WorldWideScience

Sample records for on-chip single nanoparticle

  1. Nanoparticle Reactions on Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, J. M.; Kirner, Th.; Wagner, J.; Csáki, A.; Möller, R.; Fritzsche, W.

    The handling of heterogenous systems in micro reactors is difficult due to their adhesion and transport behaviour. Therefore, the formation of precipitates and gas bubbles has to be avoided in micro reaction technology, in most cases. But, micro channels and other micro reactors offer interesting possibilities for the control of reaction conditions and transport by diffusion and convection due to the laminar flow caused by small Reynolds numbers. This can be used for the preparation and modification of objects, which are much smaller than the cross section of microchannels. The formation of colloidal solutions and the change of surface states of nano particles are two important tasks for the application of chip reactors in nanoparticle technology. Some concepts for the preparation and reaction of nanoparticles in modular chip reactor arrangements will be discussed.

  2. Single cell electroporation on chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valero, Ana

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the results of the development of microfluidic cell trap devices for single cell electroporation are described, which are to be used for gene transfection. The performance of two types of Lab-on-a-Chip trapping devices was tested using beads and cells, whereas the functionality for si

  3. On-chip highly sensitive saliva glucose sensing using multilayer films composed of single-walled carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles, and glucose oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for human health to rapidly and accurately detect glucose levels in biological environments, especially for diabetes mellitus. We proposed a simple, highly sensitive, accurate, convenient, low-cost, and disposable glucose biosensor on a single chip. A working (sensor electrode, a counter electrode, and a reference electrode are integrated on a single chip through micro-fabrication. The working electrode is functionalized through a layer-by-layer (LBL assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and multilayer films composed of chitosan (CS, gold nanoparticles (GNp, and glucose oxidase (GOx to obtain high sensitivity and accuracy. The glucose sensor has following features: (1 direct electron transfer between GOx and the electrode surface; (2 on-a-chip; (3 glucose detection down to 0.1 mg/dL (5.6 μM; (4 good sensing linearity over 0.017–0.81 mM; (5 high sensitivity (61.4 μA/mM-cm2 with a small reactive area (8 mm2; (6 fast response; (7 high reproducibility and repeatability; (8 reliable and accurate saliva glucose detection. Thus, this disposable biosensor will be an alternative for real time tracking of glucose levels from body fluids, e.g. saliva, in a noninvasive, pain-free, accurate, and continuous way. In addition to being used as a disposable glucose biosensor, it also provides a suitable platform for on-chip electrochemical sensing for other chemical agents and biomolecules.

  4. On-Chip Single-Photon Sifter

    CERN Document Server

    Elshaari, Ali W; Fognini, Andreas; Reimer, Michael E; Dalacu, Dan; Poole, Philip J; Zwiller, Val; Jöns, Klaus D

    2016-01-01

    Quantum states of light play a pivotal role in modern science[1] and future photonic applications[2]. While impressive progress has been made in their generation and manipulation with high fidelities, the common table-top approach is reaching its limits for practical quantum applications. Since the advent of integrated quantum nanophotonics[3] different material platforms based on III-V nanostructures-, color centers-, and nonlinear waveguides[4-8] as on-chip light sources have been investigated. Each platform has unique advantages and limitations in terms of source properties, optical circuit complexity, and scaling potentials. However, all implementations face major challenges with efficient and tunable filtering of individual quantum states[4], scalable integration and deterministic multiplexing of on-demand selected quantum emitters[9], and on-chip excitation-suppression[10]. Here we overcome all of these challenges with a novel hybrid and scalable nanofabrication approach to generate quantum light on-chi...

  5. On-chip magnetometer for characterization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kun Woo; Reddy, Venu; Torati, Sri Ramulu; Hu, Xing Hao; Sandhu, Adarsh; Kim, Cheol Gi

    2015-02-07

    An on-chip magnetometer was fabricated by integrating a planar Hall magnetoresistive (PHR) sensor with microfluidic channels. The measured in-plane field sensitivities of an integrated PHR sensor with NiFe/Cu/IrMn trilayer structure were extremely high at 8.5 μV Oe(-1). The PHR signals were monitored during the oscillation of 35 pL droplets of magnetic nanoparticles, and reversed profiles for the positive and negative z-fields were measured, where magnitudes increased with the applied z-field strength. The measured PHR signals for 35 pL droplets of magnetic nanoparticles versus applied z-fields showed excellent agreement with magnetization curves measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) of 3 μL volume, where a PHR voltage of 1 μV change is equivalent to 0.309 emu cc(-1) of the volume magnetization with a magnetic moment resolution of ~10(-10) emu.

  6. Strong Coupling between On Chip Notched Ring Resonator and Nanoparticle

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, S; Smith, H; Yi, Y

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated a new photonic structure to achieve strong optical coupling between nanoparticle and photonic molecule by utilizing a notched micro ring resonators. By creating a notch in the ring resonator and putting a nanoparticle inside the notch, large spectral shifts and splittings at nm scale can be achieved, compared to only pm scale observed by fiber tip evanescently coupled to the surface of microsphere, thereby significantly lowered the quality factor requirement for single nanoparticle detection. The ability for sorting the type of nanoparticles due to very different mode shift and splitting behavior of dielectric and metallic nanoparticles is also emphasized.

  7. Core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for on-chip RF inductors

    KAUST Repository

    Koh, Kisik

    2013-01-01

    FeNi3 based core-shell magnetic nanoparticles are demonstrated as the magnetic core material for on-chip, radio frequency (RF) inductors. FeNi3 nanoparticles with 50-150 nm in diameter with 15-20 nm-thick SiO2 coating are chemically synthesized and deposited on a planar inductor as the magnetic core to enhance both inductance (L) and quality factor (Q) of the inductor. Experimentally, the ferromagnetic resonant frequency of the on-chip inductors based on FeNi3 core-shell nanoparticles has been shown to be over several GHz. A post-CMOS process has been developed to integrate the magnetic nanoparticles to a planar inductor and inductance enhancements up to 50% of the original magnitude with slightly enhanced Q-factor up to 1 GHz have been achieved. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. On-chip detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a single submicron Permalloy strip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costache, M. V.; Sladkov, M.; van der Wal, C. H.; van Wees, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors measured ferromagnetic resonance of a single submicron ferromagnetic strip, embedded in an on-chip microwave transmission line device. The method used is based on detection of the oscillating magnetic flux due to the magnetization dynamics, with an inductive pickup loop. The dependence o

  9. Detection of silver nanoparticles on a lab-on-chip platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2013-07-01

    The prevalent use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in commercial goods has brought forth an urgent need for environmental salvation. With the global river systems being contaminated by AgNPs, fast and efficient detection systems are needed to trace the presence of AgNPs in common water to prevent detrimental effects to the public health. In this work, the detection of AgNPs via electrochemical oxidation has been achieved on a "Lab-on-chip" platform. This platform provides a fast, convenient, and portable detection system for the detection of AgNPs in common water.

  10. On-chip single photon filtering and multiplexing in hybrid quantum photonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshaari, Ali W; Zadeh, Iman Esmaeil; Fognini, Andreas; Reimer, Michael E; Dalacu, Dan; Poole, Philip J; Zwiller, Val; Jöns, Klaus D

    2017-08-30

    Quantum light plays a pivotal role in modern science and future photonic applications. Since the advent of integrated quantum nanophotonics different material platforms based on III-V nanostructures-, colour centers-, and nonlinear waveguides as on-chip light sources have been investigated. Each platform has unique advantages and limitations; however, all implementations face major challenges with filtering of individual quantum states, scalable integration, deterministic multiplexing of selected quantum emitters, and on-chip excitation suppression. Here we overcome all of these challenges with a hybrid and scalable approach, where single III-V quantum emitters are positioned and deterministically integrated in a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible photonic circuit. We demonstrate reconfigurable on-chip single-photon filtering and wavelength division multiplexing with a foot print one million times smaller than similar table-top approaches, while offering excitation suppression of more than 95 dB and efficient routing of single photons over a bandwidth of 40 nm. Our work marks an important step to harvest quantum optical technologies' full potential.Combining different integration platforms on the same chip is currently one of the main challenges for quantum technologies. Here, Elshaari et al. show III-V Quantum Dots embedded in nanowires operating in a CMOS compatible circuit, with controlled on-chip filtering and tunable routing.

  11. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  12. Two-Dimensional Programmable Manipulation of Magnetic Nanoparticles on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarella, Anandakumar; Torti, Andrea; Donolato, Marco

    2014-01-01

    A novel device is designed for on-chip selective trap and two-dimensional remote manipulation of single and multiple fluid-borne magnetic particles using field controlled magnetic domain walls in circular nanostructures. The combination of different ring-shaped nanostructures and field sequences...... allows for remote manipulation of magnetic particles with high-precision along any arbitrary pathway on a chip surface....

  13. An on-chip coupled resonator optical waveguide single-photon buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takesue, Hiroki; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Munro, William J; Notomi, Masaya

    2013-01-01

    Integrated quantum optical circuits are now seen as one of the most promising approaches with which to realize single-photon quantum information processing. Many of the core elements for such circuits have been realized, including sources, gates and detectors. However, a significant missing function necessary for photonic quantum information processing on-chip is a buffer, where single photons are stored for a short period of time to facilitate circuit synchronization. Here we report an on-chip single-photon buffer based on coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW) consisting of 400 high-Q photonic crystal line-defect nanocavities. By using the CROW, a pulsed single photon is successfully buffered for 150 ps with 50-ps tunability while maintaining its non-classical properties. Furthermore, we show that our buffer preserves entanglement by storing and retrieving one photon from a time-bin entangled state. This is a significant step towards an all-optical integrated quantum information processor.

  14. An on-chip coupled resonator optical waveguide single-photon buffer

    CERN Document Server

    Takesue, Hiroki; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Munro, Willian J; Notomi, Masaya

    2013-01-01

    Integrated quantum optical circuits are now seen as one of the most promising approaches with which to realize single photon quantum information processing. Many of the core elements for such circuits have been realized including sources, gates and detectors. However, a significant missing function necessary for photonic information processing on-chip is a buffer, where single photons are stored for a short period of time to facilitate circuit synchronization. Here we report an on-chip single photon buffer based on coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW) consisting of 400 high-Q photonic crystal line defect nanocavities. By using the CROW, a pulsed single photon was successfully buffered for 150 ps with 50-ps tunability while maintaining its non-classical properties. Furthermore, we showed that our buffer preserves entanglement by storing and retrieving one photon from a time-bin entangled state. This is a significant step towards an all-optical integrated quantum information processor.

  15. Computational On-Chip Imaging of Nanoparticles and Biomolecules using Ultraviolet Light

    KAUST Repository

    Daloglu, Mustafa Ugur

    2017-03-09

    Significant progress in characterization of nanoparticles and biomolecules was enabled by the development of advanced imaging equipment with extreme spatial-resolution and sensitivity. To perform some of these analyses outside of well-resourced laboratories, it is necessary to create robust and cost-effective alternatives to existing high-end laboratory-bound imaging and sensing equipment. Towards this aim, we have designed a holographic on-chip microscope operating at an ultraviolet illumination wavelength (UV) of 266 nm. The increased forward scattering from nanoscale objects at this short wavelength has enabled us to detect individual sub-30 nm nanoparticles over a large field-of-view of >16 mm2 using an on-chip imaging platform, where the sample is placed at ≤0.5 mm away from the active area of an opto-electronic sensor-array, without any lenses in between. The strong absorption of this UV wavelength by biomolecules including nucleic acids and proteins has further enabled high-contrast imaging of nanoscopic aggregates of biomolecules, e.g., of enzyme Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, abnormal aggregation of which is linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) - a fatal neurodegenerative disease. This UV-based wide-field computational imaging platform could be valuable for numerous applications in biomedical sciences and environmental monitoring, including disease diagnostics, viral load measurements as well as air- and water-quality assessment.

  16. Computational On-Chip Imaging of Nanoparticles and Biomolecules using Ultraviolet Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daloglu, Mustafa Ugur; Ray, Aniruddha; Gorocs, Zoltan; Xiong, Matthew; Malik, Ravinder; Bitan, Gal; McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-03-09

    Significant progress in characterization of nanoparticles and biomolecules was enabled by the development of advanced imaging equipment with extreme spatial-resolution and sensitivity. To perform some of these analyses outside of well-resourced laboratories, it is necessary to create robust and cost-effective alternatives to existing high-end laboratory-bound imaging and sensing equipment. Towards this aim, we have designed a holographic on-chip microscope operating at an ultraviolet illumination wavelength (UV) of 266 nm. The increased forward scattering from nanoscale objects at this short wavelength has enabled us to detect individual sub-30 nm nanoparticles over a large field-of-view of >16 mm(2) using an on-chip imaging platform, where the sample is placed at ≤0.5 mm away from the active area of an opto-electronic sensor-array, without any lenses in between. The strong absorption of this UV wavelength by biomolecules including nucleic acids and proteins has further enabled high-contrast imaging of nanoscopic aggregates of biomolecules, e.g., of enzyme Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, abnormal aggregation of which is linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) - a fatal neurodegenerative disease. This UV-based wide-field computational imaging platform could be valuable for numerous applications in biomedical sciences and environmental monitoring, including disease diagnostics, viral load measurements as well as air- and water-quality assessment.

  17. Computational On-Chip Imaging of Nanoparticles and Biomolecules using Ultraviolet Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daloglu, Mustafa Ugur; Ray, Aniruddha; Gorocs, Zoltan; Xiong, Matthew; Malik, Ravinder; Bitan, Gal; McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-03-01

    Significant progress in characterization of nanoparticles and biomolecules was enabled by the development of advanced imaging equipment with extreme spatial-resolution and sensitivity. To perform some of these analyses outside of well-resourced laboratories, it is necessary to create robust and cost-effective alternatives to existing high-end laboratory-bound imaging and sensing equipment. Towards this aim, we have designed a holographic on-chip microscope operating at an ultraviolet illumination wavelength (UV) of 266 nm. The increased forward scattering from nanoscale objects at this short wavelength has enabled us to detect individual sub-30 nm nanoparticles over a large field-of-view of >16 mm2 using an on-chip imaging platform, where the sample is placed at ≤0.5 mm away from the active area of an opto-electronic sensor-array, without any lenses in between. The strong absorption of this UV wavelength by biomolecules including nucleic acids and proteins has further enabled high-contrast imaging of nanoscopic aggregates of biomolecules, e.g., of enzyme Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, abnormal aggregation of which is linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) - a fatal neurodegenerative disease. This UV-based wide-field computational imaging platform could be valuable for numerous applications in biomedical sciences and environmental monitoring, including disease diagnostics, viral load measurements as well as air- and water-quality assessment.

  18. Laser Light-field Fusion for Wide-field Lensfree On-chip Phase Contrast Microscopy of Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wong, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Wide-field lensfree on-chip microscopy, which leverages holography principles to capture interferometric light-field encodings without lenses, is an emerging imaging modality with widespread interest given the large field-of-view compared to lens-based techniques. In this study, we introduce the idea of laser light-field fusion for lensfree on-chip phase contrast microscopy for detecting nanoparticles, where interferometric laser light-field encodings acquired using a lensfree, on-chip setup with laser pulsations at different wavelengths are fused to produce marker-free phase contrast images of particles at the nanometer scale. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate, for the first time, a wide-field lensfree on-chip instrument successfully detecting 300 nm particles across a large field-of-view of ~30 mm2 without any specialized or intricate sample preparation, or the use of synthetic aperture- or shift-based techniques.

  19. On-chip interference of single photons from an embedded quantum dot and an external laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prtljaga, N., E-mail: n.prtljaga@sheffield.ac.uk; Bentham, C.; O' Hara, J.; Royall, B.; Wilson, L. R.; Skolnick, M. S.; Fox, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Clarke, E. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-20

    In this work, we demonstrate the on-chip two-photon interference between single photons emitted by a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot and an external laser. The quantum dot is embedded within one arm of an air-clad directional coupler which acts as a beam-splitter for incoming light. Photons originating from an attenuated external laser are coupled to the second arm of the beam-splitter and then combined with the quantum dot photons, giving rise to two-photon quantum interference between dissimilar sources. We verify the occurrence of on-chip Hong-Ou-Mandel interference by cross-correlating the optical signal from the separate output ports of the directional coupler. This experimental approach allows us to use a classical light source (laser) to assess in a single step the overall device performance in the quantum regime and probe quantum dot photon indistinguishability on application realistic time scales.

  20. Nanofluidic laboratory-on-chip device for mapping of single molecule DNA extracted from single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahshid, Sara; Berard, Daniel; Sladek, Robert; Leslie, Sabrina; Reisner, Walter

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this project is to create a nanofluidic platform to provide comprehensive maps of single-cell genomes at 1 kbp resolution based on the direct analysis of single 1-10 Mbp extended DNA molecules extracted from individual cells on-chip. We have developed a nanodevice in which all biochemical processing of single cells (cell lysis, DNA purification and fragmentation) is performed in situ. The platform has the following three components: (1) a micro-cavity (50 ×20 micron in dimension) for trapping and biochemical processing of single cells; (2) post arrays (1 micron depth) for untangling the released genomic contents and (3) parallel nanochannel arrays (100 nm) for extension of ~ 1-10 Mbp DNA for high-throughput optical mapping. Moreover, we use ``Convex Lense-Induced Nanoconfinement'' (CLIC) technique for trapping of single cell and dragging DNA into nanochannels. The principle is that a convex lens is pushed down to deform a flexible coverslip lid above the aforesaid platform containing nano/micro patterns, creating a locally confined region that pins molecules in the embedded nano/micro features. CLIC is used to lower the device lid over a cell isolated in the microcavity with an adjustable gap for buffer exchange. The released DNA is untangled using 1 micron-deep post arrays and driven into nanochannel array where its genomic content is revealed. In particular, using CLIC we were able to successfully trap 20 micron lymphoblast cells inside microcavity and lyse the trapped cell to drive out DNA.

  1. Priming nanoparticle-guided diagnostics and therapeutics towards human organs-on-chips microphysiological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Ha; Lee, Jaewon; Shin, Woojung; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2016-10-01

    Nanotechnology and bioengineering have converged over the past decades, by which the application of multi-functional nanoparticles (NPs) has been emerged in clinical and biomedical fields. The NPs primed to detect disease-specific biomarkers or to deliver biopharmaceutical compounds have beena validated in conventional in vitro culture models including two dimensional (2D) cell cultures or 3D organoid models. However, a lack of experimental models that have strong human physiological relevance has hampered accurate validation of the safety and functionality of NPs. Alternatively, biomimetic human "Organs-on-Chips" microphysiological systems have recapitulated the mechanically dynamic 3D tissue interface of human organ microenvironment, in which the transport, cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, and therapeutic efficacy of NPs and their conjugates may be more accurately validated. Finally, integration of NP-guided diagnostic detection and targeted nanotherapeutics in conjunction with human organs-on-chips can provide a novel avenue to accelerate the NP-based drug development process as well as the rapid detection of cellular secretomes associated with pathophysiological processes.

  2. Integration of microcoils for on-chip immunosensors based on magnetic nanoparticles capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Lefebvre

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunoassays using magnetic nanoparticles (MNP are generally performed under the control of permanent magnet close to the micro-tube of reaction. Using a magnet gives a powerful method for driving MNP but remains unreliable or insufficient for a fully integrated immunoassay on lab-on-chip. The aim of this study is to develop a novel lab-on-chip concept for high efficient immunoassays to detect ovalbumin (Biodefense model molecule with microcoils employed for trapping MNP during the biofunctionalization steps. The objectives are essentially to optimize their efficiency for biological recognition by assuring a better bioactivity (antibodies-ovalbumin, and detect small concentrations of the targeted protein (~10 pg/mL. In this work, we studied the response of immunoassays complex function of ovalbumin concentration. The impact of MNP diameter in the biografting protocol was studied and permitted to choose a convenient MNP size for efficient biorecognition. We realized different immunoassays by controlling MNP in test tube and in microfluidic device using a permanent magnet. The comparison between these two experiments allows us to highlight an improvement of the limit of detection in microfluidic conditions by controlling MNP trapping with a magnet.

  3. On-chip low loss heralded source of pure single photons

    CERN Document Server

    Spring, Justin B; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Humphreys, Peter C; Moore, Merritt; Thomas-Peter, Nicholas; Barbieri, Marco; Jin, Xian-Min; Langford, Nathan K; Kolthammer, W Steven; Booth, Martin J; Walmsley, Ian A

    2013-01-01

    A key obstacle to the experimental realization of many photonic quantum-enhanced technologies is the lack of low-loss sources of single photons in pure quantum states. We demonstrate a promising solution: generation of heralded single photons in a silica photonic chip by spontaneous four-wave mixing. A heralding efficiency of 40%, corresponding to a preparation efficiency of 80% accounting for detector performance, is achieved due to efficient coupling of the low-loss source to optical fibers. A single photon purity of 0.86 is measured from the source number statistics without filtering, and confirmed by direct measurement of the joint spectral intensity. We calculate that similar high-heralded-purity output can be obtained from visible to telecom spectral regions using this approach. On-chip silica sources can have immediate application in a wide range of single-photon quantum optics applications which employ silica photonics.

  4. On-Chip Single-Plasmon Nanocircuit Driven by a Self-Assembled Quantum Dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofei; Jiang, Ping; Razinskas, Gary; Huo, Yongheng; Zhang, Hongyi; Kamp, Martin; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G; Hecht, Bert; Lindfors, Klas; Lippitz, Markus

    2017-07-12

    Quantum photonics holds great promise for future technologies such as secure communication, quantum computation, quantum simulation, and quantum metrology. An outstanding challenge for quantum photonics is to develop scalable miniature circuits that integrate single-photon sources, linear optical components, and detectors on a chip. Plasmonic nanocircuits will play essential roles in such developments. However, for quantum plasmonic circuits, integration of stable, bright, and narrow-band single photon sources in the structure has so far not been reported. Here we present a plasmonic nanocircuit driven by a self-assembled GaAs quantum dot. Through a planar dielectric-plasmonic hybrid waveguide, the quantum dot efficiently excites narrow-band single plasmons that are guided in a two-wire transmission line until they are converted into single photons by an optical antenna. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of fully on-chip plasmonic nanocircuits for quantum optical applications.

  5. On-chip manipulation of magnetic nanoparticles through domain walls conduits

    CERN Document Server

    Vavassori, P; Donolato, M; Metlushko, V; Ilic, B; Cantoni, M; Petti, D; Brivio, S; Bertacco, R

    2009-01-01

    The manipulation of geometrically constrained magnetic domain walls (DWs) in nanoscale magnetic strips has attracted much interest recently, with proposals for prospective memory and logic devices. Here we propose to use the high controllability of the motion of geometrically constrained DWs for the manipulation of individual nanoparticles on a chip with an active control of position at the nanometer scale. The proposed method exploits the fact that magnetic nanoparticles in solution can be captured by a DW, whose position can be manipulated with nanometric accuracy in a specifically designed magnetic nanowire structure. We show that the high control over DW nucleation, displacement, and annihilation processes in such structures can be used to capture, transport and release magnetic nanoparticles. As magnetic particles with functionalized surfaces are commonly used as molecule carriers or labels, the accurate control over the handling of the single magnetic nanoparticle is crucial for several applications inc...

  6. On-chip electrically controlled routing of photons from a single quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentham, C.; Coles, R. J.; Royall, B.; O' Hara, J.; Prtljaga, N.; Fox, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Wilson, L. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Itskevich, I. E., E-mail: I.Itskevich@hull.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Clarke, E. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-01

    Electrical control of on-chip routing of photons emitted by a single InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dot (SAQD) is demonstrated in a photonic crystal cavity-waveguide system. The SAQD is located inside an H1 cavity, which is coupled to two photonic crystal waveguides. The SAQD emission wavelength is electrically tunable by the quantum-confined Stark effect. When the SAQD emission is brought into resonance with one of two H1 cavity modes, it is preferentially routed to the waveguide to which that mode is selectively coupled. This proof of concept provides the basis for scalable, low-power, high-speed operation of single-photon routers for use in integrated quantum photonic circuits.

  7. On-chip real-time single-copy polymerase chain reaction in picoliter droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, N R; Hindson, B; Wheeler, E; Hall, S B; Rose, K A; Kennedy, I; Colston, B

    2007-04-20

    The first lab-on-chip system for picoliter droplet generation and PCR amplification with real-time fluorescence detection has performed PCR in isolated droplets at volumes 10{sup 6} smaller than commercial real-time PCR systems. The system utilized a shearing T-junction in a silicon device to generate a stream of monodisperse picoliter droplets that were isolated from the microfluidic channel walls and each other by the oil phase carrier. An off-chip valving system stopped the droplets on-chip, allowing them to be thermal cycled through the PCR protocol without droplet motion. With this system a 10-pL droplet, encapsulating less than one copy of viral genomic DNA through Poisson statistics, showed real-time PCR amplification curves with a cycle threshold of {approx}18, twenty cycles earlier than commercial instruments. This combination of the established real-time PCR assay with digital microfluidics is ideal for isolating single-copy nucleic acids in a complex environment.

  8. On-Chip Hydrodynamic Chromatography Separation and Detection of Nanoparticles and Biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.T.; Chmela, Emil; Oosterbroek, R.E.; Tijssen, Robert; van den Berg, Albert

    2003-01-01

    For the first time, on-chip planar hydrodynamic chromatography is combined with UV absorption detection. This technique is suitable for size characterization of synthetic polymers, biopolymers, and particles. Possible advantages of an on-chip hydrodynamic chromatography system over conventional

  9. Single Cell Mass Measurement Using Drag Force Inside Lab-on-Chip Microfluidics System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Habibur; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan; Takeuchi, Masaru; Nakajima, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Fukuda, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    Single cell mass (SCM) is an intrinsic property of single cell, it arouses a great interest among scientists as cell mass depends on the synthesis of proteins, DNA replication, cell wall stiffness, cell cytoplasm density, cell growth, ribosome, and other analogous of organisms. To date, several great strides have been taken to the advancements of SCM measurement techniques. Nevertheless, more works are required to enable the technology to push frontier in deep analysis of SCM measurement, hence to elucidate intracellular properties. In this paper, we present a lab-on-chip microfluidics system for SCM measurement, related with the force required to drag a single cell and Newton's law of motion inside microfluidics channel. Drag force on the cell was generated by a pressure driven syringe micropump and the motion of the cell was measured using optical observation under an inverted microscope. This approach of measuring SCM was calibrated using known mass (77.3 pg) of a polystyrene particle of 5.2 μm diameter. Furthermore, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast cells of different sizes ([Formula: see text] diameter) for SCM measurement. Mass of 4.4 μm diameter of single yeast cell was measured as 2.12 pg which is in the range of previously reported single yeast cell mass (2-3 pg). In addition, we also studied the relation between SCM and single cell size. Results showed that single yeast cell mass increases exponentially with the increasing of single cell size.

  10. A novel single-step, multipoint calibration method for instrumented Lab-on-Chip systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea; Patou, François; Zulfiqar, Azeem

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent and substantial advances in biosensing, information and communication, and Lab-on-Chip (LoC) technologies, the success of Point-of-Care (PoC) diagnostics and monitoring systems is still challenged by stringent requirements for robustness, cost-effectiveness, and system integration...... specifically addresses the important interfaces between a novel microfluidic unit to integrate the sensor array and a mobile-device hardware accessory. A multi-point calibration curve is obtained by generating a defined set of reference concentrations from a single input. By consecutively splitting the flow...... perpendicular to the diffusion interface only one mixing step is required for each of the generated calibration solutions. This results in a compact design with a very small footprint of the microfluidic layout....

  11. Nondestructive on-chip detection of optical orbital angular momentum through a single plasmonic nanohole

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Dunzhao; Liu, Dongmei; Zhu, Yunzhi; Zhong, Weihao; Fang, Xinyuan; Zhang, Yong; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) provides an additional dimension for photons to carry information in high-capacity optical communication. Although the practical needs have intrigued the generations of miniaturized devices to manipulate the OAM modes in various integrated platforms, the on-chip OAM detection is still challenging to match the newly-developed compact OAM emitter and OAM transmission fiber. Here, we demonstrate an ultra-compact device, i.e., a single plasmonic nanohole, to efficiently measure an optical beam's OAM state in a nondestructive way. The device size is reduced down to a few hundreds of nanometers, which can be easily fabricated and installed in the current OAM devices. It is a flexible and robust way for in-situ OAM monitoring and detection in optical fiber networks and long-distance optical communication systems. With proper optimization of the nanohole parameters, this approach could be further extended to discriminate the OAM information multiplexed in multiple wavelengths an...

  12. Single mode waveguide platform for spontaneous and surface-enhanced on-chip Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Ashim; Peyskens, Frédéric; Clemmen, Stéphane; Raza, Ali; Wuytens, Pieter; Zhao, Haolan; Le Thomas, Nicolas; Baets, Roel

    2016-08-01

    We review an on-chip approach for spontaneous Raman spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on evanescent excitation of the analyte as well as evanescent collection of the Raman signal using complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible single mode waveguides. The signal is either directly collected from the analyte molecules or via plasmonic nanoantennas integrated on top of the waveguides. Flexibility in the design of the geometry of the waveguide, and/or the geometry of the antennas, enables optimization of the collection efficiency. Furthermore, the sensor can be integrated with additional functionality (sources, detectors, spectrometers) on the same chip. In this paper, the basic theoretical concepts are introduced to identify the key design parameters, and some proof-of-concept experimental results are reviewed.

  13. Single mode waveguide platform for spontaneous and surface-enhanced on-chip Raman spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dhakal, Ashim; Clemmen, Stéphane; Raza, Ali; Wuytens, Pieter; Zhao, Haolan; Thomas, Nicolas Le; Baets, Roel

    2016-01-01

    We review an on-chip approach for spontaneous Raman spectroscopy and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) based on evanescent excitation of the analyte as well as evanescent collection of the Raman signal using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) compatible single mode waveguides. The signal is either directly collected from the analyte molecules or via plasmonic nanoantennas integrated on top of the waveguides. Flexibility in the design of the geometry of the waveguide, and/or the geometry of the antennas, enables optimization of the collection efficiency. Furthermore the sensor can be integrated with additional functionality (sources, detectors, spectrometers) on the same chip. In this paper, the basic theoretical concepts are introduced to identify the key design parameters and some proof-of-concept experimental results are reviewed.

  14. Primary single event effect studies on Xilinx 28-nm System-on-Chip (SoC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yao [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Liu, Shuhuan, E-mail: shuhuanliu@126.com [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Du, Xuecheng; Yuan, Yuan; He, Chaohui [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Ren, Xiaotang [Peking University, Beijing 100000 (China); Du, Xiaozhi; Li, Yonghong [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-09-21

    Single Event Effect (SEE) on Xilinx 28-nm System-on-Chip (SoC) was investigated by both simulation and experiments in this study. In the simulation process, typical structure of NAND gate and flip-flop in SoC were designed using Cadence tool. Various kinds of radiation were simulated as pulsed current source in consideration of multilayer wiring and energy loss before reaching the sensitive area. The circuit modules were simulated as SEE occurred and malfunctioned when pulsed current source existed. The changes of the circuit modules output were observed when pulsed current signals were placed at different sensitive nodes or the circuit operated under different conditions. The sensitive nodes in typical modules and the possible reasons of test program malfunction were primarily studied. In the experimental process, SoC chip was irradiated with α particles, protons and laser respectively. The irradiation test results showed that Single Event Upset (SEU) occurred in typical modules of SoC, in accordance with the simulation results.

  15. On-chip pressure sensor using single-layer concentric chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Hung Dylan; Kaneko, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    A vision-based on-chip sensor for sensing local pressure inside a microfluidic device is proposed and evaluated in this paper. The local pressure is determined from the change of color intensity in the sensing chamber which is pre-filled with colored fluid. The working principle of the sensor is based on polydimethylsiloxane deformation. The pressure at the point of interest is guided into a deformation chamber, where the structural stiffness is softened by chamber geometry, and thus, the chamber deforms as a result of pressure changes. Such deformation is transmitted to the sensing chamber, a same-layer concentric inside the deformation chamber. The deformation in the sensing chamber causes the colored fluid flowing in or out the chamber and leads to different color intensity from the top view through a microscope. Experimental evaluations on static and dynamic responses by regulated input pressures were conducted. The correlation in static response is 0.97 while the dynamic responses are successfully observed up to 16 Hz. The greatest advantage is that the local pressure can be directly seen without any additional hardware or electricity. The whole sensor is on a single-layer microfluidic design, so that the fabrication is simple, consistent, and low-cost. The single-layer design also provides the convenience of easy integration for existing microfluidic systems.

  16. Plasmonic nanoparticles-decorated diatomite biosilica: extending the horizon of on-chip chromatography and label-free biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianming; Li, Erwen; Squire, Kenny; Liu, Ye; Wu, Bo; Cheng, Li-Jing; Wang, Alan X

    2017-05-09

    Diatomite consists of fossilized remains of ancient diatoms and is a type of naturally abundant photonic crystal biosilica with multiple unique physical and chemical functionalities. In this paper, we explored the fluidic properties of diatomite as the matrix for on-chip chromatography and, simultaneously, the photonic crystal effects to enhance the plasmonic resonances of metallic nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) biosensing. The plasmonic nanoparticle-decorated diatomite biosilica provides a lab-on-a-chip capability to separate and detect small molecules from mixture samples with ultra-high detection sensitivity down to 1 ppm. We demonstrate the significant potential for biomedical applications by screening toxins in real biofluid, achieving simultaneous label-free biosensing of phenethylamine and miR21cDNA in human plasma with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time demonstration to detect target molecules from real biofluids by on-chip chromatography-SERS techniques. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Polysilicon nanogap lab-on-chip facilitates multiplex analyses with single analyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Sharma Rao; Hashim, U; Gopinath, Subash C B; Poopalan, P; Ramayya, H R; Veeradasan, P; Haarindraprasad, R; Ruslinda, A R

    2016-10-15

    Rationally designed biosensing system supports multiplex analyses is warranted for medical diagnosis to determine the level of analyte interaction. The chemically functionalized novel multi-electrode polysilicon nanogap (PSNG) lab-on-chip is designed in this study, facilitates multiplex analyses for a single analyte. On the fabricated 69nm PSNG, biocompatibility and structural characteristics were verified for the efficient binding of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). With the assistance of microfluidics, hCG sample was delivered via single-injection to 3-Aminopropyl(triethoxy)silane (APTES) and Glycidoxypropyl(trimethoxy)silane (GPMS) modified PSNG electrodes and the transduced signal was used to investigate the dielectric mechanisms for multiplex analyses. The results from amperometric response and impedance measurement delivered the scale of interaction between anti-hCG antibody and hCG that exhibited 6.5 times higher sensitivity for the chemical linker, APTES than GPMS. Under optimized experimental conditions, APTES and GPMS modified immunosensor has a limit of detection as 0.56mIU/ml and 2.93mIU/ml (at S/N=3), with dissociation constants (Kd) of 5.65±2.5mIU/ml and 7.28±2.6mIU/ml, respectively. These results suggest that multiplex analysis of single target could enhance the accuracy of detection and reliable for real-time comparative analyses. The designed PSNG is simple, feasible, requires low sample consumption and could be applied for any given multiplex analyses.

  18. On-chip optical phase locking of single growth monolithically integrated Slotted Fabry Perot lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, P E; Cotter, W; Goulding, D; Kelleher, B; Osborne, S; Yang, H; O'Callaghan, J; Roycroft, B; Corbett, B; Peters, F H

    2013-07-15

    This work investigates the optical phase locking performance of Slotted Fabry Perot (SFP) lasers and develops an integrated variable phase locked system on chip for the first time to our knowledge using these lasers. Stable phase locking is demonstrated between two SFP lasers coupled on chip via a variable gain waveguide section. The two lasers are biased differently, one just above the threshold current of the device with the other at three times this value. The coupling between the lasers can be controlled using the variable gain section which can act as a variable optical attenuator or amplifier depending on bias. Using this, the width of the stable phase locking region on chip is shown to be variable.

  19. On-chip single-copy real-time reverse-transcription PCR in isolated picoliter droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, N R; Wheeler, E; Lee-Houghton, L; Watkins, N; Nasarabadi, S; Hebert, N; Leung, P; Arnold, D; Bailey, C; Colston, B

    2007-12-19

    The first lab-on-chip system for picoliter droplet generation and RNA isolation, followed by reverse transcription, and PCR amplification with real-time fluorescence detection in the trapped droplets has been developed. The system utilized a shearing T-junction in a fused silica device to generate a stream of monodisperse picoliter-scale droplets that were isolated from the microfluidic channel walls and each other by the oil phase carrier. An off-chip valving system stopped the droplets on-chip, allowing thermal cycling for reverse transcription and subsequent PCR amplification without droplet motion. This combination of the established real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay with digital microfluidics is ideal for isolating single-copy RNA and virions from a complex environment, and will be useful in viral discovery and gene-profiling applications.

  20. On-chip detection of a single nucleotide polymorphism without polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinhee; Tan, Matthew; Sudheendra, Lakshmana; Weiss, Robert H; Kennedy, Ian M

    2014-09-01

    A nanoparticle-assembled photonic crystal (PC) array was used to detect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The assay platform with PC nanostructure enhanced the fluorescent signal from nanoparticle-hybridized DNA complexes due to phase matching of excitation and emission. Nanoparticles coupled with probe DNA were trapped into nanowells in an array by using an electrophoretic particle entrapment system. The PC/DNA assay platform was able to identify a 1 base pair (bp) difference in synthesized nucleotide sequences that mimicked the mutation seen in a feline model of human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD) with a sensitivity of 0.9 fg/mL (50 aM)-sensitivity, which corresponds to 30 oligos/array. The reliability of the PC/DNA assay platform to detect SNP in a real sample was demonstrated by using genomic DNA (gDNA) extracted from the urine and blood of two PKD(-) wild type and three PKD positive cats. The standard curves for PKD positive (PKD(+)) and negative (PKD(-)) DNA were created using two feline-urine samples. An additional three urine samples were analyzed in a similar fashion and showed satisfactory agreement with the standard curve, confirming the presence of the mutation in affected urine. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.005 ng/mL which corresponds to 6 fg per array for gDNA in urine and blood. The PC system demonstrated the ability to detect a number of genome equivalents for the PKD SNP that was very similar to the results reported with real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The favorable comparison with quantitative PCR suggests that the PC technology may find application well beyond the detection of the PKD SNP, into areas where a simple, cheap and portable nucleic acid analysis is desirable.

  1. Single-event upset (SEU) in a DRAM with on-chip error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Schwartz, H. R.; Watson, R. K.; Hasnain, Z.; Nevile, L. R.

    1987-01-01

    Results are given of SEU measurements on 256K dynamic RAMs with on-chip error correction. They are claimed to be the first ever reported. A (12/8) Hamming error-correcting code was incorporated in the layout. Physical separation of the bits in each code word was used to guard against multiple bits being disrupted in any given word. Significant reduction in observed errors is reported.

  2. Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haw [Moraga, CA; Cang, Hu [Berkeley, CA; Xu, Cangshan [Berkeley, CA; Wong, Chung M [San Gabriel, CA

    2011-07-19

    A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

  3. On-chip lithium cells for electrical and structural characterization of single nanowire electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, A.; Hudak, N. S.; Huang, J. Y.; Zhan, Y.; Lou, J.; Sullivan, J. P.

    2014-07-01

    We present a transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-compatible, hybrid nanomachined, on-chip construct for probing the structural and electrical changes in individual nanowire electrodes during lithium insertion. We have assembled arrays of individual β-phase manganese dioxide (β-MnO2) nanowires (NWs), which are employed as a model material system, into functional electrochemical cells through a combination of bottom-up (dielectrophoresis) and top-down (silicon nanomachining) unit processes. The on-chip NWs are electrochemically lithiated inside a helium-filled glovebox and their electrical conductivity is studied as a function of incremental lithium loading during initial lithiation. We observe a dramatic reduction in NW conductivity (on the order of two to three orders in magnitude), which is not reversed when the lithium is extracted from the nanoelectrode. This conductivity change is attributed to an increase in lattice disorder within the material, which is observed from TEM images of the lithiated NWs. Furthermore, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was employed to confirm the reduction in valence state of manganese, which occurs due to the transformation of MnO2 to LixMnO2.

  4. On-Chip Method to Measure Mechanical Characteristics of a Single Cell by Using Moiré Fringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Sugiura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method to characterize the mechanical properties of cells using a robot-integrated microfluidic chip (robochip and microscopy. The microfluidic chip is designed to apply the specified deformations to a single detached cell using an on-chip actuator probe. The reaction force is simultaneously measured using an on-chip force sensor composed of a hollow folded beam and probe structure. In order to measure the cellular characteristics in further detail, a sub-pixel level of resolution of probe position is required. Therefore, we utilize the phase detection of moiré fringe. Using this method, the experimental resolution of the probe position reaches 42 nm. This is approximately ten times smaller than the optical wavelength, which is the limit of sharp imaging with a microscope. Calibration of the force sensor is also important in accurately measuring cellular reaction forces. We calibrated the spring constant from the frequency response, by the proposed sensing method of the probe position. As a representative of mechanical characteristics, we measured the elastic modulus of Madin-Darby Cannie Kidney (MDCK cells. In spite of the rigid spring constant, the resolution and sensitivity were twice that achieved in our previous study. Unique cellular characteristics can be elucidated by the improvements in sensing resolution and accuracy.

  5. Single Core Hardware Modeling of Built-in-Self-Test for System on Chip Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Mamun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a hardware modeling environment of built-in-self-test (BIST for System on Chip (SOC testing to ease the description, verification, simulation and hardware realization on Altera FLEX10K FPGA device. The very high speed hardware description language (VHDL model defines a main block, which describe the BIST for SOC through a behavioral and structural description. The three modules test vector generator, circuit under test and response analyzer is connected using its structural description. 8-bit pseudorandom test vector generator is a linear feedback shift register circuit consists of D latches and XOR gates produces 255 different patterns of test vectors for CUT which consists of a 3 to 8 line decoder and a 4 bit adder circuit. In response analyzer, the multiple-input pattern compressor circuit is used to produce signature and a comparator circuit is used for signature analysis. The design is modularized and each module is modeled individually using hardware description language VHDL. This is followed by the timing analysis and circuit synthesis for the validation, functionality and performance of the designated circuit, which supports the practicality, advantages and effectiveness of the proposed hardware realization for the applications with a maximum clock frequency of 31.4 MHz.

  6. Triggered mesa-top single photon emitter arrays and on-chip integration with dielectric nanoantenna-waveguide systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jiefei; Lu, Siyuan; Madhukar, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Nanophotonic quantum information processing systems require spatially ordered, spectrally uniform single photon sources (SPSs), integrated on-chip with co-designed light manipulating elements providing emission rate enhancement, emitted photon guidance, and lossless propagation. Towards this objective, we introduce and report on systems comprising an SPS array with each SPS surrounded by a dielectric building block (DBB) based multifunctional light manipulation unit (LMU). For the SPS array, we report triggered single photon emission at 77K from GaAs(001)/InGaAs single quantum dots (SQDs) grown selectively on top of nanomesas using the approach of substrate-encoded size-reducing epitaxy (SESRE). Systematic temperature and power dependent photoluminescence (PL), PL excitation, time-resolved PL, and emission statistics studies reveal high spectral uniformity and single photon emission at 77.4K with $g^{(2)}$(0) of 0.24 $\\pm$ 0.07. The SESRE based SPS arrays, following growth of a planarizing overlayer, are read...

  7. Tridirectional Polarization Routing of Light by a Single Triangular Plasmonic Nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshito Y; Shimura, Tsutomu

    2017-05-10

    Achieving high directionality of scattered light in combination with high flexibility of the direction using plasmonic nanoparticles is desirable for future optical nanocircuits and on-chip optical links. The plasmonic characteristics of nanoparticles strongly depend on their geometry. Here, we studied directional light scattering by a single-element triangular plasmonic nanoparticle. Our experimental and simulation results demonstrated that the triangular nanoparticle spatially sorted the incoming photons into three different scattering directions according to their polarization direction, including circular polarization, despite its compact overall volume of ∼λ(3)/300. The broken mirror symmetry and rotational symmetry of the triangular nanoparticle enabled such passive tridirectional polarization routing through the constructive and destructive interference of different plasmon modes. Our findings should markedly broaden the versatility of triangular plasmonic nanodevices, extending their possible practical applications in photon couplers and sorters and chemo-/biosensors.

  8. Improved Laser Manipulation for On-chip Fabricated Microstructures Based on Solution Replacement and Its Application in Single Cell Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yue

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the fabrication and assembly of microstructures inside a microfluidic device based on a photocrosslinkable resin and optical tweezers. We also report a method of solution replacement inside the microfluidic channel in order to improve the manipulation performance and apply the assembled microstructures for single cell cultivation. By the illumination of patterned ultraviolet (UV through a microscope, microstructures of arbitrary shape were fabricated by the photocrosslinkable resin inside a microfluidic channel. Based on the microfluidic channel with both glass and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS surfaces, immovable and movable microstructures were fabricated and manipulated. The microstructures were fabricated at the desired places and manipulated by the optical tweezers. A rotational microstructure including a microgear and a rotation axis was assembled and rotated in demonstrating this technique. The improved laser manipulation of microstructures was achieved based on the on-chip solution replacement method. The manipulation speed of the microstructures increased when the viscosity of the solvent decreased. The movement efficiency of the fabricated microstructures inside the lower viscosity solvent was evaluated and compared with those microstructures inside the former high viscosity solvent. A novel cell cage was fabricated and the cultivation of a single yeast cell (w303 was demonstrated in the cell cage, inside the microfluidic device.

  9. On-chip acidification rate measurements from single cardiac cells confined in sub-nanoliter volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Ges, Igor A.; Dzhura, Igor A.; Baudenbacher, Franz J.

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic activity of cells can be monitored by measuring the pH in the extracellular environment. Microfabrication and microfluidic technologies allow the sensor size and the extracellular volumes to be comparable to single cells. A glass substrate with thin film pH sensitive IrOx electrodes was sealed to a replica-molded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic network with integrated valves. The device, termed NanoPhysiometer, allows the trapping of single cardiac myocytes and the meas...

  10. On-chip SERS analysis for single mimic pathogen detection using Raman-labeled nanoaggregate-embedded beads with a dielectrophoretic chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Han; Lin, Hsing-Ying; Kuo, I.-Ting; Hsieh, Wen-Hsin; Huang, Ping-Ji; Yang, Tzyy-Schiuan; Chau, Lai-Kwan

    2012-02-01

    The integration of Raman-labeled nanoaggregate-embedded beads (NAEBs) for high performance SERS analysis of single mimic pathogen on a self-designed dielectrophoretic chip is demonstrated. The Raman tags called NAEBs are silica-coated, dye-induced aggregates of a small number of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In this work, NAEBs consisting of a Raman dye tetramethyl-rhodamine-5-isothiosyanate (TRITC) are chemically functionalized with streptavidin to detect biotin-functionalized polystyrene (PS) microspheres which mimic as pathogens. The sample solution of completely mixed streptavidin-functionalized NAEBs and biotin-functionalized PS microspheres is pumped into the microfluidic channel of a dielectrophoretic chip. By giving an AC voltage on the embedded electrodes, a single mimic pathogen can be caught via the non-contact dielectrophoretic force and suspended at the central cross of four aluminum electrodes for subsequent Raman spectroscopic detection. The SERS signal of TRITC is used as a spectral signature of specific mimic pathogen recognition, otherwise only the background Raman signal of a PS microsphere is observed. A pathogen-specific biosensor based on the dielectrophoresis-Raman spectroscopy system is developed, and the proof-ofconcept is confirmed by the specific molecular interaction model of streptavidin with biotin. Therefore, the on-chip multiplex SERS analysis of pathogens can be anticipated by employing different dye-tagged NAEBs simultaneously in a sample solution. We believe this bioassay has the ability to screen and detect multiple pathogens with minimal sample processing and handling even a small number of pathogens is present.

  11. On-chip Mode Multiplexer Based on a Single Grating Coupler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan; Xu, Jing;

    2012-01-01

    A two-mode multiplexer based on a single grating coupler is proposed and demonstrated on a silicon chip. The LP01 and LP11 modes of a few-mode fiber are excited from TE0 and TE1 silicon waveguide modes....

  12. On-chip enzyme quantification of single Escherichia coli bacteria by immunoassay-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratz, Simone; Eyer, Klaus; Kurth, Felix; Dittrich, Petra S

    2014-12-16

    Individual bacteria of an isogenic population can differ significantly in their phenotypic characteristics. This cellular heterogeneity is thought to increase the adaptivity to environmental changes on a population level. Analytical methods for single-bacteria analyses are essential to reveal the different factors that may contribute to this cellular heterogeneity, among them the stochastic gene expression, cell cycle stages and cell aging. Although promising concepts for the analysis of single mammalian cells based on microsystems technology were recently developed, platforms suitable for proteomic analyses of microbial cells are by far more challenging. Here, we present a microfluidic device optimized for the analysis of single Escherichia coli bacteria. Individual bacteria are captured in a trap and isolated in a volume of only 155 pL. In combination with an immunoassay-based analysis of the cell lysate, the platform allowed the selective and sensitive analysis of intracellular enzymes. The limit of detection of the developed protocol was found to be 200 enzymes. Using this platform, we could investigate the levels of β-galactosidase in cells grown under different nutrient conditions. We successfully determined the enzyme copy numbers in cells cultured in defined medium (3517 ± 1578) and in complex medium (4710 ± 2643), and verified the down-regulation of expression in medium that contained only glucose as carbon source. The strong variations we found for individual bacteria confirm the phenotype heterogeneity. The capability to quantify proteins and other molecules in single bacterial lysates is encouraging to use the new analysis platform in future proteomics studies of isogenic bacteria populations.

  13. A Single-Chip CMOS Pulse Oximeter with On-Chip Lock-In Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwei He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive and continuous method for monitoring the blood oxygen saturation level. This paper presents the design and testing of a single-chip pulse oximeter fabricated in a 0.35 µm CMOS process. The chip includes photodiode, transimpedance amplifier, analogue band-pass filters, analogue-to-digital converters, digital signal processor and LED timing control. The experimentally measured AC and DC characteristics of individual circuits including the DC output voltage of the transimpedance amplifier, transimpedance gain of the transimpedance amplifier, and the central frequency and bandwidth of the analogue band-pass filters, show a good match (within 1% with the circuit simulations. With modulated light source and integrated lock-in detection the sensor effectively suppresses the interference from ambient light and 1/f noise. In a breath hold and release experiment the single chip sensor demonstrates consistent and comparable performance to commercial pulse oximetry devices with a mean of 1.2% difference. The single-chip sensor enables a compact and robust design solution that offers a route towards wearable devices for health monitoring.

  14. Expanding 3D geometry for enhanced on-chip microbubble production and single step formation of liposome modified microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, Sally A; Abou-Saleh, Radwa H; McLaughlan, James R; Ingram, Nicola; Johnson, Benjamin R G; Critchley, Kevin; Freear, Steven; Evans, J Anthony; Markham, Alexander F; Coletta, P Louise; Evans, Stephen D

    2012-11-01

    Micron sized, lipid stabilized bubbles of gas are of interest as contrast agents for ultra-sound (US) imaging and increasingly as delivery vehicles for targeted, triggered, therapeutic delivery. Microfluidics provides a reproducible means for microbubble production and surface functionalisation. In this study, microbubbles are generated on chip using flow-focussing microfluidic devices that combine streams of gas and liquid through a nozzle a few microns wide and then subjecting the two phases to a downstream pressure drop. While microfluidics has successfully demonstrated the generation of monodisperse bubble populations, these approaches inherently produce low bubble counts. We introduce a new micro-spray flow regime that generates consistently high bubble concentrations that are more clinically relevant compared to traditional monodisperse bubble populations. Final bubble concentrations produced by the micro-spray regime were up to 10(10) bubbles mL(-1). The technique is shown to be highly reproducible and by using multiplexed chip arrays, the time taken to produce one millilitre of sample containing 10(10) bubbles mL(-1) was ∼10 min. Further, we also demonstrate that it is possible to attach liposomes, loaded with quantum dots (QDs) or fluorescein, in a single step during MBs formation.

  15. Using single cell cultivation system for on-chip monitoring of the interdivision timer in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soloviev Mikhail

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regulation of cell cycle progression in changing environments is vital for cell survival and maintenance, and different regulation mechanisms based on cell size and cell cycle time have been proposed. To determine the mechanism of cell cycle regulation in the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we developed an on-chip single-cell cultivation system that allows for the strict control of the extracellular environment. We divided the Chlamydomonas cell cycle into interdivision and division phases on the basis of changes in cell size and found that, regardless of the amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR and the extent of illumination, the length of the interdivision phase was inversely proportional to the rate of increase of cell volume. Their product remains constant indicating the existence of an 'interdivision timer'. The length of the division phase, in contrast, remained nearly constant. Cells cultivated under light-dark-light conditions did not divide unless they had grown to twice their initial volume during the first light period. This indicates the existence of a 'commitment sizer'. The ratio of the cell volume at the beginning of the division phase to the initial cell volume determined the number of daughter cells, indicating the existence of a 'mitotic sizer'.

  16. Using single cell cultivation system for on-chip monitoring of the interdivision timer in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Kazunori; Yagi, Toshiki; Hattori, Akihiro; Soloviev, Mikhail; Yasuda, Kenji

    2010-09-25

    Regulation of cell cycle progression in changing environments is vital for cell survival and maintenance, and different regulation mechanisms based on cell size and cell cycle time have been proposed. To determine the mechanism of cell cycle regulation in the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we developed an on-chip single-cell cultivation system that allows for the strict control of the extracellular environment. We divided the Chlamydomonas cell cycle into interdivision and division phases on the basis of changes in cell size and found that, regardless of the amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the extent of illumination, the length of the interdivision phase was inversely proportional to the rate of increase of cell volume. Their product remains constant indicating the existence of an 'interdivision timer'. The length of the division phase, in contrast, remained nearly constant. Cells cultivated under light-dark-light conditions did not divide unless they had grown to twice their initial volume during the first light period. This indicates the existence of a 'commitment sizer'. The ratio of the cell volume at the beginning of the division phase to the initial cell volume determined the number of daughter cells, indicating the existence of a 'mitotic sizer'.

  17. Whispering Gallery Mode Microresonators for Lasing and Single Nanoparticle Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lina

    Whispering gallery mode (WGM) microresonators have attracted great interests due to the significantly enhanced light-matter interactions originating from their high quality factors and small mode volumes. They are suitable for a wide range of applications including sensing, lasing, nonlinear optics, and so forth. However, temperature fluctuations as one of the most common environmental noises disturb the cavity resonances and thus degrade the device stability and sensitivity. We introduce a wetting technique to coat the silica resonator with a thin layer of polymer which has the negative thermo-optic coefficient to compensate for the thermal effect in silica, and demonstrate complete thermal compensation. WGM microresonators have shown great promise for ultra-sensitive and label-free chemical and biological sensing by probing the surroundings with evanescent waves leaking out of the resonator. Sensing is achieved by monitoring the shift or splitting of a resonant frequency. The detection limit is determined by the linewidth of the resonant mode which is ultimately limited by material absorption induced loss. To surpass the limit of passive resonators, we report real-time single nanoparticle detection using on-chip WGM microcavity lasers. The ultra-low threshold microlasers are prepared by doping WGM resonators with rare-earth ions through the sol-gel method, and their linewidths are much narrower than the passive counterparts. The detection approach relies on measuring changes in the heterodyne beat note of two split modes originating from splitting of a narrow emission line in the microlaser induced by nanoscale objects. We demonstrate detection of polystyrene and gold nanoparticles as small as 15 nm and 10 nm in radius, respectively, and Influenza A virions by monitoring changes in the beat note of the split lasing modes. The self-heterodyne interferometric method achieved in the on-chip microlaser provides a self-referencing scheme with extraordinary sensitivity

  18. On-Chip Detection of Entangled Photons by Scalable Integration of Single-Photon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Najafi, Faraz; Harris, Nicholas; Bellei, Francesco; Dane, Andrew; Lee, Catherine; Kharel, Prashanta; Marsili, Francesco; Assefa, Solomon; Berggren, Karl K; Englund, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) have emerged as a scalable platform for complex quantum technologies using photonic and atomic systems. A central goal has been to integrate photon-resolving detectors to reduce optical losses, latency, and wiring complexity associated with off-chip detectors. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) are particularly attractive because of high detection efficiency, sub-50-ps timing jitter, nanosecond-scale reset time, and sensitivity from the visible to the mid-infrared spectrum. However, while single SNSPDs have been incorporated into individual waveguides, the system efficiency of multiple SNSPDs in one photonic circuit has been limited below 0.2% due to low device yield. Here we introduce a micrometer-scale flip-chip process that enables scalable integration of SNSPDs on a range of PICs. Ten low-jitter detectors were integrated on one PIC with 100% device yield. With an average system efficiency beyond 10% for multiple SNSPDs on one PIC, we demonstrate h...

  19. High-content single-cell analysis on-chip using a laser microarray scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Wu, Yu; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Fan, Rong

    2012-12-07

    High-content cellomic analysis is a powerful tool for rapid screening of cellular responses to extracellular cues and examination of intracellular signal transduction pathways at the single-cell level. In conjunction with microfluidics technology that provides unique advantages in sample processing and precise control of fluid delivery, it holds great potential to transform lab-on-a-chip systems for high-throughput cellular analysis. However, high-content imaging instruments are expensive, sophisticated, and not readily accessible. Herein, we report on a laser scanning cytometry approach that exploits a bench-top microarray scanner as an end-point reader to perform rapid and automated fluorescence imaging of cells cultured on a chip. Using high-content imaging analysis algorithms, we demonstrated multiplexed measurements of morphometric and proteomic parameters from all single cells. Our approach shows the improvement of both sensitivity and dynamic range by two orders of magnitude as compared to conventional epifluorescence microscopy. We applied this technology to high-throughput analysis of mesenchymal stem cells on an extracellular matrix protein array and characterization of heterotypic cell populations. This work demonstrates the feasibility of a laser microarray scanner for high-content cellomic analysis and opens up new opportunities to conduct informative cellular analysis and cell-based screening in the lab-on-a-chip systems.

  20. Molecular Insights into Division of Single Human Cancer Cells in On-Chip Transparent Microtubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In vivo, mammalian cells proliferate within 3D environments consisting of numerous microcavities and channels, which contain a variety of chemical and physical cues. External environments often differ between normal and pathological states, such as the unique spatial constraints that metastasizing cancer cells experience as they circulate the vasculature through arterioles and narrow capillaries, where they can divide and acquire elongated cylindrical shapes. While metastatic tumors cause most cancer deaths, factors impacting early cancer cell proliferation inside the vasculature and those that can promote the formation of secondary tumors remain largely unknown. Prior studies investigating confined mitosis have mainly used 2D cell culture systems. Here, we mimic aspects of metastasizing tumor cells dividing inside blood capillaries by investigating single-cell divisions of living human cancer cells, trapped inside 3D rolled-up, transparent nanomembranes. We assess the molecular effects of tubular confinement on key mitotic features, using optical high- and super-resolution microscopy. Our experiments show that tubular confinement affects the morphology and dynamics of the mitotic spindle, chromosome arrangements, and the organization of the cell cortex. Moreover, we reveal that membrane blebbing and/or associated processes act as a potential genome-safety mechanism, limiting the extent of genomic instability caused by mitosis in confined circumstances, especially in tubular 3D microenvironments. Collectively, our study demonstrates the potential of rolled-up nanomembranes for gaining molecular insights into key cellular events occurring in tubular 3D microenvironments in vivo. PMID:27267364

  1. A Taxonomy of Reconfigurable Single-/Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Göhringer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Runtime adaptivity of hardware in processor architectures is a novel trend, which is under investigation in a variety of research labs all over the world. The runtime exchange of modules, implemented on a reconfigurable hardware, affects the instruction flow (e.g., in reconfigurable instruction set processors or the data flow, which has a strong impact on the performance of an application. Furthermore, the choice of a certain processor architecture related to the class of target applications is a crucial point in application development. A simple example is the domain of high-performance computing applications found in meteorology or high-energy physics, where vector processors are the optimal choice. A classification scheme for computer systems was provided in 1966 by Flynn where single/multiple data and instruction streams were combined to four types of architectures. This classification is now used as a foundation for an extended classification scheme including runtime adaptivity as further degree of freedom for processor architecture design. The developed scheme is validated by a multiprocessor system implemented on reconfigurable hardware as well as by a classification of existing static and reconfigurable processor systems.

  2. On-chip beamsplitter operation on single photons from quasi-resonantly excited quantum dots embedded in GaAs rib waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rengstl, U.; Schwartz, M.; Herzog, T.; Hargart, F.; Paul, M.; Portalupi, S. L.; Jetter, M.; Michler, P., E-mail: p.michler@ihfg.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Halbleiteroptik und Funktionelle Grenzflächen and Research Center SCoPE, University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-07-13

    We present an on-chip beamsplitter operating on a single-photon level by means of a quasi-resonantly driven InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot. The single photons are guided by rib waveguides and split into two arms by an evanescent field coupler. Although the waveguides themselves support the fundamental TE and TM modes, the measured degree of polarization (∼90%) reveals the main excitation and propagation of the TE mode. We observe the preserved single-photon nature of a quasi-resonantly excited quantum dot by performing a cross-correlation measurement on the two output arms of the beamsplitter. Additionally, the same quantum dot is investigated under resonant excitation, where the same splitting ratio is observed. An autocorrelation measurement with an off-chip beamsplitter on a single output arm reveal the single-photon nature after evanescent coupling inside the on-chip splitter. Due to their robustness, adjustable splitting ratio, and their easy implementation, rib waveguide beamsplitters with embedded quantum dots provide a promising step towards fully integrated quantum circuits.

  3. Multiocular image sensor with on-chip beam-splitter and inner meta-micro-lens for single-main-lens stereo camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinzo; Onozawa, Kazutoshi; Tanaka, Keisuke; Saito, Shigeru; Kourkouss, Sahim Mohamed; Kato, Yoshihisa

    2016-08-01

    We developed multiocular 1/3-inch 2.75-μm-pixel-size 2.1M- pixel image sensors by co-design of both on-chip beam-splitter and 100-nm-width 800-nm-depth patterned inner meta-micro-lens for single-main-lens stereo camera systems. A camera with the multiocular image sensor can capture horizontally one-dimensional light filed by both the on-chip beam-splitter horizontally dividing ray according to incident angle, and the inner meta-micro-lens collecting the divided ray into pixel with small optical loss. Cross-talks between adjacent light field images of a fabricated binocular image sensor and of a quad-ocular image sensor are as low as 6% and 7% respectively. With the selection of two images from one-dimensional light filed images, a selective baseline for stereo vision is realized to view close objects with single-main-lens. In addition, by adding multiple light field images with different ratios, baseline distance can be tuned within an aperture of a main lens. We suggest the electrically selective or tunable baseline stereo vision to reduce 3D fatigue of viewers.

  4. Towards Dependable Network-on-Chip Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aggressive semiconductor technology scaling provides the means for doubling the amount of transistors on a single chip each and every 18 months. To efficiently utilize these vast chip resources, Multi-Processor Systems on Chip (MPSoCs) integrated with a Network-on-Chip (NoC) communication infras

  5. Photonic Crystals: Two-Dimensional Programmable Manipulation of Magnetic Nanoparticles on-Chip (Adv. Mater. 15/2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarella, Anandakumar; Torti, Andrea; Donolato, Marco

    2014-01-01

    P. Vavassori and co-workers demonstrate on page 2384 that field-controlled displacement of magnetic domain walls in ferromagnetic nano-ring structures allows for capture and 2-dimensional remote manipulation of fluidborne magnetic nanoparticles over a chip surface....

  6. Influence of Self-Assembled Alkanethiol Monolayers on Stochastic Amperometric On-Chip Detection of Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kay J; Adly, Nouran; Yakushenko, Alexey; Schnitker, Jan; Mayer, Dirk; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Wolfrum, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the influence of self-assembled alkanethiol monolayers at the surface of platinum microelectrode arrays on the stochastic amperometric detection of citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. The measurements were performed using a microelectrode array featuring 64 individually addressable electrodes that are recorded in parallel with a sampling rate of 10 kHz for each channel. We show that both the functional end group and the total length of the alkanethiol influence the charge transfer. Three different terminal groups, an amino, a hydroxyl, and a carboxyl, were investigated using two different molecule lengths of 6 and 11 carbon atoms. Finally, we show that a monolayer of alkanethiols with a length of 11 carbon atoms and a carboxyl terminal group can efficiently block the charge transfer of free nanoparticles in an aqueous solution.

  7. An on-chip imaging droplet-sorting system: a real-time shape recognition method to screen target cells in droplets with single cell resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Mathias; Kim, Hyonchol; Arakawa, Hisayuki; Matsuura, Kenji; Odaka, Masao; Hattori, Akihiro; Terazono, Hideyuki; Yasuda, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    A microfluidic on-chip imaging cell sorter has several advantages over conventional cell sorting methods, especially to identify cells with complex morphologies such as clusters. One of the remaining problems is how to efficiently discriminate targets at the species level without labelling. Hence, we developed a label-free microfluidic droplet-sorting system based on image recognition of cells in droplets. To test the applicability of this method, a mixture of two plankton species with different morphologies (Dunaliella tertiolecta and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) were successfully identified and discriminated at a rate of 10 Hz. We also examined the ability to detect the number of objects encapsulated in a droplet. Single cell droplets sorted into collection channels showed 91 ± 4.5% and 90 ± 3.8% accuracy for D. tertiolecta and P. tricornutum, respectively. Because we used image recognition to confirm single cell droplets, we achieved highly accurate single cell sorting. The results indicate that the integrated method of droplet imaging cell sorting can provide a complementary sorting approach capable of isolating single target cells from a mixture of cells with high accuracy without any staining.

  8. Single-nanoparticle-terminated tips for scanning probe microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Higashitani, Ko

    2006-03-28

    We have developed a wet-chemistry procedure to attach a 10-40 nm colloidal gold nanoparticle to the top of a scanning probe microscopy (SPM) probe tip, making experiments of single nanoparticle interaction possible. This procedure of particle attachment is flexible and can be modified to attach nanoparticles of different kinds and sizes. The single-nanoparticle-terminated tips also have potential in various other applications, such as probes of enhanced sensitivity for optical and magnetic modes SPM.

  9. Grafting single molecule magnets on gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Mauro; Pineider, Francesco; Poggini, Lorenzo; Otero, Edwige; Mannini, Matteo; Sorace, Lorenzo; Sangregorio, Claudio; Cornia, Andrea; Sessoli, Roberta

    2014-01-29

    The chemical synthesis and characterization of the first hybrid material composed by gold nanoparticles and single molecule magnets (SMMs) are described. Gold nanoparticles are functionalized via ligand exchange using a tetrairon(III) SMM containing two 1,2-dithiolane end groups. The grafting is evidenced by the shift of the plasmon resonance peak recorded with a UV-vis spectrometer, by the suppression of nuclear magnetic resonance signals, by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy peaks, and by transmission electron microscopy images. The latter evidence the formation of aggregates of nanoparticles as a consequence of the cross-linking ability of Fe4 through the two 1,2-dithiolane rings located on opposite sides of the metal core. The presence of intact Fe4 molecules is directly proven by synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy, while a detailed magnetic characterization, obtained using electron paramagnetic resonance and alternating-current susceptibility, confirms the persistence of SMM behavior in this new hybrid nanostructure. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Shape-Dependent Single-Electron Levels for Au Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Barmparis, Georgios D.; Georgios Kopidakis; Remediakis, Ioannis N.

    2016-01-01

    The shape of metal nanoparticles has a crucial role in their performance in heterogeneous catalysis as well as photocatalysis. We propose a method of determining the shape of nanoparticles based on measurements of single-electron quantum levels. We first consider nanoparticles in two shapes of high symmetry: cube and sphere. We then focus on Au nanoparticles in three characteristic shapes that can be found in metal/inorganic or metal/organic compounds routinely used in catalysis and photocata...

  11. Magnetic instability induced by tunnel current in single Co nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Birk, F. Tijiwa; Jiang, W.; Davidović, D.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of magnetic hysteresis loops in single Co nanoparticles at dilution refrigerator temperatures are presented. The nanoparticles are in electric contact with bulk Al leads via tunnel junctions. The tunnel current versus magnetic field displays a magnetic hysteresis loop. The magnetic switching field is reduced by current, and the magnetization of the nanoparticle can be switched by applying a voltage pulse, demonstrating that the magnetic stability of the nanoparticle is diminished...

  12. The fabrication and characterization of adjustable nanogaps between gold electrodes on chip for electrical measurement of single molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Jinghua; Yang Yang; Liu Bo; Wu Deyin; Tian Zhongqun [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and LIA CNRS XiamENS ' NanoBioChem' , College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, Fujian (China); Schoellhorn, Bernd; Maisonhaute, Emmanuel; Muns, Anna Serra; Chen Yong; Amatore, Christian [UMR CNRS 8640 ' PASTEUR' and LIA CNRS XiamENS ' NanoBioChem' , Ecole Normale Superieure, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Tao, Nong-Jian, E-mail: zqtian@xmu.edu.cn, E-mail: christian.amatore@ens.fr [Ira A Fulton School of Engineering and Center for Bioelectronics and Biosensors, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6206 (United States)

    2010-07-09

    This work reports on a new method to fabricate mechanically controllable break junctions (MCBJ) with finely adjustable nanogaps between two gold electrodes on solid state chips for characterizing electron transport properties of single molecules. The simple, low cost, robust and reproducible fabrication method combines conventional photolithography, chemical etching and electrodeposition to produce suspended electrodes separated with nanogaps. The MCBJ devices fabricated by the method can undergo many cycles in which the nanogap width can be precisely and repeatedly varied from zero to several nanometers. The method improves the success rate of the MCBJ experiments. Using these devices the electron transport properties of a typical molecular system, commercially available benzene-1,4-dithiol (BDT), have been studied. The I-V and G-V characteristic curves of BDT and the conductance value for a single BDT molecule established the excellent device suitability for molecular electronics research.

  13. On-chip coherent combining of angled-grating diode lasers toward bar-scale single-mode lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunsong; Zhu, Lin

    2012-03-12

    Single mode operation of broad-area diode lasers, which is the key to obtain high power, high brightness sources, is difficult due to highly nonlinear materials and strong coupling between gain and index. Conventional broad-area lasers usually operate with multiple modes and have poor beam quality. Laser bars usually consist of incoherently combined broad-area single emitters placed side by side. In this article, we have demonstrated a novel integrated laser architecture in which Bragg diffraction is used to realize simultaneous modal control and coherent combining of broad-area diode lasers. Our experimental results show that two 100 μm wide, 1.3mm long InP broad-area lasers provide near-diffraction-limited output beam and are coherently combined at the same time without any external optical components. Furthermore, our design can be expanded to a coherently combined broad-area laser array that turns a laser bar into a coherent single mode laser with diffraction-limited beam quality.

  14. Optical manipulation and study of single gold nanoparticles in solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijgrok, Paul Victor

    2012-01-01

    We combine optical trapping and far-field optical detection techniques in a novel approach to study single metal nanoparticles in solution. We demonstrate the first measurements of the acoustic vibrations of single gold nanoparticles optically trapped in water, and find evidence for intrinsic dampi

  15. Magnetically Multiplexed Heating of Single Domain Nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, Michael G; Anikeeva, Polina

    2014-01-01

    Selective hysteretic heating of multiple collocated sets of single domain magnetic nanoparticles (SDMNPs) by alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) may offer a useful tool for biomedical applications. The possibility of magnetothermal multiplexing has not yet been realized, in part due to prevalent use of linear response theory to model SDMNP heating in AMFs. Predictive successes of dynamic hysteresis (DH), a more generalized model for heat dissipation by SDMNPs, are observed experimentally with detailed calorimetry measurements performed at varied AMF amplitudes and frequencies. The DH model suggests that specific driving conditions play an underappreciated role in determining optimal material selection strategies for high heat dissipation. Motivated by this observation, magnetothermal multiplexing is theoretically predicted and empirically demonstrated for the first time by selecting SDMNPs with properties that suggest optimal hysteretic heat dissipation at dissimilar AMF driving conditions. This form of multip...

  16. A heterogeneous III-V/silicon integration platform for on-chip quantum photonic circuits with single quantum dot devices

    CERN Document Server

    Davanco, Marcelo; Sapienza, Luca; Zhang, Chen-Zhao; Cardoso, Jose Vinicius De Miranda; Verma, Varun; Mirin, Richard; Nam, Sae Woo; Liu, Liu; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    Photonic integration is an enabling technology for photonic quantum science, offering greater scalability, stability, and functionality than traditional bulk optics. Here, we describe a scalable, heterogeneous III-V/silicon integration platform to produce Si$_3$N$_4$ photonic circuits incorporating GaAs-based nanophotonic devices containing self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots. We demonstrate pure singlephoton emission from individual quantum dots in GaAs waveguides and cavities - where strong control of spontaneous emission rate is observed - directly launched into Si$_3$N$_4$ waveguides with > 90 % efficiency through evanescent coupling. To date, InAs/GaAs quantum dots constitute the most promising solidstate triggered single-photon sources, offering bright, pure and indistinguishable emission that can be electrically and optically controlled. Si$_3$N$_4$ waveguides offer low-loss propagation, tailorable dispersion and high Kerr nonlinearities, desirable for linear and nonlinear optical signal processing d...

  17. Metal-nanoparticle single-electron transistors fabricated using electromigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolotin, K I; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Pasupathy, A N;

    2004-01-01

    We have fabricated single-electron transistors from individual metal nanoparticles using a geometry that provides improved coupling between the particle and the gate electrode. This is accomplished by incorporating a nanoparticle into a gap created between two electrodes using electromigration, all...

  18. Single metal nanoparticle absorption spectroscopy and optical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskens, O. L.; Del Fatti, N.; Vallée, F.; Huntzinger, J. R.; Billaud, P.; Broyer, M.

    2006-02-01

    Optical absorption spectra of small single metal nanoparticles are measured using a far-field technique combining a spatial modulation microscope with a broadband light source. Quantitative determination of the spectral and polarization dependencies of the absorption cross section of individual gold nanoparticles permits precise determination of their geometrical properties in excellent agreement with transmission electron microscopy measurements.

  19. Metal-nanoparticle single-electron transistors fabricated using electromigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolotin, K I; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Pasupathy, A N;

    2004-01-01

    on top of an oxidized aluminum gate. We achieve sufficient gate coupling to access more than ten charge states of individual gold nanoparticles (5–15 nm in diameter). The devices are sufficiently stable to permit spectroscopic studies of the electron-in-a-box level spectra within the nanoparticle as its......We have fabricated single-electron transistors from individual metal nanoparticles using a geometry that provides improved coupling between the particle and the gate electrode. This is accomplished by incorporating a nanoparticle into a gap created between two electrodes using electromigration, all...

  20. Shape-Dependent Single-Electron Levels for Au Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios D. Barmparis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The shape of metal nanoparticles has a crucial role in their performance in heterogeneous catalysis as well as photocatalysis. We propose a method of determining the shape of nanoparticles based on measurements of single-electron quantum levels. We first consider nanoparticles in two shapes of high symmetry: cube and sphere. We then focus on Au nanoparticles in three characteristic shapes that can be found in metal/inorganic or metal/organic compounds routinely used in catalysis and photocatalysis. We describe the methodology we use to solve the Schrödinger equation for arbitrary nanoparticle shape. The method gives results that agree well with analytical solutions for the high-symmetry shapes. When we apply our method in realistic gold nanoparticle models, which are obtained from Wulff construction based on first principles calculations, the single-electron levels and their density of states exhibit distinct shape-dependent features. Results for clean-surface nanoparticles are closer to those for cubic particles, while CO-covered nanoparticles have energy levels close to those of a sphere. Thiolate-covered nanoparticles with multifaceted polyhedral shape have distinct levels that are in between those for sphere and cube. We discuss how shape-dependent electronic structure features could be identified in experiments and thus guide catalyst design.

  1. Optical response of a single noble metal nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskens, Otto; Christofilos, Dimitris; DelFatti, Natalia; Vallée, Fabrice

    2006-04-01

    The characterization of a single metal nanoobject by comparing its theoretical and experimental far-field spectra measured by a spatial modulation spectroscopy (SMS) technique is discussed in the case of gold and silver nanoparticles. Quantitative determination of the polarization dependent absorption cross-section spectrum of a single nanoparticle is shown to permit its optical identification, i.e., determination of its shape, size and orientation on a surface.

  2. Microfluidic on chip viscometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, J; Ayela, F

    2008-07-01

    We present the design and the process of fabrication of micromachined capillary on chip rheometers which have performed wall shear stress and shear rate measurements on silicon oil and ethanol-based nanofluids. The originality of these devices comes from the fact that local pressure drop measurements are performed inside the microchannels. Thus, the advantage over existing microviscometers is that they can be used with the fluid under test alone; no reference fluid nor posttreatment of the data are needed. Each on chip viscometer consists of anodically bonded silicon-Pyrex derivative microchannels equipped with local probes. The anodic bonding allows to reach relatively high pressure levels (up to approximately 10 bars) in the channels, and a broad range of shear stress and shear rate values is attainable. Dielectrophoretic and electrorheological effects can be highlighted by employing alternate microstripe electrodes patterned onto the inner side of the Pyrex wall.

  3. Physiologically relevant organs on chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Kyungsuk; Hong, Soon Gweon; Healy, Kevin E; Lee, Luke P

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in integrating microengineering and tissue engineering have generated promising microengineered physiological models for experimental medicine and pharmaceutical research. Here we review the recent development of microengineered physiological systems, or also known as "ogans-on-chips", that reconstitute the physiologically critical features of specific human tissues and organs and their interactions. This technology uses microengineering approaches to construct organ-specific microenvironments, reconstituting tissue structures, tissue-tissue interactions and interfaces, and dynamic mechanical and biochemical stimuli found in specific organs, to direct cells to assemble into functional tissues. We first discuss microengineering approaches to reproduce the key elements of physiologically important, dynamic mechanical microenvironments, biochemical microenvironments, and microarchitectures of specific tissues and organs in microfluidic cell culture systems. This is followed by examples of microengineered individual organ models that incorporate the key elements of physiological microenvironments into single microfluidic cell culture systems to reproduce organ-level functions. Finally, microengineered multiple organ systems that simulate multiple organ interactions to better represent human physiology, including human responses to drugs, is covered in this review. This emerging organs-on-chips technology has the potential to become an alternative to 2D and 3D cell culture and animal models for experimental medicine, human disease modeling, drug development, and toxicology.

  4. Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yue; Hu, Huan; Chen, Weili; Lu, Meng; Tian, Limei; Yu, Hojeong; Long, Kenneth D; Chow, Edmond; King, William P; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-03-07

    We demonstrate a label-free biosensor imaging approach that utilizes a photonic crystal (PC) surface to detect surface attachment of individual dielectric and metal nanoparticles through measurement of localized shifts in the resonant wavelength and resonant reflection magnitude from the PC. Using a microscopy-based approach to scan the PC resonant reflection properties with 0.6 μm spatial resolution, we show that metal nanoparticles attached to the biosensor surface with strong absorption at the resonant wavelength induce a highly localized reduction in reflection efficiency and are able to be detected by modulation of the resonant wavelength. Experimental demonstrations of single-nanoparticle imaging are supported by finite-difference time-domain computer simulations. The ability to image surface-adsorption of individual nanoparticles offers a route to single molecule biosensing, in which the particles can be functionalized with specific recognition molecules and utilized as tags.

  5. Nonlinear optical studies of single gold nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Meindert Alexander van

    2007-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are spherical clusters of gold atoms, with diameters typically between 1 and 100 nanometers. The applications of these particles are rather diverse, from optical labels for biological experiments to data carrier for optical data storage. The goal of my project was to develop new

  6. Advanced optical measurements for characterizing photophysical properties of single nanoparticles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polsky, Ronen; Davis, Ryan W.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan Marie; Wheeler, David Roger

    2009-09-01

    Formation of complex nanomaterials would ideally involve single-pot reaction conditions with one reactive site per nanoparticle, resulting in a high yield of incrementally modified or oriented structures. Many studies in nanoparticle functionalization have sought to generate highly uniform nanoparticles with tailorable surface chemistry necessary to produce such conjugates, with limited success. In order to overcome these limitations, we have modified commercially available nanoparticles with multiple potential reaction sites for conjugation with single ssDNAs, proteins, and small unilamellar vesicles. These approaches combined heterobifunctional and biochemical template chemistries with single molecule optical methods for improved control of nanomaterial functionalization. Several interesting analytical results have been achieved by leveraging techniques unique to SNL, and provide multiple paths for future improvements for multiplex nanoparticle synthesis and characterization. Hyperspectral imaging has proven especially useful for assaying substrate immobilized fluorescent particles. In dynamic environments, temporal correlation spectroscopies have been employed for tracking changes in diffusion/hydrodynamic radii, particle size distributions, and identifying mobile versus immobile sample fractions at unbounded dilution. Finally, Raman fingerprinting of biological conjugates has been enabled by resonant signal enhancement provided by intimate interactions with nanoparticles and composite nanoshells.

  7. Single Nanoparticle Translocation Through Chemically Modified Solid Nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shengwei; Wang, Lei; Liu, Hang; Wu, Hongwen; Liu, Quanjun

    2016-02-01

    The nanopore sensor as a high-throughput and low-cost technology can detect single nanoparticle in solution. In the present study, the silicon nitride nanopores were fabricated by focused Ga ion beam (FIB), and the surface was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to change its surface charge density. The positively charged nanopore surface attracted negatively charged nanoparticles when they were in the vicinity of the nanopore. And, nanoparticle translocation speed was slowed down to obtain a clear and deterministic signal. Compared with previous studied small nanoparticles, the electrophoretic translocation of negatively charged polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles (diameter ~100 nm) was investigated in solution using the Coulter counter principle in which the time-dependent nanopore current was recorded as the nanoparticles were driven across the nanopore. A linear dependence was found between current drop and biased voltage. An exponentially decaying function ( t d ~ e -v/v0 ) was found between the duration time and biased voltage. The interaction between the amine-functionalized nanopore wall and PS microspheres was discussed while translating PS microspheres. We explored also translocations of PS microspheres through amine-functionalized solid-state nanopores by varying the solution pH (5.4, 7.0, and 10.0) with 0.02 M potassium chloride (KCl). Surface functionalization showed to provide a useful step to fine-tune the surface property, which can selectively transport molecules or particles. This approach is likely to be applied to gene sequencing.

  8. Electrochemistry at single bimetallic nanoparticles - using nano impacts for sizing and compositional analysis of individual AgAu alloy nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, En Ning; Grasmik, Viktoria; Rurainsky, Christian; Epple, Matthias; Tschulik, Kristina

    2016-12-12

    The increasing interest in producing bimetallic nanoparticles and utilizing them in modern technologies sets the demand for fast and affordable characterization of these materials. To date Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy is usually used to determine the size and composition of alloy nanoparticles, which is time-consuming and expensive. Here electrochemical single nanoparticle analysis is presented as an alternative approach to infer the particle size and composition of alloy nanoparticles, directly in a dispersion of these particles. As a proof of concept, 14 nm sized Ag0.73Au0.27 alloy nanoparticles are analyzed using a combination of chronoamperometric single nanoparticle analysis and cyclic voltammetry ensemble studies. It is demonstrated that the size, the alloying and the composition can all be inferred using this approach. Thus, the electrochemical characterization of single bimetallic alloy nanoparticles is suggested here as a powerful and convenient complement or alternative to TEM characterization of alloy nanoparticles.

  9. Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers

    CERN Document Server

    He, Lina; Zhu, Jiangang; Kim, Woosung; Yang, Lan

    2011-01-01

    Detection and characterization of individual nano-scale particles, virions, and pathogens are of paramount importance to human health, homeland security, diagnostic and environmental monitoring[1]. There is a strong demand for high-resolution, portable, and cost-effective systems to make label-free detection and measurement of individual nanoparticles, molecules, and viruses [2-6]. Here, we report an easily accessible, real-time and label-free detection method with single nanoparticle resolution that surpasses detection limit of existing micro- and nano-photonic devices. This is achieved by using an ultra-narrow linewidth whispering gallery microlaser, whose lasing line undergoes frequency splitting upon the binding of individual nano-objects. We demonstrate detection of polystyrene and gold nanoparticles as small as 15 nm and 10 nm in radius, respectively, and Influenza A virions by monitoring changes in self-heterodyning beat note of the split lasing modes. Experiments are performed in both air and aqueous ...

  10. A multi-channel low-power system-on-chip for single-unit recording and narrowband wireless transmission of neural signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, A; Ceravolo, M; Zambra, G; Gusmeroli, R; Spinelli, A S; Lacaita, A L; Angotzi, G N; Baranauskas, G; Fadiga, L

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a multi-channel neural recording system-on-chip (SoC) with digital data compression and wireless telemetry. The circuit consists of a 16 amplifiers, an analog time division multiplexer, an 8-bit SAR AD converter, a digital signal processor (DSP) and a wireless narrowband 400-MHz binary FSK transmitter. Even though only 16 amplifiers are present in our current die version, the whole system is designed to work with 64 channels demonstrating the feasibility of a digital processing and narrowband wireless transmission of 64 neural recording channels. A digital data compression, based on the detection of action potentials and storage of correspondent waveforms, allows the use of a 1.25-Mbit/s binary FSK wireless transmission. This moderate bit-rate and a low frequency deviation, Manchester-coded modulation are crucial for exploiting a narrowband wireless link and an efficient embeddable antenna. The chip is realized in a 0.35- εm CMOS process with a power consumption of 105 εW per channel (269 εW per channel with an extended transmission range of 4 m) and an area of 3.1 × 2.7 mm(2). The transmitted signal is captured by a digital TV tuner and demodulated by a wideband phase-locked loop (PLL), and then sent to a PC via an FPGA module. The system has been tested for electrical specifications and its functionality verified in in-vivo neural recording experiments.

  11. Raman fingerprinting of single dielectric nanoparticles in plasmonic nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerman, Sarp; Chen, Chang; Li, Yi; van Roy, Wim; Lagae, Liesbet; van Dorpe, Pol

    2015-11-01

    Plasmonic nano-apertures are commonly used for the detection of small particles such as nanoparticles and proteins by exploiting electrical and optical techniques. Plasmonic nanopores are metallic nano-apertures sitting on a thin membrane with a tiny hole. It has been shown that plasmonic nanopores with a given geometry identify internal molecules using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). However, label-free identification of a single dielectric nanoparticle requires a highly localized field comparable to the size of the particle. Additionally, the particle's Brownian motion can jeopardize the amount of photons collected from a single particle. Here, we demonstrate that the combination of optical trapping and SERS can be used for the detection and identification of 20 nm polystyrene nanoparticles in plasmonic nanopores. This work is anticipated to contribute to the detection of small bioparticles, optical trapping and nanotribology studies.Plasmonic nano-apertures are commonly used for the detection of small particles such as nanoparticles and proteins by exploiting electrical and optical techniques. Plasmonic nanopores are metallic nano-apertures sitting on a thin membrane with a tiny hole. It has been shown that plasmonic nanopores with a given geometry identify internal molecules using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). However, label-free identification of a single dielectric nanoparticle requires a highly localized field comparable to the size of the particle. Additionally, the particle's Brownian motion can jeopardize the amount of photons collected from a single particle. Here, we demonstrate that the combination of optical trapping and SERS can be used for the detection and identification of 20 nm polystyrene nanoparticles in plasmonic nanopores. This work is anticipated to contribute to the detection of small bioparticles, optical trapping and nanotribology studies. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1: The

  12. Tunable on chip optofluidic laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakal, Avraham; Vannahme, Christoph; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    On chip tunable laser is demonstrated by realizing a microfluidic droplet array. The periodicity is controlled by the pressure applied to two separate inlets, allowing to tune the lasing frequency over a broad spectral range.......On chip tunable laser is demonstrated by realizing a microfluidic droplet array. The periodicity is controlled by the pressure applied to two separate inlets, allowing to tune the lasing frequency over a broad spectral range....

  13. Single-cell imaging detection of nanobarcoded nanoparticle biodistributions in tissues for nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustaquio, Trisha; Cooper, Christy L.; Leary, James F.

    2011-03-01

    In nanomedicine, biodistribution studies are critical to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nanoparticles. Currently, extensive biodistribution studies are hampered by the limitations of bulk tissue and single-cell imaging techniques. To ameliorate these limitations, we have developed a novel method for single nanoparticle detection that incorporates a conjugated oligonucleotide as a "nanobarcode" for detection via in situ PCR. This strategy magnifies the detection signal from single nanoparticles, facilitating rapid evaluation of nanoparticle uptake by cell type over larger areas. The nanobarcoding method can enable precise analysis of nanoparticle biodistributions and expedite translation of these nanoparticles to the clinic.

  14. Crosslinked polymer nanoparticles containing single conjugated polymer chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzio, Rodrigo A; Marcato, Yésica L; Gómez, María L; Waiman, Carolina V; Chesta, Carlos A; Palacios, Rodrigo E

    2017-03-29

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles are widely used in fluorescent labeling and sensing, as they have mean radii between 5 and 100 nm, narrow size dispersion, high brightness, and are photochemically stable, allowing single particle detection with high spatial and temporal resolution. Highly crosslinked polymers formed by linking individual chains through covalent bonds yield high-strength rigid materials capable of withstanding dissolution by organic solvents. Hence, the combination of crosslinked polymers and conjugated polymers in a nanoparticulated material presents the possibility of interesting applications that require the combined properties of constituent polymers and nanosized dimension. In the present work, F8BT@pEGDMA nanoparticles composed of poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (pEGDMA; a crosslinked polymer) and containing the commercial conjugated polymer poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) were synthesized and characterized. Microemulsion polymerization was applied to produce F8BT@pEDGMA particles with nanosized dimensions in a ∼25% yield. Photophysical and size distribution properties of F8BT@pEDGMA nanoparticles were evaluated by various methods, in particular single particle fluorescence microscopy techniques. The results demonstrate that the crosslinking/polymerization process imparts structural rigidity to the F8BT@pEDGMA particles by providing resistance against dissolution/disintegration in organic solvents. The synthesized fluorescent crosslinked nanoparticles contain (for the most part) single F8BT chains and can be detected at the single particle level, using fluorescence microscopy, which bodes well for their potential application as molecularly imprinted polymer fluorescent nanosensors with high spatial and temporal resolution.

  15. Routing algorithms in networks-on-chip

    CERN Document Server

    Daneshtalab, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip (NoCs), as well as in-depth discussions of advanced solutions applied to current and next generation, many core NoC-based Systems-on-Chip (SoCs). After a basic introduction to the NoC design paradigm and architectures, routing algorithms for NoC architectures are presented and discussed at all abstraction levels, from the algorithmic level to actual implementation.  Coverage emphasizes the role played by the routing algorithm and is organized around key problems affecting current and next generation, many-core SoCs. A selection of routing algorithms is included, specifically designed to address key issues faced by designers in the ultra-deep sub-micron (UDSM) era, including performance improvement, power, energy, and thermal issues, fault tolerance and reliability.   ·         Provides a comprehensive overview of routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip and NoC-based, manycore systems; ·         Describe...

  16. Electrochemical Quantification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Using Nanoparticle Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-08-29

    We report a new approach for electrochemical quantification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using nanoparticle probes. The principle is based on DNA polymerase I (klenow fragment)-induced coupling of the nucleotide-modified nanoparticle probe to the mutant sites of duplex DNA under the Watson-Crick base pairing rule. After liquid hybridization events occurred among biotinylated DNA probes, mutant DNA, and complementary DNA, the resulting duplex DNA helixes were captured to the surface of magnetic beads through a biotin-avidin affinity reaction and magnetic separation. A cadmium phosphate-loaded apoferritin nanoparticle probe, which is modified with nucleotides and is complementary to the mutant site, is coupled to the mutant sites of the formed duplex DNA in the presence of DNA polymerase. Subsequent electrochemical stripping analysis of the cadmium component of coupled nanoparticle probes provides a means to quantify the concentration of mutant DNA. The method is sensitive enough to detect 21.5 attomol mutant DNA, which will enable the quantitative analysis of nucleic acid without polymerase chain reaction pre-amplification. The approach was challenged with constructed samples containing mutant and complementary DNA. The results indicated that it was possible to accurately determine SNPs with frequencies as low 0.01. The proposed approach has a great potential for realizing an accurate, sensitive, rapid, and low-cost method of SNP detection.

  17. Interferometric detection of single gold nanoparticles calibrated against TEM size distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lixue; Christensen, Sune; Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Single nanoparticle analysis: An interferometric optical approach calibrates sizes of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) from the interference intensities by calibrating their interferometric signals against the corresponding transmission electron microscopy measurements. This method is used to investigate...

  18. Waveguide coupled resonance fluorescence from on-chip quantum emitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhonin, Maxim N; Dixon, James E; Coles, Rikki J; Royall, Ben; Luxmoore, Isaac J; Clarke, Edmund; Hugues, Maxime; Skolnick, Maurice S; Fox, A Mark

    2014-12-10

    Resonantly driven quantum emitters offer a very promising route to obtain highly coherent sources of single photons required for applications in quantum information processing (QIP). Realizing this for on-chip scalable devices would be important for scientific advances and practical applications in the field of integrated quantum optics. Here we report on-chip quantum dot (QD) resonance fluorescence (RF) efficiently coupled into a single-mode waveguide, a key component of a photonic integrated circuit, with a negligible resonant laser background and show that the QD coherence is enhanced by more than a factor of 4 compared to off-resonant excitation. Single-photon behavior is confirmed under resonant excitation, and fast fluctuating charge dynamics are revealed in autocorrelation g((2)) measurements. The potential for triggered operation is verified in pulsed RF. These results pave the way to a novel class of integrated quantum-optical devices for on-chip quantum information processing with embedded resonantly driven quantum emitters.

  19. Full light absorption in single arrays of spherical nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Ra'di, Y; Kosulnikov, S U; Omelyanovich, M M; Morits, D; Osipov, A V; Simovski, C R; Tretyakov, S A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we show that arrays of core-shell nanoparticles function as effective thin absorbers of light. In contrast to known metamaterial absorbers, the introduced absorbers are formed by single planar arrays of spherical inclusions and enable full absorption of light incident on either or both sides of the array. We demonstrate possibilities for realizing different kinds of symmetric absorbers, including resonant, ultra-broadband, angularly selective, and all-angle absorbers. The physical principle behind these designs is explained considering balanced electric and magnetic responses of unit cells. Photovoltaic devices and thermal emitters are the two most important potential applications of the proposed designs.

  20. Magnetic properties of a single transverse Ising ferrimagnetic nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhou, S.; El Hamri, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Essaoudi, I. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Ainane, A., E-mail: ainane@pks.mpg.de [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik Complexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38 D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Ahuja, R. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique that accounts for the self-spin correlation function, the thermal and the magnetic properties of a single Ising nanoparticle consisting of a ferromagnetic core, a ferromagnetic surface shell and a ferrimagnetic interface coupling are examined. The effect of the transverse field in the surface shell, the exchange interactions between core/shell and in surface shell on the free energy, thermal magnetization, specific heat and susceptibility are studied. A number of interesting phenomena have been found such as the existence of the compensation phenomenon and the magnetization profiles exhibit P-type, N-type and Q-type behaviors.

  1. Reconfigurable Networks-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sao-Jie; Tsai, Wen-Chung; Hu, Yu-Hen

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive survey of recent progress in the design and implementation of Networks-on-Chip. It addresses a wide spectrum of on-chip communication problems, ranging from physical, network, to application layers. Specific topics that are explored in detail include packet routing, resource arbitration, error control/correction, application mapping, and communication scheduling. Additionally, a novel bi-directional communication channel NoC (BiNoC) architecture is described, with detailed explanation.   Written for practicing engineers in need of practical knowledge about the design and implementation of networks-on-chip; Includes tutorial-like details to introduce readers to a diverse range of NoC designs, as well as in-depth analysis for designers with NoC experience to explore advanced issues; Describes a variety of on-chip communication architectures, including a novel bi-directional communication channel NoC.     From the Foreword: Overall this book shows important advances over the...

  2. On-chip data communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    On-chip data communication is an active research area, as interconnects are rapidly becoming a speed, power and reliability bottleneck for digital CMOS systems. Especially for global interconnects that have to span large parts of a chip, there is an increasing gap between transistor speed and interc

  3. On-chip data communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    On-chip data communication is an active research area, as interconnects are rapidly becoming a speed, power and reliability bottleneck for digital CMOS systems. Especially for global interconnects that have to span large parts of a chip, there is an increasing gap between transistor speed and

  4. Probing and controlling fluorescence blinking of single semiconductor nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Chen Ko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review we present an overview of the experimental and theoretical development on fluorescence intermittency (blinking and the roles of electron transfer in semiconductor crystalline nanoparticles. Blinking is a very interesting phenomenon commonly observed in single molecule/particle experiments. Under continuous laser illumination, the fluorescence time trace of these single nanoparticles exhibit random light and dark periods. Since its first observation in the mid-1990s, this intriguing phenomenon has attracted wide attention among researchers from many disciplines. We will first present the historical background of the discovery and the observation of unusual inverse power-law dependence for the waiting time distributions of light and dark periods. Then, we will describe our theoretical modeling efforts to elucidate the causes for the power-law behavior, to probe the roles of electron transfer in blinking, and eventually to control blinking and to achieve complete suppression of the blinking, which is an annoying feature in many applications of quantum dots as light sources and fluorescence labels for biomedical imaging.

  5. Converting ceria polyhedral nanoparticles into single-crystal nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiangdong; Sayle, Dean C; Wang, Zhong Lin; Paras, M Sharon; Santora, Brian; Sutorik, Anthony C; Sayle, Thi X T; Yang, Yi; Ding, Yong; Wang, Xudong; Her, Yie-Shein

    2006-06-09

    Ceria nanoparticles are one of the key abrasive materials for chemical-mechanical planarization of advanced integrated circuits. However, ceria nanoparticles synthesized by existing techniques are irregularly faceted, and they scratch the silicon wafers and increase defect concentrations. We developed an approach for large-scale synthesis of single-crystal ceria nanospheres that can reduce the polishing defects by 80% and increase the silica removal rate by 50%, facilitating precise and reliable mass-manufacturing of chips for nanoelectronics. We doped the ceria system with titanium, using flame temperatures that facilitate crystallization of the ceria yet retain the titania in a molten state. In conjunction with molecular dynamics simulation, we show that under these conditions, the inner ceria core evolves in a single-crystal spherical shape without faceting, because throughout the crystallization it is completely encapsulated by a molten 1- to 2-nanometer shell of titania that, in liquid state, minimizes the surface energy. The principle demonstrated here could be applied to other oxide systems.

  6. Structural and Optical Properties of Single Crystalline Bismuth Nanoparticles in Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Lutful; Mandal, Swapan K.

    We report here the structural and optical properties of Bi nanoparticles in polymer (polypyrrole) matrix. The nanoparticles are synthesized following a wet chemical route. The X-ray diffraction data clearly shows the growth of single crystalline Bi nanoparticles within the host polymer. The microstructure of the Bi nanoparticles obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals clearly the formation of spherical shaped nanoparticles of average size˜27 nm with a narrow size distribution. The optical absorption spectrum exhibits a distinct peak at 278 nm which is attributed to the surface plasmon band of Bi nanoparticles. The absorption spectrum is found to be described well following Mie theory.

  7. Inkjet printed structures for smart lab-on-chip systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckert, E.; Eberhardt, R.; Pabst, Oliver; Kemper, Falk; Shu, Zhe; Tünnermann, Andreas; Perelaer, Jolke; Schubert, Ulrich; Becker, Holger

    2013-03-01

    Inkjet printing is a digital printing technique that is capable of depositing not only inks, but functional materials onto different substrates in an additive way. In this paper, applications of inkjet printed structures for microfluidic lab-on-chip systems are discussed. Such systems are promising for different chemical or biochemical analysis tasks carried out at the Point-of-Care level and therefore due to cost reasons are often fabricated from polymers. The paper discusses inkjetprinted wiring structures and electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators for use in microfluidic lab-on-chip systems. Silver and gold wirings are shown that are fabricated by printing metal nanoparticle inks onto polymer substrates. After printing the structures are sintered using argon plasma sintering, a low-temperature sintering process that is compatible with polymer substrates. The wirings consist of several electrode like structures and contact pads and feature minimum structure sizes of approximately 70 μm. They can be used for electrodes, fluid presence detectors and localized ohmic heaters in lab-on-chip systems. Based on that an all inkjet-printed EAP actuator then is discussed. Membrane-type bending actuators generate deflections of approximately 5 μm when being driven at a resonance frequency of 1.8 kHz with 110 V. Derived from that and assuming passive valves on-chip pumping rates in the range of 0.5 ml/min can be estimated.

  8. Measuring melittin uptake into hydrogel nanoparticles with near-infrared single nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyunghee; Fasoli, Jennifer B; Yoshimatsu, Keiichi; Shea, Kenneth J; Corn, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes how changes in the refractive index of single hydrogel nanoparticles (HNPs) detected with near-infrared surface plasmon resonance microscopy (SPRM) can be used to monitor the uptake of therapeutic compounds for potential drug delivery applications. As a first example, SPRM is used to measure the specific uptake of the bioactive peptide melittin into N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm)-based HNPs. Point diffraction patterns in sequential real-time SPRM differential reflectivity images are counted to create digital adsorption binding curves of single 220 nm HNPs from picomolar nanoparticle solutions onto hydrophobic alkanethiol-modified gold surfaces. For each digital adsorption binding curve, the average single nanoparticle SPRM reflectivity response, ⟨Δ%RNP⟩, was measured. The value of ⟨Δ%RNP⟩ increased linearly from 1.04 ± 0.04 to 2.10 ± 0.10% when the melittin concentration in the HNP solution varied from zero to 2.5 μM. No change in the average HNP size in the presence of melittin is observed with dynamic light scattering measurements, and no increase in ⟨Δ%RNP⟩ is observed in the presence of either FLAG octapeptide or bovine serum albumin. Additional bulk fluorescence measurements of melittin uptake into HNPs are used to estimate that a 1% increase in ⟨Δ%RNP⟩ observed in SPRM corresponds to the incorporation of approximately 65000 molecules into each 220 nm HNP, corresponding to roughly 4% of its volume. The lowest detected amount of melittin loading into the 220 nm HNPs was an increase in ⟨Δ%RNP⟩ of 0.15%, corresponding to the absorption of 10000 molecules.

  9. Plasmonic Imaging of Electrochemical Reactions of Single Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yimin; Wang, Hui; Yu, Hui; Liu, Xianwei; Wang, Wei; Chen, Hong-Yuan; Tao, N J

    2016-11-15

    systems and nanoscale materials with high throughput. The plasmonic approach has two imaging modes: electrochemical current imaging and interfacial impedance imaging. The former images local electrochemical current associated with electrochemical reactions (faradic current), and the latter maps local interfacial impedance, including nonfaradic contributions (e.g., double layer charging). The plasmonic imaging technique can perform voltammetry (cyclic or square wave) in an analogous manner to the traditional electrochemical methods. It can also be integrated with bright field, dark field, and fluorescence imaging capabilities in one optical setup to provide additional capabilities. To date the plasmonic imaging technique has found various applications, including mapping of heterogeneous surface reactions, analysis of trace substances, detection of catalytic reactions, and measurement of graphene quantum capacitance. The plasmonic and other emerging optical imaging techniques (e.g., dark field and fluorescence microscopy), together with the scanning probe-based electrochemical imaging and single nanoparticle analysis techniques, provide new capabilities for one to study single nanoparticle electrochemistry with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions. In this Account, we focus on imaging of electrochemical reactions at single nanoparticles.

  10. Comb Capacitor Structures for On-Chip Physical Uncloneable Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, D.; Klootwijk, J.H.; Verhaegh, N.A.M.; Roosen, H.H.A.J.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Planar inter-digitated comb capacitor structures are an excellent tool for on-chip capacitance measurement and evaluation of properties of coating layers with varying composition. These comb structures are easily fabricated in a single step in the last metallization layer of a standard IC process.

  11. Exploration within the Network-on-Chip Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkotte, Pascal Theodoor

    2009-01-01

    A general purpose processor used to consist of a single processing core, which performed and controlled all tasks on the chip. Its functionality and maximum clock frequency grew steadily over the years. Due to the continuous increase of the number of transistors available on-chip and the operational

  12. Comb Capacitor Structures for On-Chip Physical Uncloneable Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, D.; Klootwijk, J.H.; Verhaegh, N.A.M.; Roosen, H.H.A.J.; Wolters, R.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Planar inter-digitated comb capacitor structures are an excellent tool for on-chip capacitance measurement and evaluation of properties of coating layers with varying composition. These comb structures are easily fabricated in a single step in the last metallization layer of a standard IC process. C

  13. Exploration within the Network-on-Chip Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkotte, P.T.

    2009-01-01

    A general purpose processor used to consist of a single processing core, which performed and controlled all tasks on the chip. Its functionality and maximum clock frequency grew steadily over the years. Due to the continuous increase of the number of transistors available on-chip and the operational

  14. Plasmonic coupling in single flower-like gold nanoparticle assemblies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Luo; Lacie Dube; Yadong Zhou; Shengli Zou; Jing Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) arises when light interacts with metallic nanoparticles (NPs). When nanoparticles (NPs) assemble together, the plasmon coupling effect between the NPs often leads to new features in the LSPR of the assembled structure. Understanding the plasmon coupling in the complex assemblies will greatly benefit the development of new plasmonic devices. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a 3D structure using two different sized Au NPs as building blocks. This 3D structure was achieved by manipulating the binding efficiency of ligands linking the NPs, and proper choice of the NP size. The assembled structure is flower-like structure, with one 130 nm Au NP in the center, and several 40 nm Au NPs attaching as“petals”. Single particle dark-field scattering measurements of the individual assemblies were performed, together with electrodynamics simulations. The experimental and theoretical studies show that, the plasmonic coupling lead to broadening of the LSPR and additional peaks, depending on the number and 3D arrangement of the 40 nm NPs around the center 130 nm NP.

  15. Plasmonic coupling in single flower-like gold nanoparticle assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Luo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR arises when light interacts with metallic nanoparticles (NPs. When nanoparticles (NPs assemble together, the plasmon coupling effect between the NPs often leads to new features in the LSPR of the assembled structure. Understanding the plasmon coupling in the complex assemblies will greatly benefit the development of new plasmonic devices. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a 3D structure using two different sized Au NPs as building blocks. This 3D structure was achieved by manipulating the binding efficiency of ligands linking the NPs, and proper choice of the NP size. The assembled structure is flower-like structure, with one 130 nm Au NP in the center, and several 40 nm Au NPs attaching as “petals”. Single particle dark-field scattering measurements of the individual assemblies were performed, together with electrodynamics simulations. The experimental and theoretical studies show that, the plasmonic coupling lead to broadening of the LSPR and additional peaks, depending on the number and 3D arrangement of the 40 nm NPs around the center 130 nm NP.

  16. On-chip plasmonic spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsur, Yuval; Arie, Ady

    2016-08-01

    We report a numerical and experimental study of an on-chip optical spectrometer, utilizing propagating surface plasmon polaritons in the telecom spectral range. The device is based on two holographic gratings, one for coupling, and the other for decoupling free-space radiation with the surface plasmons. This 800 μm×100 μm on-chip spectrometer resolves 17 channels spectrally separated by 3.1 nm, spanning a freely tunable spectral window, and is based on standard lithography fabrication technology. We propose two potential applications for this new device; the first employs the holographic control over the amplitude and phase of the input spectrum, for intrinsically filtering unwanted frequencies, like pump radiation in Raman spectroscopy. The second prospect utilizes the unique plasmonic field enhancement at the metal-dielectric boundary for the spectral analysis of very small samples (e.g., Mie scatterers) placed between the two gratings.

  17. Ion chromatography on-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrihy, J P; Breadmore, M C; Tan, A; McEnery, M; Alderman, J; O'Mathuna, C; O'Neill, A P; O'Brien, P; Avdalovic, N; Haddad, P R; Glennon, J D; Advoldvic, N

    2001-07-27

    On-chip separation of inorganic anions by ion-exchange chromatography was realized. Micro separation channels were fabricated on a silicon wafer and sealed with a Pyrex cover plate using standard photolithography, wet and dry chemical etching, and anodic bonding techniques. Quaternary ammonium latex particles were employed for the first time to coat the separation channels on-chip. Owing to the narrow depths of the channels on the chip, 0.5-10 microm, there were more interactions of the analytes with the stationary phase on the chip than in a 50-microm I.D. capillary. With off-chip injection (20 nl) and UV detection, NO2-, NO3-, I-, and thiourea were separated using 1 mM KCl as the eluent. The linear ranges for NO2- and NO3- are from 5 to 1000 microM with the detection limits of 0.5 microM.

  18. Sharp and Bright Photoluminescence Emission of Single Crystalline Diacetylene Nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Kima, Seokho; Kima, Hyeong Tae; Cuic, Chunzhi; Park, Dong Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous nanoparticles (NPs) of diacetylene (DA) molecules were prepared by using a reprecipitation method. After crystallization through solvent-vapor annealing process, the highly crystalline DA NPs show different structural and optical characteristics compared with the amorphous DA NPs. The single crystal structure of DA NPs was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The luminescence color and photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of the DA NPs were measured using color charge-coupled device (CCD) images and high-resolution laser confocal microscope (LCM). The crystalline DA NPs emit bright green light emission compared with amorphous DA NPs and the main PL peak of the crystalline DA NPs exhibits relative narrow and blue shift phenomena due to enhanced interaction between DA molecular in the nano-size crystal structure.

  19. Magnetic moment of a single metal nanoparticle determined from the Faraday effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczytko, Jacek; Vaupotič, Nataša; Madrak, Karolina; Sznajder, Paweł; Górecka, Ewa

    2013-03-01

    Optical properties of a composite material made of ferromagnetic metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric host are studied. We constructed an effective dielectric tensor of the composite material taking into account the orientational distribution of nanoparticle magnetic moments in external magnetic field. A nonlinear dependence of the optical rotation on magnetic field resulting from the reorientation of nanoparticles is demonstrated. The theoretical findings were applied to the magneto-optical experimental data of cobalt ferromagnetic nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric liquid host. The dependence of the Faraday rotation on Co-based ferromagnetic nanoparticles was measured as a function of the external magnetic field, varying the size of nanoparticles and the wavelength of light. The proposed approach enables quantitative determination of the magnetic moment and the plasma frequency of a single nanoparticle, and from this the size of the nonmagnetic shell of magnetic nanoparticles.

  20. Regioselective Localization and Tracking of Biomolecules on Single Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeeva, Bharath Bangalore; Hernandez, Derek S; Wang, Mingsong; Perillo, Evan; Lin, Linhan; Scarabelli, Leonardo; Pingali, Bharadwaj; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Dunn, Andrew K; Shear, Jason B; Zheng, Yuebing

    2015-11-01

    Selective localization of biomolecules at the hot spots of a plasmonic nanoparticle is an attractive strategy to exploit the light-matter interaction due to the high field concentration. Current approaches for hot spot targeting are time-consuming and involve prior knowledge of the hot spots. Multiphoton plasmonic lithography is employed to rapidly immobilize bovine serum albumin (BSA) hydrogel at the hot spot tips of a single gold nanotriangle (AuNT). Regioselectivity and quantity control by manipulating the polarization and intensity of the incident laser are also established. Single AuNTs are tracked using dark-field scattering spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the regioselective process. Fluorescence lifetime measurements further confirm BSA immobilization on the AuNTs. Here, the AuNT-BSA hydrogel complexes, in conjunction with single-particle optical monitoring, can act as a framework for understanding light-molecule interactions at the subnanoparticle level and has potential applications in biophotonics, nanomedicine, and life sciences.

  1. Rare Earth Doped Silica Nanoparticles via Thermolysis of a Single Source Metallasilsesquioxane Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gemma-Louise; O'Brien, John; Gun'Ko, Yurii K.

    2017-04-01

    Rare earth metal doped silica nanoparticles have significant advantages over traditional organic dyes and quantum dots. Silsesquioxanes are promising precursors in the production of silica nanoparticles by thermolysis, due to their structural similarities with silica materials. This manuscript describes the production of a new Eu3+-based metallasilsesquioxane species and its use as a single source precursor in the thermolytic production of luminescent rare earth metal doped silica nanoparticles with characteristic emission in the visible region of the spectrum.

  2. Defect-tolerant single-electron charging at room temperature in metal nanoparticle decorated biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berven, C.A.; Clarke, L.; Wybourne, M.N. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Mooster, J.L.; Hutchison, J.E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-01-16

    Gold nanoparticles assembled on a biopolymer template between metal electrodes on an insulating substrate are shown to exhibit unambiguous single electron charging effects that are found to depend on the nanoparticle properties and the geometrical contraints imposed by the biopolymer. The results support the idea of using nanoparticles in conjunction with biomolecular organization to produce nanoscale systems with defect-tolerant current-voltage behavior. (orig.)

  3. On-Chip Detection of Cellular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, R.; Daniel, R.; Vernick, S.; Ron, A.; Ben-Yoav, H.; Shacham-Diamand, Y.

    The use of on-chip cellular activity monitoring for biological/chemical sensing is promising for environmental, medical and pharmaceutical applications. The miniaturization revolution in microelectronics is harnessed to provide on-chip detection of cellular activity, opening new horizons for miniature, fast, low cost and portable screening and monitoring devices. In this chapter we survey different on-chip cellular activity detection technologies based on electrochemical, bio-impedance and optical detection. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell-on-chip technologies are mentioned and reviewed.

  4. Label free optical sensor for Avidin based on single gold nanoparticles functionalized with aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Frank Jeyson; Dondapati, Srujan Kumar; Ozalp, V Cengiz; Pinto, Alessandro; O'Sullivan, Ciara K; Klar, Thomas A; Katakis, Ioannis

    2009-04-01

    Optical spectroscopy of a single gold nanoparticle, functionalized with an aptamer, is used to sense the specific binding of avidin. Herewith, the field of single noble metal nanoparticle biosensors is extended to the important field of aptamer based assays. The sensitivity of this initial, but not yet optimized apta-nano-sensor is in the range of 20 nM. Due to its nanoscopic size, this single nanoparticle based apta-sensor may be used in nanoscopic volumes such as in array type assays or even inside cells.

  5. Real-time single airborne nanoparticle detection with nanomechanical resonant filter-fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Kurek, Maksymilian; Adolphsen, Jens Q;

    2013-01-01

    Nanomechanical resonators have an unprecedented mass sensitivity sufficient to detect single molecules, viruses or nanoparticles. The challenge with nanomechanical mass sensors is the direction of nano-sized samples onto the resonator. In this work we present an efficient inertial sampling...... technique and gravimetric detection of airborne nanoparticles with a nanomechanical resonant filter-fiber. By increasing the nanoparticle momentum the dominant collection mechanism changes from diffusion to more efficient inertial impaction. In doing so we reach a single filter-fiber collection efficiency...... of 65 ± 31% for 28 nm silica nanoparticles. Finally, we show the detection of single 100 nm silver nanoparticles. The presented method is suitable for environmental or security applications where low-cost and portable monitors are demanded. It also constitutes a unique technique for the fundamental...

  6. Direct Imaging of Single Plasmonic Metal Nanoparticles in Capillary with Laser Light-Sheet Scattering Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuan; Feng, Jingjing; Pan, Qi; Xiong, Bin; He, Yan; Yeung, Edward S

    2017-03-07

    Understanding the heterogeneous distribution of the physical and chemical properties of plasmonic metal nanoparticles is fundamentally important to their basic and applied research. Traditionally, they are obtained either indirectly via bulk spectroscopic measurements plus electron microscopic characterizations or through single molecule/particle imaging of nanoparticles immobilized on planar substrates. In this study, by using light-sheet scattering microscopy with a supercontinuum white laser, highly sensitive imaging of individual metal nanoparticles (MNPs) flowing inside a capillary, driven by either pressure or electric field, was achieved for the first time. We demonstrate that single plasmonic nanoparticles with different size or chemical modification could be differentiated through their electrophoretic mobility in a few minutes. This technique could potentially be applied to high throughput characterization and evaluation of single metal nanoparticles as well as their dynamic interactions with various local environments.

  7. Super-resolution photoacoustic imaging of single gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Kwon, Owoong; Jeon, Mansik; Song, Jaejung; Jo, Minguk; Kim, Sungjee; Son, Junwoo; Kim, Yunseok; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging hybrid imaging modality that can provide a strong optical absorption contrast using the photoacoustic (PA) effect, and breaks through the fundamental imaging depth limit of existing optical microscopy such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal or two-photon microscopy. In PAI, a short-pulsed laser is illuminated to the tissue, and the PA waves are generated by thermoelastic expansion. Despite the high lateral resolution of optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) thanks to the tight optical focus, the lateral resolution of OR-PAM is limited to the optical diffraction limit, which is approximately a half of the excitation wavelength. Here, we demonstrate a new super-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (SR-PAM) system by breaking the optical diffraction limit. The conventional microscopes with nanoscale resolutions such as a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) are typically used to image the structures of nanomaterials, but these systems should work in a high vacuum environment and cannot provide the optical properties of the materials. Our newly developed SR-PAM system provides the optical properties with a nanoscale resolution in a normal atmosphere. We have photoacoustically imaged single gold nanoparticles with an average size of 80 nm in diameter and shown their PA expansion properties individually. The lateral resolution of this system was approximately 20 nm. Therefore, this tool will provide an unprecedented optical absorption property with an accurate nanoscale resolution and greatly impact on materials science and nanotechnology field.

  8. Size analysis of single-core magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Frank; Balceris, Christoph; Viereck, Thilo; Posth, Oliver; Steinhoff, Uwe; Gavilan, Helena; Costo, Rocio; Zeng, Lunjie; Olsson, Eva; Jonasson, Christian; Johansson, Christer

    2017-04-01

    Single-core iron-oxide nanoparticles with nominal core diameters of 14 nm and 19 nm were analyzed with a variety of non-magnetic and magnetic analysis techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), static magnetization vs. magnetic field (M-H) measurements, ac susceptibility (ACS) and magnetorelaxometry (MRX). From the experimental data, distributions of core and hydrodynamic sizes are derived. Except for TEM where a number-weighted distribution is directly obtained, models have to be applied in order to determine size distributions from the measurand. It was found that the mean core diameters determined from TEM, M-H, ACS and MRX measurements agree well although they are based on different models (Langevin function, Brownian and Néel relaxation times). Especially for the sample with large cores, particle interaction effects come into play, causing agglomerates which were detected in DLS, ACS and MRX measurements. We observed that the number and size of agglomerates can be minimized by sufficiently strong diluting the suspension.

  9. Addressing Colloidal Stability for Unambiguous Electroanalysis of Single Nanoparticle Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Donald A; Kondajji, Aditya M; Castañeda, Alma D; Dasari, Radhika; Crooks, Richard M; Stevenson, Keith J

    2016-07-01

    Herein the problem of colloidal instability on electrochemically detected nanoparticle (NP) collisions with a Hg ultramicroelectrode (UME) by electrocatalytic amplification is addressed. NP tracking analysis (NTA) shows that rapid aggregation occurs in solution after diluting citrate-stabilized Pt NPs with hydrazine/phosphate buffers of net ionic strength greater than 70 mM. Colloidal stability improves by lowering the ionic strength, indicating that aggregation processes were strongly affected by charge screening of the NP double layer interactions at high cation concentrations. For the system of lowest ionic strength, the overwhelming majority of observed electrocatalytic current signals represent single NP/electrode impacts, as confirmed by NTA kinetic monitoring. NP diffusion coefficients determined by NTA and NP impact electroanalysis are in excellent agreement for the stable colloids, which signifies that the sticking probability of Pt NPs interacting with Hg is unity and that the observed NP impact rate agrees with the expected steady-state diffusive flux expression for the spherical cap Hg UME.

  10. Gold Nanoparticles as the Catalyst of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Homma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles have been proven to act as efficient catalysts for chemical reactions, such as oxidation and hydrogen production. In this review we focus on a different aspect of the catalysis of gold nanoparticles; single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT synthesis. This is not a traditional meaning of catalytic reaction, but SWCNTs cannot be synthesized without nanoparticles. Previously, gold was considered as unsuitable metal species as the catalyst of SWCNT synthesis. However, gold nanoparticles with diameters smaller than 5 nm were found to effectively produce SWCNTs. We discuss the catalysis of gold and related metals for SWCNT synthesis in comparison with conventional catalysts, such as iron, cobalt, and nickel.

  11. Single-Nanoparticle Resolved Biomimetic Long-Range Electron Transfer and Electrocatalysis of Mixed-Valence Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Nan; Hao, Xian; Ulstrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    stability in vitro. Development of robust biomimetic nanostructures is therefore highly desirable. Here, with Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) as an example we have demonstrated the preparation of highly stable and water-soluble mixed-valence nanoparticles under mild conditions. We have mapped...... their enzyme-mimicking catalytic properties and controlled LRET to single-nanoparticle resolution. PBNPs show high substrate binding affinity and tunable electrocatalytic efficiency toward hydrogen peroxide reduction, resembling the patterns for similar size redox metalloenzymes. We have further disclosed...... a correlation between electrocatalytic efficiency and distance-dependent interfacial ET kinetics. Given their high stability and low cost, such enzyme-mimicking nanoparticles could offer new perspectives in the fields of catalysis, sensors, and electrochemical energy conversion....

  12. Asynchronous design of Networks-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The Network-on-chip concept has evolved as a solution to a broad range of problems related to the design of complex systems-on-chip (SoC) with tenths or hundreds of (heterogeneous) IP-cores. The paper introduces the NoC concept, identifies a range of possible timing organizations (globally...

  13. On-Chip Random Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Redding, Brandon; Sarma, Raktim

    2013-01-01

    Light scattering in disordered media has been studied extensively due to its prevalence in natural and artificial systems [1]. In the field of photonics most of the research has focused on understanding and mitigating the effects of scattering, which are often detrimental. For certain applications, however, intentionally introducing disorder can actually improve the device performance, e.g., in photovoltaics optical scattering improves the efficiency of light harvesting [2-5]. Here, we utilize multiple scattering in a random photonic structure to build a compact on-chip spectrometer. The probe signal diffuses through a scattering medium generating wavelength-dependent speckle patterns which can be used to recover the input spectrum after calibration. Multiple scattering increases the optical pathlength by folding the paths in a confined geometry, enhancing the spectral decorrelation of speckle patterns and thus increasing the spectral resolution. By designing and fabricating the spectrometer on a silicon wafe...

  14. On-chip spiral spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Redding, Brandon; Bromberg, Yaron; Sarma, Raktim; Cao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    We designed an on-chip spectrometer based on an evanescently-coupled multimode spiral waveguide. Interference between the modes in the waveguide forms a wavelength-dependent speckle pattern which can be used as a fingerprint to identify the input wavelength after calibration. Evanescent coupling between neighboring arms of the spiral enhances the temporal spread of light propagating through the spiral, leading to a dramatic increase in the spectral resolution. Experimentally, we demonstrated that a 250 {\\mu}m radius spiral spectrometer provides a resolution of 0.01 nm at a wavelength of 1520 nm. Spectra containing 40 independent spectral channels can be recovered simultaneously and the operation bandwidth can be increased further when measuring sparse spectra.

  15. On-chip Magnetic Separation and Cell Encapsulation in Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A.; Byvank, T.; Bharde, A.; Miller, B. L.; Chalmers, J. J.; Sooryakumar, R.; Chang, W.-J.; Bashir, R.

    2012-02-01

    The demand for high-throughput single cell assays is gaining importance because of the heterogeneity of many cell suspensions, even after significant initial sorting. These suspensions may display cell-to-cell variability at the gene expression level that could impact single cell functional genomics, cancer, stem-cell research and drug screening. The on-chip monitoring of individual cells in an isolated environment could prevent cross-contamination, provide high recovery yield and ability to study biological traits at a single cell level These advantages of on-chip biological experiments contrast to conventional methods, which require bulk samples that provide only averaged information on cell metabolism. We report on a device that integrates microfluidic technology with a magnetic tweezers array to combine the functionality of separation and encapsulation of objects such as immunomagnetically labeled cells or magnetic beads into pico-liter droplets on the same chip. The ability to control the separation throughput that is independent of the hydrodynamic droplet generation rate allows the encapsulation efficiency to be optimized. The device can potentially be integrated with on-chip labeling and/or bio-detection to become a powerful single-cell analysis device.

  16. An on-chip diamond optical parametric oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Hausmann, B J M; Venkataraman, V; Deotare, P; Loncar, M

    2013-01-01

    Efficient, on-chip optical nonlinear processes are of great interest for the development of compact, robust, low-power consuming systems for applications in spectroscopy, metrology, sensing and classical and quantum optical information processing. Diamond holds promise for these applications, owing to its exceptional properties. However, although significant progress has been made in the development of an integrated diamond photonics platform, optical nonlinearities in diamond have not been explored much apart from Raman processes in bulk samples. Here, we demonstrate optical parametric oscillations (OPO) via four wave mixing (FWM) in single crystal diamond (SCD) optical networks on-chip consisting of waveguide-coupled microring resonators. Threshold powers as low as 20mW are enabled by ultra-high quality factor (1*10^6) diamond ring resonators operating at telecom wavelengths, and up to 20 new wavelengths are generated from a single-frequency pump laser. We also report the inferred nonlinear refractive index...

  17. Analysis and Management of Communication in On-Chip Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, Fahimeh

    2015-01-01

    Regarding the needs of low-power, high-performance embedded systems and the growing computation-intensive applications, the number of computing resources in a single chip has enormously increased. The current VLSI technology is able to support such an integration of transistors and add many computing resources such as CPU, DSP, specific IPs, etc to build a Systemon- Chip (SoC). However, interconnection between resources becomes another challenging issue which can be raised by using an on-chip...

  18. Functionalizing single crystals: incorporation of nanoparticles inside gel-grown calcite crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujing; Yuan, Wentao; Shi, Ye; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Yong; Chen, Hongzheng; Li, Hanying

    2014-04-14

    Synthetic single crystals are usually homogeneous solids. Biogenic single crystals, however, can incorporate biomacromolecules and become inhomogeneous solids so that their properties are also extrinsically regulated by the incorporated materials. The discrepancy between the properties of synthetic and biogenic single crystals leads to the idea to modify the internal structure of synthetic crystals to achieve nonintrinsic properties by incorporation of foreign material. Intrinsically colorless and diamagnetic calcite single crystals are turned into colored and paramagnetic solids, through incorporation of Au and Fe3O4 nanoparticles without significantly disrupting the crystalline lattice of calcite. The crystals incorporate the nanoparticles and gel fibers when grown in agarose gel media containing the nanoparticles, whereas the solution-grown crystals do not. As such, our work extends the long-history gel method for crystallization into a platform to functionalize single-crystalline materials.

  19. Single step synthesis, characterization and applications of curcumin functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandari, Rohit; Gupta, Prachi; Dziubla, Thomas; Hilt, J. Zach, E-mail: zach.hilt@uky.edu

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been well known for their applications in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia, targeted drug delivery, etc. The surface modification of these magnetic nanoparticles has been explored extensively to achieve functionalized materials with potential application in biomedical, environmental and catalysis field. Herein, we report a novel and versatile single step methodology for developing curcumin functionalized magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles without any additional linkers, using a simple coprecipitation technique. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The developed MNPs were employed in a cellular application for protection against an inflammatory agent, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) molecule. - Graphical abstract: Novel single step curcumin coated magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles without any additional linkers for medical, environmental, and other applications. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A novel and versatile single step methodology for developing curcumin functionalized magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles is reported. • The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were characterized using TEM, XRD, FTIR and TGA. • The developed MNPs were employed in a cellular application for protection against an inflammatory agent, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB).

  20. Near-Field, On-Chip Optical Brownian Ratchets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Huang, Ningfeng; Jaquay, Eric; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2016-08-10

    Nanoparticles in aqueous solution are subject to collisions with solvent molecules, resulting in random, Brownian motion. By breaking the spatiotemporal symmetry of the system, the motion can be rectified. In nature, Brownian ratchets leverage thermal fluctuations to provide directional motion of proteins and enzymes. In man-made systems, Brownian ratchets have been used for nanoparticle sorting and manipulation. Implementations based on optical traps provide a high degree of tunability along with precise spatiotemporal control. Here, we demonstrate an optical Brownian ratchet based on the near-field traps of an asymmetrically patterned photonic crystal. The system yields over 25 times greater trap stiffness than conventional optical tweezers. Our technique opens up new possibilities for particle manipulation in a microfluidic, lab-on-chip environment.

  1. Photonic network-on-chip design

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Keren; Biberman, Aleksandr; Chan, Johnnie; Hendry, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive synthesis of the theory and practice of photonic devices for networks-on-chip. It outlines the issues in designing photonic network-on-chip architectures for future many-core high performance chip multiprocessors. The discussion is built from the bottom up: starting with the design and implementation of key photonic devices and building blocks, reviewing networking and network-on-chip theory and existing research, and finishing with describing various architectures, their characteristics, and the impact they will have on a computing system. After acquainting

  2. Encapsulation of nanoparticles into single-crystal ZnO nanorods and microrods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhang Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional single crystal incorporating functional nanoparticles of other materials could be an interesting platform for various applications. We studied the encapsulation of nanoparticles into single-crystal ZnO nanorods by exploiting the crystal growth of ZnO in aqueous solution. Two types of nanodiamonds with mean diameters of 10 nm and 40 nm, respectively, and polymer nanobeads with size of 200 nm have been used to study the encapsulation process. It was found that by regrowing these ZnO nanorods with nanoparticles attached to their surfaces, a full encapsulation of nanoparticles into nanorods can be achieved. We demonstrate that our low-temperature aqueous solution growth of ZnO nanorods do not affect or cause degradation of the nanoparticles of either inorganic or organic materials. This new growth method opens the way to a plethora of applications combining the properties of single crystal host and encapsulated nanoparticles. We perform micro-photoluminescence measurement on a single ZnO nanorod containing luminescent nanodiamonds and the spectrum has a different shape from that of naked nanodiamonds, revealing the cavity effect of ZnO nanorod.

  3. Molecular Surface Chemistry by Metal Single Crystals and Nanoparticles from Vacuum to High Pressure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2008-04-05

    Model systems for studying molecular surface chemistry have evolved from single crystal surfaces at low pressure to colloidal nanoparticles at high pressure. Low pressure surface structure studies of platinum single crystals using molecular beam surface scattering and low energy electron diffraction techniques probe the unique activity of defects, steps and kinks at the surface for dissociation reactions (H-H, C-H, C-C, O{double_bond}O bonds). High-pressure investigations of platinum single crystals using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy have revealed the presence and the nature of reaction intermediates. High pressure scanning tunneling microscopy of platinum single crystal surfaces showed adsorbate mobility during a catalytic reaction. Nanoparticle systems are used to determine the role of metal-oxide interfaces, site blocking and the role of surface structures in reactive surface chemistry. The size, shape and composition of nanoparticles play important roles in determining reaction activity and selectivity.

  4. Synthesis of niobium pentoxide nanoparticles in single-flow supercritical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchigami, Teruaki; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi

    2016-10-01

    The development of a new synthesis method is still required for very fine oxide nanoparticles. In this study, a single-flow supercritical fluid system has been developed for the synthesis of highly crystalline nanosized oxide particles. Niobium oxide particles were synthesized by single-flow supercritical water treatment, batch-type supercritical water treatment and subcritical water treatment. Niobium pentoxide nanoparticles synthesized by single-flow supercritical water treatment at 673 K, 24.5 MPa, and 15 ml min-1 flow rate had a pseudohexagonal structure. The morphology of the nanoparticle was a rod, and it has a smaller particle size and larger crystallite size than those of the oxide particles synthesized by the other methods, because the particle growth and the decomposition of surfactant were rapidly suppressed in the single-flow supercritical water treatment. The nanosized niobium pentoxide is useful as a catalyst in harsh environments and as a precursor powder of lead-free piezoelectric materials.

  5. HSI colour-coded analysis of scattered light of single plasmonic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Lei, Gang; Zheng, Lin Ling; Gao, Peng Fei; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-06-01

    Single plasmonic nanoparticles (PNPs) analysis with dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) has attracted much attention in recent years. The ability for quantitative analysis of iDFM is critical, but cumbersome, for characterizing and analyzing the scattered light of single PNPs. Here, a simple automatic HSI colour coding method is established for coding dark-field microscopic (DFM) images of single PNPs with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattered light, showing that hue value in the HSI system can realize accurate quantitative analysis of iDFM and providing a novel approach for quantitative chemical and biochemical imaging at the single nanoparticle level.Single plasmonic nanoparticles (PNPs) analysis with dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) has attracted much attention in recent years. The ability for quantitative analysis of iDFM is critical, but cumbersome, for characterizing and analyzing the scattered light of single PNPs. Here, a simple automatic HSI colour coding method is established for coding dark-field microscopic (DFM) images of single PNPs with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattered light, showing that hue value in the HSI system can realize accurate quantitative analysis of iDFM and providing a novel approach for quantitative chemical and biochemical imaging at the single nanoparticle level. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and additional figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01089j

  6. On-chip power delivery and management

    CERN Document Server

    Vaisband, Inna P; Popovich, Mikhail; Mezhiba, Andrey V; Köse, Selçuk; Friedman, Eby G

    2016-01-01

    This book describes methods for distributing power in high speed, high complexity integrated circuits with power levels exceeding many tens of watts and power supplies below a volt. It provides a broad and cohesive treatment of power delivery and management systems and related design problems, including both circuit network models and design techniques for on-chip decoupling capacitors, providing insight and intuition into the behavior and design of on-chip power distribution systems. Organized into subareas to provide a more intuitive flow to the reader, this fourth edition adds more than a hundred pages of new content, including inductance models for interdigitated structures, design strategies for multi-layer power grids, advanced methods for efficient power grid design and analysis, and methodologies for simultaneously placing on-chip multiple power supplies and decoupling capacitors. The emphasis of this additional material is on managing the complexity of on-chip power distribution networks.

  7. Optical Detection of Single Nanoparticles with a Sub-wavelength Fiber-Taper

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Jiangang; Yang, Lan

    2013-01-01

    A nanoparticle detection scheme with single particle resolution is presented. The sensor contains only a taper fiber thus offering the advantages of compactness and installation flexibility. Sensing method is based on monitoring the transmitted light power which shows abrupt jumps with each particle binding to the taper surface. The experimental validation of the sensor is demonstrated with polystyrene nanoparticles of radii 120 nm and 175 nm in the 1550 nm wavelength band.

  8. Guided immobilisation of single gold nanoparticles by chemical electron beam lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A. Schaal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of periodic arrays of single metal nanoparticles is of great current interest. In this paper we present a straight-forward three-step procedure based on chemical electron beam lithography, which is capable of producing such arrays with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. Preformed 6 nm AuNPs are immobilised on thiol patterns with a pitch of 100 nm by guided self-assembly. Afterwards, these arrays are characterised by using atomic force microscopy.

  9. Dark-field-based observation of single-nanoparticle dynamics on a supported lipid bilayer for in situ analysis of interacting molecules and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Kwang; Kim, Sungi; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2015-01-12

    Observation of single plasmonic nanoparticles in reconstituted biological systems allows us to obtain snapshots of dynamic processes between molecules and nanoparticles with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution and single-molecule/single-particle-level data acquisition. This Concept is intended to introduce nanoparticle-tethered supported lipid bilayer platforms that allow for the dynamic confinement of nanoparticles on a two-dimensional fluidic surface. The dark-field-based long-term, stable, real-time observation of freely diffusing plasmonic nanoparticles on a lipid bilayer enables one to extract a broad range of information about interparticle and molecular interactions throughout the entire reaction period. Herein, we highlight important developments in this context to provide ideas on how molecular interactions can be interpreted by monitoring dynamic behaviors and optical signals of laterally mobile nanoparticles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Open Tiled Manycore System-on-Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Wallentowitz, Stefan; Wagner, Philipp; Tempelmeier, Michael; Wild, Thomas; Herkersdorf, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Manycore System-on-Chip include an increasing amount of processing elements and have become an important research topic for improvements of both hardware and software. While research can be conducted using system simulators, prototyping requires a variety of components and is very time consuming. With the Open Tiled Manycore System-on-Chip (OpTiMSoC) we aim at building such an environment for use in our and other research projects as prototyping platform. This paper describes the project goal...

  11. Imaging Dynamic Collision and Oxidation of Single Silver Nanoparticles at the Electrode/Solution Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Rui; Fan, Yunshan; Zhang, Bo

    2017-09-06

    The electrochemical interface is an ultrathin interfacial region between the electrode surface and the electrolyte solution and is often characterized by numerous dynamic processes, such as solvation and desolvation, heterogeneous electron transfer, molecular adsorption and desorption, diffusion, and surface rearrangement. Many of these processes are driven and modulated by the presence of a large interfacial potential gradient. The study and better understanding of the electrochemical interface is important for designing better electrochemical systems where their applications may include batteries, fuel cells, electrocatalytic water splitting, corrosion protection, and electroplating. This, however, has proved to be a challenging analytical task due to the ultracompact and dynamic evolving nature of the electrochemical interface. Here, we describe the use of an electrochemical nanocell to image the dynamic collision and oxidation process of single silver nanoparticles at the surface of a platinum nanoelectrode. A nanocell is prepared by depositing a platinum nanoparticle at the tip of a quartz nanopipette forming a bipolar nanoelectrode. The compact size of the nanocell confines the motion of the silver nanoparticle in a 1-D space. The highly dynamic process of nanoparticle collision and oxidation is imaged by single-particle fluorescence microscopy. Our results demonstrate that silver nanoparticle collision and oxidation is highly dynamic and likely controlled by a strong electrostatic effect at the electrode/solution interface. We believe that the use of a platinum nanocell and single molecule/nanoparticle fluorescence microscopy can be extended to other systems to yield highly dynamic information about the electrochemical interface.

  12. Binding of single stranded nucleic acids to cationic ligand functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Jessica A; Tucker, Tasha L; Therriault, William; Yingling, Yaroslava G

    2016-11-11

    The interactions of nanoparticles (NPs) with single stranded nucleic acids (NAs) have important implications in gene delivery, and nanotechnological and biomedical applications. Here, the complexation of cationic ligand functionalized gold nanoparticles with single stranded deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are examined using all atom molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicated that complexation depends mostly on charge of nanoparticle, and, to lesser extent, sequence and type of nucleic acid. For cationic nanoparticles, electrostatic interactions between charged ligands and the nucleic acid backbone dominate binding regardless of nanoparticle charge. Highly charged nanoparticles bind more tightly and cause compaction of the single-stranded NAs through disruption of intrastrand π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding. However, poly-purine strands (polyA-DNA, polyA-RNA) show less change in structure than poly-pyrimidine strands (polyT-DNA, polyU-RNA). Overall, the results show that control over ssNA structure may be achieved with cationic NPs with a charge of more than 30, but the extent of the structural changes depends on sequence.

  13. On-Chip Diamond Raman Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Latawiec, Pawel; Burek, Michael J; Hausmann, Birgit J M; Bulu, Irfan; Loncar, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic single-crystal diamond has recently emerged as a promising platform for Raman lasers at exotic wavelengths due to its giant Raman shift, large transparency window and excellent thermal properties yielding a greatly enhanced figure-of-merit compared to conventional materials. To date, diamond Raman lasers have been realized using bulk plates placed inside macroscopic cavities, requiring careful alignment and resulting in high threshold powers (~W-kW). Here we demonstrate an on-chip Raman laser based on fully-integrated, high quality-factor, diamond racetrack micro-resonators embedded in silica. Pumping at telecom wavelengths, we show Stokes output discretely tunable over a ~100nm bandwidth around 2-{\\mu}m with output powers >250 {\\mu}W, extending the functionality of diamond Raman lasers to an interesting wavelength range at the edge of the mid-infrared spectrum. Continuous-wave operation with only ~85 mW pump threshold power in the feeding waveguide is demonstrated along with continuous, mode-hop-fr...

  14. Characterization of single phase copper selenide nanoparticles and their growth mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, D.; Saxena, N. S.

    2012-03-01

    The high quality Cu3Se2 phase of copper selenide nanoparticles was synthesized through the solution-phase chemical reaction between copper and selenium. In this synthesis process, hydrazine hydrate acts as reducing agent whereas ethylene glycol controls the nucleation and growth of particles. An effort has been made to explain the growth mechanism to form copper selenide nanoparticles through the coordination of selenium to the Cu2+ complexes with OH groups of ethylene glycol. Result indicates the formation of Cu3Se2 single phase nanoparticles. The particles with the average particle size 25 nm are spherical in shape having tetragonal structure. The particles are well crystallized having 94% degree of crystallinity. An effort has also been made to determine the energy band gap of copper selenide nanoparticles through the absorption spectra.

  15. Dependence of fluorescence intensity on the spectral overlap between fluorophores and plasmon resonant single silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yeechi; Munechika, Keiko; Ginger, David S

    2007-03-01

    We investigate the fluorescence from dyes coupled to individual DNA-functionalized metal nanoparticles. We use single-particle darkfield scattering and fluorescence microscopy to correlate the fluorescence intensity of the dyes with the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectra of the individual metal nanoparticles to which they are attached. For each of three different dyes, we observe a strong correlation between the fluorescence intensity of the dye and the degree of spectral overlap with the plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle. On average, we observe the brightest fluorescence from dyes attached to metal nanoparticles that have a LSPR scattering peak approximately 40-120 meV higher in energy than the emission peak of the fluorophore. These results should prove useful for understanding and optimizing metal-enhanced fluorescence.

  16. Single-nanoparticle detection with slot-mode photonic crystal cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng; Kita, Shota; Lončar, Marko, E-mail: loncar@seas.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Quan, Qimin [Rowland Institute at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 (United States); Li, Yihang [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-06-29

    Optical cavities that are capable for detecting single nanoparticles could lead to great progress in early stage disease diagnostics and the study of biological interactions on the single-molecule level. In particular, photonic crystal (PhC) cavities are excellent platforms for label-free single-nanoparticle detection, owing to their high quality (Q) factors and wavelength-scale modal volumes. Here, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of a high-Q (>10{sup 4}) slot-mode PhC nanobeam cavity, which is able to strongly confine light in the slotted regions. The enhanced light-matter interaction results in an order of magnitude improvement in both refractive index sensitivity (439 nm/RIU) and single-nanoparticle sensitivity compared with conventional dielectric-mode PhC cavities. Detection of single polystyrene nanoparticles with radii of 20 nm and 30 nm is demonstrated in aqueous environments (D{sub 2}O), without additional laser and temperature stabilization techniques.

  17. Demonstration of zero optical backscattering from single nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Person, Steven; Lapin, Zachary; Saenz, Juan Jose; Wicks, Gary; Novotny, Lukas

    2012-01-01

    We present the first experimental demonstration of zero backscattering from nanoparticles at op- tical frequencies as originally discussed by Kerker et. al. [M. Kerker, D. Wang, and C. Giles, J. Opt. Soc. A 73, 765 (1983)]. GaAs pillars were fabricated on a fused silica substrate and the spectrum of the backscattered radiation was measured in the wavelength range 600-1000 nm. Suppression of backscattering occurred at ~725 nm, agreeing with calculations based on the discrete dipole approximation. Particles with zero backscattering provide new functionality for metamaterials and optical antennas.

  18. Single Nanoparticle Voltammetry: Contact Modulation of the Mediated Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuting; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Whitby, Samuel A I; Tschulik, Kristina; Shao, Lidong; Compton, Richard G

    2016-03-18

    The cyclic voltammetric responses of individual palladium-coated carbon nanotubes are reported. Upon impact-from the solution phase-with the electrified interface, the nanoparticles act as individual nanoelectrodes catalyzing the hydrogen-oxidation reaction. At high overpotentials the current is shown to reach a quasi-steady-state diffusion limit, allowing determination of the tube length. The electrochemical response of the individual nanotubes also reveals the system to be modulated by the electrical contact between the electrode and carbon nanotube. This modulation presents itself as fluctuations in the recorded Faradaic current.

  19. Gold nanoparticle translocation dynamics and electrical detection of single particle diffusion using solid-state nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Gaurav; Freedman, Kevin J; Kim, Min Jun

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes the use of gold nanoparticles to study particle translocation dynamics through silicon nitride solid-state nanopores. Gold nanoparticles were dispersed in 20 mM KCl solution containing nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 and their translocation was studied at different applied voltages. The use of low electrolyte concentration resulted in current enhancement upon particle translocation. The counterion cloud around the nanoparticles is proposed to be the reason for current enhancement phenomena because associated counterion cloud is believed to increase the ion density inside the pore during particle translocation. Further, single particle diffusion events were also recorded at 0 mV voltage bias and 0 pA background ionic current with high signal-to-noise ratio as the particles moved down their concentration gradient. The ability of nanopore sensors to detect single particle diffusion can be extended to field-free analysis of biomolecules in their native state and at or near physiological salt concentrations.

  20. Single-step fabrication of quantum funnels via centrifugal colloidal casting of nanoparticle films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Adinolfi, Valerio; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kwon, S. Joon; Kim, Tae Wu; Kim, Jeongho; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Kemp, Kyle; Adachi, Michael; Yuan, Mingjian; Kramer, Illan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-07-01

    Centrifugal casting of composites and ceramics has been widely employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of functional materials. This powerful method has yet to be deployed in the context of nanoparticles--yet size-effect tuning of quantum dots is among their most distinctive and application-relevant features. Here we report the first gradient nanoparticle films to be constructed in a single step. By creating a stable colloid of nanoparticles that are capped with electronic-conduction-compatible ligands we were able to leverage centrifugal casting for thin-films devices. This new method, termed centrifugal colloidal casting, is demonstrated to form films in a bandgap-ordered manner with efficient carrier funnelling towards the lowest energy layer. We constructed the first quantum-gradient photodiode to be formed in a single deposition step and, as a result of the gradient-enhanced electric field, experimentally measured the highest normalized detectivity of any colloidal quantum dot photodetector.

  1. Polarization-controlled gap-mode surface-enhanced Raman scattering with a single nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiujie; Yang, Aiping; Min, Changjun; Du, Luping; Zhang, Yuquan; Weng, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2017-06-01

    Metallic nanoparticle-film gaps are widely used as high-efficiency surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates owing to the plasmonic hybridization of the propagating surface plasmon polaritons on the films and the localized surface plasmons on the nanoparticles. Here, based on both theoretical and experimental studies, we reveal the enhancement mechanism of gap-mode SERS in a single nanoparticle-film gap by comparing the SERS intensity under different incident polarizations. The results demonstrate that the SERS signal can be significantly enhanced under illumination with radial polarization and can be significantly suppressed under azimuthal polarization (as compared with under traditional linear polarization). This is attributed to the distinct longitudinal electric field distributions of the excited surface plasmon polaritons. The results of our work will be of great interest for single-particle SERS research and quantitative molecular detection.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Bowl-Like Single-Crystalline BaTiO3 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Xinmei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Novel bowl-like single-crystalline BaTiO3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method using Ba(OH2·8H2O and TiO2 as precursors. The as-prepared products were characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM and TEM. The results show that the bowl-like BaTiO3 nanoparticles are single-crystalline and have a size about 100–200 nm in diameter. Local piezoresponse force measurements indicate that the BaTiO3 nanoparticles have switchable polarization at room temperature. The local effective piezoelectric coefficient is approximately 28 pm/V.

  3. Single-step fabrication of quantum funnels via centrifugal colloidal casting of nanoparticle films.

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Jin Young

    2015-07-13

    Centrifugal casting of composites and ceramics has been widely employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of functional materials. This powerful method has yet to be deployed in the context of nanoparticles--yet size-effect tuning of quantum dots is among their most distinctive and application-relevant features. Here we report the first gradient nanoparticle films to be constructed in a single step. By creating a stable colloid of nanoparticles that are capped with electronic-conduction-compatible ligands we were able to leverage centrifugal casting for thin-films devices. This new method, termed centrifugal colloidal casting, is demonstrated to form films in a bandgap-ordered manner with efficient carrier funnelling towards the lowest energy layer. We constructed the first quantum-gradient photodiode to be formed in a single deposition step and, as a result of the gradient-enhanced electric field, experimentally measured the highest normalized detectivity of any colloidal quantum dot photodetector.

  4. Variation Tolerant On-Chip Interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Nigussie, Ethiopia Enideg

    2012-01-01

    This book presents design techniques, analysis and implementation of high performance and power efficient, variation tolerant on-chip interconnects.  Given the design paradigm shift to multi-core, interconnect-centric designs and the increase in sources of variability and their impact in sub-100nm technologies, this book will be an invaluable reference for anyone concerned with the design of next generation, high-performance electronics systems. Provides comprehensive, circuit-level explanation of high-performance, energy-efficient, variation-tolerant on-chip interconnect; Describes design techniques to mitigate problems caused by variation; Includes techniques for design and implementation of self-timed on-chip interconnect, delay variation insensitive communication protocols, high speed signaling techniques and circuits, bit-width independent completion detection and process, voltage and temperature variation tolerance.                          

  5. Recording the dynamic endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles by AFM-based force tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bohua; Tian, Yongmei; Pan, Yangang; Shan, Yuping; Cai, Mingjun; Xu, Haijiao; Sun, Yingchun; Wang, Hongda

    2015-04-01

    We utilized force tracing to directly record the endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with different sizes, revealing the size-dependent endocytosis dynamics and the crucial role of membrane cholesterol. The force, duration and velocity of Au NP invagination are accurately determined at the single-particle and microsecond level unprecedentedly.We utilized force tracing to directly record the endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with different sizes, revealing the size-dependent endocytosis dynamics and the crucial role of membrane cholesterol. The force, duration and velocity of Au NP invagination are accurately determined at the single-particle and microsecond level unprecedentedly. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the experimental procedures and the results of the control experiments. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01020a

  6. Nanocapillary electrokinetic tracking for monitoring charge fluctuations on a single nanoparticle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faez, Sanli; Samin, Sela; Baasanjav, Dashdeleg; Weidlich, Stefan; Schmidt, Markus; Mosk, Allard P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce nanoCapillary Electrokinetic Tracking (nanoCET), an optofluidic platform for continuously measuring the electrophoretic mobility of a single colloidal nanoparticle or macromolecule in vitro with millisecond time resolution and high charge sensitivity. This platform is based on using a

  7. Physical modeling of interference enhanced imaging and characterization of single nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Oguzhan; Adato, Ronen; Ozkumur, Ayca Yalcin; Ünlü, M Selim

    2016-03-21

    Interferometric imaging schemes have gained significant interest due to their superior sensitivity over imaging techniques that are solely based on scattered signal. In this study, we outline the theoretical foundations of imaging and characterization of single nanoparticles in an interferometric microscopy scheme, examine key parameters that influence the signal, and benchmark the model against experimental findings.

  8. Roughness controlled superhydrophobicity on single nanometer length scale with metal nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brink, Gert H.; Foley, Nolan; Zwaan, Darin; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate high water pinning nanostructures and trapping of water droplets onto surfaces via control of roughness on a single nanometer length-scale generated by deposition of preformed gas phase distinct copper nanoparticles on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. It was found that the c

  9. Roughness controlled superhydrophobicity on single nanometer length scale with metal nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brink, Gert H.; Foley, Nolan; Zwaan, Darin; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate high water pinning nanostructures and trapping of water droplets onto surfaces via control of roughness on a single nanometer length-scale generated by deposition of preformed gas phase distinct copper nanoparticles on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. It was found that the

  10. Compact models for nanophotonic structures and on-chip interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mehboob

    Over the last few years, scaling in deep submicron technologies has shifted the paradigm from device-dominated to interconnect-dominated design methodology. Consequently, there is an increasing interest towards the miniaturization of the guiding medium in nanoscale integrated circuits by exploring plasmon-based waveguides to alleviate the scaling issues associated with today's copper interconnect. In this thesis, we seek short and long-term solutions of on-chip interconnect by developing accurate compact models of on-chip interconnects and impedance characterization of nanophotonic structures. The developed system models are compact and accurate over the operating frequency range and the adopted approach have provided many critical insights and produced many important results. This thesis first presents a new modeling strategy that represents the nanostructure by its equivalent impedance. By applying either quasistatic approximation or separately solving for voltage and current for dominant mode, we reduce the field problem to a circuit problem. The impedance expressed in terms of circuit components is dependent on the material constant as well as the operating frequency. The modeling methodology is successfully applied to nanoparticles and oscillating nanosphere. The proposed model characterizes plasmon resonance in these nanostructures, thereby providing basic building block to develop spice models of complex plasmon-based waveguide for sub-wavelength propagation. We also presented several techniques to develop compact models of on-chip interconnects and passive components for accurate estimation of power, noise and delay of high speed integrated circuits. The automated method generates reduced order models that are accurate across either a narrow or a wide-range of frequencies. The proposed methods are based on Krylov subspace method with interpolation points dynamically selected using either spline based algorithm or discrete wavelet transform. Narrow and

  11. Communication architectures for systems-on-chip

    CERN Document Server

    Ayala, Jose L

    2011-01-01

    A presentation of state-of-the-art approaches from an industrial applications perspective, Communication Architectures for Systems-on-Chip shows professionals, researchers, and students how to attack the problem of data communication in the manufacture of SoC architectures. With its lucid illustration of current trends and research improving the performance, quality, and reliability of transactions, this is an essential reference for anyone dealing with communication mechanisms for embedded systems, systems-on-chip, and multiprocessor architectures--or trying to overcome existing limitations.

  12. Bioassisted multi-nanoparticle patterning using single-layer peptide templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nochomovitz, Ravit; Amit, Moran; Matmor, Maayan; Ashkenasy, Nurit, E-mail: nurita@bgu.ac.il [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2010-04-09

    Patterning of nanoparticles on solid substrates is one of the main challenges of current nanotechnology applications. The use of organic molecules as templates for the deposition of the nanoparticles makes it possible to utilize simple soft lithography techniques for patterning. Peptides appear to be powerful candidates for this job due to their versatility and design flexibility. In this work, we demonstrate the use of dual-affinity peptides, which bind both to the substrate and to the deposited nanoparticles, as single-layer linkers for the creation of multi-component nanoparticle patterns via microcontact printing processes. Controlled deposition and patterning of gold colloids or carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on silicon oxide surfaces and that of silicon oxide nanoparticles on gold surfaces have been achieved by the use of the corresponding dual-affinity peptides. Furthermore, patterning of both gold colloids and CNTs on a single substrate on predefined locations has been achieved. The suggested generic approach offers great flexibility by allowing binding of any material to a substrate of choice, provided that a peptide binding segment has been engineered for each of the inorganic components. Furthermore, the diversity of possible peptide sequences allows the formation of multi-component patterns, paving the way to fabricating complex functional structures based on peptide templates.

  13. Bioassisted multi-nanoparticle patterning using single-layer peptide templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nochomovitz, Ravit; Amit, Moran; Matmor, Maayan; Ashkenasy, Nurit

    2010-04-01

    Patterning of nanoparticles on solid substrates is one of the main challenges of current nanotechnology applications. The use of organic molecules as templates for the deposition of the nanoparticles makes it possible to utilize simple soft lithography techniques for patterning. Peptides appear to be powerful candidates for this job due to their versatility and design flexibility. In this work, we demonstrate the use of dual-affinity peptides, which bind both to the substrate and to the deposited nanoparticles, as single-layer linkers for the creation of multi-component nanoparticle patterns via microcontact printing processes. Controlled deposition and patterning of gold colloids or carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on silicon oxide surfaces and that of silicon oxide nanoparticles on gold surfaces have been achieved by the use of the corresponding dual-affinity peptides. Furthermore, patterning of both gold colloids and CNTs on a single substrate on predefined locations has been achieved. The suggested generic approach offers great flexibility by allowing binding of any material to a substrate of choice, provided that a peptide binding segment has been engineered for each of the inorganic components. Furthermore, the diversity of possible peptide sequences allows the formation of multi-component patterns, paving the way to fabricating complex functional structures based on peptide templates.

  14. Comparison of a single optimized coil and a Helmholtz pair for magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieskoski, Michael D; Trembly, B Stuart

    2014-06-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles in a tumor can induce therapeutic heating when energized by an alternating magnetic field from a current-carrying coil outside the body. We analyzed a single-turn, air-core coil carrying a filamentary current to quantify the power absorbed by: a) magnetic nanoparticles at depth in tissue and b) superficial tissue in response to induced eddy currents; we defined this quotient as power ratio (PR). Given some limit on the eddy current heating tolerated by an alert patient, maximizing the PR maximizes the power absorbed in the tumor; all else being equal, this increases the thermal dose delivered to the tumor. The mean eddy current heating rate tolerated in four clinical studies we reviewed equaled 12.5 kW/m (3). We differentiated our analytical expression for PR with respect to the radius of the coil to find the value of radius that maximizes PR. Under reasonable simplifying assumptions, the optimal value of coil radius equaled 1.187 times the depth of the nanoparticle target below the body surface. We also derived the PR of two coils surrounding the body configured as a Helmholtz pair. We computed PR for combinations of nanoparticle depths below the surface and axial locations with respect to the coils. At depths less than 4.6 cm, the optimized single coil had a higher PR than that of the Helmholtz pair and furthermore produced less total ohmic heating within the coil. These results were independent of driving frequency, nanoparticle concentration, tissue electrical conductivity, and magnetic nanoparticle heating rate, provided the latter is assumed to be proportional to the product of frequency and the square of the local magnetic field. This paper supports the clinical application of current-carrying coils to deliver efficacious hyperthermia therapy to tumors injected with magnetic nanoparticles.

  15. Multicore systems on-chip practical software/hardware design

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, Abderazek Ben

    2013-01-01

    System on chips designs have evolved from fairly simple unicore, single memory designs to complex heterogeneous multicore SoC architectures consisting of a large number of IP blocks on the same silicon. To meet high computational demands posed by latest consumer electronic devices, most current systems are based on such paradigm, which represents a real revolution in many aspects in computing.The attraction of multicore processing for power reduction is compelling. By splitting a set of tasks among multiple processor cores, the operating frequency necessary for each core can be reduced, allowi

  16. Organic/hybrid nanoparticles and single-walled carbon nanotubes: preparation methods and chiral applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassen, Haysem; Antony, Vijy; Ghanem, Ashraf; Yajadda, Mir Massoud Aghili; Han, Zhao Jun; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2014-11-01

    Nanoparticles are molecular-sized solids with at least one dimension measuring between 1-100 nm or 10-1000 nm depending on the individual discipline's perspective. They are aggregates of anywhere from a few hundreds to tens of thousands of atoms which render them larger than molecules but smaller than bulk solids. Consequently, they frequently exhibit physical and chemical properties somewhere between. On the other hand, nanocrystals are a special class of nanoparticles which have started gaining attention recently owing to their unique crystalline structures which provide a larger surface area and promising applications including chiral separations. Hybrid nanoparticles are supported by the growing interest of chemists, physicists, and biologists, who are researching to fully exploit them. These materials can be defined as molecular or nano-composites with mixed (organic or bio) and inorganic components, where at least one of the component domain has a dimension ranging from a few Å to several nanometers. Similarly, and due to their extraordinary physical, chemical, and electrical properties, single-walled carbon nanotubes have been the subject of intense research. In this short review, the focus is mainly on the current well-established simple preparation techniques of chiral organic and hybrid nanoparticles as well as single-walled carbon nanotubes and their applications in separation science. Of particular interest, cinchonidine, chitosan, and β-CD-modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are discussed as model examples for organic and hybrid nanoparticles. Likewise, the chemical vapor deposition method, used in the preparation of single-walled carbon nanotubes, is discussed. The enantioseparation applications of these model nanomaterials is also presented.

  17. Nonpeturbative cavity-QED between a single quantum dot and a metal nanoparticle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vlack, C.; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Hughes, S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the quantum optical properties of an excited single photon emitter (quantum dot) near the surface of a finite-size metal nanoparticle using a photon Green function technique that rigorously quantizes the electromagnetic fields. We obtain Purcell factors of up to 5 × 104 due to higher......|max/ωd = 1.28 × 10-2. Considering a small quantum-dot, positioned 2-nm from the metal nanoparticle surface, we demonstrate that the strong coupling regime should be observable in the far-field spontaneous emission spectrum, even at room temperature and despite the non-propagating nature of the higher order...

  18. Controllable synthesis of rice-shape Alq3 nanoparticles with single crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wanfeng; Fan, Jihui; Song, Hui; Jiang, Feng; Yuan, Huimin; Wei, Zhixian; Ji, Ziwu; Pang, Zhiyong; Han, Shenghao

    2016-10-01

    We report the controllable growth of rice-shape nanoparticles of Alq3 by an extremely facile self-assembly approach. Possible mechanisms have been proposed to interpret the formation and controlled process of the single crystal nanoparticles. The field-emission performances (turn-on field 7 V μm-1, maximum current density 2.9 mA cm-2) indicate the potential application on miniaturized nano-optoelectronics devices of Alq3-based. This facile method can potentially be used for the controlled synthesis of other functional complexes and organic nanostructures.

  19. On-Chip Manipulation of Protein-Coated Magnetic Beads via Domain-Wall Conduits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, Marco; Vavassori, Paolo; Gobbi, Marco;

    2010-01-01

    Geometrically constrained magnetic domain walls (DWs) in magnetic nanowires can be manipulated at the nanometer scale. The inhomogeneous magnetic stray field generated by a DW can capture a magnetic nanoparticle in solution. On-chip nanomanipulation of individual magnetic beads coated with proteins...... is demonstrated through the motion of geometrically constrained DWs in specially designed magnetic nanoconduits fully integrated in a lab-on-a-chip platform....

  20. Quantitative photoacoustics to measure single cell melanin production and nanoparticle attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kiran; Eshein, Adam; Chandrasekhar, Anand; Viator, John A.

    2015-04-01

    Photoacoustics can be used as a label-free spectroscopic method of identifying pigmented proteins and characterizing their intracellular concentration over time in a single living cell. The authors use a microscopic laser irradiation system with a 5 ns, Q-switched laser focused onto single cells in order to collect photoacoustic responses of melanoma cells from the HS936 cell line and gold nanoparticle labeled breast cancer cells from the T47D cell line. The volume averaged intracellular concentration of melanin is found to range from 29-270 mM for single melanoma cells and the number of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) is shown to range from 850-5900 AuNPs/cell. Additionally, the melanin production response to UV-A light stimulus is measured in four melanoma cells to find a mass production rate of 5.7 pg of melanin every 15 min.

  1. On-Chip Separation and MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of His-tagged Protein with NiⅡ-NTA Derivatized Ag Nanoparticles/Porous Silicon Chip%NiⅡ-NTA修饰的银纳米粒/多孔硅芯片在线分离组氨酸标记蛋白和MALDI-TOF质谱检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜红; 王冲; 周小会; 肖守军

    2011-01-01

    An affinity chip was developed via self-assembly of 4-aminothiophenol onto silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/porous silicon (PSi) chip and chemical conversion of amino groups to Ni Ⅱ-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni Ⅱ-NTA) termini.The NiⅡ-NTA modified chip was applied to separate and preconcentrate histidine-tagged (his-tagged) fusion proteins,thioredoxin-urodilatin and the lysate of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO)-hu-aprotinin,in a buffer solution containing high levels of salts and solubilizing agents.The on-chip system overcomes the interruption problem of cocrystallization between analytes and matrix molecules due to contaminants from direct injection.It also avoids the complicated off-line pre-treatment of samples.This on-chip separation,purification,and MALDI-TOF MS analysis system is possible to detect target molecules from a complex or an original body fluid solution.%本文通过沉积在多孔硅表面的银纳米粒吸附对氨基苯硫酚和氨基的化学转化得到终端为NiⅡ-Nα,Nα-二(羧甲基)-L-赖氨酸水合物-即Ni Ⅱ-NTA体系的芯片.NiⅡ-NTA修饰的芯片被用于从高浓度的盐和助溶剂的缓冲体系中亲和捕获组氨酸标记的融合蛋白:thioredoxin-urodilatin和SUMO-hu-aprotinin,并进行在线的MALDI-TOF质谱检测,克服了MALDI-TOF质谱中直接点样污染物妨碍样品与基质共结晶的问题,避免了繁琐的离线样品预处理.芯片在线分离、纯化和MALDI-TOF质谱分析体系有望在复杂或原始体液的溶液中分析目标分子.

  2. On-chip mode division multiplexing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Frellsen, Louise Floor; Guan, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    using one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal silicon waveguides. We furthermore use the fabricated devices to demonstrate on-chip point-to-point mode division multiplexing transmission, and all-optical signal processing by mode-selective wavelength conversion. Finally, we report an efficient silicon...

  3. On-chip entangled photon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Bisson, Scott E.

    2016-11-22

    Various technologies pertaining to an on-chip entangled photon source are described herein. A light source is used to pump two resonator cavities that are resonant at two different respective wavelengths and two different respective polarizations. The resonator cavities are coupled to a four-wave mixing cavity that receives the light at the two wavelengths and outputs polarization-entangled photons.

  4. Self-assembling chimeric polypeptide-doxorubicin conjugate nanoparticles that abolish tumours after a single injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Mackay, J.; Chen, Mingnan; McDaniel, Jonathan R.; Liu, Wenge; Simnick, Andrew J.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2009-12-01

    New strategies to self-assemble biocompatible materials into nanoscale, drug-loaded packages with improved therapeutic efficacy are needed for nanomedicine. To address this need, we developed artificial recombinant chimeric polypeptides (CPs) that spontaneously self-assemble into sub-100-nm-sized, near-monodisperse nanoparticles on conjugation of diverse hydrophobic molecules, including chemotherapeutics. These CPs consist of a biodegradable polypeptide that is attached to a short Cys-rich segment. Covalent modification of the Cys residues with a structurally diverse set of hydrophobic small molecules, including chemotherapeutics, leads to spontaneous formation of nanoparticles over a range of CP compositions and molecular weights. When used to deliver chemotherapeutics to a murine cancer model, CP nanoparticles have a fourfold higher maximum tolerated dose than free drug, and induce nearly complete tumour regression after a single dose. This simple strategy can promote co-assembly of drugs, imaging agents and targeting moieties into multifunctional nanomedicines.

  5. Spatial modulation spectroscopy for imaging and quantitative analysis of single dye-doped organic nanoparticles inside cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadas, Mary Sajini; Devkota, Tuphan; Guha, Samit; Shaw, Scott K.; Smith, Bradley D.; Hartland, Gregory V.

    2015-05-01

    Imaging of non-fluorescent nanoparticles in complex biological environments, such as the cell cytosol, is a challenging problem. For metal nanoparticles, Rayleigh scattering methods can be used, but for organic nanoparticles, such as dye-doped polymer beads or lipid nanoparticles, light scattering does not provide good contrast. In this paper, spatial modulation spectroscopy (SMS) is used to image single organic nanoparticles doped with non-fluorescent, near-IR croconaine dye. SMS is a quantitative imaging technique that yields the absolute extinction cross-section of the nanoparticles, which can be used to determine the number of dye molecules per particle. SMS images were recorded for particles within EMT-6 breast cancer cells. The measurements allowed mapping of the nanoparticle location and the amount of dye in a single cell. The results demonstrate how SMS can facilitate efforts to optimize dye-doped nanoparticles for effective photothermal therapy of cancer.Imaging of non-fluorescent nanoparticles in complex biological environments, such as the cell cytosol, is a challenging problem. For metal nanoparticles, Rayleigh scattering methods can be used, but for organic nanoparticles, such as dye-doped polymer beads or lipid nanoparticles, light scattering does not provide good contrast. In this paper, spatial modulation spectroscopy (SMS) is used to image single organic nanoparticles doped with non-fluorescent, near-IR croconaine dye. SMS is a quantitative imaging technique that yields the absolute extinction cross-section of the nanoparticles, which can be used to determine the number of dye molecules per particle. SMS images were recorded for particles within EMT-6 breast cancer cells. The measurements allowed mapping of the nanoparticle location and the amount of dye in a single cell. The results demonstrate how SMS can facilitate efforts to optimize dye-doped nanoparticles for effective photothermal therapy of cancer. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

  6. Light-scattering detection below the level of single fluorescent molecules for high-resolution characterization of functional nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaobin; Ma, Ling; Wang, Shuo; Chen, Chaoxiang; Zhang, Wenqiang; Yang, Lingling; Hang, Wei; Nolan, John P; Wu, Lina; Yan, Xiaomei

    2014-10-28

    Ultrasensitive detection and characterization of single nanoparticles (nanoparticles represents the simplest and the most direct method for particle detection. However, the sixth-power dependence of scattering intensity on particle size renders very small particles indistinguishable from the background. Adopting strategies for single-molecule fluorescence detection in a sheathed flow, here we report the development of high sensitivity flow cytometry (HSFCM) that achieves real-time light-scattering detection of single silica and gold nanoparticles as small as 24 and 7 nm in diameter, respectively. This unprecedented sensitivity enables high-resolution sizing of single nanoparticles directly based on their scattered intensity. With a resolution comparable to that of TEM and the ease and speed of flow cytometric analysis, HSFCM is particularly suitable for nanoparticle size distribution analysis of polydisperse/heterogeneous/mixed samples. Through concurrent fluorescence detection, simultaneous insights into the size and payload variations of engineered nanoparticles are demonstrated with two forms of clinical nanomedicine. By offering quantitative multiparameter analysis of single nanoparticles in liquid suspensions at a throughput of up to 10 000 particles per minute, HSFCM represents a major advance both in light-scattering detection technology and in nanoparticle characterization.

  7. Modelling, Synthesis, and Configuration of Networks-on-Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo

    This thesis presents three contributions in two different areas of network-on-chip and system-on-chip research: Application modelling and identifying and solving different optimization problems related to two specific network-on-chip architectures. The contribution related to application modellin...... for solving the network synthesis problem in the MANGO network-on-chip, and the identification and formalization of the ReNoC configuration problem together with three heuristics for solving it....

  8. Determining transport efficiency for the purpose of counting and sizing nanoparticles via single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, Heather E.; Rogers, Nicola J.; Jarolimek, Chad; Coleman, Victoria A.; Higgins, Christopher P.; Ranville, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Currently there are few ideal methods for the characterization of nanoparticles in complex, environmental samples, leading to significant gaps in toxicity and exposure assessments of nanomaterials. Single particle-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) is an emerging technique that can both size and count metal-containing nanoparticles. A major benefit of the spICP-MS method is its ability to characterize nanoparticles at concentrations relevant to the environment. This paper...

  9. Characterization of single 1.8-nm Au nanoparticle attachments on AFM tips for single sub-4-nm object pickup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui-Wen; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Tang, Song-Nien; Yuan, Chi-Tsu; Tang, Jau; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2013-11-15

    This paper presents a novel method for the attachment of a 1.8-nm Au nanoparticle (Au-NP) to the tip of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe through the application of a current-limited bias voltage. The resulting probe is capable of picking up individual objects at the sub-4-nm scale. We also discuss the mechanisms involved in the attachment of the Au-NP to the very apex of an AFM probe tip. The Au-NP-modified AFM tips were used to pick up individual 4-nm quantum dots (QDs) using a chemically functionalized method. Single QD blinking was reduced considerably on the Au-NP-modified AFM tip. The resulting AFM tips present an excellent platform for the manipulation of single protein molecules in the study of single protein-protein interactions.

  10. Packetizing OCP Transactions in the MANGO Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The scaling of CMOS technology causes a widening gap between the performance of on-chip communication and computation. This calls for a communication-centric design flow. The MANGO network-on-chip architecture enables globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS) system-on-chip design, while...

  11. Transforming single domain magnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by novel mechanochemical ligand exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjal, Sandeep; Khare, Neeraj

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase uniform-sized ( 9 nm) cobalt ferrite (CFO) nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis using oleic acid as a surfactant. The as-synthesized oleic acid-coated CFO (OA-CFO) nanoparticles were well dispersible in nonpolar solvents but not dispersible in water. The OA-CFO nanoparticles have been successfully transformed to highly water-dispersible citric acid-coated CFO (CA-CFO) nanoparticles using a novel single-step ligand exchange process by mechanochemical milling, in which small chain citric acid molecules replace the original large chain oleic acid molecules available on CFO nanoparticles. The OA-CFO nanoparticle's hexane solution and CA-CFO nanoparticle's water solution remain stable even after 6 months and show no agglomeration and their dispersion stability was confirmed by zeta-potential measurements. The contact angle measurement shows that OA-CFO nanoparticles are hydrophobic whereas CA-CFO nanoparticles are superhydrophilic in nature. The potentiality of as-synthesized OA-CFO and mechanochemically transformed CA-CFO nanoparticles for the demulsification of highly stabilized water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions has been demonstrated.

  12. Characterization of single-core magnetite nanoparticles for magnetic imaging by SQUID relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphi, Natalie L; Huber, Dale L; Bryant, Howard C; Monson, Todd C; Fegan, Danielle L; Lim, Jitkang; Trujillo, Jason E; Tessier, Trace E; Lovato, Debbie M; Butler, Kimberly S; Provencio, Paula P; Hathaway, Helen J; Majetich, Sara A; Larson, Richard S; Flynn, Edward R

    2010-10-07

    Optimizing the sensitivity of SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) relaxometry for detecting cell-targeted magnetic nanoparticles for in vivo diagnostics requires nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution to ensure that the Néel relaxation times fall within the measurement timescale (50 ms-2 s, in this work). To determine the optimum particle size, single-core magnetite nanoparticles (with nominal average diameters 20, 25, 30 and 35 nm) were characterized by SQUID relaxometry, transmission electron microscopy, SQUID susceptometry, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analysis. The SQUID relaxometry signal (detected magnetic moment/kg) from both the 25 nm and 30 nm particles was an improvement over previously studied multi-core particles. However, the detected moments were an order of magnitude lower than predicted based on a simple model that takes into account the measured size distributions (but neglects dipolar interactions and polydispersity of the anisotropy energy density), indicating that improved control of several different nanoparticle properties (size, shape and coating thickness) will be required to achieve the highest detection sensitivity. Antibody conjugation and cell incubation experiments show that single-core particles enable a higher detected moment per cell, but also demonstrate the need for improved surface treatments to mitigate aggregation and improve specificity.

  13. Characterization of single-core magnetite nanoparticles for magnetic imaging by SQUID relaxometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolphi, Natalie L [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Huber, Dale L; Monson, Todd C; Provencio, Paula P [Sandia National Laboratories, P. O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Bryant, Howard C; Fegan, Danielle L; Tessier, Trace E; Flynn, Edward R [Senior Scientific, LLC, 11109 Country Club NE, Albuquerque, NM 87111 (United States); Lim, JitKang; Majetich, Sara A [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Trujillo, Jason E; Lovato, Debbie M; Butler, Kimberly S; Larson, Richard S [Department of Pathology, Cancer Research and Treatment Center, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Hathaway, Helen J, E-mail: NAdolphi@salud.unm.ed [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2010-10-07

    Optimizing the sensitivity of SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) relaxometry for detecting cell-targeted magnetic nanoparticles for in vivo diagnostics requires nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution to ensure that the Neel relaxation times fall within the measurement timescale (50 ms-2 s, in this work). To determine the optimum particle size, single-core magnetite nanoparticles (with nominal average diameters 20, 25, 30 and 35 nm) were characterized by SQUID relaxometry, transmission electron microscopy, SQUID susceptometry, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analysis. The SQUID relaxometry signal (detected magnetic moment/kg) from both the 25 nm and 30 nm particles was an improvement over previously studied multi-core particles. However, the detected moments were an order of magnitude lower than predicted based on a simple model that takes into account the measured size distributions (but neglects dipolar interactions and polydispersity of the anisotropy energy density), indicating that improved control of several different nanoparticle properties (size, shape and coating thickness) will be required to achieve the highest detection sensitivity. Antibody conjugation and cell incubation experiments show that single-core particles enable a higher detected moment per cell, but also demonstrate the need for improved surface treatments to mitigate aggregation and improve specificity.

  14. Room-Temperature Single-Electron Tunneling in Dendrimer-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles Anchored at a Molecular Printboard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Christian A.; Oncel, Nuri; Huskens, Jurriaan; Zandvliet, Harold J.W.; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Poelsema, Bene; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Particle in a box: A gold nanoparticle is encapsulated in a fifth-generation guest dendrimer, which binds to a host self-assembled monolayer surface (see figure). The nanoparticle encapsulated in the “molecular box” is a supramolecular junction that exhibits single-electron tunneling at room tempera

  15. Laser light-field fusion for wide-field lensfree on-chip phase contrast nanoscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud

    2016-01-01

    Wide-field lensfree on-chip microscopy, which leverages holography principles to capture interferometric light-field encodings without lenses, is an emerging imaging modality with widespread interest given the large field-of-view compared to lens-based techniques. Nanoscopy is often synonymous with high equipment costs and limited FOV. In this study, we introduce the idea of laser light-field fusion for lensfree on-chip phase contrast nanoscopy, where interferometric laser light-field encodings acquired using an on-chip setup with laser pulsations at different wavelengths are fused to produce marker-free phase contrast images with resolving power below the pixel pitch of the sensor array as well as the wavelength of the probing light source, beyond the diffraction limit. Experimental results demonstrate, for the first time, a lensfree on-chip instrument successfully detecting 500 nm nanoparticles without any specialized or intricate sample preparation or the use of synthetic aperture- or lateral shift-based t...

  16. A micromotor based on polymer single crystals and nanoparticles: toward functional versatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Liu, Limei; Gao, Wenlong; Su, Miaoda; Ge, Ya; Shi, Lili; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin; Li, Christopher Y.

    2014-07-01

    We report a multifunctional micromotor fabricated by the self-assembly technique using multifunctional materials, i.e. polymer single crystals and nanoparticles, as basic building blocks. Not only can this micromotor achieve autonomous and directed movement, it also possesses unprecedented functions, including enzymatic degradation-induced micromotor disassembly, sustained release and molecular detection.We report a multifunctional micromotor fabricated by the self-assembly technique using multifunctional materials, i.e. polymer single crystals and nanoparticles, as basic building blocks. Not only can this micromotor achieve autonomous and directed movement, it also possesses unprecedented functions, including enzymatic degradation-induced micromotor disassembly, sustained release and molecular detection. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, Fig. S1-S8 and Video S1-S4. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02593h

  17. Efficient Synthesis of Single-Chain Polymer Nanoparticles via Amide Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sanchez-Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-chain technology (SCT allows the transformation of individual polymer chains to folded/collapsed unimolecular soft nanoparticles. In this work we contribute to the enlargement of the SCT toolbox by demonstrating the efficient synthesis of single-chain polymer nanoparticles (SCNPs via intrachain amide formation. In particular, we exploit cross-linking between active methylene groups and isocyanate moieties as powerful “click” chemistry driving force for SCNP construction. By employing poly(methyl methacrylate- (PMMA- based copolymers bearing β-ketoester units distributed randomly along the copolymer chains and bifunctional isocyanate cross-linkers, SCNPs were successfully synthesized at r.t. under appropriate reaction conditions. Characterization of the resulting SCNPs was carried out by means of a combination of techniques including size exclusion chromatography (SEC, infrared (IR spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS, and elemental analysis (EA.

  18. On chip shapeable optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, C; Cluzel, B; Dellinger, J; Lalouat, L; Picard, E; Peyrade, D; Hadji, E; de Fornel, F

    2013-01-01

    Particles manipulation with optical forces is known as optical tweezing. While tweezing in free space with laser beams was established in the 1980s, integrating the optical tweezers on a chip is a challenging task. Recent experiments with plasmonic nanoantennas, microring resonators, and photonic crystal nanocavities have demonstrated optical trapping. However, the optical field of a tweezer made of a single microscopic resonator cannot be shaped. So far, this prevents from optically driven micromanipulations. Here we propose an alternative approach where the shape of the optical trap can be tuned by the wavelength in coupled nanobeam cavities. Using these shapeable tweezers, we present micromanipulation of polystyrene microspheres trapped on a silicon chip. These results show that coupled nanobeam cavities are versatile building blocks for optical near-field engineering. They open the way to much complex integrated tweezers using networks of coupled nanobeam cavities for particles or bio-objects manipulation at a larger scale.

  19. Nanoparticle coated optical fibers for single microbubble generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel-Domínguez, Reinher; Hernández-Cordero, Juan

    2011-09-01

    The study of bubbles and bubbly flows is important in various fields such as physics, chemistry, medicine, geophysics, and even the food industry. A wide variety of mechanical and acoustic techniques have been reported for bubble generation. Although a single bubble may be generated with these techniques, controlling the size and the mean lifetime of the bubble remains a difficult task. Most of the optical methods for generation of microbubbles involve high-power pulsed laser sources focused in absorbing media such as liquids or particle solutions. With these techniques, single micron-sized bubbles can be generated with typical mean lifetimes ranging from nano to microseconds. The main problem with these bubbles is their abrupt implosion: this produces a shock wave that can potentially produce damages on the surroundings. These effects have to be carefully controlled in biological applications and in laser surgery, but thus far, not many options are available to effectively control micron-size bubble growth. In this paper, we present a new technique to generate microbubbles in non-absorbing liquids. In contrast to previous reports, the proposed technique uses low-power and a CW radiation from a laser diode. The laser light is guided through an optical fiber whose output end has been coated with nanostructures. Upon immersing the tip of the fiber in ethanol or water, micron-size bubbles can be readily generated. With this technique, bubble growth can be controlled through adjustments on the laser power. We have obtained micron-sized bubbles with mean lifetimes in the range of seconds. Furthermore, the generated bubbles do not implode, as verified with a high-speed camera and flow visualization techniques.

  20. On-chip antenna: Practical design and characterization considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2012-07-28

    This paper highlights the challenges of an emergent field, namely, on-chip antenna design. Consistent with the RF System-on-Chip (SoC) concept, co-design strategy for circuits and on-chip antennas is described. A number of design and layout issues, arising from the highly integrated nature of this kind of systems, are discussed. The characterization difficulties related to on-chip antennas radiation properties are also highlighted. Finally, a novel on-wafer test fixture is proposed to measure the gain and radiation pattern of the on-chip antennas in the anechoic chamber.

  1. Using engineered single-chain antibodies to correlate molecular binding properties and nanoparticle adhesion dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Jered B; Pepper, Lauren R; Boder, Eric T; Hammer, Daniel A

    2011-11-15

    Elucidation of the relationship between targeting molecule binding properties and the adhesive behavior of therapeutic or diagnostic nanocarriers would aid in the design of optimized vectors and lead to improved efficacy. We measured the adhesion of 200-nm-diameter particles under fluid flow that was mediated by a diverse array of molecular interactions, including recombinant single-chain antibodies (scFvs), full antibodies, and the avidin/biotin interaction. Within the panel of scFvs, we used a family of mutants that display a spectrum of binding kinetics, allowing us to compare nanoparticle adhesion to bond chemistry. In addition, we explored the effect of molecular size by inserting a protein linker into the scFv fusion construct and by employing scFvs that are specific for targets with vastly different sizes. Using computational models, we extracted multivalent kinetic rate constants for particle attachment and detachment from the adhesion data and correlated the results to molecular binding properties. Our results indicate that the factors that increase encounter probability, such as adhesion molecule valency and size, directly enhance the rate of nanoparticle attachment. Bond kinetics had no influence on scFv-mediated nanoparticle attachment within the kinetic range tested, however, but did appear to affect antibody/antigen and avidin/biotin mediated adhesion. We attribute this finding to a combination of multivalent binding and differences in bond mechanical strength between recombinant scFvs and the other adhesion molecules. Nanoparticle detachment probability correlated directly with adhesion molecule valency and size, as well as the logarithm of the affinity for all molecules tested. On the basis of this work, scFvs can serve as viable targeting receptors for nanoparticles, but improvements to their bond mechanical strength would likely be required to fully exploit their tunable kinetic properties and maximize the adhesion efficiency of nanoparticles that

  2. Nanocapillary electrokinetic tracking for monitoring charge fluctuations on a single nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faez, Sanli; Samin, Sela; Baasanjav, Dashdeleg; Weidlich, Stefan; Schmidt, Markus; Mosk, Allard P

    2016-12-12

    We introduce nanoCapillary Electrokinetic Tracking (nanoCET), an optofluidic platform for continuously measuring the electrophoretic mobility of a single colloidal nanoparticle or macromolecule in vitro with millisecond time resolution and high charge sensitivity. This platform is based on using a nanocapillary optical fiber in which liquids may flow inside a channel embedded inside the light-guiding core and nanoparticles are tracked using elastic light scattering. Using this platform we have experimentally measured the electrophoretic mobility of 60 nm gold nanoparticles in an aqueous environment. Further, using numerical simulations, we demonstrate the underlying electrokinetic dynamics inside the nanocapillary and the necessary steps for extending this method to probing single biomolecules, which can be achieved with existing technologies. This achievement will immensely facilitate the daunting challenge of monitoring biochemical or catalytic reactions on a single entity over a wide range of timescales. The unique measurement capabilities of this platform pave the way for a wide range of discoveries in colloid science, analytical biochemistry, and medical diagnostics.

  3. Static Routing in Symmetric Real-Time Network-on-Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of cores on a single chip the question on how to organize the communication among those cores becomes more and more relevant. A common solution is to use a network-on-chip (NoC) that provides communication bandwidth, routing, and arbitration among the cores. The use of No...

  4. DNA origami based Au-Ag-core-shell nanoparticle dimers with single-molecule SERS sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, J.; Heck, C.; Ellerik, L.; Merk, V.; Bald, I.

    2016-03-01

    DNA origami nanostructures are a versatile tool to arrange metal nanostructures and other chemical entities with nanometer precision. In this way gold nanoparticle dimers with defined distance can be constructed, which can be exploited as novel substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We have optimized the size, composition and arrangement of Au/Ag nanoparticles to create intense SERS hot spots, with Raman enhancement up to 1010, which is sufficient to detect single molecules by Raman scattering. This is demonstrated using single dye molecules (TAMRA and Cy3) placed into the center of the nanoparticle dimers. In conjunction with the DNA origami nanostructures novel SERS substrates are created, which can in the future be applied to the SERS analysis of more complex biomolecular targets, whose position and conformation within the SERS hot spot can be precisely controlled.DNA origami nanostructures are a versatile tool to arrange metal nanostructures and other chemical entities with nanometer precision. In this way gold nanoparticle dimers with defined distance can be constructed, which can be exploited as novel substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We have optimized the size, composition and arrangement of Au/Ag nanoparticles to create intense SERS hot spots, with Raman enhancement up to 1010, which is sufficient to detect single molecules by Raman scattering. This is demonstrated using single dye molecules (TAMRA and Cy3) placed into the center of the nanoparticle dimers. In conjunction with the DNA origami nanostructures novel SERS substrates are created, which can in the future be applied to the SERS analysis of more complex biomolecular targets, whose position and conformation within the SERS hot spot can be precisely controlled. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information about materials and methods, designs of DNA origami templates, height profiles, additional SERS spectra, assignment of DNA

  5. On-Chip Microwave Quantum Hall Circulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, A. C.; Colless, J. I.; Pauka, S. J.; Hornibrook, J. M.; Watson, J. D.; Gardner, G. C.; Manfra, M. J.; Doherty, A. C.; Reilly, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Circulators are nonreciprocal circuit elements that are integral to technologies including radar systems, microwave communication transceivers, and the readout of quantum information devices. Their nonreciprocity arises from the interference of microwaves over the centimeter scale of the signal wavelength, in the presence of bulky magnetic media that breaks time-reversal symmetry. Here, we realize a completely passive on-chip microwave circulator with size 1 /1000 th the wavelength by exploiting the chiral, "slow-light" response of a two-dimensional electron gas in the quantum Hall regime. For an integrated GaAs device with 330 μ m diameter and about 1-GHz center frequency, a nonreciprocity of 25 dB is observed over a 50-MHz bandwidth. Furthermore, the nonreciprocity can be dynamically tuned by varying the voltage at the port, an aspect that may enable reconfigurable passive routing of microwave signals on chip.

  6. On-chip plasmonic waveguide optical waveplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Linfei; Huo, Yijie; Zang, Kai; Paik, Seonghyun; Chen, Yusi; Harris, James S.; Zhou, Zhiping

    2015-10-01

    Polarization manipulation is essential in almost every photonic system ranging from telecommunications to bio-sensing to quantum information. This is traditionally achieved using bulk waveplates. With the developing trend of photonic systems towards integration and miniaturization, the need for an on-chip waveguide type waveplate becomes extremely urgent. However, this is very challenging using conventional dielectric waveguides, which usually require complex 3D geometries to alter the waveguide symmetry and are also difficult to create an arbitrary optical axis. Recently, a waveguide waveplate was realized using femtosecond laser writing, but the device length is in millimeter range. Here, for the first time we propose and experimentally demonstrate an ultracompact, on-chip waveplate using an asymmetric hybrid plasmonic waveguide to create an arbitrary optical axis. The device is only in several microns length and produced in a flexible integratable IC compatible format, thus opening up the potential for integration into a broad range of systems.

  7. Microengineered physiological biomimicry: organs-on-chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Dongeun; Torisawa, Yu-suke; Hamilton, Geraldine A; Kim, Hyun Jung; Ingber, Donald E

    2012-06-21

    Microscale engineering technologies provide unprecedented opportunities to create cell culture microenvironments that go beyond current three-dimensional in vitro models by recapitulating the critical tissue-tissue interfaces, spatiotemporal chemical gradients, and dynamic mechanical microenvironments of living organs. Here we review recent advances in this field made over the past two years that are focused on the development of 'Organs-on-Chips' in which living cells are cultured within microfluidic devices that have been microengineered to reconstitute tissue arrangements observed in living organs in order to study physiology in an organ-specific context and to develop specialized in vitro disease models. We discuss the potential of organs-on-chips as alternatives to conventional cell culture models and animal testing for pharmaceutical and toxicology applications. We also explore challenges that lie ahead if this field is to fulfil its promise to transform the future of drug development and chemical safety testing.

  8. Electrocatalytic oxidation of diethylaminoethanethiol and hydrazine at single-walled carbon nanotubes modified with prussian blue nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekunle, AS

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, edged plane pyrolytic graphite electrode EPPGE was modified with functionalised single-walled carbon nanotubes and Prussian blue nanoparticles (PB). The modified electrode was characterised by techniques such as TEM, FTIR, XPS, EDX...

  9. Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats treated by two different routes: single intravenous injection and single oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghye; Kim, Heyjin; Kim, Pilje; Jo, Eunhye; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Jin, Seon Mi; Park, Kwangsik

    2015-01-01

    Toxicokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) was studied in rats via a single intravenous (iv) injection and a single oral administration (3 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg), respectively. Blood concentrations of zinc (Zn) were monitored for 7 d and tissue distribution were determined in liver, kidneys, lung, spleen, thymus, brain, and testes. To ascertain the excretion of ZnONP, Zn levels in urine and feces were measured for 7 d. ZnONP were not readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after oral administration and were excreted mostly in feces. When the nanoparticles were injected iv to rats at a dose of 30 mg/kg, peak concentration appeared at 5 min but returned to normal range by d 2 (48 h after injection). ZnONP were distributed mainly to liver, kidneys, lung, and spleen, but not to thymus, brain, and testes. The distribution level was significantly decreased to normal by d 7. Feces excretion levels after iv injection supported biliary excretion of ZnONP. In rats injected iv with 30 mg/kg, mitotic figures in hepatocytes were significantly increased and multifocal acute injuries with dark brown pigment were noted in lungs, while no significant damage was observed in rats treated orally with the same dosage.

  10. Laser-ablation-induced synthesis of SiO2-capped noble metal nanoparticles in a single step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Ernesto; Abderrafi, Kamal; Abargues, Rafael; Valdés, José L; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P

    2010-05-18

    Here we describe a simple, powerful technique based on the laser ablation of a target immersed in a water solution of a metal salt. With this method, nanoparticles of different metals and alloys can be processed very quickly. Both the target and the salt solution can be chosen to produce metal nanoparticles of different sizes, surface-oxidized nanoparticles (silica-silver, for example), or even more complex structures to be defined by the researcher on one or more steps because the technique combines the advantages of both physical and chemical methods. We have applied this technique to the fabrication of inert silica-metal (silver, gold, and silver-gold) nanoparticles with a strong surface plasmon resonance all together in a single step. The advantage of the simultaneous production of silica during laser ablation is the stabilization of the metal nanoparticle colloid but also the possibility to reduce the toxicity of these nanoparticles.

  11. On-chip data exchange for mode division multiplexed signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mengyuan; Yu, Yu; Sun, Chunlei; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-01-11

    Data exchange is an important function for flexible optical network, and it has been extensively investigated for the time and wavelength domains. The mode division multiplexing (MDM) has been proposed to further increase the transmission capacity by carrying information on different modes with only single wavelength carrier. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel on-chip data exchange circuit for the MDM signals by utilizing two micro-ring resonator (MRR) based mode converters. For demonstration, single and four wavelengths non-return-to-zero on-off-keying (NRZ-OOK) signals at 10 Gb/s carried on different modes are successfully processed, with open and clear eye diagrams. Measured bit error ratio (BER) results show reasonable power penalties. The proposed circuit can be potentially used in advanced and flexible MDM optical networks.

  12. Microfabrication of human organs-on-chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Dongeun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Fraser, Jacob P; Shea, Daniel E; Khan, Mohammed; Bahinski, Anthony; Hamilton, Geraldine A; Ingber, Donald E

    2013-11-01

    'Organs-on-chips' are microengineered biomimetic systems containing microfluidic channels lined by living human cells, which replicate key functional units of living organs to reconstitute integrated human organ-level pathophysiology in vitro. These microdevices can be used to test efficacy and toxicity of drugs and chemicals, and to create in vitro models of human disease. Thus, they potentially represent low-cost alternatives to conventional animal models for pharmaceutical, chemical and environmental applications. Here we describe a protocol for the fabrication, microengineering and operation of these microfluidic organ-on-chip systems. First, microengineering is used to fabricate a multilayered microfluidic device that contains two parallel elastomeric microchannels separated by a thin porous flexible membrane, along with two full-height, hollow vacuum chambers on either side; this requires ∼3.5 d to complete. To create a 'breathing' lung-on-a-chip that mimics the mechanically active alveolar-capillary interface of the living human lung, human alveolar epithelial cells and microvascular endothelial cells are cultured in the microdevice with physiological flow and cyclic suction applied to the side chambers to reproduce rhythmic breathing movements. We describe how this protocol can be easily adapted to develop other human organ chips, such as a gut-on-a-chip lined by human intestinal epithelial cells that experiences peristalsis-like motions and trickling fluid flow. Also, we discuss experimental techniques that can be used to analyze the cells in these organ-on-chip devices.

  13. A new method for measuring lung deposition efficiency of airborne nanoparticles in a single breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Jonas K. F.; Hedlund, Johan; Kumlin, John; Wollmer, Per; Löndahl, Jakob

    2016-11-01

    Assessment of respiratory tract deposition of nanoparticles is a key link to understanding their health impacts. An instrument was developed to measure respiratory tract deposition of nanoparticles in a single breath. Monodisperse nanoparticles are generated, inhaled and sampled from a determined volumetric lung depth after a controlled residence time in the lung. The instrument was characterized for sensitivity to inter-subject variability, particle size (22, 50, 75 and 100 nm) and breath-holding time (3–20 s) in a group of seven healthy subjects. The measured particle recovery had an inter-subject variability 26–50 times larger than the measurement uncertainty and the results for various particle sizes and breath-holding times were in accordance with the theory for Brownian diffusion and values calculated from the Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry model. The recovery was found to be determined by residence time and particle size, while respiratory flow-rate had minor importance in the studied range 1–10 L/s. The instrument will be used to investigate deposition of nanoparticles in patients with respiratory disease. The fast and precise measurement allows for both diagnostic applications, where the disease may be identified based on particle recovery, and for studies with controlled delivery of aerosol-based nanomedicine to specific regions of the lungs.

  14. Electrocatalytic oxidation of formic acid and formaldehyde on nanoparticle decorated single walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, V; Grace, A Nirmala; Alagar, M

    2009-05-01

    A potent catalyst has been prepared consisting of platinum (Pt), and platinum-palladium (Pt-Pd) nanoparticles supported on purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (Pt/CNT and Pt-Pd/CNT). Electrochemical characteristics of formic acid and formaldehyde oxidation on these catalysts are investigated via cyclic voltammetric analysis in mixed 0.5 M HCOOH (or 0.5 M HCHO) and 0.5 M H(2)SO(4) solutions. The results imply that the Pt-Pd/CNT electrodes exhibit a better activity than the corresponding Pt nanoparticles modified SWCNT electrodes. The modified electrode exhibits significant electrocatalytic activity towards formic acid and formaldehyde oxidation, which may be attributed due to the uniform dispersion of nanoparticles on SWCNTs and the efficacy of Pd species in Pt-Pd system. Such nanoparticles modified CNT electrodes exhibit better catalytic behavior towards formic acid and formaldehyde than the corresponding carbon electrodes, indicating that the system studied in the present work is the more promising system for use in fuel cells.

  15. Evolution of the Surface Science of Catalysis from Single Crystals to Metal Nanoparticles under Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2008-03-06

    Vacuum studies of metal single crystal surfaces using electron and molecular beam scattering revealed that the surface atoms relocate when the surface is clean (reconstruction) and when it is covered by adsorbates (adsorbate induced restructuring). It was also discovered that atomic steps and other low coordination surface sites are active for breaking chemical bonds (H-H, O=O, C-H, C=O and C-C) with high reaction probability. Investigations at high reactant pressures using sum frequency generation (SFG)--vibrational spectroscopy and high pressure scanning tunneling microscopy (HPSTM) revealed bond breaking at low reaction probability sites on the adsorbate-covered metal surface, and the need for adsorbate mobility for continued turnover. Since most catalysts (heterogeneous, enzyme and homogeneous) are nanoparticles, colloid synthesis methods were developed to produce monodispersed metal nanoparticles in the 1-10 nm range and controlled shapes to use them as new model catalyst systems in two-dimensional thin film form or deposited in mesoporous three-dimensional oxides. Studies of reaction selectivity in multipath reactions (hydrogenation of benzene, cyclohexene and crotonaldehyde) showed that reaction selectivity depends on both nanoparticle size and shape. The oxide-metal nanoparticle interface was found to be an important catalytic site because of the hot electron flow induced by exothermic reactions like carbon monoxide oxidation.

  16. Single step, pH induced gold nanoparticle chain formation in lecithin/water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Damyanti

    2013-07-01

    Gold nanoparticle (AuNP) chains have been formed by a single step method in a lecithin/water system where lecithin itself plays the role of a reductant and a template for AuNP chain formation. Two preparative strategies were explored: (1) evaporating lecithin solution with aqueous gold chloride (HAuCl4) at different pHs and (2) dispersing lecithin vesicles in aqueous HAuCl4 solutions of various pHs in the range of 2.5-11.3. In method 1, at initial pH 2.5, 20-50 nm AuNPs are found attached to lecithin vesicles. When pH is raised to 5.5 there are no vesicles present and 20 nm monodisperse particles are found aggregating. Chain formation of fine nanoparticles (3-5 nm) is observed from neutral to basic pH, between 6.5-10.3 The chains formed are hundreds of nanometers to micrometer long and are usually 2-3 nanoparticles wide. On further increasing pH to 11.3, particles form disk-like or raft-like structures. When method (ii) was used a little chain formation was observed. Most of the nanoparticles formed were found either sitting together as raft like structures or scattered on lecithin structures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Confocal microscopy with cylindrical vector beams and spectroscopy of single silicon nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chizhik, Anna; Chizhik, Alexey; Baer, Sebastian; Meixner, Alfred [Inst. of Physical and Theor. Chem., Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Schmidt, Torsten; Huisken, Friedrich [Lab. Astrophys., Group of the MPI for Astronomy at the Inst. of Solid State Phys., Univ. of Jena (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Being the paramount material silicon revealed new magnificent outlooks with the development of nanotechnology. During last years the research on silicon nanoparticles has been one of the hottest topics. However, many of their photoluminescence (PL) properties are still unclear. Combining the confocal microscopy, spectroscopy, and cylindrical vector beams (also known as higher order laser modes) we reveal new details of fundamental PL properties of Si/SiO{sub 2} core-shell systems and hollow SiO{sub 2} shells. We show that the emission from both systems may originate from defects of the SiO{sub 2} structure or at the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface. This result demonstrates the effect of ''break-down'' of the quantum confinement in small Si/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, which limits the PL tunability and thus, applications in Si optical nanostructures, especially in the short wavelength range. Using the technique of cylindrical vector beams we demonstrate that SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and Si/SiO{sub 2} nanocrystals, where the PL originates from defects, possess linear transition dipole moment (TDM). Moreover, we precisely determine the 3-dimensional orientation of single nanoparticle TDM and show such dynamical effects as TDM sudden flipping.

  18. Graphitic Surface Attachment by Single-Stranded DNA and Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Luke

    Graphene and carbon nanotubes are extreme mechanical and electronic materials which have been the subjects of intense study and development since their discoveries. While many of their intrinsic properties have been discovered, their interactions with other materials are only beginning to be explored. The noncovalent binding of single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides to carbon nanotubes and graphene has been seen to give rise to effective gas sensors. We examine similar systems to each of these in turn, imaging carbon nanotubes decorated with single-stranded DNA in Transmission Electron Microscope, and performing X-ray reflectivity of a single-stranded DNA film on graphite. The TEM study shows that the DNA bunches up along tubes but does not tend to clump on single tubes. Helical wrapping is not seen on single tubes. X-ray reflectivity shows that DNA on a graphite surface forms an inhomogeneous layer around 1.6 nm thick. The differences between the various thicknesses of few-layer graphene are substantial though often underappreciated. These differences are highlighted in the system of several-nanometer metal particles on few-layer graphene flakes. We formed such particles by evaporation and annealing, then examined them in Scanning Electron Microscope. We found that gold nanoparticles were circular and experienced limited growth, with the radius varying as the number of layers to the 1/3 power. A theoretical explanation is given for this observation, based on an electrostatic interaction. This theory is also consistent with observations for titanium and silver nanoparticles. Ytterbium nanoparticles on graphene form instead into filaments. A related theory is presented showing that the same electrostatic interaction is capable of overcoming surface tension to deform particles from circularity.

  19. Targeting neurotransmitter receptors with nanoparticles in vivo allows single-molecule tracking in acute brain slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Juan A.; Dupuis, Julien P.; Etchepare, Laetitia; Espana, Agnès; Cognet, Laurent; Groc, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Single-molecule imaging has changed the way we understand many biological mechanisms, particularly in neurobiology, by shedding light on intricate molecular events down to the nanoscale. However, current single-molecule studies in neuroscience have been limited to cultured neurons or organotypic slices, leaving as an open question the existence of fast receptor diffusion in intact brain tissue. Here, for the first time, we targeted dopamine receptors in vivo with functionalized quantum dots and were able to perform single-molecule tracking in acute rat brain slices. We propose a novel delocalized and non-inflammatory way of delivering nanoparticles (NPs) in vivo to the brain, which allowed us to label and track genetically engineered surface dopamine receptors in neocortical neurons, revealing inherent behaviour and receptor activity regulations. We thus propose a NP-based platform for single-molecule studies in the living brain, opening new avenues of research in physiological and pathological animal models.

  20. Single Nanoparticle Mass Spectrometry as a High Temperature Kinetics Tool: Sublimation, Oxidation, and Emission Spectra of Hot Carbon Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howder, Collin R; Long, Bryan A; Gerlich, Dieter; Alley, Rex N; Anderson, Scott L

    2015-12-17

    In single nanoparticle mass spectrometry, individual charged nanoparticles (NPs) are trapped in a quadrupole ion trap and detected optically, allowing their mass, charge, and optical properties to be monitored continuously. Previous experiments of this type probed NPs that were either fluorescent or large enough to detect by light scattering. Alternatively, small NPs can be heated to temperatures where thermally excited emission is strong enough to allow detection, and this approach should provide a new tool for measurements of sublimation and surface reaction kinetics of materials at high temperatures. As an initial test, we report a study of carbon NPs in the 20-50 nm range, heated by 10.6 μm, 532 nm, or 445 nm lasers. The kinetics for sublimation and oxidation of individual carbon NPs were studied, and a model is presented for the factors that control the NP temperature, including laser heating, and cooling by sublimation, buffer gas collisions, and radiation. The estimated NP temperatures were in the 1700-2000 K range, and the NP absorption cross sections ranged from ∼0.8 to 0.2% of the geometric cross sections for 532 nm and 10.6 μm excitation, respectively. Emission spectra of single NPs and small NP ensembles show a feature in the IR that appears to be the high energy tail of the thermal (blackbody-like) emission expected from hot particles but also a discrete feature peaking around 750 nm. Both the IR tail and 750 nm peak are observed for all particles and for both IR and visible laser excitation. No significant difference was observed between graphite and amorphous carbon NPs.

  1. Single-pulse transformation of Ag thin film into nanoparticles via laser-induced dewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoonseok; Lee, Myeongkyu

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we show that Ag thin films deposited on glass can be transformed into nanoparticles by laser-induced dewetting using a nanosecond-pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The film could be completely dewetted by a single pulse and the pulse energy density required for a 10 nm-thick Ag film was 86 mJ/cm2 at λ = 1064 nm. This made it possible to dewet a film area of ∼10 cm2 by a single pulse with energy of 850 mJ. The produced particles exhibited a monomodal size distribution and the mean particle size increased as the initial film thickness increased. Repeated exposure to pulses induced no noticeable change in the particle size distribution. The initial film thickness was the only factor that determined the mean particle size. The absorption spectra of dewetted films were well consistent with the surface plasma resonance behaviors of metal nanoparticles. This process provides a facile and scalable method of forming metal nanoparticle arrays for plasmonic and other applications.

  2. From colloidal nanoparticles to a single crystal: new insights into the formation of nacre's aragonite tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gangsheng; Xu, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Nacre has long served as a model for understanding the biomineralization mechanism and designing bio-inspired materials. However, its basic building blocks, the aragonite tablets, are still under debate in terms of their fine structure at the nanoscale and corresponding formation mechanism. Here, using a field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and X-ray diffractometer, we comparatively investigate the immature and mature tablet from the green mussel's nacre. We find that: (1) the early immature tablet consists of closely-packed colloidal nanoparticles, which contain nanocrystals surrounded by the amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) phase. Moreover, these nanocrystals are generally different in shape, size, and orientation; (2) the immature tablet can grow via oriented attachment besides via transformation of the ACC phase; and (3) with growth, the colloidal nanoparticles gradually increase in crystallinity and size until fully crystallized and fused together, leading to a mature tablet that is a monolithic single crystal of aragonite. Based on these findings, we propose a new model showing how the mature tablet evolves from the primary colloidal ACC nanoparticles. We expect this work will provide new insights into the formation of single crystal biominerals via the amorphous precursor route.

  3. Chitosan-coated anisotropic silver nanoparticles as a SERS substrate for single-molecule detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potara, Monica; Baia, Monica; Farcau, Cosmin; Astilean, Simion

    2012-02-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a technique that has become widely used for identifying and providing structural information about molecular species in low concentration. There is an ongoing interest in finding optimum particle size, shape and spatial distribution for optimizing the SERS substrates and pushing the sensitivity toward the single-molecule detection limit. This work reports the design of a novel, biocompatible SERS substrate based on small clusters of anisotropic silver nanoparticles embedded in a film of chitosan biopolymer. The SERS efficiency of the biocompatible film is assessed by employing Raman imaging and spectroscopy of adenine, a significant biological molecule. By combining atomic force microscopy with SERS imaging we find that the chitosan matrix enables the formation of small clusters of silver nanoparticles, with junctions and gaps that greatly enhance the Raman intensities of the adsorbed molecules. The study demonstrates that chitosan-coated anisotropic silver nanoparticle clusters are sensitive enough to be implemented as effective plasmonic substrates for SERS detection of nonresonant analytes at the single-molecule level.

  4. Tailored single-walled carbon nanotube--CdS nanoparticle hybrids for tunable optoelectronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglong; Jia, Yi; Cao, Anyuan

    2010-01-26

    The integration of organic and inorganic building blocks into novel nanohybrids is an important tool to exploit innovative materials with desirable functionalities. For this purpose, carbon nanotube--nanoparticle nanoarchitectures are intensively studied. We report here an efficient noncovalent chemical route to density-controllably and uniformly assemble single-walled carbon nanotubes with CdS nanoparticles. The methodology not only promises the resulting hybrids will be solution-processable but also endows the hybrids with distinct optoelectronic properties including tunable photoresponse mediated by amine molecules. On the basis of these merits, reliable thin-film photoswitches and light-driven chemical sensors are demonstrated, which highlights the potential of tailored hybrids in the development of new tunable optoelectronic devices and sensors.

  5. Size-controllable synthesis and bandgap modulation of single-layered RF-sputtered bismuth nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin-Kun; Chern, Ming-Yau; Lee, Hsin-Yen

    2014-05-01

    We here report a simple and efficient method to grow single-layer bismuth nanoparticles (BiNPs) with various sizes on glass substrates. Optimal conditions were found to be 200°C and 0.12 W/cm2 at a growth rate of 6 Å/s, with the deposition time around 40 s. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were used to calculate the particle size distribution statistics, and high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were used to examine the chemical interactions between BiNPs and the substrates. By measuring the transmission spectra within the range of 300 to 1,000 nm, we found that the optical bandgap can be modulated from 0.45 to 2.63 eV by controlling the size of these BiNPs. These interesting discoveries offer an insight to explore the dynamic nature of nanoparticles.

  6. Dynamics of polymer nanoparticles through a single artificial nanopore with a high-aspect-ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello-Aguilar, Simon; Chaaya, Adib Abou; Bechelany, Mikhael; Pochat-Bohatier, Céline; Balanzat, Emmanuel; Janot, Jean-Marc; Miele, Philippe; Balme, Sébastien

    2014-11-14

    The development of nanometric Coulter counters for nanoparticle detection is an attractive and promising field of research. In this work, we have studied the influence of the nanopore surface state on charged polymer nanoparticle translocations. To make this, the translocation of carboxylate modified polystyrene microspheres (diameter 40, 70 and 100 nm) has been investigated through two kinds of high aspect ratio nanopores (negative and uncharged). The latter were tailored by a single track-etched and atomic layer deposition technique. It was shown that the mobility and the energy barrier are strongly dependent on nanopore surface charge. Typically if the latter exhibits negative surface charge, the microsphere mobility increases and the global energy barrier of entrance inside the nanopore decreases with its diameter, converse to the uncharged nanopore.

  7. Single step synthesis of amine-functionalized mesoporous magnetite nanoparticles and their application for copper ions removal from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jining; He, Yingjuan; Zhao, Xianying; Ran, Xinze; Wu, Yonghui; Su, Yongping; Dai, Jianwu

    2016-11-01

    Amine-functionalized mesoporous superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with an average size of 70nm have been synthesized using a single step solvothermal method by the introduction of triethylenetetramine (TETA), a chelating agent recommended for the removal of excess copper in patients with Wilson's disease. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherm, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It is confirmed that the magnetic nanoparticles have been functionalized with TETA during the synthetic process, and the concentration of TETA is crucial for the formation of monodisperse mesoporous nanoparticles. The obtained single-crystal magnetic nanoparticles have a high magnetization, which enhances their response to external magnetic field and therefore should greatly facilitate the manipulation of the particles in practical uses. Reaction parameters affecting the formation of mesoporous structure were explored, and a possible formation mechanism involving templated aggregation and recrystallization processes was proposed. The capacity of the synthesized amine-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles toward Cu(II) removal from aqueous solution was investigated. The adsorption rate of Cu(II) on amine-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles followed a pseudo-second order kinetic model. The results of this study demonstrated that the amine-functionalized mesoporous superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles could be used as an efficient adsorbent in water treatment and would also find potential application for Cu(II) removal in vivo.

  8. Site-specific deposition of single gold nanoparticles by individual growth in electrohydrodynamically-printed attoliter droplet reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Julian; Rohner, Patrik; Galliker, Patrick; Raja, Shyamprasad N.; Pan, Ying; Tiwari, Manish K.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2015-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles with unique electronic, optical and catalytic properties can be efficiently synthesized in colloidal suspensions and are of broad scientific and technical interest and utility. However, their orderly integration on functional surfaces and devices remains a challenge. Here we show that single gold nanoparticles can be directly grown in individually printed, stabilized metal-salt ink attoliter droplets, using a nanoscale electrohydrodynamic printing method with a stable high-frequency dripping mode. This enables controllable sessile droplet nanoreactor formation and sustenance on non-wetting substrates, despite simultaneous rapid evaporation. The single gold nanoparticles can be formed inside such reactors in situ or by subsequent thermal annealing and plasma ashing. With this non-contact technique, single particles with diameters tunable in the range of 5-35 nm and with narrow size distribution, high yield and alignment accuracy are generated on demand and patterned into arbitrary arrays. The nanoparticles feature good catalytic activity as shown by the exemplary growth of silicon nanowires from the nanoparticles and the etching of nanoholes by the printed nanoparticles.Gold nanoparticles with unique electronic, optical and catalytic properties can be efficiently synthesized in colloidal suspensions and are of broad scientific and technical interest and utility. However, their orderly integration on functional surfaces and devices remains a challenge. Here we show that single gold nanoparticles can be directly grown in individually printed, stabilized metal-salt ink attoliter droplets, using a nanoscale electrohydrodynamic printing method with a stable high-frequency dripping mode. This enables controllable sessile droplet nanoreactor formation and sustenance on non-wetting substrates, despite simultaneous rapid evaporation. The single gold nanoparticles can be formed inside such reactors in situ or by subsequent thermal annealing and plasma

  9. Application of Ferrite Nanomaterial in RF On-Chip Inductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Lin Cai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several kinds of ferrite-integrated on-chip inductors are presented. Ferrite nanomaterial applied in RF on-chip inductors is prepared and analyzed to show the properties of high permeability, high ferromagnetic resonance frequency, high resistivity, and low loss, which has the potential that will improve the performance of RF on-chip inductors. Simulations of different coil and ferrite nanomaterial parameters, inductor structures, and surrounding structures are also conducted to achieve the trend of gains of inductance and quality factor of on-chip inductors. By integrating the prepared ferrite magnetic nanomaterial to the on-chip inductors with different structures, the measurement performances show an obvious improvement even in GHz frequency range. In addition, the studies of CMOS compatible process to integrate the nanomaterial promote the widespread application of magnetic nanomaterial in RF on-chip inductors.

  10. On-chip Inter-modal Brillouin Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kittlaus, Eric A; Rakich, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin interactions mediate nonlinear coupling between photons and acoustic phonons through an optomechanical three-wave interaction. Though these nonlinearities were previously very weak in silicon photonic systems, the recent emergence of new optomechanical waveguide structures have transformed Brillouin processes into one of the strongest and most tailorable on-chip nonlinear interactions. New technologies based on Brillouin couplings have formed a basis for amplification, filtering, and nonreciprocal signal processing techniques. In this paper, we demonstrate strong guided-wave Brillouin scattering between light fields guided in distinct spatial modes of a silicon waveguide for the first time. This inter-modal coupling creates dispersive symmetry breaking between Stokes and anti-Stokes processes, permitting single-sideband amplification and wave dynamics that permit near-unity power conversion. Combining these physics with integrated mode-multiplexers enables novel device topologies and elim...

  11. Computer System Design System-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Flynn, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of computer system designers will be less concerned about details of processors and memories, and more concerned about the elements of a system tailored to particular applications. These designers will have a fundamental knowledge of processors and other elements in the system, but the success of their design will depend on the skills in making system-level tradeoffs that optimize the cost, performance and other attributes to meet application requirements. This book provides a new treatment of computer system design, particularly for System-on-Chip (SOC), which addresses th

  12. Single electron tunneling in large scale nanojunction arrays with bisferrocene-nanoparticle hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Shilpi; Kumar, Susmit; Marzo, Pasquale; Primiceri, Elisabetta; di Corato, Riccardo; Rinaldi, Ross; Cozzi, Pier Giorgio; Bramanti, Alessandro Paolo; Maruccio, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    We report on the fabrication and single electron tunneling behaviour of large scale arrays of nanogap electrodes bridged by bisferrocene-gold nanoparticle hybrids (BFc-AuNP). Coulomb staircase was observed in the low temperature current-voltage curves measured on the junctions with asymmetric tunnel barriers. On the other hand, junctions with symmetric tunneling barrier exhibited mere nonlinear current voltage characteristics without discrete staircase. The experimental results agreed well with simulations based on the orthodox theory. The junction resistance showed thermally activated conduction behaviour at higher temperature. The overall voltage and temperature dependent results show that the transport behaviour of the large arrays of single particle devices obtained by a facile optical lithography and chemical etching process corresponds with the behaviour of single particle devices fabricated by other techniques like e-beam lithography and mechanical breaking methods.We report on the fabrication and single electron tunneling behaviour of large scale arrays of nanogap electrodes bridged by bisferrocene-gold nanoparticle hybrids (BFc-AuNP). Coulomb staircase was observed in the low temperature current-voltage curves measured on the junctions with asymmetric tunnel barriers. On the other hand, junctions with symmetric tunneling barrier exhibited mere nonlinear current voltage characteristics without discrete staircase. The experimental results agreed well with simulations based on the orthodox theory. The junction resistance showed thermally activated conduction behaviour at higher temperature. The overall voltage and temperature dependent results show that the transport behaviour of the large arrays of single particle devices obtained by a facile optical lithography and chemical etching process corresponds with the behaviour of single particle devices fabricated by other techniques like e-beam lithography and mechanical breaking methods. Electronic supplementary

  13. Thermodynamics and efficiency of an autonomous on-chip Maxwell’s demon

    OpenAIRE

    Aki Kutvonen; Jonne Koski; Tapio Ala-Nissila

    2016-01-01

    In his famous letter in 1870, Maxwell describes how Joule's law can be violated only by the intelligent action of a mere guiding agent later coined as Maxwell's demon by Lord Kelvin. In this letter we study thermodynamics of information using an experimentally feasible Maxwell's demon setup based a single electron transistor capacitively coupled to a single electron box, where both the system and the Demon can be clearly identified. Such an engineered on-chip Demon measures and performes feed...

  14. The Role of Interactions in Systems of Single Domain Ferrimagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Dutz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles are interesting materials for a lot of medical and technical applications. A less experimentally investigated question is the influence of particle packing density on magnetic properties due to magnetic interactions between single particles. For this, magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxides prepared as fine dry powder by laser deposition are investigated with respect to their structural and magnetic properties as function of packing density. The particles are nearly spherically shaped single crystals in the magnetic single domain size range with a mean diameter of 21 nm occasionally exhibiting spinel growth facets. Powders of these particles are diluted by nonmagnetic silicon oxide particles in a range of volume concentrations from 0.2 % up to 68 % of the bulk density of magnetite. The concentration dependence of remanence, coercivity and hysteresis losses is determined by measurements of minor loops in a vibrating sample magnetometer. Results which are discussed in the frame of present theoretical models may be understood in terms of the cubic anisotropy of magnetite distorted by a small uniaxial shape contribution.

  15. Highly sensitive immunoassay of protein molecules based on single nanoparticle fluorescence detection in a nanowell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Hee; Kim, Hee-Joo; Lakshmana, Sudheendra; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kennedy, Ian M.

    2011-03-01

    A nanoarray based-single molecule detection system was developed for detecting proteins with extremely high sensitivity. The nanoarray was able to effectively trap nanoparticles conjugated with biological sample into nanowells by integrating with an electrophoretic particle entrapment system (EPES). The nanoarray/EPES is superior to other biosensor using immunoassays in terms of saving the amounts of biological solution and enhancing kinetics of antibody binding due to reduced steric hindrance from the neighboring biological molecules. The nanoarray patterned onto a layer of PMMA and LOL on conductive and transparent indium tin oxide (ITO)-glass slide by using e-beam lithography. The suspension of 500 nm-fluorescent (green emission)-carboxylated polystyrene (PS) particles coated with protein-A followed by BDE 47 polyclonal antibody was added to the chip that was connected to the positive voltage. The droplet was covered by another ITO-coated-glass slide and connected to a ground terminal. After trapping the particles into the nanowells, the solution of different concentrations of anti-rabbit- IgG labeled with Alexa 532 was added for an immunoassay. A single molecule detection system could quantify the anti-rabbit IgG down to atto-mole level by counting photons emitted from the fluorescent dye bound to a single nanoparticle in a nanowell.

  16. Microfluidic Biosensing Systems Using Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Keplinger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been rapidly growing interest in developing hand held, sensitive and cost-effective on-chip biosensing systems that directly translate the presence of certain bioanalytes (e.g., biomolecules, cells and viruses into an electronic signal. The impressive and rapid progress in micro- and nanotechnology as well as in biotechnology enables the integration of a variety of analytical functions in a single chip. All necessary sample handling and analysis steps are then performed within the chip. Microfluidic systems for biomedical analysis usually consist of a set of units, which guarantees the manipulation, detection and recognition of bioanalytes in a reliable and flexible manner. Additionally, the use of magnetic fields for performing the aforementioned tasks has been steadily gaining interest. This is because magnetic fields can be well tuned and applied either externally or from a directly integrated solution in the biosensing system. In combination with these applied magnetic fields, magnetic nanoparticles are utilized. Some of the merits of magnetic nanoparticles are the possibility of manipulating them inside microfluidic channels by utilizing high gradient magnetic fields, their detection by integrated magnetic microsensors, and their flexibility due to functionalization by means of surface modification and specific binding. Their multi-functionality is what makes them ideal candidates as the active component in miniaturized on-chip biosensing systems. In this review, focus will be given to the type of biosening systems that use microfluidics in combination with magnetoresistive sensors and detect the presence of bioanalyte tagged with magnetic nanoparticles.

  17. Microfluidic biosensing systems using magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giouroudi, Ioanna; Keplinger, Franz

    2013-09-09

    In recent years, there has been rapidly growing interest in developing hand held, sensitive and cost-effective on-chip biosensing systems that directly translate the presence of certain bioanalytes (e.g., biomolecules, cells and viruses) into an electronic signal. The impressive and rapid progress in micro- and nanotechnology as well as in biotechnology enables the integration of a variety of analytical functions in a single chip. All necessary sample handling and analysis steps are then performed within the chip. Microfluidic systems for biomedical analysis usually consist of a set of units, which guarantees the manipulation, detection and recognition of bioanalytes in a reliable and flexible manner. Additionally, the use of magnetic fields for performing the aforementioned tasks has been steadily gaining interest. This is because magnetic fields can be well tuned and applied either externally or from a directly integrated solution in the biosensing system. In combination with these applied magnetic fields, magnetic nanoparticles are utilized. Some of the merits of magnetic nanoparticles are the possibility of manipulating them inside microfluidic channels by utilizing high gradient magnetic fields, their detection by integrated magnetic microsensors, and their flexibility due to functionalization by means of surface modification and specific binding. Their multi-functionality is what makes them ideal candidates as the active component in miniaturized on-chip biosensing systems. In this review, focus will be given to the type of biosening systems that use microfluidics in combination with magnetoresistive sensors and detect the presence of bioanalyte tagged with magnetic nanoparticles.

  18. Detection and characterization of single nanoparticles by interferometric phase modulated ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, F.; Bosch, S.; Tort, N.; Arteaga, O. [Universitat de Barcelona, IN2UB, Dep. Fisica Aplicada i Optica, c/Marti i Franques 1, 08028 (Spain); Sancho-Parramon, J. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, Zagreb 10002 (Croatia); Jover, E.; Bertran, E. [Universitat de Barcelona, IN2UB, Dep. Fisica Aplicada i Optica, c/Marti i Franques 1, 08028 (Spain); Canillas, A., E-mail: acanillas@ub.ed [Universitat de Barcelona, IN2UB, Dep. Fisica Aplicada i Optica, c/Marti i Franques 1, 08028 (Spain)

    2011-02-28

    We introduce a new measurement system called Nanopolar interferometer devoted to monitor and characterize single nanoparticles which is based on the interferometric phase modulated ellipsometry technique. The system collects the backscattered light by the particles in the solid angle subtended by a microscope objective and then analyses its frequency components. The results for the detection of 2 {mu}m and 50 nm particles are explained in terms of a cross polarization effect of the polarization vectors when the beam converts from divergent to parallel in the microscope objective. This explanation is supported with the results of the optical modelling using the exact Mie theory for the light scattered by the particles.

  19. Near-field second-harmonic generation in single gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavelani-Rossi, M.; Celebrano, M.; Biagioni, P.; Polli, D.; Finazzi, M.; Duò, L.; Cerullo, G.; Labardi, M.; Allegrini, M.; Grand, J.; Adam, P.-M.

    2008-03-01

    Second-harmonic generation from single gold elliptical nanoparticles is experimentally investigated by a nonlinear scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM). The near-field nonlinear response is found to be directly related to local surface plasmon resonances and to particle morphology. The combined analysis of linear and second-harmonic SNOM images provides discrimination among different light extinction particle behaviors, not achievable just with linear techniques. The polarization state of the emitted second harmonic is also investigated, providing experimental evidence of second-harmonic particle emission modes peculiar to near-field excitation.

  20. Investigation on refractive index sensing of single silver nanoparticle at tightly focused light illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Si; Wang, Xiang-hui; Sun, Jing-wei; Fan, Fei; Chang, Sheng-jiang

    2017-01-01

    Based on the generalized Mie theory, refractive index sensing characteristics of single silver nanoparticle respectively illuminated by tightly focused linearly-polarized and radially-polarized light beams are investigated. The spectra for localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) under different dielectric environments demonstrate that distinct dipolar and quadrupolar resonances can be always observed for the case of radial polarization, while there is only strong dipolar resonance for the case of linear polarization. The dipolar mode has a higher sensitivity. However, the figure of merit ( FOM) for the quadrupolar resonance is much higher than that for the dipolar resonance, because the quadrupolar resonance has a narrower width.

  1. Formation of magnetite nanoparticles at low temperature: from superparamagnetic to stable single domain particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Baumgartner

    Full Text Available The room temperature co-precipitation of ferrous and ferric iron under alkaline conditions typically yields superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles below a size of 20 nm. We show that at pH  =  9 this method can be tuned to grow larger particles with single stable domain magnetic (> 20-30 nm or even multi-domain behavior (> 80 nm. The crystal growth kinetics resembles surprisingly observations of magnetite crystal formation in magnetotactic bacteria. The physicochemical parameters required for mineralization in these organisms are unknown, therefore this study provides insight into which conditions could possibly prevail in the biomineralizing vesicle compartments (magnetosomes of these bacteria.

  2. Single-step gas phase synthesis of stable iron aluminide nanoparticles with soft magnetic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Vernieres

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft magnetic alloys at the nanoscale level have long generated a vivid interest as candidate materials for technological and biomedical purposes. Consequently, controlling the structure of bimetallic nanoparticles in order to optimize their magnetic properties, such as high magnetization and low coercivity, can significantly boost their potential for related applications. However, traditional synthesis methods stumble upon the long standing challenge of developing true nanoalloys with effective control over morphology and stability against oxidation. Herein, we report on a single-step approach to the gas phase synthesis of soft magnetic bimetallic iron aluminide nanoparticles, using a versatile co-sputter inert gas condensation technique. This method allowed for precise morphological control of the particles; they consisted of an alloy iron aluminide crystalline core (DO3 phase and an alumina shell, which reduced inter-particle interactions and also prevented further oxidation and segregation of the bimetallic core. Remarkably, the as-deposited alloy nanoparticles show interesting soft magnetic properties, in that they combine a high saturation magnetization (170 emu/g and low coercivity (less than 20 Oe at room temperature. Additional functionality is tenable by modifying the surface of the particles with a polymer, to ensure their good colloidal dispersion in aqueous environments.

  3. Identification of a Critical Intermediate in Galvanic Exchange Reactions by Single-Nanoparticle Resolved Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy George; Jain, Prashant

    2014-06-01

    The realization of common materials transformations in nanocrystalline systems is fostering the development of novel nanostructures and allowing a deep look into the atomistic mechanisms involved. Galvanic corrosion is one such transformation. We studied galvanic replacement within individual metal nanoparticles by using plasmonic spectroscopy. This proved to be a powerful approach to studying materials transformations in the absence of ensemble averaging. Individual nanoscale units act as domains that can be interrogated optically in isolation, whereas the averaging of all such domains provides a bulk reaction trajectory. Single-nanoparticle reaction trajectories showed that a Ag nanoparticle exposed to Au3+ makes an abrupt transition into a nanocage structure. The transition is limited by a critical structural event, which we identified by electron microscopy to comprise the formation of a nanosized void, similar to the pitting process commonly observed in the corrosion of metals. Trajectories also revealed a surprisingly strong nonlinearity of the reaction kinetics, which we explain by a model involving the critical coalescence of vacancies into a growing void. The critical void size for galvanic exchange to spontaneously proceed was found to be 20 atomic vacancies. In the future we hope to extend this approach to examine a wide variety of materials transformations and chemical reactions.

  4. Spray pyrolysis synthesis of ZnS nanoparticles from a single-source precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sha; Zhang, Hongwang; Swihart, Mark T

    2009-06-10

    ZnS, a II-VI semiconductor with a relatively high direct bandgap (approximately 3.6 eV) in the near-UV region, has potential applications in areas such as solar cells, lasers and displays. In addition, ZnS nanoparticles can be applied as phosphors, probes for bioimaging, emitters in light emitting diodes and photocatalysts. Here, we report synthesis of cubic ZnS nanoparticles from a low-cost single-source precursor in a continuous spray pyrolysis reactor. In this approach, the evaporation and decomposition of precursor and nucleation of particles occur sequentially. Product particles were characterized by HRTEM, XRD, and EDX. Particles with diameters ranging from 2 to 7 nm were produced. HF was used to remove ZnO impurities and other surface contamination. As-synthesized ZnS nanoparticles exhibit blue photoluminescence near 440 nm under UV excitation and have quantum yields up to 15% after HF treatment. This demonstrates a potentially general approach for continuous low-cost synthesis of semiconductor quantum dots for applications where tight control of the size distribution is less important than scalable, economical production.

  5. Optical extinction spectrum of a single metal nanoparticle: Quantitative characterization of a particle and of its local environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskens, O. L.; Billaud, P.; Broyer, M.; Del Fatti, N.; Vallée, F.

    2008-11-01

    Optical absorption spectroscopy of a single metal nanoparticle is used to characterize its properties and to obtain quantitative information on its local environment. Experiments were performed using the spatial modulation spectroscopy (SMS) technique on 16 nm mean diameter gold nanoparticles embedded in different medium (i.e., deposited on glass or embedded in a polymer layer). Extraction of the nanoparticle characteristics and determination of the dielectric constant of its environment are discussed, focusing on the impact of the particle shape assumption. The refractive index of the local environment deduced from these measurements shows large particle-to-particle variation, yielding information about fluctuations of the dielectric properties of the surrounding medium on a nanometric scale, inaccessible in ensemble measurements. The influence of the environment of a nanoparticle on its optically extracted geometry and its surface plasmon resonance broadening by surface effect are also studied at a single-particle level.

  6. Direct interrogation of DNA content distribution in nanoparticles by a novel microfluidics-based single-particle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Cyrus W; Pan, Deng; Lee, Jason; Jiang, Xuan; Liu, Kelvin J; Mao, Hai-Quan; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2014-08-13

    Nonviral gene delivery holds great promise not just as a safer alternative to viral vectors in traditional gene therapy applications, but also for regenerative medicine, induction of pluripotency in somatic cells, and RNA interference for gene silencing. Although it continues to be an active area of research, there remain many challenges to the rational design of vectors. Among these, the inability to characterize the composition of nanoparticles and its distribution has made it difficult to probe the mechanism of gene transfection process, since differences in the nanoparticle-mediated transfection exist even when the same vector is used. There is a lack of sensitive methods that allow for full characterization of DNA content in single nanoparticles and its distribution among particles in the same preparation. Here we report a novel spectroscopic approach that is capable of interrogating nanoparticles on a particle-by-particle basis. Using PEI/DNA and PEI-g-PEG/DNA nanoparticles as examples, we have shown that the distribution of DNA content among these nanoparticles was relatively narrow, with the average numbers of DNA of 4.8 and 6.7 per particle, respectively, in PEI/DNA and PEI-g-PEG/DNA nanoparticles. This analysis enables a more accurate description of DNA content in polycation/DNA nanoparticles. It paves the way toward comparative assessments of various types of gene carriers and provides insights into bridging the efficiency gap between viral and nonviral vehicles.

  7. Effect of Fabrication-Dependent Shape and Composition of Solid-State Nanopores on Single Nanoparticle Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shuo; Yuzvinsky, Thomas D.; Schmidt, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nanopores can be fabricated in a variety of ways and form the basis for label-free sensing of single nanoparticles: as individual nanoparticles traverse the nanopore, they alter the ionic current across it in a characteristic way. Typically, nanopores are described by the diameter of their limiting aperture, and less attention has been paid to other, fabrication-dependent parameters. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of the properties and sensing performance of three types ...

  8. Detection of Single Nanoparticles Using the Dissipative Interaction in a High-Q Microcavity

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Bo-Qiang; Zhi, Yanyan; Wang, Li; Kim, Donghyun; Gong, Qihuang; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasensitive optical detection of nanometer-scaled particles is highly desirable for applications in early-stage diagnosis of human diseases, environmental monitoring, and homeland security, but remains extremely difficult due to ultralow polarizabilities of small-sized, low-index particles. Optical whispering-gallery-mode microcavities, which can enhance significantly the light-matter interaction, have emerged as promising platforms for label-free detection of nanoscale objects. Different from the conventional whispering-gallery-mode sensing relying on the reactive (i.e., dispersive) interaction, here we propose and demonstrate to detect single lossy nanoparticles using the dissipative interaction in a high-$Q$ toroidal microcavity. In the experiment, detection of single gold nanorods in an aqueous environment is realized by monitoring simultaneously the linewidth change and shift of the cavity mode. The experimental result falls within the theoretical prediction. Remarkably, the reactive and dissipative s...

  9. Detection of luminescent single ultrasmall silicon nanoparticles using fluctuation correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akcakir, O. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Therrien, J. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Belomoin, G. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Barry, N. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Muller, J. D. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Gratton, E. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Nayfeh, M. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2000-04-03

    We dispersed electrochemical etched Si into a colloid of ultrasmall blue luminescent nanoparticles, observable with the naked eye, in room light. We use two-photon near-infrared femtosecond excitation at 780 nm to record the fluctuating time series of the luminescence, and determine the number density, brightness, and size of diffusing fluorescent particles. The luminescence efficiency of particles is high enough such that we are able to detect a single particle, in a focal volume, of 1 pcm3. The measurements yield a particle size of 1 nm, consistent with direct imaging by transmission electron microscopy. They also yield an excitation efficiency under two-photon excitation two to threefold larger than that of fluorescein. Detection of single particles paves the way for their use as labels in biosensing applications. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  10. Materialization of single multicomposite nanowire: entrapment of ZnO nanoparticles in polyaniline nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Seong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present materialization of single multicomposite nanowire (SMNW-entrapped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs via an electrochemical growth method, which is a newly developed fabrication method to grow a single nanowire between a pair of pre-patterned electrodes. Entrapment of ZnO NPs was controlled via different conditions of SMNW fabrication such as an applied potential and mixture ratio of NPs and aniline solution. The controlled concentration of ZnO NP results in changes in the physical properties of the SMNWs, as shown in transmission electron microscopy images. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity and elasticity of SMNWs show improvement over those of pure polyaniline nanowire. The new nano-multicomposite material showed synergistic effects on mechanical and electrical properties, with logarithmical change and saturation increasing ZnO NP concentration.

  11. Multiplex DNA assay based on nanoparticle probes by single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shixi; Han, Guojun; Xing, Zhi; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2014-04-01

    A multiplex DNA assay based on nanoparticle (NP) tags detection utilizing single particle mode inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) as ultrasensitive readout has been demonstrated in the article. Three DNA targets associated with clinical diseases (HIV, HAV, and HBV) down to 1 pM were detected by DNA probes labeled with AuNPs, AgNPs, and PtNPs via DNA sandwich assay. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes can also be effectively discriminated. Since our method is unaffected by the sample matrix, it is well-suited for diagnostic applications. Moreover, with the high sensitivity of SP-ICP-MS and the variety of NPs detectable by SP-ICP-MS, high-throughput DNA assay could be achieved without signal amplification or chain reaction amplification.

  12. Robust Discrimination between Single Gold Nanoparticles and Their Dimers in Aqueous Solution for Ultrasensitive Homogeneous Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kobayashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a robust method to distinguish isolated single gold nanoparticles (AuNP monomers and their dimers under Brownian motion, a key for ultrasensitive homogeneous bioassays, including AuNP sandwich assays. To detect dimers and distinguish them from a larger number of monomers in aqueous solution, single-particle polarization microscopy was performed. For the accurate detection of individual particles, the optical anisotropy and rotational diffusion time are measured because a dimer is much more anisotropic than the nearly spherical monomer and the rotational diffusion time of a dimer is four times that of a monomer. By employing an autocorrelation analysis, we defined a measure of distinguishing that simultaneously enables high detection probability and low error probability. The detection platform offers homogeneous DNA hybridization assays and immunoassays at the subpicomolar level.

  13. Magnetic field dependence of the diffusion of single dextran molecules within a hydrogel containing magnetite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Baradi, Ateyyah M; Mykhaylyk, Oleksandr O; Blythe, Harry J; Geoghegan, Mark

    2011-03-07

    We consider the effect of applied magnetic fields on the diffusion of single dextran molecules labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate within a ferrogel [a composite of magnetite nanoparticles in a poly(methacrylic acid) hydrogel] using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We show that the mesh size of the ferrogel is controlled by the applied magnetic field, B, and scales as exp(-(4)√ξ(3)B(2)/2μ(0)k(B)T), where ξ is a correlation length, μ(0) the magnetic constant, k(B) the Boltzmann constant, and T is the absolute temperature. The diffusion coefficient of the dextran can be modeled with a simple Stokes-Einstein law, containing the same scaling behavior with magnetic field as the swelling of the hydrogel. Furthermore, the magnetic field-dependent release of dextran from the hydrogel is also controlled by the same relationship. The samples were characterized by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and magnetometry experiments. Magnetic hysteresis loops from these ferrogels and zero field cooled∕field cooled measurements reveal single domain ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature with a similar coercivity for both as-prepared and fully swollen ferrogels, and for increasing magnetic nanoparticle concentration. SAXS experiments, such as the hysteresis loops, show that magnetite does not aggregate in these gels.

  14. Microfluidic cytometers with integrated on-chip optical components for blood cell analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingying; Li, Qin; Hu, Xiao-Ming

    2016-10-01

    In the last two decades, microfluidic technologies have shown the great potential in developing portable and point-of care testing blood cell analysis devices. It is challenging to integrate all free-space detecting components in a single microfluidic platform. In this paper, a microfluidic cytometer with integrated on-chip optical components was demonstrated. To facilitate on-chip detection, the device integrated optical fibers and on-chip microlens with microfluidic channels on one polydimethylsiloxane layer by standard soft photolithography. This compact design increased the sensitivity of the device and also eliminated time-consuming free-space optical alignments. Polystyrene particles, together with red blood cells and platelets, were measured in the microfluidic cytometer by small angle forward scatter. Experimental results indicated that the performance of the microfluidic device was comparable to a conventional cytometer. And it was also demonstrated its ability to detect on-chip optical signals in a highly compact, simple, truly portable and low cost format which was perfect suitable for point-of-care testing clinical hematology diagnostics.

  15. Torque undergone by assemblies of single-domain magnetic nanoparticles submitted to a rotating magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrey, J.; Hallali, N.

    2016-11-01

    In the last 10 years, it has been shown in various types of experiments that it is possible to induce biological effects in cells using the torque generated by magnetic nanoparticles submitted to an alternating or a rotating magnetic field. In biological systems, particles are generally found under the form of assemblies because they accumulate at the cell membrane, are internalized inside lysosomes, or are synthesized under the form of beads containing several particles. The torque undergone by assemblies of single-domain magnetic nanoparticles has not been addressed theoretically so far and is the subject of the present article. The results shown in the present article have been obtained using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, in which thermal activation is taken into account, so the torque undergone by ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic nanoparticles could both be simulated. The first system under study is a single ferromagnetic particle with its easy axis in the plane of the rotating magnetic field. Then, elements adding complexity to the problem are introduced progressively and the properties of the resulting system presented and analyzed: random anisotropy axes, thermal activation, assemblies, and finally magnetic interactions. The most complex studied systems are particularly relevant for applications and are assemblies of interacting superparamagnetic nanoparticles with randomly oriented anisotropy axes. Whenever it is possible, analytical equations describing the torque properties are provided, as well as their domain of validity. Although the properties of an assembly naturally derive from those of single particles, it is shown here that several of them were unexpected and are particularly interesting with regard to the maximization of torque amplitude in biological applications. In particular, it is shown that, in a given range of parameters, the torque of an assembly increases dramatically in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the rotating

  16. Optical micro-spectroscopy of single metallic nanoparticles: quantitative extinction and transient resonant four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Lukas; Zoriniants, George; Masia, Francesco; Arkill, Kenton P; Verkade, Paul; Rowles, Darren; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We report a wide-field imaging method to rapidly and quantitatively measure the optical extinction cross-section σ(ext) (also polarisation resolved) of a large number of individual gold nanoparticles, for statistically-relevant single particle analysis. We demonstrate a sensitivity of 5 nm(2) in σ(ext), enabling detection of single 5 nm gold nanoparticles with total acquisition times in the 1 min range. Moreover, we have developed an analytical model of the polarisation resolved σ(ext), which enabled us to extract geometrical particle aspect ratios from the measured σ(ext). Using this method, we have characterized a large number of nominally-spherical gold nanoparticles in the 10-100 nm size range. Furthermore, the method provided measurements of in-house fabricated nanoparticle conjugates, allowing distinction of individual dimers from single particles and larger aggregates. The same particle conjugates were investigated correlatively by phase-resolved transient resonant four-wave mixing micro-spectroscopy. A direct comparison of the phase-resolved response between single gold nanoparticles and dimers highlighted the promise of the four-wave mixing technique for sensing applications with dimers as plasmon rulers.

  17. High Speed Global On-Chip Interconnects and Transceivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, E.

    2007-01-01

    The data rate of global on-chip interconnects (up to 10 mm) is limited by a large distributed resistance and capacitance. This thesis describes methods to increase the achievable data rate of global on-chip interconnects with minimal chip area and power consumption, while maintaining data integrity.

  18. Interconnects and On-Chip Data Communication Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, E.; Schinkel, Daniel; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria

    Global on-chip communication is rapidly becoming a speed and power bottleneck in CMOS circuits. In this paper, a ‘mixed-signal’ approach is taken to analyze on-chip interconnects and it is investigated how data-rates can be improved. It is shown that complex signaling schemes such as OFDM and CDMA

  19. Thermal Management for Dependable On-Chip Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ebi, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This thesis addresses the dependability issues in on-chip systems from a thermal perspective. This includes an explanation and analysis of models to show the relationship between dependability and tempature. Additionally, multiple novel methods for on-chip thermal management are introduced aiming to optimize thermal properties. Analysis of the methods is done through simulation and through infrared thermal camera measurements.

  20. The ReNoC Reconfigurable Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Stensgaard, Mikkel Bystrup; Sparsø, Jens

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a reconfigurable network-on-chip architecture called ReNoC, which is intended for use in general-purpose multiprocessor system-on-chip platforms, and which enables application-specific logical NoC topologies to be configured, thus providing both efficiency and flexibility...

  1. Energy Model of Networks-on-Chip and a Bus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkotte, P.T.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kavaldjiev, N.K.; Becker, Jens E.; Becker, Jürgen; Nurmi, J.; Takala, J.; Hamalainen, T.D.

    2005-01-01

    A Network-on-Chip (NoC) is an energy-efficient onchip communication architecture for Multi-Processor Systemon-Chip (MPSoC) architectures. In earlier papers we proposed two Network-on-Chip architectures based on packet-switching and circuit-switching. In this paper we derive an energy model for both

  2. Transient and permanent error control for networks-on-chip

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Qiaoyan

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses reliability and energy efficiency of on-chip networks using a configurable error control coding (ECC) scheme for datalink-layer transient error management. The method can adjust both error detection and correction strengths at runtime by varying the number of redundant wires for parity-check bits. Methods are also presented to tackle joint transient and permanent error correction, exploiting the redundant resources already available on-chip. A parallel and flexible network simulator is also introduced, which facilitates examining the impact of various error control methods on network-on-chip performance. Includes a complete survey of error control methods for reliable networks-on-chip, evaluated for reliability, energy and performance metrics; Provides analysis of error control in various network-on-chip layers, as well as presentation of an innovative multi-layer error control coding technique; Presents state-of-the-art solutions to address simultaneously reliability, energy and performan...

  3. On-Chip Bondwire Magnetics with Ferrite-Epoxy Glob Coating for Power Systems on Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Lu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel concept of on-chip bondwire inductors and transformers with ferrite epoxy glob coating is proposed to offer a cost effective approach realizing power systems on chip (SOC. We have investigated the concept both experimentally and with finite element modeling. A Q factor of 30–40 is experimentally demonstrated for the bondwire inductors which represents an improvement by a factor of 3–30 over the state-of-the-art MEMS micromachined inductors. Transformer parameters including self- and mutual inductance and coupling factors are extracted from both modeled and measured S-parameters. More importantly, the bondwire magnetic components can be easily integrated into SOC manufacturing processes with minimal changes and open enormous possibilities for realizing cost-effective, high-current, high-efficiency power SOCs.

  4. Raman Spectroscopy of Single Nanoparticles in a Double-Nanohole Optical Tweezer System

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Steven; Gordon, Reuven

    2015-01-01

    A double nanohole in a metal film was used to trap nanoparticles (20 nm diameter) and simultaneously record their Raman spectrum using the trapping laser as the excitation source. This allowed for the identification of characteristic Stokes lines for titania and polystyrene nanoparticles, showing the capability for material identification of nanoparticles once trapped. Increased Raman signal is observed for the trapping of multiple nanoparticles. This system combines the benefits of nanoparticle isolation and manipulation with unique identification.

  5. Raman spectroscopy of single nanoparticles in a double-nanohole optical tweezer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven; Balushi, Ahmed A. Al; Gordon, Reuven

    2015-10-01

    A double nanohole in a metal film was used to trap nanoparticles (20 nm diameter) and simultaneously record their Raman spectrum using the trapping laser as the excitation source. This allowed for the identification of characteristic Stokes lines for titania and polystyrene nanoparticles, showing the capability for material identification of nanoparticles once trapped. Increased Raman signal was observed for the trapping of multiple nanoparticles. This system combines the benefits of nanoparticle isolation and manipulation with unique identification.

  6. Quantitative imaging of gold and silver nanoparticles in single eukaryotic cells by laser ablation ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Daniela; Giesen, Charlotte; Traub, Heike; Panne, Ulrich; Kneipp, Janina; Jakubowski, Norbert

    2012-11-20

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was utilized for spatially resolved bioimaging of the distribution of silver and gold nanoparticles in individual fibroblast cells upon different incubation experiments. High spatial resolution was achieved by optimization of scan speed, ablation frequency, and laser energy. Nanoparticles are visualized with respect to cellular substructures and are found to accumulate in the perinuclear region with increasing incubation time. On the basis of matrix-matched calibration, we developed a method for quantification of the number of metal nanoparticles at the single-cell level. The results provide insight into nanoparticle/cell interactions and have implications for the development of analytical methods in tissue diagnostics and therapeutics.

  7. An energy-efficient Network-on-Chip for a heterogeneous tiled reconfigurable System-on-Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaldjiev, N.K.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    This paper proposes a Network-on-Chip architecture that offers high flexibility and performance. It is used in a System-on-Chip platform for future multimedia mobile devices. The network is packet switching wormhole network with virtual-channel flow control and source routing. The initial

  8. An energy-efficient Network-on-Chip for a heterogeneous tiled reconfigurable Systems-on-Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaldjiev, N.K.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    This paper proposes a Network-on-Chip architecture that offers high flexibility and performance. It is used in a System-on-Chip platform for future multimedia mobile devices. The network is packet switching wormhole network with virtual-channel flow control and source routing. The initial

  9. Design of Networks-on-Chip for Real-Time Multi-Processor Systems-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of networks-on-chips for use in multi-processor systems-on-chips - the hardware platforms used in embedded systems. These platforms typically have to guarantee real-time properties, and as the network is a shared resource, it has to provide service guarantees...

  10. Detection of Engineered Copper Nanoparticles in Soil Using Single Particle ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Jana; Praetorius, Antonia; Gondikas, Andreas; Fabienke, Willi; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-12-10

    Regulatory efforts rely on nanometrology for the development and implementation of laws regarding the incorporation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) into industrial and consumer products. Copper is currently one of the most common metals used in the constantly developing and expanding sector of nanotechnology. The use of copper nanoparticles in products, such as agricultural biocides, cosmetics and paints, is increasing. Copper based ENMs will eventually be released to the environment through the use and disposal of nano-enabled products, however, the detection of copper ENMs in environmental samples is a challenging task. Single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (spICP-MS) has been suggested as a powerful tool for routine nanometrology efforts. In this work, we apply a spICP-MS method for the detection of engineered copper nanomaterials in colloidal extracts from natural soil samples. Overall, copper nanoparticles were successfully detected in the soil colloidal extracts and the importance of dwell time, background removal, and sample dilution for method optimization and recovery maximization is highlighted.

  11. Detection of Engineered Copper Nanoparticles in Soil Using Single Particle ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Navratilova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory efforts rely on nanometrology for the development and implementation of laws regarding the incorporation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs into industrial and consumer products. Copper is currently one of the most common metals used in the constantly developing and expanding sector of nanotechnology. The use of copper nanoparticles in products, such as agricultural biocides, cosmetics and paints, is increasing. Copper based ENMs will eventually be released to the environment through the use and disposal of nano-enabled products, however, the detection of copper ENMs in environmental samples is a challenging task. Single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (spICP-MS has been suggested as a powerful tool for routine nanometrology efforts. In this work, we apply a spICP-MS method for the detection of engineered copper nanomaterials in colloidal extracts from natural soil samples. Overall, copper nanoparticles were successfully detected in the soil colloidal extracts and the importance of dwell time, background removal, and sample dilution for method optimization and recovery maximization is highlighted.

  12. Determination of gold nanoparticles in natural water using single particle-ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙晨璐; 杨兆光; 杨远; 李海普; 王强

    2016-01-01

    A reliable method for detecting nanoparticles is necessary for the wide application of nanomaterials. Single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) was investigated to detect the size of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in this work. Discrimination of particle signal and iterative algorithm were used to calculate the baseline of particle signal. Influence of dwell time was discussed and 3 ms was selected as dwell time for size detection. Different AuNPs standards (30, 60, 80 and 100 nm) and mixed samples (60 and 100 nm) were determined by SP-ICP-MS and the accuracy was confirmed with reference values. The particle size detection limit was 19 nm in ultrapure water (UP water) and 31 nm in 0.1μg/L Au3+ solution. Stability of AuNPs in ultrapure water and natural water samples was investigated by detecting size variation of AuNPs. The result shows that AuNPs are stable in aqueous environment for 6 d but degraded after 30 d.

  13. On-chip sample preparation for complete blood count from raw blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, John; Wei, Yuan; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2015-03-21

    This paper describes a monolithic microfluidic device capable of on-chip sample preparation for both RBC and WBC measurements from whole blood. For the first time, on-chip sample processing (e.g. dilution, lysis, and filtration) and downstream single cell measurement were fully integrated to enable sample preparation and single cell analysis from whole blood on a single device. The device consists of two parallel sub-systems that perform sample processing and electrical measurements for measuring RBC and WBC parameters. The system provides a modular environment capable of handling solutions of various viscosities by adjusting the length of channels and precisely controlling mixing ratios, and features a new 'offset' filter configuration for increased duration of device operation. RBC concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), cell distribution width, WBC concentration and differential are determined by electrical impedance measurement. Experimental characterization of over 100,000 cells from 10 patient blood samples validated the system's capability for performing on-chip raw blood processing and measurement.

  14. Monolithically Integrated Microelectromechanical Systems for On-Chip Strain Engineering of Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Yan; Mietschke, Michael; Zhang, Long; Yuan, Feifei; Abel, Stefan; Hühne, Ruben; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fompeyrine, Jean; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2016-09-14

    Elastic strain fields based on single crystal piezoelectric elements represent an effective way for engineering the quantum dot (QD) emission with unrivaled precision and technological relevance. However, pioneering researches in this direction were mainly based on bulk piezoelectric substrates, which prevent the development of chip-scale devices. Here, we present a monolithically integrated Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device with great potential for on-chip quantum photonic applications. High-quality epitaxial PMN-PT thin films have been grown on SrTiO3 buffered Si and show excellent piezoelectric responses. Dense arrays of MEMS with small footprints are then fabricated based on these films, forming an on-chip strain tuning platform. After transferring the QD-containing nanomembranes onto these MEMS, the nonclassical emissions (e.g., single photons) from single QDs can be engineered by the strain fields. We envision that the strain tunable QD sources on the individually addressable and monolithically integrated MEMS pave the way toward complex quantum photonic applications on chip.

  15. Screening sensitive nanosensors via the investigation of shape-dependent localized surface plasmon resonance of single Ag nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of differently shaped plasmonic nanoparticles benefits screening and designing highly sensitive single nanoparticle sensors. Herein, in the present work, we systematically investigated the shape-dependent scattering light colours and refractive index (RI) sensitivity of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) at the single nanoparticle level using conventional dark-field light scattering microscopy and spectroscopy. AgNPs in various shapes and scattering colourful light were synthesized, and the shape effect on the scattering light colour was determined by the colocalization of the same nanoparticles with dark-field microscopy (DFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the AgNPs that scattered blue, cyan, yellow, and red light are spheres, cubes, triangular bipyramids, and rods, respectively, which enable us to directly recognize the shape of AgNPs through dark-field microscopy instead of electron microscopy. Further studies on investigation of the scattering spectral responses of single AgNPs to their surrounding solvents show that the RI sensitivity of AgNPs of different shapes followed the order of rods > cubes > triangular bipyramids > spheres. Among the commonly studied AgNPs, Ag nanorods have the highest RI sensitivity, which increases as the aspect ratio increases. Then, AgNPs of various shapes were used as single nanoparticle sensors for probing the adsorption of small molecules.Understanding the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of differently shaped plasmonic nanoparticles benefits screening and designing highly sensitive single nanoparticle sensors. Herein, in the present work, we systematically investigated the shape-dependent scattering light colours and refractive index (RI) sensitivity of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) at the single nanoparticle level using conventional dark-field light scattering microscopy and spectroscopy. AgNPs in various shapes and scattering colourful

  16. Poly(acrylic acid)-directed synthesis of colloidally stable single domain magnetite nanoparticles via partial oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altan, Cem L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul 34755 (Turkey); Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry & Soft Matter cryoTEM Research Unit, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands); Gurten, Berna [Department of Chemical Engineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul 34755 (Turkey); Sadza, Roel [Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry & Soft Matter cryoTEM Research Unit, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands); Yenigul, Elcin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul 34755 (Turkey); Sommerdijk, Nico A.J.M., E-mail: n.sommerdijk@tue.nl [Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry & Soft Matter cryoTEM Research Unit, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands); Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands); Bucak, Seyda, E-mail: seyda@yeditepe.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul 34755 (Turkey)

    2016-10-15

    Octahedral, single domain magnetite nanoparticles with average size of ~55 nm were synthesized through oxidative aging of a ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH){sub 2}) precursor at high pH in water. The synthesis was also carried out in the presence of the hydrophilic polymer poly(acrylic acid). Presence of the polymer changed the particle morphology from octahedral to spherical while average size decreased to 40–50 nm. Although these particles have a tendency to precipitate due to their high magnetic moment, dispersions of these particles were obtained in the presence of this particular polymer which made the particles stable in water for several days making them suitable for various biotechnological applications such as cell separation owing to their low toxicity. - Highlights: • Stable, single domain magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized via partial oxidation. • Particles are readily stabilized in water by a biocompatible polymer. • Steric barrier is essential for the stabilization of large magnetite nanoparticles.

  17. Preparation of Hierarchical Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles through a Single-Templating Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈媛丽; 肖敏; 庄伟; 李艺; 李宝宗; 杨永刚

    2012-01-01

    Silicas with hierarchical porous architectures attracted much attention, due to their potential applications in catalysis and separation. Generally, they were prepared through dualor triple-templating approaches. Herein, mesoporous silica nanoparticles with rod-like pore channels inside and lamellar mesopores on the surfaces were prepared using the self-assemblies of a chiral low-molecular-weight amphiphile as templates through a single-templating approach. The formation of the lamellar mesopores was studied by taking field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images after different reaction times. The lamellar pores were proposed to be formed by merging rod-like micelles during the sol-gel process. Moreover, helical nanofibers with rod-like pore channels inside and lamellar mesopores on the surfaces were prepared with the addition of n-octanol as a co-structure-directing agent.

  18. Memory operations in Au nanoparticle single-electron transistors with floating gate electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Yasuo; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Majima, Yutaka

    2016-11-01

    Floating gate memory operations are demonstrated in a single-electron transistor (SET) fabricated by a chemical assembly using the Au nanogap electrodes and the chemisorbed Au nanoparticles. By applying pulse voltages to the control gate, phase shifts were clearly and stably observed both in the Coulomb oscillations and in the Coulomb diamonds. Writing and erasing operations on the floating gate memory were reproducibly observed, and the charges on the floating gate electrodes were maintained for at least 12 h. By considering the capacitance of the floating gate electrode, the number of electrons in the floating gate electrode was estimated as 260. Owing to the stability of the fabricated SET, these writing and erasing operations on the floating gate memory can be applied to reconfigurable SET circuits fabricated by a chemically assembled technique.

  19. Magnetic, Structural, and Particle Size Analysis of Single- and Multi-Core Magnetic Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Frank; Kazakova, Olga; Barquin, Luis Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    We have measured and analyzed three different commercial magnetic nanoparticle systems, both multi-core and single-core in nature, with the particle (core) size ranging from 20 to 100 nm. Complementary analysis methods and same characterization techniques were carried out in different labs...... and the results are compared with each other. The presented results primarily focus on determining the particle size—both the hydrodynamic size and the individual magnetic core size—as well as magnetic and structural properties. The used analysis methods include transmission electron microscopy, static...... and dynamic magnetization measurements, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. We show that particle (hydrodynamic and core) size parameters can be determined from different analysis techniques and the individual analysis results agree reasonably well. However, in order to compare size parameters precisely determined...

  20. Control of cancer growth using single input autonomous fuzzy Nano-particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Razmi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a single input fuzzy controller is applied on autonomous drug-encapsulated nanoparticles (ADENPs to restrict the cancer growth. The proposed ADENPs, swarmly release the drug in local cancerous tissue and effectively decreases the destruction of normal tissue. The amount of released drug is defined considering to feed backed values of tumor growth rate and the used drug. Some significant characteristics of Nano particles compared to Nano-robots is their ability to recognize the cancerous tissue from the normal one and their simple structure. Nano particles became an attractive topic in Nano science and many efforts have been done to manufacture these particles. Simulation results show that the proposed controlling method not only decreases the cancerous tissue effectively but also reduces the side effects of drug impressively.

  1. Gallium plasmonic nanoparticles for label-free DNA and single nucleotide polymorphism sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Antonio García; García-Mendiola, Tania; Bernabeu, Cristina Navio; Hernández, María Jesús; Piqueras, Juan; Pau, Jose Luis; Pariente, Félix; Lorenzo, Encarnación

    2016-05-01

    A label-free DNA and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sensing method is described. It is based on the use of the pseudodielectric function of gallium plasmonic nanoparticles (GaNPs) deposited on Si (100) substrates under reversal of the polarization handedness condition. Under this condition, the pseudodielectric function is extremely sensitive to changes in the surrounding medium of the nanoparticle surface providing an excellent sensing platform competitive to conventional surface plasmon resonance. DNA sensing has been carried out by immobilizing a thiolated capture probe sequence from Helicobacter pylori onto GaNP/Si substrates; complementary target sequences of Helicobacter pylori can be quantified over the range of 10 pM to 3.0 nM with a detection limit of 6.0 pM and a linear correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.990. The selectivity of the device allows the detection of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a specific sequence of Helicobacter pylori, without the need for a hybridization suppressor in solution such as formamide. Furthermore, it also allows the detection of this sequence in the presence of other pathogens, such as Escherichia coli in the sample. The broad applicability of the system was demonstrated by the detection of a specific gene mutation directly associated with cystic fibrosis in large genomic DNA isolated from blood cells.A label-free DNA and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sensing method is described. It is based on the use of the pseudodielectric function of gallium plasmonic nanoparticles (GaNPs) deposited on Si (100) substrates under reversal of the polarization handedness condition. Under this condition, the pseudodielectric function is extremely sensitive to changes in the surrounding medium of the nanoparticle surface providing an excellent sensing platform competitive to conventional surface plasmon resonance. DNA sensing has been carried out by immobilizing a thiolated capture probe sequence from Helicobacter pylori

  2. Fabrication of bright and small size semiconducting polymer nanoparticles for cellular labelling and single particle tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lin; Zhou, Peng; Yang, Qingxiu; Yang, Qiaoyu; Ma, Ming; Chen, Bo; Xiao, Lehui

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a convenient and robust strategy for efficient fabrication of high fluorescence quantum yield (QY, 49.8 +/- 3%) semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (SPNs), with size comparable with semiconductor quantum dots (Qdots). The SPNs were synthesized by co-precipitation of hydrophobic semiconducting polymer together with amphiphilic multidentate polymer. Comprehensive spectroscopic and microscopic characterizations showed that the SPNs possess superior photophysical performance, with excellent fluorescence brightness and reduced photoblinking in contrast with Qdots, as well as good photostability compared to a fluorescent protein of a similar size, phycoerythrin. More importantly, by conjugating membrane biomarkers onto the surface of SPNs, it was found that they were not only suitable for specific cellular labelling but also for single particle tracking because of the improved optical performance.In this work, we demonstrate a convenient and robust strategy for efficient fabrication of high fluorescence quantum yield (QY, 49.8 +/- 3%) semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (SPNs), with size comparable with semiconductor quantum dots (Qdots). The SPNs were synthesized by co-precipitation of hydrophobic semiconducting polymer together with amphiphilic multidentate polymer. Comprehensive spectroscopic and microscopic characterizations showed that the SPNs possess superior photophysical performance, with excellent fluorescence brightness and reduced photoblinking in contrast with Qdots, as well as good photostability compared to a fluorescent protein of a similar size, phycoerythrin. More importantly, by conjugating membrane biomarkers onto the surface of SPNs, it was found that they were not only suitable for specific cellular labelling but also for single particle tracking because of the improved optical performance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and additional supporting results as noted in the text

  3. Fabrication of nanoelectrode ensembles by electrodepositon of Au nanoparticles on single-layer graphene oxide sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijuan; Zhang, Juan; Yin, Zongyou; Wu, Shixin; Mandler, Daniel; Zhang, Hua

    2012-03-01

    Nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs) have been fabricated by the electrodeposition of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on single-layer graphene oxide (GO) sheets coated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The fabricated NEEs show a typical sigmoidal shaped voltammetric profile, arising from the low coverage density of AuNPs on GCE and large distance among them, which can be easily controlled by varying the electrodeposition time. As a proof of concept, after the probe HS-DNA is immobilized on the NEEs through the Au-S bonding, the target DNA is detected with the methylene blue intercalator. Our results show that the target DNA can be detected as low as 100 fM, i.e. 0.5 amol DNA in 5 μL solution.Nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs) have been fabricated by the electrodeposition of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on single-layer graphene oxide (GO) sheets coated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The fabricated NEEs show a typical sigmoidal shaped voltammetric profile, arising from the low coverage density of AuNPs on GCE and large distance among them, which can be easily controlled by varying the electrodeposition time. As a proof of concept, after the probe HS-DNA is immobilized on the NEEs through the Au-S bonding, the target DNA is detected with the methylene blue intercalator. Our results show that the target DNA can be detected as low as 100 fM, i.e. 0.5 amol DNA in 5 μL solution. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The results of Raman, XPS, SEM and other electrochemical characterization are provided. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30142c

  4. Just add water: reproducible singly dispersed silver nanoparticle suspensions on-demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCuspie, Robert I.; Allen, Andrew J.; Martin, Matthew N.; Hackley, Vincent A.

    2013-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of interest due to their antimicrobial attributes, which are derived from their inherent redox instability and subsequent release of silver ions. At the same time, this instability is a substantial challenge for achieving stable long-term storage for on-demand use of AgNPs. In this study, we describe and validate a "just add water" approach for achieving suspensions of principally singly dispersed AgNPs. By lyophilizing (freeze drying) the formulated AgNPs into a solid powder, or cake, water is removed thereby eliminating solution-based chemical changes. Storing under inert gas further reduces surface reactions such as oxidation. An example of how to optimize a lyophilization formulation is presented, as well as example formulations for three AgNP core sizes. This "just add water" approach enables ease of use for the researcher desiring on-demand singly dispersed AgNP suspensions from a single master batch. Implementation of this methodology will enable studies to be performed over long periods of time and across different laboratories using particles that are identical chemically and physically and available on-demand. In addition, the approach of freeze drying and on-demand reconstitution by adding water has enabled the development of AgNP reference materials with the required shelf-life stability, one of the principal objectives of this research.

  5. Just add water: reproducible singly dispersed silver nanoparticle suspensions on-demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCuspie, Robert I., E-mail: robert.maccuspie@nist.gov; Allen, Andrew J.; Martin, Matthew N.; Hackley, Vincent A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Materials Measurement Science Division (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of interest due to their antimicrobial attributes, which are derived from their inherent redox instability and subsequent release of silver ions. At the same time, this instability is a substantial challenge for achieving stable long-term storage for on-demand use of AgNPs. In this study, we describe and validate a 'just add water' approach for achieving suspensions of principally singly dispersed AgNPs. By lyophilizing (freeze drying) the formulated AgNPs into a solid powder, or cake, water is removed thereby eliminating solution-based chemical changes. Storing under inert gas further reduces surface reactions such as oxidation. An example of how to optimize a lyophilization formulation is presented, as well as example formulations for three AgNP core sizes. This 'just add water' approach enables ease of use for the researcher desiring on-demand singly dispersed AgNP suspensions from a single master batch. Implementation of this methodology will enable studies to be performed over long periods of time and across different laboratories using particles that are identical chemically and physically and available on-demand. In addition, the approach of freeze drying and on-demand reconstitution by adding water has enabled the development of AgNP reference materials with the required shelf-life stability, one of the principal objectives of this research.

  6. Magnetic anisotropy considerations in magnetic force microscopy studies of single superparamagnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Tanya M; Chen, Jun; Murray, Christopher B; Agarwal, Gunjan

    2012-12-14

    In recent years, superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPNs) have become increasingly important in applications ranging from solid state memory devices to biomedical diagnostic and therapeutic tools. However, detection and characterization of the small and unstable magnetic moment of an SPN at the single particle level remains a challenge. Further, depending on their physical shape, crystalline structure or orientation, SPNs may also possess magnetic anisotropy, which can govern the extent to which their magnetic moments can align with an externally applied magnetic field. Here, we demonstrate how we can exploit the magnetic anisotropy of SPNs to enable uniform, highly-sensitive detection of single SPNs using magnetic force microscopy (MFM) in ambient air. Superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry and analytical transmission electron microscopy techniques are utilized to characterize the collective magnetic behavior, morphology and composition of the SPNs. Our results show how the consideration of magnetic anisotropy can enhance the ability of MFM to detect single SPNs at ambient room temperature with high force sensitivity and spatial resolution.

  7. Label-free detection of single nanoparticles and biological molecules using microtoroid optical resonators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Judith Su; Alexander FG Goldberg; Brian M Stoltz

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule detection is one of the fundamental challenges of modern biology.Such experiments often use labels that can be expensive,difficult to produce,and for small analytes,might perturb the molecular events being studied.Analyte size plays an important role in determining detectability.Here we use laser-frequency locking in the context of sensing to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of microtoroid optical resonators to the extent that single nanoparticles 2.5 nm in radius,and 15.5 kDa molecules are detected in aqueous solution,thereby bringing these detectors to the size limits needed for detecting the key macromolecules of the cell.Our results,covering several orders of magnitude of particle radius (100 nm to 2 nm),agree with the 'reactive' model prediction for the frequency shift of the resonator upon particle binding.This confirms that the main contribution of the frequency shift for the resonator upon particle binding is an increase in the effective path length due to part of the evanescent field coupling into the adsorbed particle.We anticipate that our results will enable many applications,including more sensitive medical diagnostics and fundamental studies of single receptor-ligand and protein-protein interactions in real time.

  8. Light interference detection on-chip by integrated SNSPD counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cavalier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A SWIFTS device (Stationary Wave Integrated Fourier Transform Spectrometer has been realized with an array of 24 Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors (SNSPD, on-chip integrated under a Si3N4 monomode rib-waveguide interferometer. Colored light around 1.55μm wavelength is introduced through end-fire coupling, producing a counter-propagative stationary interferogram over the 40nm wide, 120nm spaced, 4nm thick epi-NbN nanowire array. Modulations in the source bandwidth have been detected using individual waveguide coupled SNSPDs operating in single photon counting mode, which is a step towards light spectrum reconstruction by inverse Fourier transform of the stationary wave intensity. We report the design, fabrication process and in-situ measurement at 4.2K of light power modulation in the interferometer, obtained with variable laser wavelength. Such micro-SWIFTS configuration with 160nm sampling period over 3.84μm distance allows a spectral bandwidth of 2μm and a wavelength resolution of 170nm. The light interferences direct sampling ability is unique and raises wide interest with several potential applications like fringe-tracking, metrology, cryptography or optical tomography.

  9. Chiral-Selective Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Lattice-Mismatched Epitaxial Cobalt Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Maoshuai; Jiang, Hua; Liu, Bilu

    2013-01-01

    Controlling chirality in growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is important for exploiting their practical applications. For long it has been conceptually conceived that the structural control of SWNTs is potentially achievable by fabricating nanoparticle catalysts with proper structur...

  10. International interlaboratory study for sizing and quatification of Ag nanoparticles in food simulants by single-particle ICPMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linsinger, T.P.J.; Peters, R.J.B.; Weigel, S.

    2014-01-01

    This publication describes the first international intercomparison of particle-size determination by single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sp-ICPMS). Concentrated monodisperse silver nanoparticle suspensions with particle diameters of 20, 40 and 100 nm and a blank solution we

  11. Massively parallel and highly quantitative single-particle analysis on interactions between nanoparticles on supported lipid bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Kwang; Kim, Sungi; Oh, Jeong-Wook; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2014-03-12

    Observation of individual single-nanoparticle reactions provides direct information and insight for many complex chemical, physical, and biological processes, but this is utterly challenging with conventional high-resolution imaging techniques on conventional platforms. Here, we developed a photostable plasmonic nanoparticle-modified supported lipid bilayer (PNP-SLB) platform that allows for massively parallel in situ analysis of the interactions between nanoparticles with single-particle resolution on a two-dimensional (2D) fluidic surface. Each particle-by-particle PNP clustering process was monitored in real time and quantified via analysis of individual particle diffusion trajectories and single-particle-level plasmonic coupling. Importantly, the PNP-SLB-based nanoparticle cluster growth kinetics result was fitted well. As an application example, we performed a DNA detection assay, and the result suggests that our approach has very promising sensitivity and dynamic range (high attomolar to high femtomolar) without optimization, as well as remarkable single-base mismatch discrimination capability. The method shown herein can be readily applied for many different types of intermolecular and interparticle interactions and provide convenient tools and new insights for studying dynamic interactions on a highly controllable and analytical platform.

  12. High coating of Ru(II) complexes on gold nanoparticles for single particle luminescence imaging in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Nicola J; Claire, Sunil; Harris, Robert M; Farabi, Shiva; Zikeli, Gerald; Styles, Iain B; Hodges, Nikolas J; Pikramenou, Zoe

    2014-01-18

    Gold nanoparticles are efficiently labelled with a luminescent ruthenium complex, producing 13 and 100 nm diameter, monodisperse red-emissive imaging probes with luminescence lifetimes prolonged over the molecular unit. Single, 100 nm particles are observed in whole cell luminescence imaging which reveals their biomolecular association with chromatin in the nucleus of cancer cells.

  13. Novel microfluidic platform for automated lab-on-chip testing of hypercoagulability panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emani, Sirisha; Sista, Ramakrishna; Loyola, Hugo; Trenor, Cameron C; Pamula, Vamsee K; Emani, Sitaram M

    2012-12-01

    Current methods for hypercoagulability panel testing require large blood volumes and long turn-around testing times. A novel microfluidic platform has been designed to perform automated multiplexed hypercoagulability panel testing at near patient, utilizing only a single droplet of blood sample. We test the hypothesis that this novel platform could be utilized to perform specific multiplexed ELISA-based hypercoagulability panel testing for antithrombin III, protein C, protein S and factor VIII antigens, as well as anticardiolipin/human anti-β2-glycoprotein-1 IgG antibodies--on blood samples. Sandwich ELISA was modified by utilizing magnetic beads coated with specific antibodies as the solid phase using fluorescence readout. Percentage recovery was calculated using four-parameter logistic curves. On-chip ELISA with single factors was compared with multiplex factor ELISA for known concentrations of sample. Blood samples were analyzed on-chip and compared with traditional bench-top assays. Time for multiplexed performance of hypercoagulability panel ELISA on-chip with controls is 72 min. Recovery rates (range 80-120%) for known concentrations of specific factors was not significantly different when assays were performed using a single factor vs. multiplex factor analysis. Assay results were not significantly different between individual assays performed either on bench-top or on-chip with patient blood and/or plasma. Utilizing a novel digital microfluidic platform, we demonstrate the feasibility of automated hypercoagulability panel testing on small volume of plasma and whole blood patient samples with high fidelity. Further investigation is required to test the application of this novel technology at point-of-care clinical settings.

  14. Characterization of gold nanoparticles modified with single-stranded DNA using analytical ultracentrifugation and dynamic light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, James B; Cho, Tae Joon; Ripple, Dean C; Hackley, Vincent A; Tarlov, Michael J

    2010-08-03

    We report the characterization of gold nanoparticles modified with thiol-terminated single stranded DNA (ssDNA) using analytical ultracentrifugation. Dynamic light scattering was used to measure the diameter of bare and ssDNA modified gold nanoparticles to corroborate the predictions of our models. Sedimentation coefficients of nominally 10 and 20 nm diameter gold nanoparticles modified with thiol-terminated thymidine homo-oligonucleotides, 5-30 bases in length, were determined with analytical ultracentrifugation. The sedimentation coefficients of gold nanoparticles modified with ssDNA were found to decrease with increasing coverage of ssDNA and increasing length of ssDNA. The sedimentation coefficients of ssDNA modified gold particles were most closely predicted when the strands were modeled as fully extended chains (FEC). Apparent particle densities of bare gold nanoparticles calculated from measured sedimentation coefficients decreased significantly below that of bulk gold with decreasing size of nanoparticles. This finding suggests that hydration layer effects are an important factor in the sedimentation behavior for both bare and short ssDNA chain modified gold particles.

  15. Kelvin probe force microscopy of DNA-capped nanoparticles for single-nucleotide polymorphism detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungbeen; Lee, Sang Won; Lee, Gyudo; Lee, Wonseok; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Yang, Jaemoon; Lee, Sang Woo; Yoon, Dae Sung

    2016-07-01

    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is a robust toolkit for profiling the surface potential (SP) of biomolecular interactions between DNAs and/or proteins at the single molecule level. However, it has often suffered from background noise and low throughput due to instrumental or environmental constraints, which is regarded as limiting KPFM applications for detection of minute changes in the molecular structures such as single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Here, we show KPFM imaging of DNA-capped nanoparticles (DCNP) that enables SNP detection of the BRCA1 gene owing to sterically well-adjusted DNA-DNA interactions that take place within the confined spaces of DCNP. The average SP values of DCNP interacting with BRCA1 SNP were found to be lower than the DCNP reacting with normal (non-mutant) BRCA1 gene. We also demonstrate that SP characteristics of DCNP with different substrates (e.g., Au, Si, SiO2, and Fe) provide us with a chance to attenuate or augment the SP signal of DCNP without additional enhancement of instrumentation capabilities.Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is a robust toolkit for profiling the surface potential (SP) of biomolecular interactions between DNAs and/or proteins at the single molecule level. However, it has often suffered from background noise and low throughput due to instrumental or environmental constraints, which is regarded as limiting KPFM applications for detection of minute changes in the molecular structures such as single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Here, we show KPFM imaging of DNA-capped nanoparticles (DCNP) that enables SNP detection of the BRCA1 gene owing to sterically well-adjusted DNA-DNA interactions that take place within the confined spaces of DCNP. The average SP values of DCNP interacting with BRCA1 SNP were found to be lower than the DCNP reacting with normal (non-mutant) BRCA1 gene. We also demonstrate that SP characteristics of DCNP with different substrates (e.g., Au, Si, SiO2, and Fe) provide us with a

  16. Rational design of on-chip refractive index sensors based on lattice plasmon resonances (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Linhan; Zheng, Yuebing

    2015-08-01

    Lattice plasmon resonances (LPRs), which originate from the plasmonic-photonic coupling in gold or silver nanoparticle arrays, possess ultra-narrow linewidth by suppressing the radiative damping and provide the possibility to develop the plasmonic sensors with high figure of merit (FOM). However, the plasmonic-photonic coupling is greatly suppressed when the nanoparticles are immobilized on substrates because the diffraction orders are cut off at the nanoparticle-substrate interfaces. Here, we develop the rational design of LPR structures for the high-performance, on-chip plasmonic sensors based on both orthogonal and parallel coupling. Our finite-difference time-domain simulations in the core/shell SiO2/Au nanocylinder arrays (NCAs) reveal that new modes of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) show up when the aspect ratio of the NCAs is increased. The height-induced LSPRs couple with the superstrate diffraction orders to generate the robust LPRs in asymmetric environment. The high wavelength sensitivity and narrow linewidth in these LPRs lead to the plasmonic sensors with high FOM and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Wide working wavelengths from visible to near-infrared are also achieved by tuning the parameters of the NCAs. Moreover, the wide detection range of refractive index is obtained in the parallel LPR structure. The electromagnetic field distributions in the NCAs demonstrate the height-enabled tunability of the plasmonic "hot spots" at the sub-nanoparticles resolution and the coupling between these "hot spots" with the superstrate diffraction waves, which are responsible for the high performance LPRs-based on-chip refractive index sensors.

  17. Optofluidic microsystem for on-chip L2-waveguide modulation featuring flow stabilization and a novel input coupling region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, E.; Rosenauer, M.; Verhaert, P.D.E.M.; Vellekoop, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    We present an optofluidic microsystem integrated onto a single device featuring on-chip light guiding and positioning under stable and low-loss conditions. Integration of optical components onto a microfluidic chip offers numerous new possibilities in the field of particle and cell analysis, but rec

  18. Biosensors-on-chip: a topical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sensen; Shamsi, Mohtashim H.

    2017-08-01

    This review will examine the integration of two fields that are currently at the forefront of science, i.e. biosensors and microfluidics. As a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technology, microfluidics has been enriched by the integration of various detection tools for analyte detection and quantitation. The application of such microfluidic platforms is greatly increased in the area of biosensors geared towards point-of-care diagnostics. Together, the merger of microfluidics and biosensors has generated miniaturized devices for sample processing and sensitive detection with quantitation. We believe that microfluidic biosensors (biosensors-on-chip) are essential for developing robust and cost effective point-of-care diagnostics. This review is relevant to a variety of disciplines, such as medical science, clinical diagnostics, LOC technologies including MEMs/NEMs, and analytical science. Specifically, this review will appeal to scientists working in the two overlapping fields of biosensors and microfluidics, and will also help new scientists to find their directions in developing point-of-care devices.

  19. Congestion Prediction Algorithm for Network on Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Cai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Network on chip (NoC traffic congestion was one of the important reasons for the data transmission performance degradation. In this paper, we presented a congestion judgment algorithm, which was based on neural network. The congestion control algorithm firstly used the hamming network to compute the NoC’s link buffer congestion state, secondly used the competitive network to find the worst congestion node, and then adopted avoiding congested node  routing policy to improve the NoC’s transmission performance. In this paper, the congestion control algorithm can make the data stream as far as possible evenly distributed in the NoC’s nodes and links and reduce the transmission resource competition. The simulation results showed that the congestion control algorithm could achieve better network throughput and average transmission delay.

  20. Robust thermal control for CMOS-based lab-on-chip systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Quijada, Jose; Ma, Tianchi; Hall, Gordon H.; Reynolds, Matt; Sloan, David; Caverhill-Godkewitsch, Saul; Glerum, D. Moira; Sameoto, Dan; Elliott, Duncan G.; Backhouse, Christopher J.

    2015-07-01

    The need for precise temperature control at small scales has provided a formidable challenge to the lab-on-chip community. It requires, at once, good thermal conductivity for high speed operation, good thermal isolation for low power consumption and the ability to have small (mm-scale) thermally independent regions on the same substrate. Most importantly, and, in addition to these conflicting requirements, there is a need to accurately measure the temperature of the active region without the need for device-to-device calibrations. We have developed and tested a design that enables thermal control of lab-on-chip devices atop silicon substrates in a way that could be integrated with the standard methods of mass-manufacture used in the electronics industry (i.e. CMOS). This is a significant step towards a single-chip lab-on-chip solution, one in which the microfluidics, high voltage electronics, optoelectronics, instrumentation electronics, and the world-chip interface are all integrated on a single substrate with multiple, independent, thermally-controlled regions based on active heating and passive cooling.

  1. Optical chromatography using a photonic crystal fiber with on-chip fluorescence excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, P C; Marchington, R F; Mthunzi, P; Krauss, T F; Dholakia, K

    2010-03-15

    We describe the realization of integrated optical chromatography, in conjunction with on-chip fluorescence excitation, in a monolithically fabricated poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip. The unique endlessly-single-mode guiding property of the Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) facilitates simultaneous on-chip delivery of beams to perform optical sorting in conjunction with fluorescence excitation. We use soft lithography to define the chip and insert the specially capped PCF into it through a predefined fiber channel that is intrinsically aligned with the sorting channel. We compare the performance of the system to a standard ray optics model and use the system to demonstrate both size-driven and refractive index-driven separations of colloids. Finally we demonstrate a new technique of enhanced optofluidic separation of biological particles, by sorting of human kidney embryonic cells (HEK-293), internally tagged with fluorescing microspheres through phagocytocis, from those without microspheres and the separation purity is monitored using fluorescence imaging.

  2. Modeling, analysis and optimization of network-on-chip communication architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Ogras, Umit Y

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, design space exploration for Systems-on-Chip (SoCs) has focused on the computational aspects of the problem at hand. However, as the number of components on a single chip and their performance continue to increase, the communication architecture plays a major role in the area, performance and energy consumption of the overall system. As a result, a shift from computation-based to communication-based design becomes mandatory. Towards this end, network-on-chip (NoC) communication architectures have emerged recently as a promising alternative to classical bus and point-to-point communication architectures. This book explores outstanding research problems related to modeling, analysis and optimization of NoC communication architectures. More precisely, we present novel design methodologies, software tools and FPGA prototypes to aid the design of application-specific NoCs.

  3. The Distributed Network Processor: a novel off-chip and on-chip interconnection network architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Biagioni, Andrea; Lonardo, Alessandro; Paolucci, Pier Stanislao; Perra, Mersia; Rossetti, Davide; Sidore, Carlo; Simula, Francesco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2012-01-01

    One of the most demanding challenges for the designers of parallel computing architectures is to deliver an efficient network infrastructure providing low latency, high bandwidth communications while preserving scalability. Besides off-chip communications between processors, recent multi-tile (i.e. multi-core) architectures face the challenge for an efficient on-chip interconnection network between processor's tiles. In this paper, we present a configurable and scalable architecture, based on our Distributed Network Processor (DNP) IP Library, targeting systems ranging from single MPSoCs to massive HPC platforms. The DNP provides inter-tile services for both on-chip and off-chip communications with a uniform RDMA style API, over a multi-dimensional direct network with a (possibly) hybrid topology.

  4. A CDMA Based Scalable Hierarchical Architecture for Network-On-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abd El Ghany

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A Scalable hierarchical architecture based Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA is proposed for high performance Network-on-Chip (NoC. This hierarchical architecture provides the integration of a large number of IPs in a single on-chip system. The network encoding and decoding schemes for CDMA transmission are provided. The proposed CDMA NoC architecture is compared to the conventional architecture in terms of latency, area and power dissipation. The overall area required to implement the proposed CDMA NoC design is reduced by 24.2%. The design decreases the latency of the network by 40%. The total power consumption required to achieve the proposed design is also decreased by 25%.

  5. Structure, morphology, and magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles deposited onto single-crystalline surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Kleibert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnetic nanostructures and nanoparticles often show novel magnetic phenomena not known from the respective bulk materials. In the past, several methods to prepare such structures have been developed – ranging from wet chemistry-based to physical-based methods such as self-organization or cluster growth. The preparation method has a significant influence on the resulting properties of the generated nanostructures. Taking chemical approaches, this influence may arise from the chemical environment, reaction kinetics and the preparation route. Taking physical approaches, the thermodynamics and the kinetics of the growth mode or – when depositing preformed clusters/nanoparticles on a surface – the landing kinetics and subsequent relaxation processes have a strong impact and thus need to be considered when attempting to control magnetic and structural properties of supported clusters or nanoparticles.Results: In this contribution we focus on mass-filtered Fe nanoparticles in a size range from 4 nm to 10 nm that are generated in a cluster source and subsequently deposited onto two single crystalline substrates: fcc Ni(111/W(110 and bcc W(110. We use a combined approach of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD, reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM to shed light on the complex and size-dependent relation between magnetic properties, crystallographic structure, orientation and morphology. In particular XMCD reveals that Fe particles on Ni(111/W(110 have a significantly lower (higher magnetic spin (orbital moment compared to bulk iron. The reduced spin moments are attributed to the random particle orientation being confirmed by RHEED together with a competition of magnetic exchange energy at the interface and magnetic anisotropy energy in the particles. The RHEED data also show that the Fe particles on W(110 – despite of the large lattice mismatch between iron and tungsten – are

  6. Network-on-chip the next generation of system-on-chip integration

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Santanu

    2014-01-01

    ""What makes this book special as compared to the current literature in the field is that it provides a complete picture of NoC architectures. In fact, current books in the context of NoCs are usually specific and presuppose a basic knowledge of NoC architectures. Conversely, this book provides a complete guide for both unskilled readers and researchers working in the area, to acquire not only the basic concepts but also the advanced techniques for improving power, cost and performance metrics of the on-chip communication system.""-Maurizio Palesi, Kore University, Italy.

  7. Mechanism of adsorption of single and double stranded DNA on gold and silver nanoparticles: Investigating some important parameters in bio-sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkhari, Nahid; Abbasian, Sara; Moshaii, Ahmad; Nikkhah, Maryam

    2016-12-01

    The mechanism of adsorption of single and double stranded DNAs on colloidal gold and silver nanoparticles has been studied by measuring the resistance of the nanoparticles, surrounded by various oligonucleotides, against salt induced aggregation. It is shown that both single and double stranded DNAs can be adsorbed on the metal nanoparticles and the adsorption strength is determined by the interaction between various bases of DNA and the nanoparticles. By changing the salt concentration, the difference between adsorption of various DNA strands on the nanoparticles can be specified. The results indicate that a key parameter in success of a sensing assay of DNA hybridization is the salt concentration which should be greater than a minimum threshold depending on the nanoparticles characteristics. We have also investigated the interaction mechanism between various DNA bases with the metal nanoparticles. For both gold and silver nanoparticles, adenine has the highest and thymine has the lowest attachment to the nanoparticles. From surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) data of various bases in the presence of gold nanoparticles, the probable interaction points in the bases with the nanoparticles have been determined, which are mainly the nitrogen sites of these oligonucleotides.

  8. Single Nanometric Memory Unit Based On a Protein-Nanoparticle Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalsy, Izhar; Heyman, Arnon; Shoseyov, Oded; Porath, Danny

    2009-03-01

    Proteins as an isolating template and nanoparticle (NP) as an electric storage component can form a single addressable unit cell isolated from the conductive surface and adjacent NPs. This setup gives rise to a wide range of nanoelectronic applications. Here we demonstrate, by Conductive AFM, a single nanometric memory unit using individual protein-NP hybrids. SP1 is a boiling-stable ring-shaped protein, 11 nm in diameter. Mutants of SP1 were synthesized allowing its selective attachment to gold surface and the formation of 2D arrays using methods such as phospholipids trough and Langmuir Blodgett. The SP1 inner pore was connected to Si NP forming a chargeable entity embedded in an isolating unit over a conductive surface. Each NP holds three charging states: natural, positive and negative. The charging life times are 10 min in ambient and days in vacuum. Using this setup, and the relative long charging time, we were able to apply a read and write operations on individual 5nm Si NP embedded in a stable protein.

  9. Gold-Coated Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles for Single Methyl Discrimination in DNA Aptamers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tintoré

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Au- and iron-based magnetic nanoparticles (NPs are promising NPs for biomedical applications due to their unique properties. The combination of a gold coating over a magnetic core puts together the benefits from adding the magnetic properties to the robust chemistry provided by the thiol functionalization of gold. Here, the use of Au-coated magnetic NPs for molecular detection of a single methylation in DNA aptamer is described. Binding of α-thrombin to two aptamers conjugated to these NPs causes aggregation, a phenomenon that can be observed by UV, DLS and MRI. These techniques discriminate a single methylation in one of the aptamers, preventing aggregation due to the inability of α-thrombin to recognize it. A parallel study with gold and ferromagnetic NPs is detailed, concluding that the Au coating of FexOy NP does not affect their performance and that they are suitable as complex biosensors. These results prove the high detection potency of Au-coated SPIONs for biomedical applications especially for DNA repair detection.

  10. Comparative studies of salinomycin-loaded nanoparticles prepared by nanoprecipitation and single emulsion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Puyuan; Ren, Wei; Xin, Kai; Yang, Yang; Xie, Chen; Yang, Chenchen; Liu, Qin; Yu, Lixia; Jiang, Xiqun; Liu, Baorui; Li, Rutain; Wang, Lifeng

    2014-07-01

    To establish a satisfactory delivery system for the delivery of salinomycin (Sal), a novel, selective cancer stem cell inhibitor with prominent toxicity, gelatinase-responsive core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), were prepared by nanoprecipitation method (NR-NPs) and single emulsion method (SE-NPs). The gelatinase-responsive copolymer was prepared by carboxylation and double amination method. We studied the stability of NPs prepared by nanoprecipitation method with different proportions of F68 in aqueous phase to determine the best proportion used in our study. Then, the NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method with the best proportion of F68 and single emulsion method, and their physiochemical traits including morphology, particle size, zeta potential, drug loading content, stability, and in vitro release profiles were studied. The SE-NPs showed significant differences in particle size, drug loading content, stability, and in vitro release profiles compared to NR-NPs. The SE-NPs presented higher drug entrapment efficiency and superior stability than the NR-NPs. The drug release rate of SE-NPs was more sustainable than that of the NR-NPs, and in vivo experiment indicated that NPs could prominently reduce the toxicity of Sal. Our study demonstrates that the SE-NPs could be a satisfactory method for the preparation of gelatinase-responsive NPs for intelligent delivery of Sal.

  11. On-Chip Network Design Automation with Source Routing Switches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Liwei; SUN Yihe

    2007-01-01

    Network-on-chip (NoC) is a new design paradigm for system-on-chip intraconnections in the billion-transistor era. Application specific on-chip network design is essential for NoC success in this new era.This paper presents a class of source routing switch that can be used to efficiently form arbitrary network topologies and that can be optimized for various applications. Hardware description language versions of the networks can be generated automatically for simulations and for syntheses. A series of switches and networks has been configured with their performances including latency, delay, area, and power, and analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The results show that this NoC architecture provides a large design space for application specific on-chip network designs.

  12. Error Control for Network-on-Chip Links

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    As technology scales into nanoscale regime, it is impossible to guarantee the perfect hardware design. Moreover, if the requirement of 100% correctness in hardware can be relaxed, the cost of manufacturing, verification, and testing will be significantly reduced. Many approaches have been proposed to address the reliability problem of on-chip communications. This book focuses on the use of error control codes (ECCs) to improve on-chip interconnect reliability. Coverage includes detailed description of key issues in NOC error control faced by circuit and system designers, as well as practical error control techniques to minimize the impact of these errors on system performance. Provides a detailed background on the state of error control methods for on-chip interconnects; Describes the use of more complex concatenated codes such as Hamming Product Codes with Type-II HARQ, while emphasizing integration techniques for on-chip interconnect links; Examines energy-efficient techniques for integrating multiple error...

  13. Crosstalk in modern on-chip interconnects a FDTD approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, B K; Patnaik, Amalendu

    2016-01-01

    The book provides accurate FDTD models for on-chip interconnects, covering most recent advancements in materials and design. Furthermore, depending on the geometry and physical configurations, different electrical equivalent models for CNT and GNR based interconnects are presented. Based on the electrical equivalent models the performance comparison among the Cu, CNT and GNR-based interconnects are also discussed in the book. The proposed models are validated with the HSPICE simulations. The book introduces the current research scenario in the modeling of on-chip interconnects. It presents the structure, properties, and characteristics of graphene based on-chip interconnects and the FDTD modeling of Cu based on-chip interconnects. The model considers the non-linear effects of CMOS driver as well as the transmission line effects of interconnect line that includes coupling capacitance and mutual inductance effects. In a more realistic manner, the proposed model includes the effect of width-dependent MFP of the ...

  14. Multifunctional System-on-Glass for Lab-on-Chip applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, G; Caputo, D; Lovecchio, N; Costantini, F; Legnini, I; Bozzoni, I; Nascetti, A; de Cesare, G

    2017-07-15

    Lab-on-Chip are miniaturized systems able to perform biomolecular analysis in shorter time and with lower reagent consumption than a standard laboratory. Their miniaturization interferes with the multiple functions that the biochemical procedures require. In order to address this issue, our paper presents, for the first time, the integration on a single glass substrate of different thin film technologies in order to develop a multifunctional platform suitable for on-chip thermal treatments and on-chip detection of biomolecules. The proposed System on-Glass hosts thin metal films acting as heating sources; hydrogenated amorphous silicon diodes acting both as temperature sensors to monitor the temperature distribution and photosensors for the on-chip detection and a ground plane ensuring that the heater operation does not affect the photodiode currents. The sequence of the technological steps, the deposition temperatures of the thin films and the parameters of the photolithographic processes have been optimized in order to overcome all the issues of the technological integration. The device has been designed, fabricated and tested for the implementation of DNA amplification through the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with thermal cycling among three different temperatures on a single site. The glass has been connected to an electronic system that drives the heaters and controls the temperature and light sensors. It has been optically and thermally coupled with another glass hosting a microfluidic network made in polydimethylsiloxane that includes thermally actuated microvalves and a PCR process chamber. The successful DNA amplification has been verified off-chip by using a standard fluorometer.

  15. Characterization of silver nanoparticles internalized by Arabidopsis plants using single particle ICP-MS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongping eBao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the continual improvement of quality of life with nanotechnological applications, nanoparticles (NPs will inevitably reach our living environment and various ecosystems. Plants act as a crucial interface between humans and their environment. The wide use of NPs has raised great concerns about the risk of potential toxicity in crop health and food safety, leading to an emerging research theme about the interaction between plants and NPs. However, even the basic issue concerning the eventual fate and characteristics of NPs after internalization is not clearly delineated due to lack of a well-established technique for NP analysis in plant tissues. With the aid of enzymatic digestion, single particle-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS is employed to determine the size distribution of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs in tissues of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana after exposure to 10 nm Ag NPs. Our results show that Macerozyme R-10 is an appropriate enzyme to release Ag NPs from Arabidopsis plants without changing the properties of nanomaterials. The characteristics of Ag NPs obtained by SP-ICP-MS in both roots and shoots are in agreement with our transmission electron micrographs, demonstrating that SP-ICP-MS coupled with enzymatic digestion procedure is a powerful technique for quantitative determination of NPs in plant tissues. Our data reveal that Ag NPs tend to accumulate predominantly at root tissues whereby a minor portion is transported to shoot tissues. Furthermore, the measured size distribution of Ag NPs in plant tissue is centred at around 20.70 nm, larger than the average 12.84 nm in diameter, strongly implying that many internalized Ag NPs do not exist as intact individual particles but are aggregated and/or biotransformed by plant cells.

  16. Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Internalized by Arabidopsis Plants Using Single Particle ICP-MS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Dongping; Oh, Zhen Guo; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plants act as a crucial interface between humans and their environment. The wide use of nanoparticles (NPs) has raised great concerns about their potential impacts on crop health and food safety, leading to an emerging research theme about the interaction between plants and NPs. However, up to this day even the basic issues concerning the eventual fate and characteristics of NPs after internalization are not clearly delineated due to the lack of a well-established technique for the quantitative analysis of NPs in plant tissues. We endeavored to combine a quantitative approach for NP analysis in plant tissues with TEM to localize the NPs. After using an enzymatic digestion to release the NPs from plant matrices, single particle-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) is employed to determine the size distribution of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in tissues of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana after exposure to 10 nm Ag NPs. Our results show that Macerozyme R-10 treatment can release Ag NPs from Arabidopsis plants without changing the size of Ag NPs. The characteristics of Ag NPs obtained by SP-ICP-MS in both roots and shoots are in agreement with our transmission electron micrographs, demonstrating that the combination of an enzymatic digestion procedure with SP-ICP-MS is a powerful technique for quantitative determination of NPs in plant tissues. Our data reveal that Ag NPs tend to accumulate predominantly in the apoplast of root tissues whereby a minor portion is transported to shoot tissues. Furthermore, the fact that the measured size distribution of Ag NPs in plant tissue is centered at around 20.70 nm, which is larger than the initial 12.84 nm NP diameter, strongly implies that many internalized Ag NPs do not exist as intact individual particles anymore but are aggregated and/or biotransformed in the plant instead.

  17. Extraction and Detection of mRNA from a Single K562 Cell Based on the Functionalized Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU,Long-Zhang; YU,Ping-Guo; SHEN,He-Bai; JIA,Neng-Qin; LONG,De-Hong; ZHOU,Hai-Qing

    2008-01-01

    A novel and promising method was developed to extract mRNA from a single cell based on the functionalized superparamagnetic nanoparticles.The oligo(dT)-coupled magnetite nanobeads were synthesized by the reaction of oligo(dT) and thiol-modified γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles.The single cell was isolated from the massive cultivation according to a semi-quantum approaching technique and then lysed before mRNA separation.The oligo(dT)-coupled magnetite nanobeads were added to the crude lysates and then magnetic separation was preformed to get mRNA.The mRNA amplification through a two-step RT-PCR method was achieved.The agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products after amplification shows that mRNA could be extracted from a single cell successfully.

  18. Long spin lifetime and large barrier polarisation in single electron transport through a CoFe nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, R. C.; McLaren, M.; Brydson, R. M. D.; Hickey, B. J.; Marrows, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated single electron spin transport in individual single crystal bcc Co30Fe70 nanoparticles using scanning tunnelling microscopy with a standard tungsten tip. Particles were deposited using a gas-aggregation nanoparticle source and individually addressed as asymmetric double tunnel junctions with both a vacuum and a MgO tunnel barrier. Spectroscopy measurements on the particles show a Coulomb staircase that is correlated with the measured particle size. Field emission tunnelling effects are incorporated into standard single electron theory to model the data. This formalism allows spin-dependent parameters to be determined even though the tip is not spin-polarised. The barrier spin polarisation is very high, in excess of 84%. By variation of the resistance, several orders of magnitude of the system timescale are probed, enabling us to determine the spin relaxation time on the island. It is found to be close to 10 μs, a value much longer than previously reported. PMID:27329575

  19. Reliability, Availability and Serviceability of Networks-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Cota, Érika; Soares Lubaszewski, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the issues related to the test, diagnosis and fault-tolerance of Network on Chip-based systems. It is the first book dedicated to the quality aspects of NoC-based systems and will serve as an invaluable reference to the problems, challenges, solutions, and trade-offs related to designing and implementing state-of-the-art, on-chip communication architectures.

  20. Nanofluidic Lab-On-Chip Technology for DNA Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2012 - Jun 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Nanofluidic LaB-ON-Chip Technology for DNA...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Publicly available. 3-0/ 3/Oo3o%J - 14. ABSTRACT In this project we have investigated the potential of nanofluidic lab-on...chip nanofluidic platforms may enable rapid and inexpensive, characterization and analysis of DNA biomarkers. Advantages include overall ease of

  1. Signal processing for on-chip space division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Ding, Yunhong; Xu, Jing;

    2015-01-01

    Our recent results on the demonstration of on-chip mode-division multiplexing are reviewed, with special emphasis on nonlinear all-optical signal processing. Mode-selective parametric processes are demonstrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide.......Our recent results on the demonstration of on-chip mode-division multiplexing are reviewed, with special emphasis on nonlinear all-optical signal processing. Mode-selective parametric processes are demonstrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide....

  2. Catalytic activity of Pd-doped Cu nanoparticles for hydrogenation as a single-atom-alloy catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinrui; Fu, Qiang; Luo, Yi

    2014-05-14

    The single atom alloy of extended surfaces is known to provide remarkably enhanced catalytic performance toward heterogeneous hydrogenation. Here we demonstrate from first principles calculations that this approach can be extended to nanostructures, such as bimetallic nanoparticles. The catalytic properties of the single-Pd-doped Cu55 nanoparticles have been systemically examined for H2 dissociation as well as H atom adsorption and diffusion, following the concept of single atom alloy. It is found that doping a single Pd atom at the edge site of the Cu55 shell can considerably reduce the activation energy of H2 dissociation, while the single Pd atom doped at the top site or in the inner layers is much less effective. The H atom adsorption on Cu55 is slightly stronger than that on the Cu(111) surface; however, a larger nanoparticle that contains 147 atoms could effectively recover the weak binding of the H atoms. We have also investigated the H atom diffusion on the 55-atom nanoparticle and found that spillover of the produced H atoms could be a feasible process due to the low diffusion barriers. Our results have demonstrated that facile H2 dissociation and weak H atom adsorption could be combined at the nanoscale. Moreover, the effects of doping one more Pd atom on the H2 dissociation and H atom adsorption have also been investigated. We have found that both the doping Pd atoms in the most stable configuration could independently exhibit their catalytic activity, behaving as two single-atom-alloy catalysts.

  3. Integrated Millimeter-Wave Antennas for On-Chip Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zainud-Deen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the design and analysis of circularly polarized (CP and dual-polarized on-chip microstrip antennas for wireless communication at 60 GHz. The CP on-chip antenna consists of a circular aluminum patch with two overlapped circular slots fed by the transmission line. The radiation characteristics of the CP have been analyzed using the finite integration technique and finite element method based electromagnetic solvers. The CP antenna introduces left-hand circular polarization and employs as on-chip transmitter. A design of dual-polarized on-chip microstrip antenna at 60 GHz is investigated and is employed as on-chip receiver. The dual ports of the dual polarized antenna are designed with high isolation between them in order to be used as a two on-chip receivers. The radiation characteristics of the dual-port antenna have been calculated. The effect of the separation distance between the CP-antenna and the dual-polarized antenna on the same chip has been investigated. The performance parameters like the reflection coefficient, transmission coefficient, and the transmission gain of the two antennas at different separation distances have been introduced.

  4. A resource-efficient network interface supporting low latency reconfiguration of virtual circuits in time-division multiplexing networks-on-chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Bo; Pezzarossa, Luca; Schoeberl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a resource-efficient time-division multiplexing network interface of a network-on- chip intended for use in a multicore platform for hard real-time systems. The network-on-chip pro- vides virtual circuits to move data between core-local on-chip memories. In such a platform......, a change of the application’s operating mode may require reconfiguration of virtual circuits that are setup by the network-on-chip. A unique feature of our network interface is the instantaneous reconfiguration between different time-division multiplexing schedules, containing sets of virtual circuits......, without affecting virtual circuits that persist across the reconfiguration. The results show that the worst-case latency from trigger- ing a reconfiguration until the new schedule is executing, is in the range of 300 clock cycles. Experiments show that new schedules can be transmitted from a single master...

  5. On-chip dual comb source for spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dutt, Avik; Ji, Xingchen; Cardenas, Jaime; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Luke, Kevin; Gaeta, Alexander L; Lipson, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Dual-comb spectroscopy is a powerful technique for real-time, broadband optical sampling of molecular spectra which requires no moving components. Recent developments with microresonator-based platforms have enabled frequency combs at the chip scale. However, the need to precisely match the resonance wavelengths of distinct high-quality-factor microcavities has hindered the development of an on-chip dual comb source. Here, we report the first simultaneous generation of two microresonator combs on the same chip from a single laser. The combs span a broad bandwidth of 51 THz around a wavelength of 1.56 $\\mu$m. We demonstrate low-noise operation of both frequency combs by deterministically tuning into soliton mode-locked states using integrated microheaters, resulting in narrow ($<$ 10 kHz) microwave beatnotes. We further use one mode-locked comb as a reference to probe the formation dynamics of the other comb, thus introducing a technique to investigate comb evolution without auxiliary lasers or microwave os...

  6. Pipelined multiprocessor system-on-chip for multimedia

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, Haris

    2014-01-01

    This book describes analytical models and estimation methods to enhance performance estimation of pipelined multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs).  A framework is introduced for both design-time and run-time optimizations. For design space exploration, several algorithms are presented to minimize the area footprint of a pipelined MPSoC under a latency or a throughput constraint.  A novel adaptive pipelined MPSoC architecture is described, where idle processors are transitioned into low-power states at run-time to reduce energy consumption. Multi-mode pipelined MPSoCs are introduced, where multiple pipelined MPSoCs optimized separately are merged into a single pipelined MPSoC, enabling further reduction of the area footprint by sharing the processors and communication buffers. Readers will benefit from the authors’ combined use of analytical models, estimation methods and exploration algorithms and will be enabled to explore billions of design points in a few minutes.   ·         Describes the ...

  7. Ultrasensitive interferometric on-chip microscopy of transparent objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terborg, Roland A.; Pello, Josselin; Mannelli, Ilaria; Torres, Juan P.; Pruneri, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    Light microscopes can detect objects through several physical processes, such as scattering, absorption, and reflection. In transparent objects, these mechanisms are often too weak, and interference effects are more suitable to observe the tiny refractive index variations that produce phase shifts. We propose an on-chip microscope design that exploits birefringence in an unconventional geometry. It makes use of two sheared and quasi-overlapped illuminating beams experiencing relative phase shifts when going through the object, and a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor image sensor array to record the resulting interference pattern. Unlike conventional microscopes, the beams are unfocused, leading to a very large field of view (20 mm2) and detection volume (more than 0.5 cm3), at the expense of lateral resolution. The high axial sensitivity (<1 nm) achieved using a novel phase-shifting interferometric operation makes the proposed device ideal for examining transparent substrates and reading microarrays of biomarkers. This is demonstrated by detecting nanometer-thick surface modulations on glass and single and double protein layers. PMID:27386571

  8. Impact of and correction for instrument sensitivity drift on nanoparticle size measurements by single-particle ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadri, Hind; Petersen, Elijah J; Winchester, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    The effect of ICP-MS instrument sensitivity drift on the accuracy of nanoparticle (NP) size measurements using single particle (sp)ICP-MS is investigated. Theoretical modeling and experimental measurements of the impact of instrument sensitivity drift are in agreement and indicate that drift can impact the measured size of spherical NPs by up to 25 %. Given this substantial bias in the measured size, a method was developed using an internal standard to correct for the impact of drift and was shown to accurately correct for a decrease in instrument sensitivity of up to 50 % for 30 and 60 nm gold nanoparticles. Graphical Abstract Correction of nanoparticle size measurement by spICP-MS using an internal standard.

  9. Direct deconvolution of electric and magnetic responses of single nanoparticles by Fourier space surface plasmon resonance microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Chan, C. F.; Ong, H. C.

    2016-11-01

    We use polarization-resolved surface plasmon resonance microscopy to image single dielectric nanoparticles. In real space, the nanoparticles exhibit V-shape diffraction patterns due to the interference between the incident surface plasmon polariton wave and the evanescent scattered waves, which arise from the interplay between the electric and magnetic dipoles of the nanoparticle. By using cross-polarized Fourier space imaging to extract only the scattered waves, we find the angular far-field intensity corresponds very well to the near-field scattering distribution, as confirmed by both analytical and numerical calculations. As a result, we directly deconvolute the contributions of electric and magnetic dipoles to the scattered fields without involving near-field techniques.

  10. Cytostretch, an Organ-on-Chip Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas Gaio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Organ-on-Chips (OOCs are micro-fabricated devices which are used to culture cells in order to mimic functional units of human organs. The devices are designed to simulate the physiological environment of tissues in vivo. Cells in some types of OOCs can be stimulated in situ by electrical and/or mechanical actuators. These actuations can mimic physiological conditions in real tissue and may include fluid or air flow, or cyclic stretch and strain as they occur in the lung and heart. These conditions similarly affect cultured cells and may influence their ability to respond appropriately to physiological or pathological stimuli. To date, most focus has been on devices specifically designed to culture just one functional unit of a specific organ: lung alveoli, kidney nephrons or blood vessels, for example. In contrast, the modular Cytostretch membrane platform described here allows OOCs to be customized to different OOC applications. The platform utilizes silicon-based micro-fabrication techniques that allow low-cost, high-volume manufacturing. We describe the platform concept and its modules developed to date. Membrane variants include membranes with (i through-membrane pores that allow biological signaling molecules to pass between two different tissue compartments; (ii a stretchable micro-electrode array for electrical monitoring and stimulation; (iii micro-patterning to promote cell alignment; and (iv strain gauges to measure changes in substrate stress. This paper presents the fabrication and the proof of functionality for each module of the Cytostretch membrane. The assessment of each additional module demonstrate that a wide range of OOCs can be achieved.

  11. Electrochemical Detection of Hydroxylamine via Au-Pt Alloy Nanoparticle-modified Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yanfang; Ko, Euna; Tran, Van-Khue; Chung, Woo Sung; Park, Chan Ho; Kim, Min Ki; Jin, Ga Hyun; Seong, Gi Hun

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we developed an electrochemical sensor for highly sensitive detection of hydroxylamine using Au-Pt alloy nanoparticles. Au-Pt alloy nanoparticles were electrochemically deposited on a working electrode made of single-walled carbon nanotubes. The framework composition in the Au-Pt alloy nanoparticle was easily controlled by adjusting the Au(3+):Pt(4+) composition ratio in the precursor solution. Morphological and chemical characterizations of the resulting Au-Pt alloy nanoparticles were performed using field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy. When the Au(3+):Pt(4+) ratio in the precursor solution was 1:5, the ratio of Au:Pt atom in alloy nanoparticle was about 6:4. Au60Pt40 alloy nanoparticles were found to have the optimum synthetic ratio for hydroxylamine detection. The electrocatalytic performance of Au-Pt alloy nanoparticles in the presence of hydroxylamine was also characterized using cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, and chronoamperometry. In the chronoamperometric detection of hydroxylamine, the sensor exhibited a detection limit of 0.80 μM (S/N = 3) and a high sensitivity of 184 μA mM(-1) cm(-2). Moreover, the amperometric response of the sensor in 1 mM hydroxylamine was stable for a long time (450 s). Long-term stability tests showed that the current responses to hydroxylamine were 96, 91 and 85% of the initial signal value after storage for 5, 10, and 20 days, respectively.

  12. Homogeneous DNA Detection Based on Fluorescence Quenching by Nanoparticles in Single-step Format :Target-Induced Configuration Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Songbai; WU,Zaisheng; XIE,Ming; SHEN,Guoli; YU,Ruqin

    2009-01-01

    A new strategy for homogeneous detection of DNA hybridization in single-step format was developed based on fluorescence quenching by gold nanoparticles.The gold nanoparticle is functionalized with 5'-thiolated 48-base oligonucleotide(probe sequence),whose 3'-terminus is labeled with fluorescein(FAM),a negatively charged fluo-rescencc dye.The oligonucleotide adopts all extended configuration due to the electrostatic repulsion between nega-tively charged gold nanoparticle and the FAM-attached probe sequence.After addition of the complementary target sequence,specific DNA hybridization induces a conformation change of the probe from an extended stmcture to an arch.1ike configuration,which brings the fluorophore and the gold nanoparticle in close proximity.The fluorescence is efficiently quenched by gold nanoparticles.The fluorescence quenching efficiency is related to the target concen.tration,which allows the quantitative detection for target sequence in a sample.A linear detection range from 1.6 to 209.4 nmoI/L Was obtained under the optimized experimental conditions with a detection limit of 0.1 nmol,L.In the assay system,the gold nanoparticles act as both nanoscaffolds and nanoquenchers.Furthermore,the proposed strategy.in which only two DNA sequences arc involved,is not only different from the traditional molecular bea-cons or reverse molecular beacons but also different from the commonly used sandwich hybridization methods.In addition,the DNA hybridization detection was achieved in homogenous solution in a single-step format,which al-lows real.time detection and quantification with other advantages such as easy operation and elimination of washing steps.

  13. Single-step microfluidic synthesis of various nonspherical polymer nanoparticles via in situ assembling: dominating role of polyelectrolytes molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visaveliya, Nikunjkumar; Köhler, J Michael

    2014-07-23

    In this paper, a microfluidic approach has been used for the synthesis of ellipsoidal, dumbbell, rodlike, and necklacelike polymer nanoparticles. High yields of special types of nonspherical nanoparticles have been achieved by the implementation of an emulsion polymerization into microfluidic arrangement with a micro hole-plate reactor for the formation of monomer droplets. Here, in particular, the formation of nonspherical polymer nanoparticles is dependent on the presence of polyelectrolyte surface active molecules such as poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) sodium salt (PSS-co-PM), poly(sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) (PSSS), and polyanetholesulfonic acid sodium salt (PAES). The shapes and sizes of the interparticle nanoassemblies are precisely controlled by adjusting the concentration of polyelectrolytes in the aqueous phase, and by choosing suitable flow rate ratios (aqueous to monomer phase), respectively. The formation of polymer nanoparticles with different morphologies can be explained by a spontaneous in situ assembling under partial electrostatic repulsive control in the single step synthesis. The effect of particle charge and the competition between thermal motion of particles and electrostatic repulsion on the spontaneous assembling under the condition of a limited polarizability are discussed here as an important factor for the formation process of nonspherical polymer nanoparticles.

  14. nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Hui; Liu, Xu-Jun; Guan, Lei-Lei; Li, Yan-Li; Sun, Jian; Ying, Zhi-Feng; Wu, Jia-Da; Xu, Ning

    2014-06-01

    Evenly separated crystalline CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 (CIGS) nanoparticles are deposited on ITO-glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition. Such CIGS layers are introduced between conjugated polymer layers and ITO-glass substrates for enhancing light absorbance of polymer solar cells. The P3HT:PCBM absorbance between 300 and 650 nm is enhanced obviously due to the introduction of CIGS nanoparticles. The current density-voltage curves of a P3HT:PCBM/CIGS solar cell demonstrate that the short-circuit current density is improved from 0.77 to 1.20 mA/cm2. The photoluminescence spectra show that the excitons in the polymer are obviously quenched, suggesting that the charge transfer between the P3HT:PCBM and CIGS occurred. The results reveal that the CIGS nanoparticles may exhibit the localized surface plasmon resonance effect just as metallic nanostructures.

  15. Measuring the Charge of a Single Dielectric Nanoparticle Using a High-Q Optical Microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You-Ling; Jin, Wei-Liang; Xiao, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Xuming

    2016-10-01

    Measuring the charge of a nanoparticle is of great importance in many fields including optics, astronomy, biochemistry, atmospheric science, environmental engineering, and dusty plasma. Here, we propose to use a high-Q whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical microresonator to detect the surface and bulk charge of a dielectric nanoparticle. Because of the modification of nanoparticle conductivity induced by the surplus electrons, both the coupling strength between the nanoparticle and the WGM and the dissipation changes compared with the case of a neutral nanoparticle. The charge density can be inferred from the transmission spectrum of the WGM microresonator. By monitoring the mode splitting, the linewidth broadening or the resonance dip value of the transmission spectrum, surface (bulk) electron density as low as 0.007 nm-2 (0.001 nm-3) can be detected for nanoparticles with negative (positive) electron affinity. The high sensitivity is attributed to the ultranarrow resonance linewidth and small mode volume of the microresonator.

  16. High-throughput quantitation of inorganic nanoparticle biodistribution at the single-cell level using mass cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Sang Sabrina; Atukorale, Prabhani U.; Moynihan, Kelly D.; Bekdemir, Ahmet; Rakhra, Kavya; Tang, Li; Stellacci, Francesco; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are studied as drug carriers, radiosensitizers and imaging agents, and characterizing nanoparticle biodistribution is essential for evaluating their efficacy and safety. Tracking NPs at the single-cell level with current technologies is complicated by the lack of reliable methods to stably label particles over extended durations in vivo. Here we demonstrate that mass cytometry by time-of-flight provides a label-free approach for inorganic nanoparticle quantitation in cells. Furthermore, mass cytometry can enumerate AuNPs with a lower detection limit of ∼10 AuNPs (3 nm core size) in a single cell with tandem multiparameter cellular phenotyping. Using the cellular distribution insights, we selected an amphiphilic surface ligand-coated AuNP that targeted myeloid dendritic cells in lymph nodes as a peptide antigen carrier, substantially increasing the efficacy of a model vaccine in a B16-OVA melanoma mouse model. This technology provides a powerful new level of insight into nanoparticle fate in vivo. PMID:28094297

  17. Detection of lead nanoparticles in game meat by single particle ICP-MS following use of lead-containing bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollander, Barbro; Widemo, Fredrik; Ågren, Erik; Larsen, Erik H; Loeschner, Katrin

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated whether game meat may contain nanoparticles of lead from ammunition. Lead nanoparticles in the range 40 to 750 nm were detected by ICP-MS in single particle mode in game shot with lead-containing bullets. The median diameter of the detected nanoparticles was around 60 nm. The particle mass concentration ranged from 290 to 340 ng/g meat and the particle number concentrations from 27 to 50 million particles/g meat. The size limit of detection strongly depended on the level of dissolved lead and was in the range of 40 to 80 nm. In game meat sampled more than 10 cm away from the wound channel, no lead particles with a diameter larger than 40 nm were detected. In addition to dissolved lead in meat that originated from particulates, the presence of lead nano particles in game meat represents a hitherto unattended source of lead with a largely unknown toxicological impact to humans. Graphical Abstract Detection of lead nanoparticles in game meat by single particle ICP-MS following use of leadcontaining bullets.

  18. Exchange biasing of single-domain Ni nanoparticles spontaneously grown in an antiferromagnetic MnO matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoemaker, Daniel P; Grossman, Madeleine; Seshadri, Ram [Materials Department, Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)], E-mail: dshoe@mrl.ucsb.edu

    2008-05-14

    Exchange biased composites of ferromagnetic single-domain Ni nanoparticles embedded within and on the surface of large grains of MnO have been prepared by the reduction of Ni{sub x}Mn{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} monoliths in flowing 5% H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}. The Ni precipitates are 20-30 nm in extent, and the majority are completely encased within MnO. The manner in which the Ni nanoparticles are spontaneously formed-starting from a single homogeneous phase-ensures a high degree of dispersion of the Ni and large Ni/MnO interface/volume ratios. The interfaces between ferromagnetic Ni and antiferromagnetic MnO result in magnetic exchange bias below the Neel temperature of MnO. A threefold change in exchange bias fields (from 40 to 120 Oe at 5 K) is observed, depending on the starting Ni content x in the precursor Ni{sub x}Mn{sub 3-x}O{sub 4}, with smaller x values-fewer or smaller Ni nanoparticles-resulting in larger exchange fields. The exchange bias leads to significant hardening of the magnetization, with coercive fields scaling nearly linearly with the exchange field. The strategies outlined here suggest new and simple routes for creating highly interfacial, functional biphasic composites of nanoparticles embedded within or supported on an oxide matrix.

  19. Technologies for autonomous integrated lab-on-chip systems for space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascetti, A.; Caputo, D.; Scipinotti, R.; de Cesare, G.

    2016-11-01

    Lab-on-chip devices are ideal candidates for use in space missions where experiment automation, system compactness, limited weight and low sample and reagent consumption are required. Currently, however, most microfluidic systems require external desktop instrumentation to operate and interrogate the chip, thus strongly limiting their use as stand-alone systems. In order to overcome the above-mentioned limitations our research group is currently working on the design and fabrication of "true" lab-on-chip systems that integrate in a single device all the analytical steps from the sample preparation to the detection without the need for bulky external components such as pumps, syringes, radiation sources or optical detection systems. Three critical points can be identified to achieve 'true' lab-on-chip devices: sample handling, analytical detection and signal transduction. For each critical point, feasible solutions are presented and evaluated. Proposed microfluidic actuation and control is based on electrowetting on dielectrics, autonomous capillary networks and active valves. Analytical detection based on highly specific chemiluminescent reactions is used to avoid external radiation sources. Finally, the integration on the same chip of thin film sensors based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon is discussed showing practical results achieved in different sensing tasks.

  20. The numerical investigation of magnetic properties of single domain MnP:GaP nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerami, Adeleh Mokhles; Vaez-Zadeh, Mehdi

    2016-03-01

    The magnetic properties of MnP:GaP nanoparticles are calculated using a statistical mechanical approach and effect of various factors on magnetization of nanoparticles is studied. The calculation is based on solution of localized partition function and evolution of magnetic moment affected by thermal fluctuation and external field is included by solving master equation. Instead of constant magnetic saturation approximation, a temperature dependent magnetic moment saturation is included to improve calculation efficiency for larger nanoparticles. In the present work, the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled (FC/ZFC) magnetization of randomly oriented anisotropy and log-normal volume distributed nanoparticles are calculated.

  1. Size-dependent exchange bias in single phase Mn3O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song-Wei; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Rong; Rao, Guang-Hui

    2016-11-01

    Glassy magnetic behavior and exchange bias phenomena are observed in single phase Mn3O4 nanoparticles. Dynamics scaling analysis of the ac susceptibility and the Henkel plot indicate that the observed glassy behavior at low temperature can be understood by taking into account the intrinsic behavior of the individual particles consisting of a ferrimagnetic (FIM) core and a spin-glass surface layer. Field-cooled magnetization hysteresis loops display both horizontal and vertical shifts. Dependence of the exchange bias field (H E) on the cooling field shows an almost undamped feature up to 70 kOe, indicating the stable exchange bias state in Mn3O4. H E increases as the particle size decreases due to the higher surface/volume ratio. The occurrence of the exchange bias can be attributed to the pinning effect of the frozen spin-glass surface layer upon the FIM core. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11464007), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi, China (Grant Nos. 2012GXNSFGA060002 and 2014GXNSFBA118241), the Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Material Foundation, China (Grant No. 131021-Z), and the Guangxi Department of Education Foundation, China (Grant Nos. YB2014120 and KY2015YB104).

  2. Molecular Recognition-Mediated Transformation of Single-Chain Polymer Nanoparticles into Crosslinked Polymer Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Clare S; McGurk, Christopher J; Watson, Scott M D; Fascione, Martin A; Sakonsinsiri, Chadamas; Turnbull, W Bruce; Fulton, David A

    2017-08-14

    We describe single-chain polymer nanoparticles (SCNPs) possessing intramolecular dynamic covalent crosslinks that can transform into polymer films through a molecular recognition-mediated crosslinking process. The SCNPs utilise molecular recognition with surface-immobilised proteins to concentrate upon a substrate, bringing the SCNPs into close spatial proximity with one another and allowing their dynamic covalent crosslinkers to undergo intra- to interpolymer chain crosslinking leading to the formation of polymeric film. SCNPs must possess both the capacity for specific molecular recognition and a dynamic nature to their intramolecular crosslinkers to form polymer films, and an investigation of the initial phase of film formation indicates it proceeds from features which form upon the surface then grow predominantly in the xy directions. This approach to polymer film formation presents a potential method to "wrap" surfaces displaying molecular recognition motifs-which could potentially include viral, cellular and bacterial surfaces or artificial surfaces displaying multivalent recognition motifs-within a layer of polymer film. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  3. Label-free imaging of gold nanoparticles in single live cells by photoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chao; Qian, Wei; Shao, Xia; Xie, Zhixing; Cheng, Xu; Liu, Shengchun; Cheng, Qian; Liu, Bing; Wang, Xueding

    2016-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been extensively explored as a model nanostructure in nanomedicine and have been widely used to provide advanced biomedical research tools in diagnostic imaging and therapy. Due to the necessity of targeting AuNPs to individual cells, evaluation and visualization of AuNPs in the cellular level is critical to fully understand their interaction with cellular environment. Currently imaging technologies, such as fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy all have advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, we synthesized AuNPs by femtosecond pulsed laser ablation, modified their surface chemistry through sequential bioconjugation, and targeted the functionalized AuNPs with individual cancer cells. Based on their high optical absorption contrast, we developed a novel, label-free imaging method to evaluate and visualize intracellular AuNPs using photoacoustic microscopy (PAM). Preliminary study shows that the PAM imaging technique is capable of imaging cellular uptake of AuNPs in vivo at single-cell resolution, which provide an important tool for the study of AuNPs in nanomedicine.

  4. Fabrication of resistively-coupled single-electron device using an array of gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Tran Thi Thu; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Moriya, Masataka; Shimada, Hiroshi; Kimura, Yasuo; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Mizugaki, Yoshinao

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrated one type of single-electron device that exhibited electrical characteristics similar to those of resistively-coupled SE transistor (R-SET) at 77 K and room temperature (287 K). Three Au electrodes on an oxidized Si chip served as drain, source, and gate electrodes were formed using electron-beam lithography and evaporation techniques. A narrow (70-nm-wide) gate electrode was patterned using thermal evaporation, whereas wide (800-nm-wide) drain and source electrodes were made using shadow evaporation. Subsequently, aqueous solution of citric acid and 15-nm-diameter gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and toluene solution of 3-nm-diameter Au NPs chemisorbed via decanethiol were dropped on the chip to make the connections between the electrodes. Current-voltage characteristics between the drain and source electrodes exhibited Coulomb blockade (CB) at both 77 and 287 K. Dependence of the CB region on the gate voltage was similar to that of an R-SET. Simulation results of the model based on the scanning electron microscopy image of the device could reproduce the characteristics like the R-SET.

  5. Solution-processed zinc oxide nanoparticles/single-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangmei; Sun, Jia; Qian, Chuan; Hu, Xiaotao; Wu, Han; Huang, Yulan; Yang, Junliang

    2016-09-01

    Solution-processed thin-film transistors (TFTs) are the essential building blocks for manufacturing the low-cost and large-area consumptive electronics. Herein, solution-processed TFTs based on the composites of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were fabricated by the methods of spin-coating and doctor-blading. Through controlling the weight of SWCNTs, the ZnO/SWCNTs TFTs fabricated by spin-coating demonstrated a field-effect mobility of 4.7 cm2/Vs and a low threshold voltage of 0.8 V, while the TFTs devices fabricated by doctor-blading technique showed reasonable electrical performance with a mobility of 0.22 cm2/Vs. Furthermore, the ion-gel was used as an efficient electrochemical gate dielectric because of its large electric double-layer capacitance. The operating voltage of all the TFTs devices is as low as 4.0 V. The research suggests that ZnO/SWCNTs TFTs have the potential applications in low-cost, large-area and flexible consumptive electronics, such as chemical-biological sensors and smart label.

  6. Single-step plasma synthesis of carbon-coated silicon nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaukulkar, Rohan P; de Peuter, Koen; Stradins, Paul; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Bell, Jacob P; Yang, Yongan; Agarwal, Sumit

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a novel single-step technique based on nonthermal, radio frequency (rf) plasmas to synthesize sub-10 nm, core-shell, carbon-coated crystalline Si (c-Si) nanoparticles (NPs) for potential application in Li(+) batteries and as fluorescent markers. Hydrogen-terminated c-Si NPs nucleate and grow in a SiH4-containing, low-temperature plasma in the upstream section of a tubular quartz reactor. The c-Si NPs are then transported downstream by gas flow, and are coated with amorphous carbon (a-C) in a second C2H2-containing plasma. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that a thin, size determined by Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. The size of the c-Si NP core, and the corresponding light emission from these NPs, was directly controlled by varying the thickness of the interfacial 3C-SiC layer. This size tunable emission thus also demonstrates the versatility of this technique for synthesizing c-Si NPs for potential applications in light emitting diodes, biological markers, and nanocrystal inks.

  7. Single particle ICP-MS combined with a data evaluastion tool as a routine techique for the analysis of nanoparticles in complex matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Herrera-Rivera, Z.; Undas, A.K.; Lee, van der M.K.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Bouwmeester, H.; Weigel, S.

    2015-01-01

    Detection and characterization of nanoparticles (NPs) in complex media as consumer products, food and toxicological test media is an essential part of understanding the potential benefits and risks of the application of nanoparticles. Single particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS) was studied as a screening tool

  8. On-chip optical trapping for atomic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Maximillian A.; Salim, Evan; Farkas, Daniel; Duggan, Janet; Ivory, Megan; Anderson, Dana

    2014-09-01

    To simplify applications that rely on optical trapping of cold and ultracold atoms, ColdQuanta is developing techniques to incorporate miniature optical components onto in-vacuum atom chips. The result is a hybrid atom chip that combines an in-vacuum micro-optical bench for optical control with an atom chip for magnetic control. Placing optical components on a chip inside of the vacuum system produces a compact system that can be targeted to specific experiments, in this case the generation of optical lattices. Applications that can benefit from this technology include timekeeping, inertial sensing, gravimetry, quantum information, and emulation of quantum many-body systems. ColdQuanta's GlasSi atom chip technology incorporates glass windows in the plane of a silicon atom chip. In conjunction with the in-vacuum micro-optical bench, optical lattices can be generated within a few hundred microns of an atom chip window through which single atomic lattice sites can be imaged with sub-micron spatial resolution. The result is a quantum gas microscope that allows optical lattices to be studied at the level of single lattice sites. Similar to what ColdQuanta has achieved with magneto-optical traps (MOTs) in its miniMOT system and with Bose- Einstein condensates (BECs) in its RuBECi(R) system, ColdQuanta seeks to apply the on-chip optical bench technology to studies of optical lattices in a commercially available, turnkey system. These techniques are currently being considered for lattice experiments in NASA's Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) slated for flight on the International Space Station.

  9. Spin-glass transition in Ni carbide single crystal nanoparticles with Ni3C − type structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fujieda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal shaped nanoparticles about 60 nm in size were successfully synthesized in tetraethylene glycol solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone. By the analysis of the electron diffraction pattern, these were identified as a single crystal of Ni carbide with Ni3C − type structure. Their magnetization curve at 5 K was not completely saturated under a magnetic field of 5 T. The thermomagnetization curves after zero-field cooling and after field cooling exhibited the magnetic cooling effect at low temperatures. Furthermore, the 2nd order nonlinear term of AC magnetic susceptibility exhibited a negative divergence at about 17 K. It is concluded that Ni carbide single crystal nanoparticles with the Ni3C − type structure exhibit spin-glass transition at low temperatures.

  10. The origin of emissive states of carbon nanoparticles derived from ensemble-averaged and single-molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchenko, Alexander P; Dekaliuk, Mariia O

    2016-08-01

    At present, there is no consensus understanding on the origin of photoluminescence of carbon nanoparticles, particularly the so-called carbon dots. Providing comparative analysis of spectroscopic studies in solution and on a single-molecular level, we demonstrate that these particles behave collectively as fixed single dipoles and probably are the quantum emitter entities. Their spectral and lifetime heterogeneity in solutions is explained by variation of the local chemical environment within and around luminescence centers. Hence, the carbon dots possess a unique hybrid combination of fluorescence properties peculiar to dye molecules, their conjugates and semiconductor nanocrystals. It is proposed that their optical properties are due to generation of H-aggregate-type excitonic states with their coherence spreading over the whole nanoparticles.

  11. The origin of emissive states of carbon nanoparticles derived from ensemble-averaged and single-molecular studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchenko, Alexander P.; Dekaliuk, Mariia O.

    2016-07-01

    At present, there is no consensus understanding on the origin of photoluminescence of carbon nanoparticles, particularly the so-called carbon dots. Providing comparative analysis of spectroscopic studies in solution and on a single-molecular level, we demonstrate that these particles behave collectively as fixed single dipoles and probably are the quantum emitter entities. Their spectral and lifetime heterogeneity in solutions is explained by variation of the local chemical environment within and around luminescence centers. Hence, the carbon dots possess a unique hybrid combination of fluorescence properties peculiar to dye molecules, their conjugates and semiconductor nanocrystals. It is proposed that their optical properties are due to generation of H-aggregate-type excitonic states with their coherence spreading over the whole nanoparticles.

  12. Complete polarization characterization of single plasmonic nanoparticle enabled by a novel Dark-field Mueller matrix spectroscopy system

    CERN Document Server

    Chandel, Shubham; Ray, Subir K; Das, Anwesh; Ghosh, Anirudha; Raj, Satyabrata; Ghosh, Nirmalya

    2015-01-01

    Information on the polarization properties of scattered light from plasmonic systems are of paramount importance due to fundamental interest and potential applications. However, such studies are severely compromised due to the experimental difficulties in recording full polarization response of plasmonic nanostructures. Here, we report on a novel Mueller matrix spectroscopic system capable of acquiring complete polarization information from single isolated plasmonic nanoparticle/nanostructure. The outstanding issues pertaining to reliable measurements of full 4X4 spectroscopic scattering Mueller matrices from single nanoparticle/nanostructures are overcome by integrating an efficient Mueller matrix measurement scheme and a robust calibration method with a dark-field microscopic spectroscopy arrangement.The spectral polarization responses of the required polarization state generator, analyzer units, the imaging and the detection systemsare taken care off by eigenvalue calibration, thus enabling recording of th...

  13. Quantification of dermal exposure to nanoparticles from solid nanocomposites by using single particle ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are used in various applications due to their unique properties, which has led to their widespread use in consumer products. Silver, titanium and copper-based nanoparticles are few of the most commonly used nanomaterials in consumer products, mainly due to their biocidal...

  14. Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy (ETEM) Studies of Single Iron Nanoparticle Carburization in Synthesis Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Zhang, Chenghua; Li, Yongwang

    2017-01-01

    Structuralevolution of iron nanoparticles involving the formationand growth of iron carbide nuclei in the iron nanoparticle was directlyvisualized at the atomic level, using environmental transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM) under reactive conditions mimicking Fischer–Tropschsynthesis. Formation...... and electronenergy-loss spectra provides a detailed picture from initial activationto final degradation of iron under synthesis gas....

  15. Ferroelectric and electrical characterization of multiferroic BiFeO3 at the single nanoparticle level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, R. K.; Bogle, K. A.; Kumar, A.; Jesse, S.; Magaraggia, R.; Stamps, R.; Ogale, S. B.; Potdar, H. S.; Nagarajan, V.

    2011-12-01

    Ferroelectric BiFeO3 (BFO) nanoparticles deposited on epitaxial substrates of SrRuO3 (SRO) and La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) were studied using band excitation piezoresponse spectroscopy (BEPS), piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). BEPS confirms that the nanoparticles are ferroelectric in nature. Switching behavior of nanoparticle clusters were studied and showed evidence for inhomogeneous switching. The dimensionality of domains within nanoparticles was found to be fractal in nature, with a dimensionality constant of ˜1.4, on par with ferroelectric BFO thin-films under 100 nm in thickness. Ferromagnetic resonance studies indicate BFO nanoparticles only weakly affect the magnetic response of LSMO.

  16. Ferroelectric and electrical characterization of multiferroic BiFeO3 at the single nanoparticle level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Rama K [ORNL; Bogle, K A [University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Magaraggia, R [University of Glasgow; Stamps, R [University of Glasgow; Ogale, S [National Chemical Laboratory, India; Potdar, H S [National Chemical Laboratory, India

    2011-01-01

    Ferroelectric BiFeO3 (BFO) nanoparticles deposited on epitaxial substrates of SrRuO3 (SRO) and La1xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) were studied using band excitation piezoresponse spectroscopy (BEPS), piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). BEPS confirms that the nanoparticles are ferroelectric in nature. Switching behavior of nanoparticle clusters were studied and showed evidence for inhomogeneous switching. The dimensionality of domains within nanoparticles was found to be fractal in nature, with a dimensionality constant of 1.4, on par with ferroelectric BFO thin-films under 100 nm in thickness. Ferromagnetic resonance studies indicate BFO nanoparticles only weakly affect the magnetic response of LSMO.

  17. Ab-initio study of gold nanoparticles supported on defect-laden single-layer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Takat B.; Le, Duy; Rahman, Talat S.

    We have investigated the geometry, electronic structure, and catalytic properties of gold nanoparticles on defect-laden single-layer MoS2 using density functional theory (DFT) based calculations with semi-empirical van der Waals interaction (DFT-D3). Our results show that the two-dimensional planar structure, the most favorable one for unsupported Au13 nanoparticle, transforms into a distorted three-dimensional (3D) structure when supported on single-layer MoS2 with single S-vacancy which is more favorable than the icosahedral, decahedron and cuboctahedron forms. The MoS2 support substantially alters the electronic structure of Au13 nanoparticle near the Fermi level, owing to the strong interaction of MoS2 support with Au13 in the presence of an S-vacancy. The modified electronic structure remarkably affects the catalytic activity of the MoS2-supported Au13, offering enhanced activity towards methanol synthesis reaction via CO hydrogenation reaction - a contrast from that of titania-supported Au13 nanoparticlewhich promotes methanol decomposition. This work is supported in part by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE DE-FG02-07ER15842).

  18. PERFORMANCE ENHANCED ROUTER DESIGN FOR NETWORK ON CHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbu chozhan.P

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Network on chip is a new paradigm for on chip design that is able to sustain the communication provisions for the SoC with the desired performance. NOC applies networking methodology concepts to system on chip data transfer and it gives noticeable elevation over conventionalbus based communication. NOC router is the backbone of on chip communication which directs the flow of data. In NOC router the arbiter is used during number of inputs request for the similar out port. Arbiter generates the grant based on the priority and previous granted input. For NOC router we have design the efficient round robin arbiter and analyse the power and area. In this paper on chip router is designed with a buffering technique of FWFT based asynchronous FIFO which improves timing and reduce power consumption. The proposed design of router is simulated and synthesized in Xilinx ISE 13.2 and the source code is written in Verilog. Cadence soc encounter of technology ami035 is used to generate layout of router and RTL compiler is used to compute area, power and timing.

  19. Modular and dynamic approaches to the formation of single-chain polymer nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuten, Bryan Tyler

    The methodology towards the creation of nanoscale polymeric objects by way of the folding of single polymer chains has been enjoying success in the field of polymer chemistry and materials science. By synthesizing polymer chains with built in functionality either through functional side groups, or direct incorporation into the polymer backbone, polymer chemists are able to fold single polymer chains onto themselves through a broad range of covalent and non-covalent interactions in dilute solution. These compact, nano-sized objects can now be used in a wide arrange of functions and applications. The aim of this dissertation is to provide first, a comprehensive overview of the recent advances and success enjoyed by this field and second, to showcase some of the various routes towards the dynamic and modular creation of these single-chain polymer nanoparticles (SCNPs). Chapter 2 of this work discusses the use of dynamic covalent cross-linking chemistry via reversible disulfide bridges in the folding and unfolding of SCNPs. Through the use of triple detection size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) it was shown through changes in retention time, a phenomena indicative of hydrodynamic volume, a polymer was being folded into compact SCNPs and then unfolded and refolded via redox chemistry. Chapter 3 explores the design of polymers that had various different cross-linkable moieties incorporated into the monomer side units. By having cross-linkable moieties that can undergo different chemical cross-linking reactions (i.e thiol-yne click reactions, epoxide ring-opening reactions, activated esters), a modular approach towards the folding and subsequent functionalization of SCNPs is created. Looking to design a system with a greater degree of control over the modular functionality, chapter 4 investigates the use of norbornene imide monomers containing pentafluorophenyl activated esters with varying methylene spacer unites between the polymerizable olefin and the activated ester

  20. Room-temperature single-photon emission from zinc oxide nanoparticle defects and their in vitro photostable intrinsic fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Kelvin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO is a promising semiconductor that is suitable for bioimaging applications due to its intrinsic defect fluorescence. However, ZnO generally suffers from poor photostability. We report room-temperature single-photon emission from optical defects found in ZnO nanoparticles (NPs formed by ion implantation followed by thermal oxidation in a silica substrate. We conduct a thorough investigation into the photophysics of a particularly bright defect and identify other single emitters within the NPs. Photostability was observed when the NPs were removed from the growth substrate and taken up by skin cells for in vitro imaging.

  1. Room-temperature single-photon emission from zinc oxide nanoparticle defects and their in vitro photostable intrinsic fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kelvin; Karle, Timothy J.; Khalid, Asma; Abraham, Amanda N.; Shukla, Ravi; Gibson, Brant C.; Simpson, David A.; Djurišic, Aleksandra B.; Amekura, Hiroshi; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana

    2017-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a promising semiconductor that is suitable for bioimaging applications due to its intrinsic defect fluorescence. However, ZnO generally suffers from poor photostability. We report room-temperature single-photon emission from optical defects found in ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) formed by ion implantation followed by thermal oxidation in a silica substrate. We conduct a thorough investigation into the photophysics of a particularly bright defect and identify other single emitters within the NPs. Photostability was observed when the NPs were removed from the growth substrate and taken up by skin cells for in vitro imaging.

  2. nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Cabedo, Patricia; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Cabedo, Luis; Julia, J. Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable.

  3. Preparation and functional studies of hydroxyethyl chitosan nanoparticles loaded with anti-human death receptor 5 single-chain antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang J

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jingjing Yang,1,3,* Xiaoping Huang,1,3,* Fanghong Luo,1 Xiaofeng Cheng,3 Lianna Cheng,3 Bin Liu,4 Lihong Chen,2 Ruyi Hu,1,3 Chunyan Shi,1,3 Guohong Zhuang,1,3 Ping Yin2 1Anti-Cancer Research Center, Medical College, Xiamen University, Fujian, People's Republic of China, 2The Department of Pathology, Zhongshan Hospital, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People's Republic of China, 3Organ transplantation institution, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People's Republic of China, 4Jilin Vocational College of Industry and Technology, Jilin, People's Republic of China  *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To prepare hydroxyethyl chitosan nanoparticles loaded with anti-human death receptor 5 single-chain antibody, and study their characteristics, functions, and mechanisms of action. Materials and methods: The anti-human death receptor 5 single-chain antibody was constructed and expressed. Protein-loaded hydroxyethyl chitosan nanoparticles were prepared, and their size, morphology, particle-size distribution and surface zeta potential were measured by scanning electron microscopy and laser particle-size analysis. Mouse H22 hepatocellular carcinoma cells were cultured, and growth inhibition was examined using the CellTiter-Blue cell-viability assay. Flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 were employed to measure cell apoptosis. Kunming mice with H22 tumor models were treated with protein-loaded hydroxyethyl chitosan nanoparticles, and their body weight and tumor size were measured, while hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to detect antitumor effects in vivo and side effects from tumors. Results: The protein-loaded hydroxyethyl chitosan nanoparticles had good stability; the zeta potential was -24.2±0.205, and the dispersion index was 0.203. The inhibition of the protein-loaded hydroxyethyl chitosan nanoparticles on H22 growth was both time- and dose-dependent. Increased expressions of active caspase 8, active caspase 3, and BAX were detected

  4. Monolithic integration of a quantum emitter with a compact on-chip beam-splitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prtljaga, N., E-mail: n.prtljaga@sheffield.ac.uk; Coles, R. J.; O' Hara, J.; Royall, B.; Fox, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Clarke, E. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-09

    A fundamental component of an integrated quantum optical circuit is an on-chip beam-splitter operating at the single-photon level. Here, we demonstrate the monolithic integration of an on-demand quantum emitter in the form of a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot (QD) with a compact (>10 μm), air clad, free standing directional coupler acting as a beam-splitter for anti-bunched light. The device was tested by using single photons emitted by a QD embedded in one of the input arms of the device. We verified the single-photon nature of the QD signal by performing Hanbury Brown-Twiss measurements and demonstrated single-photon beam splitting by cross-correlating the signal from the separate output ports of the directional coupler.

  5. Exploring Alternative Topologies for Network-on-Chip Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafi Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With increase in integration density and complexity of the system-on-Chip (SOC, the conventional interconnects are not suitable to fulfill the demands. The application of traditional network technologies in the form of Network-on-Chip is a potential solution. NoC design space has many variables. Selection of a better topology results in lesser complexities and better power-efficiency. In the proposed work, key research area in Network-on-chip design targeting communication infrastructure specially focusing on optimized topology design is worked upon. The simulation is modeled using a conventional network simulator tool packet tracer 5.3, in which by selecting proposed Topology 35.7 % reduction in traversing the longest path is observed.

  6. Thin film magnetostrictive sensor with on-chip readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong

    We report the first successful integration of magnetostrictive Metglas2605S2 (Fesb{78}Sisb9Bsb{13}) thin film sensor system on silicon with high resolution capacitive readout. A deposition process for Metglas thin film has been developed to allow easy control of thin film composition. An amorphous microstructure has been achieved over a wide temperature range, and in-situ magnetic domain alignment can be accomplished at room temperature as the film is deposited. The thin film has been characterized by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis for composition, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) spectrum for microstructure, magnetization measurement for domain alignment and capacitive measurement for magnetostriction. The thin film is suitable for any magnetostrictive sensor applications, in particular, for IC compatible microsensors and microactuators. We have demonstrated the subsequent process integration with IC fabrication technology. Here, the Metglas thin film has been successfully incorporated to micromechanical structures using surface micromachining with appropriate choice of sacrificial layer and low stress mechanical layers. In addition, we present the development of a high resolution capacitive readout circuit co-integrated with the sensor. The readout circuit is based on a floating gate MOSFET configuration, requiring just a single transistor and operated at DC or low frequencies. Using the prototype developed in-house, we have successfully demonstrated a resolution capability of 10sp{-17} F, this translates to a few A in terms of cantilever beam deflection of the sensor. The floating gate readout technique is readily applicable to any capacitive sensors with a need for on-chip readout. It is also an ideal in-situ test structure for on IC chip process characterization and parameter extraction.

  7. Adaptive on-chip control of nano-optical fields with optoplasmonic vortex nanogates

    CERN Document Server

    Boriskina, Svetlana V

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge for plasmonics as an enabling technology for quantum information processing is the realization of active spatio-temporal control of light on the nanoscale. The use of phase-shaped pulses or beams enforces specific requirements for on-chip integration and imposes strict design limitations. We introduce here an alternative approach, which is based on exploiting the strong sub-wavelength spatial phase modulation in the near-field of resonantly-excited high-Q optical microcavities integrated into plasmonic nanocircuits. Our theoretical analysis reveals the formation of areas of circulating powerflow (optical vortices) in the near-fields of optical microcavities, whose positions and mutual coupling can be controlled by tuning the microcavities parameters and the excitation wavelength. We show that optical powerflow though nanoscale plasmonic structures can be dynamically molded by engineering interactions of microcavity-induced optical vortices with noble-metal nanoparticles. The proposed strateg...

  8. On-Chip Integration of Cell-Free Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxboim, Amnon; Morpurgo, Margherita; Bar-Dagan, Maya; Frydman, Veronica; Zbaida, David; Bar-Ziv, Roy

    2006-03-01

    We present a synthetic approach for the study of gene networks in vitro which is complementary to traditional in vivo methodologies. We have developed a technology for submicron integration of functional genes and on-chip protein synthesis using a cell-free transcription/translation system. The interaction between genes is facilitated by diffusion of on-chip gene expression products from `source' genes towards `acceptor' genes. Our technology is simple and inexpensive and can serve as an improved platform for a wide variety of protein and DNA biochip applications.

  9. Entangled photons from on-chip slow light

    CERN Document Server

    Takesue, Hiroki; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya

    2014-01-01

    We report the first entanglement generation experiment using an on-chip slow light device. With highly efficient spontaneous four-wave mixing enhanced by the slow light effect in a coupled resonator optical waveguide based on a silicon photonic crystal, we generated 1.5-$\\mu$m-band high-dimensional time-bin entangled photon pairs. We undertook two-photon interference experiments and observed the coincidence fringes with visibilities $>74\\%$. The present result enables us to realize an on-chip entanglement source with a very small footprint, which is an essential function for quantum information processing based on integrated quantum photonics.

  10. Ultrasound assisted particle and cell manipulation on-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvana, Helen; Cochran, Sandy; Hill, Martyn

    2013-11-01

    Ultrasonic fields are able to exert forces on cells and other micron-scale particles, including microbubbles. The technology is compatible with existing lab-on-chip techniques and is complementary to many alternative manipulation approaches due to its ability to handle many cells simultaneously over extended length scales. This paper provides an overview of the physical principles underlying ultrasonic manipulation, discusses the biological effects relevant to its use with cells, and describes emerging applications that are of interest in the field of drug development and delivery on-chip. © 2013.

  11. Designing network on-chip architectures in the nanoscale era

    CERN Document Server

    Flich, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Going beyond isolated research ideas and design experiences, Designing Network On-Chip Architectures in the Nanoscale Era covers the foundations and design methods of network on-chip (NoC) technology. The contributors draw on their own lessons learned to provide strong practical guidance on various design issues.Exploring the design process of the network, the first part of the book focuses on basic aspects of switch architecture and design, topology selection, and routing implementation. In the second part, contributors discuss their experiences in the industry, offering a roadmap to recent p

  12. On-chip photonic tweezers for photonics, microfluidics, and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, Christophe; Renaut, Claude; Tardif, Manon; Jager, Jean-Baptiste; Delamadeleine, Eric; Picard, Emmanuel; Peyrade, David; Hadji, Emmanuel; de Fornel, Frédérique; Cluzel, Benoît

    2017-04-01

    Near-field optical forces arise from evanescent electromagnetic fields and can be advantageously used for on-chip optical trapping. In this work, we investigate how evanescent fields at the surface of photonic cavities can efficiently trap micro-objects such as polystyrene particles and bacteria. We study first the influence of trapped particle's size on the trapping potential and introduce an original optofluidic near-field optical microscopy technique. Then we analyze the rotational motion of trapped clusters of microparticles and investigate their possible use as microfluidic micro-tools such as integrated micro-flow vane. Eventually, we demonstrate efficient on-chip optical trapping of various kinds of bacteria.

  13. Advances on Microsized On-Chip Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixiang; Weng, Qunhong; Lu, Xueyi; Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Lin; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2017-09-27

    Development of microsized on-chip batteries plays an important role in the design of modern micro-electromechanical systems, miniaturized biomedical sensors, and many other small-scale electronic devices. This emerging field intimately correlates with the topics of rechargeable batteries, nanomaterials, on-chip microfabrication, etc. In recent years, a number of novel designs are proposed to increase the energy and power densities per footprint area, as well as other electrochemical performances of microsized lithium-ion batteries. These advances may guide the pathway for the future development of microbatteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Handheld analyzer with on-chip molecularly-imprinted biosensors for electrical detection of propofol in plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chien-Chong; Lin, Chih-Chung; Hong, Chian-Lang; Lin, Zi-Xiang; Chung, Meng-Hua; Hsieh, Pei-Wen

    2016-12-15

    This paper proposes a novel handheld analyzer with disposable lab-on-a-chip technology for the electrical detection of the anesthetic propofol in human plasma samples for clinical diagnoses. The developed on-chip biosensors are based on the conduction of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) that employ label-free electrical detection techniques. Propofol in total intravenous anesthesia is widely used with a target-controlled infusion system. At present, the methods employed for detecting blood propofol concentrations in hospitals comprise high-performance liquid chromatography and ion mobility spectrometry. These conventional instruments are bulky, expensive, and difficult to access. In this study, we developed a novel plastic microfluidic biochip with an on-chip anesthetic biosensor that was characterized for the rapid detection of propofol concentrations. The experimental results revealed that the response time of the developed propofol biosensors was 25s. The specific binding of an MIP to a nonimprinted polymer (NIP) reached up to 560%. Moreover, the detection limit of the biosensors was 0.1μg/mL, with a linear detection range of 0.1-30μg/mL. The proposed disposable microfluidic biochip with an on-chip anesthetic biosensor using MIPs exhibited excellent performance in the separation and sensing of propofol molecules in the human plasma samples. Compared with large-scale conventional instruments, the developed microfluidic biochips with on-chip MIP biosensors present the advantages of a compact size, high selectivity, low cost, rapid response, and single-step detection.

  15. Embedded 3D Graphics Core for FPGA-based System-on-Chip Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Lund, Hans Erik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a 3D graphics accelerator core for an FPGA based system, and illustrates how to build a System-on-Chip containing a Xilinx MicroBlaze soft-core CPU and our 3D graphics accelerator core. The system is capable of running uClinux and hardware accelerated 3D graphics applications...... consumption is reduced as well. We show how an FPGA based embedded system is capable of most tasks in a single chip solution, without requiring additional CPU or graphics chips....

  16. Support for Programming Models in Network-on-Chip-based Many-core Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Sleth

    and scalability in an image processing application with the aim of providing insight into parallel programming issues. The second part proposes and presents the tile-based Clupea many-core architecture, which has the objective of providing configurable support for programming models to allow different programming......This thesis addresses aspects of support for programming models in Network-on- Chip-based many-core architectures. The main focus is to consider architectural support for a plethora of programming models in a single system. The thesis has three main parts. The first part considers parallelization...

  17. Vertical-coupling optical interface for on-chip optical interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hirohito; Nozawa, Michinao; Kinoshita, Masao; Ohashi, Keishi

    2011-01-17

    We present a vertical-coupling optical interface with a grating coupler for transmitting and receiving optical signals between single-mode optical fibers and microphotonic waveguides with a view to realize on-chip optical interconnection. The optical interface consisting of a simple grating structure with a reflective mirror and an optical power combiner exhibits high optical coupling efficiency and wide tolerance range for the misalignment of optical fibers. The optical interface exhibits high coupling efficiency even if the optical input is almost vertical to the chip surface.

  18. Shape matters: tuning plasmonic resonances into single nanoparticles and their arrays (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova Castro, R. Margoth; Krasavin, Alexey V.; Dickson, Wayne; Mendez Mendez, Eugenio R.; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2016-09-01

    We present a numerical study of the interaction of light with isolated nanoparticles of various symmetry shapes described by the Gielis superformula as well as nanoparticle arrays composed from them. Using the discrete dipole approximation and finite element numerical methods the effects of particle shape symmetry on the spectral properties of gold and silver nanoparticles were investigated. Starting from the spherical and cylindrical geometries and progressing to star-like polygonal shapes, we demonstrate that the variation of the symmetry can significantly enhance the strength of the dipolar resonance and shift the resonance to the red spectral range by hundreds of nanometres. Thus, is possible to tune the optical properties of the nanostructures all across the visible spectral range only by changing their shapes. Finally, we investigate the collective resonances of arrays of interacting nanoparticles of different shapes, elucidating the role of the particle symmetry in the collective response.

  19. Effect of fabrication-dependent shape and composition of solid-state nanopores on single nanoparticle detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Yuzvinsky, Thomas D; Schmidt, Holger

    2013-06-25

    Solid-state nanopores can be fabricated in a variety of ways and form the basis for label-free sensing of single nanoparticles: as individual nanoparticles traverse the nanopore, they alter the ionic current across it in a characteristic way. Typically, nanopores are described by the diameter of their limiting aperture, and less attention has been paid to other, fabrication-dependent parameters. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of the properties and sensing performance of three types of nanopore with identical 50 nm aperture, but fabricated using three different techniques: direct ion beam milling, ion beam sculpting, and electron beam sculpting. The nanopores differ substantially in physical shape and chemical composition as identified by ion-beam assisted cross-sectioning and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Concomitant differences in electrical sensing of single 30 nm beads, such as variations in blockade depth, duration, and electric field dependence, are observed and modeled using hydrodynamic simulations. The excellent agreement between experiment and physical modeling shows that the physical properties (shape) and not the chemical surface composition determine the sensing performance of a solid-state nanopore in the absence of deliberate surface modification. Consequently, nanoparticle sensing performance can be accurately predicted once the full three-dimensional structure of the nanopore is known.

  20. Massive Intracellular Biodegradation of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Evidenced Magnetically at Single-Endosome and Tissue Levels.

    OpenAIRE

    MAZUEL, François; Espinosa, Ana; Luciani, Nathalie; Reffay, Myriam; Le Borgne, Rémi; Motte, Laurence; Desboeufs, Karine; Michel, Aude; Pellegrino, Teresa; Lalatonne, Yoann; Wilhelm, Claire

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Quantitative studies of the long-term fate of iron oxide nanoparticles inside cells, a prerequisite for regenerative medicine applications, are hampered by the lack of suitable biological tissue models and analytical methods. Here, we propose stem-cell spheroids as a tissue model to track intracellular magnetic nanoparticle transformations during long-term tissue maturation. We show that global spheroid magnetism can serve as a fingerprint of the degradation process, a...

  1. Mapping 3D focal intensity exposes the stable trapping positions of single nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrsting, A.; Bendix, P.M.; Oddershede, L.B.

    2013-01-01

    The photonic interactions between a focused Gaussian laser beam and a nanoscopic particle are highly dependent on exact particle location and focal intensity distribution. So far, the 3D focal intensity distribution and the preferred position of a nanoparticle confined within the focal region were...... only theoretically predicted. Here, we directly map the three-dimensional focal intensity distribution, quantify stable trapping positions, and prove that certain sizes of nanoparticles stably trap in front of the focus. © 2012 American Chemical Society....

  2. Optical second harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butet, Jérémy; Duboisset, Julien; Bachelier, Guillaume; Russier-Antoine, Isabelle; Benichou, Emmanuel; Jonin, Christian; Brevet, Pierre-François

    2010-05-12

    We report the optical second harmonic generation from individual 150 nm diameter gold nanoparticles dispersed in gelatin. The quadratic hyperpolarizability of the particles is determined and the input polarization dependence of the second harmonic intensity obtained. These results are found in excellent agreement with ensemble measurements and finite element simulations. These results open up new perspectives for the investigation of the nonlinear optical properties of noble metal nanoparticles.

  3. Validation of Gold and Silver Nanoparticle Analysis in Fruit Juices by Single-Particle ICP-MS without Sample Pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzler, Markus; Küllmer, Fabian; Hirtz, Annika; Günther, Klaus

    2016-05-25

    With the increasing use of nanoparticles in consumer products, the need for validated quantitation methods also rises. This becomes even more urgent because the risks of nanomaterials are still not conclusively assessed. Fast, accurate, and robust single-particle (sp) ICP-MS is a promising technique as it is capable of counting and sizing particles at very low concentrations at the same time. Another feature is the simultaneous distinction between dissolved and particulate analytes. The present study shows, for the first time to our knowledge, a method validation for the rapid analysis of silver and gold nanoparticles with sp-ICP-MS in fruit juices without sample preparation. The investigated matrices water, orange juice, and apple juice were spiked with particles and only diluted prior to measurement without using a digestion reagent. The validations regarding particle size are successful according to the German GTFCh's guideline with deviations of accuracy and precision below 15%.

  4. Compact Ag@Fe3O4 Core-shell Nanoparticles by Means of Single-step Thermal Decomposition Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brollo, Maria Eugênia F.; López-Ruiz, Román; Muraca, Diego; Figueroa, Santiago J. A.; Pirota, Kleber R.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2014-10-01

    A temperature pause introduced in a simple single-step thermal decomposition of iron, with the presence of silver seeds formed in the same reaction mixture, gives rise to novel compact heterostructures: brick-like Ag@Fe3O4 core-shell nanoparticles. This novel method is relatively easy to implement, and could contribute to overcome the challenge of obtaining a multifunctional heteroparticle in which a noble metal is surrounded by magnetite. Structural analyses of the samples show 4 nm silver nanoparticles wrapped within compact cubic external structures of Fe oxide, with curious rectangular shape. The magnetic properties indicate a near superparamagnetic like behavior with a weak hysteresis at room temperature. The value of the anisotropy involved makes these particles candidates to potential applications in nanomedicine.

  5. Ab initio electronic circular dichroism of fullerenes, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and ligand-protected metal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguez, Cecilia; Hidalgo, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    The versatility and applicability of a time-perturbed density functional method implemented within the SIESTA program package to calculate electronic circular dichroism of diverse nanoparticles is discussed. Results for nanostructures, such as fullerenes, single-wall carbon nanotubes, as well as metallic nanoparticles composed of up to hundreds of atoms were examined by comparison with previously reported experimental and theoretical results. In all cases, the calculated electronic circular dichroism shows very good consistency with other calculations, and a remarkable agreement with experiments. It is concluded that such a high-level method provides theoretical support for the quantification, understanding, and prediction of chirality and its measurement in nanostructures. It is expected that this information would be useful to motivate further experimental studies and interpretation of optical activity in terms of electronic circular dichroism in novel nanostructures. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The modulation of surface texture for single-crystalline Si solar cells using calibrated silver nanoparticles as a catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xin; Yu, Xuegong; Liu, Tao; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Deren

    2011-01-01

    We have employed Ag nanoparticles with calibrated size as catalysts to modulate the surface texture of single-crystalline Si surfaces for reducing sunlight reflectivity. Both experiments and theoretical analysis have proved that a well-organized microporous structure on the pyramids can be obtained by optimizing the size of Ag nanoparticles and the texturing time, and the Si wafer with such structures can effectively reduce the reflectivity of sunlight. However, based on the conventional cell fabrication process, the performance of silicon solar cells with such microporous structures gets degraded. It is closely associated with the strong surface recombination and the high phosphorus diffusion barrier induced by the microporous textures. These results are interesting for us to understand the application of nanotechnology on the silicon solar cell.

  7. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik W.; Henriksen, Anders D.; Dufva, Martin; Hansen, Mikkel F.

    2015-04-01

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches of the differential sensor geometry. The sensor surfaces are functionalized with wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT) capture probes, differing by a single base insertion (a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP). Complementary biotinylated targets in suspension couple streptavidin magnetic beads to the sensor surface. The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that a single sensor bridge can be used to genotype a SNP.

  8. Single-” and “multi-core” FePt nanoparticles: from controlled synthesis via zwitterionic and silica bio-functionalization to MRI applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostevšek, Nina, E-mail: nina.kostevsek@ijs.si; Šturm, Sašo [Jožef Stefan Institute, Department for Nanostructured Materials (Slovenia); Serša, Igor; Sepe, Ana [Jožef Stefan Institute, Department for Condensed Matter Physics (Slovenia); Bloemen, Maarten; Verbiest, Thierry [KU Leuven, Department of Chemistry (Belgium); Kobe, Spomenka; Žužek Rožman, Kristina [Jožef Stefan Institute, Department for Nanostructured Materials (Slovenia)

    2015-12-15

    The value of the magnetization has a strong influence on the performance of nanoparticles that act as the contrast agent material for MRI. In this article, we describe processing routes for the synthesis of FePt nanoparticles of different sizes, which, as a result, exhibit different magnetization values. “Single-core” FePt nanoparticles of different sizes (3–15 nm) were prepared via one-step or two-step synthesis, with the latter exhibiting twice the magnetization (m{sub (1.5T)} = 14.5 emu/g) of the nanoparticles formed via the one-step synthesis (m{sub (1.5T)} < 8 emu/g). Furthermore, we propose the synthesis of “multi-core” FePt nanoparticles by changing the ratio between the two surfactants (oleylamine and oleic acid). The step from smaller “single-core” FePt nanoparticles towards the larger, “multi-core” FePt nanoparticles (>20 nm) leads to an increase in the magnetization m{sub (1.5T)} from 8 to 19.5 emu/g, without exceeding the superparamagnetic limit. Stable water suspensions were prepared using two different approaches: (a) functionalization with a biocompatible, zwitterionic, catechol ligand, which was used on the FePt nanoparticles for the first time, and (b) coating with SiO{sub 2} shells of various thicknesses. These FePt-based nanostructures, the catechol- and SiO{sub 2}-coated “single-core” and “multi-core” FePt nanoparticles, were investigated in terms of the relaxation rates. The higher r{sub 2} values obtained for the “multi-core” FePt nanoparticles compared to that for the “single-core” ones indicate the superiority of the “multi-core” FePt nanoparticles as T{sub 2} contrast agents. Furthermore, it was shown that the SiO{sub 2} coating reduces the r{sub 1} and r{sub 2} relaxation values for both the “single-core” and “multi-core” FePt nanoparticles. The high r{sub 2}/r{sub 1} ratios obtained in our study put FePt nanoparticles near the top of the list of candidate materials for use in MRI

  9. Custom Topology Generation for Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Sparsø, Jens

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares simulated annealing and tabu search for generating custom topologies for applications with periodic behaviour executing on a network-on-chip. The approach differs from previous work by starting from a fixed mapping of IP-cores to routers and performing design space exploration...

  10. A virtual channel router for on-chip networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaldjiev, Nikolay; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Jansen, Pierre G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes an architecture of a virtual channel router for an on-chip network1. The router has simple dynamic arbitration which is deterministic and fair. We show that the size of the proposed router is reduced by 49% and the speed increases 1.4 times compared to a conventional virtual chan

  11. A virtual channel router for on-chip networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kavaldjiev, Nikolay; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Jansen, Pierre G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes an architecture of a virtual channel router for an on-chip network1. The router has simple dynamic arbitration which is deterministic and fair. We show that the size of the proposed router is reduced by 49% and the speed increases 1.4 times compared to a conventional virtual channel router.

  12. Two Architectures for On-chip Virtual Channel Router

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaldjiev, Nikolay; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Jansen, Pierre G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares the implementation results of two architectures for virtual channel router. Since the router is used for building an on-chip network, its small size is critical. Together with the total design area we provide information about the distribution of this area between the main router

  13. A Virtual Channel Router for On-chip Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaldjiev, Nikolay; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Jansen, Pierre G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes an architecture of a virtual channel router for an on-chip network1. The router has simple dynamic arbitration which is deterministic and fair. We show that the size of the proposed router is reduced by 49% and the speed increases 1.4 times compared to a conventional virtual chan

  14. A Virtual Channel Router for On-chip Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaldjiev, N.K.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Jansen, P.G.

    This paper proposes an architecture of a virtual channel router for an on-chip network1. The router has simple dynamic arbitration which is deterministic and fair. We show that the size of the proposed router is reduced by 49% and the speed increases 1.4 times compared to a conventional virtual

  15. Two Architectures for On-chip Virtual Channel Router

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavaldjiev, N.K.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Jansen, P.G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares the implementation results of two architectures for virtual channel router. Since the router is used for building an on-chip network, its small size is critical. Together with the total design area we provide information about the distribution of this area between the main router

  16. On-chip separation and sensing systems for hydrodynamic chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.T.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of on-chip analytical separations using planar hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) in Pyrex-silicon and fused silica chips has been demonstrated. In order to sketch the analytical separations area in which the HDC chip has to operate, an introduction was given of important macro-scale

  17. Customizing and hardwiring on-chip interconnects in FPGAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hur, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents our investigations on how to efficiently utilize on-chip wires to improve network performance in reconfigurable hardware. A fieldprogrammable gate array (FPGA), as a key component in a modern reconfigurable platform, accommodates many-millions of wires and the on-demand

  18. Field Programmable Gate Arrays with Hardwired Networks on Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlah, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Technology down-scaling and platform-based designs have enforced a number of application and architecture trends for system-on-chip (SOC) designs. A modern SOC is now a multi-functional machine that can execute a large number of complex applications by using tens or even hundreds of intellectual

  19. Reverse Engineering Human Pathophysiology with Organs-on-Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Donald E

    2016-03-10

    While studies of cultured cells have led to new insights into biological control, greater understanding of human pathophysiology requires the development of experimental systems that permit analysis of intercellular communications and tissue-tissue interactions in a more relevant organ context. Human organs-on-chips offer a potentially powerful new approach to confront this long-standing problem.

  20. Performance Analysis on Router Arbitration for On-chip Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Selvaraj

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is a comprehensive report on performance analyses of Round Robin and matrix arbitrations to enhance the reliability of on-chip networks. Arbiter is used in Network-on-Chip (NoC router when number of input ports requested is the same as output ports. If many inputs are requested for same output port, the matrix arbiter deals it by forming a 5×5 matrix based on input and output ports. Next, it allots the priority to the requested input ports and simultaneously generates a control signal for selecting the input port to send the packet to output port. The Robin arbiter generates the grant signal on the basis of priority allotted to the input ports. The simulation results of arbitration analysis shows that the router design of front end model consumes less power by 8% and occupies smaller area by 3% on chip. The area on chip is around 64% of available area using Round Robin arbitration compare to that of matrix arbitration. This study also implements hamming distance in order to check the error free data transmission of the NoC router.

  1. Novel on-chip spiral inductors with back hollow structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Liu, Houfang; Li, Xiaoning; Qiu, Haochuan; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2017-01-01

    In this work, on-chip spiral inductors with back hollow structure have been prepared on the 500 μm thick silicon substrate with high resistivity (ρ > 5000Ωcm). The silicon underneath the inductor region has been completely etched by deep etching process in order to reduce the substrate eddy current losses. Several types of square spiral on-chip inductors with different metal width (w) and line spacing (s) in the case of w + s = 40μm were fabricated. The experimental results are verified by FEM simulation using HFSS software. The results show that the Q-factor and self-resonance frequency of back hollow structure inductors are both enhanced compared with the conventional inductors. Furthermore, narrower width of coils for the on-chip spiral inductors with back hollow structure can result in higher Q-factor, inductance L and self-resonance frequency, which provide some important design guides for the fabrication of the high performance on-chip inductors.

  2. A Light-Weight Statically Scheduled Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Bo; Schoeberl, Martin; Sparsø, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how a light-weight, statically scheduled network-on-chip (NoC) for real-time systems can be designed and implemented. The NoC provides communication channels between all cores with equal bandwidth and latency. The design is FPGA-friendly and consumes a minimum of resources...

  3. Customizing and hardwiring on-chip interconnects in FPGAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hur, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents our investigations on how to efficiently utilize on-chip wires to improve network performance in reconfigurable hardware. A fieldprogrammable gate array (FPGA), as a key component in a modern reconfigurable platform, accommodates many-millions of wires and the on-demand reconfig

  4. The difference of energies of Si atoms with single-crystalline, amorphous, free and nanoparticle configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. L.; Deng, Z. C.; Chu, L. Z.; Fu, G. S.; Peng, Y. C.

    2009-04-01

    Nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) films were systematically prepared via three ways: a) laser anneal or b) thermal anneal of the amorphous silicon (α-Si) films deposited by pulsed-laser ablation (PLA) in base vacuum, c) direct PLA in high-purity Ar gas with pressure of 10 Pa. The anneal-laser fluence, thermal-anneal temperature and ablation-laser fluence thresholds corresponding to the beginning of nanoparticles formation were respectively determined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Incorporated with crystallization mechanism, energies compensated for the formation of one Si nanoparticle in the three ways were calculated approximately. The result shows that for different crystallization ways, the potential barriers during the formation of one ~16 nm nanoparticle are on the order of 10-9 mJ.

  5. Direct gas-phase synthesis of single-phase {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bywalez, Robert, E-mail: robert.bywalez@uni-due.de; Orthner, Hans; Mehmedovic, Ervin [University of Duisburg-Essen, IVG, Institute for Combustion and Gas Dynamics - Reactive Fluids (Germany); Imlau, Robert; Kovacs, Andras; Luysberg, Martina [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Gruenberg Institute 5 (Germany); Wiggers, Hartmut [University of Duisburg-Essen, IVG, Institute for Combustion and Gas Dynamics - Reactive Fluids (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    For the first time, phase-pure {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} nanoparticles were successfully produced by gas-phase synthesis. We present a method to fabricate larger quantities of semiconducting {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} nanoparticles, with crystallite sizes between 10 and 30 nm, for solar and thermoelectric applications utilizing a hot-wall reactor. A general outline for the production of those particles by thermal decomposition of silane and iron pentacarbonyl is provided based on kinetic data. The synthesized particles are investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, providing evidence that the as-prepared materials are indeed {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}, while revealing morphological characteristics inherent to the nanoparticles created.

  6. Whispering gallery mode single nano-particle detection and sizing: the validity of the dipole approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Foreman, Matthew R; Treasurer, Eshan; Lopez, Jehovani; Arnold, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between whispering gallery modes (WGMs) and small nanoparticles are commonly modelled by treating the particle as a point dipole scatterer. This approach is assumed to be accurate as long as the nanoparticle radius, $a$, is small compared to the WGM wavelength $\\lambda$. In this article, however, we show that the large field gradients associated with the evanescent decay of a WGM causes the dipole theory to significantly underestimate the interaction strength, and hence induced WGM resonance shift, even for particles as small as $a\\sim \\lambda/10$. To mitigate this issue we employ a renormalized Born approximation to more accurately determine nanoparticle induced resonance shifts and hence enable improved particle sizing. The domain of validity of this approximation is investigated and supporting experimental results are presented.

  7. Dielectrophoretic positioning of single nanoparticles on atomic force microscope tips for tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiterer, Christian; Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Singh, Prabha; Wirth, Janina; Deckert, Volker; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, a combination of Raman spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy, is a powerful technique to detect the vibrational fingerprint of molecules at the nanometer scale. A metal nanoparticle at the apex of an atomic force microscope tip leads to a large enhancement of the electromagnetic field when illuminated with an appropriate wavelength, resulting in an increased Raman signal. A controlled positioning of individual nanoparticles at the tip would improve the reproducibility of the probes and is quite demanding due to usually serial and labor-intensive approaches. In contrast to commonly used submicron manipulation techniques, dielectrophoresis allows a parallel and scalable production, and provides a novel approach toward reproducible and at the same time affordable tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy tips. We demonstrate the successful positioning of an individual plasmonic nanoparticle on a commercial atomic force microscope tip by dielectrophoresis followed by experimental proof of the Raman signal enhancing capabilities of such tips.

  8. Research highlights: digital assays on chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyuk; Wei, Qingshan; Kong, Janay Elise; Ozcan, Aydogan; Di Carlo, Dino

    2015-01-07

    The ability to break up a volume of fluid into smaller pieces that are confined or separated to prevent molecular communication/transport is a key capability intrinsic to microfluidic systems. This capability has been used to develop or implement digital versions of traditional molecular analysis assays, including digital PCR and digital immunoassays/ELISA. In these digital versions, the concentration of the target analyte is in a range such that, when sampled into smaller fluid volumes, either a single molecule or no molecule may be present. Subsequent amplification is sensitive enough to obtain a digital readout of the presence of these target molecules. Advantages of such approaches that are claimed include quantification without calibration and robustness to variations in reaction conditions or times because the digital readout is less sensitive to absolute signal intensity levels. Weaknesses of digital approaches include a lower dynamic range of concentrations over which the assay is sensitive, which depends on the total volume that can be analyzed. We highlight recent efforts to expand the dynamic range of digital assays based on exploiting reaction/diffusion phenomena. A side-by-side study that evaluates the strengths of digital assays reveals that the majority of these claims are supported, with specific caveats. Finally, we highlight approaches to apply digital assays to analyze new types of reactions, including the active transport of protons across membranes by ATPases at the single protein level - perhaps opening up new biophysical understanding and screening opportunities, similar to widely deployed single-molecule ion channel analysis.

  9. Review and outlook: from single nanoparticles to self-assembled monolayers and granular GMR sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Weddemann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights recent advances in synthesis, self-assembly and sensing applications of monodisperse magnetic Co and Co-alloyed nanoparticles. A brief introduction to solution phase synthesis techniques as well as the magnetic properties and aspects of the self-assembly process of nanoparticles will be given with the emphasis placed on selected applications, before recent developments of particles in sensor devices are outlined. Here, the paper focuses on the fabrication of granular magnetoresistive sensors by the employment of particles themselves as sensing layers. The role of interparticle interactions is discussed.

  10. Conductive atomic force microscopy study of single molecule electron transport through the Azurin-gold nanoparticle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccosta, Samuele; Baldacchini, Chiara; Rita Bizzarri, Anna; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    2013-05-01

    Transduction of biorecognition events into electrical signals through integration of single redox metalloproteins in bioelectronic nanodevices requires both a reliable electrical contact between the biomolecule and the metallic electrode and an efficient overall conduction mechanism. These conditions have been met in the hybrid system obtained by linking gold nanoparticles on top of Azurin proteins, in turn assembled on gold surfaces. Such an assembling strategy, combined with a conductive atomic force microscopy investigation, has allowed us to put into evidence an unprecedented matching between current and topography features and to attribute the intramolecular charge transport to a non-resonant tunnelling mechanism.

  11. Morphological evolution in single-crystalline Bi2Te3 nanoparticles, nanosheets and nanotubes with different synthesis temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Punita Srivastava; Kedar Singh

    2013-10-01

    A general surfactant-assisted wet chemical route has been developed for the synthesis of a variety of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) single-crystalline nanostructures with varied morphologies at different temperatures in which hydrazine hydrate plays as an important solvent. Bi2Te3 sheet grown nanoparticles, nanosheets and nanotubes have been synthesized by a simplest wet chemical route at 50, 70 and 100 °C within 4 h. Bi2Te3 sheet grown nanoparticles are obtained in agglomerate state and they are found with many wrinkles. Various types of Bi2Te3 nanotubes are also found which are tapered with one end open and the other closed. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy were employed to characterize the powder product. It is found that all nanoparticles, nanosheets and nanotubes are well-crystallized nanocrystals and morphologies of the powder products are greatly affected by different synthesis temperatures. The formation mechanisms of bismuth telluride nanostructures are also discussed.

  12. Comprehensive optimization of a single-chain variable domain antibody fragment as a targeting ligand for a cytotoxic nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kathy; Geddie, Melissa L; Kohli, Neeraj; Kornaga, Tad; Kirpotin, Dmitri B; Jiao, Yang; Rennard, Rachel; Drummond, Daryl C; Nielsen, Ulrik B; Xu, Lihui; Lugovskoy, Alexey A

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-targeted nanoparticles have the potential to significantly increase the therapeutic index of cytotoxic anti-cancer therapies by directing them to tumor cells. Using antibodies or their fragments requires careful engineering because multiple parameters, including affinity, internalization rate and stability, all need to be optimized. Here, we present a case study of the iterative engineering of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) for use as a targeting arm of a liposomal cytotoxic nanoparticle. We describe the effect of the orientation of variable domains, the length and composition of the interdomain protein linker that connects VH and VL, and stabilizing mutations in both the framework and complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) on the molecular properties of the scFv. We show that variable domain orientation can alter cross-reactivity to murine antigen while maintaining affinity to the human antigen. We demonstrate that tyrosine residues in the CDRs make diverse contributions to the binding affinity and biophysical properties, and that replacement of non-essential tyrosines can improve the stability and bioactivity of the scFv. Our studies demonstrate that a comprehensive engineering strategy may be required to identify a scFv with optimal characteristics for nanoparticle targeting.

  13. Comparison of a Ring On-Chip Network and a Code-Division Multiple-Access On-Chip Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two network-on-chip (NoC designs are examined and compared in this paper. One design applies a bidirectional ring connection scheme, while the other design applies a code-division multiple-access (CDMA connection scheme. Both of the designs apply globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS scheme in order to deal with the issue of transferring data in a multiple-clock-domain environment of an on-chip system. The two NoC designs are compared with each other by their network structures, data transfer principles, network node structures, and their asynchronous designs. Both the synchronous and the asynchronous designs of the two on-chip networks are realized using a hardware-description language (HDL in order to make the entire designs suit the commonly used synchronous design tools and flow. The performance estimation and comparison of the two NoC designs which are based on the HDL realizations are addressed. By comparing the two NoC designs, the advantages and disadvantages of applying direct connection and CDMA connection schemes in an on-chip communication network are discussed.

  14. An Energy-Efficient Reconfigurable Circuit Switched Network-on-Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkotte, P.T.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Rauwerda, G.K.; Smit, L.T.

    Network-on-Chip (NoC) is an energy-efficient on-chip communication architecture for multi-tile System-on-Chip (SoC) architectures. The SoC architecture, including its run-time software, can replace inflexible ASICs for future ambient systems. These ambient systems have to be flexible as well as

  15. A system-level multiprocessor system-on-chip modeling framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif Munir; Madsen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    We present a system-level modeling framework to model system-on-chips (SoC) consisting of heterogeneous multiprocessors and network-on-chip communication structures in order to enable the developers of today's SoC designs to take advantage of the flexibility and scalability of network-on-chip...

  16. Application of Liquid Flame Spray in single and multicomponent nanoparticle synthesis and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aromaa, M.

    2012-07-01

    Nanosized materials are interesting because of the unique properties that can only be achieved in nanoscale. The Liquid Flame Spray is an aerosol method for nanoparticle synthesis. The nanoparticles are synthesized from liquid precursor material in a high-temperature, hydrogen-oxygen flame. The aerosol processes in the flame determine the particle size and morphology of the end product. The process parameters used in the synthesis have an effect on the final product. The Liquid Flame Spay process has been utilized in several applications. This thesis deals with the synthesis of nanoparticles with the Liquid Flame Spray and tuning the particle properties. The fundamentals of the aerosol synthesis are discussed first and the process parameters and their effect on the nanoparticles that are synthesized are explained. Later on, the understanding of the process parameters is utilized and the multi-component aerosols are synthesized for various applications and even deposited directly on a substrate to form a functional coating. Titanium dioxide is mainly used in all the papers that are included in the thesis. In addition, other ceramic materials, such as, aluminium oxide and zirconium oxide are synthesized. Dopants, such as, silver are introduced into the product in order to create multifunctional properties. At the moment, the Liquid Flame Spray synthesis is performed in an open atmosphere and therefore the nanoparticles that are synthesized are mainly oxides with the exception of noble metals, e.g. gold, silver palladium and platinum. However, the ceramic particles such as titanium dioxide have interesting properties. Already several decades ago, titanium dioxide was discovered to have photoactive properties, meaning that when excited with UV-light, an electron-hole pair is formed in the titanium dioxide. The process leads to the formation of reactive oxygen and OH-groups on the surface of the material. The reactive oxygen is able to degrade organic molecules leaving

  17. On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lan-Tian; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Ming; Xiong, Xiao; Yu, Le; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guo-Ping; Dai, Dao-Xin; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-06-20

    In the quantum world, a single particle can have various degrees of freedom to encode quantum information. Controlling multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously is necessary to describe a particle fully and, therefore, to use it more efficiently. Here we introduce the transverse waveguide-mode degree of freedom to quantum photonic integrated circuits, and demonstrate the coherent conversion of a photonic quantum state between path, polarization and transverse waveguide-mode degrees of freedom on a single chip. The preservation of quantum coherence in these conversion processes is proven by single-photon and two-photon quantum interference using a fibre beam splitter or on-chip beam splitters. These results provide us with the ability to control and convert multiple degrees of freedom of photons for quantum photonic integrated circuit-based quantum information process.

  18. Quantum random number generation using an on-chip plasmonic beamsplitter

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, Jason; Özdemir, Şahin K; Tame, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We report an experimental realisation of a quantum random number generator using a plasmonic beamsplitter. Free-space single photons are converted into propagating single surface plasmon polaritons on a gold stripe waveguide via a grating. The surface plasmons are then guided to a region where they are scattered into one of two possible outputs. The presence of a plasmonic excitation in a given output determines the value of a random bit generated from the quantum scattering process. Using a stream of single surface plasmons injected into the beamsplitter we achieve a quantum random number generation rate of 2.37 Mbits/s even in the presence of loss. We characterise the quality of the random number sequence generated, finding it to be comparable to sequences from other quantum photonic-based devices. The compact nature of our nanophotonic device makes it suitable for tight integration in on-chip applications, such as in quantum computing and communication schemes.

  19. On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lan-Tian; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Ming; Xiong, Xiao; Yu, Le; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guo-Ping; Dai, Dao-Xin; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-01-01

    In the quantum world, a single particle can have various degrees of freedom to encode quantum information. Controlling multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously is necessary to describe a particle fully and, therefore, to use it more efficiently. Here we introduce the transverse waveguide-mode degree of freedom to quantum photonic integrated circuits, and demonstrate the coherent conversion of a photonic quantum state between path, polarization and transverse waveguide-mode degrees of freedom on a single chip. The preservation of quantum coherence in these conversion processes is proven by single-photon and two-photon quantum interference using a fibre beam splitter or on-chip beam splitters. These results provide us with the ability to control and convert multiple degrees of freedom of photons for quantum photonic integrated circuit-based quantum information process. PMID:27321821

  20. Quantum random number generation using an on-chip plasmonic beamsplitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jason T.; Zhang, Xia; Özdemir, Şahin K.; Tame, Mark

    2017-09-01

    We report an experimental realisation of a quantum random number generator using a plasmonic beamsplitter. Free-space single photons are converted into propagating single surface plasmon polaritons on a gold stripe waveguide via a grating. The surface plasmons are then guided to a region where they are scattered into one of two possible outputs. The presence of a plasmonic excitation in a given output determines the value of a random bit generated from the quantum scattering process. Using a stream of single surface plasmons injected into the beamsplitter we achieve a quantum random number generation rate of 2.37 Mbits s-1 even in the presence of loss. We characterise the quality of the random number sequence generated, finding it to be comparable to sequences from other quantum photonic-based devices. The compact nature of our nanophotonic device makes it suitable for tight integration in on-chip applications, such as in quantum computing and communication schemes.

  1. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Henriksen, Anders Dahl

    2014-01-01

    of the differential sensor geometry. The sensor surfaces are functionalized with wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT) capture probes, differing by a single base insertion (a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP). Complementary biotinylated targets in suspension couple streptavidin magnetic beads to the sensor surface......We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches....... The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature. Moreover...

  2. Improved color metrics in solid-state lighting via utilization of on-chip quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Benjamin D.; Landes, Tiemo S.; Theobald, Brian R.; Kurtin, Juanita N.

    2017-02-01

    While Quantum Dots (QDs) have found commercial success in display applications, there are currently no widely available solid state lighting products making use of QD nanotechnology. In order to have real-world success in today's lighting market, QDs must be capable of being placed in on-chip configurations, as remote phosphor configurations are typically much more expensive. Here we demonstrate solid-state lighting devices made with on-chip QDs. These devices show robust reliability under both dry and wet high stress conditions. High color quality lighting metrics can easily be achieved using these narrow, tunable QD downconverters: CRI values of Ra > 90 as well as R9 values > 80 are readily available when combining QDs with green phosphors. Furthermore, we show that QDs afford a 15% increase in overall efficiency compared to traditional phosphor downconverted SSL devices. The fundamental limit of QD linewidth is examined through single particle QD emission studies. Using standard Cd-based QD synthesis, it is found that single particle linewidths of 20 nm FWHM represent a lower limit to the narrowness of QD emission in the near term.

  3. Detection and Characterization of ZnO Nanoparticles in Surface and Waste Waters Using Single Particle ICPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadioui, Madjid; Merdzan, Vladimir; Wilkinson, Kevin J

    2015-05-19

    The increasing production of ZnO nanoparticles (nZnO) makes their analysis and characterization extremely important from an ecological risk perspective, especially at the low concentrations at which they are expected to be found in natural waters. Single particle ICPMS (SP-ICPMS) is one of the few techniques available to detect and characterize nanoparticles at environmentally relevant concentrations. Unfortunately, at the very low particle concentrations where SP-ICPMS is performed, significant dissolution of the nZnO generally increases background levels of dissolved Zn to the point where measurements are not generally possible. By hyphenating SP-ICPMS with an ion-exchange resin, it was possible to characterize and quantify nZnO in order to gain insight into the nature of the nZnO in natural waters. Spiked and unspiked water samples were analyzed using a SP-ICPMS that was coupled to a column containing a strong metal binding resin (Chelex 100). In addition to the detection of ZnO nanoparticles and the determination of a size distribution in natural waters, it was possible to partition the dissolved Zn among free and/or labile and strongly bound Zn fractions. In two natural waters, a high proportion (ca. 93-100%) of dissolved Zn was measured, and the residual ZnO particles were mainly composed of small agglomerates (average sizes ranging from 133.6 to 172.4 nm in the surface water and from 167.6 to 216.4 nm in the wastewater effluent). Small numbers of small nanoparticles were also detected in nonspiked waters.

  4. Electrocatalytic detection of dopamine at single-walled carbon nanotubes–iron (III) oxide nanoparticles platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekunle, AS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical sensors using edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode (EPPGEs) modified with singlewall carbon nanotubes–iron (III) oxide (SWCNT/Fe2O3) nanoparticles for the sensitive detection of dopamine (DA) are described for the first time...

  5. Size and property bimodality in magnetic nanoparticle dispersions: single domain particles vs. strongly coupled nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterskog, E; Castro, A; Zeng, L; Petronis, S; Heinke, D; Olsson, E; Nilsson, L; Gehrke, N; Svedlindh, P

    2017-03-23

    The widespread use of magnetic nanoparticles in the biotechnical sector puts new demands on fast and quantitative characterization techniques for nanoparticle dispersions. In this work, we report the use of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) to study the properties of a commercial magnetic nanoparticle dispersion. We demonstrate the effectiveness of both techniques when subjected to a dispersion with a bimodal size/magnetic property distribution: i.e., a small superparamagnetic fraction, and a larger blocked fraction of strongly coupled colloidal nanoclusters. We show that the oriented attachment of primary nanocrystals into colloidal nanoclusters drastically alters their static, dynamic, and magnetic resonance properties. Finally, we show how the FMR spectra are influenced by dynamical effects; agglomeration of the superparamagnetic fraction leads to reversible line-broadening; rotational alignment of the suspended nanoclusters results in shape-dependent resonance shifts. The AF4 and FMR measurements described herein are fast and simple, and therefore suitable for quality control procedures in commercial production of magnetic nanoparticles.

  6. Photothermal studies of single molecules and gold nanoparticles : vapor nanobubbles and conjugated polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, L.

    2016-01-01

    Gas bubbles in liquids are important in biomedical applications such as ultrasound imaging, drug release, or photothermal therapy. We create vapor nanobubbles in liquids around laser-heated gold nanoparticles and investigate their time-dependent properties using optical techniques. Vapor nanobubbles

  7. Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiquan; Lee, Lap Man; Heng, Xin; Zhong, Weiwei; Sternberg, Paul W; Psaltis, Demetri; Yang, Changhuei

    2008-08-05

    Low-cost and high-resolution on-chip microscopes are vital for reducing cost and improving efficiency for modern biomedicine and bioscience. Despite the needs, the conventional microscope design has proven difficult to miniaturize. Here, we report the implementation and application of two high-resolution (approximately 0.9 microm for the first and approximately 0.8 microm for the second), lensless, and fully on-chip microscopes based on the optofluidic microscopy (OFM) method. These systems abandon the conventional microscope design, which requires expensive lenses and large space to magnify images, and instead utilizes microfluidic flow to deliver specimens across array(s) of micrometer-size apertures defined on a metal-coated CMOS sensor to generate direct projection images. The first system utilizes a gravity-driven microfluidic flow for sample scanning and is suited for imaging elongate objects, such as Caenorhabditis elegans; and the second system employs an electrokinetic drive for flow control and is suited for imaging cells and other spherical/ellipsoidal objects. As a demonstration of the OFM for bioscience research, we show that the prototypes can be used to perform automated phenotype characterization of different Caenorhabditis elegans mutant strains, and to image spores and single cellular entities. The optofluidic microscope design, readily fabricable with existing semiconductor and microfluidic technologies, offers low-cost and highly compact imaging solutions. More functionalities, such as on-chip phase and fluorescence imaging, can also be readily adapted into OFM systems. We anticipate that the OFM can significantly address a range of biomedical and bioscience needs, and engender new microscope applications.

  8. 3-Dimensional cell culture for on-chip differentiation of stem cells in embryoid body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choong; Lee, Kang Sun; Bang, Jae Hoon; Kim, Young Eyn; Kim, Min-Cheol; Oh, Kwang Wook; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kang, Ji Yoon

    2011-03-07

    This paper proposes a microfluidic device for the on-chip differentiation of an embryoid body (EB) formed in a microwell via 3-dimensional cultures of mouse embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells. The device adjusted the size of the EB by fluid volume, differentiated the EB by chemical treatment, and evaluated its effects in EC cells by on-chip immunostaining. A microfluidic resistance network was designed to control the size of the embryoid body. The duration time and flow rate into each microwell regulated the initial number of trapped cells in order to adjust the size of the EB. The docked cells were aggregated and formed a spherical EB on the non-adherent surface of the culture chip for 3 days. The EC cells in the EB were then differentiated into diverse cell lineages without attachment for an additional 4 days; meanwhile, retinoic acid (RA) was applied without serum to direct the cells into early neuronal lineage. On-chip immunostaining of the EB in the microwell with a neuronal marker was conducted to assess the differentiation-inducing ability of RA. The effect of RA on neuronal differentiation was analyzed with confocal microscopic images of the TuJ1 marker. The RA-treated cells expressed more neuronal markers and appeared as mature neuronal cells with long neurites. The fluorescence intensity of the TuJ1 in the RA-treated EB was twice that observed in the non-treated EB on day 5. It was demonstrated that the pre-screening of inducing chemicals on the early neuronal differentiation of EC cells in a single microfluidic chip was indeed feasible. This chip is expected to constitute a useful tool for assessing the early differentiation of ES cells without attachment, and is also expected to prove useful as an anti-cancer drug test platform for the cytotoxicity assay with cellular spheroids.

  9. An Efficient Radio Access Control Mechanism for Wireless Network-On-Chip Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Palesi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern systems-on-chip (SoCs today contain hundreds of cores, and this number is predicted to reach the thousands by the year 2020. As the number of communicating elements increases, there is a need for an efficient, scalable and reliable communication infrastructure. As technology geometries shrink to the deep submicron regime, however, the communication delay and power consumption of global interconnections become the major bottleneck. The network-on-chip (NoC design paradigm, based on a modular packet-switched mechanism, can address many of the on-chip communication issues, such as the performance limitations of long interconnects and integration of large number of cores on a chip. Recently, new communication technologies based on the NoC concept have emerged with the aim of improving the scalability limitations of conventional NoC-based architectures. Among them, wireless NoCs (WiNoCs use the radio medium for reducing the performance and energy penalties of long-range and multi-hop communications. As the radio medium can be accessed by a single transmitter at a time, a radio access control mechanism (RACM is needed. In this paper, we present a novel RACM, which allows one to improve both the performance and energy figures of the WiNoC. Experiments, carried out on both synthetic and real traffic scenarios, have shown the effectiveness of the proposed RACM. On average, a 30% reduction in communication delay and a 25% energy savings have been observed when the proposed RACM is applied to a known WiNoC architecture.

  10. Highly sensitive SERS detection and quantification of sialic acid on single cell using photonic-crystal fiber with gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tianxun; Cui, Ying; Goh, Douglas; Voon, Kong Kien; Shum, Perry Ping; Humbert, Georges; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Dinh, Xuan-Quyen; Yong, Ken-Tye; Olivo, Malini

    2015-02-15

    An ultrasensitive surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based sensing platform was developed to detect the mean sialic acid level on the surface of single cell with sensitivity as low as 2 fmol. This platform adopted the use of an interference-free Raman tag, 4-(dihydroxyborophenyl) acetylene (DBA), which selectively binds to sialic acid on the cell membrane. By loading the side channel of a photonic crystal fiber with a mixture of gold nanoparticles and DBA-tagged HeLa cell, and subsequently propagating laser light through the central solid core, strong SERS signal was obtained. This SERS technique achieved accurate detection and quantification of concentration of sialic acid on a single cell, surpassing previously reported methods that required more than 10(5) cells. Moreover, this platform can be developed into a clinical diagnostic tool to potentially analyze sialic acid-related diseases such as tumor malignancy and metastasis in real-time.

  11. FePt nanoparticle formation with lower phase transition temperature by single shot plasma focus ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. J.; Roshan, M. V.; Pan, Z. Y.; Verma, R.; Lee, P.; Springham, S. V.; Tan, T. L.; Rawat, R. S.

    2008-07-01

    Uniform FePt nanoparticles were synthesized through nanostructuring of pulsed laser deposited FePt thin films by single shot H+ ion irradiation using a plasma focus device. The annealing temperature required for phase transition from low Ku face-centred cubic to high Ku face-centred tetragonal, for ion irradiated samples, is simultaneously lowered down to 400 °C. The energetic H+ ion irradiation significantly reduces the activation energy for atomic ordering by increasing the number of vacancies. The advantage of using a plasma focus device is that it can achieve nanostructuring in much shorter time, in single shot ion exposure with pulse duration of typically about a few hundreds of nanoseconds, as compared with much longer duration required by continuous ion sources.

  12. Flexible photodiodes constructed with CdTe nanoparticle thin films and single ZnO nanowires on plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kiyeol; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2011-10-14

    We construct a flexible pn heterostructured photodiode using a CdTe nanoparticle thin film and a single ZnO nanowire (NW) on a plastic substrate. The photocurrent characteristics of the flexible photodiode are examined under illumination with 325 nm wavelength light and the photocurrent efficiencies at bias voltages of ± 2.5 V are estimated to be 8.0 and 2.1 µA W(-1) under forward and reverse bias conditions, respectively. The photocurrent generation of the pn heterostructured photodiode is dominantly associated with the transport of the photogenerated charge carriers in the single ZnO NW. Furthermore, the operations of our flexible photodiode are investigated in the upwardly and downwardly bent states, as well as in the flat state.

  13. Fast, label-free tracking of single viruses and weakly scattering nanoparticles in a nano-fluidic optical fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Faez, Sanli; Weidlich, Stefan; Garmann, Rees F; Wondraczek, Katrin; Zeisberger, Matthias; Schmidt, Markus A; Orrit, Michel; Manoharan, Vinothan N

    2015-01-01

    High-speed tracking of single particles is a gateway to understanding physical, chemical, and biological processes at the nanoscale. It is also a major experimental challenge, particularly for small, nanometer-scale particles. Although methods such as confocal or fluorescence microscopy offer both high spatial resolution and high signal-to-background ratios, the fluorescence emission lifetime limits the measurement speed, while photobleaching and thermal diffusion limit the duration of measurements. Here we present a tracking method based on elastic light scattering that enables long-duration measurements of nanoparticle dynamics at rates of thousands of frames per second. We contain the particles within a single-mode silica fiber containing a sub-wavelength, nano-fluidic channel and illuminate them using the fiber's strongly confined optical mode. The diffusing particles in this cylinderical geometry are continuously illuminated inside the collection focal plane. We show that the method can track unlabeled d...

  14. Poly(ethylene glycol)-graft-poly(vinyl acetate) single-chain nanoparticles for the encapsulation of small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Arianna; Tempesti, Paolo; Resta, Claudio; Berti, Debora; Smets, Johan; Aouad, Yousef G; Baglioni, Piero

    2017-02-08

    Amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol)-graft-poly(vinyl acetate) copolymers with a low degree of grafting undergo self-folding in water driven by hydrophobic interactions, resulting in single-chain nanoparticles (SCNPs) possessing a hydrodynamic radius of about 10 nm. A temperature scan revealed a lower critical solution temperature (LCST)-type phase behavior. In addition, SAXS data collected close to the LCST showed that these SCNPs aggregate into one-dimensional elongated objects, preferentially. With respect to the typical linear complex-structured polymer chains, this material is ideally suited for industrial and/or biomedical applications because of its simple molecular architecture and persistence of SCNPs up to 100 mg mL(-1). The so-obtained single-chain globular particles are able to swell upon loading with small hydrophobic molecules therefore promoting solubilization of flavors or drugs, which could be of interest in the food and pharmaceutical industry.

  15. Nanoparticle induced cell magneto-rotation: monitoring morphology, stress and drug sensitivity of a suspended single cancer cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remy Elbez

    Full Text Available Single cell analysis has allowed critical discoveries in drug testing, immunobiology and stem cell research. In addition, a change from two to three dimensional growth conditions radically affects cell behavior. This already resulted in new observations on gene expression and communication networks and in better predictions of cell responses to their environment. However, it is still difficult to study the size and shape of single cells that are freely suspended, where morphological changes are highly significant. Described here is a new method for quantitative real time monitoring of cell size and morphology, on single live suspended cancer cells, unconfined in three dimensions. The precision is comparable to that of the best optical microscopes, but, in contrast, there is no need for confining the cell to the imaging plane. The here first introduced cell magnetorotation (CM method is made possible by nanoparticle induced cell magnetization. By using a rotating magnetic field, the magnetically labeled cell is actively rotated, and the rotational period is measured in real-time. A change in morphology induces a change in the rotational period of the suspended cell (e.g. when the cell gets bigger it rotates slower. The ability to monitor, in real time, cell swelling or death, at the single cell level, is demonstrated. This method could thus be used for multiplexed real time single cell morphology analysis, with implications for drug testing, drug discovery, genomics and three-dimensional culturing.

  16. High-throughput ultrasensitive characterization of chemical, structural and plasmonic properties of EBL-fabricated single silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Cao, Wei; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E; Xu, Xiao-Hong Nancy

    2012-01-21

    Electron beam lithography (EBL) has become a popular means to prepare a wide variety of nano-arrays for numerous studies and applications, including photonics and sensors. Their fabrications and characterizations are costly and time consuming, underscoring the importance of developing effective tools to rapidly study their physicochemical stabilities and properties over time. In this study, we characterized EBL-fabricated single silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) arrays over their 12-week exposure to ambient conditions using SEM/EDS, AFM and dark-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy (DFOMS). We found that chemical compositions, structural morphologies and plasmonic optical properties of single NPs altered drastically over the exposure. Single cuboid and triangular-prism Ag NPs degraded at rates of (0.74 ± 0.02) and (0.66 ± 0.02) per week, and their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectra showed striking blue-shifts (171 ± 25 and 203 ± 35 nm) over the 12-week exposure, respectively. Plasmonic colors of single NPs changed distinctively from red to green over the 12-week exposure. The LSPR spectra of individual NPs in each array were acquired simultaneously and correlated specifically with their SEM and AFM images, demonstrating that DFOMS can serve as high-throughput, ultrasensitive and non-invasive means to characterize chemical, structural and optical properties of nano-arrays in situ in real time at single-NP resolution.

  17. Defects/strain influenced magnetic properties and inverse of surface spin canting effect in single domain CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Simrjit; Khare, Neeraj, E-mail: nkhare@physics.iitd.ernet.in

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesized single domain CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with different amount of strain. • Demonstrated a correlation between size, strain and magnetic properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • Strain induces cationic redistribution at tetrahedral and octahedral sites of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • Inverse of spin canting effect due to the redistribution of Fe{sup 3+} ions is demonstrated. - Abstract: Single domain CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with different amount of defects/strain have been synthesized by varying the growth temperature in the hydrothermal method. Nanoparticles grown at lower temperature are of larger size and exhibit more planar defects and oxygen vacancies as compared to nanoparticles grown at higher temperatures which are of smaller sizes and exhibit less planar defects and oxygen vacancies. The nanoparticles with larger amount of defects also possess a higher value of intrinsic strain as compared to nanoparticles with fewer defects. The presence of intrinsic strain in the nanoparticles is found to shift the cationic distribution at the tetrahedral and octahedral sites. The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of the nanoparticles is found to depend upon both the intrinsic strain and size of the nanoparticles. The M{sub s} increases with the decrease in the nanoparticles size from 32 nm to 20 nm, and this is correlated to the inverse of spin canting effect due to decrease in the intrinsic strain which leads to shifting of Co{sup 2+} ions from tetrahedral to octahedral sites. However, with further decrease in the size of the nanoparticles (16 nm), the size effect dominates over the strain effect leading to decrease in M{sub s}. The coercivity is found to be higher in the nanoparticles with larger amount of defects/strain and has been attributed to strain induced strong spin canting and pinning due to defect sites. The variation of coercivity with particle size (D) exhibits deviation from D{sup 3

  18. On-chip noninterference angular momentum multiplexing of broadband light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haoran; Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Qiming; Gu, Min

    2016-05-13

    Angular momentum division has emerged as a physically orthogonal multiplexing method in high-capacity optical information technologies. However, the typical bulky elements used for information retrieval from the overall diffracted field, based on the interference method, impose a fundamental limit toward realizing on-chip multiplexing. We demonstrate noninterference angular momentum multiplexing by using a mode-sorting nanoring aperture with a chip-scale footprint as small as 4.2 micrometers by 4.2 micrometers, where nanoring slits exhibit a distinctive outcoupling efficiency on tightly confined plasmonic modes. The nonresonant mode-sorting sensitivity and scalability of our approach enable on-chip parallel multiplexing over a bandwidth of 150 nanometers in the visible wavelength range. The results offer the possibility of ultrahigh-capacity and miniaturized nanophotonic devices harnessing angular momentum division.

  19. Power management design for lab-on-chip biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojian Yu; Moez, Kambiz; I-Chyn Wey; Jie Chen

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decades, we have witnessed the growth demands of portable lab-on-chip biosensors. These lab-on-chip devices are mostly powered by battery, and intelligent power management systems are required to provide supply voltage for different functional units on biosensors (e.g. a microfluidic control system might require higher voltage than the rest working units of biosensors). In this paper, a fully integrated multiple-stage voltage multiplier is proposed to provide high-voltage power needs. The proposed design was implemented with the IBM's 0.13um CMOS process with a maximum power efficiency of 81.02% and maximum voltage conversion efficiency of 99.8% under a supply voltage of 1.2 V.

  20. Phase-modulating lasers toward on-chip integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaka, Yoshitaka; Hirose, Kazuyoshi; Sugiyama, Takahiro; Takiguchi, Yu; Nomoto, Yoshiro

    2016-07-26

    Controlling laser-beam patterns is indispensable in modern technology, where lasers are typically combined with phase-modulating elements such as diffractive optical elements or spatial light modulators. However, the combination of separate elements is not only a challenge for on-chip miniaturisation but also hinders their integration permitting the switchable control of individual modules. Here, we demonstrate the operation of phase-modulating lasers that emit arbitrarily configurable beam patterns without requiring any optical elements or scanning devices. We introduce a phase-modulating resonator in a semiconductor laser, which allows the concurrent realisation of lasing and phase modulation. The fabricated devices are on-chip-sized, making them suitable for integration. We believe this work will provide a breakthrough in various laser applications such as switchable illumination patterns for bio-medical applications, structured illuminations, and even real three-dimensional or highly realistic displays, which cannot be realised with simple combinations of conventional devices or elements.

  1. Energy Consumption Oriented Network-on-Chip Mapping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feichao Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, mapping algorithm has been mainly studied. The main work and contribution have been generalized as follows: Through the research of existing on-chip network mapping algorithm and global optimization algorithm, a multi-step mapping algorithm for low-power consumption have been designed, which is combined with the task allocation and the task scheduling. Compared with the traditional mapping algorithm, the algorithm in this paper takes the factors of task scheduling and allocation into account, mapping algorithm has three steps: task scheduling, IP core mapping and data block mapping. The simulation results show that the mapping method in this paper can effectively reduce Network-on-Chip (NoC power consumption. 

  2. Semipolar III–nitride quantum well waveguide photodetector integrated with laser diode for on-chip photonic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chao; Lee, Changmin; Stegenburgs, Edgars; Holguin Lerma, Jorge; Khee Ng, Tien; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-04-01

    A high-performance waveguide photodetector (WPD) integrated with a laser diode (LD) sharing the single InGaN/GaN quantum well active region is demonstrated on a semipolar GaN substrate. The photocurrent of the integrated WPD is effectively tuned by the emitted optical power from the LD. The responsivity ranges from 0.018 to 0.051 A/W with increasing reverse bias from 0 to 10 V. The WPD shows a large 3 dB modulation bandwidth of 230 MHz. The integrated device, being used for power monitoring and on-chip communication, paves the way towards the eventual realization of a III–nitride on-chip photonic system.

  3. A system-on-chip digital pH meter for use in a wireless diagnostic capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Paul A; Ali, Danish; Cumming, David R S

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a system-on-chip digital pH meter, for use in a wireless capsule application. The system is organized around an 8-bit microcontroller, designed to be functionally identical to the Motorola 6805. The analog subsystem contains a floating-electrode ISFET, which is fully compatible with a commercial CMOS process. On-chip programmable voltage references and multiplexors permit flexibility with the minimum of external connections. The chip is designed in a modular fashion to facilitate verification and component re-use. The single-chip pH meter can be directly connected to a personal computer, and gives a response of 37 bits/pH, within an operating range of 7 pH units.

  4. Semipolar III–nitride quantum well waveguide photodetector integrated with laser diode for on-chip photonic system

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-02-28

    A high-performance waveguide photodetector (WPD) integrated with a laser diode (LD) sharing the single InGaN/GaN quantum well active region is demonstrated on a semipolar GaN substrate. The photocurrent of the integrated WPD is effectively tuned by the emitted optical power from the LD. The responsivity ranges from 0.018 to 0.051 A/W with increasing reverse bias from 0 to 10 V. The WPD shows a large 3 dB modulation bandwidth of 230 MHz. The integrated device, being used for power monitoring and on-chip communication, paves the way towards the eventual realization of a III–nitride on-chip photonic system.

  5. Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Internalized by Arabidopsis Plants Using Single Particle ICP-MS Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dongping eBao; Zhen Guo eOh; ZHONG eCHEN

    2016-01-01

    Plants act as a crucial interface between humans and their environment. The wide use of nanoparticles (NPs) has raised great concerns about their potential impacts on crop health and food safety, leading to an emerging research theme about the interaction between plants and NPs. However, up to this day even the basic issues concerning the eventual fate and characteristics of NPs after internalization are not clearly delineated due to the lack of a well-established technique for the quantitati...

  6. Detection of Engineered Copper Nanoparticles in Soil Using Single Particle ICP-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Navratilova; Antonia Praetorius; Andreas Gondikas; Willi Fabienke; Frank von der Kammer; Thilo Hofmann

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory efforts rely on nanometrology for the development and implementation of laws regarding the incorporation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) into industrial and consumer products. Copper is currently one of the most common metals used in the constantly developing and expanding sector of nanotechnology. The use of copper nanoparticles in products, such as agricultural biocides, cosmetics and paints, is increasing. Copper based ENMs will eventually be released to the environment throu...

  7. Object-Oriented System-on-Network-on-Chip Template and Implementation: H.263 Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Liwei; SUN Yihe

    2008-01-01

    Network-on-chip (NoC) technology enables a new system-on-chip paradigm, the system-on-network-on-chip (SoNoC) paradigm. One of the challenges in designing application-specific networks is modeling the on-chip system behavior and determining on-chip traffic characteristics. A universal object message level model for SoNoC was defined and an object-oriented methodology was developed to imple-ment this model in hardware and software. The model supports "object to core" synthesis and "function in-voking to network" mapping. A case study of an H.263 system verifies the model and methodology. System prototypes are easily built and on-chip traffic can be observed using the SoNoC model to provide real benchmarks for on-chip network design.

  8. Performance Evaluation of CDMA Router for Network-On-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant W. Hinganikar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance evaluation of router based on code division multiple access technique (CDMA for Network-on-Chip (NoC. The design is synthesized using Xilinx Virtex4 XC4VLX200 device. The functional behavior is verified using Modelsim XE III 6.2 C. The delay and throughput values are obtained for variable payload sizes. Throughput-Power and Delay-Power characteristics are also verified for NoC.

  9. Low-cost on-chip clock jitter measurement scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Omana, Martin; Rossi, Daniele; Giaffreda, Daniele; Metra, Cecilia; Mak, T.M.; Raman, Asifur; Tam, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a low-cost, on-chip clock jitter digital measurement scheme for high performance microprocessors. It enables in situ jitter measurement during the test or debug phase. It provides very high measurement resolution and accuracy, despite the possible presence of power supply noise (representing a major source of clock jitter), at low area and power costs. The achieved resolution is scalable with technology node and can in principle be increased as much as desired, at lo...

  10. Energy Consumption Oriented Network-on-Chip Mapping Method

    OpenAIRE

    Feichao Wang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, mapping algorithm has been mainly studied. The main work and contribution have been generalized as follows: Through the research of existing on-chip network mapping algorithm and global optimization algorithm, a multi-step mapping algorithm for low-power consumption have been designed, which is combined with the task allocation and the task scheduling. Compared with the traditional mapping algorithm, the algorithm in this paper takes the factors of task scheduling and allocatio...

  11. From oleic acid-capped iron oxide nanoparticles to polyethyleneimine-coated single-particle magnetofectins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Acuña, Melissa; Maldonado-Camargo, Lorena; Dobson, Jon; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Various inorganic nanoparticle designs have been developed and used as non-viral gene carriers. Magnetic gene carriers containing polyethyleneimine (PEI), a well-known transfection agent, have been shown to improve DNA transfection speed and efficiency in the presence of applied magnetic field gradients that promote particle-cell interactions. Here we report a method to prepare iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with PEI that: preserves the narrow size distribution of the nanoparticles, conserves magnetic properties throughout the process, and results in efficient transfection. We demonstrate the ability of the particles to electrostatically bind with DNA and transfect human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells by the use of an oscillating magnet array. Their transfection efficiency is similar to that of Lipofectamine 2000™, a commercial transfection reagent. PEI-coated particles were subjected to acidification, and acidification in the presence of salts, before DNA binding. Results show that although these pre-treatments did not affect the ability of particles to bind DNA they did significantly enhanced transfection efficiency. Finally, we show that these magnetofectins (PEI-MNP/DNA) complexes have no effect on the viability of cells at the concentrations used in the study. The systematic preparation of magnetic vectors with uniform physical and magnetic properties is critical to progressing this non-viral transfection technology.

  12. High quantum-efficiency photon-number-resolving detector for photonic on-chip information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Calkins, Brice; Lita, Adriana E; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Kolthammer, W Steven; Linares, Antia Lamas; Spring, Justin B; Humphreys, Peter C; Mirin, Richard P; Gates, James C; Smith, Peter G R; Walmsley, Ian A; Gerrits, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo

    2013-01-01

    The integrated optical circuit is a promising architecture for the realization of complex quantum optical states and information networks. One element that is required for many of these applications is a high-efficiency photon detector capable of photon-number discrimination. We present an integrated photonic system in the telecom band at 1550 nm based on UV-written silica-on-silicon waveguides and modified transition-edge sensors capable of number resolution and over 40% efficiency. Exploiting the mode transmission failure of these devices, we multiplex three detectors in series to demonstrate a combined 79% +/- 2% detection efficiency with a single pass, and 88% +/- 3% at the operating wavelength of an on-chip terminal reflection grating. Furthermore, our optical measurements clearly demonstrate no significant unexplained loss in this system due to scattering or reflections. This waveguide and detector design therefore allows the placement of number-resolving single-photon detectors of predictable efficienc...

  13. Thermodynamics and efficiency of an autonomous on-chip Maxwell's demon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutvonen, Aki; Koski, Jonne; Ala-Nissila, Tapio

    2016-02-18

    In his famous letter in 1870, Maxwell describes how Joule's law can be violated "only by the intelligent action of a mere guiding agent", later coined as Maxwell's demon by Lord Kelvin. In this letter we study thermodynamics of information using an experimentally feasible Maxwell's demon setup based a single electron transistor capacitively coupled to a single electron box, where both the system and the Demon can be clearly identified. Such an engineered on-chip Demon measures and performes feedback on the system, which can be observed as cooling whose efficiency can be adjusted. We present a detailed analysis of the system and the Demon, including the second law of thermodynamics for bare and coarse grained entropy production and the flow of information as well as efficiency of information production and utilization. Our results demonstrate how information thermodynamics can be used to improve functionality of modern nanoscale devices.

  14. Thermodynamics and efficiency of an autonomous on-chip Maxwell’s demon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutvonen, Aki; Koski, Jonne; Ala-Nissila, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    In his famous letter in 1870, Maxwell describes how Joule’s law can be violated “only by the intelligent action of a mere guiding agent”, later coined as Maxwell’s demon by Lord Kelvin. In this letter we study thermodynamics of information using an experimentally feasible Maxwell’s demon setup based a single electron transistor capacitively coupled to a single electron box, where both the system and the Demon can be clearly identified. Such an engineered on-chip Demon measures and performes feedback on the system, which can be observed as cooling whose efficiency can be adjusted. We present a detailed analysis of the system and the Demon, including the second law of thermodynamics for bare and coarse grained entropy production and the flow of information as well as efficiency of information production and utilization. Our results demonstrate how information thermodynamics can be used to improve functionality of modern nanoscale devices. PMID:26887504

  15. On-chip High-Voltage Generator Design

    CERN Document Server

    Tanzawa, Toru

    2013-01-01

    This book describes high-voltage generator design with switched-capacitor multiplier techniques.  The author provides various design techniques for switched-capacitor on-chip high-voltage generators, including charge pump circuits, regulators, level shifters, references, and oscillators.  Readers will see these techniques applied to system design in order to address the challenge of how the on-chip high-voltage generator is designed for Flash memories, LCD drivers, and other semiconductor devices to optimize the entire circuit area and power efficiency with a low voltage supply, while minimizing the cost.   ·         Shows readers how to design charge pump circuits with lower voltage operation, higher power efficiency, and smaller circuit area; ·         Describes comprehensive circuits and systems design of on-chip high-voltage generators; ·         Covers all the component circuit blocks, including charge pumps, pump regulators, level shifters, oscillators, and references.

  16. Delay Optimized Architecture for On-Chip Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheraz Anjum; Jie Chen; Pei-Pei Yue; Jian Liu

    2009-01-01

    Networks-on-chip (NoC), a new system on chip (SoC) paradigm, has become a great focus of research by many groups during the last few years. Among all the NoC architectures that have been proposed until now, 2D-Mesh has proved to be the best architecture for implementation due to its regular and simple intercon- nection structure. In this paper, we propose a new interconnect architecture called 2D-diagonal mesh (2DDgl-Mesh) for on-chip communication. The 2DDgl- Mesh is almost similar to traditional 2D-Mesh in aspects of cost, area, and implementation, but it can outperform the later in delay. The both architectures are compared by using NS-2 (a network simulator) and CINSIM (a component based interconnection simulator) under the same traffic models and parametric conditions. The results of comparison show that under the proposed architecture, the packets can almost always be routed to their destinations in less time. In addition, our archi- tecture can sometimes perform better than 2D-Mesh in drop ratio for special fixed traffic models.

  17. High performance magnesium anode in paper-based microfluidic battery, powering on-chip fluorescence assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Youngmi; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-09-01

    A high power density and long-lasting stable/disposable magnesium battery anode was explored for a paper-based fluidic battery to power on-chip functions of various Point of Care (POC) devices. The single galvanic cell with magnesium foil anode and silver foil cathode in Origami cellulose chip provided open circuit potential, 2.2 V, and power density, 3.0 mW/cm(2). A paper-based fluidic galvanic cell was operated with one drop of water (80 μl) and continued to run until it was dry. To prove the concept about powering on-chip POC devices, two-serial galvanic cells are developed and incorporated with a UV-light emitting diode (λ = 365 nm) and fluorescence assay for alkaline phosphatase reaction. Further, detection using smart phones was performed for quantitative measurement of fluorescent density. To conclude, a magnesium-based fluidic battery paper chip was extremely low-cost, required minute sample volumes, was easy to dispose of, light weight, easy to stack, store and transport, easy to fabricate, scalable, and has faster analysis times.

  18. Compact Electrochemical System Using On-Chip Sensor Electrodes and Integrated Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomoyuki; Ikeda, Takaaki; Ishida, Makoto; Sawada, Kazuaki

    2011-04-01

    We report a compact electrochemical sensing system to implement cyclic voltammetry. This type of sensor needs a working electrode, counter electrode, and reference electrode, all of which were integrated on a single chip. The electrochemical system also needs a potentiostat and an input voltage-generating circuit, which were developed using on-chip active devices and a few discrete passive components. This is the first sensor system incorporating electrode-side input voltage generation for electrochemical measurements using an on-chip operational amplifier, which replaces a bulky external voltage controller. A continuous cyclic voltammetry measurement was conducted with a well-studied ferricyanide solution to demonstrate the operation of the intelligent sensor chip. A clear peak was observed and linearity to the target chemical concentration was obtained between the peak height and concentration of the ferricyanide solution. With potential for mass production and small size, this sensor chip could be the best candidate to realize point-of-care testing. This sensor chip is a milestone of a fully integrated electrochemical sensor chip.

  19. Reconfigurable VLSI implementation for learning vector quantization with on-chip learning circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyu; An, Fengwei; Chen, Lei; Jürgen Mattausch, Hans

    2016-04-01

    As an alternative to conventional single-instruction-multiple-data (SIMD) mode solutions with massive parallelism for self-organizing-map (SOM) neural network models, this paper reports a memory-based proposal for the learning vector quantization (LVQ), which is a variant of SOM. A dual-mode LVQ system, enabling both on-chip learning and classification, is implemented by using a reconfigurable pipeline with parallel p-word input (R-PPPI) architecture. As a consequence of the reuse of R-PPPI for solving the most severe computational demands in both modes, power dissipation and Si-area consumption can be dramatically reduced in comparison to previous LVQ implementations. In addition, the designed LVQ ASIC has high flexibility with respect to feature-vector dimensionality and reference-vector number, allowing the execution of many different machine-learning applications. The fabricated test chip in 180 nm CMOS with parallel 8-word inputs and 102 K-bit on-chip memory achieves low power consumption of 66.38 mW (at 75 MHz and 1.8 V) and high learning speed of (R + 1) × \\lceil d/8 \\rceil + 10 clock cycles per d-dimensional sample vector where R is the reference-vector number.

  20. Implantable Biomedical Signal Monitoring Using RF Energy Harvestingand On-Chip Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiann-Shiun Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of an energy harvesting wireless and battery-less silicon-on-chip (SoC device that can be implanted in the human body to monitor certain health conditions. The proposed architecture has been designed on TSMC 0.18μm CMOS ICs and is an integrated system with a rectenna (antenna and rectifier and transmitting circuit, all on a single chip powered by an external transmitter and that is small enough to be inserted in the human eye, heart or brain. The transmitting and receiving antennas operate in the 5.8- GHz ISM band and have a -10dB gain. The distinguishing feature of this design is the rectenna that comprises of a singlestage diode connected NMOS rectifier and a 3-D on-chip antenna that occupies only 2.5 × 1 × 2.8 mm3 of chip area and has the ability to communicate within proximity of 5 cm while giving 10% efficiency. The external source is a reader that powers up the RF rectifier in the implantable chip triggering it to start sending data back to the reader enabling an efficient method of health evaluation for the patient.

  1. Real-time bacterial microcolony counting using on-chip microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Observing microbial colonies is the standard method for determining the microbe titer and investigating the behaviors of microbes. Here, we report an automated, real-time bacterial microcolony-counting system implemented on a wide field-of-view (FOV), on-chip microscopy platform, termed ePetri. Using sub-pixel sweeping microscopy (SPSM) with a super-resolution algorithm, this system offers the ability to dynamically track individual bacterial microcolonies over a wide FOV of 5.7 mm × 4.3 mm without requiring a moving stage or lens. As a demonstration, we obtained high-resolution time-series images of S. epidermidis at 20-min intervals. We implemented an image-processing algorithm to analyze the spatiotemporal distribution of microcolonies, the development of which could be observed from a single bacterial cell. Test bacterial colonies with a minimum diameter of 20 μm could be enumerated within 6 h. We showed that our approach not only provides results that are comparable to conventional colony-counting assays but also can be used to monitor the dynamics of colony formation and growth. This microcolony-counting system using on-chip microscopy represents a new platform that substantially reduces the detection time for bacterial colony counting. It uses chip-scale image acquisition and is a simple and compact solution for the automation of colony-counting assays and microbe behavior analysis with applications in antibacterial drug discovery. PMID:26902822

  2. In vitro and in vivo on-chip biofluorescence imaging using a CMOS image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, David C.; Matsuo, Masamichi; Tokuda, Takashi; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Nunoshita, Masahiro; Ohta, Jun

    2006-02-01

    We have designed and fabricated a 176×144-pixels (QCIF) CMOS image sensor for on-chip bio-fluorescence imaging of the mouse brain. In our approach, a single CMOS image sensor chip without additional optics is used. This enables imaging at arbitrary depths into the brain; a clear advantage compared to existing optical microscopy methods. Packaging of the chip represents a challenge for in vivo imaging. We developed a novel packaging process whereby an excitation filter is applied onto the sensor. This eliminates the use of a filter cube found in conventional fluorescence microscopes. The fully packaged chip is about 350 μm thick. Using the device, we demonstrated in vitro on-chip fluorescence imaging of a 400 μm thick mouse brain slice detailing the hippocampus. The image obtained compares favorably to the image captured by conventional microscopes in terms of image resolution. In order to study imaging in vivo, we also developed a phantom media. In situ fluorophore measurement shows that detection through the turbid medium of up to 1 mm thickness is possible. We have successfully demonstrated imaging deep into the hippocampal region of the mouse brain where quantitative fluorometric measurements was made. This work is expected to lead to a promising new tool for imaging the brain in vivo.

  3. A 2D nanoparticle sorter: towards an on-chip quantification and full characterization of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Cloé; Valsesia, Andrea; Colpo, Pascal; Rossi, François

    2015-06-01

    In the context of the extensive use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in consumer products, industrial applications and nanomedicine, there is an important need of new methods for an exhaustive characterization of their physicochemical properties. Among them, surface hydrophobicity is considered as a key factor to be controlled, in particular for nanomedicine applications1,2. The proposed study demonstrates the proof-of-concept of an inexpensive characterization process, enabling the sorting of ENMs according to their hydrophobicity and surface charge, together with the classical characterization of size and shape. The detection platform is based on the use of a surface modified through plasma polymer and layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition in order to generate areas of tuned surface properties to bind ENMs selectively by hydrophobic forces and electrostatic interactions. The key advantages of such a device is the decrease of time and assay costs thanks to the all-in-one characterization process and the multiplexing that could replace the use of different methods and expensive equipment to give equivalent results. In this way, the full characterization of NP could be expanded in all the areas covering NP-related applications.

  4. 60 GHz system-on-chip (SoC) with built-in memory and an on-chip antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2014-04-01

    A novel 60 GHz transmitter SoC with an on-chip antenna and integrated memory in CMOS 65 nm technology is presented in this paper. This highly integrated transmitter design can support a data rate of 2 GBPS with a transmission range of 1 m. The transmitter consists of a fundamental frequency 60 GHz PLL which covers the complete ISM band. The modulator following the PLL can support both BPSK and OOK modulation schemes. Both stored data on the integrated memory or directly from an external source can be transmitted. A tapered slot on chip antenna is integrated with the power amplifier to complete the front end of the transmitter design. Size of the complete transmitter with on-chip antenna is only 1.96 mm × 1.96 mm. The core circuits consume less than 100 mW of power. The high data rate capability of the design makes it extremely suitable for bandwidth hungry applications such as unencrypted HD video streaming and transmission.

  5. Third-harmonic-upconversion enhancement from a single semiconductor nanoparticle coupled to a plasmonic antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouani, Heykel; Rahmani, Mohsen; Navarro-Cía, Miguel; Maier, Stefan A

    2014-04-01

    The ability to convert low-energy quanta into a quantum of higher energy is of great interest for a variety of applications, including bioimaging, drug delivery and photovoltaics. Although high conversion efficiencies can be achieved using macroscopic nonlinear crystals, upconverting light at the nanometre scale remains challenging because the subwavelength scale of materials prevents the exploitation of phase-matching processes. Light-plasmon interactions that occur in nanostructured noble metals have offered alternative opportunities for nonlinear upconversion of infrared light, but conversion efficiency rates remain extremely low due to the weak penetration of the exciting fields into the metal. Here, we show that third-harmonic generation from an individual semiconductor indium tin oxide nanoparticle is significantly enhanced when coupled within a plasmonic gold dimer. The plasmonic dimer acts as a receiving optical antenna, confining the incident far-field radiation into a near field localized at its gap; the indium tin oxide nanoparticle located at the plasmonic dimer gap acts as a localized nonlinear transmitter upconverting three incident photons at frequency ω into a photon at frequency 3ω. This hybrid nanodevice provides third-harmonic-generation enhancements of up to 10(6)-fold compared with an isolated indium tin oxide nanoparticle, with an effective third-order susceptibility up to 3.5 × 10(3) nm V(-2) and conversion efficiency of 0.0007%. We also show that the upconverted third-harmonic emission can be exploited to probe the near-field intensity at the plasmonic dimer gap.

  6. A novel method for detection of phosphorylation in single cells by surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS using composite organic-inorganic nanoparticles (COINs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Shachaf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Detection of single cell epitopes has been a mainstay of immunophenotyping for over three decades, primarily using fluorescence techniques for quantitation. Fluorescence has broad overlapping spectra, limiting multiplexing abilities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To expand upon current detection systems, we developed a novel method for multi-color immuno-detection in single cells using "Composite Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles" (COINs Raman nanoparticles. COINs are Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS nanoparticles, with unique Raman spectra. To measure Raman spectra in single cells, we constructed an automated, compact, low noise and sensitive Raman microscopy device (Integrated Raman BioAnalyzer. Using this technology, we detected proteins expressed on the surface in single cells that distinguish T-cells among human blood cells. Finally, we measured intracellular phosphorylation of Stat1 (Y701 and Stat6 (Y641, with results comparable to flow cytometry. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, we have demonstrated the practicality of applying COIN nanoparticles for measuring intracellular phosphorylation, offering new possibilities to expand on the current fluorescent technology used for immunoassays in single cells.

  7. Nanoparticle uptake and their co-localization with cell compartments - a confocal Raman microscopy study at single cell level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrela-Lopis, I; Donath, E [Institute of Medical Physics and Biophysics, Leipzig University, Haertelstrasse 16, 04107 Leipzig (Germany); Romero, G; Rojas, E; Moya, S E, E-mail: Irina.Estrela-Lopis@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [CIC biomaGUNE, Paseo Miramon 182 Edificio Empresarial C, 20009 San Sebastian, Gipuzkoa (Spain)

    2011-07-06

    Confocal Raman Microscopy, a non-invasive, non-destructive and label-free technique, was employed to study the uptake and localization of nanoparticles (NPs) in the Hepatocarcinoma human cell line HepG2 at the level of single cells. Cells were exposed to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) the surface of which was engineered with polyelectrolytes and lipid layers, aluminium oxide and cerium dioxide nanoparticles. Raman spectra deconvolution was applied to obtain the spatial distributions of NPs together with lipids/proteins in cells. The colocalization of the NPs with different intracellular environments, lipid bodies, protein and DNA, was inferred. Lipid coated CNTs associated preferentially with lipid rich regions, whereas polyelectrolyte coated CNTs were excluded from lipid rich regions. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs were found in the cytoplasm. CeO{sub 2} NPs were readily taken up and have been observed all over the cell. Raman z-scans proved the intracellular distribution of the respective NPs.

  8. A micro-Raman study of live, single red blood cells (RBCs treated with AgNO3 nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseefhali Bankapur

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are known to exhibit broad antimicrobial activity. However, such activity continues to raise concerns in the context of the interaction of such NPs with biomolecules. In a physiological environment NPs interact with individual biological cells either by penetrating through the cell membrane or by adhering to the membrane. We have explored the interaction of Ag NPs with single optically-trapped, live erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs using Raman Tweezers spectroscopy. Our experiments reveal that Ag NPs induce modifications within an RBC that appear to be irreversible. In particular we are able to identify that the heme conformation in an RBC transforms from the usual R-state (oxy-state to the T-state (deoxy-state. We rationalize our observations by proposing a model for the nanoparticle cytotoxicity pathway when the NP size is larger than the membrane pore size. We propose that the interaction of Ag NPs with the cell surface induces damage brought about by alteration of intracellular pH caused by the blockage of the cell membrane transport.

  9. Constructing of DNA vectors with controlled nanosize and single dispersion by block copolymer coating gold nanoparticles as template assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junbo; Wu, Wenlan; Gao, Jiayu; Liang, Ju; Zhou, Huiyun; Liang, Lijuan

    2017-03-01

    Synthesized vectors with nanoscale size and stable colloid dispersion are highly desirable for improving gene delivery efficiency. Here, a core-shell template particle was constructed with polyethylene glycol- b-poly1-(3-aminopropyl)-3-(2-methacryloyloxy propylimidazolium bromine) (PEG- b-PAMPImB) coating gold nanoparticles (PEG- b-PAMPImB-@-Au NPs) for loading DNA and delivering in vitro. Data from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) suggest that these nanoplexes, by forming an electrostatic complex with DNA at the inner PAMPImB shell, offer steric protection for the outer PEG corona leading to single dispersion and small size. Notably, higher colloid stability and lower cytotoxicity were achieved with these nanoplexes when compared with PAMPImB monolayer-coated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Confocal laser scanning microscopy and intracellular trafficking TEM further indicate that the nanoplexes can translocate across the cell membrane and partly enter the nucleus for high efficient expression. Thus, template assembly represents a promising approach to control the size and colloid stability of gene vectors and ensure safety and efficiency of DNA delivery.

  10. Real-time monitoring of oxidative burst from single plant protoplasts using microelectrochemical sensors modified by platinum nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Feng; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Shu-Hui; Liu, Sheng-Yi; Wei, Fang; Dong, Xu-Yan; Cheng, Jie-Ke; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2009-10-15

    Oxidative bursts from plants play significant roles in plant disease defense and signal transduction; however, it has not hitherto been investigated on individual living plant cells. In this article, we fabricated a novel sensitive electrochemical sensor based on electrochemical deposition of Pt nanoparticles on the surface of carbon fiber microdisk electrodes via a nanopores containing polymer matrix, Nafion. The numerous hydrophilic nanochannels in the Nafion clusters coated on the electrode surface served as the molecular template for the deposition and dispersion of Pt, which resulted in the uniform construction of small Pt nanoparticles. The novel sensor displayed a high sensitivity for detection of H(2)O(2) with a detection limit of 5.0 x 10(-9) M. With the use of this microelectrochemical sensor, the oxidative burst from individual living plant protoplasts have been real-time monitored for the first time. The results showed that oxidative burst from single protoplasts triggered by a pathogen analogue were characterized by quanta release with a large number of "transient oxidative microburst" events, and protoplasts from the transgenic plants biologically displayed better disease-resistance and showed a distinguished elevation and longer-lasting oxidative burst.

  11. Single-Cell Mechanics Provides an Effective Means To Probe in Vivo Interactions between Alveolar Macrophages and Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying X; Karsai, Arpad; Anderson, Donald S; Silva, Rona M; Uyeminami, Dale L; Van Winkle, Laura S; Pinkerton, Kent E; Liu, Gang-yu

    2015-12-10

    Single-cell mechanics, derived from atomic force microscopy-based technology, provides a new and effective means to investigate nanomaterial-cell interactions upon in vivo exposure. Lung macrophages represent initial and important responses upon introducing nanoparticles into the respiratory tract, as well as particle clearance with time. Cellular mechanics has previously proven effective to probe in vitro nanomaterial-cell interactions. This study extends technology further to probe the interactions between primary alveolar macrophages (AM) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) upon in vivo exposure. Two types of AgNPs, 20 and 110 nm, were instilled to rat lung at 0.5 mg AgNPs/kg body weight, and allowed 24 h interaction. The consequences of these interactions were investigated by harvesting the primary AMs while maintaining their biological status. Cellular mechanics measurements revealed the diverse responses among AM cells, due to variations in AgNP uptake and oxidative dissolving into Ag(+). Three major responses are evident: zero to low uptake that does not alter cellular mechanics, intracellular accumulation of AgNPs trigger cytoskeleton rearrangement resulting in the stiffening of mechanics, and damage of cytoskeleton that softens the mechanical profile. These effects were confirmed using confocal imaging of F-actin and measurements of reactive oxygen species production. More detailed intracellular interactions will also be discussed on the basis of this study in conjunction with prior knowledge of AgNP toxicity.

  12. Label-free detection of ApoE4-mediated β-amyloid aggregation on single nanoparticle uncovering Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Kyung; Lee, Jeewon; Nguyen, Anh H; Sim, Sang Jun

    2015-10-15

    Beta amyloid (Aβ) deposition is a pathological milestone of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is facilitated by an isoform of Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4), which is a dominant risk factor for AD. However, current in vitro Aβ aggregation assays were performed in extreme conditions not linked to physiological conditions, to understand the mechanism of Aβ induced neurotoxicity. Here, we present a simple method for the ApoE4-mediated Aβ aggregation at physiological conditions using single gold nanoparticle based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). It can be directly observed by dark-field microscope or even by the naked eye. Following LSPR principles, we used ApoE4 inducing Aβ42 self-assemblies on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) surface via their surface charge interaction. Using physiologically mimic cerebrospinal fluid, we determined a detection limit of 1.5 pM for Aβ42 corresponding to the ~2.9 nm LSPR-peak shift under ApoE4. Interestingly, the result also shows that ApoE4 induces the aggregation of Aβ42 more specifically and rapidly than that of Aβ40. This is the first biomimetic platform for real-time detection of Aβ aggregation, mimicking biological conditions, which can be used to investigate AD directly.

  13. Detection and characterization of aluminium-containing nanoparticles in Chinese noodles by single particle ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeschner, Katrin; Correia, Manuel; López Chaves, Carlos; Rokkjær, Inge; Sloth, Jens J

    2017-09-21

    This study investigated Chinese noodles for the presence of aluminium-containing nanoparticles by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in single particle mode (spICP-MS) after enzymatic digestion by α-amylase. The aluminium concentrations in the noodle samples, determined by conventional ICP-MS without or with the use of hydrofluoric acid for digestion, were 5.4 ± 1.9 µg/g and 10.1 ± 2.2 µg/g (N=21), respectively. Aluminium-containing nanoparticles were detected by spICP-MS in all 21 samples. Depending on the assumed particle composition, Al2O3 or Al2O3∙2SiO2∙2H2O, the median particle diameters were either below or above 100 nm, respectively. The minimum detectable particle diameter by spICP-MS was between 54 and 83 nm. The mass recovery of aluminium in the form of particles was between 5 and 18%. The presented work reports for the first time the detection of Al-containing particles in food by spICP-MS.

  14. Enhancing the visible light absorption of titania nanoparticles by S and C doping in a single-step process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarisoreanu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, POB MG-36, Magurele, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Morjan, I., E-mail: ion.morjan@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, POB MG-36, Magurele, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Alexandrescu, R.; Fleaca, C.T.; Badoi, A.; Dutu, E.; Niculescu, A.-M.; Luculescu, C. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, POB MG-36, Magurele, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Vasile, E. [Metav, Research and Development, 31C.A. Rosetti, Bucharest 020011 (Romania); Wang, J.; Bouhadoun, S.; Herlin-Boime, N. [IRAMIS/SPAM/LFP, CEA-CNRS URA 2453, CEA de Saclay, Gif sur Yvettes 91191 (France)

    2014-05-01

    We report the synthesis of carbon coated and sulfur doped titania nanoparticles using a continuous, single-step laser pyrolysis technique. We employed air as oxidant and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} as laser energy transfer agent (sensitizer)/carbon donor, both carrying the TiCl{sub 4} vapors as a titania precursor. The volatile (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}S{sub 2} was used to introduce sulfur as dopant in the nanopowders. The incorporation of C and S atoms in nanopowders with anatase dominant phase and with average particle diameter between 18 and 25 nm was performed through the addition of S{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} to the reactive precursor mixtures. The samples were characterized by: EDX, XRD, TEM, XPS and UV–Vis spectroscopy. By the introduction of the sulfur precursor, the anatase-to-rutile ratio within the resulted TiO{sub 2}-based nanoparticles decreased, as well as their bandgap energy values which are also lower than those of commercial TiO{sub 2} Degussa P25.

  15. Enhancing the visible light absorption of titania nanoparticles by S and C doping in a single-step process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarisoreanu, M.; Morjan, I.; Alexandrescu, R.; Fleaca, C. T.; Badoi, A.; Dutu, E.; Niculescu, A.-M.; Luculescu, C.; Vasile, E.; Wang, J.; Bouhadoun, S.; Herlin-Boime, N.

    2014-05-01

    We report the synthesis of carbon coated and sulfur doped titania nanoparticles using a continuous, single-step laser pyrolysis technique. We employed air as oxidant and C2H4 as laser energy transfer agent (sensitizer)/carbon donor, both carrying the TiCl4 vapors as a titania precursor. The volatile (CH3)2S2 was used to introduce sulfur as dopant in the nanopowders. The incorporation of C and S atoms in nanopowders with anatase dominant phase and with average particle diameter between 18 and 25 nm was performed through the addition of S2(CH3)2 and C2H4 to the reactive precursor mixtures. The samples were characterized by: EDX, XRD, TEM, XPS and UV-Vis spectroscopy. By the introduction of the sulfur precursor, the anatase-to-rutile ratio within the resulted TiO2-based nanoparticles decreased, as well as their bandgap energy values which are also lower than those of commercial TiO2 Degussa P25.

  16. Joining time-resolved thermometry and magnetic-induced heating in a single nanoparticle unveils intriguing thermal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñol, Rafael; Brites, Carlos D S; Bustamante, Rodney; Martínez, Abelardo; Silva, Nuno J O; Murillo, José L; Cases, Rafael; Carrey, Julian; Estepa, Carlos; Sosa, Cecilia; Palacio, Fernando; Carlos, Luís D; Millán, Angel

    2015-03-24

    Whereas efficient and sensitive nanoheaters and nanothermometers are demanding tools in modern bio- and nanomedicine, joining both features in a single nanoparticle still remains a real challenge, despite the recent progress achieved, most of it within the last year. Here we demonstrate a successful realization of this challenge. The heating is magnetically induced, the temperature readout is optical, and the ratiometric thermometric probes are dual-emissive Eu(3+)/Tb(3+) lanthanide complexes. The low thermometer heat capacitance (0.021·K(-1)) and heater/thermometer resistance (1 K·W(-1)), the high temperature sensitivity (5.8%·K(-1) at 296 K) and uncertainty (0.5 K), the physiological working temperature range (295-315 K), the readout reproducibility (>99.5%), and the fast time response (0.250 s) make the heater/thermometer nanoplatform proposed here unique. Cells were incubated with the nanoparticles, and fluorescence microscopy permits the mapping of the intracellular local temperature using the pixel-by-pixel ratio of the Eu(3+)/Tb(3+) intensities. Time-resolved thermometry under an ac magnetic field evidences the failure of using macroscopic thermal parameters to describe heat diffusion at the nanoscale.

  17. Single domain antibody coated gold nanoparticles as enhancer for Clostridium difficile toxin detection by electrochemical impedance immunosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zanzan; Shi, Lianfa; Feng, Hanping; Zhou, H. Susan

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a sandwich-type electrochemical impedance immunosensor for detecting Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB). Single domain antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles were applied to amplify the detection signal. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis spectra. The electron transfer resistance (Ret) of the working electrode surface was used as a parameter in the measurement of the biosensor. With the increase of the concentration of toxins from 1 pg/mL to 100 pg/mL, a linear relationship was observed between the relative electron transfer resistance and toxin concentration. In addition, the detection signal was enhanced due to the amplification effect. The limit of detection for TcdA and TcdB was found to be 0.61 pg/mL and 0.60 pg/mL respectively at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 (S/N = 3). This method is simple, fast and ultrasensitive, thus possesses a great potential for clinical applications in the future. PMID:25460611

  18. Single Chain Fragment Variable Recombinant Antibody Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles for a Highly Sensitive Colorimetric Immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Yi; Raymond, Raymond L.; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2009-01-01

    In this report, the peptide linker connecting scFv VH and VL domains were genetically modified to contain different amino acids (i.e. cysteine (scFv-cys) or histidines ( scFv-his)) to enable the scFv to adsorb or self-assemble onto the gold nanoparticles (NPs). The scFv-cys stabilized gold NPs were used to develop a highly sensitive colorimetric immunosensor. The scFv-cys stabilized gold NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectra, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and FT-IR. After adding the antigen rabbit IgG, the solution of scFv-cys stabilized gold NPs shows obvious visible color change from deep red to light purple due to the aggregation of the gold nanoparticles. Based on the colorimetric aggregation of scFv-cys stabilized gold NPs, the immunosensor exhibits high sensitivity with detection limit of 1.7 nM and good specificity. The good properties of the colorimetric aggregation immunosensor would be attributed to the small size of scFv and the covalent link between the scFv and gold NPs that improve the better orientation and enhance the probe density. With the advantages of speed, simplicity and specificity, the colorimetric immunoassay based on the functionalized scFv stabilized gold NPs represents a promising approach for protein analysis and clinical diagnostics. PMID:19327975

  19. Development of Single-side Magnet Array for Super Paramagnetic Nano-particle Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Permanent magnets are interesting for the use in magnetic drug targeting devices. The magnetic fields and forces with distances from magnets have limited the depth of targeting. Producing greater forces at deep depth by optimally designed magnet arrays would allow treatment of a wider class of patients. In this study, we present a design of a permanent magnet array for deep magnetic capture of super paramagnetic iron oxide nano-particles, which consists of an array of 3 individual bar permanent magnet positioned to achieve a reasonably magnitude magnetic field and its gradient within a deeply region. These configurations were simulated with two-dimensional finite-element methods. The super paramagnetic iron oxide nano-particles were adopted Fe3O4 particles with diameter 40 nm by chemical co-precipitation method. Performance factors were defined to relate magnetic field force with mass. The field strength and gradient were measured by a Hall probe and agreed well with the simulations.

  20. NIR-to-NIR Two-Photon Scanning Laser Microscopy Imaging of Single Nanoparticles Doped by Yb(III) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdolle, Adrien; D'Aléo, Anthony; Philippot, Cécile; Baldeck, Patrice L; Guyot, Yannick; Dubois, Fabien; Ibanez, Alain; Andraud, Chantal; Brasselet, Sophie; Maury, Olivier

    2016-01-04

    The photophysical and nonlinear optical properties of water-soluble chromophore-functionalised tris-dipicolinate complexes [LnL3](3-) (Ln=Yb and Nd) are thoroughly studied, revealing that only the Yb(III) luminescence can be sensitized by a two-photon excitation process. The stability of the complex in water is strongly enhanced by embedding in dispersible organosilicate nanoparticles (NPs). Finally, the spectroscopic properties of [NBu4]3 [YbL3] are studied in solution and in the solid state. The high brightness of the NPs allows imaging them as single objects using a modified two-photon microscopy setup in a NIR-to-NIR configuration.

  1. Poly(acrylic acid)-directed synthesis of colloidally stable single domain magnetite nanoparticles via partial oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Cem L.; Gurten, Berna; Sadza, Roel; Yenigul, Elcin; Sommerdijk, Nico A. J. M.; Bucak, Seyda

    2016-10-01

    Octahedral, single domain magnetite nanoparticles with average size of ~55 nm were synthesized through oxidative aging of a ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH)2) precursor at high pH in water. The synthesis was also carried out in the presence of the hydrophilic polymer poly(acrylic acid). Presence of the polymer changed the particle morphology from octahedral to spherical while average size decreased to 40-50 nm. Although these particles have a tendency to precipitate due to their high magnetic moment, dispersions of these particles were obtained in the presence of this particular polymer which made the particles stable in water for several days making them suitable for various biotechnological applications such as cell separation owing to their low toxicity.

  2. A gold nanoparticles-based colorimetric test to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms for improvement of personalized therapy of psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, Alessandra; Valentini, Paola; Tarantino, Paolo; Congedo, Maurizio; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-04-01

    We report a simple, rapid and low-cost test, based on gold nanoparticles, for the naked-eye colorimetric detection of a signature of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) relevant for the personalized medicine of psoriasis patients. We validated the colorimetric assay on real-world DNA samples from a cohort of 30 psoriasis patients and we compared the results, in double-blind, with those obtained with two state-of-the-art instrumental techniques, namely reverse dot blotting and direct sequencing, finding 100% agreement. We demonstrated high accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the colorimetric test that can be easily adapted for the genotypization of different SNPs, important for the pharmacogenomics of various diseases, and in other fields, such as food traceability and population structure analysis.

  3. Simplifying the growth of hybrid single-crystals by using nanoparticle precursors: the case of AgI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Biao; Wang, Ruji; Wang, Xun

    2012-03-01

    We report the synthesis of a series of AAgmIn single-crystals within 24 h, at room temperature, utilizing AgI nanoparticles (NPs) as the precursor. The AgI NPs impart high reactivity under mild conditions and favor the growth kinetics. 0D, 1D and 2D iodoargentate crystals can be obtained. This work represents the first application of NPs in the field of organo-metal-halide crystals and will inspire the design of other AMmXn crystals.We report the synthesis of a series of AAgmIn single-crystals within 24 h, at room temperature, utilizing AgI nanoparticles (NPs) as the precursor. The AgI NPs impart high reactivity under mild conditions and favor the growth kinetics. 0D, 1D and 2D iodoargentate crystals can be obtained. This work represents the first application of NPs in the field of organo-metal-halide crystals and will inspire the design of other AMmXn crystals. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XPS spectra of AgI NPs, schematic representation of the formation process of [Ag4I8]4- in 2, UV-Vis spectra of the DTMA-Ag-I clusters, analysis of force balance of a crystal at the interface between H2O and CH2Cl2 and crystal structure depiction of 1-4. CIF files of 1-4 are also provided. CCDC reference numbers 863848, 863849, 863850 and 863851. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30139c

  4. Single-Particle Cryo-EM and 3D Reconstruction of Hybrid Nanoparticles with Electron-Dense Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guimei; Yan, Rui; Zhang, Chuan; Mao, Chengde; Jiang, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), accompanied with 3D reconstruction, is a broadly applicable tool for the structural characterization of macromolecules and nanoparticles. Recently, the cryo-EM field has pushed the limits of this technique to higher resolutions and samples of smaller molecular mass, however, some samples still present hurdles to this technique. Hybrid particles with electron-dense components, which have been studied using single-particle cryo-EM yet with limited success in 3D reconstruction due to the interference caused by electron-dense elements, constitute one group of such challenging samples. To process such hybrid particles, a masking method is developed in this work to adaptively remove pixels arising from electron-dense portions in individual projection images while maintaining maximal biomass signals for subsequent 2D alignment, 3D reconstruction, and iterative refinements. As demonstrated by the success in 3D reconstruction of an octahedron DNA/gold hybrid particle, which has been previously published without a 3D reconstruction, the devised strategy that combines adaptive masking and standard single-particle 3D reconstruction approach has overcome the hurdle of electron-dense elements interference, and is generally applicable to cryo-EM structural characterization of most, if not all, hybrid nanomaterials with electron-dense components.

  5. A Bio-Inspired Hybrid Thermal Management Approach for Three-Dimensional Network-on-Chip Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Ranjita; Risco-Martin, Jose Luis; Turuk, Ashok Kumar; Pangracious, Vinod; Ayala, Jose L; Majumdar, Amartya

    2017-05-15

    Three-dimensional network-on-chip systems are getting popular among the integrated circuit (IC) manufacturer because of reduced latency, heterogeneous integration of technologies on a single chip, high yield, and consumption of less interconnecting power. However, the addition of functional units in the Z-direction has resulted in higher on-chip temperature and appearance of local hotspots on the die. The increase in temperature degrades the performance, lifetime, reliability, and increases the maintenance cost of 3-D ICs. To keep the heat within an acceptable limit, floorplanning is the widely accepted solution. Proper arrangement of functional units across different layers can lead to uniform thermal distribution in the chip. For systems with high density of elements, few hotspots cannot be eliminated in the floorplanning approach. To overcome, liquid microchannel cooling technology has emerged as an efficient and scalable solution for 3-D network-on-chip. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid algorithm combining both floor-planning, and liquid microchannel placement to alleviate the hotspots in high-density systems. A mathematical model is proposed to deal with heat transfer due to diffusion, and convention. The proposed approach is independent of topology. Three different topologies: 3-D stacked homogeneous mesh architecture, 3-D stacked heterogeneous mesh architecture, and 3-D stacked ciliated mesh architecture are considered to check the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in hotspot reduction. A thermal comparison is made with and without the proposed thermal management approach for the above architectures considered. It is observed that there is a significant reduction in on-chip temperature when the proposed thermal management approach is applied.

  6. On-chip magnetic bead-based DNA melting curve analysis using a magnetoresistive sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzi, Giovanni, E-mail: giori@nanotech.dtu.dk; Østerberg, Frederik W.; Henriksen, Anders D.; Dufva, Martin; Hansen, Mikkel F., E-mail: mikkel.hansen@nanotech.dtu.dk

    2015-04-15

    We present real-time measurements of DNA melting curves in a chip-based system that detects the amount of surface-bound magnetic beads using magnetoresistive magnetic field sensors. The sensors detect the difference between the amount of beads bound to the top and bottom sensor branches of the differential sensor geometry. The sensor surfaces are functionalized with wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT) capture probes, differing by a single base insertion (a single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP). Complementary biotinylated targets in suspension couple streptavidin magnetic beads to the sensor surface. The beads are magnetized by the field arising from the bias current passed through the sensors. We demonstrate the first on-chip measurements of the melting of DNA hybrids upon a ramping of the temperature. This overcomes the limitation of using a single washing condition at constant temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that a single sensor bridge can be used to genotype a SNP. - Highlights: • We apply magnetoresistive sensors to study solid-surface hybridization kinetics of DNA. • We measure DNA melting profiles for perfectly matching DNA duplexes and for a single base mismatch. • We present a procedure to correct for temperature dependencies of the sensor output. • We reliably extract melting temperatures for the DNA hybrids. • We demonstrate direct measurement of differential binding signal for two probes on a single sensor.

  7. Pt nanoparticle modified single walled carbon nanotube network electrodes for electrocatalysis: control of the specific surface area over three orders of magnitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, T.S.; Sansuk, S.; Lai, S.C.S.; Macpherson, J.V.; Unwin, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    The electrodeposition of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) on two-dimensional single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) network electrodes is investigated as a means of tailoring electrode surfaces with a well-defined amount of electrocatalytic material. Both Pt NP deposition and electrocatalytic studies are undert

  8. On-Chip Power-Combining for High-Power Schottky Diode-Based Frequency Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, Imran; Schlecht, Erich T.; Lee, Choonsup; Siles, Jose V.; Maestrini, Alain E.; Thomas, Bertrand; Jung, Cecile D.

    2013-01-01

    A 1.6-THz power-combined Schottky frequency tripler was designed to handle approximately 30 mW input power. The design of Schottky-based triplers at this frequency range is mainly constrained by the shrinkage of the waveguide dimensions with frequency and the minimum diode mesa sizes, which limits the maximum number of diodes that can be placed on the chip to no more than two. Hence, multiple-chip power-combined schemes become necessary to increase the power-handling capabilities of high-frequency multipliers. The design presented here overcomes difficulties by performing the power-combining directly on-chip. Four E-probes are located at a single input waveguide in order to equally pump four multiplying structures (featuring two diodes each). The produced output power is then recombined at the output using the same concept.

  9. Micromachined On-Chip Dielectric Resonator Antenna Operating at 60 GHz

    KAUST Repository

    Sallam, Mai

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a novel cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna (DRA) suitable for millimeter-wave on-chip systems. The antenna was fabricated from a single high resistivity silicon wafer via micromachining technology. The new antenna was characterized using HFSS and experimentally with good agreement been found between the simulations and experiment. The proposed DRA has good radiation characteristics, where its gain and radiation efficiency are 7 dBi and 79.35%, respectively. These properties are reasonably constant over the working frequency bandwidth of the antenna. The return loss bandwidth was 2.23 GHz, which corresponds to 3.78% around 60 GHz. The antenna was primarily a broadside radiator with -15 dB cross polarization level.

  10. Variable-Width Datapath for On-Chip Network Static Power Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelogiannakis, George; Shalf, John

    2013-11-13

    With the tight power budgets in modern large-scale chips and the unpredictability of application traffic, on-chip network designers are faced with the dilemma of designing for worst- case bandwidth demands and incurring high static power overheads, or designing for an average traffic pattern and risk degrading performance. This paper proposes adaptive bandwidth networks (ABNs) which divide channels and switches into lanes such that the network provides just the bandwidth necessary in each hop. ABNs also activate input virtual channels (VCs) individually and take advantage of drowsy SRAM cells to eliminate false VC activations. In addition, ABNs readily apply to silicon defect tolerance with just the extra cost for detecting faults. For application traffic, ABNs reduce total power consumption by an average of 45percent with comparable performance compared to single-lane power-gated networks, and 33percent compared to multi-network designs.

  11. Intelligent Bees for QoS Routing in Networks-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Peibo

    2011-01-01

    Networks-on-Chip (NoCs) for future many-core processor platforms integrate more and more heterogeneous components of different types and many real-time and latency-sensitive applications can run on a single chip concurrently. The reconfigurable FPGA and reconfigurable NoCs have emerged for the purpose of reusability. Those types' traffics within NoCs exhibit diverse, burst, and unpredictable communication patterns. QoS guaranteed mechanisms are necessary to provide guaranteed throughput (GT) or guaranteed bandwidth (GB) performance for NoCs. In this paper, we propose a QoS routing algorithm inspired by bees' foraging behaviors to provide guaranteed bandwidth performance. Virtual circuits and Spatial Division Multiplexing are employed to maintain available paths for different type's traffics.

  12. CMOS high linearity PA driver with an on-chip transformer for W-CDMA application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Jian; Mei Niansong; Huang Yumei; Hong Zhiliang, E-mail: yumeihuang@fudan.edu.cn [ASIC and System State Key Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2011-09-15

    A fully integrated high linearity differential power amplifier driver with an on-chip transformer in a standard 0.13-{mu}m CMOS process for W-CDMA application is presented. The transformer not only accomplishes output impedance matching, but also acts as a balun for converting differential signals to single-ended ones. Under a supply voltage of 3.3 V, the measured maximum power is larger than 17 dBm with a peak power efficiency of 21%. The output power at the 1-dB compression point and the power gain are 12.7 dBm and 13.2 dB, respectively. The die size is 0.91 x 1.12 mm{sup 2}. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  13. Design of On-chip Power Transport and Coupling Components for a Silicon Woodpile Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ziran; Ng, C.; McGuinness, C.; Colby, E.; /SLAC

    2011-05-23

    Three-dimensional woodpile photonic bandgap (PBG) waveguide enables high-gradient and efficient laser driven acceleration, while various accelerator components, including laser couplers, power transmission lines, woodpile accelerating and focusing waveguides, and energy recycling resonators, can be potentially integrated on a single monolithic structure via lithographic fabrications. This paper will present designs of this on-chip accelerator based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide. Laser power is coupled from free-space or fiber into SOI waveguide by grating structures on the silicon surface, split into multiple channels to excite individual accelerator cells, and eventually gets merged into the power recycle pathway. Design and simulation results will be presented regarding various coupling components involved in this network.

  14. On-chip interaction-free measurements via the quantum Zeno effect

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Xiao-song; Schuck, Carsten; Fong, King Y; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X

    2014-01-01

    Although interference is a classical-wave phenomenon, the superposition principle, which underlies interference of individual particles, is at the heart of quantum physics. An interaction-free measurements (IFM) harnesses the wave-particle duality of single photons to sense the presence of an object via the modification of the interference pattern, which can be accomplished even if the photon and the object haven't interacted with each other. By using the quantum Zeno effect, the efficiency of an IFM can be made arbitrarily close to unity. Here we report an on-chip realization of the IFM based on silicon photonics. We exploit the inherent advantages of the lithographically written waveguides: excellent interferometric phase stability and mode matching, and obtain multipath interference with visibility above 98%. We achieved a normalized IFM efficiency up to 68.2%, which exceeds the 50% limit of the original IFM proposal.

  15. CMOS high linearity PA driver with an on-chip transformer for W-CDMA application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jian; Mei Niansong; Huang Yumei; Hong Zhiliang

    2011-01-01

    A fully integrated high linearity differential power amplifier driver with an on-chip transformer in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS process for W-CDMA application is presented.The transformer not only accomplishes output impedance matching,but also acts as a balun for converting differential signals to single-ended ones.Under a supply voltage of 3.3 V,the measured maximum power is larger than 17 dBm with a peak power efficiency of 21%.The output power at the 1-dB compression point and the power gain are 12.7 dBm and 13.2 dB,respectively.The die size is 0.91 × 1.12 mm2.

  16. On-Chip Power-Combining for High-Power Schottky Diode Based Frequency Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles Perez, Jose Vicente (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Schlecht, Erich T. (Inventor); Jung-Kubiak, Cecile D. (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A novel MMIC on-chip power-combined frequency multiplier device and a method of fabricating the same, comprising two or more multiplying structures integrated on a single chip, wherein each of the integrated multiplying structures are electrically identical and each of the multiplying structures include one input antenna (E-probe) for receiving an input signal in the millimeter-wave, submillimeter-wave or terahertz frequency range inputted on the chip, a stripline based input matching network electrically connecting the input antennas to two or more Schottky diodes in a balanced configuration, two or more Schottky diodes that are used as nonlinear semiconductor devices to generate harmonics out of the input signal and produce the multiplied output signal, stripline based output matching networks for transmitting the output signal from the Schottky diodes to an output antenna, and an output antenna (E-probe) for transmitting the output signal off the chip into the output waveguide transmission line.

  17. On-chip integrated lasers for biophotonic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mappes, Timo; Wienhold, Tobias; Bog, Uwe

    Meeting the need of biomedical users, we develop disposable Lab-on-a-Chip systems based on commercially available polymers. We are combining passive microfluidics with active optical elements on-chip by integrating multiple solid-state and liquid-core lasers. While covering a wide range of laser...... emission wavelengths, the chips have the size of microscope cover slips and use optical and fluidic interconnects only. Here, we present our latest realizations of integrated optofluidic lasers using whispering gallery mode or distributed feedback laser cavities....

  18. On-chip photonic interconnects a computer architect's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Nitta, Christopher J; Akella, Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    As the number of cores on a chip continues to climb, architects will need to address both bandwidth and power consumption issues related to the interconnection network. Electrical interconnects are not likely to scale well to a large number of processors for energy efficiency reasons, and the problem is compounded by the fact that there is a fixed total power budget for a die, dictated by the amount of heat that can be dissipated without special (and expensive) cooling and packaging techniques. Thus, there is a need to seek alternatives to electrical signaling for on-chip interconnection appli

  19. A VLSI System-on-Chip for Particle Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078019

    In this thesis I present a System-on-Chip (SoC) I designed to oer a self- contained, compact data acquisition platform for micromegas detector mon- itoring. I carried on my work within the RD-51 collab oration of CERN. With a companion ADC, my architecture is capable to acquire the signal from a detector electro de, pro cess the data and p erform monitoring tests. The SoC is built around on a custom 8-bit micropro cessor with internal mem- ory resources and emb eds the p eripherals to b e interf...

  20. A Time-predictable Memory Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Chong, David VH; Puffitsch, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    To derive safe bounds on worst-case execution times (WCETs), all components of a computer system need to be time-predictable: the processor pipeline, the caches, the memory controller, and memory arbitration on a multicore processor. This paper presents a solution for time-predictable memory...... arbitration and access for chip-multiprocessors. The memory network-on-chip is organized as a tree with time-division multiplexing (TDM) of accesses to the shared memory. The TDM based arbitration completely decouples processor cores and allows WCET analysis of the memory accesses on individual cores without...