internet access for fixed and mobile wireless devices. Both in urban and rural areas they provide users with high-bandwidth networks over a specific coverage area. The main problems affecting these networks are changes in network topology and link quality. In order to provide regular functioning, the routing protocol has the main influence in WMN implementations. In this paper we suggest a new routing protocol for WMN, based on good results of a proactive and reactive routing protocol, and for that reason it can be classified as a hybrid routing protocol. The proposed solution should avoid flooding and creating the new routing metric. We suggest the use of artificial logic—i.e., neural networks (NNs. This protocol is based on mobile agent technologies controlled by a Hopfield neural network. In addition to this, our new routing metric is based on multicriteria optimization in order to minimize delay and blocking probability (rejected packets or their retransmission. The routing protocol observes real network parameters and real network environments. As a result of artificial logic intelligence, the proposed routing protocol should maximize usage of network resources and optimize network performance.

  6. A Neural Networks-Based Hybrid Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojić, Nenad; Reljin, Irini; Reljin, Branimir

    2012-01-01

    The networking infrastructure of wireless mesh networks (WMNs) is decentralized and relatively simple, but they can display reliable functioning performance while having good redundancy. WMNs provide Internet access for fixed and mobile wireless devices. Both in urban and rural areas they provide users with high-bandwidth networks over a specific coverage area. The main problems affecting these networks are changes in network topology and link quality. In order to provide regular functioning, the routing protocol has the main influence in WMN implementations. In this paper we suggest a new routing protocol for WMN, based on good results of a proactive and reactive routing protocol, and for that reason it can be classified as a hybrid routing protocol. The proposed solution should avoid flooding and creating the new routing metric. We suggest the use of artificial logic—i.e., neural networks (NNs). This protocol is based on mobile agent technologies controlled by a Hopfield neural network. In addition to this, our new routing metric is based on multicriteria optimization in order to minimize delay and blocking probability (rejected packets or their retransmission). The routing protocol observes real network parameters and real network environments. As a result of artificial logic intelligence, the proposed routing protocol should maximize usage of network resources and optimize network performance. PMID:22969360

  7. A neural networks-based hybrid routing protocol for wireless mesh networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojić, Nenad; Reljin, Irini; Reljin, Branimir

    2012-01-01

    The networking infrastructure of wireless mesh networks (WMNs) is decentralized and relatively simple, but they can display reliable functioning performance while having good redundancy. WMNs provide Internet access for fixed and mobile wireless devices. Both in urban and rural areas they provide users with high-bandwidth networks over a specific coverage area. The main problems affecting these networks are changes in network topology and link quality. In order to provide regular functioning, the routing protocol has the main influence in WMN implementations. In this paper we suggest a new routing protocol for WMN, based on good results of a proactive and reactive routing protocol, and for that reason it can be classified as a hybrid routing protocol. The proposed solution should avoid flooding and creating the new routing metric. We suggest the use of artificial logic-i.e., neural networks (NNs). This protocol is based on mobile agent technologies controlled by a Hopfield neural network. In addition to this, our new routing metric is based on multicriteria optimization in order to minimize delay and blocking probability (rejected packets or their retransmission). The routing protocol observes real network parameters and real network environments. As a result of artificial logic intelligence, the proposed routing protocol should maximize usage of network resources and optimize network performance.

  8. An energy-aware routing protocol for query-based applications in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahvar, Ehsan; Ahvar, Shohreh; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Crespi, Noel

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) typically has energy consumption restriction. Designing energy-aware routing protocol can significantly reduce energy consumption in WSNs. Energy-aware routing protocols can be classified into two categories, energy savers and energy balancers. Energy saving protocols are used to minimize the overall energy consumed by a WSN, while energy balancing protocols attempt to efficiently distribute the consumption of energy throughout the network. In general terms, energy saving protocols are not necessarily good at balancing energy consumption and energy balancing protocols are not always good at reducing energy consumption. In this paper, we propose an energy-aware routing protocol (ERP) for query-based applications in WSNs, which offers a good trade-off between traditional energy balancing and energy saving objectives and supports a soft real time packet delivery. This is achieved by means of fuzzy sets and learning automata techniques along with zonal broadcasting to decrease total energy consumption.

  9. Method and apparatus to enhance routing protocols in wireless mesh networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A protocol for use in wireless mesh networks (PlayNCool) uses helper nodes to improve data flow in the network. The protocol is compatible with traditional mesh network routing algorithms. Techniques, systems, devices, and circuits for implementing the protocol are described....

  10. Review of Security Approaches in Routing Protocol in Mobile Adhoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumati Ramakrishna Gowda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the objective is to present a review of routing protocols in mobile ad hoc network (MANET exclusively from security viewpoint. In MANET, the mobile nodes often move randomly for which reason the cumulative network experiences rapid and much unpredictable topology alterations. Due to presence of dynamic topology as well as limited range of transmission, very often some nodes cannot communicate directly with each other. Because of this phenomenon, all the QoS and security issues surface. Till now there is abundant literature work being formulated towards designing routing protocols. But security features designed till now are not able to provide optimal security towards secure routing. Routing protocols, data, bandwidth and battery power are the common target of the attackers. Therefore, in this paper the attempts are to throw light on the work that were focused exclusively for maintaining security in routing protocols in MANET

  11. A Survey on Temperature-Aware Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangman Moh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the elderly population in the world and the rising cost of healthcare impose big issues for healthcare and medical monitoring. A Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN is comprised of small sensor nodes attached inside, on or around a human body, the main purpose of which is to monitor the functions and surroundings of the human body. However, the heat generated by the node’s circuitry and antenna could cause damage to the human tissue. Therefore, in designing a routing protocol for WBSNs, it is important to reduce the heat by incorporating temperature into the routing metric. The main contribution of this paper is to survey existing temperature-aware routing protocols that have been proposed for WBSNs. In this paper, we present a brief overview of WBSNs, review the existing routing protocols comparatively and discuss challenging open issues in the design of routing protocols.

  12. Distributed QoS multicast routing protocol in ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Baolin; Li Layuan

    2006-01-01

    Quality of service (QoS) routing and multicasting protocols in ad hoc networks are face with the challenge of delivering data to destinations through multihop routes in the presence of node movements and topology changes. The multicast routing problem with multiple QoS constraints is discussed, which may deal with the delay, bandwidth and cost metrics, and describes a network model for researching the ad hoc networks QoS multicast routing problem. It presents a distributed QoS multicast routing protocol (DQMRP). The proof of correctness and complexity analysis of the DQMRP are also given. Simulation results show that the multicast tree optimized by DQMRP is better than other protocols and is fitter for the network situations with frequently changed status and the real-time multimedia application. It is an available approach to multicast routing decision with ultiple QoS constraints.

  13. A comparative study of wireless sensor networks and their routing protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Kim, Tai-hoon; Pal, Subhajit

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols.

  14. A Comprehensive Survey on Hierarchical-Based Routing Protocols for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks: Review, Taxonomy, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Sabor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducing mobility to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs puts new challenges particularly in designing of routing protocols. Mobility can be applied to the sensor nodes and/or the sink node in the network. Many routing protocols have been developed to support the mobility of WSNs. These protocols are divided depending on the routing structure into hierarchical-based, flat-based, and location-based routing protocols. However, the hierarchical-based routing protocols outperform the other routing types in saving energy, scalability, and extending lifetime of Mobile WSNs (MWSNs. Selecting an appropriate hierarchical routing protocol for specific applications is an important and difficult task. Therefore, this paper focuses on reviewing some of the recently hierarchical-based routing protocols that are developed in the last five years for MWSNs. This survey divides the hierarchical-based routing protocols into two broad groups, namely, classical-based and optimized-based routing protocols. Also, we present a detailed classification of the reviewed protocols according to the routing approach, control manner, mobile element, mobility pattern, network architecture, clustering attributes, protocol operation, path establishment, communication paradigm, energy model, protocol objectives, and applications. Moreover, a comparison between the reviewed protocols is investigated in this survey depending on delay, network size, energy-efficiency, and scalability while mentioning the advantages and drawbacks of each protocol. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with future directions.

  15. An Efficient and Secure Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iyengar, N Ch Sriman Narayana; Nagar, Piyush; Sharma, Siddharth; Atrey, Akshay; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2303

    2010-01-01

    Efficiency and simplicity of random algorithms have made them a lucrative alternative for solving complex problems in the domain of communication networks. This paper presents a random algorithm for handling the routing problem in Mobile Ad hoc Networks [MANETS].The performance of most existing routing protocols for MANETS degrades in terms of packet delay and congestion caused as the number of mobile nodes increases beyond a certain level or their speed passes a certain level. As the network becomes more and more dynamic, congestion in network increases due to control packets generated by the routing protocols in the process of route discovery and route maintenance. Most of this congestion is due to flooding mechanism used in protocols like AODV and DSDV for the purpose of route discovery and route maintenance or for route discovery as in the case of DSR protocol. This paper introduces the concept of random routing algorithm that neither maintains a routing table nor floods the entire network as done by vari...

  16. A Multiple-Dimensional Tree Routing Protocol for Multisink Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Ant Colony Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Zhou; Dongliang Qing; Xiaomei Zhang; Honglin Yuan; Chen Xu

    2012-01-01

    Routing protocol is an important topic in the wireless sensor networks. For MultiSink wireless sensor networks, the routing protocol designs and implementations are more difficult due to the structure complexity. The paper deals with the problem of a multiple-dimensional tree routing protocol for multisink wireless sensor networks based on ant colony optimization. The proposed protocol is as follows: (1) listening mechanism is used to establish and maintain multidimensional tree routing topol...

  17. Evolutionary Based Type-2 Fuzzy Routing Protocol for Clustered Wireless Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salehi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Power management is an important issue in wireless sensor network as the sensor nodes are battery-operated devices. For energy efficient data transmission, many routing protocols have been proposed. To achieve energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks, Clustering is an effective approach. In clustering routing protocol, Cluster heads are selected among all nodes within the wireless sensor networkand clusters are formed by assigning each node to the nearest cluster.Energy efficiency, network lifetime and uncertainties are the main drawbacks in clustering routing protocols.In this paper, a new clustering routing protocol named T2FLSBA is introduced to select optimal cluster heads. The proposed protocol is based on type-2 fuzzy logic system. To achieve the best performance based on the application, its parameters are tuned based on bat algorithm.The three important factors- residual energy, the density of neighbour sensor nodes and the distance to sink are taken into consideration as inputs of T2FLSBA protocol to compute the probability of a node to be a candidate cluster head. The simulation results show that the proposed routing protocol outperforms the existing clustering routing protocols in terms of prolonging the network lifetime and energy consumption of sensor nodes.

  18. An Improvement over AODV Routing Protocol by Limiting Visited Hop Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Fotohi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The AODV protocol is based on the minimum delay path as its route selection criteria, regardless of the paths load. This issue leads to unbalanced load dissemination in the network and the energy of the nodes on the shortest path deplete earlier than others. We proposed an improved AODV protocol with limited TTL (Time to Live of RREP packet in which the route reply (RREP packet of AODV is modified to limite TTL information of nodes. Experiments have been carried out using network simulator software (NS2. Simulation results show that our proposed routing protocol outperforms regular AODV in terms of packet delivery rate, good put, throughput, and jitter.

  19. WIRELESS ADHOC MULTI ACCESS NETWORKS OPTIMIZATION USING OSPF ROUTING PROTOCOL BASED ON CISCO DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Khedr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most attractive field for research for researchers and authors so the Wireless adhoc networks. So, this paper will describe the background and basic features of Open Short Path First (OSPF routing protocol due to multi-access networks. Explaining and practice on the OSPF configuration commands. Describe, modify and calculate the metric (Cost used by OSPF due to adhoc networks. Illustrating the Election parameters made by DR/BDR (Designated and Back Designated Routers used in multi-access wireless networks. This paper will use OSPF routing protocol because of its average administrative distance with all routing protocols.

  20. A Survey on Energy Consumption in Routing Protocols for MANET Using Cross Layer

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    Pandit Savyasaachi J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the exhaustive search on reduced energy consumption routing protocols for MANET using cross layer. There are so many techniques available for energy consumption in routing protocols. MANET is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that forms a temporarily dynamic network without any centralized administrator. Each node in MANET moves arbitrarily that result as random change in network topology. Cross-Layer Design has recently become the new hype in MANET systems. This paper is to examine the current research activities in energy consumption of Cross-Layer Design. Keywords: MANET, Routing Protocol, Infrastructure Network, Cross Layer.

  1. QoS-aware multicast routing protocol for Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Baolin; Li Layuan

    2006-01-01

    Ad hoc wireless networks consist of mobile nodes interconnected by multihop communication paths. Unlike conventional wireless networks, ad hoc networks have no fixed network infrastructure or administrative support. Due to bandwidth constraint and dynamic topology of mobile ad hoc networks, supporting Quality of Service (QoS) is an inherently complex, difficult issue and very important research issue. MAODV (Multicast Ad hoc Ondemand Distance Vector) routing protocol provides fast and efficient route establishment between mobile nodes that need to communicate with each other. MAODV has minimal control overhead and route acquisition latency. In addition to unicast routing, MAODV supports multicast and broadcast as well.The multicast routing problem with multiple QoS constraints, which may deal with the delay, bandwidth and packet loss measurements is discussed, and a network model for researching the ad hoc network QoS multicast routing problem is described. It presents a complete solution for QoS multicast routing based on an extension of the MAODV routing protocol that deals with delay, bandwidth and packet loss measurements. The solution is based on lower layer specifics. Simulation results show that, with the proposed QoS multicast routing protocol, end-to-end delay, bandwidth and packet loss on a route can be improved in most of cases. It is an available approach to multicast routing decision with multiple QoS constraints.

  2. A Survey on Routing Protocols for Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changle; Zhang, Hanxiao; Hao, Binbin; Li, Jiandong

    2011-01-01

    With the advances in micro-electronics, wireless sensor devices have been made much smaller and more integrated, and large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs) based the cooperation among the significant amount of nodes have become a hot topic. “Large-scale” means mainly large area or high density of a network. Accordingly the routing protocols must scale well to the network scope extension and node density increases. A sensor node is normally energy-limited and cannot be recharged, and thus its energy consumption has a quite significant effect on the scalability of the protocol. To the best of our knowledge, currently the mainstream methods to solve the energy problem in large-scale WSNs are the hierarchical routing protocols. In a hierarchical routing protocol, all the nodes are divided into several groups with different assignment levels. The nodes within the high level are responsible for data aggregation and management work, and the low level nodes for sensing their surroundings and collecting information. The hierarchical routing protocols are proved to be more energy-efficient than flat ones in which all the nodes play the same role, especially in terms of the data aggregation and the flooding of the control packets. With focus on the hierarchical structure, in this paper we provide an insight into routing protocols designed specifically for large-scale WSNs. According to the different objectives, the protocols are generally classified based on different criteria such as control overhead reduction, energy consumption mitigation and energy balance. In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of each protocol, we highlight their innovative ideas, describe the underlying principles in detail and analyze their advantages and disadvantages. Moreover a comparison of each routing protocol is conducted to demonstrate the differences between the protocols in terms of message complexity, memory requirements, localization, data aggregation, clustering manner

  3. A Survey on Routing Protocols for Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in micro-electronics, wireless sensor devices have been made much smaller and more integrated, and large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs based the cooperation among the significant amount of nodes have become a hot topic. “Large-scale” means mainly large area or high density of a network. Accordingly the routing protocols must scale well to the network scope extension and node density increases. A sensor node is normally energy-limited and cannot be recharged, and thus its energy consumption has a quite significant effect on the scalability of the protocol. To the best of our knowledge, currently the mainstream methods to solve the energy problem in large-scale WSNs are the hierarchical routing protocols. In a hierarchical routing protocol, all the nodes are divided into several groups with different assignment levels. The nodes within the high level are responsible for data aggregation and management work, and the low level nodes for sensing their surroundings and collecting information. The hierarchical routing protocols are proved to be more energy-efficient than flat ones in which all the nodes play the same role, especially in terms of the data aggregation and the flooding of the control packets. With focus on the hierarchical structure, in this paper we provide an insight into routing protocols designed specifically for large-scale WSNs. According to the different objectives, the protocols are generally classified based on different criteria such as control overhead reduction, energy consumption mitigation and energy balance. In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of each protocol, we highlight their innovative ideas, describe the underlying principles in detail and analyze their advantages and disadvantages. Moreover a comparison of each routing protocol is conducted to demonstrate the differences between the protocols in terms of message complexity, memory requirements, localization, data aggregation

  4. Gossip Based Routing Protocol Design for Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Toqeer Mahmood; Tabbassam Nawaz; Rehan Ashraf; Syed M. Adnan Shah

    2012-01-01

    A spontaneously mannered decentralized network with no formal infrastructure and limited in temporal and spatial extent where each node communicate with each other over a wireless channel and is willing to forward data for other nodes is called as Wireless Ad Hoc network. In this research study, we proposed a routing strategy based on gossip based routing approach that follows the proactive routing with some treatment for wireless Ad Hoc network. The analytical verification of our proposed id...

  5. Fear: A Fuzzy-based Energy-aware Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ahvar, Ehsan; Piran, Mohammad Jalil

    2011-01-01

    Many energy-aware routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. Most of them are only energy savers and do not take care about energy balancing. The energy saver protocols try to decrease the energy consumption of the network as a whole; however the energy manager protocols balance the energy consumption in the network to avoid network partitioning. This means that energy saver protocols are not necessarily energy balancing and vice versa. However, the lifetime of wireless sensor network is strictly depending on energy consumption; therefore, energy management is an essential task to be considered. This paper proposes an energy aware routing protocol, named FEAR, which considers energy balancing and energy saving. It finds a fair trade-off between energy balancing and energy saving by fuzzy set concept. FEAR routing protocol is simulated and evaluated by Glomosim simulator.

  6. Gossip Based Routing Protocol Design for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A spontaneously mannered decentralized network with no formal infrastructure and limited in temporal and spatial extent where each node communicate with each other over a wireless channel and is willing to forward data for other nodes is called as Wireless Ad Hoc network. In this research study, we proposed a routing strategy based on gossip based routing approach that follows the proactive routing with some treatment for wireless Ad Hoc network. The analytical verification of our proposed idea shows that it is a better approach based on gossip routing.

  7. A Swarm Intelligent Algorithm Based Route Maintaining Protocol for Mobile Sink Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that mobile sink can be a solution to solve the problem that energy consumption of sensor nodes is not balanced in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Caused by the sink mobility, the paths between the sensor nodes and the sink change frequently and have profound influence on the lifetime of WSN. It is necessary to design a protocol that can find efficient routings between the mobile sink and nodes but does not consume too many network resources. In this paper, we propose a swarm intelligent algorithm based route maintaining protocol to resolve this issue. The protocol utilizes the concentric ring mechanism to guide the route researching direction and adopts the optimal routing selection to maintain the data delivery route in mobile sink WSN. Using the immune based artificial bee colony (IABC algorithm to optimize the forwarding path, the routing maintaining protocol could find an alternative routing path quickly and efficiently when the coordinate of sink is changed in WSN. The results of our extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed route maintaining protocol is able to balance the network traffic load and prolong the network lifetime.

  8. Performance Analysis of AODV, CBRP, DSDV and DSR MANET Routing Protocol using NS2 Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awadhesh Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET is a collection of multi-hop wireless mobile nodes among which the communication is carried out without any centralized control or fixed infrastructure. MANET is a self-organized, self-configurable network having no infrastructure, and in which the mobile nodes move arbitrarily. The wireless link in the network are highly error prone and can go down frequently due to the mobility of nodes, interference and less infrastructure. Hence, because of the highly dynamic environment routing in MANET is a very difficult task. Over the last decade various routing protocols have been proposed for the mobile ad-hoc network and the most important among all of them are AODV, DSR, DSDV and CBRP. This research paper gives the overview of these routing protocols as well as the characteristics and functionality of these routing protocols along with their pros and cons and then make their comparative analysis in order to measure the performance of the network. The main objective of this paper is to compare the performance of all the four routing protocols and then to make the observations about how the performance of these routing protocols can be improved. Performance of these routing protocols are compared on the basis of various parameters such as throughput, delay and packet delivery ratio.

  9. Tactical Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) Protocols and Techniques (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    forwarded, a route is known and can be used immediately – Reactive (on-demand) routing protocols ( AODV , DSR) • Invoke a route determination...M dpower levels, data rates, routing protocols , antenna weighting, link scheduling… – Can run multiple real applications on a single computer and...table-driven) routing protocols (OSPF, OLSR) • Attempt to continuously evaluate all of the routes within a network • When a packet needs to be

  10. An Update based Energy-Efficient Reactive Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirendra Kumar Sharma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Low cost energy-efficient (power based routing protocols of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs increase the lifetime of static networks by using received signal strength (RSS and battery power status (PS. They require GPS service to find the exact location of mobile nodes. The GPS devices themselves consume power because they need excessive updates to find the stationary nodes for efficient routing. To overcome this, RSS is being used as a metric, followed by, residual battery power. The recent protocols, based on these concepts, provide energy efficient routes during the route discovery phase only. Topological changes make these routes weak in due course of time. To update routes, HELLO process can be used, which however creates unnecessary overhead, delay and consumes power. Hence, these protocols do not update the routes. We propose an energy-efficient reactive routing protocol that uses the RSS and PS of mobile nodes. Proposed Link Failure Prediction (LFP algorithm uses the link-layer feedback system to update active routes. We use ns2 for simulation of the proposed algorithm. Comparing the results of proposed scheme and existing scheme, in terms of energy consumption, link failure probability, and retransmission of packets, we observe that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing one.

  11. QDSR: QoS-aware Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIMinghong; YAOYinxiong; BAIYingcai

    2004-01-01

    QoS routing in wireless ad hoc networks faces many technical challenges due to time varying link and random mobility of nodes in these dynamic networks.In this paper, we design a QoS-aware dynamic source routing protocol (QDSR), based on DSR . QDSR uses minimum cost as the constraint, modifies route discovery, route reply and route maintenance mechanisms in DSR, adds the capability of path testing and initial resource reservation.The results of robustness and stability and performances imulations demonstrate that it suits the fluctuation of dynamic environment very well.

  12. A Hop Count Based Heuristic Routing Protocol for Mobile Delay Tolerant Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Changjiang; Dai, Chenqu; Xu, Jixing; Hu, Lejuan

    2014-01-01

    Routing in delay tolerant networks (DTNs) is a challenge since it must handle network partitioning, long delays, and dynamic topology. Meanwhile, routing protocols of the traditional mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) cannot work well due to the failure of its assumption that most network connections are available. In this paper, we propose a hop count based heuristic routing protocol by utilizing the information carried by the peripatetic packets in the network. A heuristic function is defined to help in making the routing decision. We formally define a custom operation for square matrices so as to transform the heuristic value calculation into matrix manipulation. Finally, the performance of our proposed algorithm is evaluated by the simulation results, which show the advantage of such self-adaptive routing protocol in the diverse circumstance of DTNs. PMID:25110736

  13. A Comprehensive Performance Analysis of Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid MANETs Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Kavita

    2011-01-01

    A mobile Ad-hoc network (MANET) is a dynamic multi hop wireless network established by a group of nodes in which there is no central administration. Due to mobility of nodes and dynamic network topology, the routing is one of the most important challenges in ad-hoc networks. Several routing algorithms for MANETs have been proposed by the researchers which have been classified into various categories, however, the most prominent categories are proactive, reactive and hybrid. The performance comparison of routing protocols for MANETs has been presented by other researcher also, however, none of these works considers proactive, reactive and hybrid protocols together. In this paper, the performance of proactive (DSDV), reactive (DSR and AODV) and hybrid (ZRP) routing protocols has been compared. The performance differentials are analyzed on the basis of throughput, average delay, routing overhead and number of packets dropped with a variation of number of nodes, pause time and mobility.

  14. A Hop Count Based Heuristic Routing Protocol for Mobile Delay Tolerant Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Routing in delay tolerant networks (DTNs is a challenge since it must handle network partitioning, long delays, and dynamic topology. Meanwhile, routing protocols of the traditional mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs cannot work well due to the failure of its assumption that most network connections are available. In this paper, we propose a hop count based heuristic routing protocol by utilizing the information carried by the peripatetic packets in the network. A heuristic function is defined to help in making the routing decision. We formally define a custom operation for square matrices so as to transform the heuristic value calculation into matrix manipulation. Finally, the performance of our proposed algorithm is evaluated by the simulation results, which show the advantage of such self-adaptive routing protocol in the diverse circumstance of DTNs.

  15. MANETKit: Supporting the Dynamic Deployment and Reconfiguration of Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdhany, Rajiv; Grace, Paul; Coulson, Geoff; Hutchison, David

    The innate dynamicity and complexity of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) has resulted in numerous ad-hoc routing protocols being proposed. Furthermore, numerous variants and hybrids continue to be reported in the literature. This diversity appears to be inherent to the field-it seems unlikely that there will ever be a 'one-size-fits-all' solution to the ad-hoc routing problem. However, typical deployment environments for ad-hoc routing protocols still force the choice of a single fixed protocol; and the resultant compromise can easily lead to sub-optimal performance, depending on current operating conditions. In this paper we address this problem by exploring a framework approach to the construction and deployment of ad-hoc routing protocols. Our framework supports the simultaneous deployment of multiple protocols so that MANET nodes can switch protocols to optimise to current operating conditions. The framework also supports finer-grained dynamic reconfiguration in terms of protocol variation and hybridisation. We evaluate our framework by using it to construct and (simultaneously) deploy two popular ad-hoc routing protocols (DYMO and OLSR), and also to derive fine-grained variants of these. We measure the performance and resource overhead of these implementations compared to monolithic ones, and find the comparison to be favourable to our approach.

  16. PERFORMANCE OF TOPOLOGY AWARE RELIABLE ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR LARGE SCALE VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Gokulakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A network which merges the usage of the public and the private networks and uses security software for the purpose of compressing, encrypting and masking the digital packets that are being transmitted in the network is called as Virtual Private Network (VPN. In VPN, the communication between the user ends is maintained such that it appears as if the source end is directly linked to the destination end over a concealed leased line. The private network, VPN uses the public network such as internet to link the remote locations with the users. In this study, we propose a new reliable protocol called as Topology Aware Reliable Routing Protocol (TARRP for large scale VPN and compare its performance with the traditional protocol, Boarder Gateway Protocol (BGP. In this protocol, the communication between the end to end nodes takes place in two phases: Routing phase and authentication phase. In the routing phase, the upstream and the downstream routing paths are determined by the source node using the topology learning protocol. Based on the dynamic failure information of links, the sender selects the failure-free path towards the destination. In the authentication phase, the VPN gateway authenticates the packet before it is transmitted through the core. Thus, this technique efficiently allows the packet to be transmitted with ensured security. By simulation results, we show that our proposed protocol is better than the traditional routing protocol of VPN.

  17. A Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Considering Secure Data Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana Mugia Rahayu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The commonly unattended and hostile deployments of WSNs and their resource-constrained sensor devices have led to an increasing demand for secure energy-efficient protocols. Routing and data aggregation receive the most attention since they are among the daily network routines. With the awareness of such demand, we found that so far there has been no work that lays out a secure routing protocol as the foundation for a secure data aggregation protocol. We argue that the secure routing role would be rendered useless if the data aggregation scheme built on it is not secure. Conversely, the secure data aggregation protocol needs a secure underlying routing protocol as its foundation in order to be effectively optimal. As an attempt for the solution, we devise an energy-aware protocol based on LEACH and ESPDA that combines secure routing protocol and secure data aggregation protocol. We then evaluate its security effectiveness and its energy-efficiency aspects, knowing that there are always trade-off between both.

  18. A simulation based QoS review of multipath routing protocols for MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Periyasamy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A MANET is an interconnection of mobile devices by wireless links forming a dynamic topology without much physical network infrastructure such as routers, servers, access points/cables or centralized administration. The multipath routing protocols establish efficient communication within the network by discovering multiple routes between a pair of source and destination in order to have load balancing to satisfy Quality of Service (QoS requirements. In this paper, the QoS comparison of three multipath routing protocols are carried out in terms of five scenario patterns such as RWM, RPGM, MGM, GMM, and PMM in two different traffic patterns such as CBR and TCP using NS2 and Bonn Motion. The multipath routing protocols AOMDV, OLSR and ZRP have been selected for simulation due to their edges over other protocols in various aspects.

  19. An experimental methodology to evaluate the resilience of ad hoc routing protocols

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Friginal López, J. (2013). An experimental methodology to evaluate the resilience of ad hoc routing protocols [Tesis doctoral]. Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. doi:10.4995/Thesis/10251/18483. Palancia

  20. An Advanced Survey on Secure Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Diop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are often deployed in hostile environments, which make such networks highly vulnerable and increase the risk of attacks against this type of network. WSN comprise of large number of sensor nodes with different hardware abilities and functions. Due to the limited memory resources and energy constraints, complex security algorithms cannot be used in sensor networks. Therefore, it is necessary to balance between the security level and the associated energy consumption overhead to mitigate the security risks. Hierarchical routing protocol is more energy-efficient than other routing protocols in WSNs. Many secure cluster-based routing protocols have been proposed in the literature to overcome these constraints. In this paper, we discuss Secure Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Routing Protocols in WSNs and compare them in terms of security, performance and efficiency. Security issues for WSNs and their solutions are also discussed.

  1. A node-disjoint multi-path routing protocol based on location ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Multi-path Routing Protocol, Mobile Ad hoc Networks, Location Prediction, Node ... stress the need to use similar paths for multi-path data propagation. ..... maintained for every source with which the destination is in communication.

  2. Unequal Density-based Node Deployment and Clustering Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bencan Gong; Shouzhi Xu

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of the hot spots in clustering routing protocols, this paper proposes an unequal density-based node deployment and clustering routing protocol (UDNDC). It has following characteristics. (1) In clusters, member nodes transmit data directly to cluster head, and cluster head can fuse all signals into a single signal. But data from different clusters cannot be fused, and multi-hop forwarding is used among clusters to save energy. (2) In order to balance the energy de...

  3. Routing Protocol with Optimal Location of Aggregation Point in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is typically composed of hundreds, even thousands of tiny sensors used to monitor physical phenomena. As data collected by the sensors are often redundant, data aggregation is important for conserving energy. In this paper, we present a new routing protocol with optimal data aggregation. This routing protocol has good performance due to its optimal selection of aggregation point locations. This paper details the optimal selection of aggregation point locations.

  4. A Performance Evaluation of Improved IPv6 Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Chien Thang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, IP-based wireless sensor networks will play a key role in several application scenarios such as smart grid, smart home, healthcare, and building automation... An IPv6 routing protocol is expected to provide internet connectivity to any IP-based sensor node. In this paper, we propose IRPL protocol for IP-based wireless sensor networks. IRPL protocol uses a combination of two routing metrics that are the link quality and the remaining energy state of the preferred parent to select the optimal path. In IRPL protocol, we combine two metrics based on an alpha weight. IRPL protocol is implemented in ContikiOS and evaluated by using simulation and testbed experiments. The results show that IRPL protocol has achieved better network lifetime, data delivery ratio and energy balance compared to the traditional solution of RPL protocol

  5. Towards designing energy-efficient routing protocol for wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dludla, AG

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available (AODV) Routing," IETF RFC 3561 2003 [7] J. Broch, D. Johnson, and D. Maltz, “The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile AD-hoc Networks,” IETF Internet draft, draft-ietf- manet-dsr-01.txt, Available online: Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet...

  6. Proposal for Implementation of Novel Routing Protocols for IP Radio Networks above 70 GHz in MPLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Perić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a proposal for implementation of novel routing protocols for IP radio networks at frequencies above 70 GHz is described. The protocols are designed to improve a network performance in the presence of the rain that has an intensity that causes a link down state and/or capacity reduction of some links in the network, but a network graph remains connected. New protocols, named OSPF-BPI and OSPF-BNI, are modifications of standard OSPF routing protocol which imply traffic sharing between the main shortest path route and specially defined backup routes. It is shown that the majority of novel routing protocols' features can be achieved just with a proper configuration of routers with standardized multi protocol label switching (MPLS traffic engineering (TE capabilities. For both types of backup routes attention is paid to avoid an additional unavailability due to equipment failure. The same MTTR time is kept for the same IP network when no protection mechanism are applied.

  7. Analysis of reactive routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks in Markov models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Han-xing; HU Xi; FANG Jian-chao; JIA Wei-jia

    2007-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have become a hot issue in the area of wireless networks for their non-infrastructure and mobile features. In this paper, a MANET is modeled so that the length of each link in the network is considered as a birthdeath process and the space is reused for n times in the flooding process, which is named as an n-spatial reuse birth-death model (n-SRBDM). We analyze the performance of the network under the dynamic source routing protocol (DSR) which is a famous reactive routing protocol. Some performance parameters of the route discovery are studied such as the probability distribution and the expectation of the flooding distance, the probability that a route is discovered by a query packet with a hop limit, the probability that a request packet finds a τ-time-valid route or a symmetric-valid route, and the average time needed to discover a valid route. For the route maintenance, some parameters are introduced and studied such as the average frequency of route recovery and the average time of a route to be valid. We compare the two models with spatial reuse and without spatial reuse by evaluating these parameters. It is shown that the spatial reuse model is much more effective in routing.

  8. GAPR2: A DTN Routing Protocol for Communications in Challenged, Degraded, and Denied Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    messages during an encounter based on the difference of the nodes movement. This thesis combines the limited flooding mechanism of Vector routing ...intermediaries are chosen reside in the routing protocols; they are responsible for determining the best available method of reaching the destination with...infinite buffer space and transmission speed. Since that is unrealistic, Epidemic Routing [9] is more often simulated. Epidemic is a modified flooding

  9. Characterizing the Interaction Between Routing and MAC Protocols in Ad-Hoc Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We empirically study the effect of mobility on the performance of protocols designed for wireless ad-hoc networks. An important objective is to study the interaction of the Routing and MAC layer protocols under different mobility parameters. We use three basic mobility models: grid mobility model, random waypoint model, and exponential correlated random model. The performance of protocols is measured in terms of (i) latency, (ii) throughput, (iii) number of packets received, (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC and routing layer level. Three different commonly studied routing protocols are used: AODV, DSR and LAR1. Similarly three well known MAC protocols are used: MACA, 802.1 1 and CSMA. Our main contribution is simulation based experiments coupled with rigorous statistical analysis to characterize the interaction of MAC layer protocols with routing layer protocols in ad-hoc networks. From the results, we can conclude the following: e No single MAC or Routing protocol dominated the other protocols in their class. Probably more interestingly, no MAURouting protocol combination was better than other combinations over all scenarios and response variables. 0 In general, it is not meaningful to speak about a MAC or a routing protocol in isolation. Presence of interaction leads to trade-offs between the amount of control packets generated by each layer. The results raise the possibility of improving the performance of a particular MAC layer protocol by using a cleverly designed routing protocol or vice-versa. Thus in order to improve the performanceof a communication network, it is important to study the entire protocol stack as a single algorithmic construct; optimizing individual layers in the seven layer OS1 stack will not yield performance improvements beyond a point. A methodological contribution of this paper is the use of statistical methods such as analysis of variance (ANOVA), to characterize the interaction between the protocols

  10. DATA-CENTRIC ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Mondal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper is more focused and can serve those who like to overall concept about all data centric routing for wireless sensor networks. To the best of our knowledge, our paper is the first work to make a classification of routing protocols in sensor networks. Sensor networks are classified by considering several architectural factors such as network dynamics, data aggregations, node capabilities and the data delivery model. Such classification is helpful for a designer to select the appropriate infrastructure for his/her application. Our work is a dedicated study of different data centric routing protocol. Wireless sensor network (WSN consists of small and low-cost sensor nodes with capability of sensing various types of physical and environmental conditions, data processing and wireless communication. Routing in sensor networks is very challenging, due to several characteristics that distinguish them from contemporary communication and wireless ad-hoc networks. Many new goal and data-oriented algorithms have been proposed for the problem of routing data in sensor networks. Most routing protocols can be classified as data-centric, hierarchical and location-based. Data-centric protocols are query-based and depend on the naming of desired data and also do some aggregation and reduction of data in order to save energy. Hierarchical protocols aim at clustering the nodes. Location-based protocols utilize the position information to relay the data to the desired regions. In this paper, we give a survey of data-centric routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Network and compare their strengths and limitations. We also highlight the advantages and performance issues of each routing technique.

  11. DATA-CENTRIC ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Mondal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper is more focused and can serve those who like to overall concept about all data centric routing for wireless sensor networks. To the best of our knowledge, our paper is the first work to make a classification of routing protocols in sensor networks. Sensor networks are classified by considering several architectural factors such as network dynamics, data aggregations, node capabilities and the data delivery model. Such classification is helpful for a designer to select the appropriate infrastructure for his/her application. Our work is a dedicated study of different data centric routing protocol. Wireless sensor network (WSN consists of small and low-cost sensor nodes with capability of sensing various types of physical and environmental conditions, data processing and wireless communication . Routing in sensor networks is very challenging, due to several characteristics that distinguish them from contemporary communication and wireless ad-hoc networks. Many new goal and data-oriented algorithms have been proposed for the problem of routing data in sensor networks. Most routing protocols can be classified as data-centric, hierarchical and location-based. Data-centric protocols are query-based and depend on the naming of desired data and also do some aggregation and reduction of data in order to save energy. Hierarchical protocols aim at clustering the nodes. Location-based protocols utilize the position information to relay the data to the desired regions. In this paper, we give a survey of data-centric routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Network and compare their strengths and limitations. We also highlight the advantages and performance issues of each routing technique.

  12. Energy Efficient and QoS sensitive Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed Tanoli, Tariq; Khalid Khan, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Efficient routing is an important part of wireless ad hoc networks. Since in ad hoc networks we have limited resources, there are many limitations like bandwidth, battery consumption, and processing cycle etc. Reliability is also necessary since there is no allowance for invalid or incomplete information (and expired data is useless). There are various protocols that perform routing by considering one parameter but ignoring other parameters. In this paper we present a protocol that finds route on the basis of bandwidth, energy and mobility of the nodes participating in the communication.

  13. LMEEC: Layered Multi-Hop Energy Efficient Cluster-based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khelifi, Manel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose LMEEC, a cluster-based routing protocol with low energy consumption for wireless sensor networks. Our protocol is based on a strategy which aims to provide a more reasonable exploitation of the selected nodes (cluster-heads) energy. Simulation results show the effectiveness of LMEEC in decreasing the energy consumption, and in prolonging the network lifetime, compared to LEACH.

  14. Impact of Routing Protocol on the Performance of Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Khaled Ben Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Sensor Networks, most sensor nodes are deployed with limited resources and dissemination of sensed information is one of the resource intensive tasks. Proper utilization of those limited resources in case of information routing is one of the key factors for the performance and lifetime of a sensor network. These issues are more challenging when sensor networks are considered as building block of Internet of Things. In our work, we have investigated the impact of routing protocol selection on the performance of a wireless sensor network in IoT context. We have simulated different types wireless sensor network with DSDV, AODV, DYMO, DSR, and OLSR routing protocols using network simulator NS-2. In all these scenarios, we have used Packet Delivery Ratio, Throughput, End-to-End delay, Normalized Routing Load and Data Packet Loss as metric to analyze the performance of each considered routing techniques. Simulation results suggest that selection of routing protocol for a particular wireless sensor network has great significance on the overall performance of the network and for selecting a routing protocol, it would be better to consider the nature of the network first to achieve higher performance.

  15. A Secure 3-Way Routing Protocols for Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Sekaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile ad hoc network may be partially connected or it may be disconnected in nature and these forms of networks are termed intermittently connected mobile ad hoc network (ICMANET. The routing in such disconnected network is commonly an arduous task. Many routing protocols have been proposed for routing in ICMANET since decades. The routing techniques in existence for ICMANET are, namely, flooding, epidemic, probabilistic, copy case, spray and wait, and so forth. These techniques achieve an effective routing with minimum latency, higher delivery ratio, lesser overhead, and so forth. Though these techniques generate effective results, in this paper, we propose novel routing algorithms grounded on agent and cryptographic techniques, namely, location dissemination service (LoDiS routing with agent AES, A-LoDiS with agent AES routing, and B-LoDiS with agent AES routing, ensuring optimal results with respect to various network routing parameters. The algorithm along with efficient routing ensures higher degree of security. The security level is cited testing with respect to possibility of malicious nodes into the network. This paper also aids, with the comparative results of proposed algorithms, for secure routing in ICMANET.

  16. A secure 3-way routing protocols for intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaran, Ramesh; Parasuraman, Ganesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The mobile ad hoc network may be partially connected or it may be disconnected in nature and these forms of networks are termed intermittently connected mobile ad hoc network (ICMANET). The routing in such disconnected network is commonly an arduous task. Many routing protocols have been proposed for routing in ICMANET since decades. The routing techniques in existence for ICMANET are, namely, flooding, epidemic, probabilistic, copy case, spray and wait, and so forth. These techniques achieve an effective routing with minimum latency, higher delivery ratio, lesser overhead, and so forth. Though these techniques generate effective results, in this paper, we propose novel routing algorithms grounded on agent and cryptographic techniques, namely, location dissemination service (LoDiS) routing with agent AES, A-LoDiS with agent AES routing, and B-LoDiS with agent AES routing, ensuring optimal results with respect to various network routing parameters. The algorithm along with efficient routing ensures higher degree of security. The security level is cited testing with respect to possibility of malicious nodes into the network. This paper also aids, with the comparative results of proposed algorithms, for secure routing in ICMANET.

  17. Supporting IP dense mode multicast routing protocols in WDM all-optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Marcos R.; Heemstra de Groot, Sonia; Dey, Diptish

    2000-09-01

    Recent developments in all-optical networking and wavelength division multiplexing technologies allow for the support of optical multicasting, a missing feature towards the optical Internet. In this paper we propose a protocol to construct source-rooted WDM multicast trees. The protocol works under dense mode multicasting routing IP protocols and supports network nodes with different degrees of light splitting, wavelength conversion, and add/drop capabilities.

  18. A Meliorate Routing of Reactive Protocol with Clustering Technique in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Khandsakarwala,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET has become very popular because of the deep research done in that area in last few years. MANET has advantage of operating without fixed infrastructure and also it can tolerate many changes in the network topology. The MANET uses different routing protocols for End to End Packet delivery. This paper is subjected to the Reactive routing protocols on the basis of identical environment conditions and evaluates their relative performance with respect to the performance metric Packet delivery ratio, overhead & throughput. In this Reactive routing protocols can spectacularly reduce routing overhead because they do not need to search for and maintain the routes on which there is no data traffic. This property is very invoking in the limited resource. Achieve a good efficient network life and reliability need a variation on the notion of multicasting. Geo-casting is useful for sending messages to nodes in a specified geographical region. This region is called the geo-cast region. For geo-casting in mobile ad hoc networks. The proposed protocol combines any casting with local flooding to implement geo-casting. Thus, Protocol requires two phases for geo-casting. First, it performs any casting from a source to any node in the geo-cast region. Also this Protocol works on large MANET, and to achieve high accuracy and optimize output. To perform geo-cast region we use a proposed clustering technique in Large MANET.

  19. A Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Ali Idarous; Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Due to the lack of dependency for routing initiation and an inadequate allocated sextant on responding messages, the secure geographic routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have attracted considerable attention. However, the existing protocols are more likely to drop packets when legitimate nodes fail to respond to the routing initiation messages while attackers in the allocated sextant manage to respond. Furthermore, these protocols are designed with inefficient collection window and inadequate verification criteria which may lead to a high number of attacker selections. To prevent the failure to find an appropriate relay node and undesirable packet retransmission, this paper presents Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) to increase the probability of selecting the appropriate relay node. By extending the allocated sextant and applying different message contention priorities more legitimate nodes can be admitted in the routing process. Moreover, the paper also proposed the bound collection window for a sufficient collection time and verification cost for both attacker identification and isolation. Extensive simulation experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol in comparison with other existing protocols. The results demonstrate that SRBGR increases network performance in terms of the packet delivery ratio and isolates attacks such as Sybil and Black hole. PMID:28121992

  20. A Self-organizing Location and Mobility-Aware Route Optimization Protocol for Bluetooth Wireless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Tahir Bakhsh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth allows multi-hop ad-hoc networks that contain multiple interconnected piconets in a common area to form a scatternet. Routing is one of the technical issues in a scatternet because nodes can arrive and leave at arbitrary times; hence node mobility has a serious impact on network performance. Bluetooth network is built in an ad-hoc fashion, therefore, a fully connected network does not guarantee. Moreover, a partially connected network may not find the shortest route between source and destination. In this paper, a new Self-organizing Location and Mobility-aware Route Optimization (LMRO protocol is proposed for Bluetooth scatternet, which is based on node mobility and location. The proposed protocol considered the shortest route ahead of the source and destination nodes through nodes location information. In addition, proposed protocol guarantees network connectivity through executing Self-organizing procedure for the damaged route by considering signal strength. The proposed LMRO protocol predicts node mobility through the signal strength and activates an alternate link before the main link breaks. Simulation results show that the LMRO protocol has reduced the average hop count by 20%-50% and increased network throughput by 30%-40% compared to existing protocols.

  1. A BROADCAST BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR INTER-CLUSTER DATA DISSEMINATION IN VEHICULAR COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auxeeliya Jesudoss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular communication is one of the fast growing and promising technologies for a safe and comfortable driving environment. These technologies do not end up with economic and safety ramifications, but also extended with other informational and entertainment oriented services. Data are being propagated multi-hop between source and destination vehicles for many real-life applications. Clustering is one of the effective and scalable solutions for data dissemination in wireless ad hoc networks. Though many cluster-based methods have been proposed for multi-hop data delivery in vehicular ad hoc networks, most of them do not consider the real-time changes in the network topology or imposes large penalties in routing such as unstable clusters, broken links, updating route tables. In order to address these issues, we propose a broadcast based routing protocol for inter-cluster data dissemination in this study that works on real-time vehicle information. Unlike, most existing routing algorithms, it only uses hello messages to obtain routing information without many other control messages. In addition, it alleviates the storage of routing information in every node, which largely reduces the overheads in routing. We performed extensive simulation to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed routing protocol. Results show that the proposed protocol outperforms other approaches in terms of average delay, average delivery ratio and average number of hops.

  2. Survey: Comparison Estimation of Various Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanshu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available MANET is an autonomous system of mobile nodes attached by wireless links. It represents a complex and dynamic distributed systems that consist of mobile wireless nodes that can freely self organize into an ad-hoc network topology. The devices in the network may have limited transmission range therefore multiple hops may be needed by one node to transfer data to another node in network. This leads to the need for an effective routing protocol. In this paper we study various classifications of routing protocols and their types for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks like DSDV, GSR, AODV, DSR, ZRP, FSR, CGSR, LAR, and Geocast Protocols. In this paper we also compare different routing protocols on based on a given set of parameters Scalability, Latency, Bandwidth, Control-overhead, Mobility impact.

  3. Improvement over the OLSR Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks by Eliminating the Unnecessary Loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Behzad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks are type of wireless networks in which any kind of infrastructure is not used, i.e. there are no infrastructures such as routers or switches or anything else on the network that can be used to support the network structure and the nodes has mobility. The purpose of this paper is to provide a better quality of the package delivery rate and the throughput, that is in need of powerful routing protocol standards, which can guarantee delivering of the packages to destinations, and the throughput on a network. For achieving this purpose, we use OLSR routing protocol that is a responsive protocol and is currently covered under the IETF standard (RFC 3626. At this paper, we improved the OLSR routing protocol by eliminating the unnecessary loops, and simulation results demonstrated a significant improvement in the criteria of package delivery rate and throughput.

  4. Suppressing traffic-driven epidemic spreading by use of the efficient routing protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Han-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive work on the interplay between traffic dynamics and epidemic spreading, the control of epidemic spreading by routing strategies has not received adequate attention. In this paper, we study the impact of efficient routing protocol on epidemic spreading. In the case of infinite node-delivery capacity, where the traffic is free of congestion, we find that that there exists optimal values of routing parameter, leading to the maximal epidemic threshold. This means that epidemic spreading can be effectively controlled by fine tuning the routing scheme. Moreover, we find that an increase in the average network connectivity and the emergence of traffic congestion can suppress the epidemic outbreak.

  5. 车载自组织网络路由协议的仿真研究%Research on the Routing Protocol Simulation in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李保珠; 刘悦; 初国新

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the Vehicular Ad hoc Networks and two typical routing protocols: the table-driven routing protocol (DSDV) and the Ad hoc On-demand routing protocol (AODV) in mobile ad hoc networks. And a practical mobility model is used to enable the simulation experiment more veritable. Then NS2, a network simulation tool, is implemented to simulate the two typical routing protocols in ad hoc networks based on Linux,and the simulation results are analyzed and compared. The result is that the AODV and DSDV routing protocols are not suitable for vehicular ad hoc networks, so designing a proper protocol is an urgent problem.%本文简要介绍了车载自组织网络和移动自组织网络中两个典型的路由协议:表驱动路由协议DSDV和按需路由协议AODV;还介绍了一个实用的移动模型,使仿真实验更加接近现实.在Linux下使用网络仿真工具NS2对这两个典型协议进行仿真,并对仿真结果进行分析比较和性能评价,得出:AODV和DSDV协议都不太适用于车辆自组织网络,所以设计适合车辆网路的协议是急需解决的问题.

  6. A RELIABLE AND ENERGY EFFICIENCT ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Kaliyar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network (MANETs is an infrastructure less network in which the mobile nodes communicate with each other. Due to its various characteristics like highly dynamic topology and limited battery power of the nodes, routing is one of the key issue. Also, it is not possible to give a significant amount of power to the mobile nodes of ad-hoc networks. Because of all this the energy consumption is also an important issue. Due to limited battery power, some other issues like if some node gets fail, which results in loss of data packets and no reliable data transfer has been raised. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for data transmission which detects the node failure (due to energy before it actually happens. Because of this network lifetime gets improved. The proposed routing algorithm is energy efficient as compared to AODV routing algorithm. The performance is analyzed on the basis of various performance metrics like Energy Consumption, Packet Delivery Ratio, Network Life Time, Network Routing Overhead and number of Exhausted nodes in the network by using the NS2 Simulator.

  7. Performance Analysis of Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP Over Open Shortest Path First (OSPF Protocol with Opnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibrika Bright Selorm Kodzo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increase in the easy accessibility of computers and mobile phones alike, routing has become indispensable in deciding how computes communicate especially modern computer communication networks. This paper presents performance analysis between EIGRP and OSPFP for real time applications using Optimized Network Engineering Tool (OPNET. In order to evaluate OSPF and EIGRP’s performance, three network models were designed where 1st, 2nd and 3rd network models are configured respectively with OSPF, EIGRP and a combination of EIGRP and OSPF. Evaluation of the proposed routing protocols was performed based on quantitative metrics such as Convergence Time, Jitter, End-to-End delay, Throughput and Packet Loss through the simulated network models. The evaluation results showed that EIGRP protocol provides a better performance than OSPF routing protocol for real time applications. By examining the results (convergence times in particular, the results of simulating the various scenarios identified the routing protocol with the best performance for a large, realistic and scalable network.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Ant-Based Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu Murtala Zungeru

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available High efficient routing is an important issue in the design of limited energy resource Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. Due to the characteristic of the environment at which the sensor node is to operate, coupled with severe resources; on-board energy, transmission power, processing capability, and storage limitations, prompt for careful resource management and new routing protocol so as to counteract the differences and challenges. To this end, we present an Improved Energy-Efficient Ant-Based Routing (IEEABR Algorithm in wireless sensor networks. Compared to the state-of-the-art Ant-Based routing protocols; Basic Ant-Based Routing (BABR Algorithm, Sensor-driven and Cost-aware ant routing (SC, Flooded Forward ant routing (FF, Flooded Piggybacked ant routing (FP, and Energy-Efficient Ant-Based Routing (EEABR, the proposed IEEABR approach has advantages in terms of reduced energy usage which can effectively balance the WSN node€™s power consumption, and high energy efficiency. The performance evaluations for the algorithms on a real application are conducted in a well known WSN MATLAB-based simulator (RMASE using both static and dynamic scenario.

  9. A Secure Routing Protocol to Eliminate Integrity, Authentication and Sleep Deprivation Based Threats in Mobile Ad hoc Network

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    Edna E. Nallathambi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Network security in Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a major issue. Some of the attacks such as modification, impersonation, Time To Live (TTL and sleep deprivation are due to misbehaviour of malicious nodes, which disrupts the transmission. Some of the existing security protocols such as ARAN, SAODV and SEAD are basically used to detect and eliminate one or two types of attacks. The major requirement of a secure protocol is to prevent and eliminate many attacks simultaneously which will make the MANETs more secured. Approach: We propose the algorithm that can prevent and also eliminate multiple attacks simultaneously, called MIST algorithm (Modification, Impersonation, Sleep deprivation and TTL attacks. This algorithm is written on Node Transition Probability (NTP based protocol which provides maximum utilization of bandwidth during heavy traffic with less overhead. Thus this has been named MIST NTP. Results: The proposed MIST NTP has been compared with NTP without the MIST algorithm, Authenticated Routing for Ad hoc Networks (ARAN and Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV. Extensive packet level simulations show that MIST NTP produces around 10% less end to end delay than ARAN, it even drops 30% fewer packets compared to malicious NTP on an average and around 50-60% fewer packets compared to AODV during multiple attacks. Conclusion: The results ensure that MIST NTP can break the greatest security challenge prevailing in MANETs by securing the MANET against several attacks at once.

  10. DRMR:Dynamic-Ring-Based Multicast Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Zhoux; Guang-Sheng Li; Yong-Zhao Zhan; Qi-Rong Mao; Yi-Bin Hou

    2004-01-01

    Recently a number of multicast routing protocols for ad hoc networks have been proposed, however, most of them do not provide proper tradeoffs between effectiveness, efficiency and scalability. In this paper, a novel multicast routing protocol is presented for ad hoc networks. The protocol, termed as dynamic-ring-based multicast routing protocol (DRMR), uses the concept of dynamic ring whose radius can be adjusted dynamically and DRMR configures this type of ring for all group member nodes. According to the principle of zone routing, two nodes whose rings overlap can create route to each other, thus, when the ring graph composed of all rings is connected, each member node has one or more routes to others. DRMR uses the method of expanding ring search (ERS) to maintain the connected ring graph, and also can decrease the radius of the ring to reduce the overhead. The performances of DRMR were simulated and evaluated with NS2, and results show that DRMR has a high data packet delivery ratio, low control overhead and good scalability.

  11. Fuzzy Based Energy Efficient Multiple Cluster Head Selection Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

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    Sohel Rana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is made up with small batteries powered sensor devices with lim-ited energy resources within it. These sensor nodes are used to monitor physical or environmental conditions and to pass their data through the wireless network to the main location. One of the crucial issues in wireless sensor network is to create a more energy efficient system. Clustering is one kind of mechanism in Wireless Sensor Networks to prolong the network lifetime and to reduce network energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol called Fuzzy Based Energy Effi-cient Multiple Cluster Head Selection Routing Protocol (FEMCHRP for Wireless Sensor Network. The routing process involves the Clustering of nodes and the selection of Cluster Head (CH nodes of these clusters which sends all the information to the Cluster Head Leader (CHL. After that, the cluster head leaders send aggregated data to the Base Station (BS. The selection of cluster heads and cluster head leaders is performed by using fuzzy logic and the data transmission process is performed by shortest energy path which is selected applying Dijkstra Algorithm. The simulation results of this research are compared with other protocols BCDCP, CELRP and ECHERP to evaluate the performance of the proposed routing protocol. The evaluation concludes that the proposed routing protocol is better in prolonging network lifetime and balancing energy consumption.

  12. An efficient geo-routing aware MAC protocol for underwater acoustic networks

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    Yibo Zhu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an efficient geo-routing aware MAC protocol (GOAL for underwater acoustic networks. It smoothly integrates self-adaptation based REQ/REP handshake, geographic cyber carrier sensing, and implicit ACK to perform combined channel reservation and next-hop selection. As a result, it incorporates the advantages of both a geo-routing protocol and a reservation-based medium access control (MAC protocol. Specifically, with its self-adaptation based REQ/REP, nodes can dynamically detect the best next-hop with low route discovery cost. In addition, through geographic cyber carrier sensing, a node can map its neighbors’ time slots for sending/receiving DATA packets to its own time line, which allows the collision among data packets to be greatly reduced. With these features, GOAL outperforms geo-routing protocols coupling with broadcast MAC. Simulation results show that GOAL provides much higher end-to-end reliability with lower energy consumptions than existing Vector-Based Forwarding (VBF routing with use of a broadcast MAC protocol. Moreover, we develop a theoretical model for the probability of a successful handshake, which coincides well with the simulation results.

  13. DESIGN OF ANTRO ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR UNDERWATER WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

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    R. Srinithi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing routing algorithms are not effective in supporting the dynamic characteristics of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs and cannot ensure sufficient quality of service in UWSN applications. This project proposes a probabilistic technique for solving computational problems which can be reduced to finding better paths through graphs. . This algorithm is a member of an ant colony algorithms family, in swarm intelligence methods, the algorithm was aiming to search for an optimal path in a graph.

  14. A SURVEY ON PROTOCOLS & ATTACKS IN MANET ROUTING

    OpenAIRE

    Meenakshi; Rishabh Jain; Charul Deewan

    2012-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a dynamic wirelessnetwork that can be formed without any pre-existinginfrastructure in which each node can act as a router.MANET has no clear line of defense, so, it is accessible toboth legitimate network users and malicious attackers. Inthe presence of malicious nodes, one of the main challengesin MANET is to design the robust security solution that canprotect MANET from various routing attacks. Differentmechanisms have been proposed using variouscryptogra...

  15. Analysing the Behaviour and Performance of Opportunistic Routing Protocols in Highly Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

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    Varun G Menon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in wireless networks have enabled us to deploy and use mobile ad hoc networks for communication between the rescue officers in disaster recovery and reconstruction operations. This highly dynamic network does not require any infrastructure or centralized control. As the topology of the network remain dynamic, severe performance limitations incur with traditional routing strategies. Recently a new routing paradigm known as opportunistic routing protocols have been proposed to overcome these limitations and to provide efficient delivery of data in these highly dynamic ad hoc networks. Using the broadcasting nature of the wireless medium, this latest routing technique tries to address two major issues of varying link quality and unpredictable node mobility in ad hoc networks. Unlike conventional IP forwarding, where an intermediate node looks up a forwarding table for a suitable next hop, opportunistic routing brings in opportunistic data forwarding that allows multiple candidate nodes in the forwarding area to act on the broadcasted data packet. This increases the reliability of data delivery in the network with reduced delay. One of the most important issues that have not been studied so far is the varying performance of opportunistic routing protocols in wireless networks with highly mobile nodes. This research paper analyses and compares the various advantages, disadvantages and the performance of the latest opportunistic routing protocols in wireless ad hoc networks with highly mobile nodes.

  16. Adaptive Routing Protocol with Energy Efficiency and Event Clustering for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Quang, Vinh; Miyoshi, Takumi

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a promising approach for a variety of applications. Routing protocol for WSNs is very challenging because it should be simple, scalable, energy-efficient, and robust to deal with a very large number of nodes, and also self-configurable to node failures and changes of the network topology dynamically. Recently, many researchers have focused on developing hierarchical protocols for WSNs. However, most protocols in the literatures cannot scale well to large sensor networks and difficult to apply in the real applications. In this paper, we propose a novel adaptive routing protocol for WSNs called ARPEES. The main design features of the proposed method are: energy efficiency, dynamic event clustering, and multi-hop relay considering the trade-off relationship between the residual energy available of relay nodes and distance from the relay node to the base station. With a distributed and light overhead traffic approach, we spread energy consumption required for aggregating data and relaying them to different sensor nodes to prolong the lifetime of the whole network. In this method, we consider energy and distance as the parameters in the proposed function to select relay nodes and finally select the optimal path among cluster heads, relay nodes and the base station. The simulation results show that our routing protocol achieves better performance than other previous routing protocols.

  17. An Opportunistic Routing Protocol for Mobile Cognitive Radio Ad hoc networks

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    S. Selvakanmani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio, an upcoming technology gives the solution for the scarcity of spectrum where the transmitter acts as a sensible device which behaves as per the surrounding environment. A group of devices, which follows this technology, forms a temporary network called mobile cognitive radio ad hoc networks. The widely known ad hoc networks are always in moving fashion and there is no need for central abstraction in collecting the data. In such networks, formation of route(s to the destination becomes a leading problem. In Cognitive Radio ad hoc Networks (CRAHNs a challenging problem is to design the routing metric and also to reduce the packet drop. This problem arrives due to the usage of traditional routing in CRAHNs. Opportunistic routing - a new routing paradigm has been used as an alternate for maximizing the packet delivery ratio. The paper discusses about the routing protocol called CRCN CORMEN discusses about packet delivery ratio, reduces delay in a cooperative way among the nodes, when compared to the traditional Cooperative communications. The proposed protocol is evaluated and compared through NS2 simulation. The result indicates a high performance due to opportunistic routing and the evaluation is shown through by using xgraph.

  18. Node Disjoint Multipath Routing Considering Link and Node Stability protocol: A characteristic Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhayaya, Shuchita

    2010-01-01

    Mobile Ad hoc Networks are highly dynamic networks. Quality of Service (QoS) routing in such networks is usually limited by the network breakage due to either node mobility or energy depletion of the mobile nodes. Also, to fulfill certain quality parameters, presence of multiple node-disjoint paths becomes essential. Such paths aid in the optimal traffic distribution and reliability in case of path breakages. Thus, to cater various challenges in QoS routing in Mobile Add hoc Networks, a Node Disjoint Multipath Routing Considering Link and Node Stability (NDMLNR) protocol has been proposed by the authors. The metric used to select the paths takes into account the stability of the nodes and the corresponding links. This paper studies various challenges in the QoS routing and presents the characteristic evaluation of NDMLNR w.r.t various existing protocols in this area.

  19. An Empirical Study on variants of TCP over AODV routing protocol in MANET

    CERN Document Server

    Morshed, Md Monzur; Islam, Md Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    The cardinal concept of TCP development was to carry data within the network where network congestion plays a vital role to cause packet loss. On the other hand, there are several other reasons to lose packets in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks due to fading, interfaces, multi-path routing, malicious node, and black hole. Along with throughput, fairness of TCP protocols is important to establish a good communication. In this paper, an empirical study has been done by simulation and analysis of TCP variations under AODV routing protocol. In our simulation, we studied multiple variations of TCP, such as Reno, New-Reno, Vegas, and Tahoe. The simulation work has been done in NS2 environment. Based on the analysis simulation result of we carried out our observations with respect to the behavior of AODV routing protocol for different TCP packets under several QoS metrics such as drop, throughput, delay, and jitter.

  20. Improvement of AODV Routing Protocol with QoS Support in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Zhu, Lei; Lin, Long; Wu, Qihui

    The Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is a newly developed wireless network which supports broadband and high speed multimedia service, so the Quality-of-Service (QoS) must be guaranteed by the network. In this paper, a new QoS-aware routing protocol based on AODV named QAODV (QoS- AODV) is proposed. Under the premise of the delay and available bandwidth meeting the QoS demands, the protocol defines a new route metric with the hop count and load rate so as to select the best route according to it. Simulation results show that, compared with AODV, the performance of QAODV is better on both network throughput and end-to-end delay with small increase of control overhead. As a whole, the protocol improves the QoS guarantee capability in the WMN.

  1. An efficient and reliable geographic routing protocol based on partial network coding for underwater sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kun; Jin, Zhigang; Shen, Haifeng; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Efficient routing protocols for data packet delivery are crucial to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). However, communication in UWSNs is a challenging task because of the characteristics of the acoustic channel. Network coding is a promising technique for efficient data packet delivery thanks to the broadcast nature of acoustic channels and the relatively high computation capabilities of the sensor nodes. In this work, we present GPNC, a novel geographic routing protocol for UWSNs that incorporates partial network coding to encode data packets and uses sensor nodes' location information to greedily forward data packets to sink nodes. GPNC can effectively reduce network delays and retransmissions of redundant packets causing additional network energy consumption. Simulation results show that GPNC can significantly improve network throughput and packet delivery ratio, while reducing energy consumption and network latency when compared with other routing protocols.

  2. An Efficient and Reliable Geographic Routing Protocol Based on Partial Network Coding for Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Hao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficient routing protocols for data packet delivery are crucial to underwater sensor networks (UWSNs. However, communication in UWSNs is a challenging task because of the characteristics of the acoustic channel. Network coding is a promising technique for efficient data packet delivery thanks to the broadcast nature of acoustic channels and the relatively high computation capabilities of the sensor nodes. In this work, we present GPNC, a novel geographic routing protocol for UWSNs that incorporates partial network coding to encode data packets and uses sensor nodes’ location information to greedily forward data packets to sink nodes. GPNC can effectively reduce network delays and retransmissions of redundant packets causing additional network energy consumption. Simulation results show that GPNC can significantly improve network throughput and packet delivery ratio, while reducing energy consumption and network latency when compared with other routing protocols.

  3. REAL-TIME ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS: A SURVEY

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    Pradeep Chennakesavula

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks can be termed as a new generation of distributed embedded systems that has a capability of meeting broad range of real-time applications. Examples include radiation monitoring, fire monitoring, border surveillance, and medical care to name but a few. Wireless sensor networks that are deployed in time/mission-critical applications with highly dynamic environments have to interact with the physical phenomenon under stringent timing constraints and severe resource limitations. For such real-time wireless sensor networks, designing and developing a real-time routing protocol that meets the required real-time guarantee of data packets communication is a stimulating field of study that raised many challenges and research issues. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of real-time routing protocols in WSN, by discussing each protocol with its key features. Finally, we concluded this paper with open research issues and challenges of real-time routing in WSN.

  4. Congestion Avoidance and Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for WSN Healthcare Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailpour, Babak; Rezaee, Abbas Ali; Abad, Javad Mohebbi Najm

    Recent advances in wireless sensor technology facilitate the development of remote healthcare systems, which can significantly reduce the healthcare cost. The use of general and efficient routing protocols for Healthcare wireless sensor networks (HWSN) has crucial significance. One of the critical issues is to assure the timely delivery of the life-critical data in the resource-constrained WSN environment. Energy, and some other parameters for HWSN are considered here. In this paper, a data centric routing protocol which considers end to end delay, reliability, energy consumption, lifetime and fairness have been taken into account. The Proposed protocol which is called HREEP (Healthcare REEP) provides forwarding traffics with different priorities and QoS requirements based on constraint based routing. We study the performance of HREEP using different scenarios. Simulation results show that HREEP has achieved its goals.

  5. AGEM: Adaptive Greedy-Compass Energy-aware Multipath Routing Protocol for WMSNs

    CERN Document Server

    Medjiah, Samir; Krief, Francine

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an Adaptive Greedy-compass Energy-aware Multipath protocol (AGEM), a novel routing protocol for wireless multimedia sensors networks (WMSNs). AGEM uses sensors node positions to make packet forwarding decisions. These decisions are made online, at each forwarding node, in such a way that there is no need for global network topology knowledge and maintenance. AGEM routing protocol performs load-balancing to minimize energy consumption among nodes using twofold policy: (1) smart greedy forwarding, based on adaptive compass and (2) walking back forwarding to avoid holes. Performance evaluations of AGEM compared to GPSR (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing) show that AGEM can: (a) maximize the network lifetime, (b) guarantee quality of service for video stream transmission, and (c) scale better on densely deployed wireless sensors network.

  6. Application of Game Theory Approaches in Routing Protocols for Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Mohammad M.; Aliahmadipour, Laya

    2011-09-01

    An important and essential issue for wireless networks is routing protocol design that is a major technical challenge due to the function of the network. Game theory is a powerful mathematical tool that analyzes the strategic interactions among multiple decision makers and the results of researches show that applied game theory in routing protocol lead to improvement the network performance through reduce overhead and motivates selfish nodes to collaborate in the network. This paper presents a review and comparison for typical representatives of routing protocols designed that applied game theory approaches for various wireless networks such as ad hoc networks, mobile ad hoc networks and sensor networks that all of them lead to improve the network performance.

  7. Secure energy efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Ayan Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ease of deployment of economic sensor networks has always been a boon to disaster management applications. However, their vulnerability to a number of security threats makes communication a challenging task. This paper proposes a new routing technique to prevent from both external threats and internal threats like hello flooding, eavesdropping and wormhole attack. In this approach one way hash chain is used to reduce the energy drainage. Level based event driven clustering also helps to save energy. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme extends network lifetime even when the cluster based wireless sensor network is under attack.

  8. A Survey on the Taxonomy of Cluster-Based Routing Protocols for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Soroush; Ghafghazi, Hamidreza; Chow, Chee-Onn; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided. PMID:22969350

  9. A Survey on the Taxonomy of Cluster-Based Routing Protocols for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ishii

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided.

  10. PERFORMANCE COMPARISION OF DIFFERENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS WITH FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM IN MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhrananda Goswami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An ad hoc wireless network consists of mobile networks which create an underlying architecture for communication without the help of traditional fixed-position routers. There are different protocols for handling the routing in the mobile environment. Routing protocols used in fixed infrastructure networks cannot be efficiently used for mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET, so it requires different protocols. The node moves at different speeds in an independent random form, connected by any number of wireless links, where each node is ready to pass or forward both data and control traffic unrelated to its own use ahead (routing to other nodes in a flexible interdependence of wireless communication in between. In contrast to infrastructure wireless networks, where the communication between network nodes is take place by a special node known as an access point. It is also, in contrast to wired networks in which the routing task is performed by special and specific devices called routers and switches. In this paper, we consider fuzzy inference system, an attempt has been made to present a model using fuzzy logic approach to evaluate and compare three routing protocols i.e. AODV, DSDV and DSR using effective factor of the number of nodes based on 3 outputs of control overhead, delay and PDR (totally fuzzy system with 4 outputs in order to select one of these two routing protocols properly under different conditions and based on need and goal. To show efficiency and truth of fuzzy system, three protocols have been evaluated equally using NS-2 simulator and attempt has been made to prove efficiency of the designed fuzzy system by comparing results of simulation of fuzzy system and NS-2 software.

  11. ENERGY EFFICENT ROUTING PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SASMITA SAHOO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks consist of small battery powered sensor nodes with limited energy resources. The area of wireless sensor networks is now attractive in the research area due to its applications in many fields such as defense security, civilian applications and medical research etc. In wireless sensor networks, the important task is to periodically collect data from an area of interest for time-sensitive applications. Then the sensed data must be gathered and transmitted to a base station for further processing to meet the end-user queries. Routing is a serious issue in WSN due to the use of computationally-constrained and resourceconstrainedmicro-sensors. Once the sensor nodes are deployed replacement is not feasible. Hence, energy efficiency is a key design issue to improve the life span of the network. Since the network consists of low-costnodes with limited battery power, it is a challenging task to design an efficient routing scheme that can offer good performance in energy efficiency, and long network lifetimes.

  12. Scalability Performance of MANET Routing Protocols with Reference to Variable Pause Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Ambhaikar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As mobile networking continues to experience increasing popularity, the need to connect large numbers of wireless devices will become more prevalent. Many recent proposals for ad hoc routing have certain characteristics. A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of autonomous mobile nodes that communicate with each other over wireless links. Such networks does play important role in civilian and military settings, being useful for providing communication support where no fixed infrastructure exists or the deployment of a fixed infrastructure is possible. It is a crucial part in the performance evaluation of MANET to select suitable mobility model and routing protocols. Therefore, a number of routing protocols as well as mobility models have been proposed for ad hoc wireless networks based on different scenarios. In this paper, we study and compare the performance of the two reactive routing protocols AODV and DSR with reference to varying Pause Time. For experimental purposes, we have considered increasing Pause Time from 5 sec to 40 sec and illustrate the performance of the routing protocol across Packet Delivery Ratio parameter. Our simulation result shows that both AODV & DSR is performing equally good until the Pause Time cross a certain limit.

  13. Energy Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks using a Novel Dynamic Multicast Routing Protocol

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    S. Sundar Raj

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Minimization of energy consumption has always been the predominant factor deciding the acceptability of a routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. In this study we have proposed a novel efficient multicast routing protocols in wireless mobile ad hoc networks is proposed. Due to the high mobility of nodes and highly dynamic topology, performing efficient and robust multicast in a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a challenging task. Most of existing multicast protocols in MANETs discover the routing path by flooding message over the whole network, which result in considerable cost for routing discovery and maintenance. Moreover, the reliability of the discovered path cannot be guaranteed, since the stabilities of nodes along such path are unpredictable. Here an attempt is made to devise an algorithm combining the features of both energy efficient and low latency algorithms. The new algorithm is intended to do well in real-world scenarios where the energy capacities of the nodes are not uniform. It employs a mobility prediction based election process to construct a reliable backbone structure performing packet transmission, message flooding, routing discovery and maintenance. Several virtual architectures are used in the protocol without need of maintaining state information for more robust and scalable membership management and packet forwarding in the presence of high network dynamics due to unstable wireless channels and node movements.

  14. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  15. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-03-31

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  16. A Performance Comparison of Stability, Load-Balancing and Power-Aware Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Meghanathan, Natarajan

    2010-01-01

    The high-level contribution of this paper is a simulation-based detailed performance comparison of three different classes of routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks: stability-based routing, power-aware routing and load-balanced routing. We choose the Flow-Oriented Routing protocol (FORP), the traffic interference based Load Balancing Routing (LBR) protocol and Min-Max Battery Cost Routing (MMBCR) as representatives of the stability-based routing, load-balancing and power-aware routing protocols respectively. Among the three routing protocols, FORP incurs the least number of route transitions; while LBR incurs the smallest hop count and lowest end-to-end delay per data packet. Energy consumed per node is the least for MMBCR, closely followed by LBR. MMBCR is the most fair in terms of node usage and hence it incurs the largest time for first node failure. FORP tends to repeatedly use nodes lying on the stable path and hence is the most unfair of the three routing protocols and it incurs the smallest valu...

  17. An Optimized Energy-aware Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basma M. Mohammad El-Basioni

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Because sensor nodes typically are battery-powered and in most cases it may not be possible to change or recharge batteries, the key challenge in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs design is the energy-efficiency and how to deal with the trade-off between it and the QoS parameters required by some applications. This paper studies the QoS of an energy-efficient cluster-based routing protocol called Energy-Aware routing Protocol (EAP in terms of lifetime, delay, loss percentage, and throughput, and proposes some modifications on it to enhance its performance. The modified protocol offers better characteristics in terms of packets loss, delay, and throughput, but slightly affects lifetime negatively. Simulation results showed that the modified protocol significantly outperforms EAP in terms of packet loss percentage by on average 93.4%.

  18. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS AND TCP VARIANTS UNDER HTTP AND FTP TRAFFIC IN MANETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan A. QasMarrogy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available MANET stands for mobile ad-hoc network that has multi-hop and dynamic nature, where each station changes its location frequently and automatically configures itself. In this paper, four routing protocols that are OLSR, GRP, DSR, and AODV are discussed along with three TCP variants that are SACK, New Reno and Reno. The main focus of this paper is to study the impact scalability, mobility and traffic loads on routing protocols and TCP variants. The paper results shows that the proactive protocols OLSR and GRP outperform the reactive protocols AODV and DSR with the same nodes size, nodes speed, and traffic load. On the other hand, the TCP variants research reveal the superiority of the TCP SACK variant over the other two variants in case of adapting to varying network size, while the TCP Reno variant acts more robustly in varying mobility speeds and traffic loads

  19. Distributed QoS-aware source-specific multicast routing protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; LIU Wei-ning; SONG Wei

    2005-01-01

    A distributed QoS (quality of service) -aware source-specific multicast routing protocol--DQSSMR is proposed to increase the successful join ratio and lower the overhead of the control message in QoS required multicast routing. By an improved searching strategy, the cost of message control is reduced and the successful join ratio is increased. The network load is balanced due to the distributed routing operation and the scalability is enhanced further because of the usage of SSM (source-specific multicast) service model in DQSSMR. The analysis results indicate that DQSSMR performs as expected.

  20. RELIABLE DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING PROTOCOL (RDSRP FOR ENERGY HARVESTING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Narasimhan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs carry noteworthy pros over traditional communication. Though, unkind and composite environments fake great challenges in the reliability of WSN communications. It is more vital to develop a reliable unipath dynamic source routing protocol (RDSRPl for WSN to provide better quality of service (QoS in energy harvesting wireless sensor networks (EH-WSN. This paper proposes a dynamic source routing approach for attaining the most reliable route in EH-WSNs. Performance evaluation is carried out using NS-2 and throughput and packet delivery ratio are chosen as the metrics.

  1. Hybridization of Meta-heuristics for Optimizing Routing protocol in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R Sedamkar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of VANET is to establish a vehicular communication system which is reliable and fast which caters to road safety and road safety. In VANET where network fragmentation is frequent with no central control, routing becomes a challenging task. Planning an optimal routing plan for tuning parameter configuration of routing protocol for setting up VANET is very crucial. This is done by defining an optimization problem where hybridization of meta-heuristics is defined. The paper contributes the idea of combining meta-heuristic algorithm to enhance the performance of individual search method for optimization problem

  2. Design and Simulation of Routing-switching Protocol Based on Optical Switch Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Wei; MAO You-ju; LIU Jiang

    2004-01-01

    An optical routing- switching technology based on optical switch array is proposed. The characteristics of the blocking and nonblocking networks are analyzed and compared, odd- even sorting network is used to realize optical routing- switching, relative routing- switching protocol is designed.Simulation test under load shows that it can reduce a blocking effectively and enhance an efficiency of switching. Further, it can transfer the processing and switching within parallel computer from electric domain to optical domain. It can make parallel computer coordinating computing and processing at much more higher speed, storing and transmitting even more efficiently.

  3. Security Routing Protocol For The Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王五妹; 赵彩丹; 黄联芬; 姚彦

    2008-01-01

    The pretty promising Wireless Mesh Networking technique, which is regarded as the next generation wireless Internet, not only possesses the normal features of wireless networks, but also has the advantages of multi-hop, self-organizing, etc. However, the great strength of the Mesh Networks also lead to a serious problem in the perspective of network security. This paper starts with the security issue of WMN routing and puts forward the corresponding solutions to the two kinds of routings’ security, such as adding the public/private (Pi/Si) key to the AODV to solve the problem of black hole and adding the credit value of nodes to the DSR to improve the security.

  4. SEAODV: A Security Enhanced AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Celia; Wang, Zhuang; Yang, Cungang

    In this paper, we propose a Security Enhanced AODV routing protocol (SEAODV) for wireless mesh networks (WMN). SEAODV employs Blom's key pre-distribution scheme to compute the pairwise transient key (PTK) through the flooding of enhanced HELLO message and subsequently uses the established PTK to distribute the group transient key (GTK). PTK and GTK authenticate unicast and broadcast routing messages respectively. In WMN, a unique PTK is shared by each pair of nodes, while GTK is shared secretly between the node and all its one-hop neighbours. A message authentication code (MAC) is attached as the extension to the original AODV routing message to guarantee the message's authenticity and integrity in a hop-by-hop fashion. Security analysis and performance evaluation show that SEAODV is more effective in preventing identified routing attacks and outperforms ARAN and SAODV in terms of computation cost and route acquisition latency.

  5. Network Coding to Enhance Standard Routing Protocols in Wireless Mesh Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a design and simulation of a locally optimized network coding protocol, called PlayNCool, for wireless mesh networks. PlayN-Cool is easy to implement and compatible with existing routing protocols and devices. This allows the system to gain from network coding capabilities implemented in software without the need for new hardware. PlayNCool enhances performance by (i) choosing a local helper between nodes in the path to strengthen the quality of each link, (ii) using loc...

  6. A QoS-Aware Routing Protocol for Real-time Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cherian, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a quality of service aware routing protocol which provides low latency for high priority packets. Packets are differentiated based on their priority by applying queuing theory. Low priority packets are transferred through less energy paths. The sensor nodes interact with the pivot nodes which in turn communicate with the sink node. This protocol can be applied in monitoring context aware physical environments for critical applications.

  7. LMEEC: Layered Multi-Hop Energy Efficient Cluster-based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khelifi, Manel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose LMEEC, a cluster-based rout- ing protocol with low energy consumption for wireless sensor networks. Our protocol is based on a strategy which aims to provide a more equitable exploitation of the selected nodes (cluster-heads) energy. Simulation results show the effective- ness of LMEEC in decreasing the energy consumption, and in prolonging the network lifetime, compared to LEACH.

  8. Energy Constrained Reliable Routing Optimized Cluster Head Protocol for Multihop under Water Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathy.T.V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic sensor network is an emerging technique consisting of sensor nodes, and AUVs all working together to sense various phenomenon, converts the sensed information into digital data, storethe digital data and communicate to the base stations through the intermediate nodes. Also UnderwaterAcoustic Sensor Networks are playing a main role in ocean applications. Unfortunately the efficiency of underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks is inferior to that of terrestrial sensor networks due to the longpropagation delay, narrow bandwidth and high error rates. Also battery life and storage capacity of node is limited. Many routing protocols are proposed to improve the efficiency of Under Water Acoustic Sensor Networks. However their improvement is not enough, so there is a need of suitable routing protocol that consider all these limitations and makes communication in underwater network viable. In this paper, we propose a protocol called Reliable Routing Optimized Cluster Head (RROCH protocol, a network coding approach for multihop topologies. We used performance metrics like packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, end-to-end delay and throughput of sensor nodes. LEACH, HMR-LEACH, LEACH-M are compared for their performance at different traffic conditions, number of nodes and depth. By analyzing our simulation results we found that RROCH protocol may be used for denser network with low traffic and HMR- LEACH protocol is suitable for higher traffic with less number of nodes.

  9. A Centralized Energy Efficient Distance Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit D. Gawade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN typically consists of a large number of low cost wireless sensor nodes which collect and send various messages to a base station (BS. WSN nodes are small battery powered devices having limited energy resources. Replacement of such energy resources is not easy for thousands of nodes as they are inaccessible to users after their deployment. This generates a requirement of energy efficient routing protocol for increasing network lifetime while minimizing energy consumption. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH is a widely used classic clustering algorithm in WSNs. In this paper, we propose a Centralized Energy Efficient Distance (CEED based routing protocol to evenly distribute energy dissipation among all sensor nodes. We calculate optimum number of cluster heads based on LEACH’s energy dissipation model. We propose a distributed cluster head selection algorithm based on dissipated energy of a node and its distance to BS. Moreover, we extend our protocol by multihop routing scheme to reduce energy dissipated by nodes located far away from base station. The performance of CEED is compared with other protocols such as LEACH and LEACH with Distance Based Thresholds (LEACH-DT. Simulation results show that CEED is more energy efficient as compared to other protocols. Also it improves the network lifetime and stability period over the other protocols.

  10. Cluster head Election for CGSR Routing Protocol Using Fuzzy Logic Controller for Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Venkata Subbaiah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nodes in the mobile ad hoc networks act as router and host, the routing protocol is the primary issue and has to be supported before any applications can be deployed for mobile ad hoc networks. In recent many research protocols are proposed for finding an efficient route between the nodes. But most of the protocol’s that uses conventional techniques in routing; CBRP is a routing protocol that has a hierarchical-based design. This protocol divides the network area into several smaller areas called cluster. We propose a fuzzy logic based cluster head election using energy concept forcluster head routing protocol in MANET’S. Selecting an appropriate cluster head can save power for the whole mobile ad hoc network. Generally, Cluster Head election for mobile ad hoc network is based on the distance to the centroid of a cluster, and the closest one is elected as the cluster head'; or pick a node with the maximum battery capacity as the cluster head. In this paper, we present a cluster head election scheme using fuzzy logic system (FLS for mobile ad hoc networks. Three descriptors are used: distance of a node to the cluster centroid, its remaining battery capacity, and its degree of mobility. The linguistic knowledge of cluster head election based on these three descriptors is obtained from a group of network experts. 27 FLS rules are set up based on the linguistic knowledge. The output of the FLS provides a cluster head possibility, and node with the highest possibility is elected as the cluster head. The performance of fuzzy cluster head selection is evaluated using simulation, and is compared to LEACH protocol with out fuzzy cluster head election procedures and showed the proposed work is efficient than the previous one.

  11. A Comparative Performance Analysis of Topological Routing Protocols in VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAVITA KHATKAR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad-hoc Network has drawn the attention of various researchers all around the world in the recent years. The reason can be attributed towards its capability in solving real world problems like traffic congestion. Although quite useful, the development of such systems is inherited with some challenges. The development of efficient communication protocols is one of the major problems which need to be addressed. This paper presents a comparative analysis of three such algorithms namely; AODV, DSDV and ZRP. The algorithms are implemented using Network Simulator and their performance is compared in terms of throughput, Packet Delivery Ratio and End-to-End delay. The result shows that none of the algorithms performs best in terms of all parameters while AODV and ZRP’s performance are quite encouraging in terms of throughput and PDR.

  12. A Comparison of Routing Protocol for WSNs: Redundancy Based Approach A Comparison of Routing Protocol for WSNs: Redundancy Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Prakash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs with their dynamic applications gained a tremendous attention of researchers. Constant monitoring of critical situations attracted researchers to utilize WSNs at vast platforms. The main focus in WSNs is to enhance network localization as much as one could, for efficient and optimal utilization of resources. Different approaches based upon redundancy are proposed for optimum functionality. Localization is always related with redundancy of sensor nodes deployed at remote areas for constant and fault tolerant monitoring. In this work, we propose a comparison of classic flooding and the gossip protocol for homogenous networks which enhances stability and throughput quiet significantly.  

  13. Optimal hop position-based minimum energy routing protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Geethu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of energy-efficient routing protocols is a major concern in the design of underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs since UASN nodes are typically powered by batteries, which are difficult to replace or recharge in aquatic environments. This study proposes an optimal hop position-based energy-efficient routing protocol for UASNs. Initially, the authors present an analytical model to compute the total energy consumption in a multi-hop UASN for deep water scenario, taking into account dependence of usable bandwidth on transmission distance and propagation characteristics of underwater acoustic channel. They derive analytical solution for the optimal hop distance that minimises total energy consumption in the network. They then propose an energy-efficient routing protocol that relies on the computation of optimal hop distance. In their routing scheme, selection of forwarding nodes are based on their depth, residual energy and closeness to the computed optimal hop position corresponding to source node. Simulation results show that total energy consumption of the network gets reduced drastically, leading to improvement in network lifetime. Moreover, the proposed routing scheme makes use of courier nodes to handle coverage-hole problem. The efficient movement of courier nodes improves packet delivery ratio and network throughput.

  14. Analysis of energy efficient routing protocols for implementation of a ubiquitous health system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jongwon; Park, Yongman; Koo, Sangjun; Ayurzana, Odgeral; Kim, Hiesik

    2007-12-01

    The innovative Ubiquitous-Health was born through convergence of medical service, with development of up to date information technologies and ubiquitous IT. The U-Health can be applied to a variety of special situations for managing functions of each medical center efficiently. This paper focuses on estimation of various routing protocols for implementation of U-health monitoring system. In order to facilitate wireless communication over the network, a routing protocol on the network layer is used to establish precise and efficient route between sensor nodes so that information acquired from sensors may be delivered in a timely manner. A route establishment should be considered to minimize overhead, data loss and power consumption because wireless networks for U-health are organized by a large number of sensor nodes which are small in size and have limited processing power, memory and battery life. In this paper a overview of wireless sensor network technologies commonly known is described as well as evaluation of three multi hop routing protocols which are flooding, gossiping and modified low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy(LEACH) for use with these networks using TOSSIM simulator. As a result of evaluation the integrated wireless sensor board was developed in particular. The board is embedded device based on AVR128 porting TinyOS. Also it employs bio sensor measures blood pressure, pulse frequency and ZigBee module for wireless communication. This paper accelerates the digital convergence age through continual research and development of technologies related the U-Health.

  15. Overview of the Meraka wireless grid test bed for evaluation of ad-hoc routing protocols

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, D

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available not be possible under the constrained environment of network simulators. This paper presents experimental comparisons of routing protocols using a 7 by 7 grid of closely spaced WiFi nodes. It firstly demonstrates the usefulness of the grid in its ability...

  16. Comparison of MANET routing protocols using a scaled indoor wireless grid

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, DL

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available not be possible under the constrained environment of network simulators. This paper presents experimental comparisons of routing protocols using a 7 × 7 grid of closely spaced WiFi nodes. It firstly demonstrates the usefulness of the grid in its ability to emulate...

  17. A Handoff-based And Limited Flooding (HALF Routing Protocol in Delay Tolerant Network (DTN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Aziz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In a Delay Tolerant Network (DTN, routing protocols are developed to manage the disconnected mobilenodes. We propose a routing protocol named HALF (Handoff-based And Limited Flooding in DTN thatcan work in both infra-structured and infra-structure less networking environment and hence it canimprove the performance of the network significantly. In this paper, it is shown that HALF givessatisfactory delivery ratio and latency under almost all conditions and different network scenarios whencompared to the other existing DTN routing protocols. As the traffic intensity of the network grows fromlow (.2 to high (.75 values, HALF shows about 5% decrease in the delivery ratio compare to muchlarger values showed by the other routing protocols and on the average takes same time to deliver all themessages to their destinations. As the radio range is increased over the range from 10m Bluetooth rangeto 250m WLAN range, due to the increased connectivity, the delivery ratio and the latency are increasedby 4 times and decreased by 5 times respectively.

  18. Routing Protocol in Urban Environment for V2V communication Vanet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Driss Laanaoui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle-to-vehicle communication is a very actual and challenging topic. Vehicles equipped with devices capable of short-range wireless connectivity can form a particular mobile ad-hoc network, VANET-Vehicular Ad-hoc Network. The existence of such networks opens the way for a wide range of applications. Two of the most important classes of such applications are those related to route planning and traffic safety. Route planning aims to provide drivers with real-time traffic information, which, in the absence of a VANET, would require an expensive infrastructure. In this work we evaluate our VANET routing protocol that is especially designed for city environments. This protocol is based on the localization of the node, the cost assigned to the section and score for each vehicle.

  19. SURVEY ON MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK ATTACKS AND MITIGATION USING ROUTING PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Manikandan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET due to its unpredictable topology and bandwidth limitations are vulnerable to attacks. Establishing security measures and finding secure routes are the major challenges faced by MANET. Security issues faced by ad hoc networks are node authentication, insider attack and intrusion detection. Implementing security measures is challenging due to the presence of limited resources in the hardware device and the network. Routing protocols attempt to mitigate the attacks by isolating the malicious nodes. In this study, a survey of various kinds of attacks against MANET is studied. It is also proposed to study modification of AODV and DSR routing protocol implementation with regard to mitigating attacks and intrusion detection. This study studied various approaches to predict and mitigate attacks in MANET."

  20. GEAMS: a Greedy Energy-Aware Multipath Stream-based Routing Protocol for WMSNs

    CERN Document Server

    Medjiah, Samir; Krief, Francine; 10.1109/GIIS.2009.5307078

    2012-01-01

    Because sensor nodes operate on power limited batteries, sensor functionalities have to be designed carefully. In particular, designing energy-efficient packet forwarding is important to maximize the lifetime of the network and to minimize the power usage at each node. This paper presents a Geographic Energy-Aware Multipath Stream-based (GEAMS) routing protocol for WMSNs. GEAMS routing decisions are made online, at each forwarding node in such a way that there is no need to global topology knowledge and maintenance. GEAMS routing protocol performs load-balancing to minimize energy consumption among nodes using twofold policy: (1) smart greedy forwarding and (2) walking back forwarding. Performances evaluations of GEAMS show that it can maximize the network lifetime and guarantee quality of service for video stream transmission in WMSNs.

  1. Zone Based Routing Protocol for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Taruna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks, are made of low-cost, low -power, small in size, and multifunctional sensor nodes. The efficient energy utilization is one of t he important performance factors for wireless senso r networks survivability be-cause nodes operate with limited battery power. In this paper we propose and analyze a new approach of zone based clustering hea d selection algorithm for wireless sensor network o f homogeneous nodes. Nodes in the network are uniform ly distributed. In this clustering algorithm, netwo rk performance is improved by selecting cluster heads on the basis of the residual energy of existing clu ster heads, and nearest hop distance of the node. In thi s paper we evaluate various performance metrics lik e energy consumption, network life time, number of ch annel heads metrics in each round and compare these with respect to random algorithm i.e. LEACH. We con clude that proposed protocol effectively extends th e network lifetime without degrading the other critic al overheads and perform-ance metrics.

  2. Implementation of Biological Routing Protocol in Tunnel Wireless Sensor Network (TWSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Muzaffar Zahar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A routing protocol is a core issue in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN especially on undetermined situationand crucial condition to guarantee the transmission of data. Therefore, any implementation of routingprotocol in a tunnel environment will suit with their application to minimize dropped data in itscommunication. This paper presents a biological routing protocol named as Biological Tunnel RoutingProtocol (BioTROP in Tunnel Wireless Sensor Network (TWSN. BioTROP has been tested with fourchallenging situations for marking its standard soon. By setting it in low power transmission, all nodesappear as source node and intermediate nodes concurrently, faster transmission rate and free-locationsetup for each node; these conditions make BioTROP as an ad-hoc protocol with lightweight coding size intunnel environment. This protocol is tested only in real test bed experiment using 7 TelosB nodes at apredetermined distance. The results have shown more than 70 percent of the transmitted data packets weresuccessfully delivered at the base station.

  3. Exploring the Stability-Energy Consumption-Delay-Network Lifetime Tradeoff of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Meghanathan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed ns-2 based simulation analysis on four of the prominent mobile ad hoc network routing protocols: Dynamic Source Routing (DSR protocol, Associativity-Based Routing (ABR protocol, Flow- Oriented Routing Protocol (FORP and the Routelifetime Assessment Based Routing (RABR protocol. The simulations were conducted with and without transmission power control. We define transmission power control for a hop comprising of a sender and receiver as the problem of choosing the transmission power at the sender depending on the distance to the intended receiver. Route stability is quantified using the number of route transitions (route discoveries incurred for a source-destination session. We also define the network lifetime as the time of first node failure due to exhaustion of node battery power. Our simulation results indicate a stability versus {energy consumption-delay-network lifetime} tradeoff among the four routing protocols: FORP routes are more stable than RABR routes, which are more stable than ABR routes, which are more stable than DSR routes. With respect to the end-to-end delay per packet, network lifetime, the energy consumed per node and the energy consumed per packet, DSR is better than ABR, which is better than RABR, which is better than FORP. We observe this tradeoff for simulations conducted with and without transmission power control. Nevertheless, the crucial observation is that by using transmission power control, the tradeoff could be reduced: the higher the stability of the routing protocol, the larger is the magnitude of reduction in the energy consumption and improvement in the network lifetime.

  4. An authenticated encrypted routing protocol against attacks in mobile ad-hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Suma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network is stated as a cluster that contains Digital data terminals and they are furnished with the wireless transceivers which are able to communicate with each other with no need of any fixed architecture or concentrated authority. Security is one of the major issues in MANETs because of vast applications such as Military Battlefields, emergency and rescue operations[10]. In order to provide anonymous communications and to identify the malicious nodes in MANETs, many authors have proposed different secure routing protocols but each protocol have their own advantages and disadvantages. In MANTE’s each and every node in the communicating network functions like router and transmits the packets among the networking nodes for the purpose of communication[11]. Sometimes nodes may be attacked by the malicious nodes or the legitimate node will be caught by foemen there by controlling and preventing the nodes to perform the assigned task or nodes may be corrupted due to loss of energy. So, due to these drawbacks securing the network under the presence of adversaries is an important thing. The existing protocols were designed with keeping anonymity and the identification of vicious nodes in the network as the main goal. For providing better security, the anonymity factors such as Unidentifiability and Unlinkability must be fully satisfied[1]. Many anonymous routing schemes that concentrate on achieving anonymity are proposed in the past decade and they provides the security at different levels and also provides the privacy protection that is of different cost. In this paper we consider a protocol called Authenticated Secure Routing Protocol proposed which provides both security & anonymity. Anonymity is achieved in this protocol using Group signature. Over all by using this protocol performance in terms of throughput as well as the packet dropping rate is good compared to the other living protocols.

  5. AODV路由协议的改进%Improvement of AODV routing protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴翠萍; 蔡明

    2012-01-01

    When establishing new route, AODV routing protocol chooses route with the minimum hop, without considering the load of node, and when node moves faster, the performance degenerates severely. To address this situation, an improved protocol with improved route discovery and route maintenance phase is presented. It selects route based on the load of node and can optimize the route according to network topology dynamically, to reduce the negative influence of dynamic change of network topology. Results obtained through simulations demonstrate that the improved protocol is better than AODV in reducing network congestion and packet loss rate.%在新建路由时,AODV选择具有最短跳数的路由,未考虑节点的负载,所选的路径可能造成网络拥塞,且在节点移动较快时,性能下降非常厉害.针对这种情况,对其路由发现和维护阶段进行改进,在路由发现时根据节点负载选择节点并且在拓扑改变时动态对路由进行优化,减少网络拓扑变化对路由的影响.仿真结果证明,改进后的协议在减少网络拥塞、降低丢包率等方面较AODV协议均有了改进.

  6. Simulation and Analysis of AODV and DSR Routing Protocol under Black Hole Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohebi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two routing protocols (AODV and DSR are simulated under regular operation, single and cooperative black hole attack. This work has been performed by simulator to show consequence of black hole attacks in MANET by using various graphs which are used to collect data in term of several metrics. One common method to perform most of researches in the MANET security field is to simulate and analyze the routing protocols in various scenarios. This work has been based on the implementation and experiments in the OPNET modeler version 14.5. Finally the results have been computed and compared to stumble on which protocol is least affected by these attacks.

  7. Adaptive and Secure Routing Protocol for Emergency Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Panaousis, Emmanouil A; Millar, Grant P; Politis, Christos; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2205

    2010-01-01

    The nature of Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) makes them suitable to be utilized in the context of an extreme emergency for all involved rescue teams. We use the term emergency MANETs (eMANETs) in order to describe next generation IP-based networks, which are deployed in emergency cases such as forest fires and terrorist attacks. The main goal within the realm of eMANETs is to provide emergency workers with intelligent devices such as smart phones and PDAs. This technology allows communication "islets" to be established between the members of the same or different emergency teams (policemen, firemen, paramedics). In this article, we discuss an adaptive and secure routing protocol developed for the purposes of eMANETs. We evaluate the performance of the protocol by comparing it with other widely used routing protocols for MANETs. We finally show that the overhead introduced due to security considerations is affordable to support secure ad-hoc communications among lightweight devices.

  8. Adaptive and Secure Routing Protocol for Emergency Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil A. Panaousis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs makes them suitable to be utilized in the context of anextreme emergency for all involved rescue teams. We use the term emergency MANETs (eMANETs inorder to describe next generation IP-based networks, which are deployed in emergency cases such asforest fires and terrorist attacks. The main goal within the realm of eMANETs is to provide emergencyworkers with intelligent devices such as smart phones and PDAs. This technology allows communication”islets” to be established between the members of the same or different emergency teams (policemen,firemen, paramedics. In this article, we discuss an adaptive and secure routing protocol developed forthe purposes of eMANETs. We evaluate the performance of the protocol by comparing it with otherwidely used routing protocols for MANETs. We finally show that the overhead introduced due to securityconsiderations is affordable to support secure ad-hoc communications among lightweight devices.

  9. Based on the Cross Layer Integrated Metric and Change of the Trigger Mechanism WMN Routing Protocol Design and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Fei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To improve the throughput and transmission quality of routing protocols for Wireless Mesh Networks, this paper presents a cross-layer routing protocol MCL-AODV for the wireless Mesh backbone networks. The protocol takes the quality of MAC layer link, node queue congestion degrees and wireless transmission distance into account through the cross-layer operating system, to optimize the routing selection process by creating a new composite routing metric and reduce the routing overhead of management control by changing the trigger mechanism of HELLO message. Simulation results show that MCL-AODV protocol reduces the average routing overhead and end-to-end delay, improves network throughput and packet delivery ratio.

  10. Cluster Based Location-Aided Routing Protocol for Large Scale Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Dong, Liang; Liang, Taotao; Yang, Xinyu; Zhang, Deyun

    Routing algorithms with low overhead, stable link and independence of the total number of nodes in the network are essential for the design and operation of the large-scale wireless mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). In this paper, we develop and analyze the Cluster Based Location-Aided Routing Protocol for MANET (C-LAR), a scalable and effective routing algorithm for MANET. C-LAR runs on top of an adaptive cluster cover of the MANET, which can be created and maintained using, for instance, the weight-based distributed algorithm. This algorithm takes into consideration the node degree, mobility, relative distance, battery power and link stability of mobile nodes. The hierarchical structure stabilizes the end-to-end communication paths and improves the networks' scalability such that the routing overhead does not become tremendous in large scale MANET. The clusterheads form a connected virtual backbone in the network, determine the network's topology and stability, and provide an efficient approach to minimizing the flooding traffic during route discovery and speeding up this process as well. Furthermore, it is fascinating and important to investigate how to control the total number of nodes participating in a routing establishment process so as to improve the network layer performance of MANET. C-LAR is to use geographical location information provided by Global Position System to assist routing. The location information of destination node is used to predict a smaller rectangle, isosceles triangle, or circle request zone, which is selected according to the relative location of the source and the destination, that covers the estimated region in which the destination may be located. Thus, instead of searching the route in the entire network blindly, C-LAR confines the route searching space into a much smaller estimated range. Simulation results have shown that C-LAR outperforms other protocols significantly in route set up time, routing overhead, mean delay and packet

  11. An Improved PRoPHET Routing Protocol in Delay Tolerant Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Deok Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In delay tolerant network (DTN, an end-to-end path is not guaranteed and packets are delivered from a source node to a destination node via store-carry-forward based routing. In DTN, a source node or an intermediate node stores packets in buffer and carries them while it moves around. These packets are forwarded to other nodes based on predefined criteria and finally are delivered to a destination node via multiple hops. In this paper, we improve the dissemination speed of PRoPHET (probability routing protocol using history of encounters and transitivity protocol by employing epidemic protocol for disseminating message m, if forwarding counter and hop counter values are smaller than or equal to the threshold values. The performance of the proposed protocol was analyzed from the aspect of delivery probability, average delay, and overhead ratio. Numerical results show that the proposed protocol can improve the delivery probability, average delay, and overhead ratio of PRoPHET protocol by appropriately selecting the threshold forwarding counter and threshold hop counter values.

  12. 概率转发的AODV路由协议的改进%Improvement of AODV routing protocol based on probabilistic forwarding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆文礼; 乐红兵

    2011-01-01

    Ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing (AODV) send Route REQuest (RREQ) through flooding when it wantto search routing. Flooding can find the routing but the delay is long and it is generate many retransmission. Even worse, it is easily bring broadcast storm. This paper researched AODV routing protocol and gived a mechanism based on probabilistic forward. This mechanism choose different probabilistic forwarding RREQ through neighbor's numbers. The NS2 simulation results shows that this idea can decrease delay and can increase thoughput as well as packet delivery fraction ratio.%按需距离矢量路由协议(AODV)在寻找路由时是通过洪泛法发送路由请求(RREQ)实现的。洪泛法能较好地找到所需的路由,但时延较大,产生了许多不必要的重传,易造成广播风暴。针对AODV路由协议,提出了一种基于概率转发的机制。这种机制根据邻居节点的个数,选用不同的概率转发RREQ。NS2仿真模拟结果表明,该方法可以降低时延,提高吞吐量,提高分组投递率。

  13. Design of an Energy Efficient and Delay Tolerant Routing Protocol for Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms.Venkateswari.R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Body Area Network provide continuous health monitoring and real-time feedback to the medical personnel. The devices used for WBAN have limited energy resources. For most devices it is impossible to recharge or change the batteries. Low power is needed to provide long lifetime to the devices. All devices are equally important and devices are only added when they are needed for an application. The data mostly consists of medical information. Hence, high reliability and low delay is required. Cluster topology and Dynamic Source Routing Protocol provides high packet delivery ratio, low delay and low energy consumption. In this paper, a modification in the DSR routing protocol has been proposed. The modified DSR named as EDSR (Efficient Dynamic Source Routing, reduces the delay by reducing the average end to end delay for the node and reduces the number of packets dropped thereby increasing packet delivery ratio. Energy consumption in EDSR is decreased by 16.73% when compared to DSR. This protocol reduces the energy consumption and delay by reducing the time needed for route discovery process. EDSR achieves high residual battery capacity which eliminates the need for recharging the batteries thereby ensuring long lifetime of the devices.

  14. Self-Adaptive Contention Aware Routing Protocol for Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel multicopy routing protocol, called Self-Adaptive Utility-based Routing Protocol (SAURP), for Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) that are possibly composed of a vast number of devices in miniature such as smart phones of heterogeneous capacities in terms of energy resources and buffer spaces. SAURP is characterized by the ability of identifying potential opportunities for forwarding messages to their destinations via a novel utility function-based mechanism, in which a suite of environment parameters, such as wireless channel condition, nodal buffer occupancy, and encounter statistics, are jointly considered. Thus, SAURP can reroute messages around nodes experiencing high-buffer occupancy, wireless interference, and/or congestion, while taking a considerably small number of transmissions. The developed utility function in SAURP is proved to be able to achieve optimal performance, which is further analyzed via a stochastic modeling approach. Extensive simulations are conducted to verify the developed analytical model and compare the proposed SAURP with a number of recently reported encounter-based routing approaches in terms of delivery ratio, delivery delay, and the number of transmissions required for each message delivery. The simulation results show that SAURP outperforms all the counterpart multicopy encounter-based routing protocols considered in the study.

  15. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Saleem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP involves an artificial immune system (AIS that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2 and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  16. Minimum Expected Delay-Based Routing Protocol (MEDR for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigang Gong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It is a challenging work to develop efficient routing protocols for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks (DTMSNs, which have several unique characteristics such as sensor mobility, intermittent connectivity, energy limit, and delay tolerability. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol called Minimum Expected Delay-based Routing (MEDR tailored for DTMSNs. MEDR achieves a good routing performance by finding and using the connected paths formed dynamically by mobile sensors. In MEDR, each sensor maintains two important parameters: Minimum Expected Delay (MED and its expiration time. According to MED, messages will be delivered to the sensor that has at least a connected path with their hosting nodes, and has the shortest expected delay to communication directly with the sink node. Because of the changing network topology, the path is fragile and volatile, so we use the expiration time of MED to indicate the valid time of the path, and avoid wrong transmissions. Simulation results show that the proposed MEDR achieves a higher message delivery ratio with lower transmission overhead and data delivery delay than other DTMSN routing approaches.

  17. IJS: An Intelligent Junction Selection Based Routing Protocol for VANET to Support ITS Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, Sourav Kumar; Khilar, Pabitra Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Selecting junctions intelligently for data transmission provides better intelligent transportation system (ITS) services. The main problem in vehicular communication is high disturbances of link connectivity due to mobility and less density of vehicles. If link conditions are predicted earlier, then there is a less chance of performance degradation. In this paper, an intelligent junction selection based routing protocol (IJS) is proposed to transmit the data in a quickest path, in which the vehicles are mostly connected and have less link connectivity problem. In this protocol, a helping vehicle is set at every junction to control the communication by predicting link failures or network gaps in a route. Helping vehicle at the junction produces a score for every neighboring junction to forward the data to the destination by considering the current traffic information and selects that junction which has minimum score. IJS protocol is implemented and compared with GyTAR, A-STAR, and GSR routing protocols. Simulation results show that IJS performs better in terms of average end-to-end delay, network gap encounter, and number of hops.

  18. Delay Tolerant Networks: An Analysis of Routing Protocols with ONE Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Thakur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Delay/disruption Tolerant Networks (DTNs provide connectivity in those networks which lack continuous connectivity or considerable delays like that of terrestrial mobile networks, military ad-hoc networks, sensor or planned network in space. They lack in an end-to-end path between Source and Destination resulting in long variable propagation delays. The Internet Protocols do not operate properly in these networks, thus raising a variety of new challenging problems in this area. The DTN effectively improves the network communications where the connectivity in the network is intermittent or is prone to disruptions. Routing in DTNs is challenging because of long and frequent time durations of non-connectivity. There are several routing approaches that have been proposed with strategies ranging from flooding to forwarding approaches. In this paper these protocols are analyzed based on the quantitative data gathered by simulating each protocol in ONE simulator environment. The performance is discussed and compared for different routing protocols and results are discussed for different performance metrics.

  19. INTRUSION DETECTION IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK USING SECURE ROUTING FOR ATTACKER IDENTIFICATION PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In past few decades, the migration of communication takes place from wired networks to wireless networks because of its mobility and scalability and Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a unique and significant application in recent years which does not necessitates any pre-existing network infrastructure. Each node can act as both transmitters as well as receivers that are communicating with each other when they are in same communication/transmission range. Otherwise, these nodes depend on neighbor nodes to transmit their packets and they possess self-configuring ability which makes MANETs popular in various critical mission applications such as military and other emergency applications. In general, MANETs are open medium network and their nodes are widely distributed which makes the network more vulnerable to various attackers. Some times, the transmitted packets are viewed or modified or corrupted by the attackers through the way to reach destination and the destination could not find such type of packets. So, the receiver can deliver modified packets with wrong information. Thus, it is essential to present an efficient secure routing protocol to preserve MANET from several attacks. In this study, we are going to propose and implement a novel routing protocol named Secure Routing for Attacker Identification (SRAI protocol that executes at receiver/destination side to discover the modified packets in delivered nodes and generate misbehaviour report to the source. Compared to modern approaches, SRAI protocol establishes higher attacker identification rates in certain considerations.

  20. A Black Hole Attack Model for Reactive Ad-Hoc Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    similar to AODV ; however, the major differences between the protocols are the manner of packet routing and how the routes are stored. Unlike 12...and route reply exchange when establishing a new route . While DSR and AODV certainly do this, protocols such as Admission Control enabled On-demand...The particular 16 routing metric used in a protocol can be design and implementation specific. DSR and AODV both use the shortest hop-count

  1. Performance Analysis of AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network based Smart Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    >Hasan Farooq, Low Tang Jung,

    2013-06-01

    Today no one can deny the need for Smart Grid and it is being considered as of utmost importance to upgrade outdated electric infrastructure to cope with the ever increasing electric load demand. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is considered a promising candidate for internetworking of smart meters with the gateway using mesh topology. This paper investigates the performance of AODV routing protocol for WSN based smart metering deployment. Three case studies are presented to analyze its performance based on four metrics of (i) Packet Delivery Ratio, (ii) Average Energy Consumption of Nodes (iii) Average End-End Delay and (iv) Normalized Routing Load.

  2. QoS and security in Link State Routing protocols for MANETs

    OpenAIRE

    Cervera, Gimer; Barbeau, Michel; Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin; Kranakis, Evangelos

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We study security issues in the Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol with Quality-of-Service (QoS). We propose the function k-robust-QANS, to construct a Quality Advertisement Neighbor Set (QANS). Given a node v, the one-hop nodes selected as part of its QANS generate routing information to advertise, when possible, a set with k+1 links to reach any two-hop neighbor. Several approaches have been proposed to construct a QANS. However, none of them guarantees tha...

  3. The Deployment of Routing Protocols in Distributed Control Plane of SDN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Software defined network (SDN provides a programmable network through decoupling the data plane, control plane, and application plane from the original closed system, thus revolutionizing the existing network architecture to improve the performance and scalability. In this paper, we learned about the distributed characteristics of Kandoo architecture and, meanwhile, improved and optimized Kandoo’s two levels of controllers based on ideological inspiration of RCP (routing control platform. Finally, we analyzed the deployment strategies of BGP and OSPF protocol in a distributed control plane of SDN. The simulation results show that our deployment strategies are superior to the traditional routing strategies.

  4. A comprehensive survey of energy-aware routing protocols in wireless body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effatparvar, Mehdi; Dehghan, Mehdi; Rahmani, Amir Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Wireless body area sensor network is a special purpose wireless sensor network that, employing wireless sensor nodes in, on, or around the human body, makes it possible to measure biological parameters of a person for specific applications. One of the most fundamental concerns in wireless body sensor networks is accurate routing in order to send data promptly and properly, and therefore overcome some of the challenges. Routing protocols for such networks are affected by a large number of factors including energy, topology, temperature, posture, the radio range of sensors, and appropriate quality of service in sensor nodes. Since energy is highly important in wireless body area sensor networks, and increasing the network lifetime results in benefiting greatly from sensor capabilities, improving routing performance with reduced energy consumption presents a major challenge. This paper aims to study wireless body area sensor networks and the related routing methods. It also presents a thorough, comprehensive review of routing methods in wireless body area sensor networks from the perspective of energy. Furthermore, different routing methods affecting the parameter of energy will be classified and compared according to their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, fundamental concepts of wireless body area sensor networks are provided, and then the advantages and disadvantages of these networks are investigated. Since one of the most fundamental issues in wireless body sensor networks is to perform routing so as to transmit data precisely and promptly, we discuss the same issue. As a result, we propose a classification of the available relevant literature with respect to the key challenge of energy in the routing process. With this end in view, all important papers published between 2000 and 2015 are classified under eight categories including 'Mobility-Aware', 'Thermal-Aware', 'Restriction of Location and Number of Relays', 'Link-aware', 'Cluster- and Tree

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN DYNAMIC WINDOW SECURED IMPLICIT GEOGRAPHIC FORWARDING ROUTING PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Idris Umar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An Ideal WSNs should operate with the least possible energy required in order to increase the lifetime of the sensor nodes and at the same time, ensure network connectivity. But the Inherent power limitation makes power-awareness a critical requirement for WSN, this calls for the need to manage energy in sensor nodes. Also In order to ensure successful transmission of data from sensor node source to destination, it becomes necessary to maintain network availability. The network must be resilient to individual node failure which can happen due to zero power posses by the node and due to security attacks posed on the node and the network. Dynamic Window Secured Implicit Geographic Forwarding (DWSIGF routing protocol has proven to be robust, efficient and resistant to some security attack which causes failure in network availability. However the extent to which energy is consumed in sensor nodes which deploys DWSIGF as its routing protocol has never been mentioned. In this research, we performed a comparative study on energy consumption in DWSIGF routing protocol. Using the first order radio model, we determined the energy consumed in a network. The protocol (DWSIGF is matched up against its counterpart SIGF as the traffic is increased. Observation shows that DWSIGF due to the variable timing assigned to the CTS collection window, CTS signal fails to reach destination as collection window time expires, thus the need for retransmission. This in turn consumes more energy than the counterpart SIGF which has a fixed CTS collection time. The simulation work was done using Matlab 7.0. Energy consumed in the random variant of both protocols (DWSIGF and SIGF was also observed to be higher than the priority variant of the protocols.

  6. An Improved Approach for Working outside the MANET by Extending MANET Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashween Kuar Saluja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad-hoc network have the attributes such as wireless connection, continuously changing topology, distributed operation and ease of deployment. We present a design space analysis of the problem of providing Internet connectivity for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. For widening the coverage area of the MANET there is a growing need to integrate these ad hoc networks to the Internet. For this purpose we need gateways which act as bridges between different protocols architectures. In this paper the AODV reactive routing protocol is extended to support the communication between the MANET and the Internet.

  7. A Comparison of the TCP Variants Performance over different Routing Protocols on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Biradar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a variant of TCP (Tahoe, Vegas, TCP is most widely used transport protocol in both wired and wireless networks. In mobile ad hoc networks, the topology changes frequently due to mobile nodes, this leads to significant packet losses and network throughput degradation. This is due to the fact that TCP fails to distinguish the path failure and network congestion. In this paper, the performances of TCP over different routing (DSR, AODV and DSDV protocols in ad hoc networks wasstudied by simulation experiments and results are reported.

  8. Cross-Layer Protocol Combining Tree Routing and TDMA Slotting in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ronggang; Ji, Yusheng; Lin, Zhiting; Wang, Qinghua; Zhou, Xiaofang; Qu, Yugui; Zhao, Baohua

    Being different from other networks, the load and direction of data traffic for wireless sensor networks are rather predictable. The relationships between nodes are cooperative rather than competitive. These features allow the design approach of a protocol stack to be able to use the cross-layer interactive way instead of a hierarchical structure. The proposed cross-layer protocol CLWSN optimizes the channel allocation in the MAC layer using the information from the routing tables, reduces the conflicting set, and improves the throughput. Simulations revealed that it outperforms SMAC and MINA in terms of delay and energy consumption.

  9. An energy efficiency clustering routing protocol for WSNs in confined area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yanjing; He Yanjun; Zhang Beibei; Liu Xue

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are important application for safety monitoring in underground coal mines,which are difficult to monitor due to natural conditions.Based on the characteristic of limited energy for WSNs in confined underground area such as coal face and laneway,we presents an energy-efficient clustering routing protocol based on weight (ECRPW) to prolong the lifetime of networks.ECRPW takes into consideration the nodes' residual energy during the election process of cluster heads.The constraint of distance threshold is used to optimize cluster scheme.Furthermore,the protocol also sets up a routing tree based on cluster heads' weight.The results show that ECRPW had better performance in energy consumption,death ratio of node and network lifetime.

  10. On The Selection Of Qos Provisioned Routing Protocol Through Realistic Channel For Vanet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarja Kaur

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network VANET is a new communication paradigm creating a network on wheels. Communication between the vehicles provides for various safety and comfort applications. VANET is characterized by features like number of nodes varying topology constrained and high speed movement of nodes. All these features make routing in VANETs a crucial issue. This paper compares popular proactive reactive and hybrid protocols in infrastructure less environments as availability of an infrastructure is not ubiquitous. Intensive simulations are carried out using IEEE 802.11p standard in the presence of realistic propagation model. Behaviour of protocols is studied in different situations by measuring performance in terms of QoS metrics like throughput Packet delivery ratio PDR routing load and end to end delay.

  11. A QoS Routing Protocol based on Available Bandwidth Estimation for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaaniche, Heni; Frikha, Mounir; Kamoun, Farouk

    2011-01-01

    At the same time as the emergence of multimedia in mobile Ad hoc networks, research for the introduction of the quality of service (QoS) has received much attention. However, when designing a QoS solution, the estimation of the available resources still represents one of the main issues. This paper suggests an approach to estimate available resources on a node. This approach is based on the estimation of the busy ratio of the shared canal. We consider in our estimation the several constraints related to the Ad hoc transmission mode such as Interference phenomena. This approach is implemented on the AODV routing protocol. We call AODVwithQOS our new routing protocol. We also performed a performance evaluation by simulations using NS2 simulator. The results confirm that AODVwithQoS provides QoS support in ad hoc wireless networks with good performance and low overhead.

  12. A Comparative Analysis for Hybrid Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Manisha M. Magdum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs consist of smallnodes with sensing, computation and wireless communicationscapabilities. These sensor networks interconnect a several othernodes when established in large and this opens up severaltechnical challenges and immense application possibilities.These wireless sensor networks communicate using multi-hopwireless communications, regular ad hoc routing techniquescannot be directly applied to sensor networks domain due tothe limited processing power and the finite power available toeach sensor nodes hence recent advances in wireless sensornetworks have developed many protocols depending on theapplication and network architecture and are specificallydesigned for sensor networks where energy awareness is anessential consideration. This paper presents routingprotocols for sensor networks and compares the routingprotocols that are presently of increasing importance. In this paper, we propose Hybrid Routing Protocol whichcombines the merits of proactive and reactive approach andovercome their demerits.

  13. Enhancing Energy Efficiency of Wireless Sensor Network through the Design of Energy Efficient Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is known to be a highly resource constrained class of network where energy consumption is one of the prime concerns. In this research, a cross layer design methodology was adopted to design an energy efficient routing protocol entitled “Position Responsive Routing Protocol” (PRRP. PRRP is designed to minimize energy consumed in each node by (1 reducing the amount of time in which a sensor node is in an idle listening state and (2 reducing the average communication distance over the network. The performance of the proposed PRRP was critically evaluated in the context of network lifetime, throughput, and energy consumption of the network per individual basis and per data packet basis. The research results were analyzed and benchmarked against the well-known LEACH and CELRP protocols. The outcomes show a significant improvement in the WSN in terms of energy efficiency and the overall performance of WSN.

  14. A Secure Routing Protocol and its application in Multi-sink Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Gui

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are increasingly deployed in security-critical areas, such as battle field. However, general sensor nodes are manufactured with inexpensive components, and they are short of security enhancement. Therefore, an adversary could capture and compromise sensor nodes easily, then launch some malicious attacks (including tampering or discarding useful data collected from source nodes. In this paper, we propose a secure routing and aggregation protocol with low energy cost for sensor networks (named STAPLE, which utilizes one-way hash chain and multi-path mechanism to achieve security of wireless sensor networks, and develop a network expanding model to control communication cost incurred by multi-path routing. Then we discuss the protocol application in multi-sink wireless sensor networks. Finally, we perform the simulation of STAPLE in comparison with INSENS, the results demonstrate that STAPLE achieves a higher level security with considerably low communication overhead.

  15. QGRP: A Novel QoS-Geographic Routing Protocol for Multimedia Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Koulali, Mohammed-Amine; Kobbane, Abdellatif; Azizi, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the potential they hold and the variety of their application domains, Multimedia Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSN) are forecast to become highly integrated into our daily activities. Due to the carried content nature, mainly composed of images and/or video streams with high throughput and delay constraints, Quality of Service in the context of MWSN is a crucial issue. In this paper, we propose a QoS and energy aware geographic routing protocol for MWSN: QGRP. The proposed protocol addresses bandwidth, delay and energy constraints associated with MWSN. QGRP adopts an analytical model of IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) to estimate available bandwidth and generates loop-free routing paths.

  16. Autoconfiguration Algorithm for a Multiple Interfaces Adhoc Network Running OLSR Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadi Boudjit

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Network configuration is the assignment of network parameters necessary for a device to integrate the network, examples being: an IP address, netmask, the IP address of the gateway, etc ... In the case of Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs, the connectivity of nodes is highly dynamic and a central administration or configuration by the user is very difficult. This paper presents an autoconfiguration solution for ad hoc networks running the widely implemented version of OLSR routing protocol, the 2003 RFC 3626 [1]. This solution is based on an efficient Duplicate Address Detection (DAD algorithm, which takes advantage of the genuine optimization of the OLSR routing protocol. The proposed autoconfiguration algorithm is proved to operate correctly in a multiple interfaces OLSR network.

  17. Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols in Ad-hoc and Sensor Networking Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gavrilovska

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc and sensor networks are becoming an increasingly popular wireless networking concepts lately. This paper analyzes and compares prominent routing schemes in these networking environments. The knowledge obtained can serve users to better understand short range wireless network solutions thus leading to options for implementation in various scenarios. In addition, it should aid researchers develop protocol improvements reliable for the technologies of interest.

  18. A Survey on Security Issues in Ad Hoc Routing Protocols and their Mitigation Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kayarkar, Harshavardhan

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETS) are transient networks of mobile nodes, connected through wireless links, without any fixed infrastructure or central management. Due to the self-configuring nature of these networks, the topology is highly dynamic. This makes the Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in MANETS highly vulnerable to serious security issues. In this paper, we survey the common security threats and attacks and summarize the solutions suggested in the survey to mitigate these security vulnerabilities.

  19. Coefficient of Restitution based Cross Layer Interference Aware Routing Protocol in Wireless Mesh Networks

    OpenAIRE

    V, Sarasvathi; Saha, Snehanshu; N.Ch.S.N.Iyengar; Koti, Mahalaxmi

    2015-01-01

    In Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN), Partially Overlapped Channels (POC) has been used to increase the parallel transmission. But adjacent channel interference is very severe in MRMC environment; it decreases the network throughput very badly. In this paper, we propose a Coefficient of Restitution based Cross layer Interference aware Routing protocol (CoRCiaR) to improve TCP performance in Wireless Mesh Networks. This approach comprises of two-steps: Initially, th...

  20. Exploration of α1-Antitrypsin Treatment Protocol for Islet Transplantation: Dosing Plan and Route of Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Baranovski, Boris M.; Ozeri, Eyal; Shahaf, Galit; Ochayon, David E.; Schuster, Ronen; Bahar, Nofar; Kalay, Noa; Cal, Pablo; Mizrahi, Mark I.; Nisim, Omer; Strauss, Pnina; Schenker, Eran; Eli C Lewis

    2016-01-01

    Lifelong weekly infusions of human α1-antitrypsin (hAAT) are currently administered as augmentation therapy for patients with genetic AAT deficiency (AATD). Several recent clinical trials attempt to extend hAAT therapy to conditions outside AATD, including type 1 diabetes. Because the endpoint for AATD is primarily the reduction of risk for pulmonary emphysema, the present study explores hAAT dose protocols and routes of administration in attempt to optimize hAAT therapy for islet-related inj...

  1. An Energy Efficient Unequal Cluster Based Routing Protocol For WSN With Non-Uniform Node Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanoop K Dhanpal; Ajit Joseph; Asha Panicker

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clustering is an efficient method for increasing the lifetime of wireless sensor network systems. The current clustering algorithms generate clusters of almost equal size. This will cause hot spot problem in multi-hop sensor networks. In this paper an energy efficient varying sized clustering algorithm EEVSCA and routing protocol are introduced for non-uniform node distributed wireless sensor network system. EEVSCA helps for the construction of clusters of varying size at the same ti...

  2. O-DSR: OPTIMIZED DSR ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rjab Hajlaoui

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A MANET is an autonomous collection of mobile users that communicate over relatively bandwidth constrained wireless links. When designing mobile ad hoc networks, several interesting and difficult problems arise because of the shared nature of the wireless medium, limited transmission power (range of wireless devices, node mobility, and battery limitations. This paper aims at providing a new schema to improve Dynamic Source Routing (DSR Protocol. The aim behind the proposed enhancement is to find the best route in acceptable time limit without having broadcast storm. Moreover, O-DSR enables network not only to overcome congestion but also maximize the lifetime of mobile nodes. Some simulations results show that the Route Request (RREQ and the Control Packet Overhead decrease by 15% when O-DSR is used, consequently. Also the global energy consumption in O-DSR is lower until to 60 % , which leads to a long lifetime of the network.

  3. Analysis and Proposal of Position-Based Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hiraku; Takano, Akira; Mase, Kenichi

    One of the most promising applications of a mobile ad hoc network is a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). Each vehicle is aware of its position information by GPS or other methods, so position-based routing is a useful approach in VANET. The position-based routing protocol can be classified roughly into a next-hop forwarding method and a directed flooding method. We evaluate performance of both methods by analytic approach and compare them in this paper. From the evaluation results, we conclude that it is effective for the position-based routing to choose either the next-hop forwarding method or the directed flooding method according to the environment. Then we propose the hybrid transmission method which can select one of them according to the environment, and clarify that the proposed method can keep the packet delivery ratio at a high level and reduce the delay time.

  4. Novel multipath routing protocol integrated with forward error correction in MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Hui-yao; LU Xi-cheng; PENG Wei; WANG Yang-yuan

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the data transmission reliability of mobile ad hoc network, a routing scheme called integrated forward error correction multipath routing protocol was proposed, which integrates the techniques of packet fragmenting and forward error correction encoding into multipath routing. The scheme works as follows:adding a certain redundancy into the original packets; fragmenting the resulting packets into exclusive blocks of the same size; encoding with the forward error correction technique, and then sending them to the destination node.When the receiving end receives a certain amount of information blocks, the original information will be recovered even with partial loss. The performance of the scheme was evaluated using OPNET modeler. The experimental results show that with the method the average transmission delay is decreased by 20% and the transmission reliability is increased by 300%.

  5. A Partially Non-Cryptographic Security Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; CUI Guohua

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a partially non-cryptographic security routing protocol(PNCSR ) that protects both routing and data forwarding operations through the same reactive approach. PNCSR only apply public-key cryptographic system in managing token, but it doesn't utilize any cryptographic primitives on the routing messages. In PNCSR, each node is fair. Local neighboring nodes collaboratively monitor each other and sustain each other. It also uses a novel credit strategy which additively increases the token lifetime each time a node renews its token. We also analyze the storage, computation, and communication overhead of PNCSR, and provide a simple yet meaningful overhead comparison. Finally, the simulation results show the effectiveness of PNCSR in various situations.

  6. Analysis of Proactive and Reactive Manet Routing Protocols Under Selected TCP Variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Syad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET, with its inherent dynamic and flexible architecture, demonstrates attractive potential for military applications. It is able to overcome traditional communications limitations through its automatic relaying and self - healing/forming features. MANE T nodes perform the routing functions themselves. Due to the limited wireless transmission range, the routing generally consists of multiple hops. Therefore, the nodes depend on one another to forward packets to the destinations. In a Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET, temporary link failures and route changes happen frequently. With the assumption that all packet losses are due to congestion, Transport Control Protocol (TCP performs poorly in such an environment. One problem of TCP in such environments is its inability to distinguish losses induced by the lossy wireless channel from the ones due to network congestion. Many TCP variants have been developed for the improved performance of TCP in MANET. In this research, through simulations that were carried out by using Network Simulator-2 (NS-2 , the selected MANET Routing protocols i.e. DSR and DSDV were analyzed in accordance with their finest performance of packets delivery rate, average end - to - end delay, and packet dropping, under TCP Vegas and TCP Newreno with mobility consideration. The simulation results indicate that DSDV has a b etter throughput performance but higher average end-to-end delay and packet drop ratioas compared to DSR

  7. An Efficient Data-Gathering Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Javaid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most applications of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs demand reliable data delivery over a longer period in an efficient and timely manner. However, the harsh and unpredictable underwater environment makes routing more challenging as compared to terrestrial WSNs. Most of the existing schemes deploy mobile sensors or a mobile sink (MS to maximize data gathering. However, the relatively high deployment cost prevents their usage in most applications. Thus, this paper presents an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV-aided efficient data-gathering (AEDG routing protocol for reliable data delivery in UWSNs. To prolong the network lifetime, AEDG employs an AUV for data collection from gateways and uses a shortest path tree (SPT algorithm while associating sensor nodes with the gateways. The AEDG protocol also limits the number of associated nodes with the gateway nodes to minimize the network energy consumption and to prevent the gateways from overloading. Moreover, gateways are rotated with the passage of time to balance the energy consumption of the network. To prevent data loss, AEDG allows dynamic data collection at the AUV depending on the limited number of member nodes that are associated with each gateway. We also develop a sub-optimal elliptical trajectory of AUV by using a connected dominating set (CDS to further facilitate network throughput maximization. The performance of the AEDG is validated via simulations, which demonstrate the effectiveness of AEDG in comparison to two existing UWSN routing protocols in terms of the selected performance metrics.

  8. Performance Evaluation of OSPF and EIGRP Routing Protocols for Video Streaming over Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis L Lugayizi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenge in performance of Next Generation Networks (NGNs is a growing concern. Bandwidth limitation for multimedia applications in NGNs such as voice and video telephony along with the increasing number of applications on the Internet, service classification and efficient resource management have all become quite challenging tasks. In order to improve the service quality in video streaming especially, there has to be efficient resource and traffic management, and using routing protocols is one way in which this can be done. We designed three network models that are configured with OSPF, EIGRP and one with both OPSF and EIGRP routing protocols, and then used the QoS parameters of throughput, packet loss, convergence time, mean latency and end-to-end delay as our metrics to evaluate the performance of OSPF and EIGRP. Our main source of network traffic was a typical video conferencing application. The results obtained during our experiments indicate that combining both EIGRP and OSPF is more reliable in providing Quality of Service than OSPF routing protocol when the main traffic used in the network is video, but when dealing with a standalone real time application network, EIGRP is better than OSPF.

  9. Optimal Relay Selection using Efficient Beaconless Geographic Contention-Based Routing Protocol in Wireless Adhoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Srimathy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Ad hoc network, cooperation of nodes can be achieved by more interactions at higher protocol layers, particularly the MAC (Medium Access Control and network layers play vital role. MAC facilitates a routing protocol based on position location of nodes at network layer specially known as Beacon-less geographic routing (BLGR using Contention-based selection process. This paper proposes two levels of cross-layer framework -a MAC network cross-layer design for forwarder selection (or routing and a MAC-PHY for relay selection. CoopGeo; the proposed cross-layer protocol provides an efficient, distributed approach to select next hops and optimal relays to form a communication path. Wireless networks suffers huge number of communication at the same time leads to increase in collision and energy consumption; hence focused on new Contention access method that uses a dynamical change of channel access probability which can reduce the number of contention times and collisions. Simulation result demonstrates the best Relay selection and the comparative of direct mode with the cooperative networks. And Performance evaluation of contention probability with Collision avoidance.

  10. An Energy-Efficient, Load Balanced Distributed Clustering and Routing Protocol for Large Scale WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Matinfard

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A wireless network consisting of a large number of small sensors with low-power transceivers can be an effective tool for gathering data in a variety of environments. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. The energy consumed to route data from the sensor node to its destination raises as a critical issue in designing wireless sensor network routing protocols. In order to prolong the lifetime of wireless sensor networks, this study presents a multi-hop routing protocol with distributed clustering (ELDRL. First, in order to overcome the defect that the clusters distribute unevenly, ELDRL selects nodes as a cluster-head with regard to neighbor cluster-heads. Second, it partitions the network into different layers of clusters. Cluster heads in each layer cooperates with the adjacent layer to transmit sensor’s data to the base station. ELDRL spreads the workload across the sensor network, load balancing reduces hot spots in the sensor network and increases the energy lifetime of the sensor network. Moreover, the protocol not only increases the scalability but also decreases the traffic of WSN. Simulation results show that the scheme is more efficient compared with LEACH.

  11. Security Issues in the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Version 2 (OLSRV2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Herberg

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs are leaving the confines of research laboratories, to find place in real-world deployments. Outside specialized domains (military, vehicular, etc., city-wide communitynetworks are emerging, connecting regular Internet users with each other, and with the Internet, via MANETs. Growing to encompass more than a handful of “trusted participants”, the question of preserving the MANET network connectivity, even when faced with careless or malicious participants, arises, and must be addressed. A first step towards protecting a MANET is to analyze the vulnerabilities of the routing protocol, managing the connectivity. By understanding how the algorithms of the routing protocol operate,and how these can be exploited by those with ill intent, countermeasures can be developed, readying MANETs for wider deployment and use.This paper takes an abstract look at the algorithms that constitute the Optimized Link State Routing Protocolversion 2 (OLSRv2, and identifies for each protocol element the possible vulnerabilities and attacks in a certain way, provides a “cookbook” for how to best attack an operational OLSRv2 network, or for how to proceed with developing protective countermeasures against these attacks

  12. An Efficient Data-Gathering Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Nadeem; Ilyas, Naveed; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Alrajeh, Nabil; Qasim, Umar; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Liaqat, Tayyaba; Khan, Majid Iqbal

    2015-11-17

    Most applications of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) demand reliable data delivery over a longer period in an efficient and timely manner. However, the harsh and unpredictable underwater environment makes routing more challenging as compared to terrestrial WSNs. Most of the existing schemes deploy mobile sensors or a mobile sink (MS) to maximize data gathering. However, the relatively high deployment cost prevents their usage in most applications. Thus, this paper presents an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV)-aided efficient data-gathering (AEDG) routing protocol for reliable data delivery in UWSNs. To prolong the network lifetime, AEDG employs an AUV for data collection from gateways and uses a shortest path tree (SPT) algorithm while associating sensor nodes with the gateways. The AEDG protocol also limits the number of associated nodes with the gateway nodes to minimize the network energy consumption and to prevent the gateways from overloading. Moreover, gateways are rotated with the passage of time to balance the energy consumption of the network. To prevent data loss, AEDG allows dynamic data collection at the AUV depending on the limited number of member nodes that are associated with each gateway. We also develop a sub-optimal elliptical trajectory of AUV by using a connected dominating set (CDS) to further facilitate network throughput maximization. The performance of the AEDG is validated via simulations, which demonstrate the effectiveness of AEDG in comparison to two existing UWSN routing protocols in terms of the selected performance metrics.

  13. Performance Analysis of the Enhanced DSR Routing Protocol for the Short Time Disconnected MANET to the OPNET Modeler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAPAJ Ján

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Disconnected mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET are very important areas of the research. In this article, the performance analysis of the enhanced dynamic source routing protocol (OPP_DSR is introduced. This modification enables the routing process in the case when there are no connections to other mobile nodes. It also will enable the routing mechanisms when the routes, selected by routing mechanisms, are disconnected for some time. Disconnection can be for a short time and standard routing protocol DSR cannot reflect on this situation.The main idea is based on opportunistic forwarding where the nodes not only forward data but it's stored in the cache during long time. The network parameters throughput, routing load and are analysed.

  14. 对MANET AODV路由协议攻击效果分析%Analysis of Attacking Effect to MANET AODV Routing Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗恕

    2012-01-01

    Ad-Hoc mobile wireless network(MANET) features strong survivability and flexible networking,providing important ap-plication in battlefield communication environment. Ad-hoc On-demand Vector Routing(AODV) can be widely applied in Ad-Hoc mo-bile wireless network. On the basis of analyzing how the AODV route protocol of Ad-Hoc mobile wireless network works,an analytical model of network flow is established in this paper. From the point how the network flow changes with its searching the route extensively, the paper analyses the impact of different protocol attacking on the network.%移动无线自组织网络(Mobile Ad Hoc Network,MANET)具有抗毁性强、组网灵活的特点,战场通信环境是其很重要的应用背景,基于距离向量的按需路由协议(Ad-hoc On-demand Vector Routing,AODV)在移动无线自组织网络中具有广泛的应用。针对移动无线自组网AODV路由协议,在分析其工作原理的基础上,建立网络流量的分析模型。从网络发起泛搜索路由引起网络流量变化的角度,分析不同的协议攻击方法对网络的影响。

  15. Ad hoc路由协议实现研究%Research on implementation of Ad hoc routing protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁芳

    2009-01-01

    概述当前路由体系结构,提出其在实现Ad hoe路由协议时所面临的基本问题,总结在Linux系统中实现Ad hoe路由协议的设计原则.并提出一种解决方案.%The present routing architecture is summarized.Some basic problems concerning the implementation of Ad hoc routing protocol in present routing architecture are proposed.The design principle of implementing Ad hoc routing protocol in Linux system is summed up,the solution scheme is put forward as well.

  16. A Wireless Video Transmission Scheme Based on MAC-independent Opportunistic Routing &Encoding Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a tremendous challenge to transmit real-time video streams over wireless sensor network because of the poor wireless communication conditions and the high requirements of video transmission. The opportunistic routing protocol can take advantage of the broadcast nature of wireless communication and can improve transfer throughput significantly. But the bigger size of transmission unit also increases the end-to-end delay at the same time. In order to overcome this problem and improve the real-time video transmission quality in wireless video sensor network, we propose a source adaptive frame discard algorithm for MAC-independent Opportunistic Routing & Encoding (MORE Protocol in this paper. In our approach, the historical transmission delay is recorded to estimate current network transmission rate. Based on the video deadline, frames predicted to be delayed are discarded adaptively in the source node to get better overall video quality. In some practice application scenarios, there are usually need to deliver multiple video streams over multi-hop wireless network. It can’t work effectively with the originally MORE protocol in such scenarios. Furthermore, we modify the MORE protocol and design an adaptive scheme to support multiple video streams over multi-hop wireless video sensor network in this paper. The simulation results show that our algorithm can reduce frame loss rate and improve video quality significantly.

  17. Unicast routing protocols for urban vehicular networks:review, taxonomy, and open research issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Adeel Ali SHAH; Muhammad SHIRAZ; Mostofa Kamal NASIR; Rafi dah Binti MD NOOR

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, numerous traffic safety applications have been developed using vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). These applications represent public interest and require network-wide dissemination techniques. On the other hand, certain non-safety applications do not require network-wide dissemination techniques. Such applications can be characterized by their individual interest between two vehicles that are geographically apart. In the existing literature, several proposals of unicast protocols exist that can be used for these non-safety applications. Among the proposals, unicast protocols for city scenarios are considered to be most challenging. This implies that in city scenarios unicast protocols show minimal persistence towards highly dynamic vehicular characteristics, including mobility, road structure, and physical environment. Unlike other studies, this review is motivated by the diversity of vehicular characteristics and difficulty of unicast protocol adaption in city scenarios. The review starts with the categorization of unicast protocols for city scenarios according to their requirement for a predefi ned unicast path. Then, properties of typical city roads are discussed, which helps to explore limitations in efficient unicast communication. Through an exhaustive literature review, we propose a thematic taxonomy based on different aspects of unicast protocol operation. It is followed by a review of selected unicast protocols for city scenarios that reveal their fundamental characteristics. Several signifi cant parameters from the taxonomy are used to qualitatively compare the reviewed protocols. Qualitative comparison also includes critical investigation of distinct approaches taken by researchers in experimental protocol evaluation. As an outcome of this review, we point out open research issues in unicast routing.

  18. Revised AODV routing protocol%有效的AODV路由协义改进方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬霞; 付西男

    2011-01-01

    为了在路由请求时避免使用相对移动性很高的节点,在路由应答时选取更可靠的路由,提出一种AODV路由协议改进算法,该算法充分利用Ad hoc网络节点的移动性信息,与AODV相比,改进后的协议可发现更稳定的路径,并明显降低路径断裂的概率,且协议的延时小,包投递率高.仿真结果验证结论的正确性.%In order to choose a route with high reliability and avoid using high mobility nodes in the process of route discovery, a revised routing algorithm based on AODV is proposed in this paper.The nodes' mobility information is taken into account fully in the algorithm.Compared to AODV,the revised protocol can find routes that are more reliable and reduce the possibility of route breakage.Results of the computer simulation show that the revised method has a better performance of packet delivery ratio and end to end delay.

  19. Network Coding to Enhance Standard Routing Protocols in Wireless Mesh Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    implemented in software without the need for new hardware. PlayNCool enhances performance by (i) choosing a local helper between nodes in the path to strengthen the quality of each link, (ii) using local information to decide when and how many transmissions to allow from the helper, and (iii) using random...... linear network coding to increase the usefulness of each transmission from the helpers. This paper focuses on the design details needed to make the system operate in reality and evaluating performance using ns-3 in multi-hop topologies. Our results show that the PlayNCool protocol increases the end......This paper introduces a design and simulation of a locally optimized network coding protocol, called PlayNCool, for wireless mesh networks. PlayN-Cool is easy to implement and compatible with existing routing protocols and devices. This allows the system to gain from network coding capabilities...

  20. Performance Analysis of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in City Scenario for VANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sanjoy; Raw, Ram Shringar; Das, Indrani

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, performance analysis of Location Aided Routing (LAR), AODV and DSR protocol in city scenarios has been done. The mobility model considered is Manhattan model. This mobility model used to emulate the movement pattern of nodes i.e., vehicles on streets defined by maps. Our objective is to provide a comparative analysis among LAR, AODV and DSR protocol in city scenarios in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks. The simulation work has been conducted using the Glomosim 2.03 simulator. The results show that LAR1 protocol achieves maximum packet delivery ratio is 100% in the sparsely populated network. The delay is maximum in AODV 121.88 ms when the number of node is 10 in the network. The results show that LAR1 outperform DSR and AODV in term of packet delivery ratio and end to end delay.

  1. Research and improvement of AODV routing protocol and routing restoration%AODV路由协议路由修复研究和改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许宗成; 段渭军; 黄亮

    2014-01-01

    Ad Hoc网络具备拓扑的动态性,该特性使得一般路由协议无法正常工作,且网络节点移动变化性,也会提升路由断裂的发生率。AODV路由协议作为Ad Hoc网络目前使用最为频繁的一种路由协议,其重要性和高效率性不言而喻。主要对AODV路由协议的修复研究与改进进行分析和探讨,从AODV协议的工作原理、修复研究以及改进方法等几个方面进行了阐述。%Ad Hoc networks has topological dynamics characteristics which makes the general routing protocol not work in normal. And the moved variability of network nodes will enhance the fractured incidence rate of the routing. AODV routing proto-col as a most commonly used routing protocols in Ad Hoc network,its importance is self-evident. The research and improvement of AODV routing protocol repairing are analyzed and discussed from the work principle,restoration and improvement methods and other aspects of AODV protocol.

  2. A Lightweight Neighbor-Info-Based Routing Protocol for No-Base-Station Taxi-Call System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene. PMID:24737984

  3. A lightweight neighbor-info-based routing protocol for no-base-station taxi-call system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Jinhang; Chen, Yunchao

    2014-01-01

    Since the quick topology change and short connection duration, the VANET has had unstable routing and wireless signal quality. This paper proposes a kind of lightweight routing protocol-LNIB for call system without base station, which is applicable to the urban taxis. LNIB maintains and predicts neighbor information dynamically, thus finding the reliable path between the source and the target. This paper describes the protocol in detail and evaluates the performance of this protocol by simulating under different nodes density and speed. The result of evaluation shows that the performance of LNIB is better than AODV which is a classic protocol in taxi-call scene.

  4. Adding Quality of Service Extensions to the Enhanced Associativity Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Murad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper described how to discover routes that can satisfy QoS service requirements by using extensions to the Enhanced Associativity Bases Routing Protocol (EABR. These extensions were added to the messages used during route discovery. These extensions specify the service requirements, which must be met by nodes re-broadcasting a route request or returning a route reply for a destination. The performance analysis of EABR with QoS support showed that more overhead was incurred when the intermediate node discover that it cannot support the level of the QoS requested.

  5. BEHAVIOUR OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS INVESTIGATED FOR EMERGENCY AND RESCUE SITUATION IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sivagurunathan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Networks are open, shared, dynamic and self-organized networks. These distinct nature lead to efficient use in emergency and recue scenarios where the sharing of information is necessary. In order to share information within the network, a proper routing protocol is required to establish routes between nodes. This article discusses which of the routing protocols such as reactive or proactive has better performance in such scenario. In order to implement the test bed, we choose a real area in Uttarakhand state, India where the disaster occurred recently hence so many civilizations had vanished due to lack of communication and failure in recovery. Our aim is to choose an optimum routing protocol that is correct and used for efficient route establishment between nodes so that message could be delivered on time without loss and it will be implemented and used in future based on the model that we propose.

  6. A COMPARISON OF IMPROVED AODV ROUTING PROTOCOL BASED ON IEEE 802.11 AND IEEE 802.15.4

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Recently, wireless network industry for the ubiquitous generation is growing quickly. Especially, IEEE 802.15.4 is one of special issues of the networking technology for sensor network. Then, many researchers are studying it for enhanced performance. But many researchers are not focusing on developing routing protocol. So we had proposed improved AODV routing protocol in previous research. But it had studied about performance analysis based on IEEE 802.11. In this paper, we proposed improved ...

  7. Range Detection Multicast Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Duraiswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many efforts have been implemented towards the Group membership management on multicast routing in MANETs, but the difficulties associated with Group membership management are still existed. Approach: Maintaining endurance of Group Leader (GL in multicasting routing has been a great challenge to all the protocol having been invented so far. Results: This study provides the RDMP algorithm for persistency of Group Leader within the group. Nodes perform very active in exchanging the Data and Control packet when they mobile within the transmission range. Range Detection Multicast Protocol (RDMP focuses on dynamic topology of nodes and uses detection mechanism based on transmission range within the group. Instead of having a separate external node to monitor on Group leadership, a node within the transmission range acts as a Leadership Track Node (LTN, Group Leader manages the group member with the aid provided by LTN and thus control over head shared among them. LTN keeps track of mobility of Group Leader and send alert message when Group Leader moves out of Transmission range and also holds the list of address of all other Group Leader which are adjacent to it. Routing control packet and data packet are regulated with minimum control over head. Conclusion/Recommendations: Our simulation results under increasing group size demonstrate endurance of Group leader for longer period of time, joining delay for multicast group is very low, normalized control over head and minimizing number of hops in maintain average path length.

  8. A Routing Protocol Based on Energy and Link Quality for Internet of Things Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. F. Loureiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols.

  9. A routing protocol based on energy and link quality for Internet of Things applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Kássio; Rosário, Denis; Cerqueira, Eduardo; Loureiro, Antonio A F; Neto, Augusto; Souza, José Neuman de

    2013-02-04

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL) for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols.

  10. Routing protocol for wireless quantum multi-hop mesh backbone network based on partially entangled GHZ state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Pei-Ying; Yu, Xu-Tao; Zhang, Zai-Chen; Zhan, Hai-Tao; Hua, Jing-Yu

    2017-08-01

    Quantum multi-hop teleportation is important in the field of quantum communication. In this study, we propose a quantum multi-hop communication model and a quantum routing protocol with multihop teleportation for wireless mesh backbone networks. Based on an analysis of quantum multi-hop protocols, a partially entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is selected as the quantum channel for the proposed protocol. Both quantum and classical wireless channels exist between two neighboring nodes along the route. With the proposed routing protocol, quantum information can be transmitted hop by hop from the source node to the destination node. Based on multi-hop teleportation based on the partially entangled GHZ state, a quantum route established with the minimum number of hops. The difference between our routing protocol and the classical one is that in the former, the processes used to find a quantum route and establish quantum channel entanglement occur simultaneously. The Bell state measurement results of each hop are piggybacked to quantum route finding information. This method reduces the total number of packets and the magnitude of air interface delay. The deduction of the establishment of a quantum channel between source and destination is also presented here. The final success probability of quantum multi-hop teleportation in wireless mesh backbone networks was simulated and analyzed. Our research shows that quantum multi-hop teleportation in wireless mesh backbone networks through a partially entangled GHZ state is feasible.

  11. 一种基于AODV的备用路由协议%A new Alternate Routing Protocol Based On AODV Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘有芬; 黄波; 赵春霞

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduced the Ad Hoc network and AODV routing protocol and proposed an optimization method based on studying its inadequacies. This method compared the average speed of the routing nodes and selected the minimum average speed routing as an alternate routing When the primary route fails, start the alternative route. The average delay, drop ratio and network throughput were compared by simulating new routing protocol and the AODV routing protocol through NS-2. Results indicated that the optimized protocol decreased the expense of network and showed better performance than AODV routing protocol.%简要介绍了移动AdHoc网络和AODV路由协议,并在对AODV路由协议进行了研究的基础上针对AODV路由协议的不足之处提出了一种优化方法。此方法比较了路由节点的平均速度,选取平均速度小的路由为备用路由。当主路由失效后,就启动备用路由。通过NS-2对改进的路由协议与AODV路由协议的仿真模拟,比较了平均端到端时延、丢包率、网络吞吐量这三个参数,验证了修改后的路由协议减少了网络开销,能更好的提高网络的性能。

  12. Multi-Gateway-Based Energy Holes Avoidance Routing Protocol for WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Sharma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, efficient energy conservation is required to prolong the lifetime of the network. In this work, we have given emphasis on balanced energy consumption and energy holes avoidance. This paper proposes a multi-gateway-based approach to reduce the transmission distance between the sender and the sink node. The area to be monitored is divided into regions and gateway nodes are deployed at optimal positions. We have designed a transmission scheme, in which sensors in the sink region communicate directly to the sink, sensors in the gateway region communicate directly to the gateway, and sensors in the cluster region transmit their data directly to their respective cluster head which transmits data to the gateway in its region. If the distance between a cluster head and the sink is less than the distance between the cluster head and the gateway node, the cluster head transmits data to the sink instead of the gateway node. We have compared the proposed protocol with Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH, Gateway Based Energy Aware Multi-Hop Routing (M-GEAR, and Gateway Based Stable Election Protocol (GSEP protocols. The protocol performs better than other protocols in terms of throughput, stability period, lifetime, residual energy, and the packet transmitted to the sink.

  13. A Contribution to Secure the Routing Protocol "Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing" Using a Symmetric Signature-Based AES and MD5 Hash

    CERN Document Server

    Erritali, Mohammed; Ouahidi, Bouabid El; 10.5121/ijdps.2011.2509

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a contribution to secure the routing protocol GPSR (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing) for vehicular ad hoc networks, we examine the possible attacks against GPSR and security solutions proposed by different research teams working on ad hoc network security. Then, we propose a solution to secure GPSR packet by adding a digital signature based on symmetric cryptography generated using the AES algorithm and the MD5 hash function more suited to a mobile environment.

  14. VehiHealth: An Emergency Routing Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Network to Support Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, S K; Khilar, P M

    2016-03-01

    Survival of a patient depends on effective data communication in healthcare system. In this paper, an emergency routing protocol for Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is proposed to quickly forward the current patient status information from the ambulance to the hospital to provide pre-medical treatment. As the ambulance takes time to reach the hospital, ambulance doctor can provide sudden treatment to the patient in emergency by sending patient status information to the hospital through the vehicles using vehicular communication. Secondly, the experienced doctors respond to the information by quickly sending a treatment information to the ambulance. In this protocol, data is forwarded through that path which has less link breakage problem between the vehicles. This is done by calculating an intersection value I v a l u e for the neighboring intersections by using the current traffic information. Then the data is forwarded through that intersection which has minimum I v a l u e . Simulation results show VehiHealth performs better than P-GEDIR, GyTAR, A-STAR and GSR routing protocols in terms of average end-to-end delay, number of link breakage, path length, and average response time.

  15. A Survey on an Energy-Efficient and Energy-Balanced Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundile, Olayinka O.; Alfa, Attahiru S.

    2017-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) form an important part of industrial application. There has been growing interest in the potential use of WSNs in applications such as environment monitoring, disaster management, health care monitoring, intelligence surveillance and defence reconnaissance. In these applications, the sensor nodes (SNs) are envisaged to be deployed in sizeable numbers in an outlying area, and it is quite difficult to replace these SNs after complete deployment in many scenarios. Therefore, as SNs are predominantly battery powered devices, the energy consumption of the nodes must be properly managed in order to prolong the network lifetime and functionality to a rational time. Different energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols have been proposed in literature over the years. The energy-efficient routing protocols strive to increase the network lifetime by minimizing the energy consumption in each SN. On the other hand, the energy-balanced routing protocols protract the network lifetime by uniformly balancing the energy consumption among the nodes in the network. There have been various survey papers put forward by researchers to review the performance and classify the different energy-efficient routing protocols for WSNs. However, there seems to be no clear survey emphasizing the importance, concepts, and principles of load-balanced energy routing protocols for WSNs. In this paper, we provide a clear picture of both the energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols for WSNs. More importantly, this paper presents an extensive survey of the different state-of-the-art energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols. A taxonomy is introduced in this paper to classify the surveyed energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols based on their proposed mode of communication towards the base station (BS). In addition, we classified these routing protocols based on the solution types or algorithms, and the input decision

  16. A Survey on an Energy-Efficient and Energy-Balanced Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundile, Olayinka O; Alfa, Attahiru S

    2017-05-10

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) form an important part of industrial application. There has been growing interest in the potential use of WSNs in applications such as environment monitoring, disaster management, health care monitoring, intelligence surveillance and defence reconnaissance. In these applications, the sensor nodes (SNs) are envisaged to be deployed in sizeable numbers in an outlying area, and it is quite difficult to replace these SNs after complete deployment in many scenarios. Therefore, as SNs are predominantly battery powered devices, the energy consumption of the nodes must be properly managed in order to prolong the network lifetime and functionality to a rational time. Different energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols have been proposed in literature over the years. The energy-efficient routing protocols strive to increase the network lifetime by minimizing the energy consumption in each SN. On the other hand, the energy-balanced routing protocols protract the network lifetime by uniformly balancing the energy consumption among the nodes in the network. There have been various survey papers put forward by researchers to review the performance and classify the different energy-efficient routing protocols for WSNs. However, there seems to be no clear survey emphasizing the importance, concepts, and principles of load-balanced energy routing protocols for WSNs. In this paper, we provide a clear picture of both the energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols for WSNs. More importantly, this paper presents an extensive survey of the different state-of-the-art energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols. A taxonomy is introduced in this paper to classify the surveyed energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols based on their proposed mode of communication towards the base station (BS). In addition, we classified these routing protocols based on the solution types or algorithms, and the input decision

  17. Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Mobile Sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile sinks can achieve load-balancing and energy-consumption balancing across the wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, the frequent change of the paths between source nodes and the sinks caused by sink mobility introduces significant overhead in terms of energy and packet delays. To enhance network performance of WSNs with mobile sinks (MWSNs, we present an efficient routing strategy, which is formulated as an optimization problem and employs the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO to build the optimal routing paths. However, the conventional PSO is insufficient to solve discrete routing optimization problems. Therefore, a novel greedy discrete particle swarm optimization with memory (GMDPSO is put forward to address this problem. In the GMDPSO, particle’s position and velocity of traditional PSO are redefined under discrete MWSNs scenario. Particle updating rule is also reconsidered based on the subnetwork topology of MWSNs. Besides, by improving the greedy forwarding routing, a greedy search strategy is designed to drive particles to find a better position quickly. Furthermore, searching history is memorized to accelerate convergence. Simulation results demonstrate that our new protocol significantly improves the robustness and adapts to rapid topological changes with multiple mobile sinks, while efficiently reducing the communication overhead and the energy consumption.

  18. Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Mobile Sinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Liu, Fagui; Cao, Jianneng; Wang, Liangming

    2016-07-14

    Mobile sinks can achieve load-balancing and energy-consumption balancing across the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, the frequent change of the paths between source nodes and the sinks caused by sink mobility introduces significant overhead in terms of energy and packet delays. To enhance network performance of WSNs with mobile sinks (MWSNs), we present an efficient routing strategy, which is formulated as an optimization problem and employs the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) to build the optimal routing paths. However, the conventional PSO is insufficient to solve discrete routing optimization problems. Therefore, a novel greedy discrete particle swarm optimization with memory (GMDPSO) is put forward to address this problem. In the GMDPSO, particle's position and velocity of traditional PSO are redefined under discrete MWSNs scenario. Particle updating rule is also reconsidered based on the subnetwork topology of MWSNs. Besides, by improving the greedy forwarding routing, a greedy search strategy is designed to drive particles to find a better position quickly. Furthermore, searching history is memorized to accelerate convergence. Simulation results demonstrate that our new protocol significantly improves the robustness and adapts to rapid topological changes with multiple mobile sinks, while efficiently reducing the communication overhead and the energy consumption.

  19. A Control Packet Minimized Routing Protocol for Ad-hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Sik Hong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AODV routing protocol is intended for use by mobile nodes in ad-hoc wireless networks. As the degree of node mobility becomes high, however, the number of RREQ and RREP messages during the route discovery process increase so rapidly. The unexpected increases in the number of control packets cause the destination node to decrease the packet receiving rate. Besides, the overall energy consumption for the network can be increased. Thus, we propose a novel method of adaptively controlling the occurrences of the control packets based on AIAD (additive increase additive decrease under a consideration of the current network status. We have tested our proposed method with both the conventional AODV and the method using timestamp based on the three performance metrics; i.e., node mobility, node velocity, and node density, to compare their performances.

  20. Routing Protocols for Transmitting Large Databases or Multi-databases Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Most knowledgeable people agree that networking and routingtechnologi es have been around about 25 years. Routing is simultaneously the most complicat ed function of a network and the most important. It is of the same kind that mor e than 70% of computer application fields are MIS applications. So the challenge in building and using a MIS in the network is developing the means to find, acc ess, and communicate large databases or multi-databases systems. Because genera l databases are not time continuous, in fact, they can not be streaming, so we ca n't obtain reliable and secure quality of service by deleting some unimportant d atagrams in the databases transmission. In this article, we will discuss which k ind of routing protocol is the best type for large databases or multi-databases systems transmission in the networks.

  1. An Adaptive and Multi-Service Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are highly distributed networks consisting of a large number of tiny, low-cost, light-weight wireless nodes deployed to monitor an environment or a system. Each node in a WSN consists of three subsystems: the sensor subsystem which senses the environment, the processing subsystem which performs local computations on the sensed data, and the communication subsystem which is responsible for message exchange with neighboring sensor nodes. While an individual sensor node has limited sensing region, processing power, and energy, networking a large number of sensor nodes give rise to a robust, reliable, and accurate sensor network covering a wide region. Thus, routing in WSNs is a very important issue. This paper presents a query-based routing protocol for a WSN that provides different levels of Quality of Service (QoS): energy-efficiency, reliability, low latency and fault-tolerance-under different application scenarios. The algorithm has low computational complexity but can dynamic...

  2. A Routing Protocol with Stepwise Interest Retransmission for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandai, Masaki; Mioki, Takamasa; Watanabe, Takashi

    In this paper, a routing protocol referred to as Directed Diffusion with Stepwise Interest Retransmission (DD/SIR) for wireless sensor networks is proposed to mitigate power consumption considering node mobility. In DD/SIR, a sink retransmits interest. The propagation areas of the interest are narrowed stepwisely. In addition, according to the number of hops between the sink and sensor nodes, the data transmission timing is controlled sequentially. By both theoretical analysis and computer simulation, we evaluate the performance of DD/SIR. We show that DD/SIR can mitigate control overhead and realize low power operation without degrading data reachability to the sink. Especially, at a small number of data sending nodes, DD/SIR is more effective than the conventional routing.

  3. Evaluation of AODV Routing Protocol under MANETS with Various Density Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Walia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network is self-configured infrastructure where no of nodes interact with each other via multi-hop wireless links. Mobile nodes interact through a wireless medium without any centralized control, also nodes can move randomly. The basic strategies involved are reactive, proactive and hybrid. Unpredictable changes in the network topology are there due to the mobility of nodes which leads to the regular route change. Nodes involved in the MANET results in the frequent network topology changes which make the routing a challenging task. This paper involves the performance measures of AODV reactive protocol by calculating the metrics such as throughput, packet delivery ratio and delay under various nodes density condition in terms of QOS using OPNET MODELLER 14.5.

  4. QoS Routing and Performance Evaluation for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using OLSR Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Amnai, Mohamed; Abouchabaka, Jaafar

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Ad-Hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes in communication without using infrastructure. As the real-time applications used in today's wireless network grow, we need some schemes to provide more suitable service for them. We know that most of actual schemes do not perform well on traffic which is not strictly CBR. Therefore, in this paper we have studied the impact, respectively, of mobility models and the density of nodes on the performances (End-to-End Delay, Throughput and Packet Delivery ratio) of routing protocol (Optimized Link State Routing) OLSR by using in the first a real-time VBR (MPEG-4) and secondly the Constant Bit Rate (CBR) traffic. Finally we compare the performance on both cases. Experimentally, we considered the three mobility models as follows Random Waypoint, Random Direction and Mobgen Steady State. The experimental results illustrate that the behavior of OLSR change according to the model and the used traffics.

  5. Performance Analysis of Estimation of Distribution Algorithm and Genetic Algorithm in Zone Routing Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Mst Farhana; Ripon, Kazi Shah Nawaz; Suvo, Md Iqbal Hossain

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, Estimation of Distribution Algorithm (EDA) is used for Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) in Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) instead of Genetic Algorithm (GA). It is an evolutionary approach, and used when the network size grows and the search space increases. When the destination is outside the zone, EDA is applied to find the route with minimum cost and time. The implementation of proposed method is compared with Genetic ZRP, i.e., GZRP and the result demonstrates better performance for the proposed method. Since the method provides a set of paths to the destination, it results in load balance to the network. As both EDA and GA use random search method to reach the optimal point, the searching cost reduced significantly, especially when the number of data is large.

  6. An Energy Efficient Unequal Cluster Based Routing Protocol For WSN With Non-Uniform Node Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanoop K Dhanpal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clustering is an efficient method for increasing the lifetime of wireless sensor network systems. The current clustering algorithms generate clusters of almost equal size. This will cause hot spot problem in multi-hop sensor networks. In this paper an energy efficient varying sized clustering algorithm EEVSCA and routing protocol are introduced for non-uniform node distributed wireless sensor network system. EEVSCA helps for the construction of clusters of varying size at the same time unequal cluster based routing algorithm forces each cluster head to choose node with higher energy as their next hop. The unequal size of clusters can balance the energy consumption among clusters. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that EECSVA balance energy consumption well among the cluster heads and increase the network lifetime effectively.

  7. Simulation Studies On An Energy Efficient Multipath Routing Protocol Using Directional Antennas For Manets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Chilukuri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the development of an energy efficient multipath routing protocol with directional antenna for MANET as an optimization task as well as a multidisciplinary entity. A comprehensive analysis to link all the multi-disciplinary viewpoints involved in the development of desired multipath routing protocol with requisite technical details is presented in this paper. A simple and elegant mathematical formulation for the analysis of relative improvement of the performance metrics of ad-hocnetworks with omnidirectional and directional antenna is presented. Through extensive numerical simulations, the multi-dimensional desirable performance attributes of wireless link such as improvedrange, improved RSS, reduced RF transmit power and consequent reduced consumption of battery power have been analyzed keeping the directional gain of the antenna as a variable parameter. Development or modification of a protocol with concurrent focus on multipath routing with optimization of the batteryenergy is a significant step to increase the life time of MANET without recharging. Selection of the energy efficient path amongst several alternative ones is of paramount significance in the evaluation of overall performance of MANET system. A formulation to compute the required Battery Energy taking into account the data pertaining to the power efficiency of the associated transceiver design as well as the specified link performance parameters is also discussed. Through a case study involving the specifications of a typical transceiver operating in the 2.4 GHz band, the desirable impact of higher gain of a directional antenna in the reduction of RF transmitter power is illustrated. The consequential reduced battery power consumption while still retaining the specified performance parameters of the adhoc network like range and Received Signal Strength (RSS is also demonstrated. This paper also addresses the importance of alignment of beam peaks of directional

  8. Power Management Based Grid Routing Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Based MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; ZHENG Bao-yu; YANG Zhen

    2004-01-01

    MANET ( Mobile Ad Hoc Network ) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes forming a temporary communication network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration. The lifetime of a MANET depends on the battery resources of the mobile nodes. So energy consumption may one of important design criterions for MANET. With changing the idle model to sleep model in the grid environment, this paper proposes a new energy-aware routing protocol. Performance simulation results show that the proposed strategy can dynamic balance the traffic load inside the whole network, extend the lifetime of a MANET, and without decreasing the throughput ratio.

  9. 移动Ad Hoc网络路由协议综述%A Survey of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺亮; 叶澄清; 李方敏

    2003-01-01

    A review of current research about routing protocols for mobile Ad Hoc networks is made. Based on classifying of them, the characteristic, the strength and the weakness of these protocols are evaluated respectively. Then some crucial strategies to improve the existing routing protocols are proposed. Besides, a frame of new routing protocol for Ad Hoc networks is put forward. Finally, open issues that still need investigation are listed.

  10. An Efficient Routing Algorithm in Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShuqiao; LIHongyan; LIJiandong

    2005-01-01

    The Dynamic source routing protocol(DSR) is an on-demand routing protocol, designed specifically for use in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks of mobile nodes. In this paper, some mechanisms such as the route's lifetime prediction, route’s creation time and an adaptive gratuitous route reply mode are introduced into DSR to get an efficient routing algorithm which is refered to E-DSR. The simulation results show that E-DSR can improve the packet delivery rate and reduce the routing overhead compared with hop-based DSR.

  11. Energy based reliable multicast routing protocol for packet forwarding in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopinath

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network consists of mobile nodes without any assisting infrastructure. Mobility of nodes causes network partition. This leads to heavy overhead and less packet forwarding ratio. In this research work, Residual Energy based Reliable Multicast Routing Protocol (RERMR is proposed to attain more network lifetime and increased packet delivery and forwarding rate. A multicast backbone is constructed to achieve more stability based on node familiarity and trustable loop. Reliable path criterion is estimated to choose best reliable path among all available paths. Data packets will be forwarded once the reliable path is chosen. We have also demonstrated that residual energy of paths aids to provide maximum network lifetime. Based on the simulation results, the proposed work achieves better performance than previous protocols in terms of packet reliability rate, network stability rate, end to end delay, end to end transmission and communication overhead.

  12. An Improved Location aided Cluster Based Routing Protocol with Intrusion Detection System in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mangai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Routing and security are the main challenges for ad hoc networks due to dynamic topology as well as resource constraints. A designed protocol must provide scalable routing with better security. Lack of any central coordination and shared wireless medium makes them more vulnerable to attacks than wired networks. And also resource constraints such as limited energy and size also play an important role in the protocols designed for security. Approach: In this study, Improved Location aided Cluster based Routing Protocol (ILCRP for GPS enabled MANETs was analysed in MANETs with malicious nodes and an Intrusion Detection System was used to increase the packet delivery ratio. ILCRP makes use of location aided routing in the presence of cluster based routing Protocol. Results: Use of location information with security against attacks results in high packet delivery ratio for the cluster based routing protocol. Simulations are performed using NS2 by varying the number of nodes. Conclusion: The results illustrate ILCRP provides higher delivery ratio with IDS.

  13. A quality of service routing protocol based on mobility prediction in mobile ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建新; 邓曙光; 陈松乔; 陈建二

    2003-01-01

    A QoS routing protocol based on mobility prediction is proposed. The protocol selects the steadiest path based on mobility prediction and QoS requirements on bandwidth, delay, and so forth. The main properties of the protocol as follows. (1) Each node just broadcasts its own information, so the packet is very small and can get to the destination in a very short time. (2)When another path is built for the same QoS requirements, the original path has higher priority.(3) The update messages are reduced by using mobility prediction. (4) Data packets carry the information of link change using piggyback, which is helpful for forecasting the link status more accurately. (5) When source node gets Resource-Reserve and reconnect packets at the same time, it selects reconnect packet over Resource-Reserve packet. The results of simulation show that the protocol has good network performance with low control overload, and efficiently supports transmitting multimedia with QoS requirements in mobile ad hoc networks.

  14. AODV routing overhead analysis based on link failure probability in MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-juan; WU Mu-qing; ZHEN Yan; SHANG Cui-li

    2010-01-01

    This article puts forward an Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing(AODV)routing overhead analysis method in mobile Ad-hoc network(MANET).Although multiple routing protocols have been proposed to improve the performance,scarcely any paper analyzed the routing overhead caused by routing setup and maintenance processes in mathematical way.Routing overhead consumes part of network resources and limits the supported traffic in the network.For on-demand routing protocols like AODV,the routing overhead depends on the link failure probability to a great extent.This article analyzes the collision probability caused by hidden-node problem and the impact on link failure probability.In chain and rectangle scenarios,it presents a mathematical analysis of the theoretical routing overhead of AODV protocol based on link failure probability.Simulations on OPNET 14.5platform match well with the theoretical derivation which confirms the effectiveness of the analysis method.

  15. Implementation a method to provide quality in manet and survey the effect of that at decreasing Data Dropped of DSR and AODV routing protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Arjomand Hashjin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ad-Hoc wireless networks nodes change their situations proximately,  that means this situation requires routing protocols that have ability to adaptability with this changes. Providing the QoS in this networks is intolerable, through topology changes and use the joint media by the network nodes. The most routing protocols that designed for this networks, only find the route by the scales of step and don’t consider the QoS of created routes. In this cases for providing QoS , we decided to apply one of the methods of providing the QoS that named : resources reserve on the routing protocols. For this reason,  in this essay we use two different scenarios in a MANET’s example environment, which they have (500*500M and (1000*1000M dimensions. The scenarios have fifty nodes. The AODV and DSR are usable routing protocols and the work styles of these protocols are like the followings: At first we implement the RSVP protocol on the mentioned routing protocols and we compare the route discovering time of them when RSVP protocol applied to when protocol have not applied. Scenarios that implemented and evaluated by Opnet 14 simulator and simulation results are fully described. Simulation results show this fact that when we apply RSVP on AODV and DSR routing protocol, route discovery time is reduced. Also AODV has a better performance.

  16. Routing UAVs to Co-Optimize Mission Effectiveness and Network Performance with Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    archetypical source- initiated protocol is Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector ( AODV ) routing . A source attempting to send a packet first broadcasts a...using less bandwidth, and lowering error rates [11]. MANET protocols that vary by adaptive routing or topology control differ to make tradeoffs and...Nodes disseminate messages to each other to announce changes to the topology. Source-initiated MANET protocols require that nodes create routes as

  17. ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS – A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sankar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption, primarily with the goal of extending the lifetime of battery-powered devices, has emerged as a fundamental challenge in wireless communication. The performance of the medium access control (MAC scheme not only has a fairly significant end-result on the behaviour of the routing approach employed, but also on the energy consumption of the wireless network interface card (NIC. We investigate the inadequacies of the MAC schemes designed for ad hoc wireless networks in the context of power awareness herein. The topology changes due to uncontrollable factors such as node mobility, weather, interference, noise, as well as on controllable parameters such as transmission power and antenna direction results in significant amount of energy loss. Controlling rapid topology changes by minimizing the maximum transmission power used in ad hoc wireless networks, while still maintaining networks connectivity can prolong battery life and hence network lifetime considerably. In addition, we systematically explore the potential energy consumption pitfalls of non–power-based and power based routing schemes. We suggest a thorough energy-based performance survey of energy aware routing protocols for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks. We also present the statistical performance metrics measured by our simulations.

  18. A CROSS-LAYERED PATH STABILITY BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR WiMAX NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Deva Priya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In IEEE 802.16, a Subscriber Station (SS is battery powered with limited capacity. A SS can be made to operate for longer durations by deploying power saving features or by using relay stations. Multi-hop communication conserves power, but finding an optimal path to the destination is monotonous. Path stability indicates how stable a path is and how long it can support communication. Identifying stable paths helps in reducing the control traffic, number of connection disruptions and also in conserving power. In this study, Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR and Link-St Ability and Energy aware Routing (LAER designed for Mobile Ad hoc NET works (MANETs are implemented for WiMAX networks and their performance is evaluated. Further, a novel Cross-layered Path Stability based Routing protocol (CPSR is proposed to find a stable path based on Residual Energy (RE, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR. The total energy consumed is minimized, thus maximizing the network lifetime.

  19. E-APSAR:Enhanced Anonymous Position Based Security Aware Routing Protocol For Manets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Malgi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, we have seen a rapid expansion in the field of mobile computing due to the pro- liferation of inexpensive, widely available wireless devices or networks.However, all these networks are conventional wireless networks as they require a fixed network infrastructure with cen- tralised administration for their operation, potentially consuming a lot of time and money for set-up and maintenance.Drawbacks of conventional wireless networks are driving a new alternative way for mobile communication, in which mobile devices form a selfcreating, self-organising and self-administering wireless network, called a mobile ad hoc network.In mobile ad-hoc networking (MANETs, nodes communicate to each other based on public identities. In this paper,for a position based routing[22] an innovative packet forwarding mechanism is proposed in which source node generates route request packet and broadcast packet to other neighbor nodes to locate destination by implementing black hole attack[8]. Proposed E-APSAR (Enhanced Anonymous Position Based security aware routing protocol is implemented on NS-2 and results shown significant improvement over original DSR in terms of various performance metrics. It has been found that on dense network certain numbers of malicious nodes are supportive to reducing communication overhead and because of density negative effect of malicious attacks which is proposed E-APSAR that is able to reduce. Hence result shows proposed E-APSAR will be helpful to decrease communication overhead.

  20. A Multipath Routing Protocol Based on Clustering and Ant Colony Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available For monitoring burst events in a kind of reactive wireless sensor networks (WSNs, a multipath routing protocol (MRP based on dynamic clustering and ant colony optimization (ACO is proposed.. Such an approach can maximize the network lifetime and reduce the energy consumption. An important attribute of WSNs is their limited power supply, and therefore some metrics (such as energy consumption of communication among nodes, residual energy, path length were considered as very important criteria while designing routing in the MRP. Firstly, a cluster head (CH is selected among nodes located in the event area according to some parameters, such as residual energy. Secondly, an improved ACO algorithm is applied in the search for multiple paths between the CH and sink node. Finally, the CH dynamically chooses a route to transmit data with a probability that depends on many path metrics, such as energy consumption. The simulation results show that MRP can prolong the network lifetime, as well as balance of energy consumption among nodes and reduce the average energy consumption effectively.

  1. Sink-to-Sink Coordination Framework Using RPL: Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meer M. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RPL (Routing Protocol for low power and Lossy networks is recommended by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF for IPv6-based LLNs (Low Power and Lossy Networks. RPL uses a proactive routing approach and each node always maintains an active path to the sink node. Sink-to-sink coordination defines syntax and semantics for the exchange of any network defined parameters among sink nodes like network size, traffic load, mobility of a sink, and so forth. The coordination allows sink to learn about the network condition of neighboring sinks. As a result, sinks can make coordinated decision to increase/decrease their network size for optimizing over all network performance in terms of load sharing, increasing network lifetime, and lowering end-to-end latency of communication. Currently, RPL does not provide any coordination framework that can define message exchange between different sink nodes for enhancing the network performance. In this paper, a sink-to-sink coordination framework is proposed which utilizes the periodic route maintenance messages issued by RPL to exchange network status observed at a sink with its neighboring sinks. The proposed framework distributes network load among sink nodes for achieving higher throughputs and longer network’s life time.

  2. A Multipath Routing Protocol Based on Clustering and Ant Colony Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available For monitoring burst events in a kind of reactive wireless sensor networks (WSNs, a multipath routing protocol (MRP based on dynamic clustering and ant colony optimization (ACO is proposed.. Such an approach can maximize the network lifetime and reduce the energy consumption. An important attribute of WSNs is its limited power supply, and therefore in MRP, some metrics (such as energy consumption of communication among nodes, residual energy, path length are considered as very important criteria while designing routing. Firstly, a cluster head (CH is selected among nodes located in the event area according to some parameters, such as residual energy. Secondly, an improved ACO algorithm is applied in search for multiple paths between the CH and sink node. Finally, the CH dynamically chooses a route to transmit data with a probability that depends on many path metrics, such as energy consumption. The simulation results show that MRP can prolong the network lifetime, as well as balance energy consumption among nodes and reduce the average energy consumption effectively.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Reactive Protocols for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi A Bichkar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The requirement for good Quality of Service in Mobile Ad Hoc Network is that, better protocols should be used. To improve protocol efficiency, the two key issues to be considered are, low control overhead and low energy consumption. For reducing energy consumption and routing overhead, an enhanced routing algorithm, EEDSR (Energy Efficient Dynamic Source Routing with local route enhancement model for DSR (Dynamic Source Routing is implemented. Comparisons based on routing overhead, energy and throughput is done between EEDSR and EEAODV (Energy Efficient Ad Hoc on Demand Distance Vector and AODV (Ad Hoc on Demand Distance Vector protocols. For all protocols, NS-2.34 Simulator is used. This paper presents the simulation results in order to choose the best routing protocol to give highest performance. The simulations have shown that EEDSR protocol performs well as it consumes 12�0less energy than EEAODV and AODV

  4. AODV、AOMDV和AODV-UU路由协议性能仿真与分析%Simulation and Analysis of Performance of AODV, AOMDV and AODV-UU Routing Protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢佳; 徐山峰

    2011-01-01

    使用NS-2(Network Simulator Version2)仿真软件,选取分组投递率、端到端平均时延、归一化路由开销和路由发现频率4个指标对按需距离矢量路由(AODV,Adhoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing)、多径按需距离矢量路由(AOMDV,AdHocOn.Demand Multipath Distance VectorRouting)和乌普萨拉大学开发的按需距离矢量路由(AODV.uu,AdHocOn.Demand Distance Vector Routingdevelopedby Uppsala University)进行了性能仿真,通过改变节点最大运动速度和业务源连接对数分析比较这些参数对3个协议性能的影响,研究结果表明了AODV—UU协议的优越性。并提出了对AODV.UU协议的改进。%The simulation soft tool NS-2 is used and chooses the packet delivery rate, average end-to-end delay, normalized routing overhead and route discovery frequency are used to evaluate the performance of Ad hoe On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) , Ad Hoe On-Demand Multipath Distance Vector Routing(AOMDV) and Ad Hoe On-Demand Distance Vector Routing developed by Uppsala University (AODV-UU). The effects of these parameters on the performance are analyzed and compared by changing the maximum velocity of the nodes and the CBR connection numbers. The research indicates that the AODV-UU protocol has better performance. The improvement on AODV-UU is also proposed.

  5. LOTIR: A Routing Protocol for Multi-hop V-to-I Communication Using Local Traffic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-chan Lan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET is an emerging technology that can be applied to safety, transport efficiency, or infotainment applications for roads and highways. However, due to its unique features, such as dynamic mobility patterns and uneven distributions of vehicles, VANET faces many challenging research issues for robust data dissemination in the network. Many routing protocols have been proposed for VANET in the past few years, and the idea of utilizing a navigation system to assist the routing protocol for selecting the next best forwarder has become increasingly popular. However, it might not be realistic to assume that every vehicle is equipped with a navigation system. In addition, due to privacy concerns, drivers might not want to reveal their planned routes to other cars. In this work, we propose a new routing protocol, called LOTIR (LOcal Traffic Information Routing, that relies on only local traffic information and does not require the assistance of a navigation system. LOTIR is a DTN-based routing protocol that utilizes the car-following theory and traffic light information to decide the next carrier to forward the data to. We implement LOTIR in NS-2, and our results show that it can achieve similar performance as prior work which depends on the availability of global network topology information.

  6. Performance of Implementation IBR-DTN and Batman-Adv Routing Protocol in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Yuliandoko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless mesh networks is a network which has high mobility and flexibility network. In Wireless mesh networks nodes are free to move and able to automatically build a network connection with other nodes. High mobility, heterogeneous condition and intermittent network connectivity cause data packets drop during wireless communication and it becomes a problem in the wireless mesh networks. This condition can happen because wireless mesh networks use connectionless networking type such as IP protocol which it is not tolerant to delay. To solve this condition it is needed a technology to keep data packets when the network is disconnect. Delay tolerant technology is a technology that provides store and forward mechanism and it can prevent packet data dropping during communication. In our research, we proposed a test bed wireless mesh networks implementation by using proactive routing protocol and combining with delay tolerant technology. We used Batman-adv routing protocol and IBR-DTN on our research. We measured some particular performance aspect of networking such as packet loss, delay, and throughput of the network. We identified that delay tolerant could keep packet data from dropping better than current wireless mesh networks in the intermittent network condition. We also proved that IBR-DTN and Batman-adv could run together on the wireless mesh networks. In The experiment throughput test result of IBR-DTN was higher than Current TCP on the LoS (Line of Side and on environment with obstacle. Keywords: Delay Tolerant, IBR-DTN, Wireless Mesh, Batman-adv, Performance

  7. Exploration of α1-antitrypsin treatment protocol for islet transplantation: dosing plan and route of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovski, Boris M; Ozeri, Eyal; Shahaf, Galit; Ochayon, David E; Schuster, Ronen; Bahar, Nofar; Kalay, Noa; Cal, Pablo; Mizrahi, Mark I; Nisim, Omer; Strauss, Pnina; Schenker, Eran; Lewis, Eli C

    2016-11-07

    Life-long weekly infusions of human α1-antitrypsin (hAAT) are currently administered as augmentation therapy for patients with genetic AAT deficiency (AATD). Several recent clinical trials attempt to extend hAAT therapy to conditions outside AATD, including type 1 diabetes. Since the endpoint for AATD is primarily the reduction of risk for pulmonary emphysema, the present study explores hAAT dose protocols and routes of administration in attempt to optimize hAAT therapy for islet-related injury. Islet-grafted mice were treated with hAAT (Glassia™; i.p. or s.c.) under an array of clinically relevant dosing plans. Serum hAAT and immunocyte cell membrane association were examined, as well as parameters of islet survival. Results indicate that dividing the commonly prescribed 60 mg/kg i.p. dose to three 20 mg/kg injections is superior in affording islet graft survival; in addition, a short dynamic descending dose protocol (240→120→60→60 mg/kg i.p.) is comparable in outcomes to indefinite 60 mg/kg injections. While hAAT pharmacokinetics after i.p. administration in mice resembles exogenous hAAT treatment in humans, s.c. administration better imitated the physiological progressive rise of hAAT during acute phase responses; nonetheless, only the 60 mg/kg dose depicted an advantage using the s.c. route. Taken together, this study provides a platform for extrapolating an islet-relevant clinical protocol from animal models that use hAAT to protect islets. In addition, the study places emphasis on outcome-oriented analyses of drug efficacy, particularly important when considering that hAAT is presently at an era of drug-repurposing towards an extended list of clinical indications outside genetic AATD.

  8. A Hop-by-Hop Congestion-Aware Routing Protocol for Heterogeneous Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Narasimhan, B

    2009-01-01

    In Heterogeneous mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) congestion occurs with limited resources. Due to the shared wireless channel and dynamic topology, packet transmissions suffer from interference and fading. In heterogeneous ad hoc networks, throughput via a given route is depending on the minimum data rate of all its links. In a route of links with various data rates, if a high data rate node forwards more traffic to a low data rate node, there is a chance of congestion, which leads to long queuing delays in such routes. Since hop count is used as a routing metric in traditional routing, it do not adapt well to mobile nodes. A congestion-aware routing metric for MANETs should incorporate transmission capability, reliability, and congestion around a link. In this paper, we propose to develop a hop-by-hop congestion aware routing protocol which employs a combined weight value as a routing metric, based on the data rate, queuing delay, link quality and MAC overhead. Among the discovered routes, the route with min...

  9. Implementation and Test of a Secure Mechanism's Modules in Routing Protocol of MANETs with the Theory of Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim KONATE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work is dedicated to the implementation of a secure mechanism’s modules in routing protocol of MANET with the theory of games. First we are doing an introduction to what the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs and a presentation of some various attacks in MANETs pertaining to fail routing protocols. We study these attacks and the mechanisms which the secured routing protocols use to counter them. In the second hand we also study a reputation mechanism and we also propose a secure algorithm based on the reputation. Our work ends with a proposal analytical model by the theorical games and an implementation to the modules of our mechanism..

  10. Voice Traffic over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Performance Analysis of the Optimized Link State Routing Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-26

    Investigating MANETs in a VoIP Context. Prior research has inves- tigated the performance of MANETS carrying VoIP traffic. Thibodeau et al. studied whether...number of hops contained in the repaired route is observed. Thibodeau et al. concludes that node mobility and node density have limited influence on...testbeds. Most studies account for mobile nodes and study the routing protocols AODV and OLSR. For example, Thibodeau et al. study the effects of AODV

  11. Performance Evaluation and Impact of Weighting Factors on an Energy and Delay Aware Dynamic Source Routing Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Rekik, Jihen Drira; Ghezala, Henda Ben

    2011-01-01

    Typical applications of the mobile ad-hoc network, MANET, are in disaster recovery operations which have to respect time constraint needs. Since MANET is affected by limited resources such as power constraints, it is a challenge to respect the deadline of a real-time data. This paper proposes the Energy and Delay aware based on Dynamic Source Routing protocol, ED-DSR. ED-DSR efficiently utilizes the network resources such as the intermediate mobile nodes energy and load. It ensures both timeliness and energy efficiency by avoiding low-power and overloaded intermediate mobile nodes. Through simulations, we compare our proposed routing protocol with the basic routing protocol Dynamic Source Routing, DSR. Weighting factors are introduced to improve the route selection. Simulation results, using the NS-2 simulator, show that the proposed protocol prolongs the network lifetime (up to 66%), increases the volume of packets delivered while meeting the data flows real-time constraints and shortens the endto- end delay...

  12. A Genetic Algorithm Inspired Load Balancing Protocol for Congestion Control in Wireless Sensor Networks using Trust Based Routing Framework (GACCTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Raha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensors Networks are extremely densely populated and have to handle large bursts of data during emergency or high activity periods giving rise to congestion which may disrupt normal operation. Our paper proposes a new congestion control protocol for balanced distribution of traffic among the different paths existing between the Source node and the Sink node in accordance to the different route trust values. This probabilistic method of data transmission through the various alternate routes can be appropriately modeled with the help of Genetic Algorithms. Our protocol is mainly targeted in selecting the reliable or trustworthy routes more frequently than the unreliable ones. In addition, it also prevents concentration of the entire data traffic through a single route eliminating any possible occurrence of bottleneck. The merits of our protocol in comparison to the presently existing routing protocols are justified through the simulation results obtained which show improvements in both the percentage ratio of successful transmission of data packets to the total number of data packets sent and the overall network lifetime.

  13. A Survey of Congestion Control in Proactive Source Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyashree S kayarkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET congestion can take place between the two intermediate nodes, when the packet is transferred from the source to the destination. The congestion in MANET is mainly due to frequent change to topology and high mobility of nodes, which lead to high loss of packet. In ad hoc network the congestion control techniques with TCP becomes difficult to handle since in ad hoc network there is high density of nodes in the network and there is frequent change to topology in the network. In this paper to control the congestion in proactive source routing protocol an error message is generated by the receiver to reduce the packet sending rate. We are using a new control message i.e., Packet Error Announcing Message called (PEAM messages.

  14. AN APPROACH TO OPTIMIZE QOS ROUTING PROTOCOL USING GENETIC ALGORITHM IN MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Siwach

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Service support for Mobile Ad hoc Networks is an exigenttask due to dynamic topology and limited resource. To support QoS,the link state information such as delay, bandwidth, jitter, cost, errorrate and node energy in the network should be available andmanageable. QOS is one the basic requirement of a network andwhen we talk about the Mobile Network this is the highly constraintrequirement of a user. To improve the quality of service we usedifferent changes in MANET protocols, its parameter, routingalgorithm etc. The proposed work is to define a genetic based routingapproach to optimize the routing in MANETs. The genetic approachwill generate an optimized path on the basic of congestion over thenetwork. The result path will improve the data delivery over thenetwork. The focus of the paper is to study about MANET, QOS andtries to develop a network on which genetic algorithm is applied togenerate an optimized path.

  15. A SURVEY OF CONGESTION CONTROL IN PROACTIVE SOURCE ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyashree S kayarkar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET congestion can take place between the two intermediate nodes, when the packet is transferred from the source to the destination. The congestion in MANET is mainly due to frequent change to topology and high mobility of nodes, which lead to high loss of packet. In ad hoc network the congestion control techniques with TCP becomes difficult to handle since in ad hoc network there is high density of nodes in the network and there is frequent change to topology in the network. In this paper to control the congestion in proactive source routing protocol an error message is generated by the receiver to reduce the packet sending rate. We are using a new control message i.e., Packet Error Announcing Message called (PEAM messages.

  16. LOPP: A Location Privacy Protected Anonymous Routing Protocol for Disruption Tolerant Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Hui, Pan; Towsley, Don; Pu, Juhua; Xiong, Zhang

    In this paper, we propose an anonymous routing protocol, LOPP, to protect the originator's location privacy in Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN). The goals of our study are to minimize the originator's probability of being localized (Pl) and maximize the destination's probability of receiving the message (Pr). The idea of LOPP is to divide a sensitive message into k segments and send each of them to n different neighbors. Although message fragmentation could reduce the destination's probability to receive a complete message, LOPP can decrease the originator's Pl. We validate LOPP on a real-world human mobility dataset. The simulation results show that LOPP can decrease the originator's Pl by over 54% with only 5.7% decrease in destination's Pr. We address the physical localization issue of DTN, which was not studied in the literature.

  17. Optimising social information by game theory and ant colony method to enhance routing protocol in opportunistic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Prabha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data loss and disconnection of nodes are frequent in the opportunistic networks. The social information plays an important role in reducing the data loss because it depends on the connectivity of nodes. The appropriate selection of next hop based on social information is critical for improving the performance of routing in opportunistic networks. The frequent disconnection problem is overcome by optimising the social information with Ant Colony Optimization method which depends on the topology of opportunistic network. The proposed protocol is examined thoroughly via analysis and simulation in order to assess their performance in comparison with other social based routing protocols in opportunistic network under various parameters settings.

  18. Experimental performance study of wireless ad hoc system utilizing 802.11a standard base on different routing protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao F.; Wang, You-Zheng; Mei, Shunliang; Wang, Jing

    2002-08-01

    The wireless ad hoc network technology provides a flexible infrastructure for next generation mobile telecommunication. In this paper, the performances of the networks based on IEEE802.11a standard, including packets successful delivery rate, average end-to-end delay and system throughput, have been studied with different routing protocols (AODV, WRP, and FISHEYE) using GloMoSim to evaluate the effects of various factors, such as node mobility, node density, and node radio transmission range. The simulation results show that adaptive routing protocol will be more suitable for the variation ad hoc network and the results are helpful for the optimum design and deployment of an actual network.

  19. 一种路由协议测试框架研究%Framework to routing protocols testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹霞; 吴建平

    2001-01-01

    Because routing protocols are the kernel of the Internet, more and more researchers are analyzin g routing protocol testing to assure the correctness and reliability of the Inte rnet. This paper presents a framework for routing protocol testing. Routing prot ocol testing should be treated as a whole rather than traditional protocol test limits. A new abstract test method, the dip-in test method, was developed after analyzing various routing protocols. In the dip-in test method, the router inpu t and output are evaluated in a real running environment. Concurrent TTCN is rec ommended for the routing protocols test suite notation. A real tester, the Distr ibuted Routing Protocol Test System (DRPTS), was designed and implemented to pla y an important role in router development and routing protocol testing.%为了确保Internet通信子网的正确性和可靠性,提出了一种用于路由协议测试的测 试框架。由于传统的测试分类不适用于路由协议,所以路由协议应作为一个整体来 测试。在分析了路由协议与端系统协议的异同之后,提出了一种适用于路由协议测试的Dip -in 抽象测试法,并推荐并发TTCN作为测试集描述方法。利用上述测试理论,设计实 现了可实际应用的分布式路由协议测试系统。该文的研究是对Internet中的核心技术 —— 路由协议测试的一种新探索,在我国路由器技术国产化的过程中意义重大。

  20. Sleeping Cluster based Medium Access Control Layer Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Rangaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks play a vital role in remote area applications, where human intervention is not possible. In a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN each and every node is strictly an energy as well as bandwidth constrained one. Problem statement: In a standard WSN, most of the routing techniques, move data from multiple sources to a single fixed base station. Because of the greater number of computational tasks, the existing routing protocol did not address the energy efficient problem properly. In order to overcome the problem of energy consumption due to more number of computational tasks, a new method is developed. Approach: The proposed algorithm divides the sensing field into three active clusters and one sleeping cluster. The cluster head selection is based on the distance between the base station and the normal nodes. The Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA mechanism is used to make the cluster remain in the active state as well as the sleeping state. In an active cluster 50% of nodes will be made active and the remaining 50% be in sleep state. A sleeping cluster will be made active after a period of time and periodically changes its functionality. Results: Due to this periodic change of state, energy consumption is minimized. The performance of the Low Energy Adaptive and Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH algorithm is also analyzed, using a network simulator NS2 based on the number of Cluster Heads (CH, Energy consumption, Lifetime and the number of nodes alive. Conclusion: The simulation studies were carried out using a network simulation tool NS2, for the proposed method and this is compared with the performance of the existing protocol. The superiority of the proposed method is highlighted.